Science.gov

Sample records for lightning electromagnetic pulse

  1. Transcranial stimulability of phosphenes by long lightning electromagnetic pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peer, J.; Kendl, A.

    2010-06-01

    The electromagnetic pulses of rare long (order of seconds) repetitive lightning discharges near strike point (order of 100 m) are analyzed and compared to magnetic fields applied in standard clinical transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) practice. It is shown that the time-varying lightning magnetic fields and locally induced electric fields are in the same order of magnitude and frequency as those established in TMS experiments to study stimulated perception phenomena, like magnetophosphenes. Lightning electromagnetic pulse induced transcranial magnetic stimulation of phosphenes in the visual cortex is concluded to be a plausible interpretation of a large class of reports on luminous perceptions during thunderstorms.

  2. Giant elves: Lightning-generated electromagnetic pulses in giant planets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luque Estepa, Alejandro; Dubrovin, Daria; José Gordillo-Vázquez, Francisco; Ebert, Ute; Parra-Rojas, Francisco Carlos; Yair, Yoav; Price, Colin

    2015-04-01

    We currently have direct optical observations of atmospheric electricity in the two giant gaseous planets of our Solar System [1-5] as well as radio signatures that are possibly generated by lightning from the two icy planets Uranus and Neptune [6,7]. On Earth, the electrical activity of the troposphere is associated with secondary electrical phenomena called Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) that occur in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere. This led some researchers to ask if similar processes may also exist in other planets, focusing first on the quasi-static coupling mechanism [8], which on Earth is responsible for halos and sprites and then including also the induction field, which is negligible in our planet but dominant in Saturn [9]. However, one can show that, according to the best available estimation for lightning parameters, in giant planets such as Saturn and Jupiter the effect of the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) dominates the effect that a lightning discharge has on the lower ionosphere above it. Using a Finite-Differences, Time-Domain (FDTD) solver for the EMP we found [10] that electrically active storms may create a localized but long-lasting layer of enhanced ionization of up to 103 cm-3 free electrons below the ionosphere, thus extending the ionosphere downward. We also estimate that the electromagnetic pulse transports 107 J to 1010 J toward the ionosphere. There emissions of light of up to 108 J would create a transient luminous event analogous to a terrestrial elve. Although these emissions are about 10 times fainter than the emissions coming from the lightning itself, it may be possible to target them for detection by filtering the appropiate wavelengths. [1] Cook, A. F., II, T. C. Duxbury, and G. E. Hunt (1979), First results on Jovian lightning, Nature, 280, 794, doi:10.1038/280794a0. [2] Little, B., C. D. Anger, A. P. Ingersoll, A. R. Vasavada, D. A. Senske, H. H. Breneman, W. J. Borucki, and The Galileo SSI Team (1999), Galileo images of

  3. D region disturbances caused by electromagnetic pulses from lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Juan V.; Inan, Umran S.; Bell, Timothy F.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to a simple formulation of the propagation and absorption in a magnetized collisional plasma of EM pulses from lightning which describes the effect of discharge orientation and radiated electric field on the structure and magnitude of heating and secondary ionization in the D region. Radiation from most lightning discharges can heat substantially, but only the most intense (not less than 20 V/m) are likely to cause ionization enhancements not less than 10 percent of the ambient in a single ionization cycle. This dependence on the radiated electric field is modified by the discharge radiation pattern: a horizontal cloud discharge tends to cause larger heating and ionizaton maxima while a vertical return stroke causes disturbances of a larger horizontal extent.

  4. Description of an aircraft lightning and simulated nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NEMP) threat based on experimental data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rustan, Pedro L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Lightning data obtained by measuring the surface electromagnetic fields on a CV-580 research aircraft during 48 lightning strikes between 1500 and 18,000 feet in central Florida during the summers of 1984 and 1985, and nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NEMP) data obtained by surface electromagnetic field measurements using a 1:74 CV-580 scale model, are presented. From one lightning event, maximum values of 3750 T/s for the time rate of change of the surface magnetic flux density, and 4.7 kA for the peak current, were obtained. From the simulated NEMP test, maximum values of 40,000 T/s for the time rate of change of the surface magnetic flux density, and 90 A/sq m for the total normal current density, were found. The data have application to the development of a military aircraft lightning/NEMP standard.

  5. Three-dimensional modeling of lightning-induced electromagnetic pulses on Venus, Jupiter, and Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Invernón, F. J.; Luque, A.; Gordillo-Vázquez, F. J.

    2017-07-01

    While lightning activity in Venus is still controversial, its existence in Jupiter and Saturn was first detected by the Voyager missions and later on confirmed by Cassini and New Horizons optical recordings in the case of Jupiter, and recently by Cassini on Saturn in 2009. Based on a recently developed 3-D model, we investigate the influence of lightning-emitted electromagnetic pulses on the upper atmosphere of Venus, Saturn, and Jupiter. We explore how different lightning properties such as total energy released and orientation (vertical, horizontal, and oblique) can produce mesospheric transient optical emissions of different shapes, sizes, and intensities. Moreover, we show that the relatively strong background magnetic field of Saturn can enhance the lightning-induced quasi-electrostatic and inductive electric field components above 1000 km of altitude producing stronger transient optical emissions that could be detected from orbital probes.

  6. A comparison of lightning and nuclear electromagnetic pulse response of a helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easterbrook, C. C.; Perala, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical modeling technique is utilized to investigate the response of a UH-60A helicopter to both lightning and nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP). The analytical approach involves the three-dimensional time domain finite-difference solutions of Maxwell's equations. Both the external currents and charges as well as the internal electromagnetic fields and cable responses are computed. Results of the analysis indicate that, in general, the short circuit current on internal cables is larger for lightning, whereas the open-circuit voltages are slightly higher for NEMP. The lightning response is highly dependent upon the rise time of the injected current as was expected. The analysis shows that a coupling levels to cables in a helicopter are 20 to 30 dB larger than those observed in fixed-wing aircraft.

  7. 3D modeling of lightning-induced electromagnetic pulses on Venus, Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Invernón, Francisco J.; Luque, Alejandro; Gordillo-Vázquez, Francisco J.

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric electricity is a common phenomenon in some planets of The Solar System. We know that atmospheric discharges exist on Earth and gaseous planets; however, some characteristics of lightning on Saturn and Jupiter as well as their relevance on the effects of lightning in the atmospheres of these planets are still unknown. In the case of Venus, there exist some radio evidences of lightning, but the lack of optical observations suggests exploring indirect methods of detection, such as searching for lightning-induced transient optical emissions from the upper atmosphere. The Akatsuki probe, currently orbiting Venus, is equipped with a camera whose temporal resolution is high enough to detect optical emissions from lightning discharges and to measure nightglow enhancements. In this work, we extend previous models [1,2] to investigate the chemical impact and transient optical emissions produced by possible lightning-emitted electromagnetic pulses (EMP) in Venus, Saturn and Jupiter. Using a 3D FDTD ("Finite Differences Time Domain") model we solve the Maxwell equations coupled with the Langevin equation for electrons [3] and with a kinetic scheme, different for each planetary atmosphere. This method is useful to investigate the temporal and spatial impact of lightning-induced electromagnetic fields in the atmosphere of each planet for different lightning characteristics (e.g. energy released, orientation). This 3D FDTD model allows us to include the saturnian and jovian background magnetic field inclination and magnitude at different latitudes, and to determine the effects of different lightning channel inclinations. Results provide useful information to interpret lightning observations on giant gaseous planets and in the search for indirect optical signals from atmospheric discharge on Venus such as fast nightglow transient enhancements related to lightning as seen on Earth. Furthermore, we underline the observation of electrical discharges characteristics as a

  8. Lightning electromagnetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahid, Parveen

    1995-01-01

    This project involved the determination of the effective radiated power of lightning sources and the polarization of the radiating source. This requires the computation of the antenna patterns at all the LDAR site receiving antennas. The known radiation patterns and RF signal levels measured at the antennas will be used to determine the effective radiated power of the lightning source. The azimuth and elevation patterns of the antennas in the LDAR system were computed using flight test data that was gathered specifically for this purpose. The results presented in this report deal with the azimuth patterns for all the antennas and the elevation patterns for three of the seven sites.

  9. A comparison of lightning and nuclear electromagnetic pulse response of tactical shelters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perala, R. A.; Rudolph, T. H.; Mckenna, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    The internal response (electromagnetic fields and cable responses) of tactical shelters is addressed. Tactical shelters are usually well-shielded systems. Apart from penetrations by signal and power lines, the main leakage paths to the interior are via seams and the environment control unit (ECU) honeycomb filter. The time domain in three-dimensional finite-difference technique is employed to determine the external and internal coupling to a shelter excited by nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP) and attached lightning. The responses of interest are the internal electromagnetic fields and the voltage, current, power, and energy coupled to internal cables. Leakage through the seams and ECU filter is accomplished by their transfer impedances which relate internal electric fields to external current densities. Transfer impedances which were experimentally measured are used in the analysis. The internal numerical results are favorably compared to actual shelter test data under simulated NEMP illumination.

  10. Coupling between atmospheric layers in gaseous giant planets due to lightning-generated electromagnetic pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luque, A.; Dubrovin, D.; Gordillo-Vázquez, F. J.; Ebert, U.; Parra-Rojas, F. C.; Yair, Y.; Price, C.

    2014-10-01

    Atmospheric electricity has been detected in all gaseous giants of our solar system and is therefore likely present also in extrasolar planets. Building upon measurements from Saturn and Jupiter, we investigate how the electromagnetic pulse emitted by a lightning stroke affects upper layers of a gaseous giant. This effect is probably significantly stronger than that on Earth. We find that electrically active storms may create a localized but long-lasting layer of enhanced ionization of up to 103 cm-3 free electrons below the ionosphere, thus extending the ionosphere downward. We also estimate that the electromagnetic pulse transports 107 J to 1010 J toward the ionosphere. There emissions of light of up to 108 J would create a transient luminous event analogous to a terrestrial "elve."

  11. The interaction with the lower ionosphere of electromagnetic pulses from lightning: Excitation of optical emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taranenko, Y. N.; Inan, U. S.; Bell, T. F.

    1993-01-01

    A self consistent and fully kinetic simulation of the interaction of lightning radiated electromagnetic (EM) pulses with the nighttime lower ionosphere indicates that optical emissions observable with conventional instruments would be excited. For example, emissions of the 1st and 2nd positive bands of N2 occur at rates reaching 7 x 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 7) cu cm/s respectively at 92 km altitude for a lightning discharge with an electric field E(sub 100) = 20 V/m (normalized to a 100 km distance). The maximum height integrated intensities of these emissions are 4 x 10(exp 7) and 6 x 10(exp 6) R respectively, lasting for approx. 50 micrometers.

  12. The Lightning Electromagnetic Pulse Coupling Effect Inside the Shielding Enclosure With Penetrating Wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Xue; Yang, Bo

    2017-10-01

    To study the lightning electromagnetic pulse (LEMP) coupling and protection problems of shielding enclosure with penetrating wire, we adopt the model with proper size which is close to the practical engineering and the two-step finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is used for calculation in this paper. It is shown that the coupling voltage on the circuit lead inside the enclosure increases about 34 dB, when add 1.0 m long penetrating wire at the aperture, comparing with the case without penetrating wire. Meanwhile, the waveform, has the same wave outline as the lightning current source, shows that the penetrating wire brings a large number of low frequency component into the enclosure. The coupling effect in the enclosure will reduce greatly when penetrating wire has electrical connection with the enclosure at the aperture and the coupling voltage increase only about 12 dB than the case without penetrating wire. Moreover, the results show that though the waveguide pipe can reduce the coupling effect brought by the penetrating wire, the exposing part of penetrating wire can increase the coupling when the penetrating wire outside the enclosure is longer than the waveguide pipe and the longer the exposing part is, the stronger the coupling is.

  13. Interaction with the lower ionosphere of electromagnetic pulses from lightning - Heating, attachment, and ionization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taranenko, Y. N.; Inan, U. S.; Bell, T. F.

    1993-01-01

    A Boltzmann formulation of the electron distribution function and Maxwell's equations for the EM fields are used to simulate the interaction of lightning radiated EM pulses with the lower ionosphere. Ionization and dissociative attachment induced by the heated electrons cause significant changes in the local electron density, N(e). Due to 'slow' field changes of typical lightning EM pulses over time scales of tens of microsec, the distribution function follows the quasi-equilibrium solution of the Boltzmann equation in the altitude range of interest (70 to 100 km). The EM pulse is simulated as a planar 100 microsec long single period oscillation of a 10 kHz wave injected at 70 km. Under nighttime conditions, individual pulses of intensity 10-20 V/m (normalized to 100 km horizontal distance) produce changes in N(e) of 1-30 percent while a sequence of pulses leads to strong modification of N(e) at altitudes less than 95 km. The N(e) changes produce a 'sharpening' of the lower ionospheric boundary by causing a reduction in electron density at 75-85 km (due to attachment) and a substantial increase at 85-95 km (due to ionization) (e.g., the scale height decreases by a factor of about 2 at about 85 km for a single 20 V/m EM pulse). No substantial N(e) changes occur during daytime.

  14. Transient interaction model of electromagnetic field generated by lightning current pulses and human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iváncsy, T.; Kiss, I.; Szücs, L.; Tamus, Z. Á.

    2015-10-01

    The lightning current generates time-varying magnetic field near the down- conductor and the down-conductors are mounted on the wall of the buildings where residential places might be situated. It is well known that the rapidly changing magnetic fields can generate dangerous eddy currents in the human body.The higher duration and gradient of the magnetic field can cause potentially life threatening cardiac stimulation. The coupling mechanism between the electromagnetic field and the human body is based on a well-known physical phenomena (e.g. Faradays law of induction). However, the calculation of the induced current is very complicated because the shape of the organs is complex and the determination of the material properties of living tissues is difficult, as well. Our previous study revealed that the cardiac stimulation is independent of the rising time of the lightning current and only the peak of the current counts. In this study, the authors introduce an improved model of the interaction of electromagnetic fields of lighting current near down-conductor and human body. Our previous models are based on the quasi stationer field calculations, the new improved model is a transient model. This is because the magnetic field around the down-conductor and in the human body can be determined more precisely, therefore the dangerous currents in the body can be estimated.

  15. Interaction of Lightning Electromagnetic Pulse with the Ionosphere as Inferred from Wideband Measurements and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somu, Vijaya Bhaskar

    Apparent ionospheric reflection heights estimated using the zero-to-zero and peak-to-peak methods to measure skywave delay relative to the groundwave were compared for 108 first and 124 subsequent strokes observed at LOG in 2009. For either metric there was a considerable decrease in average re ection height for subsequent strokes relative to first strokes. Median uncertainties in daytime re ection heights did not exceed 0.7 km. The standard errors in mean re ection heights were less than 3% of the mean value. Apparent changes in re ection height (estimated using the peak-to-peak method) within individual ashes for 54 daytime and 11 nighttime events at distances ranging from 50 km to 330 km were compared. For daytime conditions, the majority of the ashes showed a monotonic decrease in re ection height. For nighttime ashes, the monotonic decrease was found to be considerably less frequent. The apparent ionospheric re ection height tends to increase with return-stroke peak current. In order to increase the sample size for nighttime conditions, additional data for 43 nighttime flashes observed at LOG in 2014 were analyzed. The "fast-break-point" method of measuring skywave delay (McDonald et al., 1979) was additionally used. The 2014 results for return strokes are generally consistent with the 2009 results. The 2014 data were also used for estimating ionospheric re ection heights for elevated sources (6 CIDs and 3 PB pulses) using the double-skywave feature. The results were compared with re ection heights estimated for corresponding return strokes (if any), and fairly good agreement was generally found. It has been shown, using two different FDTD simulation codes, that the observed differences in re ection height cannot be explained by the difference in the frequency content of first and subsequent return-stroke currents. FDTD simulations showed that within 200 km the re ection heights estimated using the peak-to-peak method are close to the hOE parameter of the

  16. Electromagnetic Methods of Lightning Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakov, V. A.

    2013-11-01

    Both cloud-to-ground and cloud lightning discharges involve a number of processes that produce electromagnetic field signatures in different regions of the spectrum. Salient characteristics of measured wideband electric and magnetic fields generated by various lightning processes at distances ranging from tens to a few hundreds of kilometers (when at least the initial part of the signal is essentially radiation while being not influenced by ionospheric reflections) are reviewed. An overview of the various lightning locating techniques, including magnetic direction finding, time-of-arrival technique, and interferometry, is given. Lightning location on global scale, when radio-frequency electromagnetic signals are dominated by ionospheric reflections, is also considered. Lightning locating system performance characteristics, including flash and stroke detection efficiencies, percentage of misclassified events, location accuracy, and peak current estimation errors, are discussed. Both cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes are considered. Representative examples of modern lightning locating systems are reviewed. Besides general characterization of each system, the available information on its performance characteristics is given with emphasis on those based on formal ground-truth studies published in the peer-reviewed literature.

  17. State-of-the-art methods for computing the electromagnetic interaction of lightning with aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, F. J.; Perala, R. A.; Corbin, J. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear electromagnetic pulse (NEMP) coupling codes and methods are evaluated and summarized. The differences between NEMP and lightning interaction with aircraft are discussed and critical parameters peculiar to lightning are examined.

  18. Measurement of Electromagnetic Properties of Lightning with 10 Nanosecond Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, C. E.; Breen, E. L.; Oneill, J. P.; Moore, C. B.; Hall, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Electromagnetic data recorded from lightning strikes are presented. The data analysis reveals general characteristics of fast electromagnetic fields measured at the ground including rise times, amplitudes, and time patterns. A look at the electromagnetic structure of lightning shows that the shortest rise times in the vicinity of 30 ns are associated with leader leader streamers. Lightning location is based on electromagnetic field characteristics and is compared to a nearby sky camera. The fields from both leaders and return strokes were measured and are discussed. The data were obtained during 1978 and 1979 from lightning strikes occuring within 5 kilometers of an underground metal instrumentation room located on South Baldy peak near Langmuir Laboratory, New Mexico. The computer controlled instrumentation consisted of sensors previously used for measuring the nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and analog-digital recorders with 10 ns sampling, 256 levels of resolution, and 2 kilobytes of internal memory.

  19. An improved ray theory and transfer matrix method-based model for lightning electromagnetic pulses propagating in Earth-ionosphere waveguide and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zilong; Chen, Mingli; Zhu, Baoyou; Du, Ya-ping

    2017-01-01

    An improved ray theory and transfer matrix method-based model for a lightning electromagnetic pulse (LEMP) propagating in Earth-ionosphere waveguide (EIWG) is proposed and tested. The model involves the presentation of a lightning source, parameterization of the lower ionosphere, derivation of a transfer function representing all effects of EIWG on LEMP sky wave, and determination of attenuation mode of the LEMP ground wave. The lightning source is simplified as an electric point dipole standing on Earth surface with finite conductance. The transfer function for the sky wave is derived based on ray theory and transfer matrix method. The attenuation mode for the ground wave is solved from Fock's diffraction equations. The model is then applied to several lightning sferics observed in central China during day and night times within 1000 km. The results show that the model can precisely predict the time domain sky wave for all these observed lightning sferics. Both simulations and observations show that the lightning sferics in nighttime has a more complicated waveform than in daytime. Particularly, when a LEMP propagates from east to west (Φ = 270°) and in nighttime, its sky wave tends to be a double-peak waveform (dispersed sky wave) rather than a single peak one. Such a dispersed sky wave in nighttime may be attributed to the magneto-ionic splitting phenomenon in the lower ionosphere. The model provides us an efficient way for retrieving the electron density profile of the lower ionosphere and hence to monitor its spatial and temporal variations via lightning sferics.

  20. Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, FAA CV-580, and Transall C-180 flight projects, SAE ARP5412, and the European ILDAS Program. The primary focus is to capture airframe current waveforms during attachment, but may also consider pre and post-attachment current, electric field, and radiated field phenomena. New sensor technologies are being developed for this system, including a fiber-optic Faraday polarization sensor that measures lightning current waveforms from DC to over several Megahertz, and has dynamic range covering hundreds-of-volts to tens-of-thousands-of-volts. A study of the electromagnetic emission spectrum of lightning (including radio wave, microwave, optical, X-Rays and Gamma-Rays), and a compilation of aircraft transfer-function data (including composite aircraft) are included, to aid in the development of other new lightning environment sensors, their placement on-board research aircraft, and triggering of the onboard instrumentation system. The instrumentation system will leverage recent advances in high-speed, high dynamic range, deep memory data acquisition equipment, and fiber-optic interconnect.

  1. Electromagnetic sensors for general lightning application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, C. E.; Breen, E. L.; Onell, J. P.; Moore, C. B.; Sower, G. D.

    1980-01-01

    Electromagnetic sensors for general lightning applications in measuring environment are discussed as well as system response to the environment. This includes electric and magnetic fields, surface current and charge densities, and currents on conductors. Many EMP sensors are directly applicable to lightning measurements, but there are some special cases of lightning measurements involving direct strikes which require special design considerations for the sensors. The sensors and instrumentation used by NMIMT in collecting data on lightning at South Baldy peak in central New Mexico during the 1978 and 1979 lightning seasons are also discussed. The Langmuir Laboratory facilities and details of the underground shielded instrumentation room and recording equipment are presented.

  2. The state of technology in electromagnetic (RF) sensors (for lightning detection)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumpert, T. H.; Honnell, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    A brief overview of the radio-frequency sensors which were applied to the detection, isolation, and/or identification of the transient electromagnetic energy (sferics) radiated from one or more lightning discharges in the atmosphere is presented. Radio frequency (RF) characteristics of lightning discharges, general RF sensor (antenna) characteristics, sensors and systems previously used for sferic detection, electromagnetic pulse sensors are discussed. References containing extensive bibliographies concerning lightning are presented.

  3. Electromagnetic environmental criteria for US Army missile systems - EMC, EMR, EMI, EMP, ESD, and lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponds, Charles D.; Knaur, James A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test requirements in developing an electromagnetic compatibility missile system. Environmental levels are presented for electromagnetic radiation hazards, electromagnetic radiation operational, electrostatic discharge, lightning, and electromagnetic pulse (nuclear). Testing techniques and facility capabilities are presented for research and development testing of missile systems.

  4. Broadband electromagnetic sensors for aircraft lightning research. [electromagnetic effects of lightning on aircraft digital equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trost, T. F.; Zaepfel, K. P.

    1980-01-01

    A set of electromagnetic sensors, or electrically-small antennas, is described. The sensors are designed for installation on an F-106 research aircraft for the measurement of electric and magnetic fields and currents during a lightning strike. The electric and magnetic field sensors mount on the aircraft skin. The current sensor mounts between the nose boom and the fuselage. The sensors are all on the order of 10 cm in size and should produce up to about 100 V for the estimated lightning fields. The basic designs are the same as those developed for nuclear electromagnetic pulse studies. The most important electrical parameters of the sensors are the sensitivity, or equivalent area, and the bandwidth (or rise time). Calibration of sensors with simple geometries is reliably accomplished by a geometric analysis; all the sensors discussed possess geometries for which the sensitivities have been calculated. For the calibration of sensors with more complex geometries and for general testing of all sensors, two transmission lines were constructed to transmit known pulsed fields and currents over the sensors.

  5. Electromagnetic fields of a relativistic electron avalanche with special attention to the origin of lightning signatures known as narrow bipolar pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Vernon; Cooray, Gerald; Marshall, Thomas; Arabshahi, Shahab; Dwyer, Joseph; Rassoul, Hamid

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, electromagnetic fields of accelerating charges were utilized to evaluate the electromagnetic fields generated by a relativistic electron avalanche. In the analysis it is assumed that all the electrons in the avalanche are moving with the same speed. In other words, the growth or the decay of the number of electrons takes place only at the head of the avalanche. It is shown that the radiation is emanating only from the head of the avalanche where electrons are being accelerated. It is also shown that an analytical expression for the radiation field of the avalanche at any distance can be written directly in terms of the e-folding length of the avalanche. This model of the avalanche was utilized to test the idea whether the source of the lightning signatures known as narrow bipolar pulses could be relativistic avalanches. The idea was tested by using the simultaneously measured electric fields of narrow bipolar pulses at two distances, one measured far away from the source and the other in the near vicinity. The avalanche parameters were extracted from the distant field and they are used to evaluate the close field. The results show that the source of the NBP can be modeled either as a single or a multiple burst of relativistic avalanches with speed of avalanches in the range of 2-3 × 108 m/s. The multiple avalanche model agrees better with the experimental data in that it can also generate the correct signature of the time derivatives and the HF and VHF radiation bursts of NBP.

  6. Electromagnetic Effects Harmonization Working Group (EEHWG) - Lightning Task Group : report on aircraft lightning strike data

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-07-01

    In 1995, in response to the lightning community's desire to revise the zoning criteria on aircraft, the Electromagnetic Effects Harmonization Working Group (EEHWG) decided that lightning attachments to aircraft causing damage should be studied and co...

  7. Electromagnetic field radiation model for lightning strokes to tall structures

    SciTech Connect

    Motoyama, H.; Janischewskyj, W.; Hussein, A.M.

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes observation and analysis of electromagnetic field radiation from lightning strokes to tall structures. Electromagnetic field waveforms and current waveforms of lightning strokes to the CN Tower have been simultaneously measured since 1991. A new calculation model of electromagnetic field radiation is proposed. The proposed model consists of the lightning current propagation and distribution model and the electromagnetic field radiation model. Electromagnetic fields calculated by the proposed model, based on the observed lightning current at the CN Tower, agree well with the observed fields at 2km north of the tower.

  8. Electromagnetic emission from terrestrial lightning in the 0.1-30 MHz frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karashtin, A. N.; Gurevich, A. V.

    Results of measurements carried out at SURA facility of Radiophisical Research Institute and at Tien-Shan Mountain Scientific Station of Lebedev Physical Institute using specially designed installations for short electromagnetic pulse observation in the frequency range from 0.1 to 30 MHz are presented. Specific attention is paid to initial stage of the lightning discharge. It is shown that lightning can be initiated by extensive atmospheric showers caused by high energy cosmic ray particles. Analysis of emission of few thousand lightning discharges showed that • Short wave radio emission of lightning consists of a series of short pulses with duration from less than 100 nanoseconds to several microseconds separated well longer gaps. • Background noise between lightning discharges is not differ from one observed without thunderstorm activity (at given sensitivity). Usually it is the same between lightning pulses at least at the initial stage. • Each lightning discharge radio emission starts with a number of very short (less than 100 nanoseconds at 0.7 level) bi-polar pulses. Gaps between initial pulses vary from several microseconds to few hundreds of microseconds. No radio emission was observed before the first pulse during at least 500 milliseconds. Both positive and negative polarity of the first pulses occur in approximately equal proportion in different lightning discharges while the polarity was the same in any individual lightning. • First pulse amplitude, width and waveform are consistent with predicted by the theory of combined action of runaway breakdown and extensive atmospheric shower caused by cosmic ray particle of 1016 eV energy. Lightning discharges at other planets can be initiated by cosmic ray particles as well. This work was partly supported by ISTC grant # 2236p. The work of one of the authors (A. N. Karashtin) was also partly supported by INTAS grant # 03-51-5727.

  9. Design of an optical fiber cable link for lightning instrumentation. [wideband pulse recording system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grove, C. H.; Phillips, R. L.; Wojtasinski, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    A lightning instrumentation system was designed to record current magnitudes of lightning strikes that hit a launch pad service structure at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The instrumentation system consists of a lightning ground rod with a current sensor coil, an optical transmitter, an optical fiber cable link, a detector receiver, and a recording system. The transmitter is a wideband pulse transformer driving an IR LED emitter. The transmitter operates linearly as a transducer. A low loss fiber bundle provides isolation of the recorder system from the electromagnetic field of the lightning strike. The output of an optical detector receiver module is sampled and recorded in digital format. The significant factors considered in the design were dynamic range, linearity, mechanical configuration, electromagnetic isolation, and temperature compensation.

  10. Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinallo, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) from nuclear detonations have been observed for well over half a century. Beginning in the mid-to-late 1950s, the physics and modeling of EMP has been researched and will continue into the foreseeable future. The EMP environment propagates hundreds of miles from its origins and causes interference for all types of electronic instrumentation. This includes military, municipal and industry based electronic infrastructures such as power generation and distribution, command and control systems, systems used in financial and emergency services, electronic monitoring and communications networks, to mention some key infrastructure elements. Research into EMP has included originating physics, propagation and electromagnetic field coupling analyses and measurement-sensor development. Several methods for calculating EMP induced transient interference (voltage and current induction) will be briefly discussed and protection techniques reviewed. These methods can be mathematically simple or involve challenging boundary value solution techniques. A few illustrative calculations will demonstrate the concern for electronic system operability. Analyses such as the Wunsch-Bell model for electronic upset or damage, and the Singularity Expansion Method (SEM) put forth by Dr. Carl Baum, will facilitate the concern for EMP effects. The SEM determines the voltages and currents induced from transient electromagnetic fields in terms of natural modes of various types of electronic platforms (aerospace vehicles or land-based assets - fixed or mobile). Full-scale facility and laboratory simulation and response measurement approaches will be discussed. The talk will conclude with a discussion of some present research activities.

  11. Coincident Observation of Lightning using Spaceborne Spectrophotometer and Ground-Level Electromagnetic Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adachi, Toru; Cohen, Morris; Li, Jingbo; Cummer, Steve; Blakeslee, Richard; Marshall, THomas; Stolzenberg, Maribeth; Karunarathne, Sumedhe; Hsu, Rue-Ron; Su, Han-Tzong; hide

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims at assessing a possible new way to reveal the properties of lightning flash, using spectrophotometric data obtained by FORMOSAT-2/ISUAL which is the first spaceborne multicolor lightning detector. The ISUAL data was analyzed in conjunction with ground ]based electromagnetic data obtained by Duke magnetic field sensors, NLDN, North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (LMA), and Kennedy Space Center (KSC) electric field antennas. We first classified the observed events into cloud ]to ]ground (CG) and intra ]cloud (IC) lightning based on the Duke and NLDN measurements and analyzed ISUAL data to clarify their optical characteristics. It was found that the ISUAL optical waveform of CG lightning was strongly correlated with the current moment waveform, suggesting that it is possible to evaluate the electrical properties of lightning from satellite optical measurement to some extent. The ISUAL data also indicated that the color of CG lightning turned to red at the time of return stroke while the color of IC pulses remained unchanged. Furthermore, in one CG event which was simultaneously detected by ISUAL and LMA, the observed optical emissions slowly turned red as the altitude of optical source gradually decreased. All of these results indicate that the color of lightning flash depends on the source altitude and suggest that spaceborne optical measurement could be a new tool to discriminate CG and IC lightning. In the presentation, we will also show results on the comparison between the ISUAL and KSC electric field data to clarify characteristics of each lightning process such as preliminary breakdown, return stroke, and subsequent upward illumination.

  12. Location and analysis of acoustic infrasound pulses in lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arechiga, R.; Stock, M.; Thomas, R.; Erives, H.; Rison, W.; Edens, H.; Lapierre, J.

    2014-07-01

    Acoustic, VHF, and electrostatic measurements throw new light onto the origin and production mechanism of the thunder infrasound signature (<10 Hz) from lightning. This signature, composed of an initial compression followed by a rarefaction pulse, has been the subject of several unconfirmed theories and models. The observations of two intracloud flashes which each produced multiple infrasound pulses were analyzed for this work. Once the variation of the speed of sound with temperature is taken into account, both the compression and rarefaction portions of the infrasound pulses are found to originate very near lightning channels mapped by the Lightning Mapping Array. We found that none of the currently proposed models can explain infrasound generation by lightning, and thus propose an alternate theory: The infrasound compression pulse is produced by electrostatic interaction of the charge deposited on the channel and in the streamer zone of the lightning channel.

  13. High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse (HEMP) Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-09

    Electromagnetic Pulse Horizontal Electromagnetic Pulse Advanced Fast Electromagnetic Pulse Nuclear Weapons Effect Testing and Environments 16. SECURITY... Weapons of Mass Destruction Agency (USANCA). In order to effectively determine criteria compliance, the TO/PE must thoroughly understand the...ELECTROMAGNETIC ENVIRONMENT AND EFFECTS. A.1 The electromagnetic environment produced by a nuclear weapon consists of the ionization of the atmosphere and

  14. Vertical Electromagnetic Pulse (VEMP) Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-11

    3) MIL-STD-2169B: High Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse ( HEMP ) Environment. The final survivability analysis of the baseline system...Electromagnetic Pulse ( HEMP ). The first EMP situation, SREMP, occurs within the atmosphere at an altitude of less than 40 km above sea level, and possesses an...The second EMP situation, HEMP , occurs at an altitude greater than 40 km above sea level, and possesses a large electric and magnetic field over a

  15. Analysis of electromagnetic fields on an F-106B aircraft during lightning strikes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trost, T. F.; Pitts, F. L.

    1982-01-01

    Information on the exterior electromagnetic environment of an aircraft when it is struck by lightning has been obtained during thunderstorm penetrations with an F-106B aircraft. Electric and magnetic fields were observed, using mainly time-derivative type sensors, with bandwidths to 50 MHz. Lightning pulse lengths ranging from 25 ns to 7 microsec have been recorded. Sufficient high-frequency content was present to excite electromagnetic resonances of the aircraft, and peaks in the frequency spectra of the waveforms in the range 7 to 23 MHz are in agreement with the resonant frequencies determined in laboratory scale-model tests. Both positively and negatively charged strikes were experienced, and most of the data suggest low values of peak current.

  16. Physical mechanism of initial breakdown pulses and narrow bipolar events in lightning discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Caitano L.; Pasko, Victor P.

    2015-05-01

    To date the true nature of initial breakdown pulses (IBPs) and narrow bipolar events (NBEs) in lightning discharges remains a mystery. Recent experimental evidence has correlated IBPs to the initial development of lightning leaders inside the thundercloud. NBE wideband waveforms resemble classic IBPs in both amplitude and duration. Most NBEs are quite peculiar in the sense that very frequently they occur in isolation from other lightning processes. The remaining fraction, 16% of positive polarity NBEs, according to Wu et al. (2014), happens as the first event in an otherwise regular intracloud lightning discharge. These authors point out that the initiator type of NBEs has no difference with other NBEs that did not start lightning, except for the fact that they occur deeper inside the thunderstorm (i.e., at lower altitudes). In this paper, we propose a new physical mechanism to explain the source of both IBPs and NBEs. We propose that IBPs and NBEs are the electromagnetic transients associated with the sudden (i.e., stepwise) elongation of the initial negative leader extremity in the thunderstorm electric field. To demonstrate our hypothesis a novel computational/numerical model of the bidirectional lightning leader tree is developed, consisting of a generalization of electrostatic and transmission line approximations found in the literature. Finally, we show how the IBP and NBE waveform characteristics directly reflect the properties of the bidirectional lightning leader (such as step length, for example) and amplitude of the thunderstorm electric field.

  17. Geometrical Effects on the Electromagnetic Radiation from Lightning Return Strokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willett, J. C.; Smith, D. A.; LeVine, D. M.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The morphological difference between the electromagnetic radiation-field waveforms of "first" and "subsequent" return strokes in cloud-to-ground lightning flashes is well known and can be used to identify the formation of new channels to ground. This difference is generally believed due to the existence of branches on first-stroke channels, whereas subsequent strokes re-illuminate only the main channel of a previous stroke; but experimental evidence for this hypothesis is relatively weak. It has been argued for the influence of channel geometry on the fine structure of radiation from subsequent return strokes by comparing the field-change waveforms recorded at the same station from strokes within the same flash and between different flashes of both natural and triggered lightning. The present paper introduces new evidence for both of these hypotheses from a comparison of waveforms between sensors in different directions from the same stroke.

  18. Pulsed electromagnetic gas acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, R. G.; Vonjaskowsky, W. F.; Clark, K. E.

    1971-01-01

    Experimental data were combined with one-dimensional conservation relations to yield information on the energy deposition ratio in a parallel-plate accelerator, where the downstream flow was confined to a constant area channel. Approximately 70% of the total input power was detected in the exhaust flow, of which only about 20% appeared as directed kinetic energy, thus implying that a downstream expansion to convert chamber enthalpy into kinetic energy must be an important aspect of conventional high power MPD arcs. Spectroscopic experiments on a quasi-steady MPD argon accelerator verified the presence of A(III) and the absence of A(I), and indicated an azimuthal structure in the jet related to the mass injection locations. Measurements of pressure in the arc chamber and impact pressure in the exhaust jet using a piezocrystal backed by a Plexiglas rod were in good agreement with the electromagnetic thrust model.

  19. Electromagnetic pulses bone healing booster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sintea, S. R.; Pomazan, V. M.; Bica, D.; Grebenisan, D.; Bordea, N.

    2015-11-01

    Posttraumatic bone restoration triggered by the need to assist and stimulate compensatory bone growth in periodontal condition. Recent studies state that specific electromagnetic stimulation can boost the bone restoration, reaching up to 30% decrease in recovery time. Based on the existing data on the electromagnetic parameters, a digital electronic device is proposed for intra oral mounting and bone restoration stimulation in periodontal condition. The electrical signal is applied to an inductive mark that will create and impregnate magnetic field in diseased tissue. The device also monitors the status of the electromagnetic field. Controlled wave forms and pulse frequency signal at programmable intervals are obtained with optimized number of components and miniaturized using surface mounting devices (SMD) circuits and surface mounting technology (SMT), with enhanced protection against abnormal current growth, given the intra-oral environment. The system is powered by an autonomous power supply (battery), to limit the problems caused by powering medical equipment from the main power supply. Currently the device is used in clinical testing, in cycles of six up to twelve months. Basic principles for the electrical scheme and algorithms for pulse generation, pulse control, electromagnetic field control and automation of current monitoring are presented, together with the friendly user interface, suitable for medical data and patient monitoring.

  20. Pulsed electromagnetic gas acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, R. G.; Vonjaskowsky, W. F.; Clark, K. E.

    1974-01-01

    Detailed measurements of the axial velocity profile and electromagnetic structure of a high power, quasi-steady MPD discharge are used to formulate a gasdynamic model of the acceleration process. Conceptually dividing the accelerated plasma into an inner flow and an outer flow, it is found that more than two-thirds of the total power in the plasma is deposited in the inner flow, accelerating it to an exhaust velocity of 12.5 km/sec. The outer flow, which is accelerated to a velocity of only 6.2 km/sec, appears to provide a current conduction path between the inner flow and the anode. Related cathode studies have shown that the critical current for the onset of terminal voltage fluctuations, which was recently shown to be a function of the cathode area, appears to reach an asymptote for cathodes of very large surface area. Detailed floating potential measurements show that the fluctuations are confined to the vicinity of the cathode and hence reflect a cathode emission process rather than a fundamental limit on MPD performance.

  1. Pulsed electromagnetic gas acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, R. G.; Vonjaskowsky, W. F.; Clark, K. E.

    1972-01-01

    Photographs of the exhaust plume of a pulsed MPD discharge through selected narrow band spectral filters reveal a species structure related to the location of the argon mass injection ports. This species structure provides the key to interpretation of time-resolved interferometric velocity measurements in the exhaust. The resulting exhaust velocity increases monotonically from 8500 m/sec at a position 5 cm downstream of the anode face to 16,500 m/sec 40 cm downstream. The latter value is approximately twice the Alfven critical speed for argon. The growth of the axial electric field near the downstream face of the anode indicates that the discharge operates in a starved mode. Data from biased double probes imply an electron temperature of 0.8 eV in the exhaust plume.

  2. Time domain simulations of preliminary breakdown pulses in natural lightning.

    PubMed

    Carlson, B E; Liang, C; Bitzer, P; Christian, H

    2015-06-16

    Lightning discharge is a complicated process with relevant physical scales spanning many orders of magnitude. In an effort to understand the electrodynamics of lightning and connect physical properties of the channel to observed behavior, we construct a simulation of charge and current flow on a narrow conducting channel embedded in three-dimensional space with the time domain electric field integral equation, the method of moments, and the thin-wire approximation. The method includes approximate treatment of resistance evolution due to lightning channel heating and the corona sheath of charge surrounding the lightning channel. Focusing our attention on preliminary breakdown in natural lightning by simulating stepwise channel extension with a simplified geometry, our simulation reproduces the broad features observed in data collected with the Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array. Some deviations in pulse shape details are evident, suggesting future work focusing on the detailed properties of the stepping mechanism. Preliminary breakdown pulses can be reproduced by simulated channel extension Channel heating and corona sheath formation are crucial to proper pulse shape Extension processes and channel orientation significantly affect observations.

  3. Time domain simulations of preliminary breakdown pulses in natural lightning

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, B E; Liang, C; Bitzer, P; Christian, H

    2015-01-01

    Lightning discharge is a complicated process with relevant physical scales spanning many orders of magnitude. In an effort to understand the electrodynamics of lightning and connect physical properties of the channel to observed behavior, we construct a simulation of charge and current flow on a narrow conducting channel embedded in three-dimensional space with the time domain electric field integral equation, the method of moments, and the thin-wire approximation. The method includes approximate treatment of resistance evolution due to lightning channel heating and the corona sheath of charge surrounding the lightning channel. Focusing our attention on preliminary breakdown in natural lightning by simulating stepwise channel extension with a simplified geometry, our simulation reproduces the broad features observed in data collected with the Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array. Some deviations in pulse shape details are evident, suggesting future work focusing on the detailed properties of the stepping mechanism. Key Points Preliminary breakdown pulses can be reproduced by simulated channel extension Channel heating and corona sheath formation are crucial to proper pulse shape Extension processes and channel orientation significantly affect observations PMID:26664815

  4. Ultrarelativistic electromagnetic pulses in plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Leboeuf, J. N.; Tajima, T.; Dawson, J. M.; Kennel, C. F.

    1981-01-01

    The physical processes of a linearly polarized electromagnetic pulse of highly relativistic amplitude in an underdense plasma accelerating particles to very high energies are studied through computer simulation. An electron-positron plasma is considered first. The maximum momenta achieved scale as the square of the wave amplitude. This acceleration stops when the bulk of the wave energy is converted to particle energy. The pulse leaves behind as a wake a vacuum region whose length scales as the amplitude of the wave. The results can be explained in terms of a snow plow or piston-like action of the radiation on the plasma. When a mass ratio other than unity is chosen and electrostatic effects begin to play a role, first the ion energy increases faster than the electron energy and then the electron energy catches up later, eventually reaching the same value.

  5. Pulse generator with intermediate inductive storage as a lightning simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kharlov, A. V.; Zherlytsyn, A. A.; Kumpyak, E. V.; Tsoy, N. V.

    2016-06-01

    Compact transportable generators are required for simulating a lightning current pulse for electrical apparatus testing. A bi-exponential current pulse has to be formed by such a generator (with a current rise time of about two orders of magnitude faster than the damping time). The objective of this study was to develop and investigate a compact pulse generator with intermediate inductive storage and a fuse opening switch as a simulator of lightning discharge. A Marx generator (six stages) with a capacitance of 1 μF and an output voltage of 240 kV was employed as primary storage. In each of the stages, two IK-50/3 (50 kV, 3 μF) capacitors are connected in parallel. The generator inductance is 2 μH. A test bed for the investigations was assembled with this generator. The generator operates without SF6 and without oil in atmospheric air, which is very important in practice. Straight copper wires with adjustable lengths and diameters were used for the electro-explosive opening switch. Tests were made with active-inductive loads (up to 0.1 Ω and up to 6.3 μH). The current rise time is lower than 1200 ns, and the damping time can be varied from 35 to 125 μs, following the definition of standard lightning current pulse in the IEC standard. Moreover, 1D MHD calculations of the fuse explosion were carried out self-consistently with the electric circuit equations, in order to calculate more accurately the load pulse parameters. The calculations agree fairly well with the tests. On the basis of the obtained results, the design of a transportable generator was developed for a lightning simulator with current of 50 kA and a pulse shape corresponding to the IEEE standard.

  6. The peak electromagnetic power radiated by lightning return strokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krider, E. P.; Guo, C.

    1983-01-01

    Estimates of the peak electromagnetic (EM) power radiated by return strokes have been made by integrating the Poynting vector of measured fields over an imaginary hemispherical surface that is centered on the lightning source, assuming that ground losses are negligible. Values of the peak EM power from first and subsequent strokes have means and standard deviations of 2 + or - 2 x 10 to the 10th and 3 + or - 4 x 10 to the 9th W, respectively. The average EM power that is radiated by subsequent strokes, at the time of the field peak, is about 2 orders of magnitude larger than the optical power that is radiated by these strokes in the wavelength interval from 0.4 to 1.1 micron; hence an upper limit to the radiative efficiency of a subsequent stroke is of the order of 1 percent or less at this time.

  7. Healthcare vulnerabilities to electromagnetic pulse.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lenard H; Mihelic, F Matthew

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. healthcare system is particularly vulnerable to the effects of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) attack because of the system's technological sophistication, but while national defense planners prepare for the considerable threat that EMP poses, there has been little or no recognition of this threat within the US healthcare community, and neither has there been any significant healthcare planning to deal with such an eventuality. Recognition of the risk presented by EMP, and advance institution of appropriate strategies to mitigate its effects on the healthcare system, could enable the preservation of much of that system's function in the face of EMP-related disruptions, and will greatly further all-hazards disaster preparations.

  8. Acoustic Network Localization and Interpretation of Infrasonic Pulses from Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arechiga, R. O.; Johnson, J. B.; Badillo, E.; Michnovicz, J. C.; Thomas, R. J.; Edens, H. E.; Rison, W.

    2011-12-01

    We improve on the localization accuracy of thunder sources and identify infrasonic pulses that are correlated across a network of acoustic arrays. We attribute these pulses to electrostatic charge relaxation (collapse of the electric field) and attempt to model their spatial extent and acoustic source strength. Toward this objective we have developed a single audio range (20-15,000 Hz) acoustic array and a 4-station network of broadband (0.01-500 Hz) microphone arrays with aperture of ~45 m. The network has an aperture of 1700 m and was installed during the summers of 2009-2011 in the Magdalena mountains of New Mexico, an area that is subject to frequent lightning activity. We are exploring a new technique based on inverse theory that integrates information from the audio range and the network of broadband acoustic arrays to locate thunder sources more accurately than can be achieved with a single array. We evaluate the performance of the technique by comparing the location of thunder sources with RF sources located by the lightning mapping array (LMA) of Langmuir Laboratory at New Mexico Tech. We will show results of this technique for lightning flashes that occurred in the vicinity of our network of acoustic arrays and over the LMA. We will use acoustic network detection of infrasonic pulses together with LMA data and electric field measurements to estimate the spatial distribution of the charge (within the cloud) that is used to produce a lightning flash, and will try to quantify volumetric charges (charge magnitude) within clouds.

  9. Constraints on Nubular Electromagnetic Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhour, D. D.; Buseck, P. R.

    1993-07-01

    Chondritic meteorites contain an abundance of silicate minerals with opaque inclusions of oxides, sulfides, and metals. These host silicates interact differently from their enclosed opaques to electromagnetic (EM) radiation; specifically, silicates are inefficient at absorbing EM energy in the visible and near infrared while metals, sulfides, and Fe oxides absorb strongly in this frequency range. In the presence of a strong electromagnetic pulse (EMP), this preferential absorption leads to the selective heating of the opaque inclusions and can produce unique textures ("dirty snowballs": intimate, ~spherical intergrowths of silicate and opaque minerals with radii of < 1 to 10 micrometers) that record the passage of the EMP. Many chondrules, CAIs, and isolated silicate grains within chondritic meteorites exhibit these unique features, suggesting that strong EMPs were common in the early solar nebula [1]. Here we discuss new constraints on nebular EMPs obtained from both experimental simulations and calculations of radiative heat transport. To test the feasibility of producing "dirty snowball" textures by EMP heating, olivines and pyroxenes containing metal and sulfide inclusions were heated with a 10 watt, argon-ion, CW laser operated at 514 nm. Comparisons between meteoritic "dirty snowball" textures and experimentally produced textures confirm the ability to produce the meteoritic textures by EMP heating and suggest heating times and fluxes of 0.25 to 10 seconds and 10^9 to 10^10 ergs cm^-2 sec^-1. Fluxes less than 10^9 ergs cm^-2 sec^-1 were insufficient to melt metal and sulfide inclusions, while fluxes greater than 10^10 ergs cm^-2 sec^-1 resulted in complete melting of metal, sulfide, and silicates. The experimentally determined heating time scales suggest that radiative equilibrium was reached in the "dirty snowball" formation process, indicating that the range of observed textures is controlled by cooling rates. Calculations of radiative absorption and

  10. Peak Source Power Associated with Positive Narrow Bipolar Lightning Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandara, S. A.; Marshall, T. C.; Karunarathne, S.; Karunarathne, N. D.; Siedlecki, R. D., II; Stolzenburg, M.

    2017-12-01

    During the summer of 2016, we deployed a lightning sensor array in and around Oxford Mississippi, USA. The array system comprised seven lightning sensing stations in a network approximately covering an area of 30 km × 30 km. Each station is equipped with four sensors: Fast antenna (10 ms decay time), Slow antenna (1.0 s decay time)), field derivative sensor (dE/dt) and Log-RF antenna (bandwidth 187-192 MHz). We have observed 319 Positive NBPs and herein we report on comparisons of the NBP properties measured from the Fast antenna data with the Log-RF antenna data. These properties include 10-90% rise time, full width at half maximum, zero cross time, and range-normalized amplitude at 100 km. NBPs were categorized according to the fine structure of the electric field wave shapes into Types A-D, as in Karunarathne et al. [2015]. The source powers of NBPs in each category were determined using single station Log-RF data. Furthermore, we also categorized the NBPs in three other groups: initial event of an IC flash, isolated, and not-isolated (according to their spatiotemporal relationship with other lightning activity). We compared the source powers within each category. Karunarathne, S., T. C. Marshall, M. Stolzenburg, and N. Karunarathna (2015), Observations of positive narrow bipolar pulses, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, doi:10.1002/2015JD023150.

  11. Protecting the Power Grid From Electromagnetic Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Sarah

    2004-10-01

    A nuclear explosion high in the Earth's atmosphere does no immediate known harm to living things, but the resulting electromagnetic pulse (EMP) from a single detonation could degrade 70 percent or more of the country's electrical service in an instant, warns the Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse Attack, which presented its findings to the U.S. Congress in July.

  12. Modeling transient luminous events produced by cloud to ground lightning and narrow bipolar pulses: detailed spectra and chemical impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Invernon, F. J.; Luque, A.; Gordillo-Vazquez, F. J.

    2017-12-01

    The electromagnetic field generated by lightning discharges can produce Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) in the lower ionosphere, as previously investigated by many authors. Some recent studies suggest that narrow bipolar pulses (NBP), an impulsive and not well-established type of atmospheric electrical discharge, could also produce TLEs. The characterization and observation of such TLEs could be a source of information about the physics underlying NBP. In this work, we develop two different electrodynamical models to study the impact of lightning-driven electromagnetic fields in the lower ionosphere. The first model calculates the quasi-electrostatic field produced by a single cloud to ground lightning in the terrestrial atmosphere and its influence in the electron transport. This scheme allows us to study halos, a relatively frequent type of TLE. The second model solves the Maxwell equations for the electromagnetic field produced by a lightning discharge coupled with the Langevin's equation for the induced currents in the ionosphere. This model is useful to investigate elves, a fast TLE produced by lightning or by NBP. In addition, both models are coupled with a detailed chemistry of the electronically and vibrationally excited states of molecular nitrogen, allowing us to calculate synthetic spectra of both halos and elves. The models also include a detailed set of kinetic reactions to calculate the temporal evolution of other species. Our results suggest an important enhancement of some molecular species produced by halos, as NOx , N2 O and other metastable species. The quantification of their production could be useful to understand the role of thunderstorms in the climate of our planet. In the case of TLEs produced by NBP, our model confirms the appearance of double elves and allows us to compute their spectral characteristics.

  13. International Aerospace and Ground Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity. 1984 technical papers. Supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The indirect effects of lightning on digital systems, ground system protection, and the corrosion properties of conductive materials are addressed. The responses of a UH-60A helicopter and tactical shelters to lightning and nuclear electromagnetic pulses are discussed.

  14. Mechanism of Lightning Associated Infrasonic Pulses from Thunderclouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasko, V. P.

    2008-12-01

    The infrasonic waves correspond to the region of frequencies of acoustic sound waves 0.02-10 Hz, higher than the acoustic cut-off frequency but lower than the audible frequencies [e.g., Blanc, Ann. Geophys., 3, 673, 1985]. There is a strong experimental evidence that thunderstorms represent significant sources of infrasonic wave activity spanning a broad altitude range from the troposphere and up to the thermosphere [e.g., Blanc, 1985; Few, in Handbook of Atmospheric Electrodynamics, Vol. 2, edited by H. Volland, pp. 1-31, CRC Press, 1995; Drob et al., JGR, 108, 4680, 2003]. This evidence includes electrostatic production of 0.1- 1 Hz infrasonic waves from thunderclouds [Few, 1995] and recent discovery of infrasound from lightning induced transient luminous events in the mesosphere called sprites [Liszka, J. Low Freq. Noise Vibr. Active Control, 23, 85, 2004; Farges et al., GRL, 32, L13824, 2005; Liszka and Hobara, JASTP, 68, 1179, 2006]. The understanding and classification of different infrasonic waves and their sources is of great current interest from a Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification perspective [e.g., Assink et al., GRL, 35, L15802, 2008]. It has been pointed many decades ago by C. T. R. Wilson [Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London A, 221, 73, 1920] that sudden reduction of the electric field inside a thundercloud immediately following a lightning discharge should produce an infrasound signature. Wilson [1920] noted that the pressure within a charged cloud must be less than the pressure outside, similarly to that within a charged soap bubble. In contrast to the sudden expansion of the air along the track of a lightning flash, the sudden contraction of a large volume of air must furnish a measurable rarefaction pulse [Wilson, 1920]. Many experimental and theoretical contributions followed these predictions by C. T. R. Wilson (see [Few, JGR, 90, 6175, 1985] and extensive list of references therein). Modeling investigation of related scenarios

  15. Inversion of Acoustic and Electromagnetic Recordings for Mapping Current Flow in Lightning Strikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J.; Johnson, J.; Arechiga, R. O.; Thomas, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    Acoustic recordings can be used to map current-carrying conduits in lightning strikes. Unlike stepped leaders, whose very high frequency (VHF) radio emissions have short (meter-scale) wavelengths and can be located by lightning-mapping arrays, current pulses emit longer (kilometer-scale) waves and cannot be mapped precisely by electromagnetic observations alone. While current pulses are constrained to conductive channels created by stepped leaders, these leaders often branch as they propagate, and most branches fail to carry current. Here, we present a method to use thunder recordings to map current pulses, and we apply it to acoustic and VHF data recorded in 2009 in the Magdalena mountains in central New Mexico, USA. Thunder is produced by rapid heating and expansion of the atmosphere along conductive channels in response to current flow, and therefore can be used to recover the geometry of the current-carrying channel. Toward this goal, we use VHF pulse maps to identify candidate conductive channels where we treat each channel as a superposition of finely-spaced acoustic point sources. We apply ray tracing in variable atmospheric structures to forward model the thunder that our microphone network would record for each candidate channel. Because multiple channels could potentially carry current, a non-linear inversion is performed to determine the acoustic source strength of each channel. For each combination of acoustic source strengths, synthetic thunder is modeled as a superposition of thunder signals produced by each channel, and a power envelope of this stack is then calculated. The inversion iteratively minimizes the misfit between power envelopes of recorded and modeled thunder. Because the atmospheric sound speed structure through which the waves propagate during these events is unknown, we repeat the procedure on many plausible atmospheres to find an optimal fit. We then determine the candidate channel, or channels, that minimizes residuals between

  16. Estimation of the Lithospheric Component Share in the Earth Natural Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyshkov, S. Y.; Gordeev, V. F.; Polyvach, V. I.; Shtalin, S. G.; Pustovalov, K. N.

    2017-04-01

    Article describes the results of the atmosphere and Earth’s crust climatic and ecological parameters integrated monitoring. The estimation is made for lithospheric component share in the Earth natural pulsed electromagnetic field structure. To estimate lithospheric component we performed a round-the-clock monitoring of the Earth natural pulsed electromagnetic field background variations at the experiment location and measured the Earth natural pulsed electromagnetic field under electric shields. Natural materials in a natural environment were used for shielding, specifically lakes with varying parameters of water conductivity. Skin effect was used in the experiment - it is the tendency of electromagnetic waves amplitude to decrease with greater depths in the conductor. Atmospheric and lithospheric component the Earth natural pulsed electromagnetic field data recorded on terrain was compared against the recorded data with atmosphere component decayed by an electric shield. In summary we have demonstrated in the experiment that thunderstorm discharge originating electromagnetic field decay corresponds to the decay calculated using Maxwell equations. In the absence of close lightning strikes the ratio of field intensity recorded on terrain to shielded field intensity is inconsistent with the ratio calculated for atmospheric sources, that confirms there is a lithospheric component present to the Earth natural pulsed electromagnetic field.

  17. Electromagnetic pulses, localized and causal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekner, John

    2018-01-01

    We show that pulse solutions of the wave equation can be expressed as time Fourier superpositions of scalar monochromatic beam wave functions (solutions of the Helmholtz equation). This formulation is shown to be equivalent to Bateman's integral expression for solutions of the wave equation, for axially symmetric solutions. A closed-form one-parameter solution of the wave equation, containing no backward-propagating parts, is constructed from a beam which is the tight-focus limit of two families of beams. Application is made to transverse electric and transverse magnetic pulses, with evaluation of the energy, momentum and angular momentum for a pulse based on the general localized and causal form. Such pulses can be represented as superpositions of photons. Explicit total energy and total momentum values are given for the one-parameter closed-form pulse.

  18. Expanding use of pulsed electromagnetic field therapies.

    PubMed

    Markov, Marko S

    2007-01-01

    Various types of magnetic and electromagnetic fields are now in successful use in modern medicine. Electromagnetic therapy carries the promise to heal numerous health problems, even where conventional medicine has failed. Today, magnetotherapy provides a non invasive, safe, and easy method to directly treat the site of injury, the source of pain and inflammation, and a variety of diseases and pathologies. Millions of people worldwide have received help in treatment of the musculoskeletal system, as well as for pain relief. Pulsed electromagnetic fields are one important modality in magnetotherapy. Recent technological innovations, implementing advancements in computer technologies, offer excellent state-of-the-art therapy.

  19. Microsecond-scale electric field pulses in cloud lightning discharges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villanueva, Y.; Rakov, V. A.; Uman, M. A.; Brook, M.

    1994-01-01

    From wideband electric field records acquired using a 12-bit digitizing system with a 500-ns sampling interval, microsecond-scale pulses in different stages of cloud flashes in Florida and New Mexico are analyzed. Pulse occurrence statistics and waveshape characteristics are presented. The larger pulses tend to occur early in the flash, confirming the results of Bils et al. (1988) and in contrast with the three-stage representation of cloud-discharge electric fields suggested by Kitagawa and Brook (1960). Possible explanations for the discrepancy are discussed. The tendency for the larger pulses to occur early in the cloud flash suggests that they are related to the initial in-cloud channel formation processes and contradicts the common view found in the atmospheric radio-noise literature that the main sources of VLF/LF electromagnetic radiation in cloud flashes are the K processes which occur in the final, or J type, part of the cloud discharge.

  20. Lightning induced inappropriate ICD shock: an unusual case of electromagnetic interference.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Daniel R; Gillberg, Jeffrey M; Torrey, Jeffrey W; Koneru, Jayanthi N

    2012-06-01

    An unusual case of electromagnetic interference is presented. As a result of a lightning shock to a Shower House, our patient received two shocks. An elucidation of the different mechanisms for the two shocks is presented. ©2010, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Electromagnetic or other directed energy pulse launcher

    DOEpatents

    Ziolkowski, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    The physical realization of new solutions of wave propagation equations, such as Maxwell's equations and the scaler wave equation, produces localized pulses of wave energy such as electromagnetic or acoustic energy which propagate over long distances without divergence. The pulses are produced by driving each element of an array of radiating sources with a particular drive function so that the resultant localized packet of energy closely approximates the exact solutions and behaves the same.

  2. Triggered-Lightning Interaction with a Lightning Protective System: Current Distribution and Electromagnetic Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mata, C. T.; Rakov, V. A.; Mata, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    A new comprehensive lightning instrumentation system has been designed for Launch Complex 39B (LC3913) at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. This new instrumentation system includes the synchronized recording of six high-speed video cameras; currents through the nine downconductors of the new lightning protection system for LC3913; four dH/dt, 3-axis measurement stations; and five dE/dt stations composed of two antennas each. A 20:1 scaled down model of the new Lightning Protection System (LPS) of LC39B was built at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing, Camp Blanding, FL. This scaled down lightning protection system was instrumented with the transient recorders, digitizers, and sensors to be used in the final instrumentation installation at LC3913. The instrumentation used at the ICLRT is also a scaled-down instrumentation of the LC39B instrumentation. The scaled-down LPS was subjected to seven direct lightning strikes and six (four triggered and two natural nearby flashes) in 2010. The following measurements were acquired at the ICLRT: currents through the nine downconductors; two dl-/dt, 3-axis stations, one at the center of the LPS (underneath the catenary wires), and another 40 meters south from the center of the LPS; ten dE/dt stations, nine of them on the perimeter of the LPS and one at the center of the LPS (underneath the catenary wire system); and the incident current. Data from representative events are presented and analyzed in this paper.

  3. Lightning electromagnetic radiation field spectra in the interval from 0.2 to 20 MHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willett, J. C.; Bailey, J. C.; Leteinturier, C.; Krider, E. P.

    1990-01-01

    New Fourier transforms of wideband time-domain electric fields (E) produced by lightning (recorded at the Kennedy Space Center during the summers of 1985 and 1987) were recorded in such a way that several different events in each lightning flash could be captured. Average HF spectral amplitudes for first return strokes, stepped-leader steps, and 'characteristic pulses' are given for significantly more events, at closer ranges, and with better spectral resolution than in previous literature reports. The method of recording gives less bias toward the first large event in the flash and thus yields a large sample of a wide variety of lightning processes. As a result, reliable composite spectral amplitudes are obtained for a number of different processes in cloud-to-ground lightning over the frequency interval from 0.2 to 20 MHz.

  4. Models for electromagnetic coupling of lightning onto multiconductor cables in underground cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, Matthew Benjamin

    This dissertation documents the measurements, analytical modeling, and numerical modeling of electromagnetic transfer functions to quantify the ability of cloud-to-ground lightning strokes (including horizontal arc-channel components) to couple electromagnetic energy onto multiconductor cables in an underground cavity. Measurements were performed at the Sago coal mine located near Buckhannon, WV. These transfer functions, coupled with mathematical representations of lightning strokes, are then used to predict electric fields within the mine and induced voltages on a cable that was left abandoned in the sealed area of the Sago mine. If voltages reached high enough levels, electrical arcing could have occurred from the abandoned cable. Electrical arcing is known to be an effective ignition source for explosive gas mixtures. Two coupling mechanisms were measured: direct and indirect drive. Direct coupling results from the injection or induction of lightning current onto metallic conductors such as the conveyors, rails, trolley communications cable, and AC power shields that connect from the outside of the mine to locations deep within the mine. Indirect coupling results from electromagnetic field propagation through the earth as a result of a cloud-to-ground lightning stroke or a long, low-altitude horizontal current channel from a cloud-to-ground stroke. Unlike direct coupling, indirect coupling does not require metallic conductors in a continuous path from the surface to areas internal to the mine. Results from the indirect coupling measurements and analysis are of great concern. The field measurements, modeling, and analysis indicate that significant energy can be coupled directly into the sealed area of the mine. Due to the relatively low frequency content of lightning (< 100 kHz), electromagnetic energy can readily propagate through hundreds of feet of earth. Indirect transfer function measurements compare extremely well with analytical and computational models

  5. Pre-Earthquake Unipolar Electromagnetic Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoville, J.; Freund, F.

    2013-12-01

    Transient ultralow frequency (ULF) electromagnetic (EM) emissions have been reported to occur before earthquakes [1,2]. They suggest powerful transient electric currents flowing deep in the crust [3,4]. Prior to the M=5.4 Alum Rock earthquake of Oct. 21, 2007 in California a QuakeFinder triaxial search-coil magnetometer located about 2 km from the epicenter recorded unusual unipolar pulses with the approximate shape of a half-cycle of a sine wave, reaching amplitudes up to 30 nT. The number of these unipolar pulses increased as the day of the earthquake approached. These pulses clearly originated around the hypocenter. The same pulses have since been recorded prior to several medium to moderate earthquakes in Peru, where they have been used to triangulate the location of the impending earthquakes [5]. To understand the mechanism of the unipolar pulses, we first have to address the question how single current pulses can be generated deep in the Earth's crust. Key to this question appears to be the break-up of peroxy defects in the rocks in the hypocenter as a result of the increase in tectonic stresses prior to an earthquake. We investigate the mechanism of the unipolar pulses by coupling the drift-diffusion model of semiconductor theory to Maxwell's equations, thereby producing a model describing the rock volume that generates the pulses in terms of electromagnetism and semiconductor physics. The system of equations is then solved numerically to explore the electromagnetic radiation associated with drift-diffusion currents of electron-hole pairs. [1] Sharma, A. K., P. A. V., and R. N. Haridas (2011), Investigation of ULF magnetic anomaly before moderate earthquakes, Exploration Geophysics 43, 36-46. [2] Hayakawa, M., Y. Hobara, K. Ohta, and K. Hattori (2011), The ultra-low-frequency magnetic disturbances associated with earthquakes, Earthquake Science, 24, 523-534. [3] Bortnik, J., T. E. Bleier, C. Dunson, and F. Freund (2010), Estimating the seismotelluric current

  6. Joint Electromagnetic Spectrum Management Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-20

    electromagnetic radiation to ordnance ( HERO ), hazards of electromagnetic radiation to fuels (HERF), and natural phenomena effects of lightning and...fuels HERO hazards of electromagnetic radiation to ordnance HERP hazards of electromagnetic radiation to personnel HF high frequency HN host... electromagnetic pulse (EMP); hazards of EM radiation to personnel, ordnance ,

  7. Pulse generation scheme for flying electromagnetic doughnuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papasimakis, Nikitas; Raybould, Tim; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Tsai, Din Ping; Youngs, Ian; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2018-05-01

    Transverse electromagnetic plane waves are fundamental solutions of Maxwells equations. It is less known that a radically different type of solutions has been described theoretically, but has never been realized experimentally, that exist only in the form of short bursts of electromagnetic energy propagating in free space at the speed of light. They are distinguished from transverse waves by a doughnutlike configuration of electric and magnetic fields with a strong field component along the propagation direction. Here, we demonstrate numerically that such flying doughnuts can be generated from conventional pulses using a singular metamaterial converter designed to manipulate both the spatial and spectral structure of the input pulse. The ability to generate flying doughnuts is of fundamental interest, as they shall interact with matter in unique ways, including nontrivial field transformations upon reflection from interfaces and the excitation of toroidal response and anapole modes in matter, hence offering opportunities for telecommunications, sensing, and spectroscopy.

  8. Pulsed thrust measurements using electromagnetic calibration techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Haibin; Shi Chenbo; Zhang Xin'ai

    2011-03-15

    A thrust stand for accurately measuring impulse bits, which ranged from 10-1000 {mu}N s using a noncontact electromagnetic calibration technique is described. In particular, a permanent magnet structure was designed to produce a uniform magnetic field, and a multiturn coil was made to produce a calibration force less than 10 mN. The electromagnetic calibration force for pulsed thrust measurements was linear to the coil current and changed less than 2.5% when the distance between the coil and magnet changed 6 mm. A pulsed plasma thruster was first tested on the thrust stand, and afterward five single impulse bits were measuredmore » to give a 310 {mu}N s average impulse bit. Uncertainty of the measured impulse bit was analyzed to evaluate the quality of the measurement and was found to be 10 {mu}N s with 95% credibility.« less

  9. EMPTAC (Electromagnetic Pulse Test Aircraft) user's guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleaveland, Dale R.; Burkhard, Avery

    1988-04-01

    This guide was established to give test managers a way to familiarize themselves with the Air Force Weapons Laboratory's electromagnetic pulse (EMP) test aircraft program located at Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB), New Mexico. Brief descriptions of the available EMP test facilities at KAFB are also included. This guide should give prospective customers (users) adequate information to scope the magnitude of their test effort and to accomplish general planning without extensive involvement in test execution details.

  10. Pulsed Electromagnetic Acceleration of Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Cassibry, Jason T.; Markusic, Tom E.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A major shift in paradigm in driving pulsed plasma thruster is necessary if the original goal of accelerating a plasma sheet efficiently to high velocities as a plasma "slug" is to be realized. Firstly, the plasma interior needs to be highly collisional so that it can be dammed by the plasma edge layer not (upstream) adjacent to the driving 'vacuum' magnetic field. Secondly, the plasma edge layer needs to be strongly magnetized so that its Hall parameter is of the order of unity in this region to ensure excellent coupling of the Lorentz force to the plasma. Thirdly, to prevent and/or suppress the occurrence of secondary arcs or restrike behind the plasma, the region behind the plasma needs to be collisionless and extremely magnetized with sufficiently large Hall parameter. This places a vacuum requirement on the bore conditions prior to the shot. These requirements are quantified in the paper and lead to the introduction of three new design parameters corresponding to these three plasma requirements. The first parameter, labeled in the paper as gamma (sub 1), pertains to the permissible ratio of the diffusive excursion of the plasma during the course of the acceleration to the plasma longitudinal dimension. The second parameter is the required Hall parameter of the edge plasma region, and the third parameter the required Hall parameter of the region behind the plasma. Experimental research is required to quantify the values of these design parameters. Based upon fundamental theory of the transport processes in plasma, some theoretical guidance on the choice of these parameters are provided to help designing the necessary experiments to acquire these data.

  11. Electromagnetic fields radiated from a lightning return stroke - Application of an exact solution to Maxwell's equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Meneghini, R.

    1978-01-01

    A solution is presented for the electromagnetic fields radiated by an arbitrarily oriented current filament over a conducting ground plane in the case where the current propagates along the filament at the speed of light, and this solution is interpreted in terms of radiation from lightning return strokes. The solution is exact in the fullest sense; no mathematical approximations are made, and the governing differential equations and boundary conditions are satisfied. The solution has the additional attribute of being specified in closed form in terms of elementary functions. This solution is discussed from the point of view of deducing lightning current wave forms from measurements of the electromagnetic fields and understanding the effects of channel tortuosity on the radiated fields. In addition, it is compared with two approximate solutions, the traditional moment approximation and the Fraunhofer approximation, and a set of criteria describing their applicability are presented and interpreted.

  12. Toward a Time-Domain Fractal Lightning Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C.; Carlson, B. E.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Cohen, M.; Lauben, D.; Inan, U. S.

    2010-12-01

    Electromagnetic simulations of lightning are useful for prediction of lightning properties and exploration of the underlying physical behavior. Fractal lightning models predict the spatial structure of the discharge, but thus far do not provide much information about discharge behavior in time and therefore cannot predict electromagnetic wave emissions or current characteristics. Here we develop a time-domain fractal lightning simulation from Maxwell's equations, the method of moments with the thin wire approximation, an adaptive time-stepping scheme, and a simplified electrical model of the lightning channel. The model predicts current pulse structure and electromagnetic wave emissions and can be used to simulate the entire duration of a lightning discharge. The model can be used to explore the electrical characteristics of the lightning channel, the temporal development of the discharge, and the effects of these characteristics on observable electromagnetic wave emissions.

  13. Ultra-Wideband Electromagnetic Pulse Propagation through Causal Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-04

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0112 Ultra-Wideband Electromagnetic Pulse Propagation through Causal Media Natalie Cartwright RESEARCH FOUNDATION OF STATE... Electromagnetic Pulse Propagation through Causal Media 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-13-1-0013 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT When an electromagnetic pulse travels through a dispersive material each frequency of the transmitted pulse changes in both

  14. Lightning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pampe, William R.

    1970-01-01

    Presents basic physical theory for movement of electric charges in clouds, earth, and air during production of lightning and thunder. Amount of electrical energy produced and heating effects during typical thunderstorms is described. Generalized safety practices are given. (JM)

  15. Geometrical Effects on the Electromagnetic Radiation from Lightning Return Strokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willett, John C.; Smith, David A.; LeVine, David M.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Sferic Array has recorded electric-field-change waveforms simultaneously at several stations surrounding the ground-strike points of numerous return strokes in cloud-to-ground lightning flashes. Such data are available from the five-station sub-networks in both Florida and New Mexico. With these data it has been possible for the first time to compare the waveforms radiated in different directions by a given stroke. Such comparisons are of interest to assess both the effects of channel geometry on the fine structure of subsequent-stroke radiation fields and the role of branches in the more jagged appearance of first-stroke waveforms. This paper presents multiple-station, time-domain waveforms with a 200 Hz to 500 kHz pass-band from both first and subsequent return strokes at ranges generally between 100 and 200 km. The differences among waveforms of the same stroke received at stations in different directions from the lightning channel are often obvious. These differences are illustrated and interpreted in the context of channel tortuosity and branches.

  16. Shaping metallic glasses by electromagnetic pulsing

    PubMed Central

    Kaltenboeck, Georg; Demetriou, Marios D.; Roberts, Scott; Johnson, William L.

    2016-01-01

    With damage tolerance rivalling advanced engineering alloys and thermoplastic forming capabilities analogous to conventional plastics, metallic glasses are emerging as a modern engineering material. Here, we take advantage of their unique electrical and rheological properties along with the classic Lorentz force concept to demonstrate that electromagnetic coupling of electric current and a magnetic field can thermoplastically shape a metallic glass without conventional heating sources or applied mechanical forces. Specifically, we identify a process window where application of an electric current pulse in the presence of a normally directed magnetic field can ohmically heat a metallic glass to a softened state, while simultaneously inducing a large enough magnetic body force to plastically shape it. The heating and shaping is performed on millisecond timescales, effectively bypassing crystallization producing fully amorphous-shaped parts. This electromagnetic forming approach lays the groundwork for a versatile, time- and energy-efficient manufacturing platform for ultrastrong metals. PMID:26853460

  17. Validation of GEMACS (General Electromagnetic Model for the Analysis of Complex Systems) for Modeling Lightning-Induced Electromagnetic Fields.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    0 00 I DTIC"ELECTE. ~FEB 0 911988< " H VALIDATION OF GEMACS FOR MODELING ’LIGHTNING-INDUCED ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS THESIS David S. Mabee Captain...THESIS David S. Mabee . Captain, USAFD T C ’::, AFIT/GE/ENG/87D-39 ELECTFE r C:’., ~FEB 0 91988 J Approved for public release; distribution unlimited...Electrical Engineering David S. Mabee , B.S. ’- ,. . Captain, USAF December 1987 A o fr p.. ’ Approved for public release; distribution unlimited ,12

  18. Missile’s Guidance Head Anti-Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse Reinforcement,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-11-18

    electromagnetic pulse bomb is one of them. This kind of nuclear bomb is mainly used to interfere or damage un-reinforced electric and electronic... electromagnetic pulse , the damaging mechanism of the nuclear electromagnetic pulse to the guidance head, and the response of electronic devices to...the nuclear electromagnetic pulse , at last introduces the guidance heads defense method to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse .

  19. Variability of electromagnetic signatures of lightning initiation observed in the West Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmasova, I.; Santolik, O.; Defer, E.; Stéphane, P.; Lan, R.; Uhlir, L.; Coquillat, S.; Lambert, D.; Pinty, J. P.; Prieur, S.

    2016-12-01

    Lightning discharges to ground often exhibit millisecond-scale surges in the continuing currents following return strokes, called M-components. Relatively little is known regarding the source of M-component charge and the mechanisms by which that charge is transferred to ground. In this work, we seek to directly address these questions by presenting correlated high-speed video and Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) observations of a bi-directional leader that resulted in an M-component occurring in a rocket-and-wire triggered lightning flash. The observed leader initiated in the decayed remnants of a positive leader channel that had traversed virgin air approximately 90 msec prior. Three-dimensional locations and speeds of the photographed bi-directional leader and M-component processes are calculated by mapping video images to the observed LMA channel geometry. Both ends of the bi-directional leader exhibited speeds on the order of 2 x106 m sec-1 over 570 meters of the visible channel. Propagation of the luminosity wave from the in-cloud leader to ground ( 8.8 km channel length) exhibited appreciable dispersion, with rise-times (10-90%) increasing from 330 to 410 μsec and pulse-widths (half-maximum) increasing from 380 to 810 μsec - the M-component current pulse measured at ground-level exhibited a rise-time of 290 μsec and a pulse-width of 770 μsec. Group velocities of the luminosity wave have been calculated as a function of frequency, increasing from 2 x107 to 6 x107 m sec-1 over the dominant signal bandwidth (DC to 2 kHz). Additionally, multiple waves of luminosity are observed within the in-cloud channel, indicating nuanced wave phenomena possibly associated with reflection from the end of the leader channel and attachment with the main lightning channel carrying continuing current to ground.

  20. Lightning Optical Pulse Statistics from Storm Overflights During the Altus Cumulus Electrification Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, D. M.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Bailey, J. C.; Farrell, W. M.; Goldberg, R. A.; Desch, M. D.; Houser, J. G.

    2004-01-01

    The Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES) was conducted during the month of August, 2002 in an area near Key West, Florida. One of the goals of this uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) study was to collect time resolved optical pulse data from thunderstorms. During the month long campaign, we acquired 5294 lightning generated optical pulses. Most of these observations were made while close to the top of the storms. We divided our data into two amplitude groups based on prior NASA U2 aircraft optical data and our pulse characteristics. The group of large pulses with radiance greater than 2.1 mW /sq m sr had mean and median 10 - 10% optical pulse widths of 765 and 735 microns respectively, the 50-50% pulse widths of 396 and 355 microns respectively, and 10-90% rise times of 290 and 260 microns. These values are very similar to the previous U2 based optical results The other group of pulses consisting of slightly more than a quarter of the total pulses observed had radiances less than the minimum values detected in the U2 study. The small pulses were narrower than the large pulses with 5040% mean and median values of 198 and 160 ps respectively. Only 12 % of the flashes contained only small pulses, minimizing the impact of this data on the estimates of detection efficiencies of the orbital instruments, the Lightning Imaging Sensor and Optical Transient Detector.

  1. Characteristics of Electromagnetic Pulse Propagation in Metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkung, M.; Wincheski, B.; Nath, S.; Fulton, J. P.

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that the solution of the diffusion equation for an electromagnetic field with a time harmonic term, e(sup iwt), is in the form of a traveling wave whose amplitude attenuates over distance into a conducting medium. As the attenuation is an increasing function of frequency, the high frequency components attenuate more rapidly than those of low ones upon entering a well conducting object. At the same time, the phase velocity of an individual component is also an increasing function of frequency causing a broadening of the pulse traveling inside a conductor. In the results of our previous study of numerical simulations, the problem of using a gaussian input pulse was immediately clear. First, having the dominant frequency components distributed around zero, the movement of the peak was not well defined. Second, with the amplitude of fourier components varying slowly over a wide range, the dispersion-induced blurring of the peak position was seen to be severe. For the present study, we have used a gaussian modulated single frequency sinusoidal wave, i. e., the carrier, as an input pulse in an effort to improve the issues related to the unclear movement of peak and dispersion as described above. This was based on the following two anticipated advantages: First, the packet moves in a conductor at the group velocity calculated at the carrier frequency, which means it is well controllable. Second, the amplitude of frequency components other than that of the carrier can be almost negligible, such that the effect of dispersion can be significantly reduced. A series of experiments of transmitting electromagnetic pulses through aluminum plates of various thickness was performed to test the validity of the above points. The results of numerical simulation based on wave propagation are discussed with respect to the experimental results. Finally, a simple simulation was performed based on diffusion of a continuous sine wave input and the results are compared with

  2. Electromagnetic pulse distortion in living tissue.

    PubMed

    Lepelaars, E S

    1996-05-01

    Insight into the distortion of electromagnetic (EM) signals in living tissue is important for optimising medical applications. To obtain this insight, field calculations have been carried out for a plane-stratified configuration of air, skin, fat, muscle and bone tissue. In this configuration, an EM field is generated by a prescribed pulsed current in a circular loop. Debye dispersion models have been developed for the description of the permittivity of the tissues. The field problem is solved analytically with the aid of a temporal Fourier transformation and a spatial Hankel transformation. The corresponding inverse transformations have been carried out numerically. To demonstrate the influences of stratification and dispersion separately, the EM fields in the stratified configuration, in a completely muscle-filled space and in vacuum are compared. Two different pulses have been considered; narrow and wide. It emerges that dispersion results in a retardation and an attenuation of the field. Stratification causes additional fluctuations of the time-dependent field. Furthermore, the conductivity of tissue at high frequencies is mainly determined by its water content. Tissues with high water content, like muscle and skin, exhibit higher conductivity at high frequencies than fat and bone. Muscle and skin tissue therefore behave as low-pass filters to EM signals.

  3. Electromagnetic pulse-induced current measurement device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, Om P.; Chen, Jin Y.

    1991-08-01

    To develop safety guidelines for exposure to high fields associated with an electromagnetic pulse (EMP), it is necessary to devise techniques that would measure the peak current induced in the human body. The main focus of this project was to design, fabricate, and test a portable, self-contained stand-on device that would measure and hold the peak current and the integrated change Q. The design specifications of the EMP-Induced Current Measurement Device are as follows: rise time of the current pulse, 5 ns; peak current, 20-600 A; charge Q, 0-20 microcoulombs. The device uses a stand-on parallel-plate bilayer sensor and fast high-frequency circuit that are well-shielded against spurious responses to high incident fields. Since the polarity of the incident peak electric field of the EMP may be either positive or negative, the induced peak current can also be positive or negative. Therefore, the device is designed to respond to either of these polarities and measure and hold both the peak current and the integrated charge which are simultaneously displayed on two separate 3-1/2 digit displays. The prototype device has been preliminarily tested with the EMP's generated at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory (ALECS facility) at Kirtland AFB, New Mexico.

  4. Ultrafocused Electromagnetic Field Pulses with a Hollow Cylindrical Waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, P.; Prat-Camps, J.; Cirac, J. I.; Hänsch, T. W.; Romero-Isart, O.

    2017-07-01

    We theoretically show that a dipole externally driven by a pulse with a lower-bounded temporal width, and placed inside a cylindrical hollow waveguide, can generate a train of arbitrarily short and focused electromagnetic pulses. The waveguide encloses vacuum with perfect electric conducting walls. A dipole driven by a single short pulse, which is properly engineered to exploit the linear spectral filtering of the cylindrical hollow waveguide, excites longitudinal waveguide modes that are coherently refocused at some particular instances of time, thereby producing arbitrarily short and focused electromagnetic pulses. We numerically show that such ultrafocused pulses persist outside the cylindrical waveguide at distances comparable to its radius.

  5. Measurement of electromagnetic waves in ELF and VLF bands to monitor lightning activity in the Maritime Continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Kozo; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Ohya, Hiroyo; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Sato, Mitsuteru; Matsumoto, Jun

    2013-04-01

    Data of lightning discharge has been focused on as an effective way for monitoring and nowcasting of thunderstorm activity which causes extreme weather. Spatial distribution of lightning discharge has been used as a proxy of the presence or absence of deep convection. Latest observation shows that there is extremely huge lightning whose scale is more than hundreds times bigger than that of averaged event. This result indicates that lightning observation should be carried out to estimate not only existence but also scale for quantitative evaluation of atmospheric convection. In this study, lightning observation network in the Maritime Continent is introduced. This network is consisted of the sensors which make possible to measure electromagnetic wave radiated from lightning discharges. Observation frequency is 0.1 - 40 kHz for the measurement of magnetic field and 1 - 40 kHz for that of electric field. Sampling frequency is 100 kHz. Waveform of electromagnetic wave is recorded by personal computer. We have already constructed observation stations at Tainan in Taiwan (23.1N, 121.1E), Saraburi in Thailand (14.5N, 101.0E), and Pontianak in Indonesia (0.0N, 109.4E). Furthermore, we plan to install the monitoring system at Los Banos in Philippines (14.18, 121.25E) and Hanoi in Viet Nam. Data obtained by multipoint observation is synchronized by GPS receiver installed at each station. By using data obtained by this network, location and scale of lightning discharge can be estimated. Location of lightning is determined based on time of arrival method. Accuracy of geolocation could be less than 10km. Furthermore, charge moment is evaluated as a scale of each lightning discharge. It is calculated from electromagnetic waveform in ELF range (3-30 kHz). At the presentation, we will show the initial result about geolocation for source of electromagnetic wave and derivation of charge moment value based on the measurement of ELF and VLF sferics.

  6. Electromagnetic pulsed thermography for natural cracks inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yunlai; Tian, Gui Yun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Haitao; Gao, Bin; Woo, Wai Lok; Li, Kongjing

    2017-02-01

    Emerging integrated sensing and monitoring of material degradation and cracks are increasingly required for characterizing the structural integrity and safety of infrastructure. However, most conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods are based on single modality sensing which is not adequate to evaluate structural integrity and natural cracks. This paper proposed electromagnetic pulsed thermography for fast and comprehensive defect characterization. It hybrids multiple physical phenomena i.e. magnetic flux leakage, induced eddy current and induction heating linking to physics as well as signal processing algorithms to provide abundant information of material properties and defects. New features are proposed using 1st derivation that reflects multiphysics spatial and temporal behaviors to enhance the detection of cracks with different orientations. Promising results that robust to lift-off changes and invariant features for artificial and natural cracks detection have been demonstrated that the proposed method significantly improves defect detectability. It opens up multiphysics sensing and integrated NDE with potential impact for natural understanding and better quantitative evaluation of natural cracks including stress corrosion crack (SCC) and rolling contact fatigue (RCF).

  7. Pulsed Electromagnetic Acceleration of Plasma: A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Turchi, Peter J.; Markusic, Thomas E.; Cassibry, Jason T.; Sommer, James; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Much have been learned in the acceleration mechanisms involved in accelerating a plasma electromagnetically in the laboratory over the last 40 years since the early review by Winston Bostik of 1963, but the accumulated understanding is very much scattered throughout the literature. This literature extends back at least to the early sixties and includes Rosenbluth's snowplow model, discussions by Ralph Lovberg, Colgate's boundary-layer model of a current sheet, many papers from the activity at Columbia by Robert Gross and his colleagues, and the relevant, 1-D unsteady descriptions developed from the U. of Maryland theta-pinch studies. Recent progress on the understanding of the pulsed penetration of magnetic fields into collisionless or nearly collisionless plasmas are also be reviewed. Somewhat more recently, we have the two-dimensional, unsteady results in the collisional regime associated with so-called wall-instability in large radius pinch discharges and also in coaxial plasma guns (e.g., Plasma Flow Switch). Among other things, for example, we have the phenomenon of a high- density plasma discharge propagating in a cooaxial gun as an apparently straight sheet (vs paraboloid) because mass re-distribution (on a microsecond timescale) compensates for the 1/r- squared variation of magnetic pressure. We will attempt to collate some of this vast material and bring some coherence tc the development of the subject.

  8. Electromagnetic pulsed thermography for natural cracks inspection

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yunlai; Tian, Gui Yun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Haitao; Gao, Bin; Woo, Wai Lok; Li, Kongjing

    2017-01-01

    Emerging integrated sensing and monitoring of material degradation and cracks are increasingly required for characterizing the structural integrity and safety of infrastructure. However, most conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods are based on single modality sensing which is not adequate to evaluate structural integrity and natural cracks. This paper proposed electromagnetic pulsed thermography for fast and comprehensive defect characterization. It hybrids multiple physical phenomena i.e. magnetic flux leakage, induced eddy current and induction heating linking to physics as well as signal processing algorithms to provide abundant information of material properties and defects. New features are proposed using 1st derivation that reflects multiphysics spatial and temporal behaviors to enhance the detection of cracks with different orientations. Promising results that robust to lift-off changes and invariant features for artificial and natural cracks detection have been demonstrated that the proposed method significantly improves defect detectability. It opens up multiphysics sensing and integrated NDE with potential impact for natural understanding and better quantitative evaluation of natural cracks including stress corrosion crack (SCC) and rolling contact fatigue (RCF). PMID:28169361

  9. Multirail electromagnetic launcher powered from a pulsed magnetohydrodynamic generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonin, A. G.; Butov, V. G.; Panchenko, V. P.; Sinyaev, S. V.; Solonenko, V. A.; Shvetsov, G. A.; Yakushev, A. A.

    2015-09-01

    The operation of an electromagnetic multirail launcher of solids powered from a pulsed magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator is studied. The plasma flow in the channel of the pulsed MHD generator and the possibility of launching solids in a rapid-fire mode of launcher operation are considered. It is shown that this mode of launcher operation can be implemented by matching the plasma flow dynamics in the channel of the pulsed MHD generator and the launching conditions. It is also shown that powerful pulsed MHD generators can be used as a source of electrical energy for rapid-fire electromagnetic rail launchers operating in a burst mode.

  10. Lightning electromagnetic radiation field spectra in the interval from 0. 2 to 20 MHz

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, J.C.; Bailey, J.C.; Leteinturier, C.

    1990-11-20

    Average energy spectral densities are presented for the fast transitions in most of the components that produce large radiation field impulses from cloud-to-ground lightning; first and subsequent return strokes; stepped, dart-stepped, and 'chaotic' leaders; and 'characteristic' cloud pulses. A disagreement in the previous literature about the spectral energy radiated by return strokes at high frequencies is noted and explained. The authors show that the spectral amplitudes are not seriously distorted by propagation over less than 35 km of seawater, although as much as 45 km of such propagation does appear to produce significant attenuation above about 10 MHz. First andmore » subsequent return strokes produce identical spectra between 0.2 and 20 MHz. The spectra of stepped and dart-stepped leader steps are nearly identical and are very similar to that of characteristic pulses. The spectra of leader steps also match return stroke spectra above 2-3 MHz after the former are increased by about 7 dB. The shapes of individual spectra do not depend on their amplitude, so the shapes of the average spectra are probably not distorted by the trigger thresholds used in the data acquisition. Return strokes are the strongest sources of radiation from cloud-to-ground lightning in the 0.2- to 20-MHz frequency range, although certain intracloud processes are stronger radiators above 8 MHz.« less

  11. The electric field changes and UHF radiations caused by the triggered lightning in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawasaki, Zen-Ichiro; Kanao, Tadashi; Matsuura, Kenji; Nakano, Minoru; Horii, Kenji; Nakamura, Koichi

    1991-01-01

    In the rocket triggered lightning experiment of fiscal 1989, researchers observed electromagnetic field changes and UHF electromagnetic radiation accompanying rocket triggered lightning. It was found that no rapid changes corresponding to the return stroke of natural lightning were observed in the electric field changes accompanying rocket triggered lightning. However, continuous currents were present. In the case of rocket triggered lightning to the tower, electromagnetic field changes corresponding to the initiation of triggered lightning showed a bipolar pulse of a relatively large amplitude. In contrast, the rocket triggered lightning to the ground did not have such a bipolar pulse. The UHF radiation accompanying the rocket triggered lightning preceded the waveform portions corresponding to the first changes in electromagnetic fields. The number of isolated pulses in the UHF radiation showed a correlation with the time duration from rocket launching up to triggered lightning. The time interval between consecutive isolated pulses tended to get shorter with the passage of time, just like the stepped leaders of natural lightning.

  12. Lightning driven EMP in the upper atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowland, H. L.; Fernsler, R. F.; Huba, J. D.; Bernhardt, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Large lightning discharges can drive electromagnetic pulses (EMP) that cause breakdown of the neutral atmosphere between 80 and 95 km leading to order of magnitude increases in the plasma density. The increase in the plasma density leads to increased reflection and absorption, and limits the pulse strength that propagates higher into the ionosphere.

  13. Interaction of free charged particles with a chirped electromagnetic pulse.

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, A G; van Goor, F A; Boller, K-J

    2004-12-01

    We study the effect of chirp on electromagnetic (EM) pulse interaction with a charged particle. Both the one-dimensional (1D) and 3D cases are considered. It is found that, in contrast to the case of a nonchirped pulse, the charged particle energy can be changed after the interaction with a 1D EM chirped pulse. Different types of chirp and pulse envelopes are considered. In the case of small chirp, an analytical expression is found for arbitrary temporal profiles of the chirp and the pulse envelope. In the 3D case, the interaction with a chirped pulse results in a polarization-dependent scattering of charged particles.

  14. Time-spatial drift of decelerating electromagnetic pulses.

    PubMed

    Nerukh, Alexander G; Nerukh, Dmitry A

    2013-07-15

    A time dependent electromagnetic pulse generated by a current running laterally to the direction of the pulse propagation is considered in paraxial approximation. It is shown that the pulse envelope moves in the time-spatial coordinates on the surface of a parabolic cylinder for the Airy pulse and a hyperbolic cylinder for the Gaussian. These pulses propagate in time with deceleration along the dominant propagation direction and drift uniformly in the lateral direction. The Airy pulse stops at infinity while the asymptotic velocity of the Gaussian is nonzero.

  15. Low Frequency Electromagnetic Pulse and Explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J J

    2011-02-01

    This paper reviews and summarizes prior work related to low frequency (< 100 Hz) EMP (ElectroMagnetic Pulse) observed from explosions. It focuses on how EMP signals might, or might not, be useful in monitoring underground nuclear tests, based on the limits of detection, and physical understanding of these signals. In summary: (1) Both chemical and nuclear explosions produce an EMP. (2) The amplitude of the EMP from underground explosions is at least two orders of magnitude lower than from above ground explosions and higher frequency components of the signal are rapidly attenuated due to ground conductivity. (3) In general, inmore » the near field, that is distances (r) of less than 10s of kilometers from the source, the amplitude of the EMP decays approximately as 1/r{sup 3}, which practically limits EMP applications to very close (<{approx}1km) distances. (4) One computational model suggests that the EMP from a decoupled nuclear explosion may be enhanced over the fully coupled case. This has not been validated with laboratory or field data. (5) The magnitude of the EMP from an underground nuclear explosion is about two orders of magnitude larger than that from a chemical explosion, and has a larger component of higher frequencies. In principle these differences might be used to discriminate a nuclear from a chemical explosion using sensors at very close (<{approx}1 km) distances. (6) Arming and firing systems (e.g. detonators, exploding bridge wires) can also produce an EMP from any type of explosion. (7) To develop the understanding needed to apply low frequency EMP to nuclear explosion monitoring, it is recommended to carry out a series of controlled underground chemical explosions with a variety of sizes, emplacements (e.g. fully coupled and decoupled), and arming and firing systems.« less

  16. Lightning Technology: Proceedings of a Technical Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Several facets of lightning technology are considered including phenomenology, measurement, detection, protection, interaction, and testing. Lightning electromagnetics, protection of ground systems, and simulated lightning testing are emphasized. The lightning-instrumented F-106 aircraft is described.

  17. The VLF fingerprint of elves: Step-like and long-recovery early VLF perturbations caused by powerful ±CG lightning EM pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldoupis, Christos; Cohen, Morris; Arnone, Enrico; Cotts, Benjamin; Dietrich, Stefano

    2013-08-01

    Subionospheric VLF recordings are investigated in relation with intense cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning data. Lightning impacts the lower ionosphere via heating and ionization changes which produce VLF signal perturbations known as early VLF events. Typically, early events recover in about 100 s, but a small subclass does not recover for many minutes, known as long-recovery early events (LORE). In this study, we identify LORE as a distinct category of early VLF events, whose signature may occur either on its own or alongside the short-lived typical early VLF event. Since LORE onsets coincide with powerful lightning strokes of either polarity (±), we infer that they are due to long-lasting ionization changes in the uppermost D region ionosphere caused by electromagnetic pulses emitted by strong ± CG lightning peak currents of typically > 250 kA, which are also known to generate elves. The LORE perturbations are detected when the discharge is located within ~250 km from the great circle path of a VLF transmitter-receiver link. The probability of occurrence increases with stroke intensity and approaches unity for discharges with peak currents ≥ ~300 kA. LOREs are nighttime phenomena that occur preferentially, at least in the present regional data set, during winter when strong ± CG discharges are more frequent and intense. The evidence suggests LORE as a distinct signature representing the VLF fingerprint of elves, a fact which, although was predicted by theory, it escaped identification in the long-going VLF research of lightning effects in the lower ionosphere.

  18. Electromagnetic pulse propagation in dispersive planar dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Moten, K; Durney, C H; Stockham, T G

    1989-01-01

    The responses of a plane-wave pulse train irradiating a lossy dispersive dielectric half-space are investigated. The incident pulse train is expressed as a Fourier series with summing done by the inverse fast Fourier transform. The Fourier series technique is adopted to avoid the many difficulties often encountered in finding the inverse Fourier transform when transform analyses are used. Calculations are made for propagation in pure water, and typical waveforms inside the dielectric half-space are presented. Higher harmonics are strongly attenuated, resulting in a single continuous sinusoidal waveform at the frequency of the fundamental depth in the material. The time-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) for pulse-train propagation is shown to be the sum of the time-averaged SARs of the individual harmonic components of the pulse train. For the same average power, calculated SARs reveal that pulse trains generally penetrate deeper than carrier-frequency continuous waves but not deeper than continuous waves at frequencies approaching the fundamental of the pulse train. The effects of rise time on the propagating pulse train in the dielectrics are shown and explained. Since most practical pulsed systems are very limited in bandwidth, no pronounced differences between their response and continuous wave (CW) response would be expected. Typical results for pulse-train propagation in arrays of dispersive planar dielectric slabs are presented. Expressing the pulse train as a Fourier series provides a practical way of interpreting the dispersion characteristics from the spectral point of view.

  19. Engineering Techniques for Electromagnetic Pulse-Hardness Testing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    electromagnetic pulse (EMP). The text describes energy sources, simulation techniques, test instrumentation, and testing techniques. Emphasis is on testing that can be accomplished by engineers with knowledge of electromagnetics and circuits. Complicated systems that require special expertise are described only to acquaint the reader with their characteristics. This text is intended to supplement the testing portion of DNA 2772T ’DNA EMP Awareness Course Notes.’

  20. Designed electromagnetic pulsed therapy: clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Glen A

    2007-09-01

    First reduced to science by Maxwell in 1865, electromagnetic technology as therapy received little interest from basic scientists or clinicians until the 1980s. It now promises applications that include mitigation of inflammation (electrochemistry) and stimulation of classes of genes following onset of illness and injury (electrogenomics). The use of electromagnetism to stop inflammation and restore tissue seems a logical phenomenology, that is, stop the inflammation, then upregulate classes of restorative gene loci to initiate healing. Studies in the fields of MRI and NMR have aided the understanding of cell response to low energy EMF inputs via electromagnetically responsive elements. Understanding protein iterations, that is, how they process information to direct energy, we can maximize technology to aid restorative intervention, a promising step forward over current paradigms of therapy.

  1. Translation and Rotation of Transformation Media under Electromagnetic Pulse

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; Shi, Xihang; Lin, Xiao; Xu, Hongyi; Zhang, Baile

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that optical media create artificial geometry for light, and curved geometry acts as an effective optical medium. This correspondence originates from the form invariance of Maxwell’s equations, which recently has spawned a booming field called ‘transformation optics’. Here we investigate responses of three transformation media under electromagnetic pulses, and find that pulse radiation can induce unbalanced net force on transformation media, which will cause translation and rotation of transformation media although their final momentum can still be zero. Therefore, the transformation media do not necessarily stay the same after an electromagnetic wave passes through. PMID:27321246

  2. Translation and Rotation of Transformation Media under Electromagnetic Pulse.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Shi, Xihang; Lin, Xiao; Xu, Hongyi; Zhang, Baile

    2016-06-20

    It is well known that optical media create artificial geometry for light, and curved geometry acts as an effective optical medium. This correspondence originates from the form invariance of Maxwell's equations, which recently has spawned a booming field called 'transformation optics'. Here we investigate responses of three transformation media under electromagnetic pulses, and find that pulse radiation can induce unbalanced net force on transformation media, which will cause translation and rotation of transformation media although their final momentum can still be zero. Therefore, the transformation media do not necessarily stay the same after an electromagnetic wave passes through.

  3. Narrow infrasound pulses from lightning; are they of electrostatic or thermal origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHUM, Jaroslav; Diendorfer, Gerhard; Šindelářová, Tereza; Baše, Jiří; Hruška, František

    2014-05-01

    Narrow (~1-2 s) infrasound pulses that followed, with ~11 to ~50 s delays, rapid changes of electrostatic field were observed by a microbarometer array in the Czech Republic during thunderstorm activity. The angles of arrival (azimuth and elevation) were analyzed for selected distinct events. Comparisons of distances and azimuths of infrasound sources from the center of microbarometer array with lightning locations determined by EUCLID lightning detection network show that most of the selected events are most likely associated with intra-cloud (IC) discharges. Preceding rapid changes of electrostatic field, potential association of infrasound pulses with IC discharges, and high elevation angles of arrival for near infrasound sources indicate that an electrostatic mechanism is probably responsible for their generation. It is discussed that distinguishing of the relative role of thermal and electrostatic mechanism is difficult, and that none of published models of electrostatic production of infrasound thunder can explain the presented observations precisely. A modification of the current models, based on consideration of at least two charged layers is suggested. Further theoretical and experimental investigations are however needed to get a better description of the generation mechanism of those infrasound pulses.

  4. Scattering of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses on metal clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astapenko, V. A.; Sakhno, S. V.

    2016-12-01

    We have calculated and analyzed the probability of ultrashort electromagnetic pulse (USP) scattering on small metal clusters in the frequency range of plasmon resonances during the field action. The main attention is devoted to dependence of the probability of scattering on the pulse duration for various detunings of the USP carrier frequency from the plasmon resonance frequency. Peculiarities of the USP scattering from plasmon resonances with various figures of merit are revealed.

  5. Effects of Electromagnetic Pulses on a Multilayered System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    repeatable high - power generators . Repetitive EMP (REMP) is usually wideband with each pulse being composed of a wide range of frequencies. This larger...types of EMPs that are of concern regarding electronics and system infrastructures; they are high -altitude EMP (HEMP) generated from nuclear...ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSES ON A MULTILAYERED SYSTEM A. Upia, K. M. Burke, J. L. Zirnheld Energy Systems Institute, Department of Electrical Engineering

  6. Scattering of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses on metal clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Astapenko, V. A., E-mail: astval@mail.ru; Sakhno, S. V.

    We have calculated and analyzed the probability of ultrashort electromagnetic pulse (USP) scattering on small metal clusters in the frequency range of plasmon resonances during the field action. The main attention is devoted to dependence of the probability of scattering on the pulse duration for various detunings of the USP carrier frequency from the plasmon resonance frequency. Peculiarities of the USP scattering from plasmon resonances with various figures of merit are revealed.

  7. Electro-Optic Generation and Detection of Femtosecond Electromagnetic Pulses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-11-20

    electromagnetic pulses from an electro - optic crystal following their generation by electro - optic Cherenkov radiation, and their subsequent propagation and detection...in free space; (4) The measurement of subpicosecond electrical response of a new organic electrooptic material (polymer); (5) The observation of terahertz transition radiation from the surfaces of electro - optic crystals.

  8. Application of Filters for High-Altitude Electromagnetic Pulse Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    The application of filters for the protection of electrical equipment from electrical transient signals induced by high-altitude electromagnetic ... pulse (HEMP) is discussed, and the application of filters to ac and dc power supplies and analog and digital signal inputs is described. The application

  9. Looking into Generator Room, showing electromagnetic pulse (EMP) filter boxes ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking into Generator Room, showing electromagnetic pulse (EMP) filter boxes mounted above door - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Power Plant, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  10. Design of a bounded wave EMP (Electromagnetic Pulse) simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevat, P. A. A.

    1989-06-01

    Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) simulators are used to simulate the EMP generated by a nuclear weapon and to harden equipment against the effects of EMP. At present, DREO has a 1 m EMP simulator for testing computer terminal size equipment. To develop the R and D capability for testing larger objects, such as a helicopter, a much bigger threat level facility is required. This report concerns the design of a bounded wave EMP simulator suitable for testing large size equipment. Different types of simulators are described and their pros and cons are discussed. A bounded wave parallel plate type simulator is chosen for it's efficiency and the least environmental impact. Detailed designs are given for 6 m and 10 m parallel plate type wire grid simulators. Electromagnetic fields inside and outside the simulators are computed. Preliminary specifications for a pulse generator required for the simulator are also given. Finally, the electromagnetic fields radiated from the simulator are computed and discussed.

  11. A 16 MJ compact pulsed power system for electromagnetic launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Ling; Zhang, Qin; Zhong, Heqing; Lin, Fuchang; Li, Hua; Wang, Yan; Su, Cheng; Huang, Qinghua; Chen, Xu

    2015-07-01

    This paper has established a compact pulsed power system (PPS) of 16 MJ for electromagnetic rail gun. The PPS consists of pulsed forming network (PFN), chargers, monitoring system, and current junction. The PFN is composed of 156 pulse forming units (PFUs). Every PFU can be triggered simultaneously or sequentially in order to obtain different total current waveforms. The whole device except general control table is divided into two frameworks with size of 7.5 m × 2.2 m × 2.3 m. It is important to estimate the discharge current of PFU accurately for the design of the whole electromagnetic launch system. In this paper, the on-state characteristics of pulse thyristor have been researched to improve the estimation accuracy. The on-state characteristics of pulse thyristor are expressed as a logarithmic function based on experimental data. The circuit current waveform of the single PFU agrees with the simulating one. On the other hand, the coaxial discharge cable is a quick wear part in PFU because the discharge current will be up to dozens of kA even hundreds of kA. In this article, the electromagnetic field existing in the coaxial cable is calculated by finite element method. On basis of the calculation results, the structure of cable is optimized in order to improve the limit current value of the cable. At the end of the paper, the experiment current wave of the PPS with the load of rail gun is provided.

  12. A 16 MJ compact pulsed power system for electromagnetic launch.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ling; Zhang, Qin; Zhong, Heqing; Lin, Fuchang; Li, Hua; Wang, Yan; Su, Cheng; Huang, Qinghua; Chen, Xu

    2015-07-01

    This paper has established a compact pulsed power system (PPS) of 16 MJ for electromagnetic rail gun. The PPS consists of pulsed forming network (PFN), chargers, monitoring system, and current junction. The PFN is composed of 156 pulse forming units (PFUs). Every PFU can be triggered simultaneously or sequentially in order to obtain different total current waveforms. The whole device except general control table is divided into two frameworks with size of 7.5 m × 2.2 m × 2.3 m. It is important to estimate the discharge current of PFU accurately for the design of the whole electromagnetic launch system. In this paper, the on-state characteristics of pulse thyristor have been researched to improve the estimation accuracy. The on-state characteristics of pulse thyristor are expressed as a logarithmic function based on experimental data. The circuit current waveform of the single PFU agrees with the simulating one. On the other hand, the coaxial discharge cable is a quick wear part in PFU because the discharge current will be up to dozens of kA even hundreds of kA. In this article, the electromagnetic field existing in the coaxial cable is calculated by finite element method. On basis of the calculation results, the structure of cable is optimized in order to improve the limit current value of the cable. At the end of the paper, the experiment current wave of the PPS with the load of rail gun is provided.

  13. Ultrashort electromagnetic pulse control of intersubband quantum well transitions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We study the creation of high-efficiency controlled population transfer in intersubband transitions of semiconductor quantum wells. We give emphasis to the case of interaction of the semiconductor quantum well with electromagnetic pulses with a duration of few cycles and even a single cycle. We numerically solve the effective nonlinear Bloch equations for a specific double GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well structure, taking into account the ultrashort nature of the applied field, and show that high-efficiency population inversion is possible for specific pulse areas. The dependence of the efficiency of population transfer on the electron sheet density and the carrier envelope phase of the pulse is also explored. For electromagnetic pulses with a duration of several cycles, we find that the change in the electron sheet density leads to a very different response of the population in the two subbands to pulse area. However, for pulses with a duration equal to or shorter than 3 cycles, we show that efficient population transfer between the two subbands is possible, independent of the value of electron sheet density, if the pulse area is Π. PMID:22916956

  14. Ultrashort electromagnetic pulse control of intersubband quantum well transitions.

    PubMed

    Paspalakis, Emmanuel; Boviatsis, John

    2012-08-23

    : We study the creation of high-efficiency controlled population transfer in intersubband transitions of semiconductor quantum wells. We give emphasis to the case of interaction of the semiconductor quantum well with electromagnetic pulses with a duration of few cycles and even a single cycle. We numerically solve the effective nonlinear Bloch equations for a specific double GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well structure, taking into account the ultrashort nature of the applied field, and show that high-efficiency population inversion is possible for specific pulse areas. The dependence of the efficiency of population transfer on the electron sheet density and the carrier envelope phase of the pulse is also explored. For electromagnetic pulses with a duration of several cycles, we find that the change in the electron sheet density leads to a very different response of the population in the two subbands to pulse area. However, for pulses with a duration equal to or shorter than 3 cycles, we show that efficient population transfer between the two subbands is possible, independent of the value of electron sheet density, if the pulse area is Π.

  15. The Crossed-Dipole Structure of Aircraft in an Electromagnetic Pulse Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-09-01

    The crossed-dipole receiving antenna has been used as a representative model to approximate electromagnetic pulse effects on aircraft. This paper...receiving antenna is excited by a broad spectrum electromagnetic pulse , certain important electrical resonances occur: that is, at specific single...dipole are presented which give insight into methods of analyzing aircraft in an electromagnetic pulse environment.

  16. Electromagnetic Pulse - The Fifth Factor in the Impact of a Nuclear Explosion,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-16

    ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE -THE...8217. -..-:. ’ - ’: .’ . .. ., .. ,.- ,:- .:. :. ... . -’ -:. -, .: ., ,: -:,’ ... ’. .: ,- :... ..: ,’. .,, ,-, : ., ’,, ’.. ..,.. i ii FTD- ID(RS )T-1176-85 :i EDITED TRANSLATION FTD-ID(RS)T-1176-85 16 January 1986 MICROFICHE NR: FTD-86-C-001361 ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE - THE...34 L ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE -THE FIFTH FACTOR IN THE IMPACT OF A NUCLEAR EXPLOSION Colonel Zbigniew Jastrak Words

  17. Experimental Testing of a Van De Graaff Generator as an Electromagnetic Pulse Generator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF A VAN DE GRAAFF GENERATOR AS AN ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE GENERATOR THESIS...protection in the United States AFIT-ENP-MS-16-S-075 EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF A VAN DE GRAAFF GENERATOR AS AN ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE GENERATOR...RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENP-MS-16-S-075 EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF A VAN DE GRAAFF GENERATOR AS AN ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE GENERATOR

  18. Assessment and Mitigation of Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Impacts at Short-pulse Laser Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Jr., C G; Bond, E; Clancy, T

    2009-10-02

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be impacted by electromagnetic pulse (EMP) during normal long-pulse operation, but the largest impacts are expected during short-pulse operation utilizing the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC). Without mitigation these impacts could range from data corruption to hardware damage. We describe our EMP measurement systems on Titan and NIF and present some preliminary results and thoughts on mitigation.

  19. Assessment and Mitigation of Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Impacts at Short-pulse Laser Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Jr., C G; Bond, E; Clancy, T

    2010-02-04

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be impacted by electromagnetic pulse (EMP) during normal long-pulse operation, but the largest impacts are expected during short-pulse operation utilizing the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC). Without mitigation these impacts could range from data corruption to hardware damage. We describe our EMP measurement systems on Titan and NIF and present some preliminary results and thoughts on mitigation.

  20. A comparison of the optical pulse characteristics of intracloud and cloud-to-ground lightning as observed above clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Christian, Hugh J.; Rust, W. David

    1988-01-01

    The optical-pulse characteristics of intracloud (IC) and cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes were investigated. The time-resolved optical waveforms at 777.4 nm and electric-field changes produced by lightning flashes were measured aboard a U2 aircraft flying above clouds at the same time that ground-based lightning measurements were carried out. The pulse shapes and intensities of IC and CG flashes, as viewed from above cloud, were found to exhibit remarkably similar waveshapes, radiances, and radiant energy densities. The median radiance at cloud top was found to be about 0.007 W/sq m per sr, and the median energy density about 0.000003 J/sq m per sr.

  1. GLM Proxy Data Generation: Methods for Stroke/Pulse Level Inter-comparison of Ground-based Lightning Reference Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, K. L.; Carey, L. D.; Schultz, C. J.; Bateman, M. G.; Cecil, D. J.; Rudlosky, S. D.; Petersen, W. A.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Goodman, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    In order to produce useful proxy data for the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) in regions not covered by VLF lightning mapping systems, we intend to employ data produced by ground-based (regional or global) VLF/LF lightning detection networks. Before using these data in GLM Risk Reduction tasks, it is necessary to have a quantitative understanding of the performance of these networks, in terms of CG flash/stroke DE, cloud flash/pulse DE, location accuracy, and CLD/CG classification error. This information is being obtained through inter-comparison with LMAs and well-quantified VLF/LF lightning networks. One of our approaches is to compare "bulk" counting statistics on the spatial scale of convective cells, in order to both quantify relative performance and observe variations in cell-based temporal trends provided by each network. In addition, we are using microsecond-level stroke/pulse time correlation to facilitate detailed inter-comparisons at a more-fundamental level. The current development status of our ground-based inter-comparison and evaluation tools will be presented, and performance metrics will be discussed through a comparison of Vaisala's Global Lightning Dataset (GLD360) with the NLDN at locations within and outside the U.S.

  2. GLM Proxy Data Generation: Methods for Stroke/Pulse Level Inter-Comparison of Ground-Based Lightning Reference Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummins, Kenneth L.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Bateman, Monte G.; Cecil, Daniel J.; Rudlosky, Scott D.; Petersen, Walter Arthur; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    In order to produce useful proxy data for the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) in regions not covered by VLF lightning mapping systems, we intend to employ data produced by ground-based (regional or global) VLF/LF lightning detection networks. Before using these data in GLM Risk Reduction tasks, it is necessary to have a quantitative understanding of the performance of these networks, in terms of CG flash/stroke DE, cloud flash/pulse DE, location accuracy, and CLD/CG classification error. This information is being obtained through inter-comparison with LMAs and well-quantified VLF/LF lightning networks. One of our approaches is to compare "bulk" counting statistics on the spatial scale of convective cells, in order to both quantify relative performance and observe variations in cell-based temporal trends provided by each network. In addition, we are using microsecond-level stroke/pulse time correlation to facilitate detailed inter-comparisons at a more-fundamental level. The current development status of our ground-based inter-comparison and evaluation tools will be presented, and performance metrics will be discussed through a comparison of Vaisala s Global Lightning Dataset (GLD360) with the NLDN at locations within and outside the U.S.

  3. Interpretation of F-106B in-flight lightning signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trost, T. F.; Grothaus, M. G.; Wen, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    Various characteristics of the electromagnetic data obtained on a NASA F-106B aircraft during direct lightning strikes are presented. Time scales of interest range from 10 ns to 400 microsecond. The following topics are discussed: (1) Lightning current, I, measured directly versus I obtained from computer integration of measured I-dot; (2) A method of compensation for the low frequency cutoff of the current transformer used to measure I; (3) Properties of fast pulses observed in the lightning time-derivative waveforms; (4) The characteristic D-dot signature of the F-106B aircraft; (5) An RC-discharge interpretation for some lightning waveforms; (6) A method for inferring the locations of lightning channel attachment points on the aircraft by using B-dot data; (7) Simple, approximate relationships between D-dot and I-dot and between B and I; and (8) Estimates of energy, charge, voltage, and resistance for a particular lightning event.

  4. The physics of lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Joseph R.; Uman, Martin A.

    2014-01-01

    of upward connecting leaders from those objects or from the ground? What is the physics of compact intra-cloud discharges (CIDs) (that produce a narrow bipolar wideband electric field pulse, a narrow bipolar event or NBE, apparently multiple-reflecting propagating waves within 1 km height, and copious HF and VHF radiation)? How are CIDs related to other types of preliminary breakdown pulses? Are CIDs related to the Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs) observed on orbiting satellites or to the Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) photographed above cloud tops, particularly to so-called “gigantic jets”? By what physical mechanisms do lightning leaders emit pulses of X-rays? Do the X-rays play a role in lightning propagation? By what mechanism do thunderclouds generate relatively-steady internal X-rays? Do X-rays and other high energy radiation affect cloud electrification and play a role in lightning initiation? By what physical mechanisms are Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs) produced? Do TGFs pose a hazard to individuals in aircraft? How do cloud-to-ground and intra-cloud lightning affect the upper atmosphere and ionosphere? What are the physics of the Transient Luminous Events (TLEs), “Sprites”, “jets”, and “elves”? What is the energy input into the ionosphere/magnetosphere from lightning? How exactly does rocket-and-wire (“classical” with a grounded wire and “altitude” with a floating wire) triggering of lightning work? Are there other possible and practical triggering techniques such as laser triggering? Can triggering reduce or eliminate the local occurrence of natural lightning? What are the power and energy of the component processes of lightning flashes and how are they distributed among electromagnetic processes (DC to light), thermal processes, mechanical (acoustic) processes, and relativistic (high energy) processes (runaway electrons, runaway positrons, X-ray, and gamma rays)? What is the physics of ball lightning? Is there more than

  5. Infrasound pulses from lightning and electrostatic field changes: Observation and discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chum, J.; Diendorfer, G.; Å indelářová, T.; Baše, J.; Hruška, F.

    2013-10-01

    Narrow (~1-2 s) infrasound pulses that followed, with ~11 to ~50 s delays, rapid changes of electrostatic field were observed by a microbarometer array in the Czech Republic during thunderstorm activity. A positive pressure fluctuation (compression phase) always preceded decompression; the compression was usually higher than the decompression. The angles of arrival (azimuth and elevation) were analyzed for selected distinct events. Comparisons of distances and azimuths of infrasound sources from the center of microbarometer array with lightning locations determined by the European Cooperation for Lighting Detection lightning detection network show that most of the selected events can be very likely associated with intracloud (IC) discharges. The preceding rapid changes of electrostatic field, their potential association with IC discharges, and high-elevation angles of arrival for near infrasound sources indicate that an electrostatic mechanism is probably responsible for their generation. It is discussed that distinguishing the relative role of thermal and electrostatic mechanism is difficult and that none of the published models of electrostatic production of infrasound thunder can explain the presented observations precisely. A modification of the current models, based on consideration of at least two charged layers, is suggested. Further theoretical and experimental investigations are however needed to get a better description of the generation mechanism.

  6. Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Assisted in vitro Electroporation: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Novickij, Vitalij; Grainys, Audrius; Lastauskienė, Eglė; Kananavičiūtė, Rūta; Pamedytytė, Dovilė; Kalėdienė, Lilija; Novickij, Jurij; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2016-01-01

    Electroporation is a phenomenon occurring due to exposure of cells to Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) which leads to increase of membrane permeability. Electroporation is used in medicine, biotechnology, and food processing. Recently, as an alternative to electroporation by PEF, Pulsed ElectroMagnetic Fields (PEMF) application causing similar biological effects was suggested. Since induced electric field in PEMF however is 2–3 magnitudes lower than in PEF electroporation, the membrane permeabilization mechanism remains hypothetical. We have designed pilot experiments where Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida lusitaniae cells were subjected to single 100–250 μs electrical pulse of 800 V with and without concomitant delivery of magnetic pulse (3, 6 and 9 T). As expected, after the PEF pulses only the number of Propidium Iodide (PI) fluorescent cells has increased, indicative of membrane permeabilization. We further show that single sub-millisecond magnetic field pulse did not cause detectable poration of yeast. Concomitant exposure of cells to pulsed electric (PEF) and magnetic field (PMF) however resulted in the increased number PI fluorescent cells and reduced viability. Our results show increased membrane permeability by PEF when combined with magnetic field pulse, which can explain electroporation at considerably lower electric field strengths induced by PEMF compared to classical electroporation. PMID:27634482

  7. Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Assisted in vitro Electroporation: A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novickij, Vitalij; Grainys, Audrius; Lastauskienė, Eglė; Kananavičiūtė, Rūta; Pamedytytė, Dovilė; Kalėdienė, Lilija; Novickij, Jurij; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2016-09-01

    Electroporation is a phenomenon occurring due to exposure of cells to Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) which leads to increase of membrane permeability. Electroporation is used in medicine, biotechnology, and food processing. Recently, as an alternative to electroporation by PEF, Pulsed ElectroMagnetic Fields (PEMF) application causing similar biological effects was suggested. Since induced electric field in PEMF however is 2-3 magnitudes lower than in PEF electroporation, the membrane permeabilization mechanism remains hypothetical. We have designed pilot experiments where Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida lusitaniae cells were subjected to single 100-250 μs electrical pulse of 800 V with and without concomitant delivery of magnetic pulse (3, 6 and 9 T). As expected, after the PEF pulses only the number of Propidium Iodide (PI) fluorescent cells has increased, indicative of membrane permeabilization. We further show that single sub-millisecond magnetic field pulse did not cause detectable poration of yeast. Concomitant exposure of cells to pulsed electric (PEF) and magnetic field (PMF) however resulted in the increased number PI fluorescent cells and reduced viability. Our results show increased membrane permeability by PEF when combined with magnetic field pulse, which can explain electroporation at considerably lower electric field strengths induced by PEMF compared to classical electroporation.

  8. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on benign prostate hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Giannakopoulos, Xenophon K; Giotis, Christos; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Verginadis, Ioannis I; Simos, Yannis V; Peschos, Dimitrios; Evangelou, Angelos M

    2011-12-01

    Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) has been treated with various types of electromagnetic radiation methods such as transurethral needle ablation (TUNA), interstitial laser therapy (ILC), holmium laser resection (HoLRP). In the present study, the effects of a noninvasive method based on the exposure of patients with BPH to a pulsative EM Field at radiofrequencies have been investigated. Twenty patients with BPH, aging 68-78 years old (y.o), were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: the treatment group (10 patients, 74.0 ± 5.7 y.o) treated with the α-blocker Alfusosin, 10 mg/24 h for at least 4 weeks, and the electromagnetic group (10 patients, 73.7 ± 6.3 y.o) exposed for 2 weeks in a very short wave duration, pulsed electromagnetic field at radiofrequencies generated by an ion magnetic inductor, for 30 min daily, 5 consecutive days per week. Patients of both groups were evaluated before and after drug and EMF treatment by values of total PSA and prostatic PSA fraction, acid phosphate, U/S estimation of prostate volume and urine residue, urodynamic estimation of urine flow rate, and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). There was a statistically significant decrease before and after treatment of IPSS (P < 0.02), U/S prostate volume (P < 0.05), and urine residue (P < 0.05), as well as of mean urine flow rate (P < 0.05) in patients of the electromagnetic group, in contrast to the treatment group who had only improved IPSS (P < 0.05). There was also a significant improvement in clinical symptoms in patients of the electromagnetic group. Follow-up of the patients of this group for one year revealed that results obtained by EMFs treatment are still remaining. Pulsed electromagnetic field at radiofrequencies may benefit patients with benign prostate hyperplasia treated by a non-invasive method.

  9. Electromagnetic-Pulse Handbook for Electric Power Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-04

    penetratlor.s such as communications cables, antenna leads, etc.). (6) Avoid connecting the power neutral and external cable shields to the same point on the...prepared primarily for the power, communications , and systems engineer who must be concerned with the offects of the nuclear electromagnetic pulse on...INTRODUCTION Until a few years ago, the nuclear EMP community gave little attention to commer- cial power systems other than to recommend surge arrestors

  10. Force-free electromagnetic pulses in a laboratory plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    A short, intense current pulse is drawn from an electrode immersed in a magnetized afterglow plasma. The induced magnetic field B(r,t) assumes the shape of a helical double vortex which propagates along B(0) through the uniform plasma as a whistler mode. The observations support a prediction of force-free (J x B + neE = 0) electromagnetic fields and solitary waves. Energy and helicity are approximately conserved.

  11. Electromagnetic Environment Due To A Pulsed Moving Conductor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    ELECTROMAGNETIC ENVIRONMENT DUE TO A PULSED MOVING CONDUCTOR Ira Kohlberg Kohl berg Associates, Inc., 11308 South Shore Road, Reston, VA 20190...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Kohlberg Associates, Inc., 11308 South Shore Road, Reston, VA 20190 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT...in this analysis but can readily be computed using the techniques developed in this study. REFERENCES I. I. Kohlberg , A. Zielinski, and C. Le

  12. Fast capacitive probe for electromagnetic pulse diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, A; Nassisi, V; Siciliano, M V

    2008-06-01

    In this work, we report the study and the development of a capacitive probe which is suitable for getting fast and high voltage/current measurements. Due to the fact that fast pulses propagate generally in coaxial structures, the probe realized in this work was a capacitive divider with the divider electrode properly designed to assure the same characteristic impedance of the coaxial structure and the recombination time of the split signals during the propagation. It was a folded cylindrical ring of 1.4 cm long and 0.8 cm thick, which introduce a theoretical delay time of about 100 ps. Analyzing the behavior of the probe closed on 520 Omega, the voltage amplification resulted to be of (3.6+/-0.1) x 10(-4) and, as a consequence, the current attenuation factor of 56+/-1 AV. The response rise time was less than 320 ps, which was limited by oscilloscope bandwave. The capacitor probe can operate voltage measurements of the order of 100 kV.

  13. Development of a monitoring network for lightning stokes accompanying the eruptions of the Northern group of volcanoes on Kamchatka peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochalov, V. A.; Firstov, P. P.; Cherneva, N. V.; Sannikov, D. V.; Akbashev, R. R.; Uvarov, V. N.; Shevtsov, B. M.; Druzhin, G. I.; Mochalova, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    In the region of the Northern group of volcanoes in Kamchatka peninsula, a distributed network is being planned to monitor the VLF range electromagnetic radiation and to locate the lightning strokes. It will allow the researchers to register weaker electromagnetic pulses from lightning strokes in comparison to the World Wide Lightning Location Network. The hardware-software complex of the network under construction is presented. The capabilities of the available and the developing hardware and software to investigate natural phenomena associated with lightning activity are described.

  14. Electromagnetically induced disintegration and polarization plane rotation of laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parshkov, Oleg M.; Budyak, Victoria V.; Kochetkova, Anastasia E.

    2017-04-01

    The numerical simulation results of disintegration effect of linear polarized shot probe pulses of electromagnetically induced transparency in the counterintuitive superposed linear polarized control field are presented. It is shown, that this disintegration occurs, if linear polarizations of interacting pulses are not parallel or mutually perpendicular. In case of weak input probe field the polarization of one probe pulse in the medium is parallel, whereas the polarization of another probe pulse is perpendicular to polarization direction of input control radiation. The concerned effect is analogous to the effect, which must to take place when short laser pulse propagates along main axes of biaxial crystal because of group velocity of normal mod difference. The essential difference of probe pulse disintegration and linear process in biaxial crystal is that probe pulse preserves linear polarization in all stages of propagation. The numerical simulation is performed for scheme of degenerated quantum transitions between 3P0 , 3P01 and 3P2 energy levels of 208Pb isotope.

  15. The measurement of lightning environmental parameters related to interaction with electronic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, C. E.; Breen, E. L.; Pitts, F. L.; Thomas, M. E.; Sower, G. D.

    1982-01-01

    The measurement of electromagnetic fields and related quantities in a lightning environment is a challenging problem, especially at high frequencies and/or in the immediate vicinity of the lightning arcs and corona. This paper reviews the techniques for accomplishing such measurements in these regimes with examples. These sensors are often the same as for the nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP), but significant differences also appear.

  16. Measurement of low-frequency magnetic pulses from negative stepped leaders in rocket-triggered lightning flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Gaopeng

    2017-04-01

    Measurement of low-frequency magnetic pulses from negative stepped leaders in rocket-triggered lightning flashes Gaopeng Lu,1,2 Yanfeng Fan,1,3 Hongbo Zhang,1,3 Rubin Jiang,1,2 Mingyuan Liu,1,2 and Xiushu Qie,1,2 1. Key Laboratory of Middle Atmosphere and Global Environment Observation, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029, China 2. Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210044, China 3. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China We report the measurement of magnetic pulses from the negative stepped leaders in positive rocket-triggered lightning flashes with the low-frequency (4 kHz to 420 kHz) magnetic sensor at two different distances (78 m and 970 m, respectively) during the SHantong Artificial Triggered Lightning Experiments (SHATLE) during summer of 2015. Different from the magnetic radiation from positive leaders as observed in the considerably more frequent cases, the impulsive signals from the negative leader sustain for a much longer time interval, while the attenuation of current pulse launched by the stepping of leader is also observed. The general pattern of magnetic pulses observed for the negative stepped leader is different from the positive counterpart. Also, the initial negative leader appears to be brighter than the positive ones, as shown by both high-speed video observation and the magnetic measurement.

  17. [Study of microorganism sterilization by instant microwave and electromagnetic pulse].

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhiyuan; Shi, Pinpin; Zhu, Manzuo; Sun, Wenquan; Ding, Hua; Hou, Jianqiang

    2008-08-01

    The sterilization effects of constant electromagnetic wave and instant pulse on foods and traditional Chinese medical pills are introduced in this paper. From the velum's voltage variation caused by the outward electric filed,the dielectric properties of membranaceous ion and the pass rate of the membranaceous ion, we could analyze the biological heating effect and the biological non-heating effect. The sterilization effect of constant electromagnetic wave is based on the biological heating effect, while the instant electromagnetic pulse is based on the biological non-heating effect. With the applied electronic field, the voltage of membrane could increase, which results in the gates of K+ open, and the flowing out of K+. And the variation of the membranaceous voltage makes the gates of Ca2+ open. The Ca2+ of large consistency could come into the cell by the gradient of voltage. It could induce the death of the cells. The greater the variation of membranaceous voltage becomes, the higher will be the death rate of the cells.

  18. Investigation of a high power electromagnetic pulse source.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuwei; Chen, Dongqun; Zhang, Jiande; Cao, Shengguang; Li, Da; Liu, Chebo

    2012-09-01

    A high power electromagnetic pulse source with a resonant antenna driven by a compact power supply was investigated in this paper. To match the impedance of the resonant antenna and initial power source, a compact power conditioning circuit based on electro exploding opening switch (EEOS) and pulsed transformer was adopted. In the preliminary experiments, an impulse capacitor was used to drive the system. With the opening of the EEOS at the current of 15 kA flowing trough the primary of the transformer, the resonant antenna was rapidly charged to about -370 kV within a time of about 100 ns. When the switch in the resonant antenna closed at the charging voltage of about -202 kV, the peak intensity of the detected electric field at a distance of about 10 m from the center of the source was 7.2 kV∕m. The corresponding peak power of the radiated electromagnetic field reached 76 MW, while the total radiated electromagnetic energy was about 0.65 J. The total energy efficiency of the resonant antenna was about 22% which can be improved by increasing the closing rapidity of the switch in the antenna.

  19. Brain electromagnetic activity and lightning: potentially congruent scale-invariant quantitative properties

    PubMed Central

    Persinger, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    The space-time characteristics of the axonal action potential are remarkably similar to the scaled equivalents of lightning. The energy and current densities from these transients within their respective volumes or cross-sectional areas are the same order of magnitude. Length–velocity ratios and temporal durations are nearly identical. There are similar chemical consequences such as the production of nitric oxide. Careful, quantitative examination of the characteristics of lightning may reveal analogous features of the action potential that could lead to a more accurate understanding of these powerful correlates of neurocognitive processes. PMID:22615688

  20. Phenomenological Model of Current Sheet Canting in Pulsed Electromagnetic Accelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markusic, Thomas; Choueiri, E. Y.

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of current sheet canting in pulsed electromagnetic accelerators is the departure of the plasma sheet (that carries the current) from a plane that is perpendicular to the electrodes to one that is skewed, or tipped. Review of pulsed electromagnetic accelerator literature reveals that current sheet canting is a ubiquitous phenomenon - occurring in all of the standard accelerator geometries. Developing an understanding of current sheet canting is important because it can detract from the propellant sweeping capabilities of current sheets and, hence, negatively impact the overall efficiency of pulsed electromagnetic accelerators. In the present study, it is postulated that depletion of plasma near the anode, which results from axial density gradient induced diamagnetic drift, occurs during the early stages of the discharge, creating a density gradient normal to the anode, with a characteristic length on the order of the ion skin depth. Rapid penetration of the magnetic field through this region ensues, due to the Hall effect, leading to a canted current front ahead of the initial current conduction channel. In this model, once the current sheet reaches appreciable speeds, entrainment of stationary propellant replenishes plasma in the anode region, inhibiting further Hall-convective transport of the magnetic field; however, the previously established tilted current sheet remains at a fairly constant canting angle for the remainder of the discharge cycle, exerting a transverse J x B force which drives plasma toward the cathode and accumulates it there. This proposed sequence of events has been incorporated into a phenomenological model. The model predicts that canting can be reduced by using low atomic mass propellants with high propellant loading number density; the model results are shown to give qualitative agreement with experimentally measured canting angle mass dependence trends.

  1. Numerical simulation of compact intracloud discharge and generated electromagnetic pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babich, L. P.; Bochkov, E. I.; Kutsyk, I. M.

    2015-06-01

    Using the concept of the relativistic runaway electron avalanche, numerical simulation of compact intracloud discharge as a generator of powerful natural electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) in the HF-UHF range was conducted. We evaluated the numbers of electrons initiating the avalanche, with which the calculated EMP characteristics are consistent with measured ones. The discharge capable of generating EMPs produces runaway electrons in numbers close to those in the source of terrestrial γ-flashes (TGF) registered in the nearest space, which may be an argument for a joint EMP and TGF source.

  2. Nonresonant interaction of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses with multilevel quantum systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belenov, E.; Isakov, V.; Nazarkin, A.

    1994-01-01

    Some features of the excitation of multilevel quantum systems under the action of electromagnetic pulses which are shorter than the inverse frequency of interlevel transitions are considered. It is shown that the interaction is characterized by a specific type of selectivity which is not connected with the resonant absorption of radiation. The simplest three-level model displays the inverse population of upper levels. The effect of an ultrashort laser pulse on a multilevel molecule was regarded as an instant reception of the oscillation velocity by the oscillator and this approach showed an effective excitation and dissociation of the molecule. The estimations testify to the fact that these effects can be observed using modern femtosecond lasers.

  3. Electron kinetic effects in atmosphere breakdown by an intense electromagnetic pulse.

    PubMed

    Solovyev, A A; Terekhin, V A; Tikhonchuk, V T; Altgilbers, L L

    1999-12-01

    A physical model is proposed for description of electron kinetics driven by a powerful electromagnetic pulse in the Earth's atmosphere. The model is based on a numerical solution to the Boltzmann kinetic equation for two groups of electrons. Slow electrons (with energies below a few keV) are described in a two-term approximation assuming a weak anisotropy of the electron distribution function. Fast electrons (with energies above a few keV) are described by a modified macroparticle method, taking into account the electron acceleration in the electric field, energy losses in the continuous deceleration approximation, and the multiple pitch angle scattering. The model is applied to a problem of the electric discharge in a nitrogen, which is preionized by an external gamma-ray source. It is shown that the runaway electrons have an important effect on the energy distribution of free electrons, and on the avalanche ionization rate. This mechanism might explain the observation of multiple lightning discharges observed in the Ivy-Mike thermonuclear test in the early 1950's.

  4. [Effect of electromagnetic pulse irradiation on mice reproduction].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shui-ming; Wang, De-wen; Peng, Rui-yun; Chen, Hao-yu; Gao, Ya-bing; Cao, Xiao-zhe; Cui, Xue-mei; Zhao, Mei-lan

    2003-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) irradiation on mice reproduction. Female/male Kunming mice, 6 - 8 weeks old, prior to mating, or female after pregnancy were treated with whole body irradiation by 6 x 10(4) V/m electromagnetic pulse (EMP) for five times. The pregnant mice were killed on the 18th days, and teratological markers were analysed. EMP irradiation caused no significant changes in most of female organ weight and organ/body weight ratio. But it caused significant shortening in tail length of live foetus in the female mice before conception (prior to mating) or after pregnancy (P < 0.05), and obvious decrease in male offspring ratio (0.85 +/- 0.09 vs 1.09 +/- 0.17, P < 0.05). The male offspring ratio also significantly decreased (0.76 +/- 0.18 vs 1.09 +/- 0.17, P < 0.01) after male mice irradiated by EMP. The tail length of live foetus was shortened and male offspring sex ratio was increased after both male and female mice were irradiated by EMP. EMP irradiation also caused a significantly higher fetal death rate than normal control (P < 0.05). The embryo absorption rate was increased after irradiation except that was decreased in male mice. EMP irradiation has effect on pregnancy and offspring development in both male and female mice before mating and in female mice after pregnancy.

  5. Noise and interference study for satellite lightning sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The use of radio frequency techniques for the detection and monitoring of terrestrial thunderstorms from space are discussed. Three major points are assessed: (1) lightning and noise source characteristics; (2) propagation effects imposed by the atmosphere and ionosphere; and (3) the electromagnetic environment in near space within which lightning RF signatures must be detected. A composite frequency spectrum of the peak of amplitude from lightning flashes is developed. Propagation effects (ionospheric cutoff, refraction, absorption, dispersion and scintillation) are considered to modify the lightning spectrum to the geosynchronous case. It is suggested that in comparing the modified spectrum with interfering noise source spectra RF lightning pulses on frequencies up to a few GHz are detectable above the natural noise environment in near space.

  6. Physics of giant electromagnetic pulse generation in short-pulse laser experiments.

    PubMed

    Poyé, A; Hulin, S; Bailly-Grandvaux, M; Dubois, J-L; Ribolzi, J; Raffestin, D; Bardon, M; Lubrano-Lavaderci, F; D'Humières, E; Santos, J J; Nicolaï, Ph; Tikhonchuk, V

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we describe the physical processes that lead to the generation of giant electromagnetic pulses (GEMPs) at powerful laser facilities. Our study is based on experimental measurements of both the charging of a solid target irradiated by an ultra-short, ultra-intense laser and the detection of the electromagnetic emission in the GHz domain. An unambiguous correlation between the neutralization current in the target holder and the electromagnetic emission shows that the source of the GEMP is the remaining positive charge inside the target after the escape of fast electrons accelerated by the ultra-intense laser. A simple model for calculating this charge in the thick target case is presented. From this model and knowing the geometry of the target holder, it becomes possible to estimate the intensity and the dominant frequencies of the GEMP at any facility.

  7. Propagation of three-dimensional bipolar ultrashort electromagnetic pulses in an inhomogeneous array of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, Eduard G.; Zhukov, Alexander V.; Bouffanais, Roland; Timashkov, Alexander P.; Malomed, Boris A.; Leblond, Hervé; Mihalache, Dumitru; Rosanov, Nikolay N.; Belonenko, Mikhail B.

    2018-04-01

    We study the propagation of three-dimensional (3D) bipolar ultrashort electromagnetic pulses in an inhomogeneous array of semiconductor carbon nanotubes. The heterogeneity is represented by a planar region with an increased concentration of conduction electrons. The evolution of the electromagnetic field and electron concentration in the sample are governed by the Maxwell's equations and continuity equation. In particular, nonuniformity of the electromagnetic field along the axis of the nanotubes is taken into account. We demonstrate that depending on values of the parameters of the electromagnetic pulse approaching the region with the higher electron concentration, the pulse is either reflected from the region or passes it. Specifically, our simulations demonstrate that after interacting with the higher-concentration area, the pulse can propagate steadily, without significant spreading. The possibility of such ultrashort electromagnetic pulses propagating in arrays of carbon nanotubes over distances significantly exceeding characteristic dimensions of the pulses makes it possible to consider them as 3D solitons.

  8. Investigating lightning-to-ionosphere energy coupling based on VLF lightning propagation characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, Erin Hoffmann

    In this dissertation, the capabilities of the World-Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) are analyzed in order to study the interactions of lightning energy with the lower ionosphere. WWLLN is the first global ground-based lightning location network and the first lightning detection network that continuously monitors lightning around the world in real time. For this reason, a better characterization of the WWLLN could allow many global atmospheric science problems to be addressed, including further investigation into the global electric circuit and global mapping of regions of the lower ionosphere likely to be impacted by strong lightning and transient luminous events. This dissertation characterizes the World-Wide Location Network (WWLLN) in terms of detection efficiency, location and timing accuracy, and lightning type. This investigation finds excellent timing and location accuracy for WWLLN. It provides the first experimentally-determined estimate of relative global detection efficiency that is used to normalize lightning counts based on location. These normalized global lightning data from the WWLLN are used to map intense storm regions around the world with high time and spatial resolution as well as to provide information on energetic emissions known as elves and terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs). This dissertation also improves WWLLN by developing a procedure to provide the first estimate of relative lightning stroke radiated energy in the 1-24 kHz frequency range by a global lightning detection network. These characterizations and improvements to WWLLN are motivated by the desire to use WWLLN data to address the problem of lightning-to-ionosphere energy coupling. Therefore, WWLLN stroke rates are used as input to a model, developed by Professor Mengu Cho at the Kyushu Institute of Technology in Japan, that describes the non-linear effect of lightning electromagnetic pulses (EMP) on the ionosphere by accumulating electron density changes resulting

  9. Electromagnetic Model Of A Lightning Dart Leader In The Earth Atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Gordeev, A. V.; Losseva, T. V.

    2006-01-15

    The fundamentally new approach to the lightning step and dart leaders structure model is suggested, which shows a possibility of the drift propagation for the electrons in a plasma channel. Appearance of the strong Hall electric field in the current channel by the account of the magnetic field can result in the generation of the relativistic drifting electrons to be held in the channel due to the magnetic self-insulation effect. The range of the measured x-ray emission from the lightning channel 30-250 keV, which corresponds to the measured current value 4-11 kA, is in a reasonably good agreement with themore » estimates made in the framework of presented model.« less

  10. Ultrashort laser pulses and electromagnetic pulse generation in air and on dielectric surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sprangle, P; Peñano, J R; Hafizi, B; Kapetanakos, C A

    2004-06-01

    Intense, ultrashort laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere have been observed to emit sub-THz electromagnetic pulses (EMPS). The purpose of this paper is to analyze EMP generation from the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with air and with dielectric surfaces and to determine the efficiency of conversion of laser energy to EMP energy. In our self-consistent model the laser pulse partially ionizes the medium, forms a plasma filament, and through the ponderomotive forces associated with the laser pulse, drives plasma currents which are the source of the EMP. The propagating laser pulse evolves under the influence of diffraction, Kerr focusing, plasma defocusing, and energy depletion due to electron collisions and ionization. Collective effects and recombination processes are also included in the model. The duration of the EMP in air, at a fixed point, is found to be a few hundred femtoseconds, i.e., on the order of the laser pulse duration plus the electron collision time. For steady state laser pulse propagation the flux of EMP energy is nonradiative and axially directed. Radiative EMP energy is present only for nonsteady state or transient laser pulse propagation. The analysis also considers the generation of EMP on the surface of a dielectric on which an ultrashort laser pulse is incident. For typical laser parameters, the power and energy conversion efficiency from laser radiation to EMP radiation in both air and from dielectric surfaces is found to be extremely small, < 10(-8). Results of full-scale, self-consistent, numerical simulations of atmospheric and dielectric surface EMP generation are presented. A recent experiment on atmospheric EMP generation is also simulated.

  11. Qubit lattice coherence induced by electromagnetic pulses in superconducting metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivić, Z.; Lazarides, N.; Tsironis, G. P.

    2016-07-01

    Quantum bits (qubits) are at the heart of quantum information processing schemes. Currently, solid-state qubits, and in particular the superconducting ones, seem to satisfy the requirements for being the building blocks of viable quantum computers, since they exhibit relatively long coherence times, extremely low dissipation, and scalability. The possibility of achieving quantum coherence in macroscopic circuits comprising Josephson junctions, envisioned by Legett in the 1980’s, was demonstrated for the first time in a charge qubit; since then, the exploitation of macroscopic quantum effects in low-capacitance Josephson junction circuits allowed for the realization of several kinds of superconducting qubits. Furthermore, coupling between qubits has been successfully achieved that was followed by the construction of multiple-qubit logic gates and the implementation of several algorithms. Here it is demonstrated that induced qubit lattice coherence as well as two remarkable quantum coherent optical phenomena, i.e., self-induced transparency and Dicke-type superradiance, may occur during light-pulse propagation in quantum metamaterials comprising superconducting charge qubits. The generated qubit lattice pulse forms a compound ”quantum breather” that propagates in synchrony with the electromagnetic pulse. The experimental confirmation of such effects in superconducting quantum metamaterials may open a new pathway to potentially powerful quantum computing.

  12. Qubit lattice coherence induced by electromagnetic pulses in superconducting metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Ivić, Z.; Lazarides, N.; Tsironis, G. P.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum bits (qubits) are at the heart of quantum information processing schemes. Currently, solid-state qubits, and in particular the superconducting ones, seem to satisfy the requirements for being the building blocks of viable quantum computers, since they exhibit relatively long coherence times, extremely low dissipation, and scalability. The possibility of achieving quantum coherence in macroscopic circuits comprising Josephson junctions, envisioned by Legett in the 1980’s, was demonstrated for the first time in a charge qubit; since then, the exploitation of macroscopic quantum effects in low-capacitance Josephson junction circuits allowed for the realization of several kinds of superconducting qubits. Furthermore, coupling between qubits has been successfully achieved that was followed by the construction of multiple-qubit logic gates and the implementation of several algorithms. Here it is demonstrated that induced qubit lattice coherence as well as two remarkable quantum coherent optical phenomena, i.e., self-induced transparency and Dicke-type superradiance, may occur during light-pulse propagation in quantum metamaterials comprising superconducting charge qubits. The generated qubit lattice pulse forms a compound ”quantum breather” that propagates in synchrony with the electromagnetic pulse. The experimental confirmation of such effects in superconducting quantum metamaterials may open a new pathway to potentially powerful quantum computing. PMID:27403780

  13. Qubit lattice coherence induced by electromagnetic pulses in superconducting metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Ivić, Z; Lazarides, N; Tsironis, G P

    2016-07-12

    Quantum bits (qubits) are at the heart of quantum information processing schemes. Currently, solid-state qubits, and in particular the superconducting ones, seem to satisfy the requirements for being the building blocks of viable quantum computers, since they exhibit relatively long coherence times, extremely low dissipation, and scalability. The possibility of achieving quantum coherence in macroscopic circuits comprising Josephson junctions, envisioned by Legett in the 1980's, was demonstrated for the first time in a charge qubit; since then, the exploitation of macroscopic quantum effects in low-capacitance Josephson junction circuits allowed for the realization of several kinds of superconducting qubits. Furthermore, coupling between qubits has been successfully achieved that was followed by the construction of multiple-qubit logic gates and the implementation of several algorithms. Here it is demonstrated that induced qubit lattice coherence as well as two remarkable quantum coherent optical phenomena, i.e., self-induced transparency and Dicke-type superradiance, may occur during light-pulse propagation in quantum metamaterials comprising superconducting charge qubits. The generated qubit lattice pulse forms a compound "quantum breather" that propagates in synchrony with the electromagnetic pulse. The experimental confirmation of such effects in superconducting quantum metamaterials may open a new pathway to potentially powerful quantum computing.

  14. A system for mapping sources of VHF and electric field pulses from in-cloud lightning at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, Ewen M.; Medelius, Pedro J.

    1991-01-01

    The literature concerning VHF radiation and wideband electric fields from in-cloud lightning is reviewed. VHF location systems give impressive radio images of lightning in clouds with high spatial and temporal resolution. Using systems based on long and short baseline time-or-arrival and interferometry, workers have detected VHF sources that move at speeds of 10(exp 5) to 10(exp 8) m/s. The more slowly moving sources appear to be associated with channel formation but the physical basis for the higher speeds is not clear. In contrast, wideband electric fields are directly related to physical parameters such as current and tortuosity. A long baseline system is described to measure simultaneously VHF radiation and wideband electric fields at five stations at Kennedy Space Center. All signals are detected over remote, isolated ground planes with fiber optics for data transmission. The modification of this system to map rapidly varying dE/dt pulses is discussed.

  15. Mortality investigation of workers in an electromagnetic pulse test program.

    PubMed

    Muhm, J M

    1992-03-01

    A standardized mortality ratio study of 304 male employees of an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) test program was conducted. Outcomes were ascertained by two methods: the World Health Organization's underlying cause of death algorithm; and the National Center for Health Statistics' algorithm to identify multiple listed causes of death. In the 3362 person-years of follow-up, there was one underlying cause of death due to leukemia compared with with 0.2 expected (standard mortality ratio [SMR] = 437, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 11-2433), and two multiple listed causes of death due to leukemia compared with 0.3 expected (SMR = 775, 95% CI = 94-2801). Although the study suggested an association between death due to leukemia and employment in the EMP test program, firm conclusions could not be drawn because of limitations of the study. The findings warrant further investigation in an independent cohort.

  16. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP), Part I: Effects on field medical equipment.

    PubMed

    Vandre, R H; Klebers, J; Tesche, F M; Blanchard, J P

    1993-04-01

    The electromagnetic pulse (EMP) from a high-altitude nuclear detonation has the potential to cover an area as large as the continental United States with damaging levels of EMP radiation. In this study, two of seven items of medical equipment were damaged by an EMP simulator. Computer circuit analysis of 17 different items showed that 11 of the 17 items would be damaged by current surges on the power cords, while two would be damaged by current surges on external leads. This research showed that a field commander can expect approximately 65% of his electronic medical equipment to be damaged by a single nuclear detonation as far as 2,200 km away.

  17. An Experimental Study of a Pulsed Electromagnetic Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Eskridge, Richard; Lee, Mike; Smith, James; Martin, Adam; Markusic, Tom E.; Cassibry, Jason T.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Experiments are being performed on the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) pulsed electromagnetic plasma accelerator (PEPA-0). Data produced from the experiments provide an opportunity to further understand the plasma dynamics in these thrusters via detailed computational modeling. The detailed and accurate understanding of the plasma dynamics in these devices holds the key towards extending their capabilities in a number of applications, including their applications as high power (greater than 1 MW) thrusters, and their use for producing high-velocity, uniform plasma jets for experimental purposes. For this study, the 2-D MHD modeling code, MACH2, is used to provide detailed interpretation of the experimental data. At the same time, a 0-D physics model of the plasma initial phase is developed to guide our 2-D modeling studies.

  18. Effects of electromagnetic pulse on polydactyly of mouse fetuses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming-Juan; Liu, Jun-Ye; Wang, Ya-Feng; Lang, Hai-Yang; Miao, Xia; Zhang, Li-Yan; Zeng, Li-Hua; Guo, Guo-Zhen

    2013-07-01

    There is an increasing public concern regarding potential health impacts from electromagnetic radiation exposure. Embryonic development is sensitive to the external environment, and limb development is vital for life quality. To determine the effects of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on polydactyly of mouse fetuses, pregnant mice were sham-exposed or exposed to EMP (400 kV/m with 400 pulses) from Days 7 to 10 of pregnancy (Day 0 = day of detection of vaginal plug). As a positive control, mice were treated with 5-bromodeoxyuridine on Days 9 and 10. On Days 11 or 18, the fetuses were isolated. Compared with the sham-exposed group, the group exposed to EMP had increased rates of polydactyly fetuses (5.1% vs. 0.6%, P < 0.05) and abnormal gene expression (22.2% vs. 2.8%, P < 0.05). Ectopic expression of Fgf4 was detected in the apical ectodermal ridge, whereas overexpression and ectopic expression of Shh were detected in the zone of polarizing activity of limbs in the EMP-exposed group and in the positive control group. However, expression of Gli3 decreased in mesenchyme cells in those two groups. The percentages of programmed cell death of limbs in EMP-exposed and positive control group were decreased (3.57% and 2.94%, respectively, P < 0.05, compared with 7.76% in sham-exposed group). In conclusion, polydactyly induced by EMP was accompanied by abnormal expression of the above-mentioned genes and decreased percentage of programmed cell death during limb development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Electromagnetic pulse scattering by a spacecraft nearing light speed.

    PubMed

    Garner, Timothy J; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Breakall, James K; Bohren, Craig F

    2017-08-01

    Humans will launch spacecraft that travel at an appreciable fraction of the speed of light. Spacecraft traffic will be tracked by radar. Scattering of pulsed electromagnetic fields by an object in uniform translational motion at relativistic speed may be computed using the frame-hopping technique. Pulse scattering depends strongly on the velocity, shape, orientation, and composition of the object. The peak magnitude of the backscattered signal varies by many orders of magnitude, depending on whether the object is advancing toward or receding from the source of the interrogating signal. The peak magnitude of the backscattered signal goes to zero as the object recedes from the observer at a speed very closely approaching light speed, rendering the object invisible to the observer. The energy scattered by an object in motion may increase or decrease relative to the energy scattered by the same object at rest. Both the magnitude and sign of the change depend on the velocity of the object, as well as on its shape, orientation, and composition. In some cases, the change in total scattered energy is greatest when the object is moving transversely to the propagation direction of the interrogating signal, even though the Doppler effect is strongest when the motion is parallel or antiparallel to the propagation direction.

  20. A study on the influence of corona on currents and electromagnetic fields predicted by a nonlinear lightning return-stroke model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Conti, Alberto; Silveira, Fernando H.; Visacro, Silvério

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates the influence of corona on currents and electromagnetic fields predicted by a return-stroke model that represents the lightning channel as a nonuniform transmission line with time-varying (nonlinear) resistance. The corona model used in this paper allows the calculation of corona currents as a function of the radial electric field in the vicinity of the channel. A parametric study is presented to investigate the influence of corona parameters, such as the breakdown electric field and the critical electric field for the stable propagation of streamers, on predicted currents and electromagnetic fields. The results show that, regardless of the assumed corona parameters, the incorporation of corona into the nonuniform and nonlinear transmission line model under investigation modifies the model predictions so that they consistently reproduce most of the typical features of experimentally observed lightning electromagnetic fields and return-stroke speed profiles. In particular, it is shown that the proposed model leads to close vertical electric fields presenting waveforms, amplitudes, and decay with distance in good agreement with dart leader electric field changes measured in triggered lightning experiments. A comparison with popular engineering return-stroke models further confirms the model's ability to predict consistent electric field waveforms in the close vicinity of the channel. Some differences observed in the field amplitudes calculated with the different models can be related to the fact that current distortion, while present in the proposed model, is ultimately neglected in the considered engineering return-stroke models.

  1. Development and Application of a Low Frequency Near-Field Interferometric-TOA 3D Lightning Mapping Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, F.; Cummer, S. A.; Weinert, J. L.; McTague, L. E.; Solanki, R.; Barrett, J.

    2014-12-01

    Lightning processes radiated extremely wideband electromagnetic signals. Lightning images mapped by VHF interferometry and VHF time of arrival lightning mapping arrays enable us to understand the lightning in-cloud detail development during the extent of flash that can not always be captured by cameras because of the shield of cloud. Lightning processes radiate electromagnetically over an extremely wide bandwidth, offering the possibility of multispectral lightning radio imaging. Low frequency signals are often used for lightning detection, but usually only for ground point location or thunderstorm tracking. Some recent results have demonstrated lightning LF 3D mapping of discrete lightning pulses, but imaging of continuous LF emissions have not been shown. In this work, we report a GPS-synchronized LF near field interferometric-TOA 3D lightning mapping array applied to image the development of lightning flashes on second time scale. Cross-correlation, as used in broadband interferometry, is applied in our system to find windowed arrival time differences with sub-microsecond time resolution. However, because the sources are in the near field of the array, time of arrival processing is used to find the source locations with a typical precision of 100 meters. We show that this system images the complete lightning flash structure with thousands of LF sources for extensive flashes. Importantly, this system is able to map both continuous emissions like dart leaders, and bursty or discrete emissions. Lightning stepped leader and dart leader propagation speeds are estimated to 0.56-2.5x105 m/s and 0.8-2.0x106 m/s respectively, which are consistent with previous reports. In many aspects our LF images are remarkably similar to VHF lightning mapping array images, despite the 1000 times difference in frequency, which may suggest some special links between the LF and VHF emission during lightning processes.

  2. Influence of electromagnetic signal of antibiotics excited by low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields on growth of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yin-Lung; Chang, Fu-Yu; Chen, Ming-Kun; Li, Shun-Lai; Jang, Ling-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Energy medicine (EM) provides a new medical choice for patients, and its advantages are the noninvasive detection and nondrug treatment. An electromagnetic signal, a kind of EM, induced from antibiotic coupling with weak, extremely low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) is utilized for investigating the growth speed of Escherichia coli (E. coli). PEMFs are produced by solenoidal coils for coupling the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics (penicillin). The growth retardation rate (GRR) of E. coli is used to investigate the efficacy of the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics. The E. coli is cultivated in the exposure of PEMFs coupling with the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics. The maximum GRR of PEMFs with and without the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics on the growth of E. coli cells in the logarithmic is 17.4 and 9.08%, respectively. The electromagnetic signal of antibiotics is successfully coupled by the electromagnetic signal coupling instrument to affect the growth of E. coli. In addition, the retardation effect on E. coli growth can be improved of by changing the carrier frequency of PEMFs coupling with the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics. GRR caused by the electromagnetic signal of antibiotics can be fixed by a different carrier frequency in a different phase of E. coli growth.

  3. Seismo-Electromagnetic Emissions Related to Seismic Waves can Trigger TLEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, Leonid V.

    2009-04-01

    This paper deals with the rare high intensity electromagnetic pulses associated with earthquakes, whose spectrum signature differs from that of atmospherics produced by lightning discharges. On the basis of actual data records, cases of the generation of anomalous seismo-electromagnetic emissions are described. These natural sub-millisecond electromagnetic pulses were associated with the passage of seismic waves from earthquakes to Moscow, the place where the electromagnetic field observations were made. Space-time coupling has been revealed between exact seismic waves from the earthquakes, lightning triggering and Transient Luminous Events triggering.

  4. Experimental Validation of Lightning-Induced Electromagnetic (Indirect) Coupling to Short Monopole Antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Crull, E W; Brown Jr., C G; Perkins, M P

    2008-07-30

    For short monopoles in this low-power case, it has been shown that a simple circuit model is capable of accurate predictions for the shape and magnitude of the antenna response to lightning-generated electric field coupling effects, provided that the elements of the circuit model have accurate values. Numerical EM simulation can be used to provide more accurate values for the circuit elements than the simple analytical formulas, since the analytical formulas are used outside of their region of validity. However, even with the approximate analytical formulas the simple circuit model produces reasonable results, which would improve if more accurate analyticalmore » models were used. This report discusses the coupling analysis approaches taken to understand the interaction between a time-varying EM field and a short monopole antenna, within the context of lightning safety for nuclear weapons at DOE facilities. It describes the validation of a simple circuit model using laboratory study in order to understand the indirect coupling of energy into a part, and the resulting voltage. Results show that in this low-power case, the circuit model predicts peak voltages within approximately 32% using circuit component values obtained from analytical formulas and about 13% using circuit component values obtained from numerical EM simulation. We note that the analytical formulas are used outside of their region of validity. First, the antenna is insulated and not a bare wire and there are perhaps fringing field effects near the termination of the outer conductor that the formula does not take into account. Also, the effective height formula is for a monopole directly over a ground plane, while in the time-domain measurement setup the monopole is elevated above the ground plane by about 1.5-inch (refer to Figure 5).« less

  5. A Model for Microcontroller Functionality Upset Induced by External Pulsed Electromagnetic Irradiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-21

    AFRL-RD-PS- AFRL-RD-PS- TN-2016-0003 TN-2016-0003 A Model for Microcontroller Functionality Upset Induced by External Pulsed Electromagnetic ...External Pulsed Electromagnetic Irradiation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9451-15-C-0004 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6 . AUTHOR(S) David...microcontroller (µC) subjected to external irradiation by a narrowband electromagnetic (EM) pulse. In our model, the state of a µC is completely specified by

  6. Mitigation of Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Effects from Short-Pulse Lasers and Fusion Neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Eder, D C; Throop, A; Brown, Jr., C G

    2009-03-06

    Our research focused on obtaining a fundamental understanding of the source and properties of EMP at the Titan PW(petawatt)-class laser facility. The project was motivated by data loss and damage to components due to EMP, which can limit diagnostic techniques that can be used reliably at short-pulse PW-class laser facilities. Our measurements of the electromagnetic fields, using a variety of probes, provide information on the strength, time duration, and frequency dependence of the EMP. We measure electric field strengths in the 100's of kV/m range, durations up to 100 ns, and very broad frequency response extending out to 5 GHzmore » and possibly beyond. This information is being used to design shielding to mitigate the effects of EMP on components at various laser facilities. We showed the need for well-shielded cables and oscilloscopes to obtain high quality data. Significant work was invested in data analysis techniques to process this data. This work is now being transferred to data analysis procedures for the EMP diagnostics being fielded on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). In addition to electromagnetic field measurements, we measured the spatial and energy distribution of electrons escaping from targets. This information is used as input into the 3D electromagnetic code, EMSolve, which calculates time dependent electromagnetic fields. The simulation results compare reasonably well with data for both the strength and broad frequency bandwidth of the EMP. This modeling work required significant improvements in EMSolve to model the fields in the Titan chamber generated by electrons escaping the target. During dedicated Titan shots, we studied the effects of varying laser energy, target size, and pulse duration on EMP properties. We also studied the effect of surrounding the target with a thick conducting sphere and cube as a potential mitigation approach. System generated EMP (SGEMP) in coaxial cables does not appear to be a significant at Titan. Our

  7. Considerations for human exposure standards for fast-rise-time high-peak-power electromagnetic pulses.

    PubMed

    Merritt, J H; Kiel, J L; Hurt, W D

    1995-06-01

    Development of new emitter systems capable of producing high-peak-power electromagnetic pulses with very fast rise times and narrow pulse widths is continuing. Such directed energy weapons systems will be used in the future to defeat electronically vulnerable targets. Human exposures to these pulses can be expected during testing and operations. Development of these technologies for radar and communications purposes has the potential for wider environmental exposure, as well. Current IEEE C95.1-1991 human exposure guidelines do not specifically address these types of pulses, though limits are stated for pulsed emissions. The process for developing standards includes an evaluation of the relevant bioeffects data base. A recommendation has been made that human exposure to ultrashort electromagnetic pulses that engender electromagnetic transients, called precursor waves, should be avoided. Studies that purport to show the potential for tissue damage induced by such pulses were described. The studies cited in support of the recommendation were not relevant to the issues of tissue damage by propagated pulses. A number of investigations are cited in this review that directly address the biological effects of electromagnetic pulses. These studies have not shown evidence of tissue damage as a result of exposure to high-peak-power pulsed microwaves. It is our opinion that the current guidelines are sufficiently protective for human exposure to these pulses.

  8. Effects of electromagnetic pulse on serum element levels in rat.

    PubMed

    Li, Kangchu; Ma, Shirong; Ren, Dongqing; Li, Yurong; Ding, Guirong; Liu, Junye; Guo, Yao; Guo, Guozhen

    2014-04-01

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) was a potentially harmful factor to the human body, and a biological dosimetry to evaluate effects of EMP is necessary. Little is known about effects of EMP on concentration of macro and trace elements in serum so far. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 50-kV/m EMP-exposed group (n = 10), 100-kV/m EMP-exposed group (n = 10), 200-kV/m EMP-exposed group (n = 40), and the sham-exposed group (n = 20). The macro and trace element concentrations in serum were examined at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after EMP exposure at different electric field intensities. Compared with the sham-exposed groups, the concentration of sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), selenium (Se), and manganese (Mn) in rat serum was not changed significantly within 48 h after 200 pulses of EMP exposure at electric field intensity of 50, 100, and 200 kV/m although the K level was decreased and the Ca level was increased with the electric field intensity of EMP increasing. In addition, there was a tendency that the Zn level was decreased with the time going on within 48 h after EMP exposure. Under our experimental conditions, EMP exposure cannot affect the concentration of macro and trace elements in rat serum. There was no time-effect or dose-effect relationship between EMP exposure and serum element levels. The macro and trace elements in serum are not suitable endpoints of biological dosimetry of EMP.

  9. Generalization of the lightning electromagnetic equations of Uman, McLain, and Krider based on Jefimenko equations

    DOE PAGES

    Shao, Xuan-Min

    2016-04-12

    The fundamental electromagnetic equations used by lightning researchers were introduced in a seminal paper by Uman, McLain, and Krider in 1975. However, these equations were derived for an infinitely thin, one-dimensional source current, and not for a general three-dimensional current distribution. In this paper, we introduce a corresponding pair of generalized equations that are determined from a three-dimensional, time-dependent current density distribution based on Jefimenko's original electric and magnetic equations. To do this, we derive the Jefimenko electric field equation into a new form that depends only on the time-dependent current density similar to that of Uman, McLain, and Krider,more » rather than on both the charge and current densities in its original form. The original Jefimenko magnetic field equation depends only on current, so no further derivation is needed. We show that the equations of Uman, McLain, and Krider can be readily obtained from the generalized equations if a one-dimensional source current is considered. For the purpose of practical applications, we discuss computational implementation of the new equations and present electric field calculations for a three-dimensional, conical-shape discharge.« less

  10. Numerical investigation of electromagnetic pulse welded interfaces between dissimilar metals

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wei; Sun, Xin

    Electromagnetic pulse welding (EMPW), an innovative high-speed joining technique, is a potential method for the automotive industry in joining and assembly of dissimilar lightweight metals with drastically different melting temperatures and other thermal physical properties, such as thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficients. The weld quality of EMPW is significantly affected by a variety of interacting physical phenomena including large plastic deformation, materials mixing, localized heating and rapid cooling, possible localized melting and subsequent diffusion and solidification, micro-cracking and void, etc. In the present study, a thermo-mechanically coupled dynamic model has been developed to quantitatively resolve the high-speed impact joiningmore » interface characteristics as well as the process-induced interface temperature evolution, defect formation and possible microstructural composition variation. Reasonably good agreement has been obtained between the predicted results and experimental measurements in terms of interfacial morphology characteristics. The modeling framework is expected to provide further understanding of the hierarchical interfacial features of the non-equilibrium material joining process and weld formation mechanisms involved in the EMPW operation, thus accelerating future development and deployment of this advanced joining technology.« less

  11. The Effect of Ionospheric Models on Electromagnetic Pulse Locations

    SciTech Connect

    Fenimore, Edward E.; Triplett, Laurie A.

    2014-07-01

    Locations of electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) determined by time-of-arrival (TOA) often have outliers with significantly larger errors than expected. In the past, these errors were thought to arise from high order terms in the Appleton-Hartree equation. We simulated 1000 events randomly spread around the Earth into a constellation of 22 GPS satellites. We used four different ionospheres: “simple” where the time delay goes as the inverse of the frequency-squared, “full Appleton-Hartree”, the “BobRD integrals” and a full raytracing code. The simple and full Appleton-Hartree ionospheres do not show outliers whereas the BobRD and raytracing do. This strongly suggests that the causemore » of the outliers is not additional terms in the Appleton-Hartree equation, but rather is due to the additional path length due to refraction. A method to fix the outliers is suggested based on fitting a time to the delays calculated at the 5 GPS frequencies with BobRD and simple ionospheres. The difference in time is used as a correction to the TOAs.« less

  12. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Siyi; He, Hongchen; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Haiming; Gao, Chengfei; Yu, Xijie; He, Chengqi

    2017-09-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) is considered to be a well-defined subject that has caused high morbidity and mortality. In elderly women diagnosed with PMOP, low bone mass and fragile bone strength have been proven to significantly increase risk of fragility fractures. Currently, various anabolic and anti-resorptive therapies have been employed in an attempt to retain healthy bone mass and strength. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs), first applied in treating patients with delayed fracture healing and nonunions, may turn out to be another potential and effective therapy for PMOP. PEMFs can enhance osteoblastogenesis and inhibit osteoclastogenesis, thus contributing to an increase in bone mass and strength. However, accurate mechanisms of the positive effects of PEMFs on PMOP remain to be further elucidated. This review attempts to summarize recent advances of PEMFs in treating PMOP based on clinical trials, and animal and cellular studies. Possible mechanisms are also introduced, and the future possibility of application of PEMFs on PMOP are further explored and discussed. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:406-424, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Lightning and middle atmospheric discharges in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siingh, Devendraa; Singh, R. P.; Kumar, Sarvan; Dharmaraj, T.; Singh, Abhay K.; Singh, Ashok K.; Patil, M. N.; Singh, Shubha

    2015-11-01

    Recent development in lightning discharges including transient luminous events (TLEs) and global electric circuit are discussed. Role of solar activity, convective available potential energy, surface temperature and difference of land-ocean surfaces on convection process are discussed. Different processes of discharge initiation are discussed. Events like sprites and halos are caused by the upward quasi-electrostatic fields associated with intense cloud-to-ground discharges while jets (blue starter, blue jet, gigantic jet) are caused by charge imbalance in thunderstorm during lightning discharges but they are not associated with a particular discharge flash. Elves are generated by the electromagnetic pulse radiated during lightning discharges. The present understanding of global electric circuit is also reviewed. Relation between lightning activity/global electric circuit and climate is discussed.

  14. Direct space-time observation of pulse tunneling in an electromagnetic band gap

    SciTech Connect

    Doiron, Serge; Hache, Alain; Winful, Herbert G.

    2007-08-15

    We present space-time-resolved measurements of electromagnetic pulses tunneling through a coaxial electromagnetic band gap structure. The results show that during the tunneling process the field distribution inside the barrier is an exponentially decaying standing wave whose amplitude increases and decreases as it slowly follows the temporal evolution of the input pulse. At no time is a pulse maximum found inside the barrier, and hence the transmitted peak is not the incident peak that has propagated to the exit. The results support the quasistatic interpretation of tunneling dynamics and confirm that the group delay is not the traversal time of themore » input pulse peak.« less

  15. Damage assessment of long-range rocket system by electromagnetic pulse weapon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lingyu; Liu, Guoqing; Li, Jinming

    2017-08-01

    This paper analyzes the damage mechanism and characteristics of electromagnetic pulse weapon, establishes the index system of survivability of long-range rocket launcher system, and uses AHP method to establish the combat effectiveness model of long-range rocket missile system. According to the damage mechanism and characteristics of electromagnetic pulse weapon, the damage effect of the remote rocket system is established by using the exponential method to realize the damage efficiency of the remote rocket system.

  16. On the electromagnetic fields, Poynting vector, and peak power radiated by lightning return strokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krider, E. P.

    1992-01-01

    The initial radiation fields, Poynting vector, and total electromagnetic power that a vertical return stroke radiates into the upper half space have been computed when the speed of the stroke, nu, is a significant fraction of the speed of light, c, assuming that at large distances and early times the source is an infinitesimal dipole. The initial current is also assumed to satisfy the transmission-line model with a constant nu and to be perpendicular to an infinite, perfectly conducting ground. The effect of a large nu is to increase the radiation fields by a factor of (1-beta-sq cos-sq theta) exp -1, where beta = nu/c and theta is measured from the vertical, and the Poynting vector by a factor of (1-beta-sq cos-sq theta) exp -2.

  17. Mathematical Constraints on the Use of Transmission Line Models for Simulating Initial Breakdown Pulses in Lightning Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, C. L.; Merrill, R. A.; Pasko, V. P.

    2015-12-01

    A significant portion of the in-cloud lightning development is observed as a series of initial breakdown pulses (IBPs) that are characterized by an abrupt change in the electric field at a remote sensor. Recent experimental and theoretical studies have attributed this process to the stepwise elongation of an initial lightning leader inside the thunderstorm [da Silva and Pasko, JGR, 120, 4989-5009, 2015, and references therein]. Attempts to visually observe these events are hampered due to the fact that clouds are opaque to optical radiation. Due to this reason, throughout the last decade, a number of researchers have used the so-called transmission line models (also commonly referred to as engineering models), widely employed for return stroke simulations, to simulate the waveshapes of IBPs, and also of narrow bipolar events. The transmission line (TL) model approach is to prescribe the source current dynamics in a certain manner to match the measured E-field change waveform, with the purpose of retrieving key information about the source, such as its height, peak current, size, speed of charge motion, etc. Although the TL matching method is not necessarily physics-driven, the estimated source characteristics can give insights on the dominant length- and time-scales, as well as, on the energetics of the source. This contributes to better understanding of the environment where the onset and early stages of lightning development takes place.In the present work, we use numerical modeling to constrain the number of source parameters that can be confidently inferred from the observed far-field IBP waveforms. We compare different modified TL models (i.e., with different attenuation behaviors) to show that they tend to produce similar waveforms in conditions where the channel is short. We also demonstrate that it is impossible to simultaneously retrieve the speed of source current propagation and channel length from an observed IBP waveform, in contrast to what has been

  18. Evidence for lightning on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangeway, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Lightning is an interesting phenomenon both for atmospheric and ionospheric science. At the Earth lightning is generated in regions where there is strong convection. Lightning also requires the generation of large charge-separation electric fields. The energy dissipated in a lightning discharge can, for example, result in chemical reactions that would not normally occur. From an ionospheric point of view, lightning generates a broad spectrum of electromagnetic radiation. This radiation can propagate through the ionosphere as whistler mode waves, and at the Earth the waves propagate to high altitudes in the plasmasphere where they can cause energetic particle precipitation. The atmosphere and ionosphere of Venus are quite different from those on the Earth, and the presence of lightning at Venus has important consequences for our knowledge of why lightning occurs and how the energy is dissipated in the atmosphere and ionosphere. As discussed here, it now appears that lightning occurs in the dusk local time sector at Venus.

  19. Reemission spectra and inelastic processes at interaction of attosecond and shorter duration electromagnetic pulses with atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, D. N.; Matveev, V. I.

    2017-01-01

    Inelastic processes and the reemission of attosecond and shorter electromagnetic pulses by atoms have been considered within the analytical solution of the Schrödinger equation in the sudden perturbation approximation. A method of calculations with the exact inclusion of spatial inhomogeneity of the field of an ultrashort pulse and the momenta of photons in the reemission processes has been developed. The probabilities of inelastic processes and spectra of reemission of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses by one- and many-electron atoms have been calculated. The results have been presented in the form of analytical formulas.

  20. Dynamics of electronic transitions and reemission spectra of attosecond electromagnetic pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, V. I.; Makarov, D. N.

    2014-05-01

    The processes of reemission of attosecond electromagnetic pulses by systems in nonstationary states have been considered. The probabilities of the reemission of attosecond electromagnetic pulses at the resonance charge exchange of a proton on a hydrogen atom and at the decay of a quasistationary state, as well as the probabilities of the reemission of attosecond pulses by a system in a resonance external field, have been calculated as examples. The developed method can be applied to more complex targets, including targets in the collision state, and to various chemical reactions.

  1. Coupling of Gaussian electromagnetic pulse into a muscle-bone model of biological structure.

    PubMed

    Lin, J C; Lam, C K

    1976-03-01

    The effect of angle of incidence on the transmission electromagnetic pulse with Gaussion character in biological material is studied. The model assumed is a layer of soft tissue over a semi-infinite medium of boney structure governed by alpha dispersion. The numerical results demonstrate that the transmitted pulse strength is the greatest when the pulse is incident normally on the air-tissue interface. The coupling efficiency for a one microsecond pulse is three times as big as that for a ten microsecond pulse.

  2. Characteristics of VLF/LF Sferics from Elve-producing Lightning Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaes, P.; Zoghzoghy, F. G.; Marshall, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Lightning return strokes radiate an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) which interacts with the D-region ionosphere; the largest EMPs produce new ionization, heating, and optical emissions known as elves. Elves are at least six times more common than sprites and other transient luminous events. Though the probability that a lightning return stroke will produce an elve is correlated with the return stroke peak current, many large peak current strokes do not produce visible elves. Apart from the lightning peak current, elve production may depend on the return stroke speed, lightning altitude, and ionospheric conditions. In this work we investigate the detailed structure of lightning that gives rise to elves by analyzing the characteristics of VLF/LF lightning sferics in conjunction with optical elve observations. Lightning sferics were observed using an array of six VLF/LF receivers (1 MHz sample-rate) in Oklahoma, and elves were observed using two high-speed photometers pointed over the Oklahoma region: one located at Langmuir Laboratory, NM and the other at McDonald Observatory, TX. Hundreds of elves with coincident LF sferics were observed during the summer months of 2013. We present data comparing the characteristics of elve-producing and non-elve producing lightning as measured by LF sferics. In addition, we compare these sferic and elve observations with FDTD simulations to determine key properties of elve-producing lightning.

  3. Attosecond electromagnetic pulse generation due to the interaction of a relativistic soliton with a breaking-wake plasma wave.

    PubMed

    Isanin, A V; Bulanov, S S; Kamenets, F F; Pegoraro, F

    2005-03-01

    During the interaction of a low-frequency relativistic soliton with the electron density modulations of a wake plasma wave, part of the electromagnetic energy of the soliton is reflected in the form of an extremely short and ultraintense electromagnetic pulse. We calculate the spectra of the reflected and of the transmitted electromagnetic pulses analytically. The reflected wave has the form of a single cycle attosecond pulse.

  4. Initial Breakdown Pulse Amplitudes in Intracloud and Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, T. C.; Smith, E. M.; Stolzenburg, M.; Karunarathne, S.; Siedlecki, R. D., II

    2017-12-01

    This study analyzes the largest initial breakdown (IB) pulse in flashes from three storms in Florida. The study was motivated in part by the possibility that IB pulses of IC flashes may cause of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs). The range-normalized, zero-to-peak amplitude of the largest IB pulse within each flash was determined along with its altitude, duration, and occurrence time in the flash. Appropriate data were available for 40 intracloud (IC) and 32 cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes. Histograms of the magnitude of the largest IB pulse amplitude by flash type were similar, with mean (median) values of 1.49 (1.05) V/m for IC flashes and -1.35 (-0.87) V/m for CG flashes. The mean amplitude of the largest IC IB pulses are substantially smaller (roughly an order of magnitude smaller) than the few known pulse amplitudes of TGF events and TGF candidate events. The largest IB pulse in 30 IC flashes showed a weak inverse relation between pulse amplitude and altitude. Amplitude of the largest IB pulse for 25 CG flashes showed no altitude correlation. Duration of the largest IB pulse in ICs averaged twice as long as in CGs (96 μs versus 46 μs); all of the CG durations were <100 μs. Among the ICs, there is a positive relation between largest IB pulse duration and amplitude; the linear correlation coefficient is 0.385 with outliers excluded. The largest IB pulse in IC flashes typically occurred at a longer time after the first IB pulse (average 4.1 ms) than was the case in CG flashes (average 0.6 ms). In both flash types, the largest IB pulse was the first IB pulse in about 30% of the cases.

  5. Influence of pulsed electromagnetic and pulsed vector magnetic potential field on the growth of tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Loja, Tomas; Stehlikova, Olga; Palko, Lukas; Vrba, Kamil; Rampl, Ivan; Klabusay, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Tumor diseases cause 20% of deaths in Europe and they are the second most common cause of death and morbidity after cardiovascular diseases. Thus, tumor cells are target of many therapeutic strategies and tumor research is focused on searching more efficient and specific drugs as well as new therapeutic approaches. One of the areas of tumor research is an issue of external fields. In our work, we tested influence of a pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) and a hypothetic field of the pulsed vector magnetic potential (PVMP) on the growth of tumor cells; and further the possible growth inhibition effect of the PVMP. Both unipolar and bipolar PEMF fields of 5 mT and PVMP fields of 0 mT at frequencies of 15 Hz, 125 Hz and 625 Hz were tested on cancer cell lines derived from various types of tumors: CEM/C2 (acute lymphoblastic leukemia), SU-DHL-4 (B-cell lymphoma), COLO-320DM (colorectal adenocarcinoma), MDA-BM-468 (breast adenocarcinoma), and ZR-75-1 (ductal carcinoma). Cell morphology was observed, proliferation activity using WST assay was measured and simultaneous proportion of live, early apoptotic and dead cells was detected using flow cytometry. A PEMF of 125 Hz and 625 Hz for 24 h-48 h increased proliferation activity in the 2 types of cancer cell lines used, i.e. COLO-320DM and ZR-75-1. In contrast, any of employed methods did not confirm a significant inhibitory effect of hypothetic PVMP field on tumor cells.

  6. FDTD computation of human eye exposure to ultra-wideband electromagnetic pulses.

    PubMed

    Simicevic, Neven

    2008-03-21

    With an increase in the application of ultra-wideband (UWB) electromagnetic pulses in the communications industry, radar, biotechnology and medicine, comes an interest in UWB exposure safety standards. Despite an increase of the scientific research on bioeffects of exposure to non-ionizing UWB pulses, characterization of those effects is far from complete. A numerical computational approach, such as a finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method, is required to visualize and understand the complexity of broadband electromagnetic interactions. The FDTD method has almost no limits in the description of the geometrical and dispersive properties of the simulated material, it is numerically robust and appropriate for current computer technology. In this paper, a complete calculation of exposure of the human eye to UWB electromagnetic pulses in the frequency range of 3.1-10.6, 22-29 and 57-64 GHz is performed. Computation in this frequency range required a geometrical resolution of the eye of 0.1 mm and an arbitrary precision in the description of its dielectric properties in terms of the Debye model. New results show that the interaction of UWB pulses with the eye tissues exhibits the same properties as the interaction of the continuous electromagnetic waves (CWs) with the frequencies from the pulse's frequency spectrum. It is also shown that under the same exposure conditions the exposure to UWB pulses is from one to many orders of magnitude safer than the exposure to CW.

  7. Electrothermal Action of the Pulse of the Current of a Short Artificial-Lightning Stroke on Test Specimens of Wires and Cables of Electric Power Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, M. I.; Rudakov, S. V.

    2018-05-01

    The authors have given results of investigations of the electrothermal action of aperiodic pulses of temporal shape 10/350 μs of the current of a short artificial-lightning stroke on test specimens of electric wires and cables with copper and aluminum cores and sheaths with polyvinylchloride and polyethylene insulations of power circuits of industrial electric power objects. It has been shown that the thermal stability of such wires and cables is determined by the action integral of the indicated current pulse. The authors have found the maximum permissible and critical densities of this pulse in copper and aluminum current-carrying parts of the wires and cables. High-current experiments conducted under high-voltage laboratory conditions on a unique generator of 10/350 μs pulses of an artificial-lightning current with amplitude-time parameters normalized according to the existing requirements of international and national standards and with tolerances on them have confirmed the reliability of the proposed calculated estimate for thermal lightning resistance of cabling and wiring products.

  8. Electrothermal Action of the Pulse of the Current of a Short Artificial-Lightning Stroke on Test Specimens of Wires and Cables of Electric Power Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranov, M. I.; Rudakov, S. V.

    2018-03-01

    The authors have given results of investigations of the electrothermal action of aperiodic pulses of temporal shape 10/350 μs of the current of a short artificial-lightning stroke on test specimens of electric wires and cables with copper and aluminum cores and sheaths with polyvinylchloride and polyethylene insulations of power circuits of industrial electric power objects. It has been shown that the thermal stability of such wires and cables is determined by the action integral of the indicated current pulse. The authors have found the maximum permissible and critical densities of this pulse in copper and aluminum current-carrying parts of the wires and cables. High-current experiments conducted under high-voltage laboratory conditions on a unique generator of 10/350 μs pulses of an artificial-lightning current with amplitude-time parameters normalized according to the existing requirements of international and national standards and with tolerances on them have confirmed the reliability of the proposed calculated estimate for thermal lightning resistance of cabling and wiring products.

  9. Initial Breakdown Pulse Parameters in Intracloud and Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E. M.; Marshall, T. C.; Karunarathne, S.; Siedlecki, R.; Stolzenburg, M.

    2018-02-01

    This study analyzes the largest initial breakdown (IB) pulse in flashes from four storms in Florida; data from three sensor arrays are used. The range-normalized, zero-to-peak amplitude of the largest IB pulse was determined along with its altitude, duration, and timing within each flash. Appropriate data were available for 40 intracloud (IC) and 32 cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes. Histograms of amplitude of the largest IB pulse by flash type were similar, with mean (median) values of 1.49 (1.05) V/m for IC flashes and -1.35 (-0.87) V/m for CG flashes. The largest IB pulse in 30 IC flashes showed a weak inverse relation between pulse amplitude and altitude. Amplitude of the largest IB pulse for 25 CG flashes showed no altitude correlation. Duration of the largest IB pulse in ICs averaged twice as long as in CGs (96 μs versus 46 μs), and all of the CG durations were <100 μs. Among the ICs, there is a positive relation between largest IB pulse duration and amplitude; the linear correlation coefficient is 0.385 with outliers excluded. The largest IB pulse in IC flashes typically occurred at a longer time after the first IB pulse (average 4.1 ms) than was the case in CG flashes (average 0.6 ms). In both flash types, the largest IB pulse was the first IB pulse in about 30% of the cases. In one storm all 42 IC flashes with triggered data had IB pulses.

  10. Effects of electromagnetic pulse irradiation on the mouse blood-testicle barrier.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wu-Gang; Zhao, Jie; Li, Zhen; Li, Wei; Li, Teng; Xiong, Li-Ze; Zhang, Yuan-Qiang

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the effects of electromagnetic pulse irradiation on the mouse blood-testicle barrier (BTB) and spermatogenesis. After whole body irradiation with 400 kV/m electromagnetic pulse irradiation, the mouse testicles and BTB permeability were observed using hematoxylin-eosin, Evans blue, and lanthanum nitrate as tracers. The expression of the BTB tight junction protein occludin was examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. At 1, 7, and 14 days after irradiation, the BTB structure was damaged, the BTB permeability was significantly increased, numerous apoptotic or necrotic spermatogenic cells were found in the lumen, and the mRNA and protein expression levels of occludin were markedly decreased. The BTB structure and occludin expression levels had gradually recovered by 21 and 28 days after irradiation. Electromagnetic pulse irradiation damaged the structure and function of mouse BTB, resulting in apoptosis or necrosis of the spermatogenic cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. UAVEMI Project: Numerical and Experimental EM Immunity Assessment of UAV for HIRF and Lightning Indirect Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Salvador G.; Silvia, Ferran; Escot, David; Pascual, Enrique; Pantoja, Mario F.; Riu, Pere; Anon, Manuel; Alvarez, Jesus; Cabello, M.; Pous, Marc; Fernandez, Sergio; Trallero, Rafael; Poyatos, David; Nuno, Luis

    2016-05-01

    The UAVEMI project, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness, gathers a consortium formed by several research and development institutions and one industrial partner. The main goal is to develop innovative experimental and numerical approaches for the assessment of the electromagnetic compatibility of unmanned air vehicles, under high intensity radiated fields, lightning indirect effects and non-nuclear electromagnetic pulses. This contribution describes the capabilities currently being developed under the project.

  12. Nucleation and Grain Refinement of 7A04 Aluminum Alloy Under a Low-Power Electromagnetic Pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Qingwei; Ma, Yonglin; Xing, Shuqing; Bao, Xinyu; Feng, Yanfei; Kang, Xiaolan

    2018-02-01

    The effects of a low-power electromagnetic pulse on the grain size and cooling curve of high-strength aluminum alloy 7A04 were investigated for various pulse duty cycles. This electromagnetic pulse treatment was found to effectively produce fine grains with globular crystals and a uniform microstructure for pulse duty cycles between 20 and 40%. The key factors that affected grain refinement under the electromagnetic pulse included the electromagnetic energy and the conversion frequency between \\varvec{B} and \\varvec{E} . The nucleation rate increased as the nucleation period was extended. A new kinetic condition of magnetic nucleation was explored by decreasing the critical Gibbs free energy in the electromagnetic pulse, which was more sensitive under low undercooling. In addition, the crystal orientation was controlled in such a solidification environment.

  13. Modeling particle injections during magnetospheric substorm by a propagating earthward electromagnetic pulse.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalugin, G. A.; Kabin, K.; Donovan, E.; Spanswick, E.

    2016-12-01

    During substorm expansion phase the electrons and ions with energies of up to 100 keV appear in the near-Earth magnetotail. Often, this increase occurs simultaneously for a broad range of particle energies; such events are called dispersionless injections (DIs). Explanations of DIs usually relay on some form of an earthward propagating electromagnetic pulse, which is capable of effectively energizing an initial distribution of electrons and ions. Most of the previous models of such pulses were developed for the equatorial plane only. We propose a new model of an electromagnetic pulse which is two-dimensional in the meridional plane. Electric and magnetic fields in the pulse are calculated self-consistently and satisfy Maxwell's equations. We use realistic time-independent stretched magnetic field as the background. Our model has several adjustable parameters, such as the speed of the pulse propagation, its amplitude and spatial extent, which makes it versatile enough to investigate effects of the pulse characteristics on the particle energization. We present and discuss several examples of particle energization in our model and find that in some cases the energies of the seed electrons can increase by a factor of 10 or more. Two-dimensional nature of our model allows us to visualize the motion of the field lines in the meridional plane associated with the travelling electromagnetic pulse and to calculate the ionospheric footprints of the particle dynamics in the equatorial plane.

  14. Effects of low-intensity pulsed electromagnetic fields on the early development of sea urchins.

    PubMed Central

    Falugi, C; Grattarola, M; Prestipino, G

    1987-01-01

    The effects of weak electromagnetic signals on the early development of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus have been studied. The duration and repetition of the pulses were similar to those used for bone healing in clinical practice. A sequence of pulses, applied for a time ranging from 2 to 4 h, accelerates the cleavages of sea urchin embryo cells. This effect can be quantitatively assessed by determining the time shifts induced by the applied electromagnetic field on the completion of the first and second cleavages in a population of fertilized eggs. The exposed embryos were allowed to develop up to the pluteus stage, showing no abnormalities. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:3607217

  15. Manufacturing of hybrid aluminum copper joints by electromagnetic pulse welding - Identification of quantitative process windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psyk, Verena; Scheffler, Christian; Linnemann, Maik; Landgrebe, Dirk

    2017-10-01

    Compared to conventional joining techniques, electromagnetic pulse welding offers important advantages especially when it comes to dissimilar material connections as e.g. copper aluminum welds. However, due to missing guidelines and tools for process design, the process has not been widely implemented in industrial production, yet. In order to contribute to overcoming this obstacle, a combined numerical and experimental process analysis for electromagnetic pulse welding of Cu-DHP and EN AW-1050 was carried out and the results were consolidated in a quantitative collision parameter based process window.

  16. Voltage Stress on Y Capacitors from Indirect Lightning Pulses According to ED-14/DO-160

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, F.

    2012-05-01

    Transients due to lightning strikes on an aircraft's fuselage impose stress on the input filters of elec- tronic equipment. Permanent damage can occur when exceeding the voltage handling capacity of filter components causing a short circuit to ground. In ED-14/DO-160, section 22, a number of waveforms and levels are defined which are used to check the airworthiness of avionics equipment. Depending on pro- cedure and level, Y-capacitors are stressed by transient voltages which exceed their dielectric strength. The design engineer's task is a properly select the type and voltage rating of capacitors. With moderate simplifications, a LCR-series network is justified to calculate the peak voltage dependent on the capacitance.

  17. Full-wave reflection of lightning long-wave radio pulses from the ionospheric D region: Comparison with midday observations of broadband lightning signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Abram R.; Shao, Xuan-Min; Holzworth, Robert

    2010-05-01

    We are developing and testing a steep-incidence D region sounding method for inferring profile information, principally regarding electron density. The method uses lightning emissions (in the band 5-500 kHz) as the probe signal. The data are interpreted by comparison against a newly developed single-reflection model of the radio wave's encounter with the lower ionosphere. The ultimate application of the method will be to study transient, localized disturbances of the nocturnal D region, including those instigated by lightning itself. Prior to applying the method to study lightning-induced perturbations of the nighttime D region, we have performed a validation test against more stable and predictable daytime observations, where the profile of electron density is largely determined by direct solar X-ray illumination. This article reports on the validation test. Predictions from our recently developed full-wave ionospheric-reflection model are compared to statistical summaries of daytime lightning radiated waveforms, recorded by the Los Alamos Sferic Array. The comparison is used to retrieve best fit parameters for an exponential profile of electron density in the ionospheric D region. The optimum parameter values are compared to those found elsewhere using a narrowband beacon technique, which used totally different measurements, ranges, and modeling approaches from those of the work reported here.

  18. Interaction with the Lower Ionosphere of Electromagnetic Pulses from Lightning: Heating, Attachment, Ionization, and Optical Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-25

    using Opal et al. [1971] data on the secondary electron spectra and the ionization potential approximation used by Richards and Torr [1990]. The...N£ most easily detectable in the natural aurora [ Vallance Jones, 1974]. 4? 44 OPTICAL EMISSIONS To study optical emissions from the D region...here) are considered to be weak based on observed auroral spectra [ Vallance Jones, 1974; p. 90]. The intensity of t’-th line is given by [Chamberlain

  19. Interaction between EMP (Electromagnetic Pulses), Lightning and Static Electricity with Aircraft and Missile Avionics Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    integral fuel tanks, the various conductors in the fuel systems (e.g. pipes, fuel gauge wiring etc.) can be a fuel explosion risk of very high currents...without sparking. The energy contained in the sparking is most certainly a grave fuel explosion risk . Similar hazards must be avoided with any wiring or...conductors parallel to the cable, transmission lines can be formed. This mehod can only be used for shielded cables. The shield must be accessible somewhere

  20. [The electroporation effects of high power pulse microwave and electromagnetic pulse irradiation on the membranes of cardiomyocyte cells and the mechanism therein involved].

    PubMed

    Deng, Hua; Wang, Dewen; Peng, Ruiyun; Wang, Shuiming; Chen, Jiankui; Zhang, Sa; Dong, Bo; Wang, Xiaomin

    2005-08-01

    Though there is ongoing public concern on potential hazards and risk of electromagnetic radiation, the bioeffects mechanism of electromagnetic fields remains obscure. Heart is one of the organs susceptive to electromagnetic fields (EMF). This study was designed to assess the influence of high power pulse microwave and electromagnetic pulse irradiation on cardiomyocytes, to explore the critical mechanism of electromagnetic fields, and to explain the regular course of injury caused by exposure to pulse EMF. Cultured cardiomyocytes were irradiated by high power pulse microwave and electromagnetic pulse first, then a series of apparatus including atom force microscope, laser scanning confocal microscope and flow cytometer were used to examine the changes of cell membrane conformation, structure and function. After irradiation, the cardiomyocytes pulsated slower or stop, the cells conformation was abnormal, the cells viability declined, and the percentage of apoptosis and necrosis increased significantly (P< 0.01). The cell membrane had pores unequal in size, and lost its penetration character. The concentration of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl-, Mg2+, Ca2+ and P3+ in cell culture medium increased significantly (P< 0.01). and the concentration of Ca2+ in cells ([Ca2+]i) decreased significantly (P<0.01). The results indicated that cardiomyocytes are susceptible to non-ionizing radiation. Pulse electromagnetic field can induce cardiomyocytes electroporation, and can do great damage to cells conformation, structure and function. Electroporation is one of the most critical mechanisms to explain the athermal effects of electromagnetic radiation.

  1. Assessing the Threat from Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP). Volume 1: Executive Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-07-31

    high -altitude electromagnetic pulse threat waveform and its ground pattern. This need arises because of the effect of very low frequency electric...system Equipment to Failure ..................................... 15 Intelligence Community Assessment of the EMP Threat...17 APPENDIX A Legislation Re-establishing the Commission ..................................................... 19 APPENDIX B High

  2. Electromagnetic Fields, Pulsed Radiofrequency Radiation, and Epigenetics: How Wireless Technologies May Affect Childhood Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sage, Cindy; Burgio, Ernesto

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phones and other wireless devices that produce electromagnetic fields (EMF) and pulsed radiofrequency radiation (RFR) are widely documented to cause potentially harmful health impacts that can be detrimental to young people. New epigenetic studies are profiled in this review to account for some neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral changes…

  3. Interference Processes During Reradiation of Attosecond Pulses of Electromagnetic Field by Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, D. N.; Matveev, V. I.; Makarova, K. A.

    2018-05-01

    Interference spectra during reradiation of attosecond pulses of electromagnetic field by graphene sheets are considered. Analytical expressions for calculations of spectral distributions are derived. As an example, the interference spectra of a graphene sheet and a flat rectangular lattice are compared.

  4. In situ attosecond pulse characterization techniques to measure the electromagnetic phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spanner, M.; Bertrand, J. B.; Villeneuve, D. M.

    2016-08-01

    A number of techniques have been developed to characterize the attosecond emission from high-order-harmonic sources. These techniques are broadly classified as ex situ, where the attosecond pulse train photoionizes a target gas in the presence of an infrared field, and in situ, where the measurement takes place in the medium in which the attosecond pulses are generated. It is accepted that ex situ techniques measure the characteristics of the electromagnetic field, including the phase of the recombination transition moment of the emitting atom or molecule, when the phase of the second medium is known. However, there is debate about whether in situ techniques measure the electromagnetic field, or only the characteristics of the recolliding electron before recombination occurs. We show numerically that in situ measurements are not sensitive to the recombination phase, when implemented in the perturbative regime as originally envisioned, and that they do not measure the electromagnetic phase of the emission.

  5. Pulsed electromagnetic field with or without exercise therapy in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Elgohary, Hany M; Tantawy, Sayed A

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effect of pulsed electromagnetic field with or without exercise therapy in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty male patients aged 55–65 years with benign prostatic hyperplasia were invited to participate in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to Group A (n=20; patients who received pulsed electromagnetic field in addition to pelvic floor and aerobic exercises), Group B (n=20; patients who received pulsed electromagnetic field), and Group C (n=20; patients who received placebo electromagnetic field). The assessments included post-void residual urine, urine flow rate, prostate specific antigen, white blood cells count, and International Prostate Symptom Score were weighed, before and after a 4-week intervention. [Results] There were significant differences in Group A and B in all parameters. Group C showed non-significant differences in all measured variables except for International Prostate Symptom Score. Among groups, all parameters showed highly significant differences in favor of Group A. There were non-significant differences between Group A and B and significant difference between Groups A and C and between Groups B and C. [Conclusion] The present study demonstrated that electromagnetic field had a significant impact on the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Accordingly, electromagnetic field can be utilized alone or in combination with other physiotherapy modalities. Moreover, clinicians should have the capacity to perceive the advantages accomplished using extra treatment alternatives. Electromagnetic field is a safe, noninvasive method and can be used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:28878453

  6. New mechanism for lightning initiation

    SciTech Connect

    Roussel-Dupre, R.; Buchwald, M.; Gurevich, A.

    1996-10-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). To distinguish radio-frequency (rf) signals generated by lightning from the electromagnetic pulse produced by a nuclear explosion, it is necessary to understand the fundamental nature of thunderstorm discharges. The recent debate surrounding the origin of transionospheric pulse pairs (TIPPs) detected by the BLACKBEARD experiment aboard the ALEXIS satellite illustrates this point. We have argued that TIPP events could originate from the upward propagating discharges recently identified by optical images taken from the ground, from airplanes, and from the spacemore » shuttle. In addition, the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) measurements of x-ray bursts originating from thunderstorms are almost certainly associated with these upward propagating discharges. When taken together, these three measurements point directly to the runaway electron mechanism as the source of the upward discharges. The primary goal of this research effort was to identify the specific role played by the runaway-air-breakdown mechanism in the general area of thunderstorm electricity and in so doing develop lightning models that predict the optical, rf, and x-ray emissions that are observable from space.« less

  7. An Optimization of Pulsed ElectroMagnetic Fields Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    To date, in our research we have focused on the use of normal human neuronal progenitor (NHNP) cells because of their importance in human nervous system regeneration, development and maintenance, but we have developed 2-D and 3-D bioreactors that can accommodate any cell line. In this Project, we will include the use of tissues important for physiological regeneration: Human osteoblasts or chondrocytes, and vascular cells. Our initial results with the NHNP cells were quite startling using extremely low-level electromagnetic fields (5 microtesla at 10Hz; 6mA). The low-amplitude, rapidly time-varying electromagnetic fields exert a very potent effect on the proliferation, morphology, and gene expression of the cells in culture, both in standard 2-dimensional culture plates as well as cells organized into 3-dimensional tissue-like assemblies (TLAs) in a 3D bioreactor. We have replicated our preliminary results many, many times, have analyzed the gene expression using gene arrays (followed by Luminex analysis for protein production), and have monitored cell proliferation, orientation, morphology, and glucose metabolism, and we are confident that we have a stable and reliable model to study the control of high-level cellular processes by application of low-amplitude, time varying electromagnetic fields (TVEMF) (1, 2). In additional studies at the University of Michigan, we have been able to generate functional in vitro engineered mammalian skeletal muscle, and have employed nerve-muscle co-culture techniques to promote axonal sprouting. We believe that nearly all tissues, in particular, neural, are susceptible to the influences of low-level TVEMF.

  8. High dynamic range electric field sensor for electromagnetic pulse detection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Che-Yun; Wang, Alan X; Lee, Beom Suk; Zhang, Xingyu; Chen, Ray T

    2011-08-29

    We design a high dynamic range electric field sensor based on domain inverted electro-optic (E-O) polymer Y-fed directional coupler for electromagnetic wave detection. This electrode-less, all optical, wideband electrical field sensor is fabricated using standard processing for E-O polymer photonic devices. Experimental results demonstrate effective detection of electric field from 16.7V/m to 750KV/m at a frequency of 1GHz, and spurious free measurement range of 70dB.

  9. Spectra for the reemission of attosecond and shorter electromagnetic pulses by multielectron atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, D. N.; Matveev, V. I.

    2017-08-01

    Based on the analytical solution of the Schrödinger equation, we have considered the reemission of attosecond and shorter electromagnetic pulses by multielectron atoms in the sudden perturbation approximation. We have developed a technique of calculating the spectra for the reemission of attosecond and shorter electromagnetic pulses by neutral multielectron atoms with nuclear charges from 1 to 92. The results are presented in the form of analytical formulas dependent on several coefficients and screening parameters tabulated for all of the atoms whose electron densities are described by the well-known Dirac-Hartree-Fock-Slater model. As examples we have calculated the spectra for the reemission by lithium, carbon, calcium, and iron atoms for two types of incident pulse: Gaussian and "sombrero."

  10. Oceanic Lightning versus Continental Lightning: VLF Peak Current Discrepancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, N. A., Jr.; Moore, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Recent analysis of the Vaisala global lightning data set GLD360 suggests that oceanic lightning tends to exhibit larger peak currents than continental lightning (lightning occurring over land). The GLD360 peak current measurement is derived from distant measurements of the electromagnetic fields emanated during the lightning flash. Because the GLD360 peak current measurement is a derived quantity, it is not clear whether the actual peak currents of oceanic lightning tend to be larger, or whether the resulting electromagnetic field strengths tend to be larger. In this paper, we present simulations of VLF signal propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide to demonstrate that the peak field values for oceanic lightning can be significantly stronger than for continental lightning. Modeling simulations are performed using the Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) code to directly evaluate the effect of ground conductivity on VLF signal propagation in the 5-15 kHz band. LWPC is an inherently narrowband propagation code that has been modified to predict the broadband response of the Earth-Ionosphere waveguide to an impulsive lightning flash while preserving the ability of LWPC to account for an inhomogeneous waveguide. Furthermore, we evaluate the effect of return stroke speed on these results.

  11. XUV and x-ray elastic scattering of attosecond electromagnetic pulses on atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosmej, F. B.; Astapenko, V. A.; Lisitsa, V. S.

    2017-12-01

    Elastic scattering of electromagnetic pulses on atoms in XUV and soft x-ray ranges is considered for ultra-short pulses. The inclusion of the retardation term, non-dipole interaction and an efficient scattering tensor approximation allowed studying the scattering probability in dependence of the pulse duration for different carrier frequencies. Numerical calculations carried out for Mg, Al and Fe atoms demonstrate that the scattering probability is a highly nonlinear function of the pulse duration and has extrema for pulse carrier frequencies in the vicinity of the resonance-like features of the polarization charge spectrum. Closed expressions for the non-dipole correction and the angular dependence of the scattered radiation are obtained.

  12. SHORT-PULSE ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSPONDER FOR HOLE-TO-HOLE USE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, David L.; Watts, Raymond D.; Bramsoe, Erik

    1983-01-01

    Hole-to-hole observations were made through nearly 20 m of granite using an electromagnetic transponder (an active reflector) in one borehole and a single-hole short-pulse radar in another. The transponder is inexpensive, operationally simple, and effective in extending the capability of a short-pulse borehole radar system to allow hole-to-hole operation without requiring timing cables. A detector in the transponder senses the arrival of each pulse from the radar. Each pulse detection triggers a kilovolt-amplitude pulse for retransmission. The transponder 'echo' may be stronger than that of a passive reflector by a factor of as much as 120 db. The result is an increase in range capability by a factor which depends on attenuation in the medium and hole-to-hole wavepath geometry.

  13. Strong electromagnetic pulses generated in laser-matter interactions with 10TW-class fs laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rączka, Piotr; Rosiński, Marcin; Zaraś-Szydłowska, Agnieszka; Wołowski, Jerzy; Badziak, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The results of an experiment on the generation of electromagnetic pulses (EMP) in the interaction of 10TW fs pulses with thick (mm scale) and thin foil (μm scale) targets are described. Such pulses, with frequencies in the GHz range, may pose a threat to safe and reliable operation of high-power, high-intensity laser facilities. The main point of the experiment is to investigate the fine temporal structure of such pulses using an oscilloscope capable of measurements at very high sampling rate. It is found that the amazing reproducibility of such pulses is confirmed at this high sampling rate. Furthermore, the differences between the EMP signals generated from thick and thin foil targets are clearly seen, which indicates that besides electric polarization of the target and the target neutralization current there may be other factors essential for the EMP emission.

  14. Planetary lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.; Clayton, R. N.; Buseck, P. R.; Hua, X.; Holsapple, K. A.; Esposito, L. W.; Aherns, T. J.; Hecht, J.

    The present state of knowledge concerning lightning on the planets is reviewed. Voyager data have clearly established the presence of lightning discharges at each of the four Jovian planets. In situ data for lightning on Venus are discussed in some detail, including reported quantitative occurrence rates and hypotheses concerning the relationship of Venusian lightning to VLF bursts observed in the Venus atmosphere.

  15. Numerical simulation of the early-time high altitude electromagnetic pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Cui; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Liu, Shun-Kun; Xie, Qin-Chuan; Chen, Xiang-Yue; Gong, Jian-Cheng

    2003-12-01

    In this paper, the finite difference method is used to develop the Fortran software MCHII. The physical process in which the electromagnetic signal is generated by the interaction of nuclear-explosion-induced Compton currents with the geomagnetic field is numerically simulated. The electromagnetic pulse waveforms below the burst point are investigated. The effects of the height of burst, yield and the time-dependence of gamma-rays are calculated by using the MCHII code. The results agree well with those obtained by using the code CHAP.

  16. Full circuit calculation for electromagnetic pulse transmission in a high current facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Wenkang; Guo, Fan; Chen, Lin; Song, Shengyi; Wang, Meng; Xie, Weiping; Deng, Jianjun

    2014-11-01

    We describe herein for the first time a full circuit model for electromagnetic pulse transmission in the Primary Test Stand (PTS)—the first TW class pulsed power driver in China. The PTS is designed to generate 8-10 MA current into a z -pinch load in nearly 90 ns rise time for inertial confinement fusion and other high energy density physics research. The PTS facility has four conical magnetic insulation transmission lines, in which electron current loss exists during the establishment of magnetic insulation. At the same time, equivalent resistance of switches and equivalent inductance of pinch changes with time. However, none of these models are included in a commercially developed circuit code so far. Therefore, in order to characterize the electromagnetic transmission process in the PTS, a full circuit model, in which switch resistance, magnetic insulation transmission line current loss and a time-dependent load can be taken into account, was developed. Circuit topology and an equivalent circuit model of the facility were introduced. Pulse transmission calculation of shot 0057 was demonstrated with the corresponding code FAST (full-circuit analysis and simulation tool) by setting controllable parameters the same as in the experiment. Preliminary full circuit simulation results for electromagnetic pulse transmission to the load are presented. Although divergences exist between calculated and experimentally obtained waveforms before the vacuum section, consistency with load current is satisfactory, especially at the rising edge.

  17. Dynamic Test Method Based on Strong Electromagnetic Pulse for Electromagnetic Shielding Materials with Field-Induced Insulator-Conductor Phase Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun; Zhao, Min; Wang, Qingguo

    2018-01-01

    In order to measure the pulse shielding performance of materials with the characteristic of field-induced insulator-conductor phase transition when materials are used for electromagnetic shielding, a dynamic test method was proposed based on a coaxial fixture. Experiment system was built by square pulse source, coaxial cable, coaxial fixture, attenuator, and oscilloscope and insulating components. S11 parameter of the test system was obtained, which suggested that the working frequency ranges from 300 KHz to 7.36 GHz. Insulating performance is good enough to avoid discharge between conductors when material samples is exposed in the strong electromagnetic pulse field up to 831 kV/m. This method is suitable for materials with annular shape, certain thickness and the characteristic of field-induced insulator-conductor phase transition to get their shielding performances of strong electromagnetic pulse.

  18. The cause of outliers in electromagnetic pulse (EMP) locations

    SciTech Connect

    Fenimore, Edward E.

    2014-10-02

    We present methods to calculate the location of EMP pulses when observed by 5 or more satellites. Simulations show that, even with a good initial guess and fitting a location to all of the data, there are sometime outlier results whose locations are much worse than most cases. By comparing simulations using different ionospheric transfer functions (ITFs), it appears that the outliers are caused by not including the additional path length due to refraction rather than being caused by not including higher order terms in the Appleton-Hartree equation. We suggest ways that the outliers can be corrected. These correction methodsmore » require one to use an electron density profile along the line of sight from the event to the satellite rather than using the total electron content (TEC) to characterize the ionosphere.« less

  19. Effect of electromagnetic pulse on avoidance behavior and electroencephalogram of a rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, J L; Oliva, S A

    1976-06-01

    A 12-kg male rhesus monkey was exposed to electromagnetic pulse (EMP) at 266 kv/m, 5 pulses/s, for 1 h (18,700 pulses). The effects of EMP on Sidman avoidance behavior and on post-exposure electroencephalogram were evaluated, and no significant changes were detected. An analysis of an EMP showed that it contained various frequency components extending from 0 Hz to 10(9) Hz. However, the pulse configuration was such that its power was mainly confined to the longer wave-lengths (less than 30 MHz). The lack of biologic effect was attributed to the fact that the wavelengths were long relative to the size of the monkey, and little energy deposition was likely to occur. In addition, the electric field was evenly distributed across all lower frequencies so that only a very small electric field component existed at any specific low frequency.

  20. The 1983 direct strike lightning data, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Mitchel E.

    1985-01-01

    Data waveforms are presented which were obtained during the 1983 direct strike lightning tests utilizing the NASA F106-B aircraft specially instrumented for lightning electromagnetic measurements. The aircraft was operated in the vicinity of the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, in a thunderstorm environment to elicit strikes. Electromagnetic field data and conduction currents on the aircraft were recorded for attached lightning. Part 1 contains 435 pages of lightning strike data in chart form.

  1. The 1983 direct strike lightning data, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Mitchel E.

    1985-01-01

    Data waveforms are presented which were obtained during the 1983 direct strike lightning tests utilizing the NASA F106-B aircraft specially instrumented for lightning electromagnetic measurements. The aircraft was operated in the vicinity of the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, in a thunderstorm environment to elicit strikes. Electromagnetic field data and conduction currents on the aircraft were recorded for attached lightning. Part 2 contains 443 pages of lightning strike data in chart form.

  2. Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) survey of the Louisiana State Emergency Operating Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Crutcher, R.I.; Buchanan, M.E.; Jones, R.W.

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop an engineering design package to protect the federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) National Radio System (FNARS) facilities from the effects of high-altitude electromagnetic pulses (HEMP). This report refers to the Louisiana State Emergency Operating Center (EOC) in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. This report addresses electromagnetic pulse (EMP) effects only, and disregards any condition in which radiation effects may be a factor. It has been established that, except for the source region of a surface burst, EMP effects of high-altitude bursts are more severe than comparable detonations in either air or surface regions. Anymore » system hardened to withstand the more extreme EMP environment will survive the less severe conditions. The threatening environment will therefore be limited to HEMP situations. 76 figs., 2 tabs.« less

  3. Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishkov, V. E.; Uryupin, S. A.

    2017-03-01

    Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse is analyzed within the kinetic approach. It is shown that the most efficient source of plasma waves is the nonlinear current arising due to the gradient of the energy density of the high-frequency field. Generation of plasma waves by the drag current is usually less efficient but not negligibly small at relatively high frequencies of electron-ion collisions. The influence of electron collisions on the excitation of plasma waves by pulses of different duration is described quantitatively.

  4. Traversal of electromagnetic pulses through dispersive media with negative refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanda, L.; Ramakrishna, S. A.

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the traversal of electromagnetic pulses through dispersive media with negative refractive index in such a way that no resonant effects come into play. It has been verified that for evanescent waves, the definitions of the group delay and the reshaping delay times get interchanged in comparison to the propagating waves. We show that for a negative refractive index medium (NRM) with ɛ(ω)=μ(ω), the reshaping delay time identically vanishes for propagating waves. The total delay time in NRM is otherwise contributed by both the group and the reshaping delay times, whereas for the case of broadband pulses in NRM the total delay time is always subluminal.

  5. Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Grishkov, V. E.; Uryupin, S. A., E-mail: uryupin@sci.lebedev.ru

    Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse is analyzed within the kinetic approach. It is shown that the most efficient source of plasma waves is the nonlinear current arising due to the gradient of the energy density of the high-frequency field. Generation of plasma waves by the drag current is usually less efficient but not negligibly small at relatively high frequencies of electron–ion collisions. The influence of electron collisions on the excitation of plasma waves by pulses of different duration is described quantitatively.

  6. Pulsed EMAT (Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer) acoustic measurements on a horizontal continuous caster for internal temperature determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Donald M.

    1989-10-01

    Development of a Pulsed Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) through transmission system for acoustic measurements on steel billets up to 1300 C was completed. Laboratory measurements of acoustic velocity were made, and used to determine the average internal temperature of hot stainless and carbon steel billets. Following the success of the laboratory system development, the laboratory EMAT system was subsequently tested successfully at the Baltimore Specialty Steel Co. on a horizontal continuous caster. Details of the sensor system development and the steel plant demonstration results are presented. Future directions for the high temperature pulsed EMAT internal temperature concept are discussed for potential material processing applications.

  7. Electromagnetic pulse coupling through an aperture into a two-parallel-plate region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahmat-Samii, Y.

    1978-01-01

    Analysis of electromagnetic-pulse (EMP) penetration via apertures into cavities is an important study in designing hardened systems. In this paper, an integral equation procedure is developed for determining the frequency and consequently the time behavior of the field inside a two-parallel-plate region excited through an aperture by an EMP. Some discussion of the numerical results is also included in the paper for completeness.

  8. A Concept for Directly Coupled Pulsed Electromagnetic Acceleration of Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y.C. Francis; Cassibry, Jason T.; Eskridge, Richard; Smith, James; Wu, S. T.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Plasma jets with high momentum flux density are required for a variety of applications in propulsion research. Methods of producing these plasma jets are being investigated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The experimental goal in the immediate future is to develop plasma accelerators which are capable of producing plasma jets with momentum flux density represented by velocities up to 200 km/s and ion density up to 10(exp 24) per cu m, with sufficient precision and reproducibility in their properties, and with sufficiently high efficiency. The jets must be sufficiently focused to allow them to be transported over several meters. A plasma accelerator concept is presented that might be able to meet these requirements. It is a self-switching, shaped coaxial pulsed plasma thruster, with focusing of the plasma flow by shaping muzzle current distribution as in plasma focus devices, and by mechanical tapering of the gun walls. Some 2-D MHD modeling in support of the conceptual design will be presented.

  9. An experimental test of the 'transmission-line model' of electromagnetic radiation from triggered lightning return strokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willett, J. C.; Idone, V. P.; Orville, R. E.; Leteinturier, C.; Eybert-Berard, A.

    1988-01-01

    Peak currents, two-dimensional average propagation speeds, and electric field waveforms for a number of subsequent return strikes in rocket-triggered lightning flashes were measured in order to test the 'transmission-line model' of return-stroke radiation of Uman and McLain (1970). Reasonable agreement is found between the propagation speeds measured with the streak camera and those deduced from the transmission-line model. A modification of the model is proposed in which two wave fronts travel upward and downward away from a junction point a short distance above the ground.

  10. An experimental test of the 'transmission-line model' of electromagnetic radiation from triggered lightning return strokes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, J. C.; Idone, V. P.; Orville, R. E.; Leteinturier, C.; Eybert-Berard, A.

    1988-04-01

    Peak currents, two-dimensional average propagation speeds, and electric field waveforms for a number of subsequent return strikes in rocket-triggered lightning flashes were measured in order to test the 'transmission-line model' of return-stroke radiation of Uman and McLain (1970). Reasonable agreement is found between the propagation speeds measured with the streak camera and those deduced from the transmission-line model. A modification of the model is proposed in which two wave fronts travel upward and downward away from a junction point a short distance above the ground.

  11. Basic features of electromagnetic pulse generated in a laser-target chamber at 3-TW laser facility PALS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marco, M.; Pfeifer, M.; Krousky, E.; Krasa, J.; Cikhardt, J.; Klir, D.; Nassisi, V.

    2014-04-01

    We describe the radiofrequency emission taking place when 300 ps laser pulses irradiate various solid targets with an intensity of 1016 W/cm2. The emission of intense electromagnetic pulses was observed outside the laser target chamber by two loop antennas up to 1 GHz. Electromagnetic pulses can be 800 MHz transients, which decay from a peak electromagnetic field of E0 ≊ 7 kV/m and H0 ≊ 15 A/m. The occurrence of these electromagnetic pulses is associated with generation of hard x-rays with photon energies extending beyond 1 MeV. This contribution reports the first observation of this effect at the PALS facility.

  12. Properties of the unusually short pulse sequences occurring prior to the first strokes of negative cloud-to-ground lightning flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmasova, Ivana; Santolik, Ondrej; Farges, Thomas; Rison, William; Lan, Radek; Uhlir, Ludek

    2014-05-01

    We analyze pulse sequences occurring prior to first return strokes of negative cloud-to-ground lightning flashes. The magnetic-field waveforms are measured close to the thunderstorm using a broad-band analyzer with a sampling interval of 12.5 ns. The electric-field waveforms are measured at the distance of ~ 400 km using an analyzer with a sampling interval of 80 ns. The sequence is usually composed of three parts. It begins with a larger pulse train which is believed to be connected with initial breakdown processes. The train of preliminary breakdown pulses ("B" part) is followed by a relatively low and irregular pulse activity ("I" part), which is sometimes missing. The sequence ends with a pulse train attributed to the stepped leader ("L" part). We recognize two different patterns ("B-I-L" and "B-L" types) in recorded waveforms. For the first time, we analyze the time evolution of the pulse amplitudes in the "B" part of "B-I-L" type sequences. The pulse amplitude is decreasing on average by 34% of the maximum value within a given train. We observe an unusually short duration of sequences. This is probably linked to a low height of the thundercloud. Another possible explanation may be based on an untypical precipitation mix resulting in faster steeped leaders.

  13. A Search for Meteoroid Lunar Impact Generated Electromagnetic Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesaraju, Saiveena; Mathews, John D.; Vierinen, Juha; Perillat, Phil; Meisel, David D.

    2016-11-01

    Lunar white light flashes associated with meteoroid impacts are now regularly observed using modest optical instrumentation. In this paper, we hypothesize that the developing, optically-dense hot ejecta cloud associated with these hypervelocity impacts also produce an associated complex plasma component that rapidly evolves resulting in a highly-transient electro magnetic pulse (EMP) in the VHF/UHF spectral region. Discovery of the characteristics and event frequency of impact EMPs would prove interesting to meteoroid flux and complex plasma physics studies especially if EMPs from the same event are detected from at least two locations on the Earth with relative delays appropriate to the propagation paths. We describe a prototype observational search, conducted in May 2014, for meteoroid lunar-impact EMPs that was conducted using simultaneous, overlapping-band, UHF radio observations at the Arecibo (AO; Puerto Rico) and Haystack (HO, Massachusetts, USA) Observatories. Monostatic/bistatic lunar radar imaging observations were also performed with HO transmitting and HO/AO receiving to confirm tracking, the net delay, and the pointing/timing ephemeris at both observatories. Signal analysis was performed using time-frequency signal processing techniques. Although, we did not conclusively identify EMP returns, this search detected possible EMPs and we have confirmed the search paradigm and established the sensitivity of the AO-HO system in detecting the hypothesized events. We have also characterized the difficult radio-frequency interference environment surrounding these UHF observations. We discuss the wide range of terrestrial-origin, Moon-bounce signals that were observed which additionally validate the observational technique. Further observations are contemplated.

  14. Lightning Protection Guidelines for Aerospace Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodloe, C. C.

    1999-01-01

    This technical memorandum provides lightning protection engineering guidelines and technical procedures used by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch for aerospace vehicles. The overviews illustrate the technical support available to project managers, chief engineers, and design engineers to ensure that aerospace vehicles managed by MSFC are adequately protected from direct and indirect effects of lightning. Generic descriptions of the lightning environment and vehicle protection technical processes are presented. More specific aerospace vehicle requirements for lightning protection design, performance, and interface characteristics are available upon request to the MSFC Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch, mail code EL23.

  15. Lightning Effects in the Payload Changeout Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Garland L.; Fisher, Franklin A.; Collier, Richard S.; Medelius, Pedro J.

    1997-01-01

    Analytical and empirical studies have been performed to provide better understanding of the electromagnetic environment inside the Payload Changeout Room and Orbiter payload bay resulting from lightning strikes to the launch pad lightning protection system. The analytical studies consisted of physical and mathematical modeling of the pad structure and the Payload Changeout Room. Empirical testing was performed using a lightning simulator to simulate controlled (8 kA) lightning strikes to the catenary wire lightning protection system. In addition to the analyses and testing listed above, an analysis of the configuration with the vehicle present was conducted, in lieu of testing, by the Finite Difference, Time Domain method.

  16. Fresnel formulas for the forced electromagnetic pulses and their application for optical-to-terahertz conversion in nonlinear crystals.

    PubMed

    Bakunov, M I; Maslov, A V; Bodrov, S B

    2007-11-16

    We show that the usual Fresnel formulas for a free-propagating pulse are not applicable for a forced terahertz electromagnetic pulse supported by an optical pulse at the end of a nonlinear crystal. The correct linear reflection and transmission coefficients that we derive show that such pulses can experience a gain or loss at the boundary. This energy change depends on linear dielectric constants only. We also predict a regime where a complete disappearance of the forced pulse under oblique incidence occurs, an effect that has no counterpart for free-propagating pulses.

  17. Liquid-Metal-Fed Pulsed Electromagnetic Thrusters For In-Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markusic, T. E.

    2004-01-01

    We describe three pulsed electromagnetic thruster concepts, which span four orders of magnitude in power processing capability (100 W to >100 kW), for in-space propulsion applications. The primary motivation for using a pulsed system is to is to enable high (instantaneous) power operation, which provides high acceleration efficiency, while using considerably less (continuous) power from the spacecraft power system. Unfortunately, conventional pulsed thrusters require failure-prone electrical switches and gas-puff valves. The series of thrusters described here directly address this problem, through the use of liquid metal propellant, by either eliminating both components or providing less taxing operational requirements, thus yielding a path toward both efficient and reliable pulsed electromagnetic thrusters. The emphasis of this paper is to conceptually describe each of the thruster concepts; however, initial test results with gallium propellant in one thruster geometry are presented. These tests reveal that a greater understanding of gallium material compatibility, contamination, and wetting behavior will be necessary before a completely functional thruster can be developed. Initial experimental results aimed at providing insight into these issues are presented.

  18. Modern concepts of treatment and prevention of lightning injuries.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Farinholt, Heidi-Marie A; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D; Long, William B

    2005-01-01

    Lightning is the second most common cause of weather-related death in the United States. Lightning is a natural atmospheric discharge that occurs between regions of net positive and net negative electric charges. There are several types of lightning, including streak lightning, sheet lightning, ribbon lightning, bead lightning, and ball lightning. Lightning causes injury through five basic mechanisms: direct strike, flash discharge (splash), contact, ground current (step voltage), and blunt trauma. While persons struck by lightning show evidence of multisystem derangement, the most dramatic effects involve the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Cardiopulmonary arrest is the most common cause of death in lightning victims. Immediate resuscitation of people struck by lightning greatly affects the prognosis. Electrocardiographic changes observed following lightning accidents are probably from primary electric injury or burns of the myocardium without coronary artery occlusion. Lightning induces vasomotor spasm from direct sympathetic stimulation resulting in severe loss of pulses in the extremities. This vasoconstriction may be associated with transient paralysis. Damage to the central nervous system accounts for the second most debilitating group of injuries. Central nervous system injuries from lightning include amnesia and confusion, immediate loss of consciousness, weakness, intracranial injuries, and even brief aphasia. Other organ systems injured by lightning include the eye, ear, gastrointestinal system, skin, and musculoskeletal system. The best treatment of lightning injuries is prevention. The Lightning Safety Guidelines devised by the Lightning Safety Group should be instituted in the United States and other nations to prevent these devastating injuries.

  19. Lightning burns.

    PubMed

    Russell, Katie W; Cochran, Amalia L; Mehta, Sagar T; Morris, Stephen E; McDevitt, Marion C

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a lightning-strike victim. This case illustrates the importance of in-field care, appropriate referral to a burn center, and the tendency of lightning burns to progress to full-thickness injury.

  20. Measurement of electromagnetic pulses generated during interactions of high power lasers with solid targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marco, M.; Krása, J.; Cikhardt, J.; Pfeifer, M.; Krouský, E.; Margarone, D.; Ahmed, H.; Borghesi, M.; Kar, S.; Giuffrida, L.; Vrana, R.; Velyhan, A.; Limpouch, J.; Korn, G.; Weber, S.; Velardi, L.; Delle Side, D.; Nassisi, V.; Ullschmied, J.

    2016-06-01

    A target irradiated with a high power laser pulse, blows off a large amount of charge and as a consequence the target itself becomes a generator of electromagnetic pulses (EMP) owing to high return current flowing to the ground through the target holder. The first measurement of the magnetic field induced by the neutralizing current reaching a value of a few kA was performed with the use of an inductive target probe at the PALS Laser Facility (Cikhardt et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85 (2014) 103507). A full description of EMP generation should contain information on the spatial distribution and temporal variation of the electromagnetic field inside and outside of the interaction chamber. For this reason, we consider the interaction chamber as a resonant cavity in which different modes of EMP oscillate for hundreds of nanoseconds, until the EMP is transmitted outside through the glass windows and EM waves are attenuated. Since the experimental determination of the electromagnetic field distribution is limited by the number of employed antennas, a mapping of the electromagnetic field has to be integrated with numerical simulations. Thus, this work reports on a detailed numerical mapping of the electromagnetic field inside the interaction chamber at the PALS Laser Facility (covering a frequency spectrum from 100 MHz to 3 GHz) using the commercial code COMSOL Multiphysics 5.2. Moreover we carried out a comparison of the EMP generated in the parallelepiped-like interaction chamber used in the Vulcan Petawatt Laser Facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, against that produced in the spherical interaction chamber of PALS.

  1. Electromagnetic pulse-driven spin-dependent currents in semiconductor quantum rings.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-Gang; Berakdar, Jamal

    2009-04-08

    We investigate the non-equilibrium charge and spin-dependent currents in a quantum ring with a Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI) driven by two asymmetric picosecond electromagnetic pulses. The equilibrium persistent charge and persistent spin-dependent currents are investigated as well. It is shown that the dynamical charge and the dynamical spin-dependent currents vary smoothly with a static external magnetic flux and the SOI provides a SU(2) effective flux that changes the phases of the dynamic charge and the dynamic spin-dependent currents. The period of the oscillation of the total charge current with the delay time between the pulses is larger in a quantum ring with a larger radius. The parameters of the pulse fields control to a certain extent the total charge and the total spin-dependent currents. The calculations are applicable to nanometre rings fabricated in heterojunctions of III-V and II-VI semiconductors containing several hundreds of electrons.

  2. Modeling ultrashort electromagnetic pulses with a generalized Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstrand, A.; Moloney, J. V.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we derive a properly scaled model for the nonlinear propagation of intense, ultrashort, mid-infrared electromagnetic pulses (10-100 femtoseconds) through an arbitrary dispersive medium. The derivation results in a generalized Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (gKP) equation. In contrast to envelope-based models such as the Nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation, the gKP equation describes the dynamics of the field's actual carrier wave. It is important to resolve these dynamics when modeling ultrashort pulses. We proceed by giving an original proof of sufficient conditions on the initial pulse for a singularity to form in the field after a finite propagation distance. The model is then numerically simulated in 2D using a spectral-solver with initial data and physical parameters highlighting our theoretical results.

  3. Mapping lightning in the sky with a mini array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Füllekrug, Martin; Liu, Zhongjian; Koh, Kuang; Mezentsev, Andrew; Pedeboy, Stéphane; Soula, Serge; Enno, Sven-Erik; Sugier, Jacqueline; Rycroft, Michael J.

    2016-10-01

    Mini arrays are commonly used for infrasonic and seismic studies. Here we report for the first time the detection and mapping of distant lightning discharges in the sky with a mini array. The array has a baseline to wavelength ratio ˜4.2·10-2 to record very low frequency electromagnetic waves from 2 to 18 kHz. It is found that the mini array detects ˜69 lightning pulses per second from cloud-to-ground and in-cloud discharges, even though the parent thunderstorms are ˜900-1100 km away and a rigorous selection criterion based on the quality of the wavefront across the array is used. In particular, lightning pulses that exhibit a clockwise phase progression are found at larger elevation angles in the sky as the result of a birefringent subionospheric wave propagation attributed to ordinary and extraordinary waves. These results imply that long range lightning detection networks might benefit from an exploration of the wave propagation conditions with mini arrays.

  4. Long Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10.6 micron CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-29

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0365 Long Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10.6 micron CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source Jerome Moloney...SUBTITLE "Long Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10.6 micron CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-15-1-0272 5b...afosr.reports.sgizmo.com/s3/> Subject: Final Report to Dr. Arje Nachman Contract/Grant Title: Long Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10.6

  5. Effect of electromagnetic pulse exposure on brain micro vascular permeability in rats.

    PubMed

    Ding, Gui-Rong; Li, Kang-Chu; Wang, Xiao-Wu; Zhou, Yong-Chun; Qiu, Lian-Bo; Tan, Juan; Xu, Sheng-Long; Guo, Guo-Zhen

    2009-06-01

    To observe the effect of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) exposure on cerebral micro vascular permeability in rats. The whole-body of male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed or sham exposed to 200 pulses or 400 pulses (1 Hz) of EMP at 200 kV/m. At 0.5, 1, 3, 6, and 12 h after EMP exposure, the permeability of cerebral micro vascular was detected by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry using lanthanum nitrate and endogenous albumin as vascular tracers, respectively. The lanthanum nitrate tracer was limited to the micro vascular lumen with no lanthanum nitrate or albumin tracer extravasation in control rat brain. After EMP exposure, the lanthanum nitrate ions reached the tight junction, basal lamina and pericapillary tissue. Similarly, the albumin immunopositive staining was identified in pericapillary tissue. The changes in brain micro vascular permeability were transient, the leakage of micro vascular vessels appeared at 1 h, and reached its peak at 3 h, and nearly recovered at 12 h, after EMP exposure. In addition, the leakage of micro vascular was more obvious after exposure of EMP at 400 pulses than after exposure of EMP at 200 pulses. Exposure to 200 and 400 pulses (1 Hz) of EMP at 200 kV/m can increase cerebral micro vascular permeability in rats, which is recoverable.

  6. Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Breast Cancer Cell Line MCF 7 Using Absorption Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Dominic Z; Soliman, Ian Jerry S; Pobre, Romeric F; Naguib, Raouf N G

    2017-07-01

    We present an analysis of the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) with 3.3 MHz carrier frequency and modulated by audio resonant frequencies on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line in vitro using absorption spectroscopy. This involves a fluorescence dye called PrestoBlue™ Cell Viability Reagent and a spectrophotometry to test the viability of MCF-7 breast cancer cells under different PEMF treatment conditions in terms of the cell absorption values. The DNA molecule of the MCF-7 breast cancer cells has an electric dipole property that renders it sensitive and reactive to applied electromagnetic fields. Resonant frequencies derived from four genes mutated in MCF-7 breast cancer cells [rapamycin-insensitive companion of mammalian target of rapamycin (RICTOR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARG), Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 (NBN) and checkpoint kinase 2 (CHEK2)] were applied in generating square pulsed electromagnetic waves. Effects were monitored through measurement of absorption of the samples with PrestoBlue™, and the significance of the treatment was determined using the t-test. There was a significant effect on MCF-7 cells after treatment with PEMF at the resonant frequencies of the following genes for specific durations of exposure: RICTOR for 10 min, PPARG for 10 min, NBN for 15 min, and CHEK2 for 5 min. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of infrasound from lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assink, J. D.; Evers, L. G.; Holleman, I.; Paulssen, H.

    2008-08-01

    During thunderstorm activity in the Netherlands, electromagnetic and infrasonic signals are emitted due to the process of lightning and thunder. It is shown that correlating infrasound detections with results from a electromagnetic lightning detection network is successful up to distances of 50 km from the infrasound array. Infrasound recordings clearly show blastwave characteristics which can be related to cloud-ground discharges, with a dominant frequency between 1-5 Hz. Amplitude measurements of CG discharges can partly be explained by the beam pattern of a line source with a dominant frequency of 3.9 Hz, up to a distance of 20 km. The ability to measure lightning activity with infrasound arrays has both positive and negative implications for CTBT verification purposes. As a scientific application, lightning studies can benefit from the worldwide infrasound verification system.

  8. Analysis of electrical transients created by lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nanevicz, J. E.; Vance, E. F.

    1980-01-01

    A series of flight tests was conducted using a specially-instrumented NASA Learjet to study the electrical transients created on an aircraft by nearby lightning. The instrumentation included provisions for the time-domain and frequency-domain recording of the electrical signals induced in sensors located both on the exterior and on the interior of the aircraft. The design and calibration of the sensors and associated measuring systems is described together with the results of the flight test measurements. The results indicate that the concept of providing instrumentation to follow the lightning signal from propagation field, to aircraft skin current, to current on interior wiring is basically sound. The results of the measurement indicate that the high frequency signals associated with lightning stroke precursor activity are important in generating electromagnetic noise on the interior of the aircraft. Indeed, the signals produced by the precursors are often of higher amplitude and of longer duration that the pulse produced by the main return stroke.

  9. Healing of damaged metal by a pulsed high-energy electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukudzhanov, K. V.; Levitin, A. L.

    2018-04-01

    The processes of defect (intergranular micro-cracks) transformation are investigated for metal samples in a high-energy short-pulsed electromagnetic field. This investigation is based on a numerical coupled model of the impact of high-energy electromagnetic field on the pre-damaged thermal elastic-plastic material with defects. The model takes into account the melting and evaporation of the metal and the dependence of its physical and mechanical properties on the temperature. The system of equations is solved numerically by finite element method with an adaptive mesh using the arbitrary Euler–Lagrange method. The calculations show that the welding of the crack and the healing of micro-defects under treatment by short pulses of the current takes place. For the macroscopic description of the healing process, the healing and damage parameters of the material are introduced. The healing of micro-cracks improves the material healing parameter and reduces its damage. The micro-crack shapes practically do not affect the time-dependence of the healing and damage under the treatment by the current pulses. These changes are affected only by the value of the initial damage of the material and the initial length of the micro-crack. The time-dependence of the healing and the damage is practically the same for all different shapes of micro-defects, provided that the initial lengths of micro-cracks and the initial damages are the same for these different shapes of defects.

  10. [Apoptosis of human lung carcinoma cell line GLC-82 induced by high power electromagnetic pulse].

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiao-zhe; Zhao, Mei-lan; Wang, De-wen; Dong, Bo

    2002-09-01

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) could be used for sterilization of food and the efficiency is higher than 2450 MHz continuous microwave done. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on apoptosis of human lung carcinoma cell line GLC-82, so that to explore and develop therapeutic means for cancer. The injury changes in GLC-82 cells after irradiated with EMP (electric field intensity was 60 kV/m, 5 pulses/2 min) were analyzed by cytometry, MTT chronometry, and flow cytometry. The immunohistochemical SP staining was used to determine the expressions of bcl-2 protein and p53 protein. The stained positive cells were analyzed by CMIAS-II image analysis system at a magnification 400. All data were analyzed by SPSS8.0 software. EMP could obviously inhibited proliferation and activity of lung carcinoma cell line GLC-82. The absorbance value (A570) of MTT decreased immediately, at 0 h, 1 h, and 6 h after the GLC-82 cells irradiated by EMP as compared with control group. The highest apoptosis rate was found to reach 13.38% by flow cytometry at 6 h after EMP irradiation. Down-regulation of bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of p53 expression were induced by EMP. EMP promotes apoptosis of GLC-82 cells. At same time, EMP can down-regulate bcl-2 expression and up-regulate p53 expression in GLC-82 cells. The bcl-2 and the p53 protein may involve the apoptotic process.

  11. Effects of pulsed and sinusoid electromagnetic fields on human chondrocytes cultivated in a collagen matrix.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Rohlfing, Bernhard; Silny, Jiri; Woodruff, Seth; Gavenis, Karsten

    2008-08-01

    Although several effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on articular cartilage have been reported in recent studies, the use of EMFs to treat osteoarthritis remains a matter of debate. In an in vitro study, human chondrocytes harvested from osteoarthritic knee joints were released from their surrounding matrix and transferred in defined concentration into a 3D matrix (type-I collagen gel). The cultivation, performed under standard conditions, lasted up to 14 days. During this time, treatment groups were continuously exposed to either sinusoid or pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs). The PEMFs revealed the following characteristics: maximum magnetic flux density of 2 mT, frequency of the bursts of 16.7 Hz with each burst consisting of 20 pulses. Similarly, the sinusoid EMFs also induced a maximum flux density of 2 mT with a frequency of 50 Hz. Control groups consisting of equal number of samples were not exposed to EMF. Immunohistological examinations of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples revealed positive staining for type-II collagen and proteoglycans in the immediate pericellular region with no differences between the two different treatment groups and the control groups. With increasing cultivation time, both type-II collagen and aggrecan gene expression declined, but no significant differences in gene expression were found between the treatment and control groups. In conclusion, using our in vitro setting, we were unable to detect any effects of pulsed and sinusoidal magnetic fields on human adult osteoarthritic chondrocytes.

  12. Two-dimensional electromagnetic Child-Langmuir law of a short-pulse electron flow

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S. H.; Tai, L. C.; Liu, Y. L.

    Two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations were performed to study the effect of the displacement current and the self-magnetic field on the space charge limited current density or the Child-Langmuir law of a short-pulse electron flow with a propagation distance of {zeta} and an emitting width of W from the classical regime to the relativistic regime. Numerical scaling of the two-dimensional electromagnetic Child-Langmuir law was constructed and it scales with ({zeta}/W) and ({zeta}/W){sup 2} at the classical and relativistic regimes, respectively. Our findings reveal that the displacement current can considerably enhance the space charge limited current density as compared to the well-knownmore » two-dimensional electrostatic Child-Langmuir law even at the classical regime.« less

  13. Remote detection of radioactive material using high-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongsung; Yu, Dongho; Sawant, Ashwini; Choe, Mun Seok; Lee, Ingeun; Kim, Sung Gug; Choi, EunMi

    2017-05-09

    Remote detection of radioactive materials is impossible when the measurement location is far from the radioactive source such that the leakage of high-energy photons or electrons from the source cannot be measured. Current technologies are less effective in this respect because they only allow the detection at distances to which the high-energy photons or electrons can reach the detector. Here we demonstrate an experimental method for remote detection of radioactive materials by inducing plasma breakdown with the high-power pulsed electromagnetic waves. Measurements of the plasma formation time and its dispersion lead to enhanced detection sensitivity compared to the theoretically predicted one based only on the plasma on and off phenomena. We show that lower power of the incident electromagnetic wave is sufficient for plasma breakdown in atmospheric-pressure air and the elimination of the statistical distribution is possible in the presence of radioactive material.

  14. Remote detection of radioactive material using high-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dongsung; Yu, Dongho; Sawant, Ashwini; Choe, Mun Seok; Lee, Ingeun; Kim, Sung Gug; Choi, EunMi

    2017-01-01

    Remote detection of radioactive materials is impossible when the measurement location is far from the radioactive source such that the leakage of high-energy photons or electrons from the source cannot be measured. Current technologies are less effective in this respect because they only allow the detection at distances to which the high-energy photons or electrons can reach the detector. Here we demonstrate an experimental method for remote detection of radioactive materials by inducing plasma breakdown with the high-power pulsed electromagnetic waves. Measurements of the plasma formation time and its dispersion lead to enhanced detection sensitivity compared to the theoretically predicted one based only on the plasma on and off phenomena. We show that lower power of the incident electromagnetic wave is sufficient for plasma breakdown in atmospheric-pressure air and the elimination of the statistical distribution is possible in the presence of radioactive material. PMID:28486438

  15. Atmospheric electromagnetic pulse propagation effects from thick targets in a terawatt laser target chamber.

    PubMed

    Remo, John L; Adams, Richard G; Jones, Michael C

    2007-08-20

    Generation and effects of atmospherically propagated electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) initiated by photoelectrons ejected by the high density and temperature target surface plasmas from multiterawatt laser pulses are analyzed. These laser radiation pulse interactions can significantly increase noise levels, thereby obscuring data (sometimes totally) and may even damage sensitive probe and detection instrumentation. Noise effects from high energy density (approximately multiterawatt) laser pulses (approximately 300-400 ps pulse widths) interacting with thick approximately 1 mm) metallic and dielectric solid targets and dielectric-metallic powder mixtures are interpreted as transient resonance radiation associated with surface charge fluctuations on the target chamber that functions as a radiating antenna. Effective solutions that minimize atmospheric EMP effects on internal and proximate electronic and electro-optical equipment external to the system based on systematic measurements using Moebius loop antennas, interpretations of signal periodicities, and dissipation indicators determining transient noise origin characteristics from target emissions are described. Analytic models for the effect of target chamber resonances and associated noise current and temperature in a probe diode laser are described.

  16. Atmospheric electromagnetic pulse propagation effects from thick targets in a terawatt laser target chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remo, John L.; Adams, Richard G.; Jones, Michael C.

    2007-08-01

    Generation and effects of atmospherically propagated electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) initiated by photoelectrons ejected by the high density and temperature target surface plasmas from multiterawatt laser pulses are analyzed. These laser radiation pulse interactions can significantly increase noise levels, thereby obscuring data (sometimes totally) and may even damage sensitive probe and detection instrumentation. Noise effects from high energy density (approximately multiterawatt) laser pulses (˜300-400 ps pulse widths) interacting with thick (˜1 mm) metallic and dielectric solid targets and dielectric-metallic powder mixtures are interpreted as transient resonance radiation associated with surface charge fluctuations on the target chamber that functions as a radiating antenna. Effective solutions that minimize atmospheric EMP effects on internal and proximate electronic and electro-optical equipment external to the system based on systematic measurements using Moebius loop antennas, interpretations of signal periodicities, and dissipation indicators determining transient noise origin characteristics from target emissions are described. Analytic models for the effect of target chamber resonances and associated noise current and temperature in a probe diode laser are described.

  17. Atmospheric electromagnetic pulse propagation effects from thick targets in a terawatt laser target chamber

    DOE PAGES

    Remo, John L.; Adams, Richard G.; Jones, Michael C.

    2007-08-16

    Generation and effects of atmospherically propagated electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) initiated by photoelectrons ejected by the high density and temperature target surface plasmas from multiterawatt laser pulses are analyzed. These laser radiation pulse interactions can significantly increase noise levels, thereby obscuring data (sometimes totally) and may even damage sensitive probe and detection instrumentation. Noise effects from high energy density (approximately multiterawatt) laser pulses (~300–400 ps pulse widths) interacting with thick (~1 mm) metallic and dielectric solid targets and dielectric–metallic powder mixtures are interpreted as transient resonance radiation associated with surface charge fluctuations on the target chamber that functions as a radiatingmore » antenna. Effective solutions that minimize atmospheric EMP effects on internal and proximate electronic and electro-optical equipment external to the system based on systematic measurements using Moebius loop antennas, interpretations of signal periodicities, and dissipation indicators determining transient noise origin characteristics from target emissions are described. Analytic models for the effect of target chamber resonances and associated noise current and temperature in a probe diode laser are described.« less

  18. Defects in regular nanosystems and interference spectra at reemission of electromagnetic field attosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, V. I.; Makarov, D. N.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of defects in nanostructured targets on interference spectra at the reemission of attosecond electromagnetic pulses has been considered. General expressions have been obtained for calculations of spectral distributions for one-, two-, and three-dimensional multiatomic nanosystems consisting of identical complex atoms with defects such as bends, vacancies, and breaks. Changes in interference spectra by a linear chain with several removed atoms (chain with breaks) and by a linear chain with a bend have been calculated as examples allowing a simple analytical representation. Generalization to two- and three-dimensional nanosystems has been developed.

  19. Electromagnetic plane-wave pulse transmission into a Lorentz half-space.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Natalie A

    2011-12-01

    The propagation of an electromagnetic plane-wave signal obliquely incident upon a Lorentz half-space is studied analytically. Time-domain asymptotic expressions that increase in accuracy with propagation distance are derived by application of uniform saddle point methods on the Fourier-Laplace integral representation of the transmitted field. The results are shown to be continuous in time and comparable with numerical calculations of the field. Arrival times and angles of refraction are given for prominent transient pulse features and the steady-state signal.

  20. Effects of electromagnetic pulse on bone metabolism of mice in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Kang-Chu; Ma, Shi-Rong; Ding, Gui-Rong; Guo, Yao; Guo, Guo-Zhen

    2009-12-01

    To study the effects of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on bone metabolism of mice in vivo. Twenty-four male BALB/c mice were divided into a control group and 2 experimental groups (n=8). The whole-body of mice in experimental groups were exposed to 50 kV/m and 400kV/m EMP, 400 pulses daily for 7 consecutive days at 2 seconds intervals. Alkaline phosphotase (ALP) activity, serum calcium concentration and osteocalcin level and trabecular bone volume (BV/TV, %) were measured immediately after EMP exposure by biochemical, ELISA and morphological methods. The ALP activity, serum calcium concentration and osteocalcin level and BV/TV in experimental groups remained unchanged after EMP exposure. Conclusion Under our experimental conditions, EMP exposure cannot affect bone metabolism of mice in vivo.

  1. Reemission spectra and interference effects at the interaction of multiatomic targets with ultrashort electromagnetic pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, V. I.; Matrasulov, D. U.

    2013-01-01

    The processes of reemission of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses by linear chains consisting of isolated multielectron atoms have been considered. The developed method makes it possible to accurately take into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the field of an ultrashort pulse and the momenta of photons in reemission processes. The angular distributions of reemission spectra have been obtained for an arbitrary number of atoms in a chain. It has been shown that the interference of the photon emission amplitudes leads to the appearance of characteristic "diffraction" maxima. The results allow standard generalization to the cases of rescattering from two-dimensional (graphene-like) and three-dimensional lattices, as well as to the case of the inclusion of thermal vibrations of the atoms of lattices.

  2. Numerical simulation of narrow bipolar electromagnetic pulses generated by thunderstorm discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkov, E. I.; Babich, L. P.; Kutsyk, I. M.

    2013-07-01

    Using the concept of avalanche relativistic runaway electrons (REs), we perform numerical simulations of compact intracloud discharge (CID) as a generator of powerful natural electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) in the HF-VHF range, called narrow bipolar pulses (NBPs). For several values of the field overvoltage and altitude at which the discharge develops, the numbers of seed electrons initiating the avalanche are evaluated, with which the calculated EMP characteristics are consistent with the measured NBP parameters. We note shortcomings in the hypothesis assuming participation of cosmic ray air showers in avalanche initiation. The discharge capable of generating NBPs produces REs in numbers close to those in the source of terrestrial γ-ray flashes (TGFs), which can be an argument in favor of a unified NBP and TGF source.

  3. High power radiators of ultra-short electromagnetic quasi-unipolar pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, V. M.; Ostashev, V. E.; Tarakanov, V. P.; Ul'yanov, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    Results of creation, operation, and diagnostics of the high power radiators for ultra-short length electromagnetic pulses (USEMPs) with a quasi-unipolar profile, which have been developed in our laboratory, are presented. The radiating module contains: the ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna array, the exciting high voltage pulse semiconductor generator (a pulser), the power source and the control unit. The principles of antenna array with a high efficiency aperture about 0.9 were developed using joint four TEM-horns with shielding electrodes in every TEM-horn. Sizes of the antenna apertures were (16-60) cm. The pulsers produced by “FID Technology” company had the following parameters: 50 Ohm connector impedance, unipolar pulses voltages (10-100) kV, the rise-time (0.04-0.15) ns, and the width (0.2-1) ns. The modules radiate the USEMPs of (0.1-10) GHz spectrum, their repetition rate is (1-100) kHz, and the effective potential is E*R = (20-400) kV, producing the peak E-field into the far-zone of R-distance. Parameters of the USEMP waves were measured by a calibrated sensor with the following characteristics: the sensitivity 0.32V/(kV/m), the rise-time 0.03 ns, the duration up to 7 ns. The measurements were in agreement with the simulation results, which were obtained using the 3-D code “KARAT”. The USEMP waves with amplitudes (1-10) kV/m and the pulse repetition rate (0.5-100) kHz were successfully used to examine various electronic devices for an electromagnetic immunity.

  4. Overcoming Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria Using Bioactive Magnetic Nanoparticles and Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Novickij, Vitalij; Stanevičienė, Ramunė; Vepštaitė-Monstavičė, Iglė; Gruškienė, Rūta; Krivorotova, Tatjana; Sereikaitė, Jolanta; Novickij, Jurij; Servienė, Elena

    2018-01-01

    Nisin is a known bacteriocin, which exhibits a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity, while commonly being inefficient against Gram-negative bacteria. In this work, we present a proof of concept of novel antimicrobial methodology using targeted magnetic nisin-loaded nano-carriers [iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) (11–13 nm) capped with citric, ascorbic, and gallic acids], which are activated by high pulsed electric and electromagnetic fields allowing to overcome the nisin-resistance of bacteria. As a cell model the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli were used. We have applied 10 and 30 kV cm-1 electric field pulses (100 μs × 8) separately and in combination with two pulsed magnetic field protocols: (1) high dB/dt 3.3 T × 50 and (2) 10 mT, 100 kHz, 2 min protocol to induce additional permeabilization and local magnetic hyperthermia. We have shown that the high dB/dt pulsed magnetic fields increase the antimicrobial efficiency of nisin NPs similar to electroporation or magnetic hyperthermia methods and a synergistic treatment is also possible. The results of our work are promising for the development of new methods for treatment of the drug-resistant foodborne pathogens to minimize the risks of invasive infections. PMID:29375537

  5. Overcoming Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria Using Bioactive Magnetic Nanoparticles and Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields.

    PubMed

    Novickij, Vitalij; Stanevičienė, Ramunė; Vepštaitė-Monstavičė, Iglė; Gruškienė, Rūta; Krivorotova, Tatjana; Sereikaitė, Jolanta; Novickij, Jurij; Servienė, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Nisin is a known bacteriocin, which exhibits a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity, while commonly being inefficient against Gram-negative bacteria. In this work, we present a proof of concept of novel antimicrobial methodology using targeted magnetic nisin-loaded nano-carriers [iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) (11-13 nm) capped with citric, ascorbic, and gallic acids], which are activated by high pulsed electric and electromagnetic fields allowing to overcome the nisin-resistance of bacteria. As a cell model the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli were used. We have applied 10 and 30 kV cm -1 electric field pulses (100 μs × 8) separately and in combination with two pulsed magnetic field protocols: (1) high d B /d t 3.3 T × 50 and (2) 10 mT, 100 kHz, 2 min protocol to induce additional permeabilization and local magnetic hyperthermia. We have shown that the high d B /d t pulsed magnetic fields increase the antimicrobial efficiency of nisin NPs similar to electroporation or magnetic hyperthermia methods and a synergistic treatment is also possible. The results of our work are promising for the development of new methods for treatment of the drug-resistant foodborne pathogens to minimize the risks of invasive infections.

  6. Strong electromagnetic pulses generated in high-intensity laser-matter interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rączka, P.; Dubois, J.-L.; Hulin, S.; Rosiński, M.; Zaraś-Szydłowska, A.; Badziak, J.

    2018-01-01

    Results are reported of an experiment performed at the Eclipse laser facility in CELIA, Bordeaux, on the generation of strong electromagnetic pulses. Measurements were performed of the target neutralization current, the total target charge and the tangential component of the magnetic field for the laser energies ranging from 45 mJ to 92 mJ with the pulse duration approximately 40 fs, and for the pulse durations ranging from 39 fs to 1000 fs, with the laser energy approximately 90 mJ. It was found that the values obtained for thick (mm scale) Cu targets are visibly higher than values reported in previous experiments, which is argued to be a manifestation of a strong dependence of the target electric polarization process on the laser contrast and hence on the amount of preplasma. It was also found that values obtained for thin (μm scale) Al foils were visibly higher than values for thick Cu targets, especially for pulse durations longer than 100 fs. The correlations between the total target charge versus the maximum value of the target neutralization current, and the maximum value of the tangential component of the magnetic field versus the total target charge were analysed. They were found to be in very good agreement with correlations seen in data from previous experiments, which provides a good consistency check on our experimental procedures.

  7. Detection and Characterization of Flaws in Sprayed on Foam Insulation with Pulsed Terahertz Frequency Electromagnetic Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winfree, William P.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2005-01-01

    The detection and repair of flaws such as voids and delaminations in the sprayed on foam insulation of the external tank reduces the probability of foam debris during shuttle ascent. The low density of sprayed on foam insulation along with it other physical properties makes detection of flaws difficult with conventional techniques. An emerging technology that has application for quantitative evaluation of flaws in the foam is pulsed electromagnetic waves at terahertz frequencies. The short wavelengths of these terahertz pulses make them ideal for imaging flaws in the foam. This paper examines the application of terahertz pulses for flaw detection in foam characteristic of the foam insulation of the external tank. Of particular interest is the detection of voids and delaminations, encapsulated in the foam or at the interface between the foam and a metal backing. The technique is shown to be capable of imaging small voids and delaminations through as much as 20 cm of foam. Methods for reducing the temporal responses of the terahertz pulses to improve flaw detection and yield quantitative characterizations of the size and location of the flaws are discussed.

  8. Electromagnetic pulse from supernovae. [model for old low-mass stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colgate, S. A.

    1975-01-01

    Upper and lower limits to the radiated electromagnetic pulse from a supernova are calculated assuming that the mass fraction of the matter expanding inside the dipole magnetic field shares energy and maintains the pressure balance in the process. A supernova model is described in which the explosion occurs in old low-mass stars containing less than 10% hydrogen in their ejecta and a remnant neutron star is produced. The analysis indicates that although the surface layer of a star of 1 g/cu thickness may be shock-accelerated to an energy factor of about 100 and may expand into the vacuum with an energy factor approaching 10,000, the equatorial magnetic field will retard this expansion so that the inner, more massive ejecta layers will effectively accelerate the presumed canonical dipole magnetic field to greater velocities than would the surface layer alone. A pulse of 10 to the 46th power ergs in a width of about 150 cm will result which will not be affected by circumstellar matter or electron self-radiation effects. It is shown that interstellar matter will attenuate the pulse, but that charge separation may reduce the attenuation and allow a larger pulse to escape.

  9. Generating high-power short terahertz electromagnetic pulses with a multifoil radiator.

    PubMed

    Vinokurov, Nikolay A; Jeong, Young Uk

    2013-02-08

    We describe a multifoil cone radiator capable of generating high-field short terahertz pulses using short electron bunches. Round flat conducting foil plates with successively decreasing radii are stacked, forming a truncated cone with the z axis. The gaps between the foil plates are equal and filled with some dielectric (or vacuum). A short relativistic electron bunch propagates along the z axis. At sufficiently high particle energy, the energy losses and multiple scattering do not change the bunch shape significantly. When passing by each gap between the foil plates, the electron bunch emits some energy into the gap. Then, the radiation pulses propagate radially outward. For transverse electromagnetic waves with a longitudinal (along the z axis) electric field and an azimuthal magnetic field, there is no dispersion in these radial lines; therefore, the radiation pulses conserve their shapes (time dependence). At the outer surface of the cone, we have synchronous circular radiators. Their radiation field forms a conical wave. Ultrashort terahertz pulses with gigawatt-level peak power can be generated with this device.

  10. Mechanisms of amplification of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses in gyrotron traveling wave tube with helically corrugated waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Ginzburg, N. S., E-mail: ginzburg@appl.sci-nnov.ru; Zaslavsky, V. Yu.; Nizhny Novgorod State University, 23 Gagarin Ave., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod

    A time-domain self consistent theory of a gyrotron traveling wave tube with a helically corrugated operating waveguide has been developed. Based on this model, the process of short pulse amplification was studied in regimes of grazing and intersection of the dispersion curves of the electromagnetic wave and the electron beam. In the first case, the possibility of amplification without pulse form distortion was demonstrated for the pulse spectrum width of the order of the gain bandwidth. In the second case, when the electrons' axial velocity was smaller than the wave's group velocity, it was shown that the slippage of themore » incident signal with respect to the electron beam provides feeding of the signal by “fresh” electrons without initial modulation. As a result, the amplitude of the output pulse can exceed the amplitude of its saturated value for the case of the grazing regime, and, for optimal parameters, the peak output power can be even larger than the kinetic power of the electron beam.« less

  11. [Effects of electromagnetic pulses on apoptosis and TGF-β3 expression of mouse testis tissue].

    PubMed

    Luo, Yaning; Ding, Guirong; Chen, Yongbin; Xu, Shenglong; Wang, Xiaowu

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effects of electromagnetic pulses (EMP) on the apoptosis and transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGF-β3) expression of mouse testis tissue. Thirty-two male BALB/c mice were randomly and equally divided into one control group and three EMP treated groups, which were whole-body exposed to EMP at 200 kV/m with 100, 200, and 400 pulses, respectively. The control group received no treatment. The pathological changes and cell apoptosis in testis tissue were analyzed by TUNEL assay. The mRNA expression of TGF-β3 in testis tissue was determined by RT-PCR, and the protein expression of TGF-β3 was determined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. No obvious pathological changes were found in testis tissue after EMP exposure at 200 kV/m with 100 and 200 pulses. However, after EMP exposure with 400 pulses, degeneration and shedding of testis tissue, accompanied by significant increase in apoptosis rate (P < 0.05), was observed. The RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot showed that the expression of TGF-β3 mRNA and protein increased significantly after EMP exposure with 400 pulses as compared with that of the control group (P < 0.05). EMP exposure at 200 kV/m with 400 pulses increases the incidence of apoptosis and expression of TGF-β3 in mouse testis tissue, which is potentially one of the mechanisms by which EMP increases blood-testis barrier permeability in mice.

  12. Development of Design Standards and Guidelines for Electromagnetic Compatibility and Lightning Protection for Spacecraft Utilizing Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary design guidelines necessary to assure electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of spacecraft using composite materials, are presented. A database of electrical properties of composite materials which may have an effect on EMC is established. The guidelines concentrate on the composites that are conductive but may require enhancement to be adequate for EMC purposes. These composites are represented by graphite reinforced polymers. Methods for determining adequate conductivity levels for various EMC purposes are defined, along with the methods of design which increase conductivity of composite materials and joints to adequate levels.

  13. Effects of Lightning in the Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentman, Davis D.; Pasko, Victor P.; Morrill, Jeff S.

    2010-02-01

    AGU Chapman Conference on Effects of Thunderstorms and Lightning in the Upper Atmosphere; University Park, Pennsylvania, 10-14 May 2009; The serendipitous observation in 1989 of electrical discharge in the high atmosphere induced by thundercloud lightning launched a new field of geophysical investigation. From this single unexpected observation sprang a vigorous and fertile new research field that simultaneously encompasses geophysical disciplines that are normally pursued independently, such as meteorology and lightning, plasma and gas discharge physics, atmospheric chemistry, ionospheric physics, and energetic particle physics. Transient electrical discharge in the upper atmosphere spans the full range of altitudes between the tropopause and the ionosphere and takes a variety of forms that carry the whimsical names red sprites, blue jets, gigantic jets, elves (emissions of light and very low frequency perturbations from electromagnetic pulse sources), and sprite halos, collectively known as transient luminous events (TLEs). To date, TLEs have been observed from ground and airborne or spaceborne platforms above thunderstorm systems worldwide, and radio observations made concomitantly with optical observations have shown that they are produced by the transient far fields of thundercloud lightning. TLEs appear to be large-scale (tens of kilometers in dimension), upper atmospheric versions of conventional gas discharge akin to weakly ionized, collision-dominated systems found in laboratory discharge devices (millimeter-centimeter dimensions), with characteristic energies of a few electron volts. The dominant physical processes have been identified as described by the familiar kinetic theory of the photochemistry of the upper atmosphere, but with electric field-driven electron impact ionization playing the role of photolysis or energetic precipitating particle-induced ionization.

  14. Enhancement of mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis with short-term low intensity pulsed electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Parate, Dinesh; Franco-Obregón, Alfredo; Fröhlich, Jürg; Beyer, Christian; Abbas, Azlina A; Kamarul, Tunku; Hui, James H P; Yang, Zheng

    2017-08-25

    Pulse electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) have been shown to recruit calcium-signaling cascades common to chondrogenesis. Here we document the effects of specified PEMF parameters over mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) chondrogenic differentiation. MSCs undergoing chondrogenesis are preferentially responsive to an electromagnetic efficacy window defined by field amplitude, duration and frequency of exposure. Contrary to conventional practice of administering prolonged and repetitive exposures to PEMFs, optimal chondrogenic outcome is achieved in response to brief (10 minutes), low intensity (2 mT) exposure to 6 ms bursts of magnetic pulses, at 15 Hz, administered only once at the onset of chondrogenic induction. By contrast, repeated exposures diminished chondrogenic outcome and could be attributed to calcium entry after the initial induction. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels appear to mediate these aspects of PEMF stimulation, serving as a conduit for extracellular calcium. Preventing calcium entry during the repeated PEMF exposure with the co-administration of EGTA or TRP channel antagonists precluded the inhibition of differentiation. This study highlights the intricacies of calcium homeostasis during early chondrogenesis and the constraints that are placed on PEMF-based therapeutic strategies aimed at promoting MSC chondrogenesis. The demonstrated efficacy of our optimized PEMF regimens has clear clinical implications for future regenerative strategies for cartilage.

  15. Effects of Presowing Pulsed Electromagnetic Treatment of Tomato Seed on Growth, Yield, and Lycopene Content

    PubMed Central

    Efthimiadou, Aspasia; Katsenios, Nikolaos; Papastylianou, Panayiota; Triantafyllidis, Vassilios; Travlos, Ilias; Bilalis, Dimitrios J.

    2014-01-01

    The use of magnetic field as a presowing treatment has been adopted by researchers as a new environmental friendly technique. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of magnetic field exposure on tomato seeds covering a range of parameters such as transplanting percentage, plant height, shoot diameter, number of leaves per plant, fresh weight, dry weight, number of flowers, yield, and lycopene content. Pulsed electromagnetic field was used for 0, 5, 10, and 15 minutes as a presowing treatment of tomato seeds in a field experiment for two years. Papimi device (amplitude on the order of 12.5 mT) has been used. The use of pulsed electromagnetic field as a presowing treatment was found to enhance plant growth in tomato plants at certain duration of exposure. Magnetic field treatments and especially the exposure of 10 and 15 minutes gave the best results in all measurements, except plant height and lycopene content. Yield per plant was higher in magnetic field treatments, compared to control. MF-15 treatment yield was 80.93% higher than control treatment. Lycopene content was higher in magnetic field treatments, although values showed no statistically significant differences. PMID:25097875

  16. Effects of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on cardiac pacemakers. Final report, Nov 88-Oct 89

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, V.J.

    1991-11-01

    The U.S. Army Harry Diamond Laboratories' (HDL's) Woodbridge Research Facility (WRF) has conducted an investigation into the effects of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on medical electronics. This report specifically documents the findings on the effects of WRF's Army EMP Simulator Operations (AESOP) on cardiac pacemakers (CPMs). Empirical data are furnished and compared to the results of two independent analytical studies. The studies support the conclusion that damage to CPMs that might be located near the WRF boundaries is not likely. Furthermore, any upset in a CPM's operation is considered unlikely and inconsequential to the health of the CPM wearer. Cardiac pacemakersmore » (CPMs) have experienced significant technological advancements over the last decade, evolving from simple and bulky pulse generators to the small and sophisticated computerized units implanted today. With the implementation of sensitive digital electronics in modern pacemaker designs, concerns have been expressed for the possibility of an increased sensitivity of CPMs to electromagnetic interference (EMI). To some extent these concerns have abated to the increased awareness of the EMI problem by the manufacturers, as evident in better peacemaker designs and the decline in reported malfunctions due to EMI.« less

  17. Single-cycle high-intensity electromagnetic pulse generation in the interaction of a plasma wakefield with regular nonlinear structures.

    PubMed

    Bulanov, S S; Esirkepov, T Zh; Kamenets, F F; Pegoraro, F

    2006-03-01

    The interaction of regular nonlinear structures (such as subcycle solitons, electron vortices, and wake Langmuir waves) with a strong wake wave in a collisionless plasma can be exploited in order to produce ultrashort electromagnetic pulses. The electromagnetic field of the nonlinear structure is partially reflected by the electron density modulations of the incident wake wave and a single-cycle high-intensity electromagnetic pulse is formed. Due to the Doppler effect the length of this pulse is much shorter than that of the nonlinear structure. This process is illustrated with two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The considered laser-plasma interaction regimes can be achieved in present day experiments and can be used for plasma diagnostics.

  18. Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lightning Technologies, Inc., Pittsfield, MA, - a spinoff company founded by president J. Anderson Plumer, a former NASA contractor employee who developed his expertise with General Electric Company's High Voltage Laboratory - was a key player in Langley Research Center's Storm Hazards Research Program. Lightning Technologies used its NASA acquired experience to develop protective measures for electronic systems and composite structures on aircraft, both of which are particularly susceptible to lightning damage. The company also provides protection design and verification testing services for complete aircraft systems or individual components. Most aircraft component manufacturers are among Lightning Technologies' clients.

  19. Pulse electromagnetic fields enhance extracellular electron transfer in magnetic bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huihui; Liu, Bingfeng; Wang, Qisong; Sun, Jianmin; Xie, Guojun; Ren, Nanqi; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Xing, Defeng

    2017-01-01

    Microbial extracellular electron transfer (EET) is essential in driving the microbial interspecies interaction and redox reactions in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs). Magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) and magnetic fields (MFs) were recently reported to promote microbial EET, but the mechanisms of MFs stimulation of EET and current generation in BESs are not known. This study investigates the behavior of current generation and EET in a state-of-the-art pulse electromagnetic field (PEMF)-assisted magnetic BES (PEMF-MBES), which was equipped with magnetic carbon particle (Fe 3 O 4 @N-mC)-coated electrodes. Illumina Miseq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was also conducted to reveal the changes of microbial communities and interactions on the anode in response to magnetic field. PEMF had significant influences on current generation. When reactors were operated in microbial fuel cell (MFC) mode with pulse electromagnetic field (PEMF-MMFCs), power densities increased by 25.3-36.0% compared with no PEMF control MFCs (PEMF-OFF-MMFCs). More interestingly, when PEMF was removed, the power density dropped by 25.7%, while when PEMF was reintroduced, the value was restored to the previous level. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicon and principal component analysis (PCA) based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs) indicate that PEMFs led to the shifts in microbial community and changes in species evenness that decreased biofilm microbial diversity. Geobacter spp. were found dominant in all anode biofilms, but the relative abundance in PEMF-MMFCs (86.1-90.0%) was higher than in PEMF-OFF-MMFCs (82.5-82.7%), indicating that the magnetic field enriched Geobacter on the anode. The current generation of Geobacter -inoculated microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) presented the same change regularity, the accordingly increase or decrease corresponding with switch of PEMF, which confirmed the reversible stimulation of PEMFs on microbial electron transfer. The pulse electromagnetic

  20. Self-induced transparency and electromagnetic pulse compression in a plasma or an electron beam under cyclotron resonance conditions.

    PubMed

    Ginzburg, N S; Zotova, I V; Sergeev, A S

    2010-12-31

    Based on analogy to the well-known process of the self-induced transparency of an optical pulse propagating through a passive two-level medium we describe similar effects for a microwave pulse interacting with a cold plasma or rectilinear electron beam under cyclotron resonance condition. It is shown that with increasing amplitude and duration of an incident pulse the linear cyclotron absorption is replaced by the self-induced transparency when the pulse propagates without damping. In fact, the initial pulse decomposes to one or several solitons with amplitude and duration defined by its velocity. In a certain parameter range, the single soliton formation is accompanied by significant compression of the initial electromagnetic pulse. We suggest using the effect of self-compression for producing multigigawatt picosecond microwave pulses.

  1. Effect of Electromagnetic Pulses (EMP) on associative learning in mice and a preliminary study of mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong Bin; Li, Jing; Liu, Jun Ye; Zeng, Li Hua; Wan, Yi; Li, Yu Rong; Ren, Dongqing; Guo, G Z

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the effects of electromagnetic pulses (EMP) on associative learning in mice and test a preliminary mechanism for these effects. A tapered parallel plate gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cell with a flared rectangular coaxial transmission line was used to expose male BALB/c mice to EMP (peak-intensity 400 kV/m, rise-time 10 ns, pulse-width 350 ns, 0.5 Hz and total 200 pulses). Concurrent sham-exposed mice were used as a control. Associative learning, oxidative stress in the brain, serum chemistry and the protective action of tocopherol monoglucoside (TMG) in mice were measured, respectively. (1) Twelve hour and 1 day post EMP exposure associative learning was reduced significantly compared with sham control (p<0.05) but recovered at 2 d post EMP exposure. (2) Compared with the sham control, lipid peroxidation of brain tissue and chemiluminescence (CL) intensity increased significantly (p<0.05), while the activity of the antioxidant enzymes Superoxide Dismutase [SOD], Glutathione [GSH], Glutathione Peroxidase [GSH-Px], Catalase [CAT]) decreased significantly (p<0.05) at 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 1 d post EMP exposure. All these parameters recovered at 2 d post EMP exposure. (3) No significant differences between the sham control group and EMP exposed group were observed in serum cholesterol and triglycerides. (4) Pretreatment of mice with TMG showed protective effects to EMP exposure. EMP exposure significantly decreased associative learning in mice and TMG acted as an effective protective agent from EMP exposure. This mechanism could involve an increase of oxidative stress in brain by EMP exposure.

  2. The 1981 direct strike lightning data. [utilizing the F-106 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, F. L.; Thomas, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    Data waveforms obtained during the 1981 direct strike lightning tests, utilizing the NASA F-106B aircraft specially instrumented for lightning electromagnetic measurements are presented. The aircraft was operated in a thunderstorm environment to elicit strikes. Electromagnetic field data were recorded for both attached lightning and free field excitation of the aircraft.

  3. Review of Article, A Case for Submicrosecond Rise-Time Lightning Current Pulses for Use in Aircraft Induced-Coupling Studies, by D. W. Clifford, E. P. Krider and M. A. Uman

    SciTech Connect

    Cabayan, H.S.; Zicker, J.D.

    The amplitudes of currents due to lightning are considerably larger than NEMP induced currents both in the time and frequency domains. The more important quantity for aperture illumination is the rate of rise of the current. The analysis performed for this in this memorandum is unsatisfactory since the artificial double exponential model was used. Still, the lightning rate of rise is only twice as high as that due to NEMP even when the absolute worst (or presently known) lightning pulse is used. A much better way to do this comparison is to use an actual LEMP data and NEMP frommore » an actual weapon. Furthermore, because of lack of data, no electric field analysis was undertaken.« less

  4. Venus Lightning: What We Have Learned from the Venus Express Fluxgate Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Wei, H. Y.; Zhang, T. L.

    2010-03-01

    The Venus Express magnetometer sees short (tens of milliseconds) pulses of EM waves in the Venus ionosphere as predicted by the lightning model for the PVO electric pulses. These waves are stronger than similar terrestrial signals produced by lightning.

  5. The 1984 direct strike lightning data, part 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Mitchel E.; Carney, Harold K.

    1986-01-01

    Data waveforms are presented which were obtained during the 1984 direct-strike lightning tests utilizing the NASA F106-B aircraft specially instrumented for lightning electromagnetic measurements. The aircraft was operated in the vicinity of the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, in a thunderstorm environment to elicit strikes. Electromagnetic field data and conduction currents on the aircraft were recorded for attached lightning. This is part 3, consisting entirely of charts and graphs.

  6. In vitro stimulation with a strongly pulsed electromagnetic field on rat basophilic leukemia cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J. W.; Shin, S. C.; Kim, S.; Chung, E. R.; Bang, J. H.; Cho, G. I.; Choi, S. D.; Park, Y. S.; Jang, T. S.; Yoo, Y. M.; Lee, S. S.; Hwang, D. G.

    2010-05-01

    In this study, the effects of pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation with a strong magnetic field on rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells were investigated to confirm the efficacy of the magnetic stimulator for biomedical applications. The maximum intensity of the magnetic field generated from the stimulation coil was 0.203 T, and the transition time was 126 μs. The oscillation time and frequency of the pulsed field were almost 0.1 ms and 8 kHz, respectively. The cell count as well as the mRNA expression and DNA sequence of the cytokine genes, such as the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-4 (IL-4), of the stimulated RBL-2H3 cells were analyzed with a hemocytometer and via reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to determine the physiological response under a strong pulse field. After 12 h stimulation, cell death was observed at an increasing scale with the increase in the stimulation time. On the other hand, the cells that were stimulated for 10 min almost doubled as the interval time between the stimulations was extended.

  7. Pulsed-induced electromagnetically induced transparency in the acetylene-filled hollow-core fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Nayeli Casillas; Stepanov, Serguei; Miramontes, Manuel Ocegueda; Hernández, Eliseo Hernández

    2017-06-01

    Experimental results on pulsed excitation of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the acetylene-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) at pressures 0.1-0.4 Torr are reported. The EIT was observed both in Λ and V interaction configurations with the continuous probe wave tuned to R9 (1520.08 nm) acetylene absorption line and with the control pulses tuned to P11 (1531.58 nm) and P9 (1530.37 nm) lines, respectively. The utilized control pulses were of up to 40 ns duration with <2.5 ns fronts and with maximum input power 1 W. The maximum modulation depth of the initial probe wave absorption via EIT was up to 40 and 15% for the co- and counter-propagation of the probe and control waves, respectively, and importance of the waves polarization matching was demonstrated. For a qualitative explanation of reduction in the counter-propagation EIT efficiency a simple model of the accelerated mismatch of the two-frequency EIT resonance with deviation of the molecule thermal velocity from the resonance value was utilized. It was shown experimentally that the EIT efficiencies in both configurations do not depend on the longitudinal velocity of the molecules. The characteristic relaxation time of the of the EIT response was found to be about 9 ns, i.e., is close to the relaxation times T 1,2 of the acetylene molecules under the utilized experimental conditions.

  8. Strategies, Protections and Mitigations for Electric Grid from Electromagnetic Pulse Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, Rita Ann; Frickey, Steven Jay

    2016-01-01

    The mission of DOE’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) is to lead national efforts to modernize the electricity delivery system, enhance the security and reliability of America’s energy infrastructure and facilitate recovery from disruptions to the energy supply. One of the threats OE is concerned about is a high-altitude electro-magnetic pulse (HEMP) from a nuclear explosion and eletro-magnetic pulse (EMP) or E1 pulse can be generated by EMP weapons. DOE-OE provides federal leadership and technical guidance in addressing electric grid issues. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was chosen to conduct the EMP study for DOE-OE due tomore » its capabilities and experience in setting up EMP experiments on the electric grid and conducting vulnerability assessments and developing innovative technology to increase infrastructure resiliency. This report identifies known impacts to EMP threats, known mitigations and effectiveness of mitigations, potential cost of mitigation, areas for government and private partnerships in protecting the electric grid to EMP, and identifying gaps in our knowledge and protection strategies.« less

  9. Electromagnetic cascade in high-energy electron, positron, and photon interactions with intense laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanov, S. S.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2013-06-01

    The interaction of high-energy electrons, positrons, and photons with intense laser pulses is studied in head-on collision geometry. It is shown that electrons and/or positrons undergo a cascade-type process involving multiple emissions of photons. These photons can consequently convert into electron-positron pairs. As a result charged particles quickly lose their energy developing an exponentially decaying energy distribution, which suppresses the emission of high-energy photons, thus reducing the number of electron-positron pairs being generated. Therefore, this type of interaction suppresses the development of the electromagnetic avalanche-type discharge, i.e., the exponential growth of the number of electrons, positrons, and photons does not occur in the course of interaction. The suppression will occur when three-dimensional effects can be neglected in the transverse particle orbits, i.e., for sufficiently broad laser pulses with intensities that are not too extreme. The final distributions of electrons, positrons, and photons are calculated for the case of a high-energy e-beam interacting with a counterstreaming, short intense laser pulse. The energy loss of the e-beam, which requires a self-consistent quantum description, plays an important role in this process, as well as provides a clear experimental observable for the transition from the classical to quantum regime of interaction.

  10. Lightning Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Zen

    This paper presents a phenomenological idea about lightning flash to share the back ground understanding for this special issue. Lightning discharges are one of the terrible phenomena, and Benjamin Franklin has led this natural phenomenon to the stage of scientific investigation. Technical aspects like monitoring and location are also summarized in this article.

  11. Electromagnetic pulse scattering by a wedge moving in a free space with relativistic velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarkowski, Adam

    Recently, increased interest is observed in studying scattering of electromagnetic signals by objects moving with large velocities. The velocities considered can attain relativistic values. Interesting phenomena characteristic of this class of problems were observed, in this number the Doppler shift of equiphase surfaces in the diffracted wave. Apart from new techniques elaborated to attack general scattering problems involving moving objects, specific scaterring problems are also examined. Of special interest are moving scatterers with edges. The simplest scaterrer with this property is a wedge, which in particular case reduces to a half-plane. There is a number of recent works in which diffraction of specific electromagnetic signals by these objects in motion are analyzed. In most cases time-harmonic excitation fields are being assumed. This contribution is concerned with the analysis of 2D scattering of an electromagnetic pulse by a perfectly conducting wedge moving in a free space with relativistic velocity. The exciting field is a pulsed plane-wave signal, with its envelope described by a Dirac delta function. This choice is motivated by the fact that solutions to excitation fields with different envelopes can be obtained from that found here by its integration with an appropriate weight function. In this sense this solution plays a role of a Green function. In our analysis we neglect any dispersion phenomena connected with the surrounding medium. The results herein obtained may be useful in modelling phenomena connected with the space technology. In our analysis we apply the Frame Hopping Method. In particular we first Lorentz transform the pulse signal from the laboratory frame of reference where this field is defined, to the frame where the wedge is at rest. In the latter frame we Fourier transform the resulting field to the complex frequency domain, thus arriving at the problem of time-harmonic diffraction by the wedge at rest. This problem has the exact

  12. Searching for possible effects on midlatitude sporadic E layer, caused by tropospheric lightning.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barta, Veronika; Haldoupis, Christos; Sátori, Gabriella; Buresova, Dalia

    2016-07-01

    Thunderstorms in the troposphere may affect the overlying ionosphere through electrodynamic and/or neutral atmosphere wave coupling processes. For example, it is well known that lightning discharges may impact upper atmosphere through quasi-electrostatic fields and strong electromagnetic pulses, leading to transient luminous phenomena, such as sprites and elves, along with electron heating and ionization changes in the upper D and lower E-region ionosphere that have been detected in VLF transmissions propagating in the earth-ionosphere waveguide. On the other hand, mechanical coupling between the troposphere and the ionosphere may be caused by neutral atmosphere gravity waves which are known to have their origin in massive thunderstorms. The effects of troposphere-ionosphere coupling during thunderstorms, are not yet fully established and understood, therefore there is need for more correlative studies, for example by using concurrent ionospheric and lightning observations. In the present work an effort is made to investigate a possible relationship between tropospheric lighting and sporadic E layer, which are known to dominate at bottomside ionosphere and at middle latitudes during summer. For this, a correlative analysis was undertaken using lightning data obtained with the LINET lightning detection network in Central Europe, and E region ionospheric parameters (fmin, foE, foEs, fbEs) measured with the Pruhonice (50° N, 14.5° E) DPS-4D digisonde in the summer of 2009. For direct correlation with the digisonde data, the lightning activity was quantified every 15 minutes in coincidence with the measured ionogram parameters. In the search for relation between lightning and sporadic E, the digisonde observations during lightning were also compared with those taken during a number of tropospheric storm-free days in Pruhonice. The results of this correlative study did not provide evidence of significance that favors a relationship between tropospheric lightning and

  13. Photon bubbles and ion acceleration in a plasma dominated by the radiation pressure of an electromagnetic pulse.

    PubMed

    Pegoraro, F; Bulanov, S V

    2007-08-10

    The stability of a thin plasma foil accelerated by the radiation pressure of a high intensity electromagnetic (e.m.) pulse is investigated analytically and with particle in cell numerical simulations. It is shown that the onset of a Rayleigh-Taylor-like instability can lead to transverse bunching of the foil and to broadening of the energy spectrum of fast ions. The use of a properly tailored e.m. pulse with a sharp intensity rise can stabilize the foil acceleration.

  14. Overview and early results of the Global Lightning and Sprite Measurements mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.; Ushio, T.; Morimoto, T.; Kikuchi, M.; Kikuchi, H.; Adachi, T.; Suzuki, M.; Yamazaki, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Inan, U.; Linscott, I.; Ishida, R.; Sakamoto, Y.; Yoshida, K.; Hobara, Y.; Sano, T.; Abe, T.; Nakamura, M.; Oda, H.; Kawasaki, Z.-I.

    2015-05-01

    Global Lightning and Sprite Measurements on Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-GLIMS) is a space mission to conduct the nadir observations of lightning discharges and transient luminous events (TLEs). The main objectives of this mission are to identify the horizontal distribution of TLEs and to solve the occurrence conditions determining the spatial distribution. JEM-GLIMS was successfully launched and started continuous nadir observations in 2012. The global distribution of the detected lightning events shows that most of the events occurred over continental regions in the local summer hemisphere. In some events, strong far-ultraviolet emissions have been simultaneously detected with N2 1P and 2P emissions by the spectrophotometers, which strongly suggest the occurrence of TLEs. Especially, in some of these events, no significant optical emission was measured by the narrowband filter camera, which suggests the occurrence of elves, not sprites. The VLF receiver also succeeded in detecting lightning whistlers, which show clear falling-tone frequency dispersion. Based on the optical data, the time delay from the detected lightning emission to the whistlers was identified as ˜10 ms, which can be reasonably explained by the wave propagation with the group velocity of whistlers. The VHF interferometer conducted the spaceborne interferometric observations and succeeded in detecting VHF pulses. We observed that the VHF pulses are likely to be excited by the lightning discharge possibly related with in-cloud discharges and measured with the JEM-GLIMS optical instruments. Thus, JEM-GLIMS provides the first full set of optical and electromagnetic data of lightning and TLEs obtained by nadir observations from space.

  15. [Effects of electromagnetic pulse on blood-brain barrier permeability and tight junction proteins in rats].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lian-bo; Ding, Gui-rong; Zhang, Ya-mei; Zhou, Yan; Wang, Xiao-wu; Li, Kang-chu; Xu, Sheng-long; Tan, Juan; Zhou, Jia-xing; Guo, Guo-zhen

    2009-09-01

    To study the effect of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on the permeability of blood-brain barrier, tight junction (TJ)-associated protein expression and localization in rats. 66 male SD rats, weighing (200 approximately 250) g, were sham or whole-body exposed to EMP at 200 kV/m for 200 pulses. The repetition rate was 1 Hz. The permeability of the blood-brain barrier in rats was assessed by albumin immunohistochemistry. The expression of typical tight junction protein ZO-1 and occludin in both cerebral cortex homogenate and cerebral cortex microvessel homogenate was analyzed by the Western blotting and the distribution of ZO-1 and occludin was examined by immunofluorescence microscopy. In the sham exposure rats, no brain capillaries showed albumin leakage, at 0.5 h after 200 kV/m EMP exposure for 200 pulses; a few brain capillaries with extravasated serum albumin was found, with the time extended, the number of brain capillaries with extravasated serum albumin increased, and reached the peak at 3 h, then began to recover at 6 h. In addition, no change in the distribution of the occludin was found after EMP exposure. Total occludin expression had no significant change compared with the control. However, the expression level of ZO-1 significantly decreased at 1 h and 3 h after EMP exposure in both cerebral cortex homogenate and cerebral cortex microvessel homogenate. Furthermore, immunofluorescence studies also showed alterations in ZO-1 protein localization in cerebral cortex microvessel. The EMP exposure (200 kV/m, 200 pulses) could increase blood-brain barrier permeability in rat, and this change is associated with specific alterations in tight junction protein ZO-1.

  16. Stimulation of the brain with radiofrequency electromagnetic field pulses affects sleep-dependent performance improvement.

    PubMed

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Murbach, Manuel; Dürr, Roland; Schmid, Marc Ralph; Kuster, Niels; Achermann, Peter; Huber, Reto

    2013-09-01

    Sleep-dependent performance improvements seem to be closely related to sleep spindles (12-15 Hz) and sleep slow-wave activity (SWA, 0.75-4.5 Hz). Pulse-modulated radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF, carrier frequency 900 MHz) are capable to modulate these electroencephalographic (EEG) characteristics of sleep. The aim of our study was to explore possible mechanisms how RF EMF affect cortical activity during sleep and to test whether such effects on cortical activity during sleep interact with sleep-dependent performance changes. Sixteen male subjects underwent 2 experimental nights, one of them with all-night 0.25-0.8 Hz pulsed RF EMF exposure. All-night EEG was recorded. To investigate RF EMF induced changes in overnight performance improvement, subjects were trained for both nights on a motor task in the evening and the morning. We obtained good sleep quality in all subjects under both conditions (mean sleep efficiency > 90%). After pulsed RF EMF we found increased SWA during exposure to pulse-modulated RF EMF compared to sham exposure (P < 0.05) toward the end of the sleep period. Spindle activity was not affected. Moreover, subjects showed an increased RF EMF burst-related response in the SWA range, indicated by an increase in event-related EEG spectral power and phase changes in the SWA range. Notably, during exposure, sleep-dependent performance improvement in the motor sequence task was reduced compared to the sham condition (-20.1%, P = 0.03). The changes in the time course of SWA during the exposure night may reflect an interaction of RF EMF with the renormalization of cortical excitability during sleep, with a negative impact on sleep-dependent performance improvement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Photoelectron emission from LiF surfaces by ultrashort electromagnetic pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Acuna, M. A.; Gravielle, M. S.; Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires

    2011-03-15

    Energy- and angle-resolved electron emission spectra produced by incidence of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses on a LiF(001) surface are studied by employing a distorted-wave method named the crystal surface-Volkov (CSV) approximation. The theory makes use of the Volkov phase to describe the action of the external electric field on the emitted electron, while the electron-surface interaction is represented within the tight-binding model. The CSV approach is applied to investigate the effects introduced by the crystal lattice when the electric field is oriented parallel to the surface plane. These effects are essentially governed by the vector potential of the external field, whilemore » the influence of the crystal orientation was found to be negligible.« less

  18. Spectral and temporal characteristics of target current and electromagnetic pulse induced by nanosecond laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krása, J.; De Marco, M.; Cikhardt, J.; Pfeifer, M.; Velyhan, A.; Klír, D.; Řezáč, K.; Limpouch, J.; Krouský, E.; Dostál, J.; Ullschmied, J.; Dudžák, R.

    2017-06-01

    The current balancing the target charging and the emission of transient electromagnetic pulses (EMP) driven by the interaction of a focused 1.315 μm iodine 300 ps PALS laser with metallic and plastic targets were measured with the use of inductive probes. It is experimentally proven that the duration of return target currents and EMPs is much longer than the duration of laser-target interaction. The laser-produced plasma is active after the laser-target interaction. During this phase, the target acts as a virtual cathode and the plasma-target interface expands. A double exponential function is used in order to obtain the temporal characteristics of EMP. The rise time of EMPs fluctuates in the range up to a few tens of nanoseconds. Frequency spectra of EMP and target currents are modified by resonant frequencies of the interaction chamber.

  19. Electromagnetic pulse reduces free radical generation in rat liver mitochondria in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Zhou, H; Peng, R; Wang, L; Su, Z; Chen, P; Wang, S; Wang, S; Liu, Y; Cong, J; Wu, K; Hu, X; Fan, E

    2013-04-01

    Non-ionizing radiation electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is generally recorded to induce the generation of free radicals in vivo. Though mitochondria are the primary site to produce free radicals, a rare report is designed to directly investigate the EMP effects on free radical generation at mitochondrial level. Thus the present work was designed to study how EMP induces free radical generation in rat liver mitochondria in vitro using electron paramagnetic resonance technique. Surprisingly, our data suggest that EMP prevents free radical generation by activating antioxidant enzyme activity and reducing oxygen consumption and therefore free radical generation. Electron spin resonance measurements clearly demonstrate that disordering of mitochondrial lipid fluidity and membrane proteins mobility are the underlying contributors to this decreased oxygen consumption. Therefore, our results suggest that EMP might hold the potentiality to be developed as a non-invasive means to benefit certain diseases.

  20. Electromagnetic Fields, Pulsed Radiofrequency Radiation, and Epigenetics: How Wireless Technologies May Affect Childhood Development.

    PubMed

    Sage, Cindy; Burgio, Ernesto

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phones and other wireless devices that produce electromagnetic fields (EMF) and pulsed radiofrequency radiation (RFR) are widely documented to cause potentially harmful health impacts that can be detrimental to young people. New epigenetic studies are profiled in this review to account for some neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral changes due to exposure to wireless technologies. Symptoms of retarded memory, learning, cognition, attention, and behavioral problems have been reported in numerous studies and are similarly manifested in autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, as a result of EMF and RFR exposures where both epigenetic drivers and genetic (DNA) damage are likely contributors. Technology benefits can be realized by adopting wired devices for education to avoid health risk and promote academic achievement. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. Laboratory modeling and analysis of aircraft-lightning interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, C. D.; Trost, T. F.

    1982-01-01

    Modeling studies of the interaction of a delta wing aircraft with direct lightning strikes were carried out using an approximate scale model of an F-106B. The model, which is three feet in length, is subjected to direct injection of fast current pulses supplied by wires, which simulate the lightning channel and are attached at various locations on the model. Measurements are made of the resulting transient electromagnetic fields using time derivative sensors. The sensor outputs are sampled and digitized by computer. The noise level is reduced by averaging the sensor output from ten input pulses at each sample time. Computer analysis of the measured fields includes Fourier transformation and the computation of transfer functions for the model. Prony analysis is also used to determine the natural frequencies of the model. Comparisons of model natural frequencies extracted by Prony analysis with those for in flight direct strike data usually show lower damping in the in flight case. This is indicative of either a lightning channel with a higher impedance than the wires on the model, only one attachment point, or short streamers instead of a long channel.

  2. Electromagnetic pulse exposure induces overexpression of beta amyloid protein in rats.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Da-peng; Li, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Sheng-long; Kuang, Fang; Lang, Hai-yang; Wang, Ya-feng; An, Guang-zhou; Li, Jin-hui; Guo, Guo-zhen

    2013-04-01

    With the developing and widely used electromagnetic field (EMF) technology, more and more studies are focusing on the relationship between EMF and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is one type of widely used EMF. This study aimed to clarify whether EMP exposure could induce cognitive and memory impairment, thus finding a possible relationship between EMP and AD. Forty healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups. Animals, respectively, received 100, 1000, and 10,000 pulses EMP (field strength 50 kV/m, repetition rate 100 Hz) exposure and sham exposure when 2 months old. Monthly Morris water maze (MWM) was used to test the changes of cognitive and memory ability. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) content were used as oxidative stress indexes. Expressions of some types of Alzheimer's disease-related proteins were also detected. After exposure, EMP exposure caused clear cognitive and memory impairment compared with sham exposure group (p <0.05). Determination of oxidation indexes showed decreased SOD activity and GSH content in exposure groups compared with sham group. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining showed increased beta amyloid protein (Aβ) in EMP exposure groups compared with sham group. Western blot experiments showed increased expressions of Aβ oligomer and beta amyloid protein precursor (APP) in EMP exposure groups. Increased expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II (LC3-II) was also found. The present results showed that EMP exposure can cause long-term impairment in impaired cognition and memory of rats, resulting in AD-like symptoms. This may be induced by enhancing oxidative stress and is related to autophagy dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of the pulsed electromagnetic field PST® on human tendon stem cells: a controlled laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Randelli, Pietro; Menon, Alessandra; Ragone, Vincenza; Creo, Pasquale; Alfieri Montrasio, Umberto; Perucca Orfei, Carlotta; Banfi, Giuseppe; Cabitza, Paolo; Tettamanti, Guido; Anastasia, Luigi

    2016-08-18

    Current clinical procedures for rotator cuff tears need to be improved, as a high rate of failure is still observed. Therefore, new approaches have been attempted to stimulate self-regeneration, including biophysical stimulation modalities, such as low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields, which are alternative and non-invasive methods that seem to produce satisfying therapeutic effects. While little is known about their mechanism of action, it has been speculated that they may act on resident stem cells. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a pulsed electromagnetic field (PST®) on human tendon stem cells (hTSCs) in order to elucidate the possible mechanism of the observed therapeutic effects. hTSCs from the rotator cuff were isolated from tendon biopsies and cultured in vitro. Then, cells were exposed to a 1-h PST® treatment and compared to control untreated cells in terms of cell morphology, proliferation, viability, migration, and stem cell marker expression. Exposure of hTSCs to PST® did not cause any significant changes in proliferation, viability, migration, and morphology. Instead, while stem cell marker expression significantly decreased in control cells during cell culturing, PST®-treated cells did not have a significant reduction of the same markers. While PST® did not have significant effects on hTSCs proliferation, the treatment had beneficial effects on stem cell marker expression, as treated cells maintained a higher expression of these markers during culturing. These results support the notion that PST® treatment may increase the patient stem cell regenerative potential.

  4. Coupling of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) therapy to molecular grounds of the cell

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Richard HW

    2018-01-01

    In this review we compile results cited in reliable journals that show a ratio for the use of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) in therapy, indeed. This is true especially for chronically inflamed joints. Furthermore, we try to link this therapeutic approach to the molecular background of chronic inflammation and arthritis. At first we start with the clinical outcome of PEMF therapy. Then, we look for possible triggers and an electromagnetic counterpart that is endogenously inherent in cell biology and in the tissues of interest. Finally, we want to investigate causal molecular and cellular mechanisms of possible PEMF actions. It shows that there are endogenous mechanisms, indeed, which can act as triggers for PEMF like the resting membrane potential as well as resonance mechanisms in charged moieties like membrane transporters. Especially voltage-gated calcium channels can be triggered. These may lead into specific signaling pathways and also may elicit nitric oxide as well as moderate radical reactions, which can ultimately lead to e.g. NFκB-like reactions. Concerted in the right way, these reactions can cause a kind of cell protection and ultimately lead to a dampening of inflammatory signals like interleukins. PMID:29887943

  5. Influence of electromagnetic pulse on the offspring sex ratio of male BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Hui; Jiang, Da-Peng; Wang, Ya-Feng; Yan, Jia-Jia; Guo, Qi-Yan; Miao, Xia; Lang, Hai-Yang; Xu, Sheng-Long; Liu, Jun-Ye; Guo, Guo-Zhen

    2017-09-01

    Public concern is growing about the exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and its effect on male reproductive health. Detrimental effect of EMF exposure on sex hormones, reproductive performance and sex-ratio was reported. The present study was designed to clarify whether paternal exposure to electromagnetic pulse (EMP) affects offspring sex ratio in mice. 50 male BALB/c mice aged 5-6 weeks were exposed to EMP daily for 2 weeks before mated with non-exposed females at 0d, 7d, 14d, 21d and 28d after exposure. Sex hormones including total testosterone, LH, FSH, and GnRH were detected using radioimmunoassay. The sex ratio was examined by PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis. The results of D0, D21 and D28 showed significant increases compared with sham-exposed groups. The serum testosterone increased significantly in D0, D14, D21, and D28 compared with sham-exposed groups (p<0.05). Overall, this study suggested that EMP exposure may lead to the disturbance of reproductive hormone levels and affect the offspring sex ratio. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Converting Existing Copper Wire Firing System to a Fiber Optically Controlled Firing System for Electromagnetic Pulsed Power Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-12-19

    Firing System for Electromagnetic Pulsed Power Experiments by Robert Borys Jr and Colby Adams Approved for public release...Belcamp, MD Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ii REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188... Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions

  7. Clinical Assessment of the RHUMART System Based on the Use of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields with Low Frequency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begue-Simon, A-M.; Drolet, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    Difficulties in using the double-blind method of evaluation with use of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields led to an open evaluation with 96 patients with musculoskeletal diseases, neurological disorders, circulatory diseases, or gastroenterological diseases. This paper reports the impact of use on dependency, pain, and patient satisfaction. (DB)

  8. Development of Lightning Observation Network in the Western Pacific Region for the Intensity Prediction of Severe Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Yamashita, K.; Kubota, H.; Hamada, J. I.; Momota, E.; Marciano, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    Lightning activity represents the thunderstorm activity, that is, the precipitation and/or updraft intensity and area. Thunderstorm activity is also an important parameter in terms of the energy inputs from the ocean to the atmosphere inside tropical cyclone, which is one of severe weather events. Recent studies suggest that it is possible to predict the maximum wind velocity and minimum pressure near the center of the tropical cyclone by one or two days before if we monitor the lightning activities in the tropical cyclone. Many countries in the western Pacific region suffer from the attack of tropical cyclone (typhoon) and have a strong demand to predict the intensity development of typhoons. Thus, we started developing a new lightning observation system and installing the observation system at Guam, Palau, and Manila in the Philippines from this summer. The lightning observation system consists of a VLF sensor detecting lightning-excited electromagnetic waves in the frequency range of 1-5 kHz, an automatic data-processing unit, solar panels, and batteries. Lightning-excited pulse signals detected by the VLF sensor are automatically analyzed by the data-processing unit, and only the extracted information of the trigger time and pulse amplitude is transmitted to a data server via the 3G data communications. In addition, we are now developing an upgraded lightning and weather observation system, which will be installed at 50 automated weather stations in Metro Manila and 10 radar sites in the Philippines under the 5-year project (SATREPS) scheme. At the presentation, we will show the initial results derived from the lightning observation system in detail and will show the detailed future plan of the SATREPS project.

  9. The therapeutic effect of a pulsed electromagnetic field on the reproductive patterns of male Wistar rats exposed to a 2.45-GHz microwave field

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjay; Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Behari, Jitendra

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Environmental exposure to man-made electromagnetic fields has been steadily increasing with the growing demand for electronic items that are operational at various frequencies. Testicular function is particularly susceptible to radiation emitted by electromagnetic fields. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the therapeutic effects of a pulsed electromagnetic field (100 Hz) on the reproductive systems of male Wistar rats (70 days old). METHODS: The experiments were divided into five groups: microwave sham, microwave exposure (2.45 GHz), pulsed electromagnetic field sham, pulsed electromagnetic field (100 Hz) exposure, and microwave/pulsed electromagnetic field exposure. The animals were exposed for 2 hours/day for 60 days. After exposure, the animals were sacrificed, their sperm was used for creatine and caspase assays, and their serum was used for melatonin and testosterone assays. RESULTS: The results showed significant increases in caspase and creatine kinase and significant decreases in testosterone and melatonin in the exposed groups. This finding emphasizes that reactive oxygen species (a potential inducer of cancer) are the primary cause of DNA damage. However, pulsed electromagnetic field exposure relieves the effect of microwave exposure by inducing Faraday currents. CONCLUSIONS: Electromagnetic fields are recognized as hazards that affect testicular function by generating reactive oxygen species and reduce the bioavailability of androgen to maturing spermatozoa. Thus, microwave exposure adversely affects male fertility, whereas pulsed electromagnetic field therapy is a non-invasive, simple technique that can be used as a scavenger agent to combat oxidative stress. PMID:21876981

  10. Direct time integration of Maxwell's equations in linear dispersive media with absorption for scattering and propagation of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, Rose M.; Hagness, Susan C.; Taflove, Allen

    1991-01-01

    The initial results for femtosecond pulse propagation and scattering interactions for a Lorentz medium obtained by a direct time integration of Maxwell's equations are reported. The computational approach provides reflection coefficients accurate to better than 6 parts in 10,000 over the frequency range of dc to 3 x 10 to the 16th Hz for a single 0.2-fs Gaussian pulse incident upon a Lorentz-medium half-space. New results for Sommerfeld and Brillouin precursors are shown and compared with previous analyses. The present approach is robust and permits 2D and 3D electromagnetic pulse propagation directly from the full-vector Maxwell's equations.

  11. Effect of electromagnetic pulse exposure on permeability of blood-testicle barrier in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Wu; Ding, Gui-Rong; Shi, Chang-Hong; Zhao, Tao; Zhang, Jie; Zeng, Li-Hua; Guo, Guo-Zhen

    2008-06-01

    To study the effect of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) exposure on the permeability of blood-testicle barrier (BTB) in mice. Adult male BALB/c mice were exposed to EMP at 200 kV/m for 200 pulses with 2 seconds interval. The mice were injected with 2% Evans Blue solution through caudal vein at different time points after exposure, and the permeability of BTB was monitored using a fluorescence microscope. The testis sample for the transmission electron microscopy was prepared at 2 h after EMP exposure. The permeability of BTB in mice was observed by using Evans Blue tracer and lanthanum nitrate tracer. After exposure, cloudy Evans Blue was found in the testicle convoluted seminiferous tubule of mice. Lanthanum nitrate was observed not only between testicle spermatogonia near seminiferous tubule wall and sertoli cells, but also between sertoli cells and primary spermatocyte or secondary spermatocyte. In contrast, lanthanum nitrate in control group was only found in the testicle sertoli cells between seminiferous tubule and near seminiferous tubule wall. EMP exposure could increase the permeability of BTB in the mice.

  12. Simulating The Prompt Electromagnetic Pulse In 3D Using Vector Spherical Harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Alex; Cohen, Bruce I.; Eng, Chester D.; Farmer, William A.; Grote, David P.; Kruger, Hans W.; Larson, David J.

    2017-10-01

    We describe a new, efficient code for simulating the prompt electromagnetic pulse. In SHEMP (``Spherical Harmonic EMP''), we extend to 3-D the methods pioneered in C. Longmire's CHAP code. The geomagnetic field and air density are consistent with CHAP's assumed spherical symmetry only for narrow domains of influence about the line of sight, limiting validity to very early times. Also, we seek to model inherently 3-D situations. In CHAP and our own CHAP-lite, the independent coordinates are r (the distance from the source) and τ = t-r/c; the pulse varies slowly with r at fixed τ, so a coarse radial grid suffices. We add non-spherically-symmetric physics via a vector spherical harmonic decomposition. For each (l,m) harmonic, the radial equation is similar to that in CHAP and CHAP-lite. We present our methodology and results on model problems. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) radiation by laser interaction with a solid H2 ribbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marco, M.; Krása, J.; Cikhardt, J.; Velyhan, A.; Pfeifer, M.; Dudžák, R.; Dostál, J.; Krouský, E.; Limpouch, J.; Pisarczyk, T.; Kalinowska, Z.; Chodukowski, T.; Ullschmied, J.; Giuffrida, L.; Chatain, D.; Perin, J.-P.; Margarone, D.

    2017-08-01

    The electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) generated during the interaction of a focused 1.315-μm sub-nanosecond laser pulse with a solid hydrogen ribbon were measured. The strength and temporal characteristics of EMPs were found to be dependent on the target density. If a low density target is ionized during the interaction with the laser, and the plasma does not physically touch the target holder, the EMP is weaker in strength and shorter in time duration. It is shown that during the H2 target experiment, the EMP does not strongly affect the response of fast electronic devices. The measurements of the EMP were carried out by Rohde&Schwarz B-Probes, particularly sensitive in the frequency range from 30 MHz and 1 GHz. Numerical simulations of resonant frequencies of the target chamber used in the experiment at the Prague Asterix Laser System kJ-class laser facility elucidate the peaked structure of EMP frequency spectra in the GHz domain.

  14. Self-consistent evolution of plasma discharge and electromagnetic fields in a microwave pulse compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlapakovski, A. S.; Beilin, L.; Hadas, Y.; Schamiloglu, E.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2015-07-01

    Nanosecond-scale evolution of plasma and RF electromagnetic fields during the release of energy from a microwave pulse compressor with a plasma interference switch was investigated numerically using the code MAGIC. The plasma was simulated in the scope of the gas conductivity model in MAGIC. The compressor embodied an S-band cavity and H-plane waveguide tee with a shorted side arm filled with pressurized gas. In a simplified approach, the gas discharge was initiated by setting an external ionization rate in a layer crossing the side arm waveguide in the location of the electric field antinode. It was found that with increasing ionization rate, the microwave energy absorbed by the plasma in the first few nanoseconds increases, but the absorption for the whole duration of energy release, on the contrary, decreases. In a hybrid approach modeling laser ignition of the discharge, seed electrons were set around the electric field antinode. In this case, the plasma extends along the field forming a filament and the plasma density increases up to the level at which the electric field within the plasma decreases due to the skin effect. Then, the avalanche rate decreases but the density still rises until the microwave energy release begins and the electric field becomes insufficient to support the avalanche process. The extraction of the microwave pulse limits its own power by terminating the rise of the plasma density and filament length. For efficient extraction, a sufficiently long filament of dense plasma must have sufficient time to be formed.

  15. Analysis of the damage threshold of the GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor induced by the electromagnetic pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Xiao-Wen; Chai, Chang-Chun; Liu, Yang; Yang, Yin-Tang; Fan, Qing-Yang; Shi, Chun-Lei

    2016-08-01

    An electromagnetic pulse (EMP)-induced damage model based on the internal damage mechanism of the GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (PHEMT) is established in this paper. With this model, the relationships among the damage power, damage energy, pulse width and signal amplitude are investigated. Simulation results show that the pulse width index from the damage power formula obtained here is higher than that from the empirical formula due to the hotspot transferring in the damage process of the device. It is observed that the damage energy is not a constant, which decreases with the signal amplitude increasing, and then changes little when the signal amplitude reaches up to a certain level. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2014CB339900) and the Open Fund of Key Laboratory of Complex Electromagnetic Environment Science and Technology, China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP) (Grant No. 2015-0214.XY.K).

  16. [Effects of electromagnetic pulse on contents of amino acids in hippocampus of rats].

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-hong; Wang, De-wen; Peng, Rui-yun; Li, Zi-jian; Dong, Biao; Dong, Fang-ting; Liang, Yue-qin; Hu, Wen-hua

    2003-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between the changes of amino acids contents in hippocampus of rats and electromagnetic pulse (EMP) exposure. Rats were decapitated and hippocampus were removed after EMP (6 x 10(4) V/m, rise time 20 ns, pulse width 30 micro s, 5 pulses in 2 minutes) irradiation, and contents of amino acids were detected with high performance liquid chromatograpy (HPLC). The contents of aspartic acid (Asp) and glutamic acid (Glu) increased significantly 0, 3, 6 h after irradiation. The peak values of Asp [(17.25 +/- 1.63) pmol/ micro l] and Glu [(13.67 +/- 0.95) pmol/ micro l] were higher than those of control [(10.56 +/- 1.50), (6.94 +/- 1.10) pmol/ micro l respectively, P < 0.05]. Then both decreased gradually and reached the normal level 24 - 48 h after irradiation. The contents of glycine (Gly), taurine (Tau) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) also rose after exposure, the peak value of them [(4.51 +/- 0.60), (29.85 +/- 2.70), (5.14 +/- 0.73) pmol/ micro l respectively] were higher than those of control group [(2.18 +/- 0.31), (9.88 +/- 1.47), (2.84 +/- 0.67) pmol/ micro l, P < 0.05], then recovered 48 h after irradiation. The value of Glu/GABA increased immediately after exposure (3.45 +/- 0.25, P < 0.05), then decreased 24 h (1.62 +/- 0.23, P < 0.05) and recovered 48 h after exposure. The toxic effect of excess excitatory amino acids may be partly responsible for the early retardation (within 24 h) of learning of rats.

  17. Effects of electromagnetic pulse exposure on gelatinase of blood-brain barrier in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Qiu, Lian-Bo; An, Guang-Zhou; Zhou, Jia-Xing; Du, Le; Ma, Ya-Hong; Guo, Guo-Zhen; Ding, Gui-Rong

    2017-01-01

    The biological effects of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on the brain have been focused on for years. It was reported that gelatinase played an important role in maintaining brain function through regulating permeability in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). To investigate the effects of EMP on gelatinase of BBB, an in vitro BBB model was established using primary cultured rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC), astrocytes and half-contact culture of these cells in a transwell chamber. Cultured supernatant and cells were collected at different time points after exposure to EMP (peak intensity 400 kV/m, rise time 10 ns, pulse width 350 ns, 0.5 pps and 200 pulses). Protein levels of cellular gelatinase MMP-2 and MMP-9, and endogenous inhibitor TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were detected by Western blot. The activity of gelatinase in culture supernatant was detected by gelatin zymography. It was found that compared with the sham-exposed group, the protein level of MMP-2 was significantly increased at 6 h (p < 0.05), and the protein level of its endogenous inhibitor TIMP-2 did not change after EMP exposure. In addition, the protein levels of MMP-9 and its endogenous inhibitor TIMP-1 did not change after EMP exposure. Gelatin zymography results showed that the activity of MMP-2 in the inner pool and the outer pool of the transwell chamber was significantly increased at 6 h after EMP exposure compared with that of the sham group. These results suggested that EMP exposure could affect the expression and activity of MMP-2 in the BBB model.

  18. Timing of pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation does not affect the promotion of bone cell development.

    PubMed

    Hannay, Gwynne; Leavesley, David; Pearcy, Mark

    2005-12-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) devices have been used clinically to promote the healing of surgically resistant fractures in vivo. However, there is a sparsity of data on how the timing of an applied PEMF effects the osteogenic cells that would be present within the fracture gap. The purpose of this study was to examine the response of osteoblast-like cells to a PEMF stimulus, mimicking that of a clinically available device, using four protocols for the timing of the stimulus. The PEMF signal consisted of a 5 ms pulse burst (containing 20 pulses) repeated at 15 Hz. Cultures of a human osteosarcoma cell line, SaOS-2, were exposed to the four timing protocols, each conducted over 3 days. Protocol one stimulated the cells for 8 h each day, protocol two stimulated the cells for 24 h on the first day, protocol three stimulated the cells for 24 h on the second day, and protocol four stimulated the cells for 24 h on the third day. Cells were seeded with either 25,000 or 50,000 cells/well (24-well cell culture plates). All assays showed reduced proliferation and increased differentiation (alkaline phosphatase activity) in the PEMF stimulated cultures compared with the control cultures, except for protocol four alkaline phosphatase measurements. No clear trend was observed between the four protocols; however this may be due to cell density. The results indicated that an osteoblast-like cell line is responsive to a 15 Hz PEMF stimulus, which will stimulate the cell line to into an increasing state of maturity. Bioelectromagnetics (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  19. First Electromagnetic Pulse Associated with a Gravitational-wave Event: Profile, Duration, and Delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Da-Bin; Liu, Tong; Lin, Jie; Wang, Xiang-Gao; Gu, Wei-Min; Liang, En-Wei

    2018-04-01

    We study the first electromagnetic (EM) pulse after the gravitational-wave (GW) chirp signal, focusing on its profile and duration. It is found that the light curve, especially the steep decay (SD) phase, can be very different by adopting different viewing angles θ view of the jet shell. For an on-axis jet with a power-law radiation spectrum, the observed flux in the SD is proportional to {t}obs}-2-β with β being the spectral index and t obs being the observer time. Here, t obs = 0 is set at the time we observe the jet being ejected from the central engine. The SD may become steep by increasing θ view. We also study the bolometric luminosity L from a jet shell with a non-power-law radiation spectrum. For an on-axis jet, L ∝ t obs ‑3 is found in the SD. However, the SD is steeper than L\\propto {t}obs}-3 for radiation from an off-axis jet. The higher value of the θ view is, the steeper SD would be. Then, we suggest that the SD phase can be used to discriminate an off-axis jet from an on-axis jet. The reason for the above behaviors is discussed. In addition, we find that the duration of first EM pulse is close to its peak time, especially for θ view ∼ 20°. This result is consistent with that found in GW 170817/GRB 170817A. Thus, the jet corresponding to the prompt emission of GRB 170817A should be ejected immediately after the merger. Our results also reveal that the duration of the first EM pulse can provide information on the time to search for GWs.

  20. A pulse programmable parahydrogen polarizer using a tunable electromagnet and dual channel NMR spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, Aaron M.; Shchepin, Roman V.; Feng, Bibo; Colon, Raul D.; Wilkens, Ken; Waddell, Kevin W.; Chekmenev, Eduard Y.

    2017-11-01

    Applications of parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) often warrant conversion of the chemically-synthesized singlet-state spin order into net heteronuclear magnetization. In order to obtain optimal yields from the overall hyperpolarization process, catalytic hydrogenation must be tightly synchronized to subsequent radiofrequency (RF) transformations of spin order. Commercial NMR consoles are designed to synchronize applied waves on multiple channels and consequently are well-suited as controllers for these types of hyperpolarization experiments that require tight coordination of RF and non-RF events. Described here is a PHIP instrument interfaced to a portable NMR console operating with a static field electromagnet in the milliTesla regime. In addition to providing comprehensive control over chemistry and RF events, this setup condenses the PHIP protocol into a pulse-program that in turn can be readily shared in the manner of traditional pulse sequences. In this device, a TTL multiplexer was constructed to convert spectrometer TTL outputs into 24 VDC signals. These signals then activated solenoid valves to control chemical shuttling and reactivity in PHIP experiments. Consolidating these steps in a pulse-programming environment speeded calibration and improved quality assurance by enabling the B0/B1 fields to be tuned based on the direct acquisition of thermally polarized and hyperpolarized NMR signals. Performance was tested on the parahydrogen addition product of 2-hydroxyethyl propionate-1-13C-d3, where the 13C polarization was estimated to be P13C = 20 ± 2.5% corresponding to 13C signal enhancement approximately 25 million-fold at 9.1 mT or approximately 77,000-fold 13C enhancement at 3 T with respect to thermally induced polarization at room temperature.

  1. A survey of ELF and VLF research on lightning-ionosphere interactions and causative discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inan, U. S.; Cummer, S. A.; Marshall, R. A.

    2010-06-01

    Extremely low frequency (ELF) and very low frequency (VLF) observations have formed the cornerstone of measurement and interpretation of effects of lightning discharges on the overlying upper atmospheric regions, as well as near-Earth space. ELF (0.3-3 kHz) and VLF (3-30 kHz) wave energy released by lightning discharges is often the agent of modification of the lower ionospheric medium that results in the conductivity changes and the excitation of optical emissions that constitute transient luminous events (TLEs). In addition, the resultant ionospheric changes are best (and often uniquely) observable as perturbations of subionospherically propagating VLF signals. In fact, some of the earliest evidence for direct disturbances of the lower ionosphere in association with lightning discharges was obtained in the course of the study of such VLF perturbations. Measurements of the detailed ELF and VLF waveforms of parent lightning discharges that produce TLEs and terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) have also been very fruitful, often revealing properties of such discharges that maximize ionospheric effects, such as generation of intense electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) or removal of large quantities of charge. In this paper, we provide a review of the development of ELF and VLF measurements, both from a historical point of view and from the point of view of their relationship to optical and other observations of ionospheric effects of lightning discharges.

  2. Elves and associated electron density changes due to cloud-to-ground and in-cloud lightning discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, R. A.; Inan, U. S.; Glukhov, V. S.

    2010-04-01

    A 3-D finite difference time domain model is used to simulate the lightning electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and its interaction with the lower ionosphere. Results agree with the frequently observed, doughnut-shaped optical signature of elves but show that the structure exhibits asymmetry due to the presence of Earth's ambient magnetic field. Furthermore, in-cloud (horizontal) lightning channels produce observable optical emissions without the doughnut shape and, in fact, produce a much stronger optical output for the same channel current. Electron density perturbations associated with elves are also calculated, with contributions from attachment and ionization. Results presented as a function of parameters such as magnetic field direction, dipole current orientation, altitude and amplitude, and ambient ionospheric density profile demonstrate the highly nonlinear nature of the EMP-ionosphere interaction. Ionospheric effects of a sequence of in-cloud discharges are calculated, simulating a burst of in-cloud lightning activity and resulting in large density changes in the overlying ionosphere.

  3. An Approach to the Lightning Overvoltage Protection of Medium Voltage Lines in Severe Lightning Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Omidiora, M. A.; Lehtonen, M.

    2008-05-08

    This paper deals with the effect of shield wires on lightning overvoltage reduction and the energy relief of MOV (Metal Oxide Varistor) arresters from direct strokes to distribution lines. The subject of discussion is the enhancement of lightning protection in Finnish distribution networks where lightning is most severe. The true index of lightning severity in these areas is based on the ground flash densities and return stroke data collected from the Finnish meteorological institute. The presented test case is the IEEE 34-node test feeder injected with multiple lightning strokes and simulated with the Alternative Transients Program/Electromagnetic Transients program (ATP/EMTP). Themore » response of the distribution line to lightning strokes was modeled with three different cases: no protection, protection with surge arresters and protection with a combination of shield wire and arresters. Simulations were made to compare the resulting overvoltages on the line for all the analyzed cases.« less

  4. [Change of chart genes expression in small intestines of mouse induced by electromagnetic pulse irradiation].

    PubMed

    Ren, Dongqing; Jin, Juan; Li, Xiaojuan; Zeng, Guiying

    2008-01-01

    To explore the bio-effects of electromagnetic pulse(EMP) on mouse small intestines induced by means of gene chip. Twelve BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to the normal control group and the EMP group with 6 in each group. The EMP group was irradiated with 200 kV/m, 200 pulses EMP. 18 hours after the irradiation, the mice were sacrificed and their jejunum of small intestines were eviscerated. The fluorescent cDNA probes labeled with Cy3 and Cy5 were prepared from RNA extracted from the intestines of the two groups. Probes of the two groups were then hybridized against cDNA gene chip, the fluorescent signals were scanned with a scanner and the results were analyzed by computer. Compared with the control, 56 genes in gene expression profile were altered. The expression levels of 37 genes were up-regulated distinctly while 19 genes were down-regulated significantly. Among the 56 genes, 19 were reported with known or inferred functions, 12 up-regulated genes were catenin alpha 1 (alpha-catenin), ly-6 alloantigen(Ly-6E), fructose-6-phosphate transaminase (GF6P), ribosomal protein S17 (rpS17), small proline-rich protein 2A (Sprr2a), glandular kallikrein27 (GK27), lipoxygenase-3, aldo-keto reductase (Akr1c12), GSG1, amylase 2 (Amy2),elastase 2, p6-5 gene and 7 down-regulated genes were junctional adhesion molecule (Jam), protein arginine methyltransferase (Carm1),NNP-1, 2-5 A synthetase L2,Mlark gene, ATP synthase alpha subunit, uncoupling protein-2 (Ucp2) gene; the other 37 were reported with unknown functions. EMP irradiation could induce specific expressions of some genes in mouse small intestines and most of these genes were up-regulated ones.

  5. Electromagnetic pulse activated brain microglia via the p38 MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Long-Long; Zhou, Yan; Tian, Wei-Dong; Li, Hai-Juan; Kang-Chu-Li; Miao, Xia; An, Guang-Zhou; Wang, Xiao-Wu; Guo, Guo-Zhen; Ding, Gui-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we found that electromagnetic pulses (EMP) induced an increase in blood brain barrier permeability and the leakage of albumin from blood into brain tissue. Albumin is known to activate microglia cells. Thus, we hypothesised that microglia activation could occur in the brain after EMP exposure. To test this hypothesis, the morphology and secretory function of microglia cells, including the expression of OX-42 (a marker of microglia activation), and levels of TNF-α, IL-10, IL-1β, and NO were determined in the rat cerebral cortex after EMP exposure. In addition, to examine the signalling pathway of EMP-induced microglia activation, protein and phosphorylated protein levels of p38, JNK and ERK were determined. It was found that the expression of OX-42increased significantly at 1, 6 and 12h (p<0.05) and recovered to the sham group level at 24h after EMP exposure. Levels of NO, TNF-α and IL-10 also changed significantly in vivo and in vitro after EMP exposure. The protein level of p38 and phosphorylated p38 increased significantly after EMP exposure (p<0.05) and recovered to sham levels at 12 and 24h, respectively. Protein and phosphorylated protein levels of ERK and JNK did not change. SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) partly prevented the change in NO, IL-10, IL-1β, TNF-α levels induced by EMP exposure. Taken together, these results suggested that EMP exposure (200kV/m, 200 pulses) could activate microglia in rat brain and affect its secretory function both in vivo and in vitro, and the p38 pathway is involved in this process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of intervention initiation timing of pulsed electromagnetic field on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Liao, Yuan; Zeng, Yahua; Xie, Haitao; Fu, Chengxiao; Li, Neng

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of timing of initiation of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy on bone mass, microarchitecture, and biomechanical properties, and to investigate receptor activator of NF-kB (RANK) expression in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Sixty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two equal batches of three groups each (10 rats in each group). The first batch comprised of sham-operated (Sham-0 group), ovariectomized (OVX-0 group), and ovariectomized plus treated with PEMF starting from the day of OVX (Early PEMF group). The second batch comprised of sham-operated (Sham-12 group), ovariectomized (OVX-12 group), and ovariectomized plus treated with PEMF starting 12 weeks after OVX (Late PEMF group). Rats (whole body) in the early and late PEMF groups were exposed to PEMF (3.8 mT peak, 8 Hz pulse burst repetition rate). After 12 weeks of PEMF therapy, Early PEMF prevented OVX-induced deterioration in bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties in lumbar vertebral body and femur, and deterioration in bone microarchitecture in lumbar vertebral body and proximal tibia. Late PEMF intervention only inhibited deterioration of BMD, bone microarchitecture, and mechanical properties in lumbar vertebral body. Both early and late PEMF therapy suppressed RANK protein expression in OVX rats without a concomitant effect on RANK mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that timing of initiation of PEMF therapy plays an important role in achieving optimal beneficial effects. The specific PEMF parameters may exert these favorable biological responses, at least partially, via inhibition of protein expression of RANK. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:456-465, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Design and test of a simple fast electromagnetic inductive gas valve for planar pulsed inductive plasma thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Dawei; Cheng, Mousen; Li, Xiaokang

    2017-10-01

    In support of our planar pulsed inductive plasma thruster research, a fast electromagnetic inductive valve for a gas propellant injection system has been built and tested. A new and important design feature is the use of a conical diaphragm as the action part, which greatly contributes to the virtue of simplicity for adopting the resultant force of the diaphragm deformation as the closing force. An optical transmission technique is adopted to measure the opening and closing characters of the valve while the gas throughput is determined by measuring the pressure change per pulse in a test chamber with a capacitance manometer. The experimental results revealed that the delay time before the valve reaction is less than 40 μs, and the valve pulse width is no longer than 160 μs full width at half maximum. The valve delivers 0-2.5 mg of argon gas per pulse varied by adjusting the drive voltage and gas pressure.

  8. Design and test of a simple fast electromagnetic inductive gas valve for planar pulsed inductive plasma thruster.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dawei; Cheng, Mousen; Li, Xiaokang

    2017-10-01

    In support of our planar pulsed inductive plasma thruster research, a fast electromagnetic inductive valve for a gas propellant injection system has been built and tested. A new and important design feature is the use of a conical diaphragm as the action part, which greatly contributes to the virtue of simplicity for adopting the resultant force of the diaphragm deformation as the closing force. An optical transmission technique is adopted to measure the opening and closing characters of the valve while the gas throughput is determined by measuring the pressure change per pulse in a test chamber with a capacitance manometer. The experimental results revealed that the delay time before the valve reaction is less than 40 μs, and the valve pulse width is no longer than 160 μs full width at half maximum. The valve delivers 0-2.5 mg of argon gas per pulse varied by adjusting the drive voltage and gas pressure.

  9. Study to assess the effects of magnetohydrodynamic electromagnetic pulse on electric power systems, phase 1, volume 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legro, J. R.; Abi-Samra, N. C.; Tesche, F. M.

    1985-05-01

    In addition to the initial transients designated as fast transient high-altitude EMP (HEMP) and intermediate time EMP, electromagnetic signals are also perceived at times from seconds to hundreds of seconds after a high-altitude nuclear burst. This signal was defined by the term magnetohydrodynamic-electromagnetic pulse (MHD-EMP). The MHD-EMP phenomena was detected in actual weapon tests and predicted from theoretical models. A preliminary research effort to investigate the nature and coupling of the MHD-EMP environments to electric power systems documented the construction of approximate system response network models, and the development of a unified methodology to assess equipment and systematic vulnerability are defined. The MHD-EMP environment is compared to a qualitatively similar natural event, the electromagnetic environment produced by geomagnetic storms.

  10. Influence of lateral target size on hot electron production and electromagnetic pulse emission from laser-irradiated metallic targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zi-Yu; Li, Jian-Feng; Yu, Yong; Wang, Jia-Xiang; Li, Xiao-Ya; Peng, Qi-Xian; Zhu, Wen-Jun

    2012-11-01

    The influences of lateral target size on hot electron production and electromagnetic pulse emission from laser interaction with metallic targets have been investigated. Particle-in-cell simulations at high laser intensities show that the yield of hot electrons tends to increase with lateral target size, because the larger surface area reduces the electrostatic field on the target, owing to its expansion along the target surface. At lower laser intensities and longer time scales, experimental data characterizing electromagnetic pulse emission as a function of lateral target size also show target-size effects. Charge separation and a larger target tending to have a lower target potential have both been observed. The increase in radiation strength and downshift in radiation frequency with increasing lateral target size can be interpreted using a simple model of the electrical capacity of the target.

  11. Pulsed electromagnetic fields promote the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts by reinforcing intracellular calcium transients.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jie; Sun, Lijun; Zhu, Bin; Fan, Yun; Ma, Xingfeng; Yu, Liyin; Zhang, Jianbao

    2017-10-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) can be used to treat bone-related diseases, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear, especially the process by which PEMFs initiate biological effects. In this study, we demonstrated the effects of PEMF on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts using the model of calcium transients induced by high extracellular calcium. Our results showed that PEMF can increase both the percentage of responding cells and amplitude of intracellular calcium transients induced by high extracellular calcium stimulation. Compared with corresponding extracellular calcium levels, PEMF stimulation increased proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts and related gene expressions, such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), and osteocalcin (OCN), which can be completely abolished by BAPTA-AM. Moreover, PEMF did not affect proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts if no intracellular calcium transient was present in osteoblasts during PEMF exposure. Our results revealed that PEMF affects osteoblast proliferation and differentiation through enhanced intracellular calcium transients, which provided a cue to treat bone-related diseases with PEMF. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:541-549, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Novel protective effects of pulsed electromagnetic field ischemia/reperfusion injury rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fenfen; Li, Wenwen; Li, Xinghui; Tran, Ba Hieu; Suguro, Rinkiko; Guan, Ruijuan; Hou, Cuilan; Wang, Huijuan; Zhang, Aijie; Zhu, Yichun; Zhu, YiZhun

    2016-12-01

    Extracorporeal pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has shown the ability to regenerate tissue by promoting cell proliferation. In the present study, we investigated for the first time whether PEMF treatment could improve the myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and uncovered its underlying mechanisms.In our study, we demonstrated for the first time that extracorporeal PEMF has a novel effect on myocardial I/R injury. The number and function of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were increased in PEMF treating rats. The in vivo results showed that per-treatment of PEMF could significantly improve the cardiac function in I/R injury group. In addition, PEMF treatment also reduced the apoptosis of myocardial cells by up-regulating the expression of anti-apoptosis protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and down-regulating the expression of pro-apoptosis protein (Bax). In vitro, the results showed that PEMF treatment could significantly reduce the apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in primary neonatal rat cardiac ventricular myocytes (NRCMs) induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R). In particular, PEMF increased the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), which might be closely related to attenuated cell apoptosis by increasing the releasing of nitric oxide (NO). Therefore, our data indicated that PEMF could be a potential candidate for I/R injury. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. A research program to assess the impact of the electromagnetic pulse on electric power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, B. W.; Barnes, P. R.

    A strong electromagnetic pulse (EMP) with an electric-field component on the order of tens of kilovolts per meter is produced by a nuclear detonation in or above the atmosphere. This paper presents an overview and a summary of the results to date of a program formulated to address the research and development of technologies and systems required to assess and reduce the impact of EMP on electric power systems. The technologies and systems being considered include simulation models, methods of assessment, definition of required experiments and data, development of protective hardware, and the creation or revision of operating and control procedures. Results to date include the development of relatively simple unclassified EMP environment models, the development of methods for extending EMP coupling models to the large transmission and distribution network associated with the electric power system, and the performance of a parametric study of HEMP induced surges using an appropriate EMP environment. An experiment to investigate the effect of corona on the coupling of EMP to conductors has been defined and has been performed in an EMP simulator. Experiments to determine the response of key components to simulated EMP surges and an investigation of the impact of steep-front, short-duration impulse on a selected number of the insulation systems used in electric power systems apparatus are being performed.

  14. Study on the Shielding Effectiveness of an Arc Thermal Metal Spraying Method against an Electromagnetic Pulse

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Han-Seung; Choe, Hong-Bok; Baek, In-Young

    2017-01-01

    An electromagnetic pulse (EMP) explodes in real-time and causes critical damage within a short period to not only electric devices, but also to national infrastructures. In terms of EMP shielding rooms, metal plate has been used due to its excellent shielding effectiveness (SE). However, it has difficulties in manufacturing, as the fabrication of welded parts of metal plates and the cost of construction are non-economical. The objective of this study is to examine the applicability of the arc thermal metal spraying (ATMS) method as a new EMP shielding method to replace metal plate. The experimental parameters, metal types (Cu, Zn-Al), and coating thickness (100–700 μm) used for the ATMS method were considered. As an experiment, a SE test against an EMP in the range of 103 to 1010 Hz was conducted. Results showed that the ATMS coating with Zn-Al had similar shielding performance in comparison with metal plate. In conclusion, the ATMS method is judged to have a high possibility of actual application as a new EMP shielding material. PMID:28976931

  15. Therapeutic ultrasound plus pulsed electromagnetic field improves recovery from peripheral arterial disease in hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhao-Yang; Zhou, Hong-Sheng; Su, Zhi-Xiao; Qi, Jia; Zhang, Jian; Xue, Guan-Hua; Li, Yue; Hao, Chang-Ning; Shi, Yi-Qin; Duan, Jun-Li

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the therapy effect of combined therapeutic ultrasound (TUS) treatment and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy on angiogenesis in hypertension-related hindlimb ischemia. After subjecting excision of the left femoral artery, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were randomly distributed to one of four groups: SHR; TUS treated SHR (SHR-TUS); PEMF treated SHR (PEMF-TUS); and TUS plus PEMF treated SHR (SHR-TUS-PEMF). Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs) with femoral artery excision were regarded as a control group. At day 14 after surgery, the TUS plus PEMF united administration had the greatest blood perfusion accompanied by elevated capillary density and the lowest TUNEL index. Interestingly, the united administration up-regulated the angiogenic factors expression of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), anti-apoptotic protein of Bcl-2 and down-regulated pro-apoptotic protein levels of Bax and Cleaved caspase-3 in vivo. Our results demonstrated that the united administration could significantly rescue hypertension-related inhibition of ischemia-induced neovascularization partly by promoting angiogenesis and inhibiting apoptosis. PMID:28979692

  16. Can Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Trigger On-Demand Drug Release from High-Tm Magnetoliposomes?

    PubMed Central

    Nardoni, Martina; della Valle, Elena; Relucenti, Michela; Casadei, Maria Antonietta; Paolicelli, Patrizia; Apollonio, Francesca; Petralito, Stefania

    2018-01-01

    Recently, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been used to trigger drug release from magnetoliposomes through a magneto-nanomechanical approach, where the mechanical actuation of the MNPs is used to enhance the membrane permeability. This result can be effectively achieved with low intensity non-thermal alternating magnetic field (AMF), which, however, found rare clinic application. Therefore, a different modality of generating non-thermal magnetic fields has now been investigated. Specifically, the ability of the intermittent signals generated by non-thermal pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFS) were used to verify if, once applied to high-transition temperature magnetoliposomes (high-Tm MLs), they could be able to efficiently trigger the release of a hydrophilic model drug. To this end, hydrophilic MNPs were combined with hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol to design high-Tm MLs. The release of a dye was evaluated under the effect of PEMFs for different times. The MNPs motions produced by PEMF could effectively increase the bilayer permeability, without affecting the liposomes integrity and resulted in nearly 20% of release after 3 h exposure. Therefore, the current contribution provides an exciting proof-of-concept for the ability of PEMFS to trigger drug release, considering that PEMFS find already application in therapy due to their anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:29584700

  17. High-intensity laser therapy versus pulsed electromagnetic field in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea

    PubMed Central

    Thabet, Ali Abd El-Monsif; Elsodany, Ahmed Mohamed; Battecha, Kadrya H; Alshehri, Mansour Abdullah; Refaat, Bassem

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] To determine the efficacy of high intensity laser therapy (HILT) versus pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. [Subjects and Methods] This was a randomized clinical trial that included 52 girls diagnosed with primary dysmenorrhea and who were assigned randomly into two groups of equal numbers. The treatment was three sessions every cycle for three consecutive cycles where group (A) included those participants treated with HILT 15 min/session and group (B) those who were treated with PEMF 30 min/session. All patients were evaluated before starting the treatment as well as after the end of treatment by present pain intensity scale and the prostaglandin level in blood and pain relief scale at the end of treatment for both groups. [Results] The results showed a significant decrease in the severity of pain, statistically significant decrease in prostaglandin level in blood, and a statistically significant pain alleviation in both groups. With comparison between both groups there was a statistically significant decrease in the severity of pain, significant decrease in the blood levels of PGF2α, in group (A) than group (B). [Conclusion] Both HILT and PEMF are effective in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea with HILT being superior to PEMF. PMID:29184281

  18. Circadian Rhythm Influences the Promoting Role of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Sciatic Nerve Regeneration in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shu; Ge, Jun; Liu, Zhongyang; Liu, Liang; Jing, Da; Ran, Mingzi; Wang, Meng; Huang, Liangliang; Yang, Yafeng; Huang, Jinghui; Luo, Zhuojing

    2017-01-01

    Circadian rhythm (CR) plays a critical role in the treatment of several diseases. However, the role of CR in the treatment of peripheral nerve defects has not been studied. It is also known that the pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) can provide a beneficial microenvironment to quicken the process of nerve regeneration and to enhance the quality of reconstruction. In this study, we evaluate the impact of CR on the promoting effect of PEMF on peripheral nerve regeneration in rats. We used the self-made “collagen-chitosan” nerve conduits to bridge the 15-mm nerve gaps in Sprague-Dawley rats. Our results show that PEMF stimulation at daytime (DPEMF) has most effective outcome on nerve regeneration and rats with DPEMF treatment achieve quickly functional recovery after 12 weeks. These findings indicate that CR is an important factor that determines the promoting effect of PEMF on peripheral nerve regeneration. PEMF exposure in the daytime enhances the functional recovery of rats. Our study provides a helpful guideline for the effective use of PEMF mediations experimentally and clinically. PMID:28360885

  19. Electromagnetic pulse excitation of finite- and infinitely-long lossy conductors over a lossy ground plane

    SciTech Connect

    Campione, Salvatore; Warne, Larry K.; Basilio, Lorena I.

    This study details a model for the response of a finite- or an infinite-length wire interacting with a conducting ground to an electromagnetic pulse excitation. We develop a frequency–domain method based on transmission line theory that we name ATLOG – Analytic Transmission Line Over Ground. This method is developed as an alternative to full-wave methods, as it delivers a fast and reliable solution. It allows for the treatment of finite or infinite lossy, coated wires, and lossy grounds. The cases of wire above ground, as well as resting on the ground and buried beneath the ground are treated. The reportedmore » method is general and the time response of the induced current is obtained using an inverse Fourier transform of the current in the frequency domain. The focus is on the characteristics and propagation of the transmission line mode. Comparisons with full-wave simulations strengthen the validity of the proposed method.« less

  20. [The effects of electromagnetic pulse on fluidity and lipid peroxidation of mitochondrial membrane].

    PubMed

    Wang, Changzhen; Cong, Jianbo; Xian, Hong; Cao, Xiaozhe; Sun, Cunpu; Wu, Ke

    2002-08-01

    To study the effects of intense electromagnetic pulse(EMP) on the biological effects of mitochondrial membrane. Rat liver mitochondrial suspension was exposed to EMP at 60 kV/m level. The changes of membrane lipid fluidity and membrane protein mobility were detected by ESR and spin label technique. Malondialdehyde(MDA) was detected by spectrophotometer. The mobility of membrane protein decreased significantly(P < 0.05). Correlation time (tau c) of control group was (0.501 +/- 0.077) x 10(-9)s, and tau c of EMP group was (0.594 +/- 0.049) x 10(-9)s, indicating that the mobility of protein was restricted. The fluidity of mitochondrial membrane increased significantly(P < 0.05) at the same time. Order parameter(S) of mitochondrial membrane lipid in control group was 0.63 +/- 0.01, while S of EMP group was 0.61 +/- 0.01(P < 0.05). MDA decreased significantly. The mobility and lipid peroxidation of mitochondrial membrane may be disturbed after EMP exposure.

  1. Enhanced skin permeation of naltrexone by pulsed electromagnetic fields in human skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Gayathri; Edwards, Jeffrey; Chen, Yan; Benson, Heather A E

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the skin permeation of naltrexone (NTX) under the influence of a pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF). The permeation of NTX across human epidermis and a silicone membrane in vitro was monitored during and after application of the PEMF and compared to passive application. Enhancement ratios of NTX human epidermis permeation by PEMF over passive diffusion, calculated based on the AUC of cumulative NTX permeation to the receptor compartment verses time for 0-4 h, 4-8 h, and over the entire experiment (0-8 h) were 6.52, 5.25, and 5.66, respectively. Observation of the curve indicated an initial enhancement of NTX permeation compared to passive delivery whilst the PEMF was active (0-4 h). This was followed by a secondary phase after termination of PEMF energy (4-8 h) in which there was a steady increase in NTX permeation. No significant enhancement of NTX penetration across silicone membrane occurred with PEMF application in comparison to passively applied NTX. In a preliminary experiment PEMF enhanced the penetration of 10 nm gold nanoparticles through the stratum corneum as visualized by multiphoton microscopy. This suggests that the channels through which the nanoparticles move must be larger than the 10 nm diameter of these rigid particles. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  2. Electromagnetic Pulses Generated From Laser Target Interactions at Shenguang II Laser Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinwen; Li, Tingshuai; Yi, Tao; Wang, Chuanke; Yang, Ming; Yang, Weiming; Liu, Shenye; Jiang, Shaoen; Ding, Yongkun

    2016-10-01

    Significant electromagnetic pulses (EMP) can be generated by the intensive laser irradiating solid targets in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). To evaluate the EMP intensity and distribution in and outside the laser chamber, we designed and fabricated a discone antenna with ultra-wide bands of over 10 GHz. The return loss (S11 parameter) of this antenna was below -10 dB and could even achieve under -30 dB at 3.1 GHz. The EMP intensity in this study at 80 cm and 40 cm away from the target chamber center (TCC) reached 400 kV/m and 2000 kV/m. The current results are expected to offer preliminary information to study physics regarding laser plasma interactions and will also lay experimental foundation for EMI shielding design to protect various diagnostics. supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (No. ZYGX2015J108) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11575166 and 51581140)

  3. Study on the Shielding Effectiveness of an Arc Thermal Metal Spraying Method against an Electromagnetic Pulse.

    PubMed

    Lee, Han-Seung; Choe, Hong-Bok; Baek, In-Young; Singh, Jitendra Kumar; Ismail, Mohamed A

    2017-10-04

    An electromagnetic pulse (EMP) explodes in real-time and causes critical damage within a short period to not only electric devices, but also to national infrastructures. In terms of EMP shielding rooms, metal plate has been used due to its excellent shielding effectiveness (SE). However, it has difficulties in manufacturing, as the fabrication of welded parts of metal plates and the cost of construction are non-economical. The objective of this study is to examine the applicability of the arc thermal metal spraying (ATMS) method as a new EMP shielding method to replace metal plate. The experimental parameters, metal types (Cu, Zn-Al), and coating thickness (100-700 μm) used for the ATMS method were considered. As an experiment, a SE test against an EMP in the range of 103 to 1010 Hz was conducted. Results showed that the ATMS coating with Zn-Al had similar shielding performance in comparison with metal plate. In conclusion, the ATMS method is judged to have a high possibility of actual application as a new EMP shielding material.

  4. Pulsed electromagnetic field improves cardiac function in response to myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hao, Chang-Ning; Huang, Jing-Juan; Shi, Yi-Qin; Cheng, Xian-Wu; Li, Hao-Yun; Zhou, Lin; Guo, Xin-Gui; Li, Rui-Lin; Lu, Wei; Zhu, Yi-Zhun; Duan, Jun-Li

    2014-01-01

    Extracorporeal pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has been shown the ability to improve regeneration in various ischemic episodes. Here, we examined whether PEMF therapy facilitate cardiac recovery in rat myocardial infarction (MI), and the cellular/molecular mechanisms underlying PEMF-related therapy was further investigated. The MI rats were exposed to active PEMF for 4 cycles per day (8 minutes/cycle, 30 ± 3 Hz, 5 mT) after MI induction. The data demonstrated that PEMF treatment significantly inhibited cardiac apoptosis and improved cardiac systolic function. Moreover, PEMF treatment increased capillary density, the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxic inducible factor-1α in infarct border zone. Furthermore, the number and function of circulating endothelial progenitor cells were advanced in PEMF treating rats. In vitro, PEMF induced the degree of human umbilical venous endothelial cells tubulization and increased soluble pro-angiogenic factor secretion (VEGF and nitric oxide). In conclusion, PEMF therapy preserves cardiac systolic function, inhibits apoptosis and trigger postnatal neovascularization in ischemic myocardium.

  5. Electromagnetic pulse excitation of finite- and infinitely-long lossy conductors over a lossy ground plane

    DOE PAGES

    Campione, Salvatore; Warne, Larry K.; Basilio, Lorena I.; ...

    2017-01-13

    This study details a model for the response of a finite- or an infinite-length wire interacting with a conducting ground to an electromagnetic pulse excitation. We develop a frequency–domain method based on transmission line theory that we name ATLOG – Analytic Transmission Line Over Ground. This method is developed as an alternative to full-wave methods, as it delivers a fast and reliable solution. It allows for the treatment of finite or infinite lossy, coated wires, and lossy grounds. The cases of wire above ground, as well as resting on the ground and buried beneath the ground are treated. The reportedmore » method is general and the time response of the induced current is obtained using an inverse Fourier transform of the current in the frequency domain. The focus is on the characteristics and propagation of the transmission line mode. Comparisons with full-wave simulations strengthen the validity of the proposed method.« less

  6. Effects of nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on synchronous stability of the electric power system

    SciTech Connect

    Manweiler, R.W.

    1975-11-01

    The effects of a nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on the synchronous stability of the electric power transmission and distribution systems are evaluated. The various modes of coupling of EMP to the power system are briefly discussed, with particular emphasis on those perturbations affecting the synchronous stability of the transmission system. A brief review of the fundamental concepts of the stability problem is given, with a discussion of the general characteristics of transient analysis. A model is developed to represent single sets as well as repetitive sets of multiple faults on the distribution systems, as might be produced by EMP. Themore » results of many numerical stability calculations are presented to illustrate the transmission system's response from different types of perturbations. The important parameters of both multiple and repetitive faults are studied, including the dependence of the response on the size of the perturbed area, the fault density, and the effective impedance between the fault location and the transmission system. Both major load reduction and the effect of the opening of tie lines at the time of perturbation are also studied. We conclude that there is a high probability that EMP can induce perturbations on the distribution networks causing a large portion of the transmission network in the perturbed area to lose synchronism. The result would be an immediate and massive power failure. (auth)« less

  7. Effects of local vibration and pulsed electromagnetic field on bone fracture: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Hakkı Murat; Çelik, Ferhat; Gem, Mehmet; Akpolat, Veysi; Yıldız, İsmail; Ekinci, Aysun; Özerdem, Mehmet Siraç; Tunik, Selçuk

    2017-07-01

    The effectiveness of various therapeutic methods on bone fracture has been demonstrated in several studies. In the present study, we tried to evaluate the effect of local low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration (LMHFV) on rat tibia fracture in comparison with pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) during the healing process. Mid-diaphysis tibiae fractures were induced in 30 Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were assigned into groups such as control (CONT), LMHFV (15 min/day, 7 days/week), and PEMF (3.5 h/day, 7 days/week) for a three-week treatment. Nothing was applied to control group. Radiographs, serum osteocalcin levels, and stereological bone analyses of the three groups were compared. The X-rays of tibiae were taken 21 days after the end of the healing process. PEMF and LMHFV groups had more callus formation when compared to CONT group; however, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.375). Serum osteocalcin levels were elevated in the experimental groups compared to CONT (P ≤ 0.001). Stereological tests also showed higher osteogenic results in experimental groups, especially in LMHFV group. The results of the present study suggest that application of direct local LMHFV on fracture has promoted bone formation, showing great potential in improving fracture outcome. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:339-348, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Pulsed electromagnetic fields promote survival and neuronal differentiation of human BM-MSCs.

    PubMed

    Urnukhsaikhan, Enerelt; Cho, Hyunjin; Mishig-Ochir, Tsogbadrakh; Seo, Young-Kwon; Park, Jung-Kueg

    2016-04-15

    Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) are known to affect biological properties such as differentiation, regulation of transcription factor and cell proliferation. However, the cell-protective effect of PEMF exposure is largely unknown. The aim of this study is to understand the mechanisms underlying PEMF-mediated suppression of apoptosis and promotion of survival, including PEMF-induced neuronal differentiation. Treatment of induced human BM-MSCs with PEMF increased the expression of neural markers such as NF-L, NeuroD1 and Tau. Moreover, treatment of induced human BM-MSCs with PEMF greatly decreased cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. There is evidence that Akt and Ras are involved in neuronal survival and protection. Activation of Akt and Ras results in the regulation of survival proteins such as Bad and Bcl-xL. Thus, the Akt/Ras signaling pathway may be a desirable target for enhancing cell survival and treatment of neurological disease. Our analyses indicated that PEMF exposure dramatically increased the activity of Akt, Rsk, Creb, Erk, Bcl-xL and Bad via phosphorylation. PEMF-dependent cell protection was reversed by pretreatment with LY294002, a specific inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Our data suggest that the PI3K/Akt/Bad signaling pathway may be a possible mechanism for the cell-protective effects of PEMF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Can Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Trigger On-Demand Drug Release from High-Tm Magnetoliposomes?

    PubMed

    Nardoni, Martina; Della Valle, Elena; Liberti, Micaela; Relucenti, Michela; Casadei, Maria Antonietta; Paolicelli, Patrizia; Apollonio, Francesca; Petralito, Stefania

    2018-03-27

    Recently, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been used to trigger drug release from magnetoliposomes through a magneto-nanomechanical approach, where the mechanical actuation of the MNPs is used to enhance the membrane permeability. This result can be effectively achieved with low intensity non-thermal alternating magnetic field (AMF), which, however, found rare clinic application. Therefore, a different modality of generating non-thermal magnetic fields has now been investigated. Specifically, the ability of the intermittent signals generated by non-thermal pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFS) were used to verify if, once applied to high-transition temperature magnetoliposomes (high-Tm MLs), they could be able to efficiently trigger the release of a hydrophilic model drug. To this end, hydrophilic MNPs were combined with hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol to design high-Tm MLs. The release of a dye was evaluated under the effect of PEMFs for different times. The MNPs motions produced by PEMF could effectively increase the bilayer permeability, without affecting the liposomes integrity and resulted in nearly 20% of release after 3 h exposure. Therefore, the current contribution provides an exciting proof-of-concept for the ability of PEMFS to trigger drug release, considering that PEMFS find already application in therapy due to their anti-inflammatory effects.

  10. An Investigation on the Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Human Electrocardiograms (ECGs).

    PubMed

    Fang, Qiang; Mahmoud, Seedahmed S; Yan, Jiayong; Li, Hui

    2016-11-23

    For this investigation, we studied the effects of extremely low frequency pulse electromagnetic fields (ELF-PEMF) on the human cardiac signal. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) of 22 healthy volunteers before and after a short duration of ELF-PEMF exposure were recorded. The experiment was conducted under single-blind conditions. The root mean square (RMS) value of the recorded data was considered as comparison criteria. We also measured and analysed four important ECG time intervals before and after ELF-PEMF exposure. Results revealed that the RMS value of the ECG recordings from 18 participants (81.8% of the total participants) increased with a mean value of 3.72%. The increase in ECG voltage levels was then verified by a second experimental protocol with a control exposure. In addition to this, we used hyperbolic T-distributions (HTD) in the analysis of ECG signals to verify the change in the RR interval. It was found that there were small shifts in the frequency-domain signal before and after EMF exposure. This shift has an influence on all frequency components of the ECG signals, as all spectrums were shifted. It is shown from this investigation that a short time exposure to ELF-PEMF can affect the properties of ECG signals. Further study is needed to consolidate this finding and discover more on the biological effects of ELF-PEMF on human physiological processes.

  11. [Pulse-modulated Electromagnetic Radiation of Extremely High Frequencies Protects Cellular DNA against Damaging Effect of Physico-Chemical Factors in vitro].

    PubMed

    Gapeyev, A B; Lukyanova, N A

    2015-01-01

    Using a comet assay technique, we investigated protective effects of. extremely high frequency electromagnetic radiation in combination with the damaging effect of X-ray irradiation, the effect of damaging agents hydrogen peroxide and methyl methanesulfonate on DNA in mouse whole blood leukocytes. It was shown that the preliminary exposure of the cells to low intensity pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation (42.2 GHz, 0.1 mW/cm2, 20-min exposure, modulation frequencies of 1 and 16 Hz) caused protective effects decreasing the DNA damage by 20-45%. The efficacy of pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation depended on the type of genotoxic agent and increased in a row methyl methanesulfonate--X-rays--hydrogen peroxide. Continuous electromagnetic radiation was ineffective. The mechanisms of protective effects may be connected with an induction of the adaptive response by nanomolar concentrations of reactive oxygen species formed by pulse-modulated electromagnetic radiation.

  12. Low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields significantly improve time of closure and proliferation of human tendon fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The promotion of the healing process following musculoskeletal injuries comprises growth factor signalling, migration, proliferation and apoptosis of cells. If these processes could be modulated, the healing of tendon tissue may be markedly enhanced. Here, we report the use of the Somagen™ device, which is certified for medical use according to European laws. It generates low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields that trigger effects of a nature that are yet to be determined. Methods A 1.5-cm wide, linear scrape was introduced into patellar tendon fibroblast cultures (N = 5 donors). Treatment was carried out every second day. The regimen was applied three times in total with 30 minutes comprising pulsed electromagnetic field packages with two fundamental frequencies (10 minutes of 33 Hz, 20 minutes of 7.8 Hz). Control cells remained untreated. All samples were analyzed for gap closure time, proliferation and apoptosis one week after induction of the scrape wound. Results The mean time for bridging the gap in the nontreated cells was 5.05 ± 0.33 days, and in treated cells, it took 3.35 ± 0.38 days (P <0.001). For cell cultures with scrape wounds, a mean value for BrdU incorporation of OD = 0.70 ± 0.16 was found. Whereas low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields treated samples showed OD = 1.58 ± 0.24 (P <0.001). However, the percentage of apoptotic cells did not differ between the two groups. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields emitted by the Somagen™ device influences the in vitro wound healing of patellar tendon fibroblasts and, therefore, possibly increases wound healing potential. PMID:24996421

  13. Time-dependent phase shift of a retrieved pulse in off-resonant electromagnetically-induced-transparency-based light storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, M.-A.; Bouchez, R.; Lugani, J.; Bretenaker, F.; Goldfarb, F.; Brion, E.

    2015-11-01

    We report measurements of the time-dependent phases of the leak and retrieved pulses obtained in electromagnetically-induced-transparency storage experiments with metastable helium vapor at room temperature. In particular, we investigate the influence of the optical detuning at two-photon resonance and provide numerical simulations of the full dynamical Maxwell-Bloch equations, which allow us to account for the experimental results.

  14. Preventing Electromagnetic Pulse Irradiation Damage on Testis Using Selenium-rich Cordyceps Fungi. A Preclinical Study in Young Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xia; Wang, Yafeng; Lang, Haiyang; Lin, Yanyun; Guo, Qiyan; Yang, Mingjuan; Guo, Juan; Zhang, Yanjun; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Junye; Liu, Yaning; Zeng, Lihua; Guo, Guozhen

    2017-02-01

    Networked 21st century society, globalization, and communications technologies are paralleled by the rise of electromagnetic energy intensity in our environments and the growing pressure of the environtome on human biology and health. The latter is the entire complement of environmental factors, including the electromagnetic energy and the technologies that generate them, enacting on the digital citizen in the new century. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) irradiation might have serious damaging effects not only on electronic equipment but also in the whole organism and reproductive health, through nonthermal effects and oxidative stress. We sought to determine whether EMP exposure (1) induces biological damage on reproductive health and (2) the extent to which selenium-rich Cordyceps fungi (daily coadministration) offer protection on the testicles and spermatozoa. In a preclinical randomized study, 3-week-old male BALB/c mice were repeatedly exposed to EMP (peak intensity 200 kV/m, pulse edge 3.5 ns, pulse width 15 ns, 0.1 Hz, and 400 pulses/day) 5 days per week for four consecutive weeks, with or without coadministration of daily selenium-rich Cordyceps fungi (100 mg/kg). Testicular index and spermatozoa formation were measured at baseline and 1, 7, 14, 28, and 60 day time points after EMP exposure. The group without Cordyceps cotreatment displayed decreased spermatozoa formation, shrunk seminiferous tubule diameters, and diminished antioxidative capacity at 28 and 60 days after exposure (p < 0.05). The Cordyceps daily cotreatment alleviated the testicular damage by EMP exposure, increased spermatozoa formation, and reduced apoptotic spermatogenic cells. These observations warrant further preclinical and clinical studies as an innovative approach for potential protection against electromagnetic radiation in the current age of networked society and digital citizenship.

  15. Generation and propagation of an electromagnetic pulse in the Trigger experiment and its possible role in electron acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.; Kintner, P. M.; Kudeki, E.; Holmgren, G.; Bostrom, R.; Fahleson, U. V.

    1980-01-01

    Instruments onboard the Trigger payload detected a large-amplitude, low-frequency, electric field pulse which was observed with a time delay consistent only with an electromagnetic wave. A model for this perturbation is constructed, and the associated field-aligned current is calculated as a function of altitude. This experiment may simulate the acceleration mechanism which results in the formation of auroral arcs, and possibly even other events in cosmic plasmas.

  16. OCE NEMP PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT OF CRITERIA FOR PROTECTION OF NIKE-X POWER PLANT AND FACILITIES ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS AGAINST NUCLEAR ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE EFFECTS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    technical backup material for the OCE NEMP PROGRAM, Development of Criteria for Protection of NIKE-X Power Plant and Facilities Electrical Systems Against Nuclear Electromagnetic Pulse Effects, Protective MEASURES. (Author)

  17. New Physical Mechanism for Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artekha, Sergey N.; Belyan, Andrey V.

    2018-02-01

    The article is devoted to electromagnetic phenomena in the atmosphere. The set of experimental data on the thunderstorm activity is analyzed. It helps to identify a possible physical mechanism of lightning flashes. This mechanism can involve the formation of metallic bonds in thunderclouds. The analysis of the problem is performed at a microphysical level within the framework of quantum mechanics. The mechanism of appearance of metallic conductivity includes the resonant tunneling of electrons along resonance-percolation trajectories. Such bonds allow the charges from the vast cloud charged subsystems concentrate quickly in lightning channel. The formation of metal bonds in the thunderstorm cloudiness is described as the second-order phase transition. A successive mechanism for the process of formation and development of the lightning channel is suggested. This mechanism is associated with the change in the orientation of crystals in growing electric field. Possible consequences of the quantum-mechanical mechanism under discussion are compared with the results of observations.

  18. Monitoring lightning from space with TARANIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farges, T.; Blanc, E.; Pinçon, J.

    2010-12-01

    Some recent space experiments, e.g. OTD, LIS, show the large interest of lightning monitoring from space and the efficiency of optical measurement. Future instrumentations are now defined for the next generation of geostationary meteorology satellites. Calibration of these instruments requires ground truth events provided by lightning location networks, as NLDN in US, and EUCLID or LINET in Europe, using electromagnetic observations at a regional scale. One of the most challenging objectives is the continuous monitoring of the lightning activity over the tropical zone (Africa, America, and Indonesia). However, one difficulty is the lack of lightning location networks at regional scale in these areas to validate the data quality. TARANIS (Tool for the Analysis of Radiations from lightNings and Sprites) is a CNES micro satellite project. It is dedicated to the study of impulsive transfers of energy, between the Earth atmosphere and the space environment, from nadir observations of Transient Luminous Events (TLEs), Terrestrial Gamma ray Flashes (TGFs) and other possible associated emissions. Its orbit will be sun-synchronous at 10:30 local time; its altitude will be 700 km. Its lifetime will be nominally 2 years. Its payload is composed of several electromagnetic instruments in different wavelengths: X and gamma-ray detectors, optical cameras and photometers, electromagnetic wave sensors from DC to 30 MHz completed by high energy electron detectors. The optical instrument includes 2 cameras and 4 photometers. All sensors are equipped with filters for sprite and lightning differentiation. The filters of cameras are designed for sprite and lightning observations at 762 nm and 777 nm respectively. However, differently from OTD or LIS instruments, the filter bandwidth and the exposure time (respectively 10 nm and 91 ms) prevent lightning optical observations during daytime. The camera field of view is a square of 500 km at ground level with a spatial sampling frequency of

  19. Merging Infrasound and Electromagnetic Signals as a Means for Nuclear Explosion Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazy, Joseph; Lipshtat, Azi; Kesar, Amit S.; Pistinner, Shlomo; Ben Horin, Yochai

    2016-04-01

    The infrasound monitoring network of the CTBT consists of 60 stations. These stations are capable of detecting atmospheric events, and may provide approximate location within time scale of a few hours. However, the nature of these events cannot be deduced from the infrasound signal. More than two decades ago it was proposed to use the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) as a means of discriminating nuclear explosion from other atmospheric events. An EMP is a unique signature of nuclear explosion and is not detected from chemical ones. Nevertheless, it was decided to exclude the EMP technology from the official CTBT verification regime, mainly because of the risk of high false alarm rate, due to lightning electromagnetic pulses [1]. Here we present a method of integrating the information retrieved from the infrasound system with the EMP signal which enables us to discriminate between lightning discharges and nuclear explosions. Furthermore, we show how spectral and other characteristics of the electromagnetic signal emitted from a nuclear explosion are distinguished from those of lightning discharge. We estimate the false alarm probability of detecting a lightning discharge from a given area of the infrasound event, and identifying it as a signature of a nuclear explosion. We show that this probability is very low and conclude that the combination of infrasound monitoring and EMP spectral analysis may produce a reliable method for identifying nuclear explosions. [1] R. Johnson, Unfinished Business: The Negotiation of the CTBT and the End of Nuclear Testing, United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, 2009.

  20. Stimulation of osteogenic differentiation in human osteoprogenitor cells by pulsed electromagnetic fields: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Although pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation may be clinically beneficial during fracture healing and for a wide range of bone disorders, there is still debate on its working mechanism. Mesenchymal stem cells are likely mediators facilitating the observed clinical effects of PEMF. Here, we performed in vitro experiments to investigate the effect of PEMF stimulation on human bone marrow-derived stromal cell (BMSC) metabolism and, specifically, whether PEMF can stimulate their osteogenic differentiation. Methods BMSCs derived from four different donors were cultured in osteogenic medium, with the PEMF treated group being continuously exposed to a 15 Hz, 1 Gauss EM field, consisting of 5-millisecond bursts with 5-microsecond pulses. On culture day 1, 5, 9, and 14, cells were collected for biochemical analysis (DNA amount, alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition), expression of various osteoblast-relevant genes and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. Differences between treated and control groups were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test, and considered significant when p < 0.05. Results Biochemical analysis revealed significant, differentiation stage-dependent, PEMF-induced differences: PEMF increased mineralization at day 9 and 14, without altering alkaline phosphatase activity. Cell proliferation, as measured by DNA amounts, was not affected by PEMF until day 14. Here, DNA content stagnated in PEMF treated group, resulting in less DNA compared to control. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that during early culture, up to day 9, PEMF treatment increased mRNA levels of bone morphogenetic protein 2, transforming growth factor-beta 1, osteoprotegerin, matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -3, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein. In contrast, receptor activator of NF-κB ligand expression was primarily stimulated on day 14. ERK1/2 phosphorylation was not affected by PEMF stimulation. Conclusions PEMF exposure

  1. Magnetic field generated by lightning protection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geri, A.; Veca, G. M.

    1988-04-01

    A lightning protection system for today's civil buildings must be electromagnetically compatible with the electronic equipment present in the building. This paper highlights a mathematic model which analyzes the electromagnetic effects in the environment in which the lightning protection system is. This model is developed by means of finite elements of an electrical circuit where each element is represented by a double pole circuit according to the trapezoidal algorithm developed using the finite difference method. It is thus possible to analyze the electromagnetic phenomena associated with the transient effects created by the lightning stroke even for a high-intensity current. Referring to an elementary system comprised of an air terminal, a down conductor, and a ground terminal, numerical results are here laid out.

  2. Dependence the Integrated Energy of the Electromagnetic Response from Excitation Pulse Duration for Epoxy Samples With Sand Filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surzhikov, V. P.; Demikhova, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    Results of research of influence of the excitation pulse duration on the parameters of the electromagnetic response of epoxy samples with filler the quartz sand presented in the paper. The electric component of a response was registered by the capacitive sensors using a differential amplifier. Measurements were carried out at two frequencies of the master generator of 65 kHz and 74 kHz. The pulse duration was changing from 10 to 100 microseconds. The stepped sort of dependence of the integrated oscillations energy in the response from duration of the excitation pulse was discovered. The conclusion was made about the determining role of the normal oscillations in formation of such dependence.

  3. [Effects on structure and secretion of pituitary gland in rats after electromagnetic pulse exposure].

    PubMed

    Fang, Heng-hu; Zeng, Gui-ying; Nie, Qing; Kang, Jing-bo; Ren, Dong-qing; Zhou, Jia-xing; Li, Yun-ming

    2010-12-07

    To investigate the exposure effect of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on the structure and secretion of pituitary gland in rats. Forty-eight male SD rats were randomly divided into eight groups. Four groups were subject to the EMP exposure of 200 kV/m and the others received a sham exposure. At different time points (12, 24, 48 & 96 h) post-exposure, the pathological changes of pituitary gland were observed by light and transmission electron microscope. And the serum levels of prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured dynamically by radioimmunoassay. At 12 h post-exposure, swollen mitochondria with cristae loss, dilatation of Golgi complex and diffusive lysosomes were found in endocrine cells of pituitary gland. The above changes became gradually worse. Mitochondrial vacuolization, the formation of myelin figures, distinct dilatation of endoplasmic reticulum, the occurrence of numerous secondary lysosomes and the clustering of heterochromatin under the nuclear membranes could be observed at 48 h. These lesions were alleviated to some degree at 96 h. The serum levels of PRL and ACTH both increased significantly at 12 h (P < 0.01, P < 0.05) and returned to normal at 24 h. The level of GH decreased significantly at 12 h and then returned gradually to normal at 48 h. The level of TSH decreased at 12 h and reached the lowest point at 24 h, then returned to normal at 96 h. LH increased significantly from 24 h to 96 h. The EMP exposure of 200 kV/m may induce the changes of the structure and secretion of pituitary gland in rats.

  4. Low Intensity and Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Selectively Impair Breast Cancer Cell Viability

    PubMed Central

    Crocetti, Sara; Beyer, Christian; Schade, Grit; Egli, Marcel; Fröhlich, Jürg; Franco-Obregón, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction A common drawback of many anticancer therapies is non-specificity in action of killing. We investigated the potential of ultra-low intensity and frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) to kill breast cancer cells. Our criteria to accept this technology as a potentially valid therapeutic approach were: 1) cytotoxicity to breast cancer cells and; 2) that the designed fields proved innocuous to healthy cell classes that would be exposed to the PEMFs during clinical treatment. Methods MCF7 breast cancer cells and their normal counterparts, MCF10 cells, were exposed to PEMFs and cytotoxic indices measured in order to design PEMF paradigms that best kill breast cancer cells. The PEMF parameters tested were: 1) frequencies ranging from 20 to 50 Hz; 2) intensities ranging from 2 mT to 5 mT and; 3) exposure durations ranging from 30 to 90 minutes per day for up to three days to determine the optimum parameters for selective cancer cell killing. Results We observed a discrete window of vulnerability of MCF7 cells to PEMFs of 20 Hz frequency, 3 mT magnitude and exposure duration of 60 minutes per day. The cell damage accrued in response to PEMFs increased with time and gained significance after three days of consecutive daily exposure. By contrast, the PEMFs parameters determined to be most cytotoxic to breast cancer MCF-7 cells were not damaging to normal MCF-10 cells. Conclusion Based on our data it appears that PEMF-based anticancer strategies may represent a new therapeutic approach to treat breast cancer without affecting normal tissues in a manner that is non-invasive and can be potentially combined with existing anti-cancer treatments. PMID:24039828

  5. Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Exposure Reduces Hypoxia and Inflammation Damage in Neuron-Like and Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Ravani, Annalisa; Pasquini, Silvia; Merighi, Stefania; Gessi, Stefania; Setti, Stefania; Cadossi, Ruggero; Borea, Pier Andrea; Varani, Katia

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, the effect of low-frequency, low-energy pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) has been investigated by using different cell lines derived from neuron-like cells and microglial cells. In particular, the primary aim was to evaluate the effect of PEMF exposure in inflammation- and hypoxia-induced injury in two different neuronal cell models, the human neuroblastoma-derived SH-SY5Y cells and rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells and in N9 microglial cells. In neuron-like cells, live/dead and apoptosis assays were performed in hypoxia conditions from 2 to 48 h. Interestingly, PEMF exposure counteracted hypoxia damage significantly reducing cell death and apoptosis. In the same cell lines, PEMFs inhibited the activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), the master transcriptional regulator of cellular response to hypoxia. The effect of PEMF exposure on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in both neuron-like and microglial cells was investigated considering their key role in ischemic injury. PEMFs significantly decreased hypoxia-induced ROS generation in PC12, SH-SY5Y, and N9 cells after 24 or 48 h of incubation. Moreover, PEMFs were able to reduce some of the most well-known pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 release in N9 microglial cells stimulated with different concentrations of LPS for 24 or 48 h of incubation time. These results show a protective effect of PEMFs on hypoxia damage in neuron-like cells and an anti-inflammatory effect in microglial cells suggesting that PEMFs could represent a potential therapeutic approach in cerebral ischemic conditions. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1200-1208, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. [Effect of electromagnetic pulse irradiation on structure and function of Leydig cells in mice].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shui-Ming; Wang, De-Wen; Peng, Rui-Yun; Gao, Ya-Bing; Yang, Yi; Hu, Wen-Hua; Chen, Hao-Yu; Zhang, You-Ren; Gao, Yan

    2003-08-01

    To explore the effect of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) irradiation on structure and function of Leydig cells in mice. One hundred and fourteen male Kunming mice were randomly divided into irradiated and control group, the former radiated generally by 8 x 10(3) V/m, 2 x 10(4) V/m and 6 x 10(4) V/m EMP respectively five times within two minutes. Pathological changes of Leydig cells were observed by light and electron microscope. Serum testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol (E2) were measured dynamically by radioimmunoassay at 6 h, 1 d, 3 d, 7 d, 14 d and 28 d after irradiation. Main pathological changes were edema and vacuolation, swelling of cytoplasmic mitochondria, reduce of lipid droplets, pale staining of most of lipid droplets, and partial or complete cavitation of lipid droplets in Leydig cells within 28 days after EMP radiation. Compared with normal controls, serum T decreased in all in different degrees within 28 days, and dropped significantly at 6 h-14 d, 6 h-7 d and 1 d-28 d after 8 x 10(3) V/m, 2 x 10(4) V/m and 6 x 10(4) V/m EMP irradiation(P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). EMP irradiation caused no significant changes in serum LH and E2. Leydig cells are among those that are the most susceptible to EMP irradiation. EMP irradiation may cause significant injury in structure and function of Leydig cells in mice, whose earlier and continuous effect is bound to affect sexual function and sperm production.

  7. Detrimental effect of electromagnetic pulse exposure on permeability of in vitro blood-brain-barrier model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jia Xing; Ding, Gui Rong; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Yong Chun; Zhang, Yan Jun; Guo, Guo Zhen

    2013-02-01

    To study the effect of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) exposure on permeability of in vitro blood-brain-barrier (BBB) model. An in vitro BBB model, established by co-culturing brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) and astroglial cells (AC) isolated from rat brain, was exposed to EMP at 100 kV/m and 400 kV/m, respectively. Permeability of the model was assayed by measuring the transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) transmission at different time points. Levels of BBB tight junction-related proteins were measured at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24 h after EMP exposure by Western blotting. The TEER level was lower in BBB model group than in control group at 12 h after EMP, exposure which returned to its normal level at 24 h. The 24 h recovery process was triphasic and biphasic respectively after EMP exposure at 100 kV/m and 400 kV/m. Following exposure to 400 kV/m EMP, the HRP permeability increased at 1-12 h and returned to its normal level at 24 h. Western blotting showed that the claudin-5 and ZO-1 protein levels were changed after EMP exposure. EMP exposure at 100 kV/m and 400 kV/m can increase the permeability of in vitro BBB model and BBB tight junction-related proteins such as ZO-1 and claudin-5 may change EMP-induced BBB permeability. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  8. Transient development of Zeeman electromagnetically induced transparency during propagation of Raman-Ramsey pulses through Rb buffer gas cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, S. N.; Radonjić, M.; Lučić, N. M.; Krmpot, A. J.; Jelenković, B. M.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate, experimentally and theoretically, time development of Zeeman electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) during propagation of two time separated polarization laser pulses, preparatory and probe, through Rb vapour. The pulses were produced by modifying laser intensity and degree of elliptical polarization. The frequency of the single laser beam is locked to the hyperfine {{F}g}=2\\to {{F}e}=1 transition of the D1 line in 87Rb. Transients in the intensity of {{σ }-} component of the transmitted light are measured or calculated at different values of the external magnetic field, during both preparatory and probe pulse. Zeeman EIT resonances at particular time instants of the pulse propagation are reconstructed by appropriate sampling of the transients. We observe how laser intensity, Ramsey sequence and the Rb cell temperature affect the time dependence of EIT line shapes, amplitudes and linewidths. We show that at early times of the probe pulse propagation, several Ramsey fringes are present in EIT resonances, while at later moments a single narrow peak prevails. Time development of EIT amplitudes are determined by the transmitted intensity of the {{σ }-} component during the pulse propagation.

  9. The electromagnetic radiation fields of a relativistic electron avalanche with special attention to the origin of narrow bipolar pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, G. V.; Cooray, G. K.

    2011-12-01

    Gurevich et al. [1] postulated that the source of narrow bipolar pulses, a class of high energy pulses that occur during thunderstorms, could be a runaway electron avalanche driven by the intense electric fields of a thunderstorm. Recently, Watson and Marshall [2] used the modified transmission line model to test the mechanism of the source of narrow bipolar pulses. In a recent paper, Cooray and Cooray [3] demonstrated that the electromagnetic fields of accelerating charges could be used to evaluate the electromagnetic fields from electrical discharges if the temporal and spatial variation of the charges in the discharge is known. In the present study, those equations were utilized to evaluate the electromagnetic fields generated by a relativistic electron avalanche. In the analysis it is assumed that all the electrons in the avalanche are moving with the same speed. In other words, the growth or the decay of the number of electrons takes place only at the head of the avalanche. It is shown that the radiation is emanating only from the head of the avalanche where electrons are being accelerated. It is also shown that an analytical expression for the radiation field of the avalanche at any distance can be written directly in terms of the e-folding length of the avalanche. This makes it possible to extract directly the spatial variation of the e-folding length of the avalanche from the measured radiation fields. In the study this model avalanche was used to investigate whether it can be used to describe the measured electromagnetic fields of narrow bipolar pulses. The results obtained are in reasonable agreement with the two station data of Eack [4] for speeds of propagation around (2 - 2.5) x 10^8 m/s and when the propagation effects on the electric fields measured at the distant station is taken into account. [1] Gurevich et al. (2004), Phys. Lett. A., 329, pp. 348 -361. [2] Watson, S. S. and T. C. Marshall (2007), Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 34, L04816, doi: 10

  10. Scientific Lightning Detection Network for Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streltsov, A. V.; Lozbin, A.; Inchin, A.; Shpadi, Y.; Inchin, P.; Shpadi, M.; Ayazbayev, G.; Bykayev, R.; Mailibayeva, L.

    2015-12-01

    In the frame of grant financing of the scientific research in 2015-2017 the project "To Develop Electromagnetic System for lightning location and atmosphere-lithosphere coupling research" was found. The project was start in January, 2015 and should be done during 3 years. The purpose is to create a system of electromagnetic measurements for lightning location and atmosphere-lithosphere coupling research consisting of a network of electric and magnetic sensors and the dedicated complex for data processing and transfer to the end user. The main tasks are to set several points for electromagnetic measurements with 100-200 km distance between them, to develop equipment for these points, to develop the techniques and software for lightning location (Time-of-arrival and Direction Finding (TOA+DF)) and provide a lightning activity research in North Tien-Shan region with respect to seismicity and other natural and manmade activities. Also, it is planned to use lightning data for Global Electric Circuit (GEC) investigation. Currently, there are lightning detection networks in many countries. In Kazakhstan we have only separate units in airports. So, we don't have full lightning information for our region. It is planned, to setup 8-10 measurement points with magnetic and electric filed antennas for VLF range. The final data set should be including each stroke location, time, type (CG+, CG-, CC+ or CC-) and waveform from each station. As the magnetic field lightning antenna the ferrite rod VLF antenna will be used. As the electric field antenna the wide range antenna with specific frequencies filters will be used. For true event detection TOA and DF methods needs detected stroke from minimum 4 stations. In this case we can get location accuracy about 2-3 km and better.

  11. Damage effect and mechanism of the GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor induced by the electromagnetic pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao-Wen, Xi; Chang-Chun, Chai; Gang, Zhao; Yin-Tang, Yang; Xin-Hai, Yu; Yang, Liu

    2016-04-01

    The damage effect and mechanism of the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on the GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (PHEMT) are investigated in this paper. By using the device simulation software, the distributions and variations of the electric field, the current density and the temperature are analyzed. The simulation results show that there are three physical effects, i.e., the forward-biased effect of the gate Schottky junction, the avalanche breakdown, and the thermal breakdown of the barrier layer, which influence the device current in the damage process. It is found that the damage position of the device changes with the amplitude of the step voltage pulse. The damage appears under the gate near the drain when the amplitude of the pulse is low, and it also occurs under the gate near the source when the amplitude is sufficiently high, which is consistent with the experimental results. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2014CB339900), and the Open Fund of Key Laboratory of Complex Electromagnetic Environment Science and Technology, China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP) (Grant No. 2015-0214.XY.K).

  12. The 1991 International Aerospace and Ground Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The proceedings of the 1991 International Aerospace and Ground Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity are reported. Some of the topics covered include: lightning, lightning suppression, aerospace vehicles, aircraft safety, flight safety, aviation meteorology, thunderstorms, atmospheric electricity, warning systems, weather forecasting, electromagnetic coupling, electrical measurement, electrostatics, aircraft hazards, flight hazards, meteorological parameters, cloud (meteorology), ground effect, electric currents, lightning equipment, electric fields, measuring instruments, electrical grounding, and aircraft instruments.

  13. Pulsed electromagnetic fields dosing impacts postoperative pain in breast reduction patients.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Erin M; Hardy, Krista L; Alonso, Amanda; Pilla, Arthur A; Rohde, Christine H

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) reduce postoperative pain and narcotic requirements in breast augmentation, reduction, and reconstruction patients. PEMF enhances both calmodulin-dependent nitric oxide and/or cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling and phosphodiesterase activity, which blocks cyclic guanosine monophosphate. The clinical effect of these competing responses on PEMF dosing is not known. Two prospective, nonrandomized, active cohorts of breast reduction patients, with 15 min PEMF per 2 h; "Q2 (active)", and 5 min PEMF per 20 min; "5/20 (active)", dosing regimens were added to a previously reported double-blind clinical study wherein 20 min PEMF per 4 h, "Q4 (active)", dosing significantly accelerated postoperative pain reduction compared with Q4 shams. Postoperative visual analog scale pain scores and narcotic use were compared with results from the previous study. Visual analog scale scores at 24 h were 43% and 35% of pain at 1 h in the Q4 (active) and Q2 (active) cohorts, respectively (P < 0.01). Pain at 24 h in the 5/20 (active) cohort was 87% of pain at 1 h, compared with 74% in the Q4 (sham) cohort (P = 0.451). Concomitantly, narcotic usage in the 5/20 (active) and Q4 (sham) cohorts was not different (P = 0.478), and 2-fold higher than the Q4 (active) and Q2 (active) cohorts (P < 0.02). This prospective study shows Q4/Q2, but not 5/20 PEMF dosing, accelerated postoperative pain reduction compared with historical shams. The 5/20 (active) regimen increases NO 4-fold faster than the Q4 (active) regimen, possibly accelerating phosphodiesterase inhibition of cyclic guanosine monophosphate sufficiently to block the PEMF effect. This study helps define the dosing limits of clinically useful PEMF signals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy for Evaluating the Effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on Marrow Adiposity in Postmenopausal Women With Osteopenia.

    PubMed

    Li, Shaojun; Jiang, Hongning; Wang, Bo; Gu, Mingjun; Bi, Xia; Yin, Ying; Wang, Yu

    2018-06-12

    Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) could promote osteogenic differentiation and suppress adipogenic differentiation in bone mesenchymal stem cells ex vivo. However, data on the effect of PEMF on marrow adiposity in humans remain elusive. We aimed to determine the in vivo effect of PEMF on marrow adiposity in postmenopausal women using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sixty-one postmenopausal women with osteopenia, aged 53 to 85 years, were randomly assigned to receive either PEMF treatment or placebo. The session was performed 3 times per week for 6 months. All women received adequate dietary calcium and vitamin D. Bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, vertebral marrow fat content by magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and serum biomarkers were evaluated before and after 6 months of treatment. A total of 27 (87.1%) and 25 (83.3%) women completed the treatment schedule in the PEMF and placebo groups, respectively. After the 6-month treatment, lumbar spine and hip BMD increased by 1.46% to 2.04%, serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase increased by 3.23%, and C-terminal telopeptides of type 1 collagen decreased by 9.12% in the PEMF group (P < 0.05), whereas the mean percentage changes in BMD and serum biomarkers were not significant in the placebo group. Pulsed electromagnetic field treatment significantly reduced marrow fat fraction by 4.81%. The treatment difference between the 2 groups was -4.43% (95% confidence interval, -3.70% to -5.65%; P = 0.009). Pulsed electromagnetic field is an effective physiotherapy in postmenopausal women, and this effect may, at least in part, regulate the amount of fat within the bone marrow. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy may serve as a complementary imaging biomarker for monitoring response to therapy in osteoporosis.

  15. Acoustic Manifestations of Natural versus Triggered Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arechiga, R. O.; Johnson, J. B.; Edens, H. E.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.; Eack, K.; Eastvedt, E. M.; Aulich, G. D.; Trueblood, J.

    2010-12-01

    Positive leaders are rarely detected by VHF lightning detection systems; positive leader channels are usually outlined only by recoil events. Positive cloud-to-ground (CG) channels are usually not mapped. The goal of this work is to study the types of thunder produced by natural versus triggered lightning and to assess which types of thunder signals have electromagnetic activity detected by the lightning mapping array (LMA). Towards this end we are investigating the lightning detection capabilities of acoustic techniques, and comparing them with the LMA. In a previous study we used array beam forming and time of flight information to locate acoustic sources associated with lightning. Even though there was some mismatch, generally LMA and acoustic techniques saw the same phenomena. To increase the database of acoustic data from lightning, we deployed a network of three infrasound arrays (30 m aperture) during the summer of 2010 (August 3 to present) in the Magdalena mountains of New Mexico, to monitor infrasound (below 20 Hz) and audio range sources due to natural and triggered lightning. The arrays were located at a range of distances (60 to 1400 m) surrounding the triggering site, called the Kiva, used by Langmuir Laboratory to launch rockets. We have continuous acoustic measurements of lightning data from July 20 to September 18 of 2009, and from August 3 to September 1 of 2010. So far, lightning activity around the Kiva was higher during the summer of 2009. We will present acoustic data from several interesting lightning flashes including a comparison between a natural and a triggered one.

  16. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP), Part II: Field-expedient ways to minimize its effects on field medical treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Vandre, R H; Klebers, J; Tesche, F M; Blanchard, J P

    1993-05-01

    Part I of this paper showed that a field commander can expect approximately 65% of his unprotected electronic medical equipment to be damaged by the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) from a single nuclear detonation as far as 2200 km away. Using computer modeling, field-expedient ways to minimize the effects of EMP were studied. The results were: (1) keep wiring near the ground, (2) keep wiring short, (3) unplug unused equipment, (4) run power cabling and tents in a magnetic north-south direction (avoid running power cabling in the east-west direction), and (5) place sensitive equipment in International Organization for Standardization shelters.

  17. Analytical model for electromagnetic radiation from a wakefield excited by intense short laser pulses in an unmagnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zi-Yu; Chen, Shi; Dan, Jia-Kun; Li, Jian-Feng; Peng, Qi-Xian

    2011-10-01

    A simple one-dimensional analytical model for electromagnetic emission from an unmagnetized wakefield excited by an intense short-pulse laser in the nonlinear regime has been developed in this paper. The expressions for the spectral and angular distributions of the radiation have been derived. The model suggests that the origin of the radiation can be attributed to the violent sudden acceleration of plasma electrons experiencing the accelerating potential of the laser wakefield. The radiation process could help to provide a qualitative interpretation of existing experimental results, and offers useful information for future laser wakefield experiments.

  18. Strong electromagnetic pulses generated in high-intensity short-pulse laser interactions with thin foil targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rączka, P.; Dubois, J.-L.; Hulin, S.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Rosiński, M.; Zaraś-Szydłowska, A.; Badziak, J.

    2017-12-01

    Measurements are reported of the target neutralization current, the target charge, and the tangential component of the magnetic field generated as a result of laser-target interaction by pulses with the energy in the range of 45 mJ to 92 mJ on target and the pulse duration from 39 fs to 1000 fs. The experiment was performed at the Eclipse facility in CELIA, Bordeaux. The aim of the experiment was to extend investigations performed for the thick (mm scale) targets to the case of thin (micrometer thickness) targets in a way that would allow for a straightforward comparison of the results. We found that thin foil targets tend to generate 20 to 50 percent higher neutralization current and the target charge than the thick targets. The measurement of the tangential component of the magnetic field had shown that the initial spike is dominated by the 1 ns pulse consistent with the 1 ns pulse of the neutralization current, but there are some differences between targets of different type on sub-ns scale, which is an effect going beyond a simple picture of the target acting as an antenna. The sub-ns structure appears to be reproducible to surprising degree. We found that there is in general a linear correlation between the maximum value of the magnetic field and the maximum neutralization current, which supports the target-antenna picture, except for pulses hundreds of fs long.

  19. Lightning characterization through acoustic and electromagnetic measurements recorded during the HyMeX SOP1 and simulation of the acoustic nonlinear propagation in realistic thunderstorm meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallin, L.; Coulouvrat, F.; Farges, T.; Marchiano, R.; Defer, E.; Rison, W.; Schulz, W.; Nuret, M.

    2013-12-01

    The goal is to study the transformation of the thunder (amplitude, spectrum) during its travel from the lightning channel towards a detector (microphone, microbarometer), considering propagation distances of less than 50 km and complex local meteorological properties. Inside the European HyMeX project, the SOP1 campaign (2012) took place from September 2012 to November 2012 in South of France. An acoustic station (center: 4.39° E, 44.08° N) composed of a microphone array placed inside a microbarometer array was installed by CEA near city of Uzès. It was located in the center of an LMA network coming with two slow antennas. This network was deployed in France for the first time by the New Mexico Tech and LERMA laboratory. The detections from the European lightning location system EUCLID complete this dataset. During the SOP1 period several storms passed over the station. The post-processings of the records point out days with interesting thunderstorms. Especially during the 26th of October 2012 in the evening (around 8 pm) a thunderstorm passed just over the acoustic station. Not too many lightning strokes are detected by EUCLID, the corresponding flashes are then well characterized by the LMA network. Slow antennas present good electric field measurements. The acoustic records have excellent quality. We present for some selected flashes a comparative study of the different measurements (LMA, slow antenna, EUCLID, microphones, microbarometers): focusing on amplitude and spectrum of the thunder waveforms, and on propagation effects due to the meteorological conditions. To quantify the impact of these meteorological conditions on the propagating thunder (from the lightning sources to the acoustic array), a code named Flhoward is used [Dagrau et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 130, 20-32, 2011][Coulouvrat, Wave Motion, 49, 50--63, 2012]. It is designed to simulate the nonlinear propagation of acoustic shock waves through a realistic atmosphere model (including temperature

  20. Giant pulses of the Crab Nebula pulsar as an indicator of a strong electromagnetic wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, M. V.; Rudnitskii, A. G.; Soglasnov, V. A.

    2017-03-01

    The spectra and visibility functions of giant pulses of the Crab Nebula pulsar derived from VLBI observations carried out through the "RadioAstron" project in 2015 are analyzed. Parameters of the scattering of the pulses in the interstellar medium are measured, namely, the scattering time and decorrelation bandwidth. A comparative analysis of the shapes of the spectra and visibility functions of giant pulses obtained in real observations and via modeling of their scattering is carried out. The results suggest the presence of short bursts ( dt < 30 ns) in the structure of the giant pulses at 1668 MHz, whose brightness temperatures exceed 1038 K. These pulses propagate in the pulsar magnetosphere in a strong electromagneticwave regime, leading to the generation of additional radiation perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the giant pulses. This radiation may be associated with anomalous components of the mean pulse profile observed at frequencies above 4 GHz.

  1. Investigation into the electromagnetic impulses from long-pulse laser illuminating solid targets inside a laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Tao; Yang, Jinwen; Yang, Ming; Wang, Chuanke; Yang, Weiming; Li, Tingshuai; Liu, Shenye; Jiang, Shaoen; Ding, Yongkun; Xiao, Shaoqiu

    2016-09-01

    Emission of the electromagnetic pulses (EMP) due to laser-target interaction in laser facility had been evaluated using a cone antenna in this work. The microwave in frequencies ranging from several hundreds of MHz to 2 GHz was recorded when long-pulse lasers with several thousands of joules illuminated the solid targets, meanwhile the voltage signals from 1 V to 4 V were captured as functions of laser energy and backlight laser, where the corresponding electric field strengths were obtained by simulating the cone antenna in combination with conducting a mathematical process (Tiknohov Regularization with L curve). All the typical coupled voltage oscillations displayed multiple peaks and had duration of up to 80 ns before decaying into noise and mechanisms of the EMP generation was schematically interpreted in basis of the practical measuring environments. The resultant data were expected to offer basic know-how to achieve inertial confinement fusion.

  2. Electromagnetically induced transparency and nonlinear pulse propagation in a combined tripod and Λ atom-light coupling scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamedi, H. R.; Ruseckas, J.; Juzeliūnas, G.

    2017-09-01

    We consider propagation of a probe pulse in an atomic medium characterized by a combined tripod and Lambda (Λ) atom-light coupling scheme. The scheme involves three atomic ground states coupled to two excited states by five light fields. It is demonstrated that dark states can be formed for such an atom-light coupling. This is essential for formation of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and slow light. In the limiting cases the scheme reduces to conventional Λ- or N-type atom-light couplings providing the EIT or absorption, respectively. Thus, the atomic system can experience a transition from the EIT to the absorption by changing the amplitudes or phases of control lasers. Subsequently the scheme is employed to analyze the nonlinear pulse propagation using the coupled Maxwell-Bloch equations. It is shown that a generation of stable slow light optical solitons is possible in such a five-level combined tripod and Λ atomic system.

  3. Trends in Lightning Electrical Energy Derived from the Lightning Imaging Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitzer, P. M.; Koshak, W. J.

    2016-12-01

    We present results detailing an emerging application of space-based measurement of lightning: the electrical energy. This is a little-used attribute of lightning data which can have applications for severe weather, lightning physics, and wildfires. In particular, we use data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Lightning Imaging Sensor (TRMM/LIS) to find the temporal and spatial variations in the detected spectral energy density. This is used to estimate the total lightning electrical energy, following established methodologies. Results showing the trend in time of the electrical energy, as well as the distribution around the globe, will be highlighted. While flashes have been typically used in most studies, the basic scientifically-relevant measured unit by LIS is the optical group data product. This generally corresponds to a return stroke or IC pulse. We explore how the electrical energy varies per LIS group, providing an extension and comparison with previous investigations. The result is an initial climatology of this new and important application of space-based optical measurements of lightning, which can provide a baseline for future applications using the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), the European Lightning Imager (LI), and the International Space Station Lightning Imaging Sensor (ISS/LIS) instruments.

  4. Principles of Lightning Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, Vladislav

    2016-12-01

    Principles of Lightning Physics presents and discusses the most up-to-date physical concepts that govern many lightning events in nature, including lightning interactions with man-made structures, at a level suitable for researchers, advanced students and well-educated lightning enthusiasts. The author's approach to understanding lightning-to seek out, and show what is common to all lightning flashes-is illustrated by an analysis of each type of lightning and the multitude of lightning-related features. The book examines the work that has gone into the development of new physical concepts, and provides critical evaluations of the existing understanding of the physics of lightning and the lexicon of terms and definitions presently used in lightning research.

  5. Laboratory-produced ball lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golka, Robert K., Jr.

    1994-05-01

    For 25 years I have actively been searching for the true nature of ball lightning and attempting to reproduce it at will in the laboratory. As one might expect, many unidentified lights in the atmosphere have been called ball lightning, including Texas Maffa lights (automobile headlights), flying saucers (UFOs), swamp gas in Ann Arbor, Michigan, etc. For 15 years I thought ball lightning was strictly a high-voltage phenomenon. It was not until 1984 when I was short-circuiting the electrical output of a diesel electric railroad locomotive that I realized that the phenomenon was related more to a high current. Although I am hoping for some other types of ball lightning to emerge such as strictly electrostatic-electromagnetic manifestations, I have been unlucky in finding laboratory provable evidence. Cavity-formed plasmodes can be made by putting a 2-inch burning candle in a home kitchen microwave oven. The plasmodes float around for as long as the microwave energy is present.

  6. No effects of pulsed radio frequency electromagnetic fields on melatonin, cortisol, and selected markers of the immune system in man.

    PubMed

    Radon, K; Parera, D; Rose, D M; Jung, D; Vollrath, L

    2001-05-01

    There is growing public concern that radio frequency electromagnetic fields may have adverse biological effects. In the present study eight healthy male students were tested to see whether or not radio frequency electromagnetic fields as used in modern digital wireless telecommunication (GSM standard) have noticeable effects on salivary melatonin, cortisol, neopterin, and immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels during and several hours after exposure. In a specifically designed, shielded experimental chamber, the circularly polarized electromagnetic field applied was transmitted by an antenna positioned 10 cm behind the head of upright sitting test persons. The carrier frequency of 900 MHz was pulsed with 217 Hz (average power flux density 1 W/m2). In double blind trials, each test person underwent a total of 20 randomly allotted 4 hour periods of exposure and sham exposure, equally distributed at day and night. The results obtained show that the salivary concentrations of melatonin, cortisol, neopterin and sIgA did not differ significantly between exposure and sham exposure. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Lightning Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevent Falls (News) A Dangerous New Twist on Cyberbullying (News) Electrical Pulses May Ease Pain From 'Slipped' ... Falls News HealthDay A Dangerous New Twist on Cyberbullying News HealthDay Electrical Pulses May Ease Pain From ' ...

  8. The effect of extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field on in vitro fertilization success rate in N MRI mice.

    PubMed

    Hafizi, Leili; Sazgarnia, Ameneh; Mousavifar, Nezhat; Karimi, Mohammad; Ghorbani, Saleh; Kazemi, Mohammad Reza; Emami Meibodi, Neda; Hosseini, Golkoo; Mostafavi Toroghi, Hesam

    2014-01-01

    The effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) on reproduction systems have been widely debated. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether low frequency EMF could ameliorate the in vitro fertilization success rate in Naval medical research institute (NMRI) Mice. In this randomized comparative animal study, ten NMRI mice were randomly divided into 2 equal groups (control and experimental). 10 IU of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was injected intraperitoneally to both groups in order to stimulate ovulating, and ovums were then aspirated and kept in KSOM (modified version of sequential simplex optimization medium with a higher K(+) concentration) culture medium. Metaphase II ovums were separated, and sperms obtained by "swim out" method were added to metaphase II ovums in the culture medium. The experimental group was exposed to 1.3 millitesla pulsed electromagnetic field at 4 kilohertz frequency for 5 hours. To assess the efficacy, we considered the identification of two-pronuclear zygote (2PN) under microscope as fertilizing criterion. Total number of collected ovums in the control and experimental groups was 191 and 173, respectively, from which 58 (30.05%) and 52 (30.36%) ovums were collected from metaphase II, respectively. In vitro fertilization (IVF) success rate was 77% in extremely low frequency- pulsed electromagnetic field (ELFPEMF) for exposed group (experimental), whereas the rate was 68% for control group. Despite increased percentile of IVF success rate in exposed group, there was no statistically significant difference between 2 groups, but this hypothesis has still been stated as a question. Further studies with larger sample sizes and different EMF designs are suggested.

  9. Statistical analysis of lightning electric field measured under Malaysian condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimi, Behnam; Mehranzamir, Kamyar; Abdul-Malek, Zulkurnain

    2014-02-01

    Lightning is an electrical discharge during thunderstorms that can be either within clouds (Inter-Cloud), or between clouds and ground (Cloud-Ground). The Lightning characteristics and their statistical information are the foundation for the design of lightning protection system as well as for the calculation of lightning radiated fields. Nowadays, there are various techniques to detect lightning signals and to determine various parameters produced by a lightning flash. Each technique provides its own claimed performances. In this paper, the characteristics of captured broadband electric fields generated by cloud-to-ground lightning discharges in South of Malaysia are analyzed. A total of 130 cloud-to-ground lightning flashes from 3 separate thunderstorm events (each event lasts for about 4-5 hours) were examined. Statistical analyses of the following signal parameters were presented: preliminary breakdown pulse train time duration, time interval between preliminary breakdowns and return stroke, multiplicity of stroke, and percentages of single stroke only. The BIL model is also introduced to characterize the lightning signature patterns. Observations on the statistical analyses show that about 79% of lightning signals fit well with the BIL model. The maximum and minimum of preliminary breakdown time duration of the observed lightning signals are 84 ms and 560 us, respectively. The findings of the statistical results show that 7.6% of the flashes were single stroke flashes, and the maximum number of strokes recorded was 14 multiple strokes per flash. A preliminary breakdown signature in more than 95% of the flashes can be identified.

  10. Hadronic vs. electromagnetic pulse shape discrimination in CsI(Tl) for high energy physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, S.; Roney, J. M.

    2018-03-01

    Pulse shape discrimination using CsI(Tl) scintillators to perform neutral hadron particle identification is explored with emphasis towards application at high energy electron-positron collider experiments. Through the analysis of the pulse shape differences between scintillation pulses from photon and hadronic energy deposits using neutron and proton data collected at TRIUMF, it is shown that the pulse shape variations observed for hadrons can be modelled using a third scintillation component for CsI(Tl), in addition to the standard fast and slow components. Techniques for computing the hadronic pulse amplitudes and shape variations are developed and it is shown that the intensity of the additional scintillation component can be computed from the ionization energy loss of the interacting particles. These pulse modelling and simulation methods are integrated with GEANT4 simulation libraries and the predicted pulse shape for CsI(Tl) crystals in a 5 × 5 array of 5 × 5 × 30 cm3 crystals is studied for hadronic showers from 0.5 and 1 GeV/c KL0 and neutron particles. Using a crystal level and cluster level approach for photon vs. hadron cluster separation we demonstrate proof-of-concept for neutral hadron detection using CsI(Tl) pulse shape discrimination in high energy electron-positron collider experiments.

  11. Electromagnetic Effects in the Near Field Plume Exhaust of a Micro-Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-12

    plasma focus is developed at a few millimeters from the thruster exit plane at the axis. This plasma focus exists during the entire pulse, but the plasma density in the focus decreases from about 2x10(exp 22)/cu m at the beginning of the pulse down to 0.3x10(exp 22)/cu m at 5 microsec.

  12. Lightning Safety Tips and Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Brochure U.S. Lightning Deaths in 2018 : 5 Youtube: Lightning Safety for the Deaf and Hard of ... for Hard of Hearing: jpg , high res png YouTube: Lightning Safety Tips Lightning Safety When Working Outdoors : ...

  13. The Effect of an Electromagnetic Pulse Strike on the Transportation Infrastructure of Kansas City

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    for real-time use in rugged, industrial environments. Connected to sensors and actuators, PLCs is categorized by the number and type of ports they...world are attempting to sensor and intercept their every move. Wary of a drone strike causing their imminent death, terrorists, non-state actors...pulse can closely resemble the effect of a geomagnetic storm, like the Aurora Borealis found in Alaska. E3 pulses resonate along a greater distance and

  14. Electromagnetic fields of an ultra-short tightly-focused radially-polarized laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamin, Yousef I.; Li, Jian-Xing

    2017-12-01

    Fully analytic expressions, for the electric and magnetic fields of an ultrashort and tightly focused laser pulse of the radially polarized category, are presented to lowest order of approximation. The fields are derived from scalar and vector potentials, along the lines of our earlier work for a similar pulse of the linearly polarized variety. A systematic program is also described from which the fields may be obtained to any desired accuracy, analytically or numerically.

  15. Effects of a pulsed electromagnetic therapy on multiple sclerosis fatigue and quality of life: a double-blind, placebo controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lappin, Martha S; Lawrie, Fraser Wilson; Richards, Todd L; Kramer, Eric D

    2003-01-01

    There is a growing literature on the biological and clinical effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields. Some studies suggest that electromagnetic therapies may be useful in the treatment of chronic illnesses. This study is a follow-up to a placebo controlled pilot study in which multiple sclerosis (MS) patients exposed to weak, extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields showed significant improvements on a composite symptom measure. To evaluate the effects of a pulsed electromagnetic therapy on MS related fatigue, spasticity, bladder control, and overall quality of life. A multi-site, double-blind, placebo controlled, crossover trial. Each subject received 4 weeks of the active and placebo treatments separated by a 2-week washout period. The University of Washington Medical Center in Seattle Wash, the Neurology Center of Fairfax in Fairfax, Va, and the headquarters of the Multiple Sclerosis Association of America in Cherry Hill, NJ. 117 patients with clinically definite MS. Daily exposure to a small, portable pulsing electromagnetic field generator. The MS Quality of Life Inventory (MSQLI) was used to assess changes in fatigue, bladder control, spasticity, and a quality of life composite. Paired t-tests were used to assess treatment differences in the 117 subjects (81% of the initial sample) who completed both treatment sessions. Improvements in fatigue and overall quality of life were significantly greater on the active device. There were no treatment effects for bladder control and a disability composite, and mixed results for spasticity. Evidence from this randomized, double-bind, placebo controlled trial is consistent with results from smaller studies suggesting that exposure to pulsing, weak electromagnetic fields can alleviate symptoms of MS. The clinical effects were small, however, and need to be replicated. Additional research is also needed to examine the possibility that ambulatory patients and patients taking interferons for their MS may be

  16. Prevalent lightning sferics at 600 megahertz near Jupiter's poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Shannon; Janssen, Michael; Adumitroaie, Virgil; Atreya, Sushil; Bolton, Scott; Gulkis, Samuel; Ingersoll, Andrew; Levin, Steven; Li, Cheng; Li, Liming; Lunine, Jonathan; Misra, Sidharth; Orton, Glenn; Steffes, Paul; Tabataba-Vakili, Fachreddin; Kolmašová, Ivana; Imai, Masafumi; Santolík, Ondřej; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Gurnett, Donald; Connerney, John

    2018-06-01

    Lightning has been detected on Jupiter by all visiting spacecraft through night-side optical imaging and whistler (lightning-generated radio waves) signatures1-6. Jovian lightning is thought to be generated in the mixed-phase (liquid-ice) region of convective water clouds through a charge-separation process between condensed liquid water and water-ice particles, similar to that of terrestrial (cloud-to-cloud) lightning7-9. Unlike terrestrial lightning, which emits broadly over the radio spectrum up to gigahertz frequencies10,11, lightning on Jupiter has been detected only at kilohertz frequencies, despite a search for signals in the megahertz range12. Strong ionospheric attenuation or a lightning discharge much slower than that on Earth have been suggested as possible explanations for this discrepancy13,14. Here we report observations of Jovian lightning sferics (broadband electromagnetic impulses) at 600 megahertz from the Microwave Radiometer15 onboard the Juno spacecraft. These detections imply that Jovian lightning discharges are not distinct from terrestrial lightning, as previously thought. In the first eight orbits of Juno, we detected 377 lightning sferics from pole to pole. We found lightning to be prevalent in the polar regions, absent near the equator, and most frequent in the northern hemisphere, at latitudes higher than 40 degrees north. Because the distribution of lightning is a proxy for moist convective activity, which is thought to be an important source of outward energy transport from the interior of the planet16,17, increased convection towards the poles could indicate an outward internal heat flux that is preferentially weighted towards the poles9,16,18. The distribution of moist convection is important for understanding the composition, general circulation and energy transport on Jupiter.

  17. The Interferometric View of Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, M.; Lapierre, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in off the shelf high-speed digitizers has enabled vast improvements in broadband, digital VHF interferometers. These simple instruments consist of 3 or more VHF antennas distributed in an array which are then digitized at a speed above the Nyquist frequency of the antenna bandwidth (usually 200+ MHz). Broadband interferometers are capable of creating very detailed maps of lightning, with time resolution better than 1us, and angular resolution only limited by their baseline lengths. This is combined with high sensitivity, and the ability to locate both continuously emitting and impulsive radiation sources. They are not without their limitations though. Because the baselines are relatively short, the maps are only 2-dimensional (direction to the source), unless many antennas are used only a single VHF radiation source can be located at any instant, and because the antennas are almost always arranged in a planar array they are better suited for observing lightning at high elevation angles. Even though imperfect, VHF interferometers provide one of the most detailed views of the behavior of lightning flashes inside a cloud. This presentation will present the overall picture of in-cloud lightning as seen by VHF interferometers. Most flashes can be split into 3 general phases of activity. Phase 1 is the initiation phase, covering all activity until the negative leader completes its vertical extension, and includes both lightning initiation and initial breakdown pulses. Phase 2 is the active phase and includes all activity during the horizontal extension of the negative leader. During Phase 2, any K-processes which occur tend to be short in duration and extent. Phase 3 is the final phase, and includes all activity after the negative leader stops propagating. During Phase 3, the conductivity of the lightning channels starts to decline, and extensive K-processes are seen which traverse the entire channel structure, this is also the period in which regular

  18. Estimated intensity of the EMP from lightning discharges necessary for elves initiation based on balloon experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, S.; Yoshida, A.; Takahashi, Y.; Chikada, S.; Adachi, T.; Sakanoi, T.

    2007-12-01

    Transient optical phenomena in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere called transient luminous events (TLEs) have been investigated extensively since the first discovery in 1989. In the lower ionosphere, elves are generated by the electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) radiated from the intense lightning current. On the ground-based observation, cameras can not always identify the occurrence of elves because elves emission is sometimes reduced significantly by the atmosphere and blocked by clouds. Therefore, it has been difficult to determine the threshold of intensity of EMPs necessary for initiation of elves. We simultaneously carried out optical and sferics measurements for TLEs and lightning discharges using a high altitude balloon launched at Sanriku Balloon Center on the night of August 25 / 26 in 2006. We fixed four CCD cameras on the gondola, each of which had horizontal FOV of ~100 degree. They cover 360 degree in horizontal direction and imaged the TLEs without atmospheric extinction nor blocking by clouds. The frame rate is 30 fps. We installed three dipole antennas at the gondola, which received the vertical and horizontal electric fields radiated from lightning discharges. The frequency range of the VLF receiver is 1-25 kHz. We also make use of VLF sferics data obtained by ground-based antennas located at Tohoku University in Sendai. We picked up six elves from the image data set obtained by the CCD cameras, and examined the maximum amplitudes of the vertical electric field for 22 lightning discharge events including the six elves events observed both at the balloon and at Sendai. It is found that the maximum amplitudes of the vertical electric field in the five elves events are much larger than those in the other lightning events. We estimate the intensity of the radiated electric field necessary for elves. About one elves event, we don't see intense vertical electric field in the balloon data.

  19. Lightning Instrumentation at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colon, Jose L.; Eng, D.

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes lightning phenomena with a brief explanation of lightning generation and lightning activity as related to KSC. An analysis of the instrumentation used at launching Pads 39 A&B for measurements of lightning effects is included with alternatives and recommendations to improve the protection system and upgrade the actual instrumentation system. An architecture for a new data collection system to replace the present one is also included. A novel architecture to obtain lightning current information from several sensors using only one high speed recording channel while monitoring all sensors to replace the actual manual lightning current recorders and a novel device for the protection system are described.

  20. Dynamic control of laser driven proton beams by exploiting self-generated, ultrashort electromagnetic pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, S.; Ahmed, H.; Nersisyan, G.; Brauckmann, S.; Hanton, F.; Giesecke, A. L.; Naughton, K.; Willi, O.; Lewis, C. L. S.; Borghesi, M.

    2016-05-01

    As part of the ultrafast charge dynamics initiated by high intensity laser irradiations of solid targets, high amplitude EM pulses propagate away from the interaction point and are transported along any stalks and wires attached to the target. The propagation of these high amplitude pulses along a thin wire connected to a laser irradiated target was diagnosed via the proton radiography technique, measuring a pulse duration of ˜20 ps and a pulse velocity close to the speed of light. The strong electric field associated with the EM pulse can be exploited for controlling dynamically the proton beams produced from a laser-driven source. Chromatic divergence control of broadband laser driven protons (upto 75% reduction in divergence of >5 MeV protons) was obtained by winding the supporting wire around the proton beam axis to create a helical coil structure. In addition to providing focussing and energy selection, the technique has the potential to post-accelerate the transiting protons by the longitudinal component of the curved electric field lines produced by the helical coil lens.

  1. Dynamic control of laser driven proton beams by exploiting self-generated, ultrashort electromagnetic pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Kar, S., E-mail: s.kar@qub.ac.uk; Ahmed, H.; Nersisyan, G.

    As part of the ultrafast charge dynamics initiated by high intensity laser irradiations of solid targets, high amplitude EM pulses propagate away from the interaction point and are transported along any stalks and wires attached to the target. The propagation of these high amplitude pulses along a thin wire connected to a laser irradiated target was diagnosed via the proton radiography technique, measuring a pulse duration of ∼20 ps and a pulse velocity close to the speed of light. The strong electric field associated with the EM pulse can be exploited for controlling dynamically the proton beams produced from amore » laser-driven source. Chromatic divergence control of broadband laser driven protons (upto 75% reduction in divergence of >5 MeV protons) was obtained by winding the supporting wire around the proton beam axis to create a helical coil structure. In addition to providing focussing and energy selection, the technique has the potential to post-accelerate the transiting protons by the longitudinal component of the curved electric field lines produced by the helical coil lens.« less

  2. Relation Between Sprite Distribution and Source Locations of VHF Pulses Derived From JEM- GLIMS Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Mitsuteru; Mihara, Masahiro; Ushio, Tomoo; Morimoto, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Adachi, Toru; Suzuki, Makoto; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Takahashi, Yukihiro

    2015-04-01

    JEM-GLIMS is continuing the comprehensive nadir observations of lightning and TLEs using optical instruments and electromagnetic wave receivers since November 2012. For the period between November 20, 2012 and November 30, 2014, JEM-GLIMS succeeded in detecting 5,048 lightning events. A total of 567 events in 5,048 lightning events were TLEs, which were mostly elves events. To identify the sprite occurrences from the transient optical flash data, it is necessary to perform the following data analysis: (1) a subtraction of the appropriately scaled wideband camera data from the narrowband camera data; (2) a calculation of intensity ratio between different spectrophotometer channels; and (3) an estimation of the polarization and CMC for the parent CG discharges using ground-based ELF measurement data. From a synthetic comparison of these results, it is confirmed that JEM-GLISM succeeded in detecting sprite events. The VHF receiver (VITF) onboard JEM-GLIMS uses two patch-type antennas separated by a 1.6-m interval and can detect VHF pulses emitted by lightning discharges in the 70-100 MHz frequency range. Using both an interferometric technique and a group delay technique, we can estimate the source locations of VHF pulses excited by lightning discharges. In the event detected at 06:41:15.68565 UT on June 12, 2014 over central North America, sprite was distributed with a horizontal displacement of 20 km from the peak location of the parent lightning emission. In this event, a total of 180 VHF pulses were simultaneously detected by VITF. From the detailed data analysis of these VHF pulse data, it is found that the majority of the source locations were placed near the area of the dim lightning emission, which may imply that the VHF pulses were associated with the in-cloud lightning current. At the presentation, we will show detailed comparison between the spatiotemporal characteristics of sprite emission and source locations of VHF pulses excited by the parent lightning

  3. Size-based cell sorting with a resistive pulse sensor and an electromagnetic pump in a microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Song, Yongxin; Li, Mengqi; Pan, Xinxiang; Wang, Qi; Li, Dongqing

    2015-02-01

    An electrokinetic microfluidic chip is developed to detect and sort target cells by size from human blood samples. Target-cell detection is achieved by a differential resistive pulse sensor (RPS) based on the size difference between the target cell and other cells. Once a target cell is detected, the detected RPS signal will automatically actuate an electromagnetic pump built in a microchannel to push the target cell into a collecting channel. This method was applied to automatically detect and sort A549 cells and T-lymphocytes from a peripheral fingertip blood sample. The viability of A549 cells sorted in the collecting well was verified by Hoechst33342 and propidium iodide staining. The results show that as many as 100 target cells per minute can be sorted out from the sample solution and thus is particularly suitable for sorting very rare target cells, such as circulating tumor cells. The actuation of the electromagnetic valve has no influence on RPS cell detection and the consequent cell-sorting process. The viability of the collected A549 cell is not impacted by the applied electric field when the cell passes the RPS detection area. The device described in this article is simple, automatic, and label-free and has wide applications in size-based rare target cell sorting for medical diagnostics. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. The effects of electromagnetic pulses (EMP) on the bioactivity of insulin and a preliminary study of mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong Bin; Li, Jing; Qi, Yuhong; Miao, Xia; Zhou, Yongchun; Ren, Dongqing; Guo, G Z

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effects of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) exposure on the bioactivity of insulin and a preliminary mechanism for these effects. A tapered parallel plate Gigahertz Transverse Electromagnetic (GTEM) cell with a flared rectangular coaxial transmission line was used to expose the insulin solution to EMP. Concurrent sham-exposed insulin solutions were used as a control. The effect of EMP-exposed insulin on fasting blood glucose levels of type I diabetes model mice, the effect of EMP on binding affinity between insulin and its receptor and the effect of EMP on insulin's fluorescence intensity were detected, respectively. (i) After EMP exposure, compared with sham-exposed insulin, the bioactivity of insulin in decreasing fasting blood glucose levels in type I diabetes model mice was reduced significantly (p = 0.023). (ii) Compared with sham-exposed insulin group, the percentage fluorescein isothiocyannate (FITC) labelling of HL-7702 cells was significantly reduced in the EMP-exposed insulin group (22.7-13.8%, respectively). (iii) Compared with sham-exposed insulin, the fluorescence intensity was significantly reduced in EMP-exposed insulin (p < 0.001). EMP exposure significantly decreased the bioactivity of insulin to reduce the blood glucose levels in type I diabetic mice. This could be due to a decreased binding affinity between insulin and its receptor. This mechanism could involve an alteration of insulin's' conformation caused by EMP exposure.

  5. Revisiting the Balazs thought experiment in the case of a left-handed material: electromagnetic-pulse-induced displacement of a dispersive, dissipative negative-index slab.

    PubMed

    Chau, Kenneth J; Lezec, Henri J

    2012-04-23

    We propose a set of postulates to describe the mechanical interaction between a plane-wave electromagnetic pulse and a dispersive, dissipative slab having a refractive index of arbitrary sign. The postulates include the Abraham electromagnetic momentum density, a generalized Lorentz force law, and a model for absorption-driven mass transfer from the pulse to the medium. These opto-mechanical mechanisms are incorporated into a one-dimensional finite-difference time-domain algorithm that solves Maxwell's equations and calculates the instantaneous force densities exerted by the pulse onto the slab, the momentum-per-unit-area of the pulse and slab, and the trajectories of the slab and system center-of-mass. We show that the postulates are consistent with conservation of global energy, momentum, and center-of-mass velocity at all times, even for cases in which the refractive index of the slab is negative or zero. Consistency between the set of postulates and well-established conservation laws reinforces the Abraham momentum density as the one true electromagnetic momentum density and enables, for the first time, identification of the correct form of the electromagnetic mass density distribution and development of an explicit model for mass transfer due to absorption, for the most general case of a ponderable medium that is both dispersive and dissipative. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  6. Lightning Physics and Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orville, Richard E.

    2004-03-01

    Lightning Physics and Effects is not a lightning book; it is a lightning encyclopedia. Rarely in the history of science has one contribution covered a subject with such depth and thoroughness as to set the enduring standard for years, perhaps even decades, to come. This contribution covers all aspects of lightning, including lightning physics, lightning protection, and the interaction of lightning with a variety of objects and systems as well as the environment. The style of writing is well within the ability of the technical non-expert and anyone interested in lightning and its effects. Potential readers will include physicists; engineers working in the power industry, communications, computer, and aviation industries; atmospheric scientists; geophysicists; meteorologists; atmospheric chemists; foresters; ecologists; physicians working in the area of electrical trauma; and, lastly, architects. This comprehensive reference volume contains over 300 illustrations, 70 tables with quantitative information, and over 6000 reference and bibliography entries.

  7. Updated Lightning Safety Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrek, R. James; Holle, Ronald L.; Lopez, Raul E.

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes the recommendations of the Lightning Safety Group (LSG), which was first convened during the 1998 American Meteorological Society Conference. Findings outline appropriate actions under various circumstances when lightning threatens. (WRM)

  8. The Lightning Discharge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orville, Richard E.

    1976-01-01

    Correspondence of Benjamin Franklin provides authenticity to a historical account of early work in the field of lightning. Present-day theories concerning the formation and propagation of lightning are expressed and photographic evidence provided. (CP)

  9. Tailoring single-cycle electromagnetic pulses in the 2-9 THz frequency range using DAST/SiO₂ multilayer structures pumped at Ti:sapphire wavelength.

    PubMed

    Stepanov, Andrei G; Rogov, Andrii; Bonacina, Luigi; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Hauri, Christoph P

    2014-09-08

    We present a numerical parametric study of single-cycle electromagnetic pulse generation in a DAST/SiO₂multilayer structure via collinear optical rectification of 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses. It is shown that modifications of the thicknesses of the DAST and SiO₂layers allow tuning of the average frequency of the generated THz pulses in the frequency range from 3 to 6 THz. The laser-to-THz energy conversion efficiency in the proposed structures is compared with that in a bulk DAST crystal and a quasi-phase-matching periodically poled DAST crystal and shows significant enhancement.

  10. Lightning safety of animals.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed.

  11. Global Lightning Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Hugh J.

    2004-01-01

    Our knowledge of the global distribution of lightning has improved dramatically since the advent of spacebased lightning observations. Of major importance was the 1995 launch of the Optical Transient Detector (OTD), followed in 1997 by the launch of the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). Together, these instruments have generated a continuous eight-year record of global lightning activity. These lightning observations have provided a new global perspective on total lightning activity. For the first time, total lightning activity (cloud-to-ground and intra-cloud) has been observed over large regions with high detection efficiency and accurate geographic location. This has produced new insights into lightning distributions, times of occurrence and variability. It has produced a revised global flash rate estimate (44 flashes per second) and has lead to a new realization of the significance of total lightning activity in severe weather. Accurate flash rate estimates are now available over large areas of the earth (+/- 72 deg. latitude). Ocean-land contrasts as a function of season are clearly reveled, as are orographic effects and seasonal and interannual variability. The space-based observations indicate that air mass thunderstorms, not large storm system dominate global activity. The ability of LIS and OTD to detect total lightning has lead to improved insight into the correlation between lightning and storm development. The relationship between updraft development and lightning activity is now well established and presents an opportunity for providing a new mechanism for remotely monitoring storm development. In this concept, lightning would serve as a surrogate for updraft velocity. It is anticipated that this capability could lead to significantly improved severe weather warning times and reduced false warning rates. This talk will summarize our space-based lightning measurements, will discuss how lightning observations can be used to monitor severe weather, and

  12. Excitation of atoms and ions in plasmas by ultra-short electromagnetic pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astapenko, V. A.; Sakhno, S. V.; Svita, S. Yu; Lisitsa, V. S.

    2017-02-01

    The problem of atoms and ions diagnostics in rarefied and dense plasmas by ultrashort laser pulses (USP) is under consideration. The application of USP provides: 1) excitation from ground states due to their carrier frequency high enough, 2) penetration into optically dense media due to short pulses duration. The excitation from ground atomic states increases sharply populations of excited atomic states in contrast with standard laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy based on radiative transitions between excited atomic states. New broadening parameter in radiation absorption, namely inverse pulse duration time 1/τ appears in addition to standard line-shape width in the profile G(ω). The Lyman-beta absorption spectra for USP are calculated for Holtsmark static broadening mechanism. Excitation of highly charged H-like ions in hot plasmas is described by both Gaussian shapes for Doppler broadening and pulse spectrum resulting in analytical absorption line-shape. USP penetration into optically thick media and corresponding excitation probability are calculated. It is shown a great effect of USP duration on excitation probabilities in optically thick media. The typical situations for plasma diagnostics by USP are discussed in details.

  13. Thunderclouds and Lightning Conductors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, P. F.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the historical background of the development of lightning conductors, describes the nature of thunderclouds and the lightning flash, and provides a calculation of the electric field under a thundercloud. Also discussed are point discharge currents and the attraction theory of the lightning conductor. (JR)

  14. The Sterilization Effect of Cooperative Treatment of High Voltage Electrostatic Field and Variable Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Field on Heterotrophic Bacteria in Circulating Cooling Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xuetong; Liu, Zhian; Zhao, Judong

    2018-01-01

    Compared to other treatment of industrial circulating cooling water in the field of industrial water treatment, high-voltage electrostatic field and variable frequency pulsed electromagnetic field co-sterilization technology, an advanced technology, is widely used because of its special characteristics--low energy consumption, nonpoisonous and environmentally friendly. In order to get a better cooling water sterilization effect under the premise of not polluting the environment, some experiments about sterilization of heterotrophic bacteria in industrial circulating cooling water by cooperative treatment of high voltage electrostatic field and variable frequency pulsed electromagnetic field were carried out. The comparison experiment on the sterilization effect of high-voltage electrostatic field and variable frequency pulsed electromagnetic field co-sterilization on heterotrophic bacteria in industrial circulating cooling water was carried out by change electric field strength and pulse frequency. The results show that the bactericidal rate is selective to the frequency and output voltage, and the heterotrophic bacterium can only kill under the condition of sweep frequency range and output voltage. When the voltage of the high voltage power supply is 4000V, the pulse frequency is 1000Hz and the water temperature is 30°C, the sterilization rate is 48.7%, the sterilization rate is over 90%. Results of this study have important guiding significance for future application of magnetic field sterilization.

  15. The role of protein kinase C in the opening of blood-brain barrier induced by electromagnetic pulse.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lian-Bo; Ding, Gui-Rong; Li, Kang-Chu; Wang, Xiao-Wu; Zhou, Yan; Zhou, Yong-Chun; Li, Yu-Rong; Guo, Guo-Zhen

    2010-06-29

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of protein kinase C signaling in electromagnetic pulse (EMP)-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability change in rats. The protein level of total PKC and two PKC isoforms (PKC-alpha, and PKC-beta II) were determined in brain cerebral cortex microvessels by Western blot after exposing rats to EMP at 200kV/m for 200 pulses with 1Hz repetition rate. It was found that the protein level of PKC and PKC-betaII (but not PKC-alpha) in cerebral cortex microvessels increased significantly at 0.5h and 1h after EMP exposure compared with sham-exposed animals and then recovered at 3h. A specific PKC antagonist (H7) almost blocked EMP-induced BBB permeability change. EMP-induced BBB tight junction protein ZO-1 translocation was also inhibited. Our data indicated that PKC signaling was involved in EMP-induced BBB permeability change and ZO-1 translocation in rat.

  16. Electromagnetic-pulse-induced activation of p38 MAPK pathway and disruption of blood-retinal barrier.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Juan; Guo, Liang-Mei; Yang, Long-Long; Zhou, Yong-Chun; Zhang, Yan-Jun; Guo, Juan; Xie, Xue-Jun; Guo, Guo-Zhen

    2013-06-20

    The blood-retinal barrier (BRB) is critical for maintaining retina homeostasis and low permeability. In this study, we evaluated the effects of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) exposure on the permeability of BRB, alterations of tight junction (TJ) proteins of BRB and if any, involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and RF/6A cells which were pretreated with or without MAPKs inhibitors were sham exposed or exposed to EMP at 200kV/m for 200 pulses. The alteration of BRB permeability was examined through fluorescence microscope and quantitatively assessed using Evans blue (EB) and endogenous albumin as tracers. The expressions of TJ proteins and some signaling molecules of MAPK pathway were measured by Western blots. The observations were that EMP exposure resulted in increased BRB permeability concurrent with the decreased expressions of occludin and claudin-5, which were correlated with the increased expressions of phospho-p38, phospho-JNK and phospho-ERK and could be blocked when pretreated with p38 MAPK inhibitor. Thus, the results suggested that the alterations of occludin and claudin-5 may play an important role in the disruption of TJs, which may lead to the transient breakdown of BRB after EMP exposure with the involvement of p38 MAPK pathway through phosphorylation of signaling molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Dependence of anti-inflammatory effects of high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency on exposure parameters].

    PubMed

    Gapeev, A B; Mikhaĭlik, E N; Rubanik, A V; Cheremis, N K

    2007-01-01

    A pronounced anti-inflammatory effect of high peak-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency was shown for the first time in a model of zymosan-induced footpad edema in mice. Exposure to radiation of specific parameters (35, 27 GHz, peak power 20 kW, pulse widths 400-600 ns, pulse repetition frequency 5-500 Hz) decreased the exudative edema and local hyperthermia by 20% compared to the control. The kinetics and the magnitude of the anti-inflammatory effect were comparable with those induced by sodium diclofenac at a dose of 3 mg/kg. It was found that the anti-inflammatory effect linearly increased with increasing pulse width at a fixed pulse repetition frequency and had threshold dependence on the average incident power density of the radiation at a fixed pulse width. When animals were whole-body exposed in the far-field zone of radiator, the optimal exposure duration was 20 min. Increasing the average incident power density upon local exposure of the inflamed paw accelerated both the development of the anti-inflammatory effect and the reactivation time. The results obtained will undoubtedly be of great importance in the hygienic standardization of pulsed electromagnetic radiation and in further studies of the mechanisms of its biological action.

  18. Test Report: Direct and Indirect Lightning Effects on Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, R. W.

    1997-01-01

    Lightning tests were performed on composite materials as a part of an investigation of electromagnetic effects on the materials. Samples were subjected to direct and remote simulated lightning strikes. Samples included various thicknesses of graphite filament reinforced plastic (GFRP), material enhanced by expanded aluminum foil layers, and material with an aluminum honeycomb core. Shielding properties of the material and damage to the sample surfaces and joints were investigated. Adding expanded aluminum foil layers and increasing the thickness of GFRP improves the shielding effectiveness against lightning induced fields and the ability to withstand lightning strikes. A report describing the lightning strike tests performed by the U.S. Army Redstone Technical Test Center, Redstone Arsenal, AL, STERT-TE-E-EM, is included as an appendix.

  19. Regulatory Guidance for Lightning Protection in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, Roger A; Wilgen, John B; Ewing, Paul D

    2006-01-01

    Abstract - Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was engaged by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) to develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance to address design and implementation practices for lightning protection systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Lightning protection is becoming increasingly important with the advent of digital and low-voltage analog systems in NPPs. These systems have the potential to be more vulnerable than older analog systems to the resulting power surges and electromagnetic interference (EMI) when lightning strikes facilities or power lines. This paper discusses the technical basis for guidance tomore » licensees and applicants covered in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.204, Guidelines for Lightning Protection of Nuclear Power Plants, issued August 2005. RG 1.204 describes guidance for practices that are acceptable to the NRC staff for protecting nuclear power structures and systems from direct lightning strikes and the resulting secondary effects.« less

  20. Regulatory guidance for lightning protection in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, R. A.; Wilgen, J. B.; Ewing, P. D.

    2006-07-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was engaged by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) to develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance to address design and implementation practices for lightning protection systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Lightning protection is becoming increasingly important with the advent of digital and low-voltage analog systems in NPPs. These systems have the potential to be more vulnerable than older analog systems to the resulting power surges and electromagnetic interference (EMI) when lightning strikes facilities or power lines. This paper discusses the technical basis for guidance to licensees andmore » applicants covered in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.204, Guidelines for Lightning Protection of Nuclear Power Plants, issued August 2005. RG 1.204 describes guidance for practices that are acceptable to the NRC staff for protecting nuclear power structures and systems from direct lightning strikes and the resulting secondary effects. (authors)« less

  1. Interpretation methodology and analysis of in-flight lightning data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudolph, T.; Perala, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    A methodology is presented whereby electromagnetic measurements of inflight lightning stroke data can be understood and extended to other aircraft. Recent measurements made on the NASA F106B aircraft indicate that sophisticated numerical techniques and new developments in corona modeling are required to fully understand the data. Thus the problem is nontrivial and successful interpretation can lead to a significant understanding of the lightning/aircraft interaction event. This is of particular importance because of the problem of lightning induced transient upset of new technology low level microcircuitry which is being used in increasing quantities in modern and future avionics. Inflight lightning data is analyzed and lightning environments incident upon the F106B are determined.

  2. LASER APPLICATIONS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Reflection of an electromagnetic pulse from a subcritical waveguide taper and from a supercritical-density plasma in a waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukhadze, Anri A.; Tarakanov, V. P.

    2006-09-01

    Two related problems are studied by numerical simulations using the KARAT code: the reflection of the TM01 mode of an electromagnetic pulse from the subcritical taper of the section of a circular waveguide and the reflection of the same pulse from a 'cold' collisionless plasma with a density increasing up to a supercritical value along the waveguide axis. It is shown that in the former case the pulse is totally reflected with an insignificant distortion of its shape, in accordance with the linear theory. In the latter case, the character of reflection depends substantially on the plasma density increase length, the pulse duration, and the wave field amplitude, a significant field deceleration and amplitude growth occurring near the critical point; the pulse absorption in the plasma far exceeds the absorption due to the linear transformation of the incident transverse wave to the longitudinal plasma oscillations.

  3. Electromagnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Masashi; Takahashi, Kenji A.; Arai, Yuji; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2008-01-01

    Establishing a means to prevent osteonecrosis after corticosteroid administration is an important theme. We asked whether pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation, a noninvasive treatment, could prevent osteonecrosis. Ninety rabbits were divided into four treatment groups: (1) exposure of 10 hours per day to electromagnetic stimulation for 1 week, followed by injection of methylprednisolone (20 mg/kg), and exposure of 10 hours per day to electromagnetism for a further 4 weeks (n = 40); (2) methylprednisolone injection only (n = 40); (3) no treatment (n = 5); and (4) exposure of 10 hours per day to electromagnetism for 5 weeks (n = 5). After 5 weeks, we harvested and histologically examined femurs bilaterally. The frequency of osteonecrosis was lower in the steroid-electromagnetism group (15/40) than in the steroid-only group (26/40). No necrotic lesions were found in the two control groups. We observed no clear effects of electromagnetism on the number, location, extent, and repair of necrotic lesions and intramedullary fat cell size in affected rabbits. Pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation reportedly augments angiogenesis factors and dilates blood vessels; these effects may lower the frequency of osteonecrosis. Exposure to pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation before corticosteroid administration could be an effective means to reduce the risk of osteonecrosis. PMID:18350347

  4. Long-lasting upper D-region ionospheric modifications caused by intense +/- CG lightning discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldoupis, Christos

    2013-04-01

    In a recent Geophysical Research Letter we have presented observations from a single maritime storm showing that intense positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning discharges during nighttime, which trigger both an elve and a sprite, are associated with long-lasting conductivity modifications in the upper D-region ionosphere. The ionospheric disturbances can be observed as perturbations in the amplitude and phase of VLF (very low frequency) signals propagating through or near the disturbed region. They are manifested as LOng Recovery early VLF Events (LOREs) which can last up to 20 - 30 minutes. The same ionospheric modifications may also produce abrupt step-like changes in VLF transmissions which offset signal levels for longer times (>30-60 min). Here we discuss these observations supplementing them with new evidence and some statistics. Among other things, the unpublished results show that very intense (currents > 250-300 kA) CG lightning discharges of either positive or negative polarity are always accompanied mainly by step-like LOREs. The evidence suggests that the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) of a very high peak current CG lightning stroke, which is likely able to produce an elve, produces by electron impact long lasting and spatially extended elevations in electron density at VLF ionospheric reflection heights in the upper D region ionosphere. The results identify a mechanism for the LORE VLF signatures and confirm predictions and postulations that elves may be accompanied by significant and long-lasting electron density perturbations in the upper D- lower E- region ionosphere.

  5. A search for optical evidence for lightning on Venus with VIRTIS on Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abildgaard, Sofie; Cardesin, Alejandro; Garcia Múnoz, Antonio; Piccioni, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Lightning is known to occur on the atmospheres of Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, but although the occurrence of lightning in the Venusian atmosphere has been published several times in the past years, always on the basis of detected electromagnetic pulses, the subject is still controversial. It is generally agreed that an optical observation of the phenomenon would settle the issue. In this work we analyse the data collection of hyper-spectral images produced by the Visible and InfraRed Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) on Venus Express, that has been observing the Venusian atmosphere continuously since 2006. A dedicated search algorithm for transient events was developed and a detailed analysis of the archive was performed in all wavelengths. The first preliminary analysis have been performed and we have proven that transient events can easily be identified in the data. Work is ongoing for optimizing search parameters and performing a statistical analysis. In this contribution, we will present a summary of the data analysis process and some of the preliminary conclusion in the lightning detection/nondetection.

  6. An overview of VHF lightning observations by digital interferometry from ISS/JEM-GLIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Sato, Mitsuteru; Ushio, Tomoo; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Suzuki, Makoto; Ishida, Ryohei; Sakamoto, Yuji; Yoshida, Kazuya; Hobara, Yasuhide; Sano, Takuki; Abe, Takumi; Kawasaki, Zen-Ichiro

    2016-08-01

    The Global Lightning and sprIte MeasurementS (GLIMS) mission has been conducted at the Exposed Facility of Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EF) of the International Space Station for more than 30 months. This paper focuses on an electromagnetic (EM) payload of JEM-GLIMS mission, the very high frequency (VHF) broadband digital InTerFerometer (VITF). The JEM-GLIMS mission is designed to conduct comprehensive observations with both EM and optical payloads for lightning activities and related transient luminous events. Its nominal operation continued from November 2012 to December 2014. The extended operation followed for eight months. Through the operation period, the VITF collected more than two million VHF EM waveforms in almost 18,700 datasets. The number of VITF observations synchronized with optical signal is 8049. Active VHF radiations are detected in about 70 % of optical observations without obvious regional or seasonal dependency. Estimations of the EM direction-of-arrival (DOA) are attempted using the broadband digital interferometry. Some results agree with the optical observations, even though DOA estimation is problematic because of a very short antenna baseline and multiple pulses over a short time period, namely burst-type EM waveforms. The world's first lightning observations by means of space-borne VHF interferometry are achieved in this mission. This paper summarizes VITF instruments, the recorded VHF EM signals, and the results of DOA estimations by means of digital interferometry as a preliminary report after termination of the mission.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Further investigations of lightning-induced transient emissions in the OH airglow layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tai-Yin; Kuo, C. L.; Chiang, C. Y.; Chen, A. B.; Su, H. T.; Hsu, R. R.

    2010-10-01

    A previous study of lightning-induced transient emissions in and below the OH airglow layer using observations by the Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) CCD camera onboard the FORMOSAT-II satellite showed that intensity enhancements occurred more frequently in the OH airglow layer. Here we show the results of new observations made in December 2009 and January 2010 using a narrowband 630 nm filter and spectrophotometer and present further analysis. We estimated the N21P intensity enhancements to be ˜65% and 53% of the total intensity enhancements for the two events we analyzed using ISUAL and the spectrophotometer data in conjunction with a model for emissions of light and VLF perturbations from electromagnetic pulse sources (elves). Our analysis indicates that there is still somewhat considerable intensity enhancement (˜1.25 kR) unaccounted for after the N21P contribution has been removed. Our study suggests that there might be OH emissions in elves and that OH species might also be involved in the lightning-induced process and contribute to the intensity enhancements that we observed.

  8. MSFC shuttle lightning research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Otha H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The shuttle mesoscale lightning experiment (MLE), flown on earlier shuttle flights, and most recently flown on the following space transportation systems (STS's), STS-31, -32, -35, -37, -38, -40, -41, and -48, has continued to focus on obtaining additional quantitative measurements of lightning characteristics and to create a data base for use in demonstrating observation simulations for future spaceborne lightning mapping systems. These flights are also providing design criteria data for the design of a proposed shuttle MLE-type lightning research instrument called mesoscale lightning observational sensors (MELOS), which are currently under development here at MSFC.

  9. Method and split cavity oscillator/modulator to generate pulsed particle beams and electromagnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Clark, M. Collins; Coleman, P. Dale; Marder, Barry M.

    1993-01-01

    A compact device called the split cavity modulator whose self-generated oscillating electromagnetic field converts a steady particle beam into a modulated particle beam. The particle beam experiences both signs of the oscillating electric field during the transit through the split cavity modulator. The modulated particle beam can then be used to generate microwaves at that frequency and through the use of extractors, high efficiency extraction of microwave power is enabled. The modulated beam and the microwave frequency can be varied by the placement of resistive wires at nodes of oscillation within the cavity. The short beam travel length through the cavity permit higher currents because both space charge and pinching limitations are reduced. The need for an applied magnetic field to control the beam has been eliminated.

  10. Method and split cavity oscillator/modulator to generate pulsed particle beams and electromagnetic fields

    DOEpatents

    Clark, M.C.; Coleman, P.D.; Marder, B.M.

    1993-08-10

    A compact device called the split cavity modulator whose self-generated oscillating electromagnetic field converts a steady particle beam into a modulated particle beam. The particle beam experiences both signs of the oscillating electric field during the transit through the split cavity modulator. The modulated particle beam can then be used to generate microwaves at that frequency and through the use of extractors, high efficiency extraction of microwave power is enabled. The modulated beam and the microwave frequency can be varied by the placement of resistive wires at nodes of oscillation within the cavity. The short beam travel length through the cavity permit higher currents because both space charge and pinching limitations are reduced. The need for an applied magnetic field to control the beam has been eliminated.

  11. Electromagnetic Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schafer, Charles

    2000-01-01

    The design and development of an Electromagnetic Propulsion is discussed. Specific Electromagnetic Propulsion Topics discussed include: (1) Technology for Pulse Inductive Thruster (PIT), to design, develop, and test of a multirepetition rate pulsed inductive thruster, Solid-State Switch Technology, and Pulse Driver Network and Architecture; (2) Flight Weight Magnet Survey, to determine/develop light weight high performance magnetic materials for potential application Advanced Space Flight Systems as these systems develop; and (3) Magnetic Flux Compression, to enable rapid/robust/reliable omni-planetary space transportation within realistic development and operational costs constraints.

  12. International Aerospace and Ground Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity, 10th, and Congres International Aeronautique, 17th, Paris, France, June 10-13, 1985, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-12-01

    The conference presents papers on statistical data and standards, coupling and indirect effects, meteorology and thunderstorm studies, lightning simulators, fuel ignition hazards, the phenomenology and characterization of lightning, susceptibility and protection of avionics, ground systems protection, lightning locators, aircraft systems protection, structures and materials, electrostatics, and spacecraft protection against static electricity. Particular attention is given to a comparison of published HEMP and natural lightning on the surface of an aircraft, electromagnetic interaction of external impulse fields with aircraft, of thunderstorm currents and lightning charges at the NASA Kennedy Space Center, the design of a fast risetime lightning generator, lightning simulation tests in FAA CV-580 lightning research aircraft, and the energy requirements of an aircraft triggered discharge. Papers are also presented on aircraft lightning attachment at low altitudes, a new form of transient suppressor, a proving ground for lightning research, and a spacecraft materials test in a continuous, broad energy-spectrum electron beam.

  13. The effects of lightning on digital flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumer, J. A.; Malloy, W. A.; Craft, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    Present practices in lightning protection of aircraft deal primarily with the direct effects of lightning, such as structural damage and ignition of fuel vapors. There is increasing evidence of troublesome electromagnetic effects, however, in aircraft employing solid-state microelectronics in critical navigation, instrumentation and control functions. The potential impact of these indirect effects on critical systems such as digital fly by wire (DFBW) flight controls was studied. The results indicate a need for positive steps to be taken during the design of future fly by wire systems to minimize the possibility of hazardous effects from lightning.

  14. Flight test techniques for validating simulated nuclear electromagnetic pulse aircraft responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winebarger, R. M.; Neely, W. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the effects of nuclear EM pulses (NEMPs) on aircraft systems, using a highly instrumented NASA F-106B to document the simulated NEMP environment at the Kirtland Air Force Base's Vertically Polarized Dipole test facility. Several test positions were selected so that aircraft orientation relative to the test facility would be the same in flight as when on the stationary dielectric stand, in order to validate the dielectric stand's use in flight configuration simulations. Attention is given to the flight test portions of the documentation program.

  15. Runaway breakdown and hydrometeors in lightning initiation.

    PubMed

    Gurevich, A V; Karashtin, A N

    2013-05-03

    The particular electric pulse discharges are observed in thunderclouds during the initiation stage of negative cloud-to-ground lightning. The discharges are quite different from conventional streamers or leaders. A detailed analysis reveals that the shape of the pulses is determined by the runaway breakdown of air in the thundercloud electric field initiated by extensive atmospheric showers (RB-EAS). The high amplitude of the pulse electric current is due to the multiple microdischarges at hydrometeors stimulated and synchronized by the low-energy electrons generated in the RB-EAS process. The series of specific pulse discharges leads to charge reset from hydrometeors to the free ions and creates numerous stretched ion clusters, both positive and negative. As a result, a wide region in the thundercloud with a sufficiently high fractal ion conductivity is formed. The charge transport by ions plays a decisive role in the lightning leader preconditioning.

  16. Effects of short-term resistance training and pulsed electromagnetic fields on bone metabolism and joint function in severe haemophilia A patients with osteoporosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Parhampour, Behrouz; Torkaman, Giti; Hoorfar, Hamid; Hedayati, Mehdi; Ravanbod, Roya

    2014-05-01

    To assess the effects of short-term resistance training and pulsed electromagnetic fields on bone metabolism and joint function in patients with haemophilia with osteoporosis. A randomized, controlled, patient and blood sample assessor-blinded, six-week trial, three times weekly. Hospital outpatients with severe haemophilia A and osteoporosis. Forty-eight patients were randomly assigned to resistance training (RT, n = 13), combined resistance training with pulsed electromagnetic fields (RTPEMF, n = 12), pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF, n = 11) and control (n = 12) groups. The RT group received 30-40 minutes of resistance exercises and placebo pulsed electromagnetic fields. The RTPEMF group received the same exercises with lower repetition and 30 minutes of pulsed electromagnetic fields. The PEMF group was exposed to 60 minutes of pulsed electromagnetic fields (30 Hz and 40 Gauss). Bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen, and joint function, using the modified Colorado Questionnaire, were measured before and after the programme. The absolute change of bone-specific alkaline phosphatase was significant in the RT and RTPEMF groups compared with the control group (25.41 ± 14.40, 15.09 ± 5.51, and -4.73 ± 2.93 U/L, respectively). The absolute changes in the total score for joint function were significant for knees, ankles, and elbows in the RT group (9.2 ± 1.38, 5.1 ± 0.5, and 3.2 ± 0.8, respectively) and the RTPEMF group (7.7 ± 1.0, 3.3 ± 0.6, and 2.5 ± 0.7, respectively) compared to the PEMF and control groups. This value was significant for knee joints in the PEMF group compared to the control group (3.4 ± 0.5 and 0.66 ± 0.4, respectively). Resistance training is effective for improving bone formation and joint function in severe haemophilia A patients with osteoporosis.

  17. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in the treatment of fresh scaphoid fractures. A multicenter, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Hannemann, Pascal; Göttgens, Kevin W A; van Wely, Bob J; Kolkman, Karel A; Werre, Andries J; Poeze, Martijn; Brink, Peter R G

    2011-05-06

    The scaphoid bone is the most commonly fractured of the carpal bones. In the Netherlands 90% of all carpal fractures is a fracture of the scaphoid bone. The scaphoid has an essential role in functionality of the wrist, acting as a pivot. Complications in healing can result in poor functional outcome. The scaphoid fracture is a troublesome fracture and failure of treatment can result in avascular necrosis (up to 40%), non-union (5-21%) and early osteo-arthritis (up to 32%) which may seriously impair wrist function. Impaired consolidation of scaphoid fractures results in longer immobilization and more days lost at work with significant psychosocial and financial consequences.Initially Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields was used in the treatment of tibial pseudoarthrosis and non-union. More recently there is evidence that physical forces can also be used in the treatment of fresh fractures, showing accelerated healing by 30% and 71% reduction in nonunion within 12 weeks after initiation of therapy. Until now no double blind randomized, placebo controlled trial has been conducted to investigate the effect of this treatment on the healing of fresh fractures of the scaphoid. This is a multi center, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Study population consists of all patients with unilateral acute scaphoid fracture. Pregnant women, patients having a life supporting implanted electronic device, patients with additional fractures of wrist, carpal or metacarpal bones and pre-existing impairment in wrist function are excluded. The scaphoid fracture is diagnosed by a combination of physical and radiographic examination (CT-scanning).Proven scaphoid fractures are treated with cast immobilization and a small Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields bone growth stimulating device placed on the cast. Half of the devices will be disabled at random in the factory.Study parameters are clinical consolidation, radiological consolidation evaluated by CT-scanning, functional

  18. Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields in the treatment of fresh scaphoid fractures. A multicenter, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The scaphoid bone is the most commonly fractured of the carpal bones. In the Netherlands 90% of all carpal fractures is a fracture of the scaphoid bone. The scaphoid has an essential role in functionality of the wrist, acting as a pivot. Complications in healing can result in poor functional outcome. The scaphoid fracture is a troublesome fracture and failure of treatment can result in avascular necrosis (up to 40%), non-union (5-21%) and early osteo-arthritis (up to 32%) which may seriously impair wrist function. Impaired consolidation of scaphoid fractures results in longer immobilization and more days lost at work with significant psychosocial and financial consequences. Initially Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields was used in the treatment of tibial pseudoarthrosis and non-union. More recently there is evidence that physical forces can also be used in the treatment of fresh fractures, showing accelerated healing by 30% and 71% reduction in nonunion within 12 weeks after initiation of therapy. Until now no double blind randomized, placebo controlled trial has been conducted to investigate the effect of this treatment on the healing of fresh fractures of the scaphoid. Methods/Design This is a multi center, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Study population consists of all patients with unilateral acute scaphoid fracture. Pregnant women, patients having a life supporting implanted electronic device, patients with additional fractures of wrist, carpal or metacarpal bones and pre-existing impairment in wrist function are excluded. The scaphoid fracture is diagnosed by a combination of physical and radiographic examination (CT-scanning). Proven scaphoid fractures are treated with cast immobilization and a small Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields bone growth stimulating device placed on the cast. Half of the devices will be disabled at random in the factory. Study parameters are clinical consolidation, radiological consolidation

  19. The Sandia transportable triggered lightning instrumentation facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnetzer, George H.; Fisher, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    Development of the Sandia Transportable Triggered Lightning Instrumentation Facility (SATTLIF) was motivated by a requirement for the in situ testing of a munitions storage bunker. Transfer functions relating the incident flash currents to voltages, currents, and electromagnetic field values throughout the structure will be obtained for use in refining and validating a lightning response computer model of this type of structure. A preliminary shakedown trial of the facility under actual operational conditions was performed during summer of 1990 at the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) rocket-triggered lightning test site. A description is given of the SATTLIF, which is readily transportable on a single flatbed truck of by aircraft, and its instrumentation for measuring incident lightning channel currents and the responses of the systems under test. Measurements of return-stroke current peaks obtained with the SATTLIF are presented. Agreement with data acquired on the same flashes with existing KSC instrumentation is, on average, to within approximately 7 percent. Continuing currents were measured with a resolution of approximately 2.5 A. This field trial demonstrated the practicality of using a transportable triggered lightning facility for specialized test applications.

  20. A Lightning Safety Primer for Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attarian, Aram

    1992-01-01

    Provides the following information about lightning, which is necessary for camp administrators and staff: (1) warning signs of lightning; (2) dangers of lightning; (3) types of lightning injuries; (4) prevention of lightning injury; and (5) helpful training tips. (KS)

  1. Effect of medium electrophysical parameters and their temperature dependences on wideband electromagnetic pulse propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkomirskaya, L. B.; Gulevich, O. A.; Reznikov, A. E.

    2017-03-01

    The dielectric permittivity of fiery spoil tips (Shakhty town, Rostov Region) is studied with the use of a GROT 12E remote-controlled ground-penetrating radar (GPR). An anomalous zone in a combustion source is shown to be clearly pronounced in GPR data due to the temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity of these spoil tips. To substantiate this statement, the GPR data are compared with direct measurements of soil temperatures at depths from 1.5 to 2.5 m. The experimental results are compared with the variable spectral range of a GPR sounding pulse. GPR is shown to be a promising tool for the mapping of temperature-contrast underground objects.

  2. An Experimental Study of a Low-Jitter Pulsed Electromagnetic Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Lee, Michael; Eskridge, Richard; Smith, James; Martin, Adam; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An experimental plasma accelerator for a variety of applications under development at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is described. The accelerator is a pulsed plasma thruster and has been tested experimentally and plasma jet velocities of approximately 50 kilometers per second have been obtained. The plasma jet structure has been photographed with 10 ns exposure times to reveal a stable and repeatable plasma structure. Data for velocity profile information has been obtained using light pipes embedded in the gun walls to record the plasma transit at various barrel locations. Preliminary spatially resolved spectral data and magnetic field probe data are also presented. A high speed triggering system has been developed and tested as a means of reducing the gun "jitter". This jitter has been characterized and future work for second generation "ultra-low jitter" gun development is identified.

  3. Evaluation of human exposure to single electromagnetic pulses of arbitrary shape.

    PubMed

    Jelínek, Lukás; Pekárek, Ludĕk

    2006-03-01

    Transient current density J(t) induced in the body of a person exposed to a single magnetic pulse of arbitrary shape or to a magnetic jump is filtered by a convolution integral containing in its kernel the frequency and phase dependence of the basic limit value adopted in a way similar to that used for reference values in the International Commission on Non-lonising Radiation Protection statement. From the obtained time-dependent dimensionless impact function W(J)(t) can immediately be determined whether the exposure to the analysed single event complies with the basic limit. For very slowly varying field, the integral kernel is extended to include the softened ICNIRP basic limit for frequencies lower than 4 Hz.

  4. The Design of Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Engineering study guides design and monitoring of lightning protection. Design studies for project are collected in 150-page report, containing wealth of information on design of lightning protection systems and on instrumentation for monitoring current waveforms of lightning strokes.

  5. First Lightning Flashes on Saturn

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-14

    NASA Cassini spacecraft captured the first lightning flashes on Saturn. The storm that generated the lightning lasted from January to October 2009, making it the longest-lasting lightning storm known in the solar system.

  6. System and Method of Locating Lightning Strikes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A system and method of determining locations of lightning strikes has been described. The system includes multiple receivers located around an area of interest, such as a space center or airport. Each receiver monitors both sound and electric fields. The detection of an electric field pulse and a sound wave are used to calculate an area around each receiver in which the lighting is detected. A processor is coupled to the receivers to accurately determine the location of the lighting strike. The processor can manipulate the receiver data to compensate for environmental variables such as wind, temperature, and humidity. Further, each receiver processor can discriminate between distant and local lightning strikes.

  7. Operation Sun Beam, Shots Little Feller II and Small Boy. Project Officer's report - Project 7. 16. Airborne E-field radiation measurements of electromagnetic-pulse phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, K.L.

    Airborne measurements of the absolute vertical electric field (E-field) of the radiated electromagnetic pulse were attempted for Shots Little Feller II and Small Boy. Instrumentation included calibrated vertical whip antennas, wideband magnetic tape recorders, and photographs of oscilloscope traces. One instrumented aircraft participated in Little Feller II (C-131F); two aircraft participated in Small Boy (a C-131F and an A-3A). No detectable signals were recorded for either event. It is concluded that the vertical E-field intensities encountered were below the calibrated levels of the instrumentation or the method of instrumentation and calibration was inadequate for nonrepetitive pulse signals.

  8. Neuroprotective Effects of Sevoflurane against Electromagnetic Pulse-Induced Brain Injury through Inhibition of Neuronal Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Han, Li-Chun; Li, Li-Ya; Wu, Guang-Li; Hou, Yan-Ning; Guo, Guo-Zhen; Wang, Qiang; Sang, Han-Fei; Xu, Li-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) causes central nervous system damage and neurobehavioral disorders, and sevoflurane protects the brain from ischemic injury. We investigated the effects of sevoflurane on EMP-induced brain injury. Rats were exposed to EMP and immediately treated with sevoflurane. The protective effects of sevoflurane were assessed by Nissl staining, Fluoro-Jade C staining and electron microscopy. The neurobehavioral effects were assessed using the open-field test and the Morris water maze. Finally, primary cerebral cortical neurons were exposed to EMP and incubated with different concentration of sevoflurane. The cellular viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were assayed. TUNEL staining was performed, and the expression of apoptotic markers was determined. The cerebral cortexes of EMP-exposed rats presented neuronal abnormalities. Sevoflurane alleviated these effects, as well as the learning and memory deficits caused by EMP exposure. In vitro, cell viability was reduced and LDH release was increased after EMP exposure; treatment with sevoflurane ameliorated these effects. Additionally, sevoflurane increased SOD activity, decreased MDA levels and alleviated neuronal apoptosis by regulating the expression of cleaved caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2. These findings demonstrate that Sevoflurane conferred neuroprotective effects against EMP radiation-induced brain damage by inhibiting neuronal oxidative stress and apoptosis. PMID:24614080

  9. Neuroprotective effects of sevoflurane against electromagnetic pulse-induced brain injury through inhibition of neuronal oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Bin; Xu, Hao; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Jin; Han, Li-Chun; Li, Li-Ya; Wu, Guang-Li; Hou, Yan-Ning; Guo, Guo-Zhen; Wang, Qiang; Sang, Han-Fei; Xu, Li-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) causes central nervous system damage and neurobehavioral disorders, and sevoflurane protects the brain from ischemic injury. We investigated the effects of sevoflurane on EMP-induced brain injury. Rats were exposed to EMP and immediately treated with sevoflurane. The protective effects of sevoflurane were assessed by Nissl staining, Fluoro-Jade C staining and electron microscopy. The neurobehavioral effects were assessed using the open-field test and the Morris water maze. Finally, primary cerebral cortical neurons were exposed to EMP and incubated with different concentration of sevoflurane. The cellular viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were assayed. TUNEL staining was performed, and the expression of apoptotic markers was determined. The cerebral cortexes of EMP-exposed rats presented neuronal abnormalities. Sevoflurane alleviated these effects, as well as the learning and memory deficits caused by EMP exposure. In vitro, cell viability was reduced and LDH release was increased after EMP exposure; treatment with sevoflurane ameliorated these effects. Additionally, sevoflurane increased SOD activity, decreased MDA levels and alleviated neuronal apoptosis by regulating the expression of cleaved caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2. These findings demonstrate that Sevoflurane conferred neuroprotective effects against EMP radiation-induced brain damage by inhibiting neuronal oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  10. Increased nitric oxide synthase activity is essential for electromagnetic-pulse-induced blood-retinal barrier breakdown in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lianjun; Xu, Hui; Wang, Xiaowu; Guo, Guozhen

    2009-04-06

    To examine whether electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) affected the permeability of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB), gene expression of occludin and activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used and randomized into EMP and control groups. Retinas were removed immediately, and 2 h or 24 h after EMP radiation. BRB permeability was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and Evans Blue staining. Retinal NOS activity and concentrations of nitrite and nitrate were measured. Occludin mRNA and protein levels were detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Exposure of SD rats to EMP resulted in increased BRB permeability, with the greatest decrease in occludin at 24 h. Moreover, this permeability defect was also correlated with significant increases in the formation of NO and induction of NOS activity in SD rats. Furthermore, we found that treatment with NOS inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) blocked BRB breakdown and prevented the increase in NO formation and induction of NOS activity, as well as the decrease in occluding expression. Taken together, these results support the view that NOS-dependent NO production is an important factor that contributes to EMP-induced BRB dysfunction, and suggests that NOS induction may play an important role in BRB breakdown.

  11. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) coupling codes for use with the vulnerability/lethality (VIL) taxonomy. Final report, June-October 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Mar, M.H.

    1995-07-01

    Based on the vulnerability Lethality (V/L) taxonomy developed by the Ballistic Vulnerability Lethality Division (BVLD) of the Survivability Lethality Analysis Directorate (SLAD), a nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) coupling V/L analysis taxonomy has been developed. A nuclear EMP threat to a military system can be divided into two levels: (1) coupling to a system level through a cable, antenna, or aperture; and (2) the component level. This report will focus on the initial condition, which includes threat definition and target description, as well as the mapping process from the initial condition to damaged components state. EMP coupling analysis at a systemmore » level is used to accomplish this. This report introduces the nature of EMP threat, interaction between the threat and target, and how the output of EMP coupling analysis at a system level becomes the input to the component level analysis. Many different tools (EMP coupling codes) will be discussed for the mapping process, which correponds to the physics of phenomenology. This EMP coupling V/L taxonomy and the models identified in this report will provide the tools necessary to conduct basic V/L analysis of EMP coupling.« less

  12. Electro-optic analysis of the influence of target geometry on electromagnetic pulses generated by petawatt laser-matter interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Timothy; Giltrap, Samuel; Eardley, Samuel; Consoli, Fabrizio; De Angelis, Riccardo; Ingenito, Francesco; Stuart, Nicholas; Verona, Claudio; Smith, Roland A.

    2018-01-01

    We present an analysis of strong laser-driven electromagnetic pulses using novel electro-optic diagnostic techniques. A range of targets were considered, including thin plastic foils (20-550 nm) and mass-limited, optically-levitated micro-targets. Results from foils indicate a dependence of EMP on target thickness, with larger peak electric fields observed with thinner targets. Spectral analysis suggests high repeatability between shots, with identified spectral features consistently detected with <1 MHz standard deviations of the peak position. This deviation is reduced for shots taken on the same day, suggesting that local conditions, such as movement of metal objects within the target chamber, are more likely to lead to minor spectral modifications, highlighting the role of the local environment in determining the details of EMP production. Levitated targets are electrically isolated from their environment, hence these targets should be unable to draw a neutralization current from the earth following ejection of hot electrons from the plasma, in contrast to predictions for pin-mounted foils in the Poyé EMP generation model. With levitated targets, no EMP was measurable above the noise threshold of any diagnostic, despite observation of protons accelerated to >30 MeV energies, suggesting the discharge current contribution to EMP is dominant.

  13. Effects of combined pulse electromagnetic field stimulation plus glutamine on the healing of colonic anastomosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Girgin, Sadullah; Gedik, Ercan; Ozturk, Hayrettin; Akpolat, Veysi; Akbulut, Veysi; Kale, Ebru; Buyukbayram, Huseyin; Celik, Salih

    2009-04-01

    An experimental study was designed to investigate the effect of combined pulse electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation plus glutamine administration on colonic anastomosis. Anastomosis of the left colon was performed in 28 rats, which were divided into four groups; Group 1: normal resection anastomosis plus oral 50 mg/kg/day glutamine; Group 2: normal resection anastomosis plus PEMF stimulation plus oral 50 mg/kg/day glutamine; Group 3: normal resection anastomosis plus PEMF stimulation; Group 4: normal resection anastomosis. On the seventh postoperative day, the animals were killed and the bursting pressure and tissue hydroxyproline concentration of the anastomosis were analyzed and compared. The mean anastomotic bursting pressure in Group 2 was significantly higher than in Groups 1 and 4. On the other hand, the mean anastomotic bursting pressure in Group 1 was significantly higher than in Group 4. The collagen deposition and the fibroblast infiltration were significantly increased on the seventh day in Group 3 compared the other groups. On the other hand, Groups 1 and 2 had higher scores for collagen deposition and fibroblast infiltration than Group 4. In conclusion, burst pressures, hydroxyproline, and histologic features (fibroblast infiltration and collagen deposition) were improved in the PEMF group, and both PEMF and glutamine-enriched nutrition provide a significant gain in the strength of colonic anastomoses in rats.

  14. Effect of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy on experimental pain: A double-blind, randomized study in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Karen; Beland, Patricia; Pinard, Marilee; Handfield, Guilène; Handfield, Nicole; Goffaux, Philippe; Corriveau, Hélène; Léonard, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggested that pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy can decrease pain. To date, however, it remains difficult to determine whether the analgesic effect observed in patients are attributable to a direct effect of PEMF on pain or to an indirect effect of PEMF on inflammation and healing. In the present study, we used an experimental pain paradigm to evaluate the direct effect of PEMF on pain intensity, pain unpleasantness, and temporal summation of pain. Twenty-four healthy subjects (mean age 22 ± 2 years; 9 males) participated in the experiment. Both real and sham PEMF were administered to every participant using a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. For each visit, PEMF was applied for 10 minutes on the right forearm using a portable device. Experimental pain was evoked before (baseline) and after PEMF with a 9 cm(2) Pelletier-type thermode, applied on the right forearm (120 s stimulation; temperature individually adjusted to produce moderate baseline pain). Pain intensity and unpleasantness were evaluated using a 0-100 numerical pain rating scale. Temporal summation was evaluated by comparing pain intensity ratings obtained at the end of tonic nociceptive stimulation (120 s) with pain intensity ratings obtained after 60 s of stimulation. When compared to baseline, there was no change in pain intensity and unpleasantness following the application of real or sham PEMF. PEMF did not affect temporal summation. The present observations suggest that PEMF does not directly influence heat pain perception in healthy individuals.

  15. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field vibration on tooth movement induced by magnetic and mechanical forces: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Darendeliler, M Ali; Zea, A; Shen, G; Zoellner, H

    2007-12-01

    This study was designed to determine whether or not high-frequency and low-magnitude vibration affects orthodontic tooth movement caused by magnetic or/and mechanical forces. Forty-four 7-week-old Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups, with each group further divided into experimental and control subgroups. Neodymium-Iron-Boron (Nd-Fe-B) magnets and Sentalloy closed coil springs were placed between maxillary or mandibular first molars and incisors to activate tooth movement. The animals of experimental subgroups were exposed to the vibration induced by pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) whilst the control subgroups were under normal atmosphere. The experiment lasted for 14 days and all of the animals were sacrificed for examination. The changes in the space between the molar and incisor were measured to indicate the amount of tooth movement. The coil springs, either with sham or active magnets, move molar much more than magnets alone, regardless of absence or presence of PEMF (p < 0.001). Under PEMF, the coil spring moved significantly more amount of tooth movement than that of coil-magnet combination (p < 0.01), as did the magnets compared to sham magnets (p < 0.019). Under a non-PEMF scenario, there was no significant difference in tooth movement between coil spring and coil-magnets combination, nor was there difference between magnets and sham magnets. It is suggested that the PEMF-induced vibration may enhance the effect of mechanical and magnetic forces on tooth movement.

  16. Effectiveness of monopolar dielectric transmission of pulsed electromagnetic fields for multiple sclerosis-related pain: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hochsprung, A; Escudero-Uribe, S; Ibáñez-Vera, A J; Izquierdo-Ayuso, G

    2018-05-08

    Pain is highly prevalent in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS); it is chronic in 50% of cases and is classified as nociceptive, neuropathic, or mixed-type. Pain affects quality of life, sleep, and the activities of daily living. Electrotherapy is an interesting alternative or complementary treatment in the management of pain in MS, with new innovations constantly appearing. This study evaluates the effectiveness of treatment with monopolar dielectric transmission of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) for pain associated with MS. We performed a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial including 24 patients, who were assessed with the Brief Pain Inventory, the Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale. Statistically significant improvements were observed in maximum and mean pain scores, as well as in the impact of pain on work, personal relationships, and sleep and rest. Not significant differences were found between the treatment and placebo groups. Treatment with PEMF may be effective in reducing pain in patients with MS, although further research is necessary to confirm its effectiveness over placebo and to differentiate which type of pain may be more susceptible to this treatment. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy in the treatment of pain and other symptoms in fibromyalgia: A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Multanen, Juhani; Häkkinen, Arja; Heikkinen, Pauli; Kautiainen, Hannu; Mustalampi, Sirpa; Ylinen, Jari

    2018-04-30

    Low-energy pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy has been suggested as a promising therapy to increase microcirculation, which is of great concern in patients with fibromyalgia. This study evaluated the effectiveness of PEMF therapy on the treatment of fibromyalgia. A group of 108 women with fibromyalgia were allocated to a 12-week treatment period with an active Bio-Electro-Magnetic-Energy-Regulation (BEMER) device and a similar treatment period with an inactive device. Each patient received active and sham treatments in a random order. Pain and stiffness were assessed on a visual analog scale (VAS, scale 0-100 mm), and functional status was assessed by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Mean VAS pain scores before the active and sham treatment periods were 66 (SD 22) and 63 (SD 22), respectively. After treatment periods, mean VAS pain scores had decreased significantly in active treatment, -12, 95% CI [-18, -6], and in sham treatment, -11, 95% CI [-17, -5]. Similarly, the decrease in stiffness and FIQ index after both treatments was statistically significant. However, per-protocol analysis showed no differences between active and sham treatments at any of the outcomes. This study demonstrated that low-energy PEMF therapy was not efficient in reducing pain and stiffness or in improving functioning in women with fibromyalgia. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Comparison of ATLOG and Xyce for Bell Labs Electromagnetic Pulse Excitation of Finite-Long Dissipative Conductors over a Ground Plane.

    SciTech Connect

    campione, Salvatore; Warne, Larry K.; Schiek, Richard

    This report details the modeling results for the response of a finite-length dissipative conductor interacting with a conducting ground to the Bell Labs electromagnetic pulse excitation. We use both a frequency-domain and a time-domain method based on transmission line theory through a code we call ATLOG - Analytic Transmission Line Over Ground. Results are compared to the circuit simulator Xyce for selected cases. Intentionally Left Blank

  19. Design and Fabrication of Helmholtz Coils to Study the Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields on the Healing Process in Periodontitis: Preliminary Animal Results

    PubMed Central

    Haghnegahdar, A; Khosrovpanah, H; Andisheh-Tadbir, A; Mortazavi, Gh; Saeedi Moghadam, M; Mortazavi, SMJ; Zamani, A; Haghani, M; Shojaei Fard, M; Parsaei, H; Koohi, O

    2014-01-01

    Background: Effects of electromagnetic fields on healing have been investigated for centuries. Substantial data indicate that exposure to electromagnetic field can lead to enhanced healing in both soft and hard tissues. Helmholtz coils are devices that generate pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF). Objective: In this work, a pair of Helmholtz coils for enhancing the healing process in periodontitis was designed and fabricated. Method: An identical pair of square Helmholtz coils generated the 50 Hz magnetic field.  This device was made up of two parallel coaxial circular coils (100 turns in each loop, wound in series) which were separated from each other by a distance equal to the radius of one coil (12.5 cm). The windings of our Helmholtz coil was made of standard 0.95mm wire to provide the maximum possible current. The coil was powered by a function generator.  Results: The Helmholtz Coils generated a uniform magnetic field between its coils. The magnetic field strength at the center of the space between two coils was 97.6 μT. Preliminary biological studies performed on rats show that exposure of laboratory animals to pulsed electromagnetic fields enhanced the healing of periodontitis. Conclusion: Exposure to PEMFs can lead to stimulatory physiological effects on cells and tissues such as enhanced healing of periodontitis. PMID:25505775

  20. What Initiates Lightning?

    SciTech Connect

    None

    Lightning is an energetic electric discharge, creating a current that flows briefly within a cloud--or between a cloud and the ground--and heating the air to temperatures about five times hotter than the sun’s surface. But there’s a lot about lightning that’s still a mystery. Los Alamos National Laboratory is working to change that. Because lightning produces optical and radio frequency signals similar to those from a nuclear explosion, it’s important to be able to distinguish whether such signals are caused by lightning or a nuclear event. As part of the global security mission at Los Alamos, scientists use lightning tomore » help develop better instruments for nuclear test-ban treaty monitoring and, in the process, have learned a lot about lightning itself.« less

  1. A Dual Mode Pulsed Electro-Magnetic Cell Stimulator Produces Acceleration of Myogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Leon-Salas, Walter D.; Rizk, Hatem; Mo, Chenglin; Weisleder, Noah; Brotto, Leticia; Abreu, Eduardo; Brotto, Marco

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test of a dual-mode electric and magnetic biological stimulator (EM-Stim). The stimulator generates pulsing electric and magnetic fields at programmable rates and intensities. While electric and magnetic stimulators have been reported before, this is the first device that combines both modalities. The ability of the dual stimulation to target bone and muscle tissue simultaneously has the potential to improve the therapeutic treatment of osteoporosis and sarcopenia. The device is fully programmable, portable and easy to use, and can run from a battery or a power supply. The device can generate magnetic fields of up to 1.6 mT and output voltages of +/−40 V. The EM-Stim accelerated myogenic differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes as evidenced by morphometric, gene expression, and protein content analyses. Currently, there are many patents concerned with the application of single electrical or magnetic stimulation, but none that combine both simultaneously. However, we applied for and obtained a provisional patent for new device to fully explore its therapeutic potential in pre-clinical models. PMID:23445453

  2. A dual mode pulsed electro-magnetic cell stimulator produces acceleration of myogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Leon-Salas, Walter D; Rizk, Hatem; Mo, Chenglin; Weisleder, Noah; Brotto, Leticia; Abreu, Eduardo; Brotto, Marco

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the design and test of a dual-mode electric and magnetic biological stimulator (EM-Stim). The stimulator generates pulsing electric and magnetic fields at programmable rates and intensities. While electric and magnetic stimulators have been reported before, this is the first device that combines both modalities. The ability of the dual stimulation to target bone and muscle tissue simultaneously has the potential to improve the therapeutic treatment of osteoporosis and sarcopenia. The device is fully programmable, portable and easy to use, and can run from a battery or a power supply. The device can generate magnetic fields of up to 1.6 mT and output voltages of +/- 40 V. The EM-Stim accelerated myogenic differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes as evidenced by morphometric, gene expression, and protein content analyses. Currently, there are many patents concerned with the application of single electrical or magnetic stimulation, but none that combine both simultaneously. However, we applied for and obtained a provisional patent for new device to fully explore its therapeutic potential in pre-clinical models.

  3. Short-term effects of extremely low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field and pulsed low-level laser therapy on rabbit model of corneal alkali burn.

    PubMed

    Rezaei Kanavi, Mozhgan; Tabeie, Faraj; Sahebjam, Farzin; Poursani, Nima; Jahanbakhsh, Nazanin; Paymanpour, Pouya; AfsarAski, Sasha

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of combining extremely low frequency-pulsed electromagnetic field (ELF-PEMF) and low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on alkali-burned rabbit corneas. Fifty alkali-burned corneas of 50 rabbits were categorized into five groups: ELF-PEMF therapy with 2 mT intensity (ELF 2) for 2 h daily; LLLT for 30 min twice daily; combined ELF-PEMF and LLLT (ELF + LLLT); medical therapy (MT); and control (i.e., no treatment). Clinical examination and digital photography of the corneas were performed on days 0, 2, 7, and 14. After euthanizing the rabbits, the affected eyes were evaluated by histopathology. The clinical and histopathologic results were compared between the groups. On days 7 and 14, no significant difference in the corneal defect area was evident between the ELF, LLLT, ELF + LLLT, and MT groups. Excluding the controls, none of the study groups demonstrated a significant corneal neovascularization in both routine histopathology and immunohistochemistry for CD31. Keratocyte loss was significantly higher in the MT group than in the ELF, LLLT, and ELF + LLLT groups. Moderate to severe stromal inflammation in the LLLT group was comparable with that in the MT group and was significantly lower than that in the other groups. In conclusion, combining LLLT and ELF was not superior to ELF alone or LLLT alone in healing corneal alkali burns. However, given the lower intensity of corneal inflammation and the lower rate of keratocytes loss with LLLT, this treatment may be superior to other proposed treatment modalities for healing alkali-burned corneas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Smart CMOS image sensor for lightning detection and imaging.

    PubMed

    Rolando, Sébastien; Goiffon, Vincent; Magnan, Pierre; Corbière, Franck; Molina, Romain; Tulet, Michel; Bréart-de-Boisanger, Michel; Saint-Pé, Olivier; Guiry, Saïprasad; Larnaudie, Franck; Leone, Bruno; Perez-Cuevas, Leticia; Zayer, Igor

    2013-03-01

    We present a CMOS image sensor dedicated to lightning detection and imaging. The detector has been designed to evaluate the potentiality of an on-chip lightning detection solution based on a smart sensor. This evaluation is performed in the frame of the predevelopment phase of the lightning detector that will be implemented in the Meteosat Third Generation Imager satellite for the European Space Agency. The lightning detection process is performed by a smart detector combining an in-pixel frame-to-frame difference comparison with an adjustable threshold and on-chip digital processing allowing an efficient localization of a faint lightning pulse on the entire large format array at a frequency of 1 kHz. A CMOS prototype sensor with a 256×256 pixel array and a 60 μm pixel pitch has been fabricated using a 0.35 μm 2P 5M technology and tested to validate the selected detection approach.

  5. Indirect Lightning Safety Assessment Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, M M; Perkins, M P; Brown, C G

    2009-04-24

    -cage type facility, when the facility is struck by lightning. In the following examples we will use Dr. Merewether's calculations from a poor quality Faraday cage as the input for the RF coupling analysis. coupling of radio frequency (RF) energy to explosive components is an indirect effect of currents [1]. If HE is adequately separated from the walls of the facility that is struck by disassembled have been turned into Faraday-cage structures to protect against lightning is initiation of the HE. last couple of decades, DOE facilities where HE is manufactured, assembled, stored or lightning. The most sensitive component is typically a detonator, and the safety concern lightning, electrons discharged from the clouds should not reach the HE components. radio receiver, the metal cable of a detonator can extract energy from the EM fields. This to the earth will create electromagnetic (EM) fields in the facility. Like an antenna in a« less

  6. University Hospital Struck Deaf and Silent by Lightning: Lessons to Learn.

    PubMed

    Dami, Fabrice; Carron, Pierre-Nicolas; Yersin, Bertrand; Hugli, Olivier

    2015-08-01

    We describe how an electromagnetic wave after a lightning strike affected a university hospital, including the communication shutdown that followed, the way it was handled, and the lessons learned from this incident.

  7. Space Shuttle Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suiter, D. L.; Gadbois, R. D.; Blount, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The technology for lightning protection of even the most advanced spacecraft is available and can be applied through cost-effective hardware designs and design-verification techniques. In this paper, the evolution of the Space Shuttle Lightning Protection Program is discussed, including the general types of protection, testing, and anlayses being performed to assess the lightning-transient-damage susceptibility of solid-state electronics.

  8. Global Lightning Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Hugh

    2003-01-01

    Our knowledge of the global distribution of lightning has improved dramatically since the 1995 launch of the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) followed in 1997 by the launch of the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). Together, these instruments have generated a continuous seven-year record of global lightning activity. These lightning observations have provided a new global perspective on total lightning activity. For the first time, total lightning activity (CG and IC) has been observed over large regions with high detection efficiencies and accurate geographic location. This has produced new insights into lightning distributions, times of occurrence and variability. It has produced a revised global flash rate estimate (46 flashes per second) and has lead to a new realization of the significance of total lightning activity in severe weather. Accurate flash rate estimates are now available for large areas of the earth (+/- 72deg latitude) Ocean-land contrasts as a function of season are clearly revealed, as are orographic effects and seasonal and interannual variability. The data set indicates that air mass thunderstorms, not large storm systems dominate global activity. The ability of LIS and OTD to detect total lightning has lead to improved insight into the correlation between lightning and storm development. The relationship between updraft development and lightning activity is now well established and presents an opportunity for providing a new mechanism for remotely monitoring storm development. In this concept, lightning would serve as a surrogate for updraft velocity. It is anticipated hat this capability could lead to significantly improved severe weather warning times and reduced false warning rates.

  9. MnSOD expression inhibited by electromagnetic pulse radiation in the rat testis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, LiHua; Ji, XiTuan; Zhang, YanJun; Miao, Xia; Zou, ChangXu; Lang, HaiYang; Zhang, Jie; Li, YuRong; Wang, XiaoWu; Qi, HongXing; Ren, DongQin; Guo, GuoZhen

    2011-12-01

    Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to EMP irradiation of 100 kV/m peak-to-peak e-field intensity and different numbers of pulses. Rat sperm samples were prepared for analysis of sperm qualities; Testes were assessed by transmission electron microscopy and serum hormone concentrations were examined by radioimmunoassay; Enzymatic activities of Total-superoxide dismutase(T-SOD) and manganese-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), the mRNA levels of MnSOD and cuprozinc-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), and the density of malondialdehyde (MDA) were also determined. EMP irradiation did not affect spermatozoon morphology, micronucleus formation rate, sperm number or viability, but the acrosin reaction rate decreased at 24 h and 48 h and recovered by 72 h after irradiation as compared to the controls. The ultrastructure of rat testis displayed more serious damage at 24 h than at other time points (6 h, 12 h, 48 h). Serum levels of luteotrophic hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) were elevated in irradiated rats as compared to controls. After irradiation, enzymatic activities of T-SOD and MnSOD were reduced by 24 h, consistent with the changes observed in MnSOD mRNA expression; MDA content increased at 6 h in turn. These studies have quantified the morphological damage and dysfunction in the rat reproductive system induced by EMP. The mechanism of EMP induced damage may be associated with the inhibition of MnSOD expression.

  10. Lightning and transportation.

    PubMed

    Cherington, M

    1995-12-01

    It is a little-known fact that lightning casualties often involve travel or transportation. López and colleagues, in their studies on the epidemiology of lightning injuries, have reported that 10% of lightning injuries are categorized under transportation. In the majority of their cases, victims were struck while standing outside or near their vehicles during a thunderstorm. During my review of the neurologic complications of lightning injuries, I was impressed by the number of case reports in which the victim was struck while either in or near a vehicle, airplane or vessel. In this article, I shall put forth information on four aspects of lightning that relate to the danger to people traveling in vehicles, boats, and airplanes. First, I shall deal with lightning safety on ships and boats. People who enjoy recreational sailing, including the "weekend sailor" and those who enjoy fishing from a boat, should be fortified with knowledge about lightning protection. Second, I shall consider the matter of lightning strikes to aircraft. In the third section, I shall discuss the question of lightning safety in automobiles. Fourth, I shall review those cases found in my literature review in which the victim was struck while in or near a vehicle, boat, or airplane.

  11. Lightning and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, E.

    2012-12-01

    Lightning is of interest in the domain of climate change for several reasons: (1) thunderstorms are extreme forms of moist convection, and lightning flash rate is a sensitive measure of that extremity, (2) thunderstorms are deep conduits for delivering water substance from the boundary layer to the upper troposphere and stratosphere, and (3) global lightning can be monitored continuously and inexpensively within a natural framework (the Earth-ionosphere waveguide and Schumann resonances). Lightning and temperature, and lightning and upper tropospheric water vapor, are positively correlated on weather-related time scales (diurnal, semiannual, and annual) with a lightning temperature sensitivity of order 10% per oC. Lightning also follows temperature variations on the ENSO time scale, both locally and globally. The response of lightning in some of its extreme forms (exceptional flash rates and the prevalence of sprite-producing mesoscale lightning, for example) to temperature variations will be addressed. Consistently obtained records of lightning activity on longer time scales are scarce as stable detection networks are uncommon. As a consequence, thunder day data have been used to extend the lightning record for climate studies, with evidence for increases over decades in urban areas. Global records of lightning following Schumann resonance intensity and from space-based optical sensors (OTD and LIS) are consistent with the record of ionospheric potential representing the global electrical circuit in showing flat behavior over the few decades. This flatness is not well understood, though the majority of all lightning flashes are found in the tropics, the most closely regulated portion of the atmosphere. Other analysis of frequency variations of Schumann resonances in recent decades shows increased lightning in the northern hemisphere, where the global warming is most pronounced. The quantity more fundamental than temperature for lightning control is cloud buoyancy

  12. A statistical study over Europe of the relative locations of lightning and associated energetic burst of electrons from the radiation belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourriez, F.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; Pinçon, J.-L.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Parrot, M.

    2016-02-01

    The DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions) spacecraft detects short bursts of lightning-induced electron precipitation (LEP) simultaneously with newly injected upgoing whistlers. The LEP occurs within < 1 s of the causative lightning discharge. First in situ observations of the size and location of the region affected by the LEP precipitation are presented on the basis of a statistical study made over Europe using the DEMETER energetic particle detector, wave electric field experiment, and networks of lightning detection (Météorage, the UK Met Office Arrival Time Difference network (ATDnet), and the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN)). The LEP is shown to occur significantly north of the initial lightning and extends over some 1000 km on each side of the longitude of the lightning. In agreement with models of electron interaction with obliquely propagating lightning-generated whistlers, the distance from the LEP to the lightning decreases as lightning proceed to higher latitudes.

  13. [Neurological diseases after lightning strike : Lightning strikes twice].

    PubMed

    Gruhn, K M; Knossalla, Frauke; Schwenkreis, Peter; Hamsen, Uwe; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Tegenthoff, Martin; Sczesny-Kaiser, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Lightning strikes rarely occur but 85 % of patients have lightning-related neurological complications. This report provides an overview about different modes of energy transfer and neurological conditions related to lightning strikes. Moreover, two case reports demonstrate the importance of interdisciplinary treatment and the spectrum of neurological complications after lightning strikes.

  14. Pulsed electromagnetic field affects intrinsic and endoplasmatic reticulum apoptosis induction pathways in MonoMac6 cell line culture.

    PubMed

    Kaszuba-Zwoinska, J; Chorobik, P; Juszczak, K; Zaraska, W; Thor, P J

    2012-10-01

    Current studies were aimed to elucidate influence of pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation on cell viability and apoptosis induction pathways. For the experimental model we have chosen monocytic cell line MonoMac6 and several apoptosis inducers with different mechanism of death induction like puromycin, colchicine, cyclophosphamide, minocycline and hydrogen peroxide. MonoMac6 cell line was grown at density 1x10(5) cells/well in 96-well culture plates. To induce cell death cell cultures were treated with different apoptosis inducers like puromycin, colchicine, cyclophosphamide, minocycline, hydrogen peroxide and at the same time with pulsed electromagnetic field 50 Hz, 45±5 mT (PEMF) for 4 hour per each stimulation, three times, in 24 hours intervals. Afterwards, cells were harvested for flow cytometry analysis of cell viability measured by annexin V-APC labeled and propidium iodide staining. Expression of apoptosis related genes was evaluated by semi quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay. NuPAGE Novex Western blot analysis was carried out for apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) abundance in cytosolic and nuclear extracts of MonoMac6 cells. Puromycin, colchicine and minocycline activated cells and simultaneously treated with PEMF have shown out diminished percentage of annexinV positive (AnV+) cells comparing to controls without PEMF stimulation. MonaMac6 cells puromycin/colchicyne and PEMF treated were to a higher extent double stained (AnV+,PI+), which means increased late apoptotic as well as necrotic (PI+) cells, than non-stimulated controls. On the other hand, minocycline activated cells prior to PEMF treatment showed diminished amount of apoptotic and necrotic (annexin V, annexin V and propidium iodide, propidium iodide positive staining) cells. The opposite effect of PEMF on the percentage of annexin V positively stained cells has been achieved after treatment of MonoMac6 culture with cyclophoshamide and hydrogen peroxide. PEMF enhanced early

  15. [Effects of electromagnetic pulse exposure on the morphological change and excretion function of BV-2 cells and possible mechanism].

    PubMed

    Yang, Long-long; Zhou, Yan; Li, Hai-juan; Guo, Juan; Zhang, Yan-jun; Ding, Gui-rong; Guo, Guo-zhen

    2012-03-01

    To study the effects of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) exposure on the morphological change and excretion functions of mouse microglia (BV-2) cells and possible mechanism. BV-2 cells were divided into two groups: the group exposed to EMP at 200 kV/m for 200 pulses and sham exposure group. At 1, 6, 12 and 24 hour after exposure the cells and culture supernatant were collected. Cellular morphological change was observed under invert microscope, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 in culture supernatant were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by nitrate reductase method and DCFH-DA probe, respectively. The protein and phosphorylation levels of ERK, JNK and p38 were measured by Western Blot method. After the cells pre-treated with the inhibitor of p38 (SB203580) were exposed to EMP, the levels of NO and ROS in culture supernatant were detected. It was found that the large ameboid shape appeared in some microglia cells exposed to EMP for 1, 6 and 12 h. Moreover, the number of microglia cells with ameboid shape increased significantly at 1 h, 6 h and 12 h after EMP exposure compared with sham group (P < 0.05). The levels of cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10, in culture supernatant did not change obviously after EMP exposure. The levels of NO and ROS increased significantly at 1h after EMP exposure, reached the peak at 6 h, began to recover at 12 h and recovered to sham group level at 24 h (P < 0.05). Western blot results showed that the protein and protein phosphorylation levels of ERK and JNK did not change significantly after EMP exposure, however, the protein and protein phosphorylation levels of p38 increased obviously at 1 h and 6 h after EMP exposure, compared with sham group (P < 0.05). In addition, the pretreatment of p38 inhibitor (SB203580) significantly decreased NO and ROS production induced by EMP. EMP exposure may activate microglia cells and promote the

  16. Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy improves tendon-to-bone healing in a rat rotator cuff repair model.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Jennica J; Cirone, James M; Morris, Tyler R; Nuss, Courtney A; Huegel, Julianne; Waldorff, Erik I; Zhang, Nianli; Ryaby, James T; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2017-04-01

    Rotator cuff tears are common musculoskeletal injuries often requiring surgical intervention with high failure rates. Currently, pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) are used for treatment of long-bone fracture and lumbar and cervical spine fusion surgery. Clinical studies examining the effects of PEMF on soft tissue healing show promising results. Therefore, we investigated the role of PEMF on rotator cuff healing using a rat rotator cuff repair model. We hypothesized that PEMF exposure following rotator cuff repair would improve tendon mechanical properties, tissue morphology, and alter in vivo joint function. Seventy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to three groups: bilateral repair with PEMF (n = 30), bilateral repair followed by cage activity (n = 30), and uninjured control with cage activity (n = 10). Rats in the surgical groups were sacrificed at 4, 8, and 16 weeks. Control group was sacrificed at 8 weeks. Passive joint mechanics and gait analysis were assessed over time. Biomechanical analysis and μCT was performed on left shoulders; histological analysis on right shoulders. Results indicate no differences in passive joint mechanics and ambulation. At 4 weeks the PEMF group had decreased cross-sectional area and increased modulus and maximum stress. At 8 weeks the PEMF group had increased modulus and more rounded cells in the midsubstance. At 16 weeks the PEMF group had improved bone quality. Therefore, results indicate that PEMF improves early tendon healing and does not alter joint function in a rat rotator cuff repair model. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:902-909, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Pulsed electromagnetic fields after arthroscopic treatment for osteochondral defects of the talus: double-blind randomized controlled multicenter trial

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, Christiaan JA; Blankevoort, Leendert; de Haan, Rob J; Sierevelt, Inger N; Meuffels, Duncan E; d'Hooghe, Pieter RN; Krips, Rover; van Damme, Geert; van Dijk, C Niek

    2009-01-01

    Background Osteochondral talar defects usually affect athletic patients. The primary surgical treatment consists of arthroscopic debridement and microfracturing. Although this is mostly successful, early sport resumption is difficult to achieve, and it can take up to one year to obtain clinical improvement. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) may be effective for talar defects after arthroscopic treatment by promoting tissue healing, suppressing inflammation, and relieving pain. We hypothesize that PEMF-treatment compared to sham-treatment after arthroscopy will lead to earlier resumption of sports, and aim at 25% increase in patients that resume sports. Methods/Design A prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted in five centers throughout the Netherlands and Belgium. 68 patients will be randomized to either active PEMF-treatment or sham-treatment for 60 days, four hours daily. They will be followed-up for one year. The combined primary outcome measures are (a) the percentage of patients that resume and maintain sports, and (b) the time to resumption of sports, defined by the Ankle Activity Score. Secondary outcome measures include resumption of work, subjective and objective scoring systems (American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society – Ankle-Hindfoot Scale, Foot Ankle Outcome Score, Numeric Rating Scales of pain and satisfaction, EuroQol-5D), and computed tomography. Time to resumption of sports will be analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank tests. Discussion This trial will provide level-1 evidence on the effectiveness of PEMFs in the management of osteochondral ankle lesions after arthroscopy. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR1636) PMID:19591674

  18. Comparative study of the efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic field and low level laser therapy on mitogen-activated protein kinases.

    PubMed

    El-Makakey, Ayman M; El-Sharaby, Radwa M; Hassan, Mohammed H; Balbaa, Alaa

    2017-03-01

    Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) consist of three major signaling members: extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 and C-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK). We investigated physiological effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Therapy (PEMFT) and Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) on human body, adopting the expression level of mitogen-activated protein kinases as an indicator via assessment of the activation levels of three major families of MAPKS, ERK, p38 and JNK in the peripheral lymphocytes of patients before and after the therapies. Assessment for the expression levels of MAPKs families' were done, in the peripheral lymphocytes of patients recently have appendectomy, using flow cytometric analysis of multiple signaling pathways, pre and post LLLT and PEMFT application (twice daily for 6 successive days) on the appendectomy wound. There were non-significant differences in the expression levels of MAPKs families' pre- therapies application. But there were significant increase in the ERK expression levels post application of LLLT compared to its pre application (p<0.01). Also, there was significant increase in the ERK, p38 and C-Jun N terminal expression level values post application of PEMFT compared to its pre application expression levels (p<0.01 for each). The present study demonstrates that PEMFT has a powerful healing effect more than LLLT as it increase the activation of ERK, P38 and C-Jun-N Terminal while LLLT only increase the activation of ERK. LLLT has more potent pain decreasing effect than PEMFT as it does not activate P38 pathway like PEMFT.

  19. The effects of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on osteoblast-like cells cultured on titanium and titanium-zirconium surfaces.

    PubMed

    Atalay, Belir; Aybar, Buket; Ergüven, Mine; Emes, Yusuf; Bultan, Özgür; Akça, Kivanç; Yalçin, Serhat; Baysal, Uğur; Işsever, Halim; Çehreli, Murat Cavit; Bilir, Ayhan

    2013-11-01

    Commercially pure Ti, together with Ti Ni, Ti-6Al-4V, and Ti-6Al-7Nb alloys, are among the materials currently being used for this purpose. Titanium-zirconium (TiZr) has been developed that allows SLActive surface modification and that has comparable or better mechanical strength and improved biocompatibility compared with existing Ti alloys. Furthermore, approaches have targeted making the implant surface more hydrophilic, as with the Straumann SLActive surface, a modification of the SLA surface. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) to the behavior of neonatal rat calvarial osteoblast-like cells cultured on commercially pure titanium (cpTi) and titanium-zirconium alloy (TiZr) discs with hydrophilic surface properties. Osteoblast cells were cultured on titanium and TiZr discs, and PEMF was applied. Cell proliferation rates, cell numbers, cell viability rates, alkaline phosphatase, and midkine (MK) levels were measured at 24 and 72 hours. At 24 hours, the number of cells was significantly higher in the TiZr group. At 72 hours, TiZr had a significantly higher number of cells when compared to SLActive, SLActive + PEMF, and machine surface + PEMF groups. At 24 hours, cell proliferation was significantly higher in the TiZr group than SLActive and TiZr + PEMF group. At 72 hours, TiZr group had higher proliferation rate than machine surface and TiZr + PEMF. Cell proliferation in the machine surface group was lower than both SLActive + PEMF and machine surface + PEMF. MK levels of PEMF-treated groups were lower than untreated groups for 72 hours. Our findings conclude that TiZr surfaces are similar to cpTi surfaces in terms of biocompatibility. However, PEMF application has a higher stimulative effect on cells cultured on cpTi surfaces when compared to TiZr.

  20. A pilot investigation of the effect of extremely low frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields on humans' heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Emilio; Baldi, Claudio; Lithgow, Brian J

    2007-01-01

    The question whether pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) can affect the heart rhythm is still controversial. This study investigates the effects on the cardiocirculatory system of ELF-PEMFs. It is a follow-up to an investigation made of the possible therapeutic effect ELF-PEMFs, using a commercially available magneto therapeutic unit, had on soft tissue injury repair in humans. Modulation of heart rate (HR) or heart rate variability (HRV) can be detected from changes in periodicity of the R-R interval and/or from changes in the numbers of heart-beat/min (bpm), however, R-R interval analysis gives only a quantitative insight into HRV. A qualitative understanding of HRV can be obtained considering the power spectral density (PSD) of the R-R intervals Fourier transform. In this study PSD is the investigative tool used, more specifically the low frequency (LF) PSD and high frequency (HF) PSD ratio (LF/HF) which is an indicator of sympatho-vagal balance. To obtain the PSD value, variations of the R-R time intervals were evaluated from a continuously recorded ECG. The results show a HR variation in all the subjects when they are exposed to the same ELF-PEMF. This variation can be detected by observing the change in the sympatho-vagal equilibrium, which is an indicator of modulation of heart activity. Variation of the LF/HF PSD ratio mainly occurs at transition times from exposure to nonexposure, or vice versa. Also of interest are the results obtained during the exposure of one subject to a range of different ELF-PEMFs. This pilot study suggests that a full investigation into the effect of ELF-PEMFs on the cardiovascular system is justified.

  1. Assessment of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy with Serum YKL-40 and ultrasonography in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Dündar, Ümit; Aşık, Gülşah; Ulaşlı, Alper Murat; Sınıcı, Şükrü; Yaman, Fatima; Solak, Özlem; Toktaş, Hasan; Eroğlu, Selma

    2016-03-01

    The use of biomarkers of osteoarthritis (OA) have potential for early diagnosis, evaluation of disease severity and monitoring treatment. Serum and synovial fluid YKL-40 levels are increased in severe knee OA. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy is a novel treatment method for OA. However, studies evaluating the PEMF therapy in treatment of knee OA revealed conflicting results. This study was conducted to objectively assess the effect of PEMF therapy in patients with knee OA, by using ultrasonographic measurements and a novel biomarker, YKL-40. Forty patients were randomized into two treatment groups. Both groups received conventional physical therapy, while Group 1 received additional PEMF therapy. The patients were asked to rate their pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and complete a Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire. Serum YKL-40 levels were measured, and knee effusion and cartilage degeneration level were evaluated with ultrasonography before and after treatment. Pre-treatment YKL-40 level was correlated with WOMAC pain subscale (P = 0.032, r = 0.339). VAS and WOMAC scores significantly improved in both treatment groups (P < 0.05). The effusion in the right knee significantly decreased in Group 1. The change in YKL-40 level was not correlated with the change in VAS, WOMAC scores and knee effusion. This study revealed that adjuvant PEMF therapy has no additional effect on pain in patients with knee OA. Serum YKL-40 level seems to be unuseful for monitoring the treatment in knee OA. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. In vitro functional response of human tendon cells to different dosages of low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic field.

    PubMed

    de Girolamo, L; Viganò, M; Galliera, E; Stanco, D; Setti, S; Marazzi, M G; Thiebat, G; Corsi Romanelli, M M; Sansone, V

    2015-11-01

    Chronic tendinopathy is a degenerative process causing pain and disability. Current treatments include biophysical therapies, such as pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF). The aim of this study was to compare, for the first time, the functional in vitro response of human tendon cells to different dosages of PEMF, varying in field intensity and duration and number of exposures. Tendon cells, isolated from human semitendinosus and gracilis tendons (hTCs; n = 6), were exposed to different PEMF treatments (1.5 or 3 mT for 8 or 12 h, single or repeated treatments). Scleraxis (SCX), COL1A1, COL3A1 and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) expression and cytokine production were assessed. None of the different dosages provoked apoptotic events. Proliferation of hTCs was enhanced by all treatments, whereas only 3 mT-PEMF treatment increased cell viability. However, the single 1.5 mT-PEMF treatment elicited the highest up-regulation of SCX, VEGF-A and COL1A1 expression, and it significantly reduced COL3A1 expression with respect to untreated cells. The treated hTCs showed a significantly higher release of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-β. Interestingly, the repeated 1.5 mT-PEMF significantly further increased IL-10 production. 1.5 mT-PEMF treatment was able to give the best results in in vitro healthy human tendon cell culture. Although the clinical relevance is not direct, this investigation should be considered an attempt to clarify the effect of different PEMF protocols on tendon cells, in particular focusing on the potential applicability of this cell source for regenerative medicine purpose, both in surgical and in conservative treatment for tendon disorders.

  3. LOFAR Lightning Imaging: Mapping Lightning With Nanosecond Precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, B. M.; Scholten, O.; Bonardi, A.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Ebert, U.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Leijnse, H.; Mitra, P.; Mulrey, K.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Rutjes, C.; Schellart, P.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, T. N. G.; ter Veen, S.; Winchen, T.

    2018-03-01

    Lightning mapping technology has proven instrumental in understanding lightning. In this work we present a pipeline that can use lightning observed by the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) radio telescope to construct a 3-D map of the flash. We show that LOFAR has unparalleled precision, on the order of meters, even for lightning flashes that are over 20 km outside the area enclosed by LOFAR antennas (˜3,200 km2), and can potentially locate over 10,000 sources per lightning flash. We also show that LOFAR is the first lightning mapping system that is sensitive to the spatial structure of the electrical current during individual lightning leader steps.

  4. Development Status of Optical and Electromagnetic Instruments onboard JEM-GLIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Mitsuteru; Ushio, Tomoo; Morimoto, Takeshi; Suzuki, Makoto; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Ishida, Ryohei; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Hobara, Yasuhide; Sakamoto, Yuji; Yoshita, Kengo

    In order to study the generation mechanism of Transient Luminous Events (TLEs), global oc-currence rates and distributions of lightning and TLEs, and the relationship between lightning, TLEs and Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs), we will carry out the lightning and TLE observation at Exposed Facility of Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EF) of International Space Station (ISS). In this mission named JEM-GLIMS (Global Lightning and sprIte Mea-surementS on JEM-EF) two kinds of optical instruments and two sets of radio receivers will be integrated into the Multi mission Consolidated Equipment (MCE) which is the bus system and will be installed at JEM-EF. The optical instruments consist of two wide FOV CMOS cameras and six wide FOV photometers, and all these optical instruments are pointed to the nadir direction. CMOS cameras named LSI (Lightning and Sprite Imager) use the STAR-250 device as a detector, which has 512x512 pixels and 25x25 µm pixel size, and have 28.3x28.3 deg. FOV. One CMOS camera with a wide band filter (730-830 nm) mainly measures lightning emission, while another camera with a narrowband filter (766+/-6 nm) mainly measures TLE emission. Five of six photometers named as PH have 42.7 deg. FOV and use photomultiplier tube (PMT) as a photon detector. They equip band-pass filters (150-280 nm, 316+/-5 nm, 337+/-5 nm, 392+/-5 nm, and 762+/-5 nm) for the absolute intensity measurement of the TLE emission. One of six photometers equips a wide-band filter (600-900 nm) to detect light-ning occurring within 86.8 deg. FOV. These output signals will be recorded with the sampling frequency of 20 kHz with a 12-bit resolution. One of two electromagnetic instruments is a VLF receiver (VLFR), which measures electromagnetic waves in the frequency range of 1-40 kHz with 16-bit resolution. Another instrument is VHF interferometer (VITF), which measures VHF pulses generated lightning discharge in the frequency range of 70-100 MHz. JEM-GIMS will be launched in 2011. We

  5. Lightning injury: a review.

    PubMed

    Ritenour, Amber E; Morton, Melinda J; McManus, John G; Barillo, David J; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2008-08-01

    Lightning is an uncommon but potentially devastating cause of injury in patients presenting to burn centers. These injuries feature unusual symptoms, high mortality, and significant long-term morbidity. This paper will review the epidemiology, physics, clinical presentation, management principles, and prevention of lightning injuries.

  6. Remote sensing of the lightning heating effect duration with ground-based microwave radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Sulin; Pan, Yun; Lei, Lianfa; Ma, Lina; Li, Qing; Wang, Zhenhui

    2018-06-01

    Artificially triggered lightning events from May 26, 2017 to July 16, 2017 in Guangzhou Field Experiment Site for Lightning Research and Test (GFESL) were intentionally remotely sensed with a ground-based microwave radiometer for the first time in order to obtain the features of lightning heating effect. The microwave radiometer antenna was adjusted to point at a certain elevation angle towards the expected artificially triggered lightning discharging path. Eight of the 16 successfully artificially triggered lightning events were captured and the brightness temperature data at four frequencies in K and V bands were obtained. The results from data time series analysis show that artificially triggered lightning can make the radiometer generate brightness temperature pulses, and the amplitudes of these pulses are in the range of 2.0 K to 73.8 K. The brightness temperature pulses associated with 7 events can be used to estimate the duration of lightning heating effect through accounting the number of the pulses in the continuous pulse sequence and the sampling interval between four frequencies. The maximum duration of the lightning heating effect is 1.13 s, the minimum is 0.172 s, and the average is 0.63 s.

  7. Analysis and Assessment of Peak Lightning Current Probabilities at the NASA Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.; Vaughan, W. W.

    1999-01-01

    This technical memorandum presents a summary by the Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch at the Marshall Space Flight Center of lightning characteristics and lightning criteria for the protection of aerospace vehicles. Probability estimates are included for certain lightning strikes (peak currents of 200, 100, and 50 kA) applicable to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Shuttle at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, during rollout, on-pad, and boost/launch phases. Results of an extensive literature search to compile information on this subject are presented in order to answer key questions posed by the Space Shuttle Program Office at the Johnson Space Center concerning peak lightning current probabilities if a vehicle is hit by a lightning cloud-to-ground stroke. Vehicle-triggered lightning probability estimates for the aforementioned peak currents are still being worked. Section 4.5, however, does provide some insight on estimating these same peaks.

  8. The Cloud Effects Phase of the Laser Induced Lightning Investigation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    electromagnetic sensors: Magnetic field derivative signals in excess of 17 Teslas /second were observed in one of the triggered discharges. Our studies on this...largest electromagnetic signals that we have ever measured with values of dB/dt in excess of 17 Teslas / second at distances in excess of 500 m...Natural lightning strikes to earth within 100 m of our measuring instruments have produced peak signals of only 5 Teslas /second during our measuring window

  9. Pulsed or continuous electromagnetic field induce p53/p21-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway in mouse spermatogenic cells in vitro and thus may affect male fertility.

    PubMed

    Solek, Przemyslaw; Majchrowicz, Lena; Bloniarz, Dominika; Krotoszynska, Ewelina; Koziorowski, Marek

    2017-05-01

    The impact of electromagnetic field (EMF) on the human health and surrounding environment is a common topic investigated over the years. A significant increase in the electromagnetic field concentration arouses public concern about the long-term effects of EMF on living organisms associated with many aspects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of pulsed and continuous electromagnetic field (PEMF/CEMF) on mouse spermatogenic cell lines (GC-1 spg and GC-2 spd) in terms of cellular and biochemical features in vitro. We evaluated the effect of EMF on mitochondrial metabolism, morphology, proliferation rate, viability, cell cycle progression, oxidative stress balance and regulatory proteins. Our results strongly suggest that EMF induces oxidative and nitrosative stress-mediated DNA damage, resulting in p53/p21-dependent cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Therefore, spermatogenic cells due to the lack of antioxidant enzymes undergo oxidative and nitrosative stress-mediated cytotoxic and genotoxic events, which contribute to infertility by reduction in healthy sperm cells pool. In conclusion, electromagnetic field present in surrounding environment impairs male fertility by inducing p53/p21-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Lightning may pose a danger to patients receiving deep brain stimulation: case report.

    PubMed

    Prezelj, Neža; Trošt, Maja; Georgiev, Dejan; Flisar, Dušan

    2018-05-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment option for advanced stages of Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders. It is known that DBS is susceptible to strong electromagnetic fields (EMFs) that can be generated by various electrical devices at work, home, and in medical environments. EMFs can interfere with the proper functioning of implantable pulse generators (IPGs). Very strong EMFs can generate induction currents in implanted electrodes and even damage the brain. Manufacturers of DBS devices have issued a list of warnings on how to avoid this danger. Strong EMFs can result from natural forces as well. The authors present the case of a 66-year-old woman who was being treated with a rechargeable DBS system for neck dystonia when her apartment was struck by lightning. Domestic electronic devices that were operating during the event were burned and destroyed. The woman's IPG switched off but remained undamaged, and she suffered no neurological consequences.

  11. Simulation of radiation from lightning return strokes - The effects of tortuosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.; Meneghini, R.

    1978-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation has been developed for the electromagnetic fields radiated from a tortuous lightning channel. This was done using a piecewise linear model for the channel and employing for each element the field radiated by a traveling wave on an arbitrarily oriented filament over a conducting plane. The simulation reproduces experimental data reasonably well and has been used to study the effects of tortuosity on the fields radiated by return strokes. Tortuosity can significantly modify the radiated waveform, tending to render it less representative of the current pulse and more nearly unipolar than one would expect based on the theory for a long straight channel. In the frequency domain the effect of tortuosity is an increase in high frequency energy as compared with an equivalent straight channel. The extent of this increase depends on the mean length of the elements comprising the channel and can be significant.

  12. Pulse

    MedlinePlus

    ... to take your wrist pulse References Bernstein D. History and physical examination. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016: ...

  13. Infrasound Observations from Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arechiga, R. O.; Johnson, J. B.; Edens, H. E.; Thomas, R. J.; Jones, K. R.

    2008-12-01

    To provide additional insight into the nature of lightning, we have investigated its infrasound manifestations. An array of three stations in a triangular configuration, with three sensors each, was deployed during the Summer of 2008 (July 24 to July 28) in the Magdalena mountains of New Mexico, to monitor infrasound (below 20 Hz) sources due to lightning. Hyperbolic formulations of time of arrival (TOA) measurements and interferometric techniques were used to locate lightning sources occurring over and outside the network. A comparative analysis of simultaneous Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) data and infrasound measurements operating in the same area was made. The LMA locates the sources of impulsive RF radiation produced by lightning flashes in three spatial dimensions and time, operating in the 60 - 66 MHz television band. The comparison showed strong evidence that lightning does produce infrasound. This work is a continuation of the study of the frequency spectrum of thunder conducted by Holmes et al., who reported measurements of infrasound frequencies. The integration of infrasound measurements with RF source localization by the LMA shows great potential for improved understanding of lightning processes.

  14. Lightning Mapping and Leader Propagation Reconstruction using LOFAR-LIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, B.; Ebert, U.; Rutjes, C.; Scholten, O.; Trinh, G. T. N.

    2017-12-01

    LOFAR (LOw Frequency ARray) is a radio telescope that consists of a large number of dual-polarized antennas spread over the northern Netherlands and beyond. The LOFAR for Lightning Imaging project (LOFAR-LIM) has successfully used LOFAR to map out lightning in the Netherlands. Since LOFAR covers a large frequency range (10-90 MHz), has antennas spread over a large area, and saves the raw trace data from the antennas, LOFAR-LIM can combine all the strongest aspects of both lightning mapping arrays and lightning interferometers. These aspects include a nanosecond resolution between pulses, nanosecond timing accuracy, and an ability to map lightning in all 3 spatial dimensions and time. LOFAR should be able to map out overhead lightning with a spatial accuracy on the order of meters. The large amount of complex data provide by LOFAR has presented new data processing challenges, such as handling the time offsets between stations with large baselines and locating as many sources as possible. New algorithms to handle these challenges have been developed and will be discussed. Since the antennas are dual-polarized, all three components of the electric field can be extracted and the structure of the R.F. pulses can be investigated at a large number of distances and angles relative to the lightning source, potentially allowing for modeling of lightning current distributions relevant to the 10 to 90 MHz frequency range. R.F. pulses due to leader propagation will be presented, which show a complex sub-structure, indicating intricate physics that could potentially be reconstructed.

  15. Pulsed electromagnetic gas acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, R. G.; Vonjaskowsky, W. F.; Clark, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    Terminal voltage measurements with long cathodes in a high power, quasi-steady MPD discharge show that the critical current for the onset of voltage fluctuations, which was previously shown to be a function of cathode area, approaches an asymptote for cathodes of very large surface area. Floating potential measurements and photographs of the discharge luminosity indicate that the fluctuations are confined to the vicinity of the cathode and hence reflect a cathode emission process rather than a fundamental limit on MPD performance. Photoelectric measurements of particular argon neutral and ion transitions show that the higher electronic states are populated more heavily than would be calculated on the basis of Saha-Boltzmann equilibrium at the local electron temperature and number density. Preliminary optical depth measurements show that for a current of 4 kA and an argon mass flow of 12 g/sec, a population inversion exists between the upper and lower states of the 4880 A argon ion transition.

  16. Pulsed electromagnetic acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, R. G.; Vonjaskowsky, W. F.; Clark, K. E.

    1973-01-01

    Direct measurements of the power deposited in the anode of a multimegawatt MPD accelerator using thermocouples attached to a thin shell anode reveal a dramatic decrease in the fractional anode power from 50% at 200 KW input power to less than 10% at 20 MW power. The corresponding local power flux peak at a value of 10,000 W/sq cm at the lip of the anode exhaust orifice, a distribution traced to a corresponding peak in the local current density at the anode. A comparison of voltage-current characteristics and spectral photographs of the MPD discharge using quartz, boron nitride and plexiglas insulators with various mass injection configurations led to the identification of different voltage modes and regions of ablation free operation. The technique of piezoelectric impact pressure measurement in the MPD exhaust flow was refined to account for the effects due to probe yaw angle.

  17. Direct-strike lightning photographs, swept-flash attachment patterns, and flight conditions for storm hazards 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaepfel, K. P.; Fisher, B. D.; Ott, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    As part of the NASA Langley Research Center Storm Hazards Program, 241 thunderstorm penetrations were made in 1982 with an F-106B airplane in order to record direct-strike lightning data and the associated flight conditions. During these penetrations, the airplane received 156 direct lightning strikes; in addition, lightning transient data were recorded from 26 nearby lightning flashes. The tests were conducted within 150 nautical miles of Hampton, Virginia, assisted by ground-based weather-radar guidance from the NASA Wallops Flight Facility. The photographs of the lightning attachments taken from two onboard 16-mm color movie cameras and the associated strike attachment patterns are presented. A table of the flight conditions recorded at the time of each lightning event, and a table in which the data are cross-referenced with the previously published lightning electromagnetic waveform data are included.

  18. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on the tensile biomechanical properties of diabetic wounds at different phases of healing

    PubMed Central

    Cheing, Alex K. K.; Ng, Gabriel Y. F.; Cheing, Gladys L. Y.

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on the tensile biomechanical properties of diabetic wounds at different phases of healing. Two intensities of PEMF were adopted for comparison. We randomly assigned 111 10-week-old male streptozotocin-induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats to two PEMF groups and a sham control group. Six-millimetre biopsy punched full thickness wounds were made on the lateral side of their hindlimbs. The PEMF groups received active PEMF delivered at 25 Hz with intensity of either 2 mT or 10 mT daily, while the sham group was handled in a similar way except they were not exposed to PEMF. Wound tissues were harvested for tensile testing on post-wounding days 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21. Maximum load, maximum stress, energy absorption capacity, Young’s modulus and thickness of wound tissue were measured. On post-wounding day 5, the PEMF group that received 10-mT intensity had significantly increased energy absorption capacity and showed an apparent increase in the maximum load. However, the 10-mT PEMF group demonstrated a decrease in Young’s modulus on day 14. The 10-mT PEMF groups showed a significant increase in the overall thickness of wound tissue whereas the 2-mT group showed a significant decrease in the overall maximum stress of the wounds tissue. The present findings demonstrated that the PEMF delivered at 10 mT can improve energy absorption capacity of diabetic wounds in the early healing phase. However, PEMF (both 2-mT and 10-mT) seemed to impair the material properties (maximum stress and Young’s modulus) in the remodelling phase. PEMF may be a useful treatment for promoting the recovery of structural properties (maximum load and energy absorption capacity), but it might not be applied at the remodelling phase to avoid impairing the recovery of material properties. PMID:29324868

  19. Lightning current detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livermore, S. F. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the intensity of current produced in an elongated electrical conductive member by a lightning strike for determining the intensity of the lightning strike is presented. The apparatus includes an elongated strip of magnetic material that is carried within an elongated tubular housing. A predetermined electrical signal is recorded along the length of said elongated strip of magnetic material. One end of the magnetic material is positioned closely adjacent to the electrically conductive member so that the magnetic field produced by current flowing through said electrically conductive member disturbs a portion of the recorded electrical signal directly proportional to the intensity of the lightning strike.

  20. Note on lightning temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Alanakyan, Yu. R., E-mail: yralanak@mail.ru

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, some features of the dynamics of a lightning channel that emerges after the leader-streamer process, are theoretically studied. It is shown that the dynamic pinch effect in the channel becomes possible if a discharge current before the main (quasi-steady) stage of a lightning discharge increases rapidly. The ensuing magnetic compression of the channel increases plasma temperature to several million degrees leading to a soft x-ray flash within the highly ionized plasma. The relation between the plasma temperature and the channel radius during the main stage of a lightning discharge is derived.