Science.gov

Sample records for lightning

  1. Lightning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pampe, William R.

    1970-01-01

    Presents basic physical theory for movement of electric charges in clouds, earth, and air during production of lightning and thunder. Amount of electrical energy produced and heating effects during typical thunderstorms is described. Generalized safety practices are given. (JM)

  2. Planetary lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.; Clayton, R. N.; Buseck, P. R.; Hua, X.; Holsapple, K. A.; Esposito, L. W.; Aherns, T. J.; Hecht, J.

    The present state of knowledge concerning lightning on the planets is reviewed. Voyager data have clearly established the presence of lightning discharges at each of the four Jovian planets. In situ data for lightning on Venus are discussed in some detail, including reported quantitative occurrence rates and hypotheses concerning the relationship of Venusian lightning to VLF bursts observed in the Venus atmosphere.

  3. Lightning burns.

    PubMed

    Russell, Katie W; Cochran, Amalia L; Mehta, Sagar T; Morris, Stephen E; McDevitt, Marion C

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a lightning-strike victim. This case illustrates the importance of in-field care, appropriate referral to a burn center, and the tendency of lightning burns to progress to full-thickness injury.

  4. Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lightning Technologies, Inc., Pittsfield, MA, - a spinoff company founded by president J. Anderson Plumer, a former NASA contractor employee who developed his expertise with General Electric Company's High Voltage Laboratory - was a key player in Langley Research Center's Storm Hazards Research Program. Lightning Technologies used its NASA acquired experience to develop protective measures for electronic systems and composite structures on aircraft, both of which are particularly susceptible to lightning damage. The company also provides protection design and verification testing services for complete aircraft systems or individual components. Most aircraft component manufacturers are among Lightning Technologies' clients.

  5. Lightning Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Zen

    This paper presents a phenomenological idea about lightning flash to share the back ground understanding for this special issue. Lightning discharges are one of the terrible phenomena, and Benjamin Franklin has led this natural phenomenon to the stage of scientific investigation. Technical aspects like monitoring and location are also summarized in this article.

  6. Lightning electromagnetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahid, Parveen

    1995-01-01

    This project involved the determination of the effective radiated power of lightning sources and the polarization of the radiating source. This requires the computation of the antenna patterns at all the LDAR site receiving antennas. The known radiation patterns and RF signal levels measured at the antennas will be used to determine the effective radiated power of the lightning source. The azimuth and elevation patterns of the antennas in the LDAR system were computed using flight test data that was gathered specifically for this purpose. The results presented in this report deal with the azimuth patterns for all the antennas and the elevation patterns for three of the seven sites.

  7. Principles of Lightning Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, Vladislav

    2016-12-01

    Principles of Lightning Physics presents and discusses the most up-to-date physical concepts that govern many lightning events in nature, including lightning interactions with man-made structures, at a level suitable for researchers, advanced students and well-educated lightning enthusiasts. The author's approach to understanding lightning-to seek out, and show what is common to all lightning flashes-is illustrated by an analysis of each type of lightning and the multitude of lightning-related features. The book examines the work that has gone into the development of new physical concepts, and provides critical evaluations of the existing understanding of the physics of lightning and the lexicon of terms and definitions presently used in lightning research.

  8. Lightning Safety Tips and Resources

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Brochure U.S. Lightning Deaths in 2018 : 5 Youtube: Lightning Safety for the Deaf and Hard of ... for Hard of Hearing: jpg , high res png YouTube: Lightning Safety Tips Lightning Safety When Working Outdoors : ...

  9. Lightning Instrumentation at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colon, Jose L.; Eng, D.

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes lightning phenomena with a brief explanation of lightning generation and lightning activity as related to KSC. An analysis of the instrumentation used at launching Pads 39 A&B for measurements of lightning effects is included with alternatives and recommendations to improve the protection system and upgrade the actual instrumentation system. An architecture for a new data collection system to replace the present one is also included. A novel architecture to obtain lightning current information from several sensors using only one high speed recording channel while monitoring all sensors to replace the actual manual lightning current recorders and a novel device for the protection system are described.

  10. Lightning Physics and Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orville, Richard E.

    2004-03-01

    Lightning Physics and Effects is not a lightning book; it is a lightning encyclopedia. Rarely in the history of science has one contribution covered a subject with such depth and thoroughness as to set the enduring standard for years, perhaps even decades, to come. This contribution covers all aspects of lightning, including lightning physics, lightning protection, and the interaction of lightning with a variety of objects and systems as well as the environment. The style of writing is well within the ability of the technical non-expert and anyone interested in lightning and its effects. Potential readers will include physicists; engineers working in the power industry, communications, computer, and aviation industries; atmospheric scientists; geophysicists; meteorologists; atmospheric chemists; foresters; ecologists; physicians working in the area of electrical trauma; and, lastly, architects. This comprehensive reference volume contains over 300 illustrations, 70 tables with quantitative information, and over 6000 reference and bibliography entries.

  11. Updated Lightning Safety Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrek, R. James; Holle, Ronald L.; Lopez, Raul E.

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes the recommendations of the Lightning Safety Group (LSG), which was first convened during the 1998 American Meteorological Society Conference. Findings outline appropriate actions under various circumstances when lightning threatens. (WRM)

  12. The Lightning Discharge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orville, Richard E.

    1976-01-01

    Correspondence of Benjamin Franklin provides authenticity to a historical account of early work in the field of lightning. Present-day theories concerning the formation and propagation of lightning are expressed and photographic evidence provided. (CP)

  13. Lightning safety of animals.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed.

  14. Global Lightning Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Hugh J.

    2004-01-01

    Our knowledge of the global distribution of lightning has improved dramatically since the advent of spacebased lightning observations. Of major importance was the 1995 launch of the Optical Transient Detector (OTD), followed in 1997 by the launch of the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). Together, these instruments have generated a continuous eight-year record of global lightning activity. These lightning observations have provided a new global perspective on total lightning activity. For the first time, total lightning activity (cloud-to-ground and intra-cloud) has been observed over large regions with high detection efficiency and accurate geographic location. This has produced new insights into lightning distributions, times of occurrence and variability. It has produced a revised global flash rate estimate (44 flashes per second) and has lead to a new realization of the significance of total lightning activity in severe weather. Accurate flash rate estimates are now available over large areas of the earth (+/- 72 deg. latitude). Ocean-land contrasts as a function of season are clearly reveled, as are orographic effects and seasonal and interannual variability. The space-based observations indicate that air mass thunderstorms, not large storm system dominate global activity. The ability of LIS and OTD to detect total lightning has lead to improved insight into the correlation between lightning and storm development. The relationship between updraft development and lightning activity is now well established and presents an opportunity for providing a new mechanism for remotely monitoring storm development. In this concept, lightning would serve as a surrogate for updraft velocity. It is anticipated that this capability could lead to significantly improved severe weather warning times and reduced false warning rates. This talk will summarize our space-based lightning measurements, will discuss how lightning observations can be used to monitor severe weather, and

  15. Thunderclouds and Lightning Conductors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, P. F.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the historical background of the development of lightning conductors, describes the nature of thunderclouds and the lightning flash, and provides a calculation of the electric field under a thundercloud. Also discussed are point discharge currents and the attraction theory of the lightning conductor. (JR)

  16. MSFC shuttle lightning research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Otha H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The shuttle mesoscale lightning experiment (MLE), flown on earlier shuttle flights, and most recently flown on the following space transportation systems (STS's), STS-31, -32, -35, -37, -38, -40, -41, and -48, has continued to focus on obtaining additional quantitative measurements of lightning characteristics and to create a data base for use in demonstrating observation simulations for future spaceborne lightning mapping systems. These flights are also providing design criteria data for the design of a proposed shuttle MLE-type lightning research instrument called mesoscale lightning observational sensors (MELOS), which are currently under development here at MSFC.

  17. A Lightning Safety Primer for Camps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attarian, Aram

    1992-01-01

    Provides the following information about lightning, which is necessary for camp administrators and staff: (1) warning signs of lightning; (2) dangers of lightning; (3) types of lightning injuries; (4) prevention of lightning injury; and (5) helpful training tips. (KS)

  18. The Design of Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Engineering study guides design and monitoring of lightning protection. Design studies for project are collected in 150-page report, containing wealth of information on design of lightning protection systems and on instrumentation for monitoring current waveforms of lightning strokes.

  19. First Lightning Flashes on Saturn

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-14

    NASA Cassini spacecraft captured the first lightning flashes on Saturn. The storm that generated the lightning lasted from January to October 2009, making it the longest-lasting lightning storm known in the solar system.

  20. What Initiates Lightning?

    SciTech Connect

    None

    Lightning is an energetic electric discharge, creating a current that flows briefly within a cloud--or between a cloud and the ground--and heating the air to temperatures about five times hotter than the sun’s surface. But there’s a lot about lightning that’s still a mystery. Los Alamos National Laboratory is working to change that. Because lightning produces optical and radio frequency signals similar to those from a nuclear explosion, it’s important to be able to distinguish whether such signals are caused by lightning or a nuclear event. As part of the global security mission at Los Alamos, scientists use lightning tomore » help develop better instruments for nuclear test-ban treaty monitoring and, in the process, have learned a lot about lightning itself.« less

  1. Space Shuttle Lightning Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suiter, D. L.; Gadbois, R. D.; Blount, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The technology for lightning protection of even the most advanced spacecraft is available and can be applied through cost-effective hardware designs and design-verification techniques. In this paper, the evolution of the Space Shuttle Lightning Protection Program is discussed, including the general types of protection, testing, and anlayses being performed to assess the lightning-transient-damage susceptibility of solid-state electronics.

  2. Global Lightning Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Hugh

    2003-01-01

    Our knowledge of the global distribution of lightning has improved dramatically since the 1995 launch of the Optical Transient Detector (OTD) followed in 1997 by the launch of the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). Together, these instruments have generated a continuous seven-year record of global lightning activity. These lightning observations have provided a new global perspective on total lightning activity. For the first time, total lightning activity (CG and IC) has been observed over large regions with high detection efficiencies and accurate geographic location. This has produced new insights into lightning distributions, times of occurrence and variability. It has produced a revised global flash rate estimate (46 flashes per second) and has lead to a new realization of the significance of total lightning activity in severe weather. Accurate flash rate estimates are now available for large areas of the earth (+/- 72deg latitude) Ocean-land contrasts as a function of season are clearly revealed, as are orographic effects and seasonal and interannual variability. The data set indicates that air mass thunderstorms, not large storm systems dominate global activity. The ability of LIS and OTD to detect total lightning has lead to improved insight into the correlation between lightning and storm development. The relationship between updraft development and lightning activity is now well established and presents an opportunity for providing a new mechanism for remotely monitoring storm development. In this concept, lightning would serve as a surrogate for updraft velocity. It is anticipated hat this capability could lead to significantly improved severe weather warning times and reduced false warning rates.

  3. Lightning and transportation.

    PubMed

    Cherington, M

    1995-12-01

    It is a little-known fact that lightning casualties often involve travel or transportation. López and colleagues, in their studies on the epidemiology of lightning injuries, have reported that 10% of lightning injuries are categorized under transportation. In the majority of their cases, victims were struck while standing outside or near their vehicles during a thunderstorm. During my review of the neurologic complications of lightning injuries, I was impressed by the number of case reports in which the victim was struck while either in or near a vehicle, airplane or vessel. In this article, I shall put forth information on four aspects of lightning that relate to the danger to people traveling in vehicles, boats, and airplanes. First, I shall deal with lightning safety on ships and boats. People who enjoy recreational sailing, including the "weekend sailor" and those who enjoy fishing from a boat, should be fortified with knowledge about lightning protection. Second, I shall consider the matter of lightning strikes to aircraft. In the third section, I shall discuss the question of lightning safety in automobiles. Fourth, I shall review those cases found in my literature review in which the victim was struck while in or near a vehicle, boat, or airplane.

  4. Lightning and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, E.

    2012-12-01

    Lightning is of interest in the domain of climate change for several reasons: (1) thunderstorms are extreme forms of moist convection, and lightning flash rate is a sensitive measure of that extremity, (2) thunderstorms are deep conduits for delivering water substance from the boundary layer to the upper troposphere and stratosphere, and (3) global lightning can be monitored continuously and inexpensively within a natural framework (the Earth-ionosphere waveguide and Schumann resonances). Lightning and temperature, and lightning and upper tropospheric water vapor, are positively correlated on weather-related time scales (diurnal, semiannual, and annual) with a lightning temperature sensitivity of order 10% per oC. Lightning also follows temperature variations on the ENSO time scale, both locally and globally. The response of lightning in some of its extreme forms (exceptional flash rates and the prevalence of sprite-producing mesoscale lightning, for example) to temperature variations will be addressed. Consistently obtained records of lightning activity on longer time scales are scarce as stable detection networks are uncommon. As a consequence, thunder day data have been used to extend the lightning record for climate studies, with evidence for increases over decades in urban areas. Global records of lightning following Schumann resonance intensity and from space-based optical sensors (OTD and LIS) are consistent with the record of ionospheric potential representing the global electrical circuit in showing flat behavior over the few decades. This flatness is not well understood, though the majority of all lightning flashes are found in the tropics, the most closely regulated portion of the atmosphere. Other analysis of frequency variations of Schumann resonances in recent decades shows increased lightning in the northern hemisphere, where the global warming is most pronounced. The quantity more fundamental than temperature for lightning control is cloud buoyancy

  5. [Neurological diseases after lightning strike : Lightning strikes twice].

    PubMed

    Gruhn, K M; Knossalla, Frauke; Schwenkreis, Peter; Hamsen, Uwe; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Tegenthoff, Martin; Sczesny-Kaiser, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Lightning strikes rarely occur but 85 % of patients have lightning-related neurological complications. This report provides an overview about different modes of energy transfer and neurological conditions related to lightning strikes. Moreover, two case reports demonstrate the importance of interdisciplinary treatment and the spectrum of neurological complications after lightning strikes.

  6. LOFAR Lightning Imaging: Mapping Lightning With Nanosecond Precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, B. M.; Scholten, O.; Bonardi, A.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Ebert, U.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Leijnse, H.; Mitra, P.; Mulrey, K.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Rutjes, C.; Schellart, P.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, T. N. G.; ter Veen, S.; Winchen, T.

    2018-03-01

    Lightning mapping technology has proven instrumental in understanding lightning. In this work we present a pipeline that can use lightning observed by the LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) radio telescope to construct a 3-D map of the flash. We show that LOFAR has unparalleled precision, on the order of meters, even for lightning flashes that are over 20 km outside the area enclosed by LOFAR antennas (˜3,200 km2), and can potentially locate over 10,000 sources per lightning flash. We also show that LOFAR is the first lightning mapping system that is sensitive to the spatial structure of the electrical current during individual lightning leader steps.

  7. Lightning injury: a review.

    PubMed

    Ritenour, Amber E; Morton, Melinda J; McManus, John G; Barillo, David J; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2008-08-01

    Lightning is an uncommon but potentially devastating cause of injury in patients presenting to burn centers. These injuries feature unusual symptoms, high mortality, and significant long-term morbidity. This paper will review the epidemiology, physics, clinical presentation, management principles, and prevention of lightning injuries.

  8. Infrasound Observations from Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arechiga, R. O.; Johnson, J. B.; Edens, H. E.; Thomas, R. J.; Jones, K. R.

    2008-12-01

    To provide additional insight into the nature of lightning, we have investigated its infrasound manifestations. An array of three stations in a triangular configuration, with three sensors each, was deployed during the Summer of 2008 (July 24 to July 28) in the Magdalena mountains of New Mexico, to monitor infrasound (below 20 Hz) sources due to lightning. Hyperbolic formulations of time of arrival (TOA) measurements and interferometric techniques were used to locate lightning sources occurring over and outside the network. A comparative analysis of simultaneous Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) data and infrasound measurements operating in the same area was made. The LMA locates the sources of impulsive RF radiation produced by lightning flashes in three spatial dimensions and time, operating in the 60 - 66 MHz television band. The comparison showed strong evidence that lightning does produce infrasound. This work is a continuation of the study of the frequency spectrum of thunder conducted by Holmes et al., who reported measurements of infrasound frequencies. The integration of infrasound measurements with RF source localization by the LMA shows great potential for improved understanding of lightning processes.

  9. Lightning current detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livermore, S. F. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the intensity of current produced in an elongated electrical conductive member by a lightning strike for determining the intensity of the lightning strike is presented. The apparatus includes an elongated strip of magnetic material that is carried within an elongated tubular housing. A predetermined electrical signal is recorded along the length of said elongated strip of magnetic material. One end of the magnetic material is positioned closely adjacent to the electrically conductive member so that the magnetic field produced by current flowing through said electrically conductive member disturbs a portion of the recorded electrical signal directly proportional to the intensity of the lightning strike.

  10. Note on lightning temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Alanakyan, Yu. R., E-mail: yralanak@mail.ru

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, some features of the dynamics of a lightning channel that emerges after the leader-streamer process, are theoretically studied. It is shown that the dynamic pinch effect in the channel becomes possible if a discharge current before the main (quasi-steady) stage of a lightning discharge increases rapidly. The ensuing magnetic compression of the channel increases plasma temperature to several million degrees leading to a soft x-ray flash within the highly ionized plasma. The relation between the plasma temperature and the channel radius during the main stage of a lightning discharge is derived.

  11. Lightning Technology: Proceedings of a Technical Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Several facets of lightning technology are considered including phenomenology, measurement, detection, protection, interaction, and testing. Lightning electromagnetics, protection of ground systems, and simulated lightning testing are emphasized. The lightning-instrumented F-106 aircraft is described.

  12. Global lightning studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Wright, Pat; Christian, Hugh; Blakeslee, Richard; Buechler, Dennis; Scharfen, Greg

    1991-01-01

    The global lightning signatures were analyzed from the DMSP Optical Linescan System (OLS) imagery archived at the National Snow and Ice Data Center. Transition to analysis of the digital archive becomes available and compare annual, interannual, and seasonal variations with other global data sets. An initial survey of the quality of the existing film archive was completed and lightning signatures were digitized for the summer months of 1986 to 1987. The relationship is studied between: (1) global and regional lightning activity and rainfall, and (2) storm electrical development and environment. Remote sensing data sets obtained from field programs are used in conjunction with satellite/radar/lightning data to develop and improve precipitation estimation algorithms, and to provide a better understanding of the co-evolving electrical, microphysical, and dynamical structure of storms.

  13. Lightning Initiation and Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-22

    ray (gamma ray ) and multiple-station (>24) cosmic - ray - muon detection network (TERA) pl:esently in place. Upgrade TERA with LaBr3 detectors to...DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lightning Initistion and Propagation Including the Role of X- Rays , Gamma Rays , and Cosmic Rays 5a... rays , gamma rays , and cosmic rays in the initiation and propagation of lightning and in the phenomenology of thunderclouds. The experimental

  14. Lightning Technology (Supplement)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    material presented in this report was taken from a variety of sources; therefore, various units of measure are used. Use of trade names or names of...Clifford, and W. G. Butters 3. IMPLEMENTATION AND EXPERIENCE WITH LIGHTNING HARDENING MEASURES ON THE NAVY/AIR FORCE COMBAT MANEUVERING RANGES...overall lightning event taken from an appropriate base of wideband measurements . In 1979, the Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories began a joint

  15. Lightning Injury: A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    of lightning strike; thus, burn-care providers should be familiar with the character- istics and treatment of these injuries. This paper will review...specific treatment is required [55]. Thermal injury may occur if the patient is wearing metal objects (e.g. zippers), or if clothing ignites [53...Some authors have used intravenous steroids for the treatment of optic-nerve injury in these patients. Other ophthalmologic sequelae of lightning injury

  16. The physics of lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, Joseph R.; Uman, Martin A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite being one of the most familiar and widely recognized natural phenomena, lightning remains relatively poorly understood. Even the most basic questions of how lightning is initiated inside thunderclouds and how it then propagates for many tens of kilometers have only begun to be addressed. In the past, progress was hampered by the unpredictable and transient nature of lightning and the difficulties in making direct measurements inside thunderstorms, but advances in instrumentation, remote sensing methods, and rocket-triggered lightning experiments are now providing new insights into the physics of lightning. Furthermore, the recent discoveries of intense bursts of X-rays and gamma-rays associated with thunderstorms and lightning illustrate that new and interesting physics is still being discovered in our atmosphere. The study of lightning and related phenomena involves the synthesis of many branches of physics, from atmospheric physics to plasma physics to quantum electrodynamics, and provides a plethora of challenging unsolved problems. In this review, we provide an introduction to the physics of lightning with the goal of providing interested researchers a useful resource for starting work in this fascinating field. By what physical mechanism or mechanisms is lightning initiated in the thundercloud? What is the maximum cloud electric field magnitude and over what volume of the cloud? What, if any, high energy processes (runaway electrons, X-rays, gamma rays) are involved in lightning initiation and how? What is the role of various forms of ice and water in lightning initiation? What physical mechanisms govern the propagation of the different types of lightning leaders (negative stepped, first positive, negative dart, negative dart-stepped, negative dart-chaotic) between cloud and ground and the leaders inside the cloud? What is the physical mechanism of leader attachment to elevated objects on the ground and to the flat ground? What are the characteristics

  17. Situational Lightning Climatologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred

    2010-01-01

    Research has revealed distinct spatial and temporal distributions of lightning occurrence that are strongly influenced by large-scale atmospheric flow regimes. It was believed there were two flow systems, but it has been discovered that actually there are seven distinct flow regimes. The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) has recalculated the lightning climatologies for the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF), and the eight airfields in the National Weather Service in Melbourne (NWS MLB) County Warning Area (CWA) using individual lightning strike data to improve the accuracy of the climatologies. The software determines the location of each CG lightning strike with 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30-nmi (.9.3-, 18.5-, 37-, 55.6-km) radii from each airfield. Each CG lightning strike is binned at 1-, 3-, and 6-hour intervals at each specified radius. The software merges the CG lightning strike time intervals and distance with each wind flow regime and creates probability statistics for each time interval, radii, and flow regime, and stratifies them by month and warm season. The AMU also updated the graphical user interface (GUI) with the new data.

  18. Evidence for lightning on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangeway, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Lightning is an interesting phenomenon both for atmospheric and ionospheric science. At the Earth lightning is generated in regions where there is strong convection. Lightning also requires the generation of large charge-separation electric fields. The energy dissipated in a lightning discharge can, for example, result in chemical reactions that would not normally occur. From an ionospheric point of view, lightning generates a broad spectrum of electromagnetic radiation. This radiation can propagate through the ionosphere as whistler mode waves, and at the Earth the waves propagate to high altitudes in the plasmasphere where they can cause energetic particle precipitation. The atmosphere and ionosphere of Venus are quite different from those on the Earth, and the presence of lightning at Venus has important consequences for our knowledge of why lightning occurs and how the energy is dissipated in the atmosphere and ionosphere. As discussed here, it now appears that lightning occurs in the dusk local time sector at Venus.

  19. User's Guide - WRF Lightning Assimilation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document describes how to run WRF with the lightning assimilation technique described in Heath et al. (2016). The assimilation method uses gridded lightning data to trigger and suppress sub-grid deep convection in Kain-Fritsch.

  20. An uncertain future for lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Lee T.

    2018-03-01

    The most commonly used method for representing lightning in global atmospheric models generally predicts lightning increases in a warmer world. A new scheme finds the opposite result, directly challenging the predictive skill of an old stalwart.

  1. Trigeminal Neuralgia Following Lightning Injury.

    PubMed

    López Chiriboga, Alfonso S; Cheshire, William P

    2017-01-01

    Lightning and other electrical incidents are responsible for more than 300 injuries and 100 deaths per year in the United States alone. Lightning strikes can cause a wide spectrum of neurologic manifestations affecting any part of the neuraxis through direct strikes, side flashes, touch voltage, connecting leaders, or acoustic shock waves. This article describes the first case of trigeminal neuralgia induced by lightning injury to the trigeminal nerve, thereby adding a new syndrome to the list of possible lightning-mediated neurologic injuries.

  2. Plotting Lightning-Stroke Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatom, F. B.; Garst, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Data on lightning-stroke locations become easier to correlate with cloudcover maps with aid of new graphical treatment. Geographic region divided by grid into array of cells. Number of lightning strokes in each cell tabulated, and value representing density of lightning strokes assigned to each cell. With contour-plotting routine, computer draws contours of lightning-stroke density for region. Shapes of contours compared directly with shapes of storm cells.

  3. Lightning fires in southwestern forests

    Treesearch

    Jack S. Barrows

    1978-01-01

    Lightning is the leading cause of fires in southwestern forests. On all protected private, state and federal lands in Arizona and New Mexico, nearly 80 percent of the forest, brush and range fires are ignited by lightning. The Southwestern region leads all other regions of the United States both in total number of lightning fires and in the area burned by these fires...

  4. Faraday Cage Protects Against Lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jafferis, W.; Hasbrouck, R. T.; Johnson, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    Faraday cage protects electronic and electronically actuated equipment from lightning. Follows standard lightning-protection principles. Whether lightning strikes cage or cables running to equipment, current canceled or minimized in equipment and discharged into ground. Applicable to protection of scientific instruments, computers, radio transmitters and receivers, and power-switching equipment.

  5. Exploring Lightning Jump Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chronis, Themis; Carey, Larry D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Schultz, Elise; Calhoun, Kristin; Goodman, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    This study is concerned with the characteristics of storms exhibiting an abrupt temporal increase in the total lightning flash rate (i.e., lightning jump, LJ). An automated storm tracking method is used to identify storm "clusters" and total lightning activity from three different lightning detection systems over Oklahoma, northern Alabama and Washington, D.C. On average and for different employed thresholds, the clusters that encompass at least one LJ (LJ1) last longer, relate to higher Maximum Expected Size of Hail, Vertical Integrated Liquid and lightning flash rates (area-normalized) than the clusters that did not exhibit any LJ (LJ0). The respective mean values for LJ1 (LJ0) clusters are 80 min (35 min), 14 mm (8 mm), 25 kg per square meter (18 kg per square meter) and 0.05 flash per min per square kilometer (0.01 flash per min per square kilometer). Furthermore, the LJ1 clusters are also characterized by slower decaying autocorrelation functions, a result that implies a less "random" behavior in the temporal flash rate evolution. In addition, the temporal occurrence of the last LJ provides an estimate of the time remaining to the storm's dissipation. Depending of the LJ strength (i.e., varying thresholds), these values typically range between 20-60 min, with stronger jumps indicating more time until storm decay. This study's results support the hypothesis that the LJ is a proxy for the storm's kinematic and microphysical state rather than a coincidental value.

  6. The start of lightning: Evidence of bidirectional lightning initiation.

    PubMed

    Montanyà, Joan; van der Velde, Oscar; Williams, Earle R

    2015-10-16

    Lightning flashes are known to initiate in regions of strong electric fields inside thunderstorms, between layers of positively and negatively charged precipitation particles. For that reason, lightning inception is typically hidden from sight of camera systems used in research. Other technology such as lightning mapping systems based on radio waves can typically detect only some aspects of the lightning initiation process and subsequent development of positive and negative leaders. We report here a serendipitous recording of bidirectional lightning initiation in virgin air under the cloud base at ~11,000 images per second, and the differences in characteristics of opposite polarity leader sections during the earliest stages of the discharge. This case reveals natural lightning initiation, propagation and a return stroke as in negative cloud-to-ground flashes, upon connection to another lightning channel - without any masking by cloud.

  7. Lightning activity on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, W. J.; Bar-Nun, A.; Scarf, F. L.; Look, A. F.; Hunt, G. E.

    1982-01-01

    Photographic observations of the nightside of Jupiter by the Voyager 1 spacecraft show the presence of extensive lightning activity. Detection of whistlers by the plasma wave analyzer confirms the optical observations and implies that many flashes were not recorded by the Voyager camera because the intensity of the flashes was below the threshold sensitivity of the camera. Measurements of the optical energy radiated per flash indicate that the observed flashes had energies similar to that for terrestrial superbolts. The best estimate of the lightning energy dissipation rate of 0.0004 W/sq m was derived from a consideration of the optical and radiofrequency measurements. The ratio of the energy dissipated by lightning compared to the convective energy flux is estimated to be between 0.000027 and 0.00005. The terrestrial value is 0.0001.

  8. Ionospheric signatures of Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, M.; Liu, J.

    2003-12-01

    The geostationary metrology satellite (GMS) monitors motions of thunderstorm cloud, while the lightning detection network (LDN) in Taiwan and the very high Frequency (VHF) radar in Chung-Li (25.0›XN, 121.2›XE) observed occurrences of lightning during May and July, 1997. Measurements from the digisonde portable sounder (DPS) at National Central University shows that lightning results in occurrence of the sporadic E-layer (Es), as well as increase and decrease of plasma density at the F2-peak and E-peak in the ionosphere, respectively. A network of ground-based GPS receivers is further used to monitor the spatial distribution of the ionospheric TEC. To explain the plasma density variations, a model is proposed.

  9. Lightning on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarf, F. L.

    1985-01-01

    On the night side of Venus, the plasma wave instrument on the Pioneer-Venus Orbiter frequently detects strong and impulsive low-frequency noise bursts when the local magnetic field is strong and steady and when the field is oriented to point down to the ionosphere. The signals have characteristics of lightning whistlers, and an attempt was made to identify the sources by tracing rays along the B-field from the Orbiter down toward the surface. An extensive data set strongly indicates a clustering of lightning sources near the Beta and Phoebe Regios, with additional significant clustering near the Atla Regio at the eastern edge of Aphrodite Terra. These results suggest that there are localized lightning sources at or near the planetary surface.

  10. Air traffic controller lightning strike.

    PubMed Central

    Spieth, M. E.; Kimura, R. L.; Schryer, T. D.

    1994-01-01

    Andersen Air Force Base in Guam boasts the tallest control tower in the Air Force. In 1986, an air traffic controller was struck by lightning as the bolt proceeded through the tower. Although he received only a backache, the lightning left a hole with surrounding scorch marks on his fatigue shirt and his undershirt. The lightning strike also ignited a portion of the field lighting panel, which caused the runway lights to go out immediately. Lack of a lightning rod is the most likely reason the controller was struck. Proper precautions against lightning strikes can prevent such occupational safety hazards. PMID:7966436

  11. Produce documents and media information. [on lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alzmann, Melanie A.; Miller, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    Lightning data and information were collected from the United States, Germany, France, Brazil, China, and Australia for the dual purposes of compiling a global lightning data base and producing publications on the Marshall Space Flight Center's lightning program. Research covers the history of lightning, the characteristics of a storm, types of lightningdischarges, observations from airplanes and spacecraft, the future fole of planes and spacecraft in lightning studies, lightning detection networks, and the relationships between lightning and rainfall. Descriptions of the Optical Transient Dectector, the Lightning Imaging Sensor, and the Lightning Mapper Sensor are included.

  12. Lightning protection of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and the means that are available to designers and operators to protect against these effects are summarized. The increased use of nonmetallic materials in the structure of aircraft and the constant trend toward using electronic equipment to handle flight-critical control and navigation functions have served as impetus for this study.

  13. Bead lightning formation

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, G.O.; Saba, M.M.F.; Division of Space Geophysics, National Space Research Institute, 12227-010, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP

    2005-09-15

    Formation of beaded structures in triggered lightning discharges is considered in the framework of both magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and hydrodynamic instabilities. It is shown that the space periodicity of the structures can be explained in terms of the kink and sausage type instabilities in a cylindrical discharge with anomalous viscosity. In particular, the fast growth rate of the hydrodynamic Rayleigh-Taylor instability, which is driven by the backflow of air into the channel of the decaying return stroke, dominates the initial evolution of perturbations during the decay of the return current. This instability is responsible for a significant enhancement of the anomalousmore » viscosity above the classical level. Eventually, the damping introduced at the current channel edge by the high level of anomalous viscous stresses defines the final length scale of bead lightning. Later, during the continuing current stage of the lightning flash, the MHD pinch instability persists, although with a much smaller growth rate that can be enhanced in a M-component event. The combined effect of these instabilities may explain various aspects of bead lightning.« less

  14. Lightning protection for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Reference book summarizes current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and means available to designers and operators to protect against effects. Book is available because of increasing use of nonmetallic materials in aircraft structural components and use of electronic equipment for control of critical flight operations and navigation.

  15. The Origin of Lightning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weewish Tree, 1979

    1979-01-01

    A heavenly source gives an orphaned Cherokee boy 12 silver arrows and directs him to kill the chief of the cruel Manitos (spirits). When the boy fails in his mission, the angry Manitos turn him into lightning, condemning him to flash like his silver arrows across the skies forever. (DS)

  16. Science of Ball Lightning (Fire Ball)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsuki, Yoshi-Hiko

    1989-08-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Organizing Committee * Preface * Ball Lightning -- The Continuing Challenge * Hungarian Ball Lightning Observations in 1987 * Nature of Ball Lightning in Japan * Phenomenological and Psychological Analysis of 150 Austrian Ball Lightning Reports * Physical Problems and Physical Properties of Ball Lightning * Statistical Analysis of the Ball Lightning Properties * A Fluid-Dynamical Model for Ball Lightning and Bead Lightning * The Lifetime of Hill's Vortex * Electrical and Radiative Properties of Ball Lightning * The Candle Flame as a Model of Ball Lightning * A Model for Ball Lightning * The High-Temperature Physico-Chemical Processes in the Lightning Storm Atmosphere (A Physico-Chemical Model of Ball Lightning) * New Approach to Ball Lightning * A Calculation of Electric Field of Ball Lightning * The Physical Explanation to the UFO over Xinjiang, Northern West China * Electric Reconnection, Critical Ionization Velocity, Ponderomotive Force, and Their Applications to Triggered and Ball Lightning * The PLASMAK™ Configuration and Ball Lightning * Experimental Research on Ball Lightning * Performance of High-Voltage Test Facility Designed for Investigation of Ball Lightning * List of Participants

  17. Lightning fire research in the Rocky Mountains

    Treesearch

    J. S. Barrows

    1954-01-01

    Lightning is the major cause of fires in Rocky Mountain forests. The lightning fire problem is the prime target of a broad research program now known as Project Skyfire. KEYWORDS: lightning, fire research

  18. Oceanic Lightning versus Continental Lightning: VLF Peak Current Discrepancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, N. A., Jr.; Moore, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Recent analysis of the Vaisala global lightning data set GLD360 suggests that oceanic lightning tends to exhibit larger peak currents than continental lightning (lightning occurring over land). The GLD360 peak current measurement is derived from distant measurements of the electromagnetic fields emanated during the lightning flash. Because the GLD360 peak current measurement is a derived quantity, it is not clear whether the actual peak currents of oceanic lightning tend to be larger, or whether the resulting electromagnetic field strengths tend to be larger. In this paper, we present simulations of VLF signal propagation in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide to demonstrate that the peak field values for oceanic lightning can be significantly stronger than for continental lightning. Modeling simulations are performed using the Long Wave Propagation Capability (LWPC) code to directly evaluate the effect of ground conductivity on VLF signal propagation in the 5-15 kHz band. LWPC is an inherently narrowband propagation code that has been modified to predict the broadband response of the Earth-Ionosphere waveguide to an impulsive lightning flash while preserving the ability of LWPC to account for an inhomogeneous waveguide. Furthermore, we evaluate the effect of return stroke speed on these results.

  19. Lightning mapper sensor design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L. R.; Poon, C. W.; Shelton, J. C.; Laverty, N. P.; Cook, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    World-wide continuous measurement of lightning location, intensity, and time during both day and night is to be provided by the Lightning Mapper (LITMAP) instrument. A technology assessment to determine if the LITMAP requirements can be met using existing sensor and electronic technologies is presented. The baseline concept discussed in this report is a compromise among a number of opposing requirements (e.g., ground resolution versus array size; large field of view versus narrow bandpass filter). The concept provides coverage for more than 80 percent of the lightning events as based on recent above-cloud NASA/U2 lightning measurements.

  20. Lightning protection of distribution lines

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, T.E.; Short, T.A.; Anderson, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reports a study of distribution line lightning performance, using computer simulations of lightning overvoltages. The results of previous investigations are extended with a detailed model of induced voltages from nearby strokes, coupled into a realistic power system model. The paper also considers the energy duty of distribution-class surge arresters exposed to direct strokes. The principal result is that widely separated pole-top arresters can effectively protect a distribution line from induced-voltage flashovers. This means that nearby lightning strokes need not be a significant lightning performance problem for most distribution lines.

  1. FNAS lightning detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, George P.; Alzmann, Melanie A.

    1993-01-01

    A review of past and future investigations into lightning detection from space was incorporated into a brochure. Following the collection of background information, a meeting was held to discuss the format and contents of the proposed documentation. An initial outline was produced and decided upon. Photographs to be included in the brochure were selected. Quotations with respect to printing the document were requested. In the period between 28 March and June 1993, work continued on compiling the text. Towards the end of this contract, a review of the brochure was undertaken by the technical monitor. Photographs were being revised and additional areas of lightning research were being considered for inclusion into the brochure. Included is a copy of the draft (and photographs) which is still being edited by the technical monitor at the time of this report.

  2. RF radiation from lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation from lightning in the RF band from 3-300 MHz were monitored. Radiation in this frequency range is of interest as a potential vehicle for monitoring severe storms and for studying the lightning itself. Simultaneous measurements were made of RF radiation and fast and slow field changes. Continuous analogue recordings with a system having 300 kHz of bandwidth were made together with digital records of selected events (principally return strokes) at greater temporal resolution. The data reveal patterns in the RF radiation for the entire flash which are characteristic of flash type and independent of the frequency of observation. Individual events within the flash also have characteristic RF patterns. Strong radiation occurs during the first return strokes, but delayed about 20 micron sec with respect to the begining of the return stroke; whereas, RF radiation from subsequent return strokes tends to be associated with cloud processes preceding the flash with comparatively little radiation occurring during the return stroke itself.

  3. Lightning Scaling Laws Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccippio, D. J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Scaling laws relating storm electrical generator power (and hence lightning flash rate) to charge transport velocity and storm geometry were originally posed by Vonnegut (1963). These laws were later simplified to yield simple parameterizations for lightning based upon cloud top height, with separate parameterizations derived over land and ocean. It is demonstrated that the most recent ocean parameterization: (1) yields predictions of storm updraft velocity which appear inconsistent with observation, and (2) is formally inconsistent with the theory from which it purports to derive. Revised formulations consistent with Vonnegut's original framework are presented. These demonstrate that Vonnegut's theory is, to first order, consistent with observation. The implications of assuming that flash rate is set by the electrical generator power, rather than the electrical generator current, are examined. The two approaches yield significantly different predictions about the dependence of charge transfer per flash on storm dimensions, which should be empirically testable. The two approaches also differ significantly in their explanation of regional variability in lightning observations.

  4. Statistical Patterns in Natural Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoghzoghy, F. G.; Cohen, M.; Said, R.; Inan, U. S.

    2011-12-01

    Every day millions of lightning flashes occur around the globe but the understanding of this natural phenomenon is still lacking. Fundamentally, lightning is nature's way of destroying charge separation in clouds and restoring electric neutrality. Thus, statistical patterns of lightning activity indicate the scope of these electric discharges and offer a surrogate measure of timescales for charge buildup in thunderclouds. We present a statistical method to investigate spatio-temporal correlations among lightning flashes using National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) stroke data. By monitoring the distribution of lightning activity, we can observe the charging and discharging processes in a given thunderstorm. In particular, within a given storm, the flashes do not occur as a memoryless random process. We introduce the No Flash Zone (NFZ) which results from the suppressed probability of two consecutive neighboring flashes. This effect lasts for tens of seconds and can extend up to 15 km around the location of the initial flash, decaying with time. This suppression effect may be a function of variables such as storm location, storm phase, and stroke peak current. We develop a clustering algorithm, Storm-Locator, which groups strokes into flashes, storm cells, and thunderstorms, and enables us to study lightning and the NFZ in different geographical regions, and for different storms. The recursive algorithm also helps monitor the interaction among spatially displaced storm cells, and can provide more insight into the spatial and temporal impacts of lightning discharges.

  5. Artist's Concept of Jupiter Lightning

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-06-06

    This artist's concept of lightning distribution in Jupiter's northern hemisphere incorporates a JunoCam image with artistic embellishments. Data from NASA's Juno mission indicates that most of the lightning activity on Jupiter is near its poles. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22474

  6. Lightning research: A user's lament

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, C. N.

    1984-01-01

    As a user of devices and procedures for lightning protection, the author is asking the lightning research community for cookbook recipes to help him solve his problems. He is lamenting that realistic devices are scarce and that his mission does not allow him the time nor the wherewithal to bridge the gap between research and applications. A few case histories are presented. In return for their help he is offering researchers a key to lightning technology--the use of the Eastern Test Range and its extensive resources as a proving ground for their experiment in the lightning capital of the United States. A current example is given--a joint lightning characterization project to take place there. Typical resources are listed.

  7. 14 CFR 25.581 - Lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Lightning Protection § 25.581 Lightning protection. (a) The airplane must be protected against catastrophic effects from lightning. (b) For metallic... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lightning protection. 25.581 Section 25.581...

  8. 14 CFR 25.581 - Lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Lightning Protection § 25.581 Lightning protection. (a) The airplane must be protected against catastrophic effects from lightning. (b) For metallic... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lightning protection. 25.581 Section 25.581...

  9. 14 CFR 25.581 - Lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Lightning Protection § 25.581 Lightning protection. (a) The airplane must be protected against catastrophic effects from lightning. (b) For metallic... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lightning protection. 25.581 Section 25.581...

  10. 14 CFR 25.581 - Lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Lightning Protection § 25.581 Lightning protection. (a) The airplane must be protected against catastrophic effects from lightning. (b) For metallic... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lightning protection. 25.581 Section 25.581...

  11. Correlation of satellite lightning observations with ground-based lightning experiments in Florida, Texas and Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgar, B. C.; Turman, B. N.

    1982-01-01

    Satellite observations of lightning were correlated with ground-based measurements of lightning from data bases obtained at three separate sites. The percentage of ground-based observations of lightning that would be seen by an orbiting satellite was determined.

  12. Aircraft Lightning Protection Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    tape or metal braid . The shield. The effect of leakage through the connector can transfer characteristics can seldom be determined by thus be...62 REFERENCES 66 CHAPTER 4 LIGHTNING EFFECTS ON AIRCRAFT 69 4.1 Introduction 69 4.2 Direct Effects on Metal Structures 70 4.2.1 Pitting and Melt...Certification plans 112 5.8 Test Plans 113 REFERENCES 113 Chapter 6 DIRECT EFFECTS PROTECTION 115 6.1 Introduction 115 6.2 Direct Effects on Metal Structures

  13. Lightning NOx Estimates from Space-Based Lightning Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.

    2017-01-01

    The intense heating of air by a lightning channel, and subsequent rapid cooling, leads to the production of lightning nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) as discussed in Chameides [1979]. In turn, the lightning nitrogen oxides (or "LNOx" for brevity) indirectly influences the Earth's climate because the LNOx molecules are important in controlling the concentration of ozone (O3) and hydroxyl radicals (OH) in the atmosphere. Climate is most sensitive to O3 in the upper troposphere, and LNOx is the most important source of NOx in the upper troposphere at tropical and subtropical latitudes; hence, lightning is a useful parameter to monitor for climate assessments. The National Climate Assessment (NCA) program was created in response to the Congressionally-mandated Global Change Research Act (GCRA) of 1990. Thirteen US government organizations participate in the NCA program which examines the effects of global change on the natural environment, human health and welfare, energy production and use, land and water resources, human social systems, transportation, agriculture, and biological diversity. The NCA focuses on natural and human-induced trends in global change, and projects major trends 25 to 100 years out. In support of the NCA, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to assess lightning-climate inter-relationships. This activity applies a variety of NASA assets to monitor in detail the changes in both the characteristics of ground- and space- based lightning observations as they pertain to changes in climate. In particular, changes in lightning characteristics over the conterminous US (CONUS) continue to be examined by this author using data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Lightning Imaging Sensor. In this study, preliminary estimates of LNOx trends derived from TRMM/LIS lightning optical energy observations in the 17 yr period 1998-2014 are provided. This represents an important first step in testing the ability to make remote retrievals

  14. Using Total Lightning Observations to Enhance Lightning Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Lightning is often the underrated threat faced by the public when it comes to dangerous weather phenomena. Typically, larger scale events such as floods, hurricanes, and tornadoes receive the vast majority of attention by both the general population and the media. This comes from the fact that these phenomena are large, longer lasting, can impact a large swath of society at one time, and are dangerous events. The threat of lightning is far more isolated on a case by case basis, although millions of cloud-to-ground lightning strikes hit this United States each year. While attention is given to larger meteorological events, lightning is the second leading cause of weather related deaths in the United States. This information raises the question of what steps can be taken to improve lightning safety. Already, the meteorological community s understanding of lightning has increased over the last 20 years. Lightning safety is now better addressed with the National Weather Service s access to the National Lightning Detection Network data and enhanced wording in their severe weather warnings. Also, local groups and organizations are working to improve public awareness of lightning safety with easy phrases to remember, such as "When Thunder Roars, Go Indoors." The impacts can be seen in the greater array of contingency plans, from airports to sports stadiums, addressing the threat of lightning. Improvements can still be made and newer technologies may offer new tools as we look towards the future. One of these tools is a network of sensors called a lightning mapping array (LMA). Several of these networks exist across the United States. NASA s Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center (SPoRT), part of the Marshall Spaceflight Center, has access to three of these networks from Huntsville, Alabama, the Kennedy Space Center, and Washington D.C. The SPoRT program s mission is to help transition unique products and observations into the operational forecast environment

  15. Lightning protection of wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodd, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    Possible damages to wind turbine components due to lightning strikes are discussed and means to prevent the damage are presented. A low resistance path to the ground is noted to be essential for any turbine system, including metal paths on nonmetal blades to conduct the strike. Surge arrestors are necessary to protect against overvoltages both from utility lines in normal operation and against lightning damage to control equipment and contactors in the generator. MOS structures are susceptible to static discharge injury, as are other semiconductor devices, and must be protected by the presence of static protection circuitry. It is recommended that the electronics be analyzed for the circuit transient response to a lightning waveform, to induced and dc current injection, that input/output leads be shielded, everything be grounded, and lightning-resistant components be chosen early in the design phase.

  16. Lightning protection of wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, C. W.

    1982-05-01

    Possible damages to wind turbine components due to lightning strikes are discussed and means to prevent the damage are presented. A low resistance path to the ground is noted to be essential for any turbine system, including metal paths on nonmetal blades to conduct the strike. Surge arrestors are necessary to protect against overvoltages both from utility lines in normal operation and against lightning damage to control equipment and contactors in the generator. MOS structures are susceptible to static discharge injury, as are other semiconductor devices, and must be protected by the presence of static protection circuitry. It is recommended that the electronics be analyzed for the circuit transient response to a lightning waveform, to induced and dc current injection, that input/output leads be shielded, everything be grounded, and lightning-resistant components be chosen early in the design phase.

  17. Camp Blanding Lightning Mapping Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee,Richard; Christian, Hugh; Bailey, Jeffrey; Hall, John; Uman, Martin; Jordan, Doug; Krehbiel, Paul; Rison, William; Edens, Harald

    2011-01-01

    A seven station, short base-line Lightning Mapping Array was installed at the Camp Blanding International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) during April 2011. This network will support science investigations of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs) and lightning initiation using rocket triggered lightning at the ICLRT. The network operations and data processing will be carried out through a close collaboration between several organizations, including the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, University of Alabama in Huntsville, University of Florida, and New Mexico Tech. The deployment was sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The network does not have real-time data dissemination. Description, status and plans will be discussed.

  18. Lightning strike protection of composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagné, Martin; Therriault, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Aircraft structures are being redesigned to use fiber-reinforced composites mainly due to their high specific stiffness and strength. One of the main drawbacks from changing from electrically conductive metals to insulating or semi-conducting composites is the higher vulnerability of the aircraft to lightning strike damage. The current protection approach consists of bonding a metal mesh to the surface of the composite structure, but this weight increase negatively impact the fuel efficiency. This review paper presents an overview of the lightning strike problematic, the regulations, the lightning damage to composite, the current protection solutions and other material or technology alternatives. Advanced materials such as polymer-based nanocomposites and carbon nanotube buckypapers are promising candidates for lightweight lightning strike protection technology.

  19. 2016 T Division Lightning Talks

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, Marilyn Leann; Adams, Luke Clyde; Ferre, Gregoire Robing

    These are the slides for all of the 2016 T Division lightning talks. There are 350 pages worth of slides from different presentations, all of which cover different topics within the theoretical division at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL).

  20. Lightning in the Protoplanetary Nebula?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Love, Stanley G.

    1997-01-01

    Lightning in the protoplanetary nebula has been proposed as a mechanism for creating meteoritic chondrules: enigmatic mm-sized silicate spheres formed in the nebula by the brief melting of cold precursors.

  1. 2017 T Division Lightning Talks

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, Marilyn Leann; Abeywardhana, Jayalath AMM; Adams, Colin Mackenzie

    All members of the T Division Community, students, staff members, group leaders, division management, and other interested individuals are invited to come and support the following student(s) as they present their Lightning Talks.

  2. Characterization of infrasound from lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assink, J. D.; Evers, L. G.; Holleman, I.; Paulssen, H.

    2008-08-01

    During thunderstorm activity in the Netherlands, electromagnetic and infrasonic signals are emitted due to the process of lightning and thunder. It is shown that correlating infrasound detections with results from a electromagnetic lightning detection network is successful up to distances of 50 km from the infrasound array. Infrasound recordings clearly show blastwave characteristics which can be related to cloud-ground discharges, with a dominant frequency between 1-5 Hz. Amplitude measurements of CG discharges can partly be explained by the beam pattern of a line source with a dominant frequency of 3.9 Hz, up to a distance of 20 km. The ability to measure lightning activity with infrasound arrays has both positive and negative implications for CTBT verification purposes. As a scientific application, lightning studies can benefit from the worldwide infrasound verification system.

  3. Neurologic complications of lightning injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Cherington, M; Yarnell, P R; London, S F

    1995-01-01

    Over the past ten years, we have cared for 13 patients who suffered serious neurologic complications after being struck by lightning. The spectrum of neurologic lesions includes the entire neuraxis from the cerebral hemispheres to the peripheral nerves. We describe these various neurologic disorders with regard to the site of the lesion, severity of the deficit, and the outcome. Damage to the nervous system can be a serious problem for patients struck by lightning. Fatalities are associated with hypoxic encephalopathy in patients who suffered cardiac arrests. Patients with spinal cord lesions are likely to have permanent sequelae and paralysis. New technology for detecting lightning with wideband magnetic direction finders is useful in establishing lightning-flash densities in each state. Florida and the Gulf Coast states have the highest densities. Colorado and the Rocky Mountain states have the next highest. Images PMID:7785254

  4. Acoustic localization of triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arechiga, Rene O.; Johnson, Jeffrey B.; Edens, Harald E.; Thomas, Ronald J.; Rison, William

    2011-05-01

    We use acoustic (3.3-500 Hz) arrays to locate local (<20 km) thunder produced by triggered lightning in the Magdalena Mountains of central New Mexico. The locations of the thunder sources are determined by the array back azimuth and the elapsed time since discharge of the lightning flash. We compare the acoustic source locations with those obtained by the Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) from Langmuir Laboratory, which is capable of accurately locating the lightning channels. To estimate the location accuracy of the acoustic array we performed Monte Carlo simulations and measured the distance (nearest neighbors) between acoustic and LMA sources. For close sources (<5 km) the mean nearest-neighbors distance was 185 m compared to 100 m predicted by the Monte Carlo analysis. For far distances (>6 km) the error increases to 800 m for the nearest neighbors and 650 m for the Monte Carlo analysis. This work shows that thunder sources can be accurately located using acoustic signals.

  5. Ground Optical Lightning Detector (GOLD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, John, Jr.; Simmons, David

    1990-01-01

    A photometer developed to characterize lightning from the ground is discussed. The detector and the electronic signal processing and data storage systems are presented along with field data measured by the system. The discussion will include improvements that will be incorporated to enhance the measurement of lightning and the data storage capability to record for many days without human involvement. Finally, the calibration of the GOLD system is presented.

  6. Fatal lightning strikes in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Murty, O P; Kian, Chong Kah; Ari Husin, Mohammed Husrul; Nanta Kumar, Ranjeev Kumar; Mohammed Yusuf, Wan Yuhana W

    2009-09-01

    Lightning strike is a natural phenomenon with potentially devastating effects and represents one of the important causes of deaths from environmental phenomena. Almost every organ system may be affected as lightning current passes through the human body taking the shortest pathways between the contact points. A 10 years retrospective study (1996-2005) was conducted at University Hospital Kuala Lumpur (20 cases) also including cases during last 3 years from Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah, Klang (7 cases) from the autopsy reports at Forensic Pathology Units of these 2 hospitals. Both these hospitals are attached to University of Malaya. There were 27 fatal cases of lightning strike with male preponderance(92.59%) and male to female ratio of 12.5:1. Majority of victims of lightning strike were from the age group between 30 and 39 years old. Most of the victims were foreign workers. Indonesians workers contributed to 59.26% of overall cases. Majority of them were construction workers who attributed i.e.11 of 27 cases (40.74%). Most of the victims were brought in dead (37.04%). In majority of the cases the lightning incidence occurred in the evenings, with the frequency of 15 of 27 cases (62.5%). The month of December represented with the highest number of cases (5 cases of 23 cases); 2004 had the highest incidence of lightning strike which was 5 (19.23%). Lightning strike incidence occurred when victims had taken shelter (25.9%) under trees or shades. Lightning strike in open areas occurred in 10 of 27 cases (37.0%). Head and neck were the most commonly affected sites with the incidence of 77.78% and 74% respectively in all the victims. Only 29.63% of the cases presented with ear bleeding.

  7. Lightning injuries during snowy conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cherington, M.; Breed, D. W.; Yarnell, P. R.; Smith, W. E.

    1998-01-01

    Skiers and other snow sports enthusiasts can become lightning casualties. Two such accidents are reported, one being fatal. There are fewer warning signals of impending lightning strikes in winter-like conditions. However, outdoor activists should be aware of at least two suspicious clues: the appearance of convective clouds, and the presence of graupel (snow pellets) during precipitation. 




 PMID:9865407

  8. Lightning over Equatorial Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These two images were taken 9 seconds apart as the STS-97 Space Shuttle flew over equatorial Africa east of Lake Volta on December 11, 2000. The top of the large thunderstorm, roughly 20 km across, is illuminated by a full moon and frequent bursts of lightning. Because the Space Shuttle travels at about 7 km/sec, the astronaut perspectives on this storm system becomes more oblique over the 9-second interval between photographs. The images were taken with a Nikon 35 mm camera equipped with a 400 mm lens and high-speed (800 ISO) color negative film. Images are STS097-351-9 and STS097-351-12, provided and archived by the Earth Science and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts can be viewed at NASA-JSC's Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth at http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/

  9. Lightning discharge protection rod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Charles F., Jr. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A system for protecting an in-air vehicle from damage due to a lighning strike is disclosed. It is an extremely simple device consisting of a sacrificial graphite composite rod, approximately the diameter of a pencil with a length of about five inches. The sacrificial rod is constructed with the graphite fibers running axially within the rod in a manner that best provides a path of conduction axially from the trailing edge of an aircraft to the trailing end of the rod. The sacrificial rod is inserted into an attachment hole machined into trailing edges of aircraft flight surfaces, such as a vertical fin cap and attached with adhesive in a manner not prohibiting the conduction path between the rod and the aircraft. The trailing end of the rod may be tapered for aerodynamic and esthetic requirements. This rod is sacrificial but has the capability to sustain several lightning strikes and still provide protection.

  10. Electromagnetic Methods of Lightning Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakov, V. A.

    2013-11-01

    Both cloud-to-ground and cloud lightning discharges involve a number of processes that produce electromagnetic field signatures in different regions of the spectrum. Salient characteristics of measured wideband electric and magnetic fields generated by various lightning processes at distances ranging from tens to a few hundreds of kilometers (when at least the initial part of the signal is essentially radiation while being not influenced by ionospheric reflections) are reviewed. An overview of the various lightning locating techniques, including magnetic direction finding, time-of-arrival technique, and interferometry, is given. Lightning location on global scale, when radio-frequency electromagnetic signals are dominated by ionospheric reflections, is also considered. Lightning locating system performance characteristics, including flash and stroke detection efficiencies, percentage of misclassified events, location accuracy, and peak current estimation errors, are discussed. Both cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes are considered. Representative examples of modern lightning locating systems are reviewed. Besides general characterization of each system, the available information on its performance characteristics is given with emphasis on those based on formal ground-truth studies published in the peer-reviewed literature.

  11. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    PubMed

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The North Alabama Lightning Warning Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buechler, Dennis E.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Stano, G. T.

    2009-01-01

    The North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array NALMA has been collecting total lightning data on storms in the Tennessee Valley region since 2001. Forecasters from nearby National Weather Service (NWS) offices have been ingesting this data for display with other AWIPS products. The current lightning product used by the offices is the lightning source density plot. The new product provides a probabalistic, short-term, graphical forecast of the probability of lightning activity occurring at 5 min intervals over the next 30 minutes . One of the uses of the current lightning source density product by the Huntsville National Weather Service Office is to identify areas of potential for cloud-to-ground flashes based on where LMA total lightning is occurring. This product quantifies that observation. The Lightning Warning Product is derived from total lightning observations from the Washington, D.C. (DCLMA) and North Alabama Lightning Mapping Arrays and cloud-to-ground lightning flashes detected by the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). Probability predictions are provided for both intracloud and cloud-to-ground flashes. The gridded product can be displayed on AWIPS workstations in a manner similar to that of the lightning source density product.

  13. Measuring Method for Lightning Channel Temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Zhang, J; Chen, L; Xue, Q; Zhu, R

    2016-09-26

    In this paper, we demonstrate the temperature of lightning channel utilizing the theory of lightning spectra and the model of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The impulse current generator platform (ICGS) was used to simulate the lightning discharge channel, and the spectral energy of infrared spectroscopy (930 nm) and the visible spectroscopy (648.2 nm) of the simulated lightning has been calculated. Results indicate that the peaks of luminous intensity of both infrared and visible spectra increase with the lightning current intensity in range of 5-50 kA. Based on the results, the temperature of the lightning channel is derived to be 6140.8-10424 K. Moreover, the temperature of the channel is approximately exponential to the lightning current intensity, which shows good agreement with that of the natural lightning cases.

  14. Measuring Method for Lightning Channel Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Li, X.; Zhang, J.; Chen, L.; Xue, Q.; Zhu, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the temperature of lightning channel utilizing the theory of lightning spectra and the model of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The impulse current generator platform (ICGS) was used to simulate the lightning discharge channel, and the spectral energy of infrared spectroscopy (930 nm) and the visible spectroscopy (648.2 nm) of the simulated lightning has been calculated. Results indicate that the peaks of luminous intensity of both infrared and visible spectra increase with the lightning current intensity in range of 5–50 kA. Based on the results, the temperature of the lightning channel is derived to be 6140.8–10424 K. Moreover, the temperature of the channel is approximately exponential to the lightning current intensity, which shows good agreement with that of the natural lightning cases. PMID:27665937

  15. ScienceCast 88: Dark Lightning

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-01-07

    Researchers studying thunderstorms have made a surprising discovery: The lightning we see with our eyes has a dark competitor that discharges storm clouds and flings antimatter into space. Scientists are scrambling to understand "dark lightning."

  16. Measuring Method for Lightning Channel Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Zhang, J.; Chen, L.; Xue, Q.; Zhu, R.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the temperature of lightning channel utilizing the theory of lightning spectra and the model of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The impulse current generator platform (ICGS) was used to simulate the lightning discharge channel, and the spectral energy of infrared spectroscopy (930 nm) and the visible spectroscopy (648.2 nm) of the simulated lightning has been calculated. Results indicate that the peaks of luminous intensity of both infrared and visible spectra increase with the lightning current intensity in range of 5-50 kA. Based on the results, the temperature of the lightning channel is derived to be 6140.8-10424 K. Moreover, the temperature of the channel is approximately exponential to the lightning current intensity, which shows good agreement with that of the natural lightning cases.

  17. Lightning NOx and Impacts on Air Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Lee T.

    2016-01-01

    Lightning generates relatively large but uncertain quantities of nitrogen oxides, critical precursors for ozone and hydroxyl radical (OH), the primary tropospheric oxidants. Lightning nitrogen oxide strongly influences background ozone and OH due to high ozone production efficiencies in the free troposphere, effecting small but non-negligible contributions to surface pollutant concentrations. Lightning globally contributes 3-4 ppbv of simulated annual-mean policy-relevant background (PRB) surface ozone, comprised of local, regional, and hemispheric components, and up to 18 ppbv during individual events. Feedbacks via methane may counter some of these effects on decadal time scales. Lightning contributes approximately 1 percent to annual-mean surface particulate matter, as a direct precursor and by promoting faster oxidation of other precursors. Lightning also ignites wildfires and contributes to nitrogen deposition. Urban pollution influences lightning itself, with implications for regional lightning-nitrogen oxide production and feedbacks on downwind surface pollution. How lightning emissions will change in a warming world remains uncertain.

  18. Multivariate Statistical Inference of Lightning Occurrence, and Using Lightning Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccippio, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    Two classes of multivariate statistical inference using TRMM Lightning Imaging Sensor, Precipitation Radar, and Microwave Imager observation are studied, using nonlinear classification neural networks as inferential tools. The very large and globally representative data sample provided by TRMM allows both training and validation (without overfitting) of neural networks with many degrees of freedom. In the first study, the flashing / or flashing condition of storm complexes is diagnosed using radar, passive microwave and/or environmental observations as neural network inputs. The diagnostic skill of these simple lightning/no-lightning classifiers can be quite high, over land (above 80% Probability of Detection; below 20% False Alarm Rate). In the second, passive microwave and lightning observations are used to diagnose radar reflectivity vertical structure. A priori diagnosis of hydrometeor vertical structure is highly important for improved rainfall retrieval from either orbital radars (e.g., the future Global Precipitation Mission "mothership") or radiometers (e.g., operational SSM/I and future Global Precipitation Mission passive microwave constellation platforms), we explore the incremental benefit to such diagnosis provided by lightning observations.

  19. Relating lightning data to fire occurrence data

    Treesearch

    Frank H. Koch

    2009-01-01

    Lightning disturbance can affect forest health at various scales. Lightning strikes may kill or weaken individual trees. Lightning-damaged trees may in turn function as epicenters of pest outbreaks in forest stands, as is the case with the southern pine beetle and other bark beetles (Rykiel and others 1988).

  20. 14 CFR 25.581 - Lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lightning protection. 25.581 Section 25.581 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Lightning Protection § 25.581 Lightning protection. (a...

  1. Detection of VHF lightning from GPS orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Suszcynsky, D. M.

    2003-01-01

    Satellite-based VHF' lightning detection is characterized at GPS orbit by using a VHF receiver system recently launched on the GPS SVN 54 satellite. Collected lightning triggers consist of Narrow Bipolar Events (80%) and strong negative return strokes (20%). The results are used to evaluate the performance of a future GPS-satellite-based VHF global lightning monitor.

  2. 14 CFR 420.71 - Lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... path connecting an air terminal to an earth electrode system. (iii) Earth electrode system. An earth... to the initiation of explosives by lightning. (1) Elements of a lighting protection system. Unless an... facilities shall have a lightning protection system to ensure explosives are not initiated by lightning. A...

  3. 14 CFR 420.71 - Lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... path connecting an air terminal to an earth electrode system. (iii) Earth electrode system. An earth... to the initiation of explosives by lightning. (1) Elements of a lighting protection system. Unless an... facilities shall have a lightning protection system to ensure explosives are not initiated by lightning. A...

  4. 14 CFR 420.71 - Lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... path connecting an air terminal to an earth electrode system. (iii) Earth electrode system. An earth... to the initiation of explosives by lightning. (1) Elements of a lighting protection system. Unless an... facilities shall have a lightning protection system to ensure explosives are not initiated by lightning. A...

  5. 14 CFR 420.71 - Lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... path connecting an air terminal to an earth electrode system. (iii) Earth electrode system. An earth... to the initiation of explosives by lightning. (1) Elements of a lighting protection system. Unless an... facilities shall have a lightning protection system to ensure explosives are not initiated by lightning. A...

  6. Tropic lightning: myth or menace?

    PubMed

    McCarthy, John

    2014-11-01

    Lightning is one of the leading causes of death related to environmental disaster. Of all lightning fatalities documented between 2006 and 2012, leisure activities contributed the largest proportion of deaths, with water-associated, sports, and camping being the most common. Despite the prevalence of these activities throughout the islands, Hawai'i has had zero documented lightning fatalities since weather data tracking was initiated in 1959. There is a common misconception that lightning does not strike the ground in Hawai'i. This myth may contribute to a potentially dangerous false sense of security, and recognition of warning signs and risk factor modification remain the most important prevention strategies. Lightning damage occurs on a spectrum, from minor burns to multi-organ dysfunction. After injury, initial treatment should focus on "reverse triage" and immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation when indicated, followed by transfer to a healthcare facility. Definitive treatment entails monitoring and management of potential sequelae, to include cardiovascular, neurologic, dermatologic, ophthalmologic, audiovestibular, and psychiatric complications.

  7. Lightning protection of distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darveniza, M.; Uman, M. A.

    1982-09-01

    Research work on the lightning protection of distribution systems is described. The rationale behind the planning of the first major phase of the work - the field experiments conducted in the Tampa Bay area during August 1978 and July to September 1979 is explained. The aims of the field work were to characterize lightning in the Tampa Bay area, and to identify the lightning parameters associated with the occurrence of line outages and equipment damage on the distribution systems of the participating utilities. The equipment developed for these studies is fully described. The field work provided: general data on lightning - e.g., electric and magnetic fields of cloud and ground flashes; data from automated monitoring of lightning activity; stroke current waveshapes and peak currents measured at distribution arresters; and line outage and equipment damage on 13 kV networks in the Tampa Bay area. Computer aided analyses were required to collate and to process the accumulated data. The computer programs developed for this work are described.

  8. Positive lightning and severe weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, C.; Murphy, B.

    2003-04-01

    In recent years researchers have noticed that severe weather (tornados, hail and damaging winds) are closely related to the amount of positive lightning occurring in thunderstorms. On 4 July 1999, a severe derecho (wind storm) caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators for short-term forecasts of severe weather.

  9. Modern Protection Against Lightning Strikes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C.

    2005-05-01

    The application of science to provide protection against lightning strikes began around 1750 when Benjamin Franklin who invented the lightning rod in an effort to discharge thunderclouds. Instead of preventing lightning as he expected, his rods have been quite successful as strike receptors, intercepting cloud-to ground discharges and conducting them to Earth without damage to the structures on which they are mounted. In the years since Franklin's invention there has been little attention paid to the rod configuration that best serves as a strike receptor but Franklin's original ideas continue to be rediscovered and promoted. Recent measurements of the responses of variously configured rods to nearby strikes indicate that sharp-tipped rods are not the optimum configuration to serve as strike receptors since the ionization of the air around their tips limits the strength of the local electric fields created by an approaching lightning leader. In these experiments, fourteen blunt-tipped rods exposed in strike-reception competitions with nearby sharp-tipped rods were struck by lightning but none of the sharp-tipped rods were struck.

  10. Tropic Lightning: Myth or Menace?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lightning is one of the leading causes of death related to environmental disaster. Of all lightning fatalities documented between 2006 and 2012, leisure activities contributed the largest proportion of deaths, with water-associated, sports, and camping being the most common. Despite the prevalence of these activities throughout the islands, Hawai‘i has had zero documented lightning fatalities since weather data tracking was initiated in 1959. There is a common misconception that lightning does not strike the ground in Hawai‘i. This myth may contribute to a potentially dangerous false sense of security, and recognition of warning signs and risk factor modification remain the most important prevention strategies. Lightning damage occurs on a spectrum, from minor burns to multi-organ dysfunction. After injury, initial treatment should focus on “reverse triage” and immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation when indicated, followed by transfer to a healthcare facility. Definitive treatment entails monitoring and management of potential sequelae, to include cardiovascular, neurologic, dermatologic, ophthalmologic, audiovestibular, and psychiatric complications. PMID:25478304

  11. Lightning-channel conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, R.; da Silva, C. L.; Eack, K.; Edens, H. E.; Harley, J.; McHarg, M.; Contreras Vidal, L.

    2017-12-01

    The concept of "conditioning" has several distinct applications in understanding lightning. It is commonly associated to the greater speed of dart-leaders vs. stepped leaders and the retrace of a cloud-to-ground channel by later return strokes. We will showadditional examples of conditioning: (A) High-speed videos of triggered flashes show "dark" periods of up to 50 ms between rebrightenings of an existing channel. (B) Interferometer (INTF) images of intra-cloud (IC) flashes demonstrate that electric-field "K-changes" correspond to rapid propagation of RF impulses along a previously formed channel separated by up to 20 ms with little RF emission on that channel. (C) Further, INTF images (like the one below) frequently show that the initial IC channel is more branched and "fuzzier'' than its later incarnations. Also, we contrast high-speed video, INTF observations, and spectroscopic measurements with possible physical mechanisms that can explain how channel conditioning guides and facilitates dart leader propagation. These mechanisms include: (1) a plasmochemical effect where electrons are stored in negative ions and released during the dart leader propagation via field-induced detachment; (2) small-amplitude residual currents that can maintain electrical conductivity; and (3) slow heat conduction cooling of plasma owing to channel expansion dynamics.

  12. New Physical Mechanism for Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artekha, Sergey N.; Belyan, Andrey V.

    2018-02-01

    The article is devoted to electromagnetic phenomena in the atmosphere. The set of experimental data on the thunderstorm activity is analyzed. It helps to identify a possible physical mechanism of lightning flashes. This mechanism can involve the formation of metallic bonds in thunderclouds. The analysis of the problem is performed at a microphysical level within the framework of quantum mechanics. The mechanism of appearance of metallic conductivity includes the resonant tunneling of electrons along resonance-percolation trajectories. Such bonds allow the charges from the vast cloud charged subsystems concentrate quickly in lightning channel. The formation of metal bonds in the thunderstorm cloudiness is described as the second-order phase transition. A successive mechanism for the process of formation and development of the lightning channel is suggested. This mechanism is associated with the change in the orientation of crystals in growing electric field. Possible consequences of the quantum-mechanical mechanism under discussion are compared with the results of observations.

  13. Electro-Optic Lightning Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, Willliam; Solakiewicz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The design, alignment, calibration, and field deployment of a solid-state lightning detector is described. The primary sensing component of the detector is a potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) electro-optic crystal that is attached in series to a flat plate aluminum antenna; the antenna is exposed to the ambient thundercloud electric field. A semiconductor laser diode (lambda = 685 nm), polarizing optics, and the crystal are arranged in a Pockels cell configuration. Lightning-caused electric field changes are then related to small changes in the transmission of laser light through the optical cell. Several hundred lightning electric field change excursions were recorded during 4 thunderstorms that occurred in the summer of 1998 at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Northern Alabama.

  14. Electro-optic Lightning Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.; Solakiewicz, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    The design, alignment, calibration, and field deployment of a solid-state lightning detector is described. The primary sensing component of the detector is a potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) electro-optic crystal that is attached in series to a flat plate aluminum antenna; the antenna is exposed to the ambient thundercloud electric field. A semiconductor laser diode (lambda = 685 nm), polarizing optics, and the crystal are arranged in a Pockels cell configuration. Lightning-caused electric field changes are related to small changes in the transmission of laser light through the optical cell. Several hundred lightning electric field change excursions were recorded during five thunderstorms that occurred in the summer of 1998 at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in northern Alabama.

  15. NASA Manned Launch Vehicle Lightning Protection Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCollum, Matthew B.; Jones, Steven R.; Mack, Jonathan D.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) relied heavily on lightning avoidance to protect launch vehicles and crew from lightning effects. As NASA transitions from the Space Shuttle to the new Constellation family of launch vehicles and spacecraft, NASA engineers are imposing design and construction standards on the spacecraft and launch vehicles to withstand both the direct and indirect effects of lightning. A review of current Space Shuttle lightning constraints and protection methodology will be presented, as well as a historical review of Space Shuttle lightning requirements and design. The Space Shuttle lightning requirements document, NSTS 07636, Lightning Protection, Test and Analysis Requirements, (originally published as document number JSC 07636, Lightning Protection Criteria Document) was developed in response to the Apollo 12 lightning event and other experiences with NASA and the Department of Defense launch vehicles. This document defined the lightning environment, vehicle protection requirements, and design guidelines for meeting the requirements. The criteria developed in JSC 07636 were a precursor to the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) lightning standards. These SAE standards, along with Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) DO-160, Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment, are the basis for the current Constellation lightning design requirements. The development and derivation of these requirements will be presented. As budget and schedule constraints hampered lightning protection design and verification efforts, the Space Shuttle elements waived the design requirements and relied on lightning avoidance in the form of launch commit criteria (LCC) constraints and a catenary wire system for lightning protection at the launch pads. A better understanding of the lightning environment has highlighted the vulnerability of the protection schemes and associated risk to the vehicle

  16. Filigree burn of lightning: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Virendra

    2007-04-01

    Lightning is a powerful natural electrostatic discharge produced during a thunderstorm. The electric current passing through the discharge channels is direct with a potential of 1000 million volts or more. Lightning can kill or injure a person by a direct strike, a side-flash, or conduction through another object. Lightning can cause a variety of injuries in the skin and the cardiovascular, neurological and ophthalmic systems. Filigree burn of lightning is a superficial burn and very rare. Two cases of death from lightning which have this rare finding are reported and discussed.

  17. Lightning Effects in the Payload Changeout Room

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Garland L.; Fisher, Franklin A.; Collier, Richard S.; Medelius, Pedro J.

    1997-01-01

    Analytical and empirical studies have been performed to provide better understanding of the electromagnetic environment inside the Payload Changeout Room and Orbiter payload bay resulting from lightning strikes to the launch pad lightning protection system. The analytical studies consisted of physical and mathematical modeling of the pad structure and the Payload Changeout Room. Empirical testing was performed using a lightning simulator to simulate controlled (8 kA) lightning strikes to the catenary wire lightning protection system. In addition to the analyses and testing listed above, an analysis of the configuration with the vehicle present was conducted, in lieu of testing, by the Finite Difference, Time Domain method.

  18. Electromagnetic sensors for general lightning application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, C. E.; Breen, E. L.; Onell, J. P.; Moore, C. B.; Sower, G. D.

    1980-01-01

    Electromagnetic sensors for general lightning applications in measuring environment are discussed as well as system response to the environment. This includes electric and magnetic fields, surface current and charge densities, and currents on conductors. Many EMP sensors are directly applicable to lightning measurements, but there are some special cases of lightning measurements involving direct strikes which require special design considerations for the sensors. The sensors and instrumentation used by NMIMT in collecting data on lightning at South Baldy peak in central New Mexico during the 1978 and 1979 lightning seasons are also discussed. The Langmuir Laboratory facilities and details of the underground shielded instrumentation room and recording equipment are presented.

  19. Cardiac Effects of Lightning Strikes

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sarosh; Ahmad, Mahmood; Fayed, Hossam; Bogle, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Lightning strikes are a common and leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Multiple organ systems can be involved, though the effects of the electrical current on the cardiovascular system are one of the main modes leading to cardiorespiratory arrest in these patients. Cardiac effects of lightning strikes can be transient or persistent, and include benign or life-threatening arrhythmias, inappropriate therapies from cardiac implantable electronic devices, cardiac ischaemia, myocardial contusion, pericardial disease, aortic injury, as well as cardiomyopathy with associated ventricular failure. Prolonged resuscitation can lead to favourable outcomes especially in young and previously healthy victims. PMID:29018518

  20. Lightning and Life on Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimmer, Paul; Ardaseva, Aleksandra; Hodosan, Gabriella; Helling, Christiane

    2016-07-01

    Miller and Urey performed a ground-breaking experiment, in which they discovered that electric discharges through a low redox ratio gas of methane, ammonia, water vapor and hydrogen produced a variety of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. Since this experiment, there has been significant interest on the connection between lightning chemistry and the origin of life. Investigation into the atmosphere of the Early Earth has generated a serious challenge for this project, as it has been determined both that Earth's early atmosphere was likely dominated by carbon dioxide and molecular nitrogen with only small amounts of hydrogen, having a very high redox ratio, and that discharges in gases with high redox ratios fail to yield more than trace amounts of biologically relevant products. This challenge has motivated several origin of life researchers to abandon lightning chemistry, and to concentrate on other pathways for prebiotic synthesis. The discovery of over 2000 exoplanets includes a handful of rocky planets within the habitable zones around their host stars. These planets can be viewed as remote laboratories in which efficient lightning driven prebiotic synthesis may take place. This is because many of these rocky exoplanets, called super-Earths, have masses significantly greater than that of Earth. This higher mass would allow them to more retain greater amounts hydrogen within their atmosphere, reducing the redox ratio. Discharges in super-Earth atmospheres can therefore result in a significant yield of amino acids. In this talk, I will discuss new work on what lightning might look like on exoplanets, and on lightning driven chemistry on super-Earths. Using a chemical kinetics model for a super-Earth atmosphere with smaller redox ratios, I will show that in the presence of lightning, the production of the amino acid glycine is enhanced up to a certain point, but with very low redox ratios, the production of glycine is again inhibited. I will conclude

  1. Total Lightning as an Indicator of Mesocyclone Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, Sarah M.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Apparent relationship between total lightning (in-cloud and cloud to ground) and severe weather suggests its operational utility. Goal of fusion of total lightning with proven tools (i.e., radar lightning algorithms. Preliminary work here investigates circulation from Weather Suveilance Radar- 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) coupled with total lightning data from Lightning Mapping Arrays.

  2. Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, FAA CV-580, and Transall C-180 flight projects, SAE ARP5412, and the European ILDAS Program. The primary focus is to capture airframe current waveforms during attachment, but may also consider pre and post-attachment current, electric field, and radiated field phenomena. New sensor technologies are being developed for this system, including a fiber-optic Faraday polarization sensor that measures lightning current waveforms from DC to over several Megahertz, and has dynamic range covering hundreds-of-volts to tens-of-thousands-of-volts. A study of the electromagnetic emission spectrum of lightning (including radio wave, microwave, optical, X-Rays and Gamma-Rays), and a compilation of aircraft transfer-function data (including composite aircraft) are included, to aid in the development of other new lightning environment sensors, their placement on-board research aircraft, and triggering of the onboard instrumentation system. The instrumentation system will leverage recent advances in high-speed, high dynamic range, deep memory data acquisition equipment, and fiber-optic interconnect.

  3. Laboratory-produced ball lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golka, Robert K., Jr.

    1994-05-01

    For 25 years I have actively been searching for the true nature of ball lightning and attempting to reproduce it at will in the laboratory. As one might expect, many unidentified lights in the atmosphere have been called ball lightning, including Texas Maffa lights (automobile headlights), flying saucers (UFOs), swamp gas in Ann Arbor, Michigan, etc. For 15 years I thought ball lightning was strictly a high-voltage phenomenon. It was not until 1984 when I was short-circuiting the electrical output of a diesel electric railroad locomotive that I realized that the phenomenon was related more to a high current. Although I am hoping for some other types of ball lightning to emerge such as strictly electrostatic-electromagnetic manifestations, I have been unlucky in finding laboratory provable evidence. Cavity-formed plasmodes can be made by putting a 2-inch burning candle in a home kitchen microwave oven. The plasmodes float around for as long as the microwave energy is present.

  4. Measurement of RF lightning emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lott, G. K., Jr.; Honnell, M. A.; Shumpert, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    A lightning radio emission observation laboratory is described. The signals observed and recorded include HF, VHF and UHF radio emissions, optical signature, electric field measurements, and thunder. The objectives of the station, the equipment used, and the recording methods are discussed.

  5. Jovian Lightning and Moonlit Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Jovian lightning and moonlit clouds. These two images, taken 75 minutes apart, show lightning storms on the night side of Jupiter along with clouds dimly lit by moonlight from Io, Jupiter's closest moon. The images were taken in visible light and are displayed in shades of red. The images used an exposure time of about one minute, and were taken when the spacecraft was on the opposite side of Jupiter from the Earth and Sun. Bright storms are present at two latitudes in the left image, and at three latitudes in the right image. Each storm was made visible by multiple lightning strikes during the exposure. Other Galileo images were deliberately scanned from east to west in order to separate individual flashes. The images show that Jovian and terrestrial lightning storms have similar flash rates, but that Jovian lightning strikes are a few orders of magnitude brighter in visible light.

    The moonlight from Io allows the lightning storms to be correlated with visible cloud features. The latitude bands where the storms are seen seem to coincide with the 'disturbed regions' in daylight images, where short-lived chaotic motions push clouds to high altitudes, much like thunderstorms on Earth. The storms in these images are roughly one to two thousand kilometers across, while individual flashes appear hundreds of kilometer across. The lightning probably originates from the deep water cloud layer and illuminates a large region of the visible ammonia cloud layer from 100 kilometers below it.

    There are several small light and dark patches that are artifacts of data compression. North is at the top of the picture. The images span approximately 50 degrees in latitude and longitude. The lower edges of the images are aligned with the equator. The images were taken on October 5th and 6th, 1997 at a range of 6.6 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for

  6. The Interferometric View of Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, M.; Lapierre, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in off the shelf high-speed digitizers has enabled vast improvements in broadband, digital VHF interferometers. These simple instruments consist of 3 or more VHF antennas distributed in an array which are then digitized at a speed above the Nyquist frequency of the antenna bandwidth (usually 200+ MHz). Broadband interferometers are capable of creating very detailed maps of lightning, with time resolution better than 1us, and angular resolution only limited by their baseline lengths. This is combined with high sensitivity, and the ability to locate both continuously emitting and impulsive radiation sources. They are not without their limitations though. Because the baselines are relatively short, the maps are only 2-dimensional (direction to the source), unless many antennas are used only a single VHF radiation source can be located at any instant, and because the antennas are almost always arranged in a planar array they are better suited for observing lightning at high elevation angles. Even though imperfect, VHF interferometers provide one of the most detailed views of the behavior of lightning flashes inside a cloud. This presentation will present the overall picture of in-cloud lightning as seen by VHF interferometers. Most flashes can be split into 3 general phases of activity. Phase 1 is the initiation phase, covering all activity until the negative leader completes its vertical extension, and includes both lightning initiation and initial breakdown pulses. Phase 2 is the active phase and includes all activity during the horizontal extension of the negative leader. During Phase 2, any K-processes which occur tend to be short in duration and extent. Phase 3 is the final phase, and includes all activity after the negative leader stops propagating. During Phase 3, the conductivity of the lightning channels starts to decline, and extensive K-processes are seen which traverse the entire channel structure, this is also the period in which regular

  7. The Colorado Lightning Mapping Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rison, W.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Thomas, R. J.; Rodeheffer, D.; Fuchs, B.

    2012-12-01

    A fifteen station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) was installed in northern Colorado in the spring of 2012. While the driving force for the array was to produce 3-dimensional lightning data to support the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) Experiment (Barth, this conference), data from the array are being used for several other projects. These include: electrification studies in conjunction with the CSU CHILL radar (Lang et al, this conference); observations of the parent lightning discharges of sprites (Lyons et al, this conference); trying to detect upward discharges triggered by wind turbines, characterizing conditions in which aircraft flying through clouds produce discharges which can be detected by the LMA, and other opportunities, such as observations of lightning in pyrocumulus clouds produced by the High Park Fire west of Fort Collins, CO. All the COLMA stations are solar-powered, and use broadband cellular modems for data communications. This makes the stations completely self-contained and autonomous, allowing a station to be installed anywhere a cellular signal is available. Because most of the stations were installed well away from anthropogenic noise sources, the COLMA is very sensitive. This is evidenced by the numerous plane tracks detected in its the vicinity. The diameter, D, of the COLMA is about 100 km, significantly larger than other LMAs. Because the error in the radial distance r is proportional to (r/D)2, and the error in the altitude z is proportional to (z/D)2, the larger array diameter greatly expands the usable range of the COLMA. The COLMA is able to detect and characterize lighting flashes to a distance of about 350 km from the array center. In addition to a web-based display (lightning.nmt.edu/colma), geo-referenced images are produced and updated at one-minute intervals. These geo-referenced images can be used to overlay the real-time lightning data on Google Earth and other mapping software. These displays were used by the DC3

  8. Lightning Location Using Acoustic Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badillo, E.; Arechiga, R. O.; Thomas, R. J.

    2013-05-01

    In the summer of 2011 and 2012 a network of acoustic arrays was deployed in the Magdalena mountains of central New Mexico to locate lightning flashes. A Times-Correlation (TC) ray-tracing-based-technique was developed in order to obtain the location of lightning flashes near the network. The TC technique, locates acoustic sources from lightning. It was developed to complement the lightning location of RF sources detected by the Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) developed at Langmuir Laboratory, in New Mexico Tech. The network consisted of four arrays with four microphones each. The microphones on each array were placed in a triangular configuration with one of the microphones in the center of the array. The distance between the central microphone and the rest of them was about 30 m. The distance between centers of the arrays ranged from 500 m to 1500 m. The TC technique uses times of arrival (TOA) of acoustic waves to trace back the location of thunder sources. In order to obtain the times of arrival, the signals were filtered in a frequency band of 2 to 20 hertz and cross-correlated. Once the times of arrival were obtained, the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was applied to locate the spatial coordinates (x,y, and z) of thunder sources. Two techniques were used and contrasted to compute the accuracy of the TC method: Nearest-Neighbors (NN), between acoustic and LMA located sources, and standard deviation from the curvature matrix of the system as a measure of dispersion of the results. For the best case scenario, a triggered lightning event, the TC method applied with four microphones, located sources with a median error of 152 m and 142.9 m using nearest-neighbors and standard deviation respectively.; Results of the TC method in the lightning event recorded at 18:47:35 UTC, August 6, 2012. Black dots represent the results computed. Light color dots represent the LMA data for the same event. The results were obtained with the MGTM station (four channels). This figure

  9. On the Relationship between Observed NLDN Lightning ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Lightning-produced nitrogen oxides (NOX=NO+NO2) in the middle and upper troposphere play an essential role in the production of ozone (O3) and influence the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. Despite much effort in both observing and modeling lightning NOX during the past decade, considerable uncertainties still exist with the quantification of lightning NOX production and distribution in the troposphere. It is even more challenging for regional chemistry and transport models to accurately parameterize lightning NOX production and distribution in time and space. The Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) parameterizes the lightning NO emissions using local scaling factors adjusted by the convective precipitation rate that is predicted by the upstream meteorological model; the adjustment is based on the observed lightning strikes from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). For this parameterization to be valid, the existence of an a priori reasonable relationship between the observed lightning strikes and the modeled convective precipitation rates is needed. In this study, we will present an analysis leveraged on the observed NLDN lightning strikes and CMAQ model simulations over the continental United States for a time period spanning over a decade. Based on the analysis, new parameterization scheme for lightning NOX will be proposed and the results will be evaluated. The proposed scheme will be beneficial to modeling exercises where the obs

  10. TRMM-Based Lightning Climatology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecil, Daniel J.; Buechler, Dennis E.; Blakeslee, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Gridded climatologies of total lightning flash rates seen by the spaceborne Optical Transient Detector (OTD) and Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) have been updated. OTD collected data from May 1995 to March 2000. LIS data (equatorward of about 38 deg) has been added for 1998-2010. Flash counts from each instrument are scaled by the best available estimates of detection efficiency. The long LIS record makes the merged climatology most robust in the tropics and subtropics, while the high latitude data is entirely from OTD. The mean global flash rate from the merged climatology is 46 flashes per second. The peak annual flash rate at 0.5 deg scale is 160 fl/square km/yr in eastern Congo. The peak monthly average flash rate at 2.5 scale is 18 fl/square km/mo, from early April to early May in the Brahmaputra Valley of far eastern India. Lightning decreases in this region during the monsoon season, but increases further north and west. A monthly average peak from early August to early September in northern Pakistan also exceeds any monthly averages from Africa, despite central Africa having the greatest yearly average. Most continental regions away from the equator have an annual cycle with lightning flash rates peaking in late spring or summer. The main exceptions are India and southeast Asia, with springtime peaks in April and May. For landmasses near the equator, flash rates peak near the equinoxes. For many oceanic regions, the peak flash rates occur in autumn. This is particularly noticeable for the Mediterranean and North Atlantic. Landmasses have a strong diurnal cycle of lightning, with flash rates generally peaking between 3-5 pm local solar time. The central United States flash rates peak later, in late evening or early night. Flash rates peak after midnight in northern Argentina. These regions are known for large, intense, long-lived mesoscale convective systems.

  11. Modern concepts of treatment and prevention of lightning injuries.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Farinholt, Heidi-Marie A; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D; Long, William B

    2005-01-01

    Lightning is the second most common cause of weather-related death in the United States. Lightning is a natural atmospheric discharge that occurs between regions of net positive and net negative electric charges. There are several types of lightning, including streak lightning, sheet lightning, ribbon lightning, bead lightning, and ball lightning. Lightning causes injury through five basic mechanisms: direct strike, flash discharge (splash), contact, ground current (step voltage), and blunt trauma. While persons struck by lightning show evidence of multisystem derangement, the most dramatic effects involve the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Cardiopulmonary arrest is the most common cause of death in lightning victims. Immediate resuscitation of people struck by lightning greatly affects the prognosis. Electrocardiographic changes observed following lightning accidents are probably from primary electric injury or burns of the myocardium without coronary artery occlusion. Lightning induces vasomotor spasm from direct sympathetic stimulation resulting in severe loss of pulses in the extremities. This vasoconstriction may be associated with transient paralysis. Damage to the central nervous system accounts for the second most debilitating group of injuries. Central nervous system injuries from lightning include amnesia and confusion, immediate loss of consciousness, weakness, intracranial injuries, and even brief aphasia. Other organ systems injured by lightning include the eye, ear, gastrointestinal system, skin, and musculoskeletal system. The best treatment of lightning injuries is prevention. The Lightning Safety Guidelines devised by the Lightning Safety Group should be instituted in the United States and other nations to prevent these devastating injuries.

  12. A Comparison of Lightning Flashes as Observed by the Lightning Imaging Sensor and the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bateman, M. G.; Mach, D. M.; McCaul, M. G.; Bailey, J. C.; Christian, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) aboard the TRMM satellite has been collecting optical lightning data since November 1997. A Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) that senses VHF impulses from lightning was installed in North Alabama in the Fall of 2001. A dataset has been compiled to compare data from both instruments for all times when the LIS was passing over the domain of our LMA. We have algorithms for both instruments to group pixels or point sources into lightning flashes. This study presents the comparison statistics of the flash data output (flash duration, size, and amplitude) from both algorithms. We will present the results of this comparison study and show "point-level" data to explain the differences. AS we head closer to realizing a Global Lightning Mapper (GLM) on GOES-R, better understanding and ground truth of each of these instruments and their respective flash algorithms is needed.

  13. Electromagnetic Effects Harmonization Working Group (EEHWG) - Lightning Task Group : report on aircraft lightning strike data

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-07-01

    In 1995, in response to the lightning community's desire to revise the zoning criteria on aircraft, the Electromagnetic Effects Harmonization Working Group (EEHWG) decided that lightning attachments to aircraft causing damage should be studied and co...

  14. Where are the lightning hotspots on Earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, R. I.; Goodman, S. J.; Buechler, D. E.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    The first lightning observations from space date from the early 1960s and more than a dozen spacecraft orbiting the Earth have flown instruments that recorded lightning signals from thunderstorms over the past 45 years. In this respect, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS), having just completed its mission (1997-2015), provides the longest and best total (intracloud and cloud-to-ground) lightning data base over the tropics.We present a 16 year (1998-2013) reprocessed data set to create very high resolution (0.1°) TRMM LIS total lightning climatology. This detailed very high resolution climatology is used to identify the Earth's lightning hotspots and other regional features. Earlier studies located the lightning hotspot within the Congo Basin in Africa, but our very high resolution lightning climatology found that the highest lightning flash rate on Earth actually occurs in Venezuela over Lake Maracaibo, with a distinct maximum during the night. The higher resolution dataset clearly shows that similar phenomenon also occurs over other inland lakes with similar conditions, i.e., locally forced convergent flow over a warm lake surface which drives deep nocturnal convection. Although Africa does not have the top lightning hotspot, it comes in a close second and it is the continent with the highest number of lightning hotspots, followed by Asia, South America, North America, and Oceania. We also present climatological maps for local hour and month of lightning maxima, along with a ranking of the highest five hundred lightning maxima, focusing discussion on each continent's 10 highest lightning maxima. Most of the highest continental maxima are located near major mountain ranges, revealing the importance of local topography in thunderstorm development. These results are especially relevant in anticipation of the upcoming availability of continuous total lightning observations from the Geostationary Lightning Mapping (GLM

  15. Lightning attachment process to common buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saba, M. M. F.; Paiva, A. R.; Schumann, C.; Ferro, M. A. S.; Naccarato, K. P.; Silva, J. C. O.; Siqueira, F. V. C.; Custódio, D. M.

    2017-05-01

    The physical mechanism of lightning attachment to grounded structures is one of the most important issues in lightning physics research, and it is the basis for the design of the lightning protection systems. Most of what is known about the attachment process comes from leader propagation models that are mostly based on laboratory observations of long electrical discharges or from observations of lightning attachment to tall structures. In this paper we use high-speed videos to analyze the attachment process of downward lightning flashes to an ordinary residential building. For the first time, we present characteristics of the attachment process to common structures that are present in almost every city (in this case, two buildings under 60 m in São Paulo City, Brazil). Parameters like striking distance and connecting leaders speed, largely used in lightning attachment models and in lightning protection standards, are revealed in this work.Plain Language SummarySince the time of Benjamin Franklin, no one has ever recorded high-speed video images of a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> connection to a common building. It is very difficult to do it. Cameras need to be very close to the structure chosen to be observed, and long observation time is required to register one <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike to that particular structure. Models and theories used to determine the zone of protection of a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rod have been developed, but they all suffer from the lack of field data. The submitted manuscript provides results from high-speed video observations of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> attachment to low buildings that are commonly found in almost every populated area around the world. The proximity of the camera and the high frame rate allowed us to see interesting details that will improve the understanding of the attachment process and, consequently, the models and theories used by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection standards. This paper also presents spectacular images and videos of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790010865','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790010865"><span>High current <span class="hlt">lightning</span> test of space shuttle external tank <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mumme, E.; Anderson, A.; Schulte, E. H.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>During lift-off, the shuttle launch vehicle (external tank, solid rocket booster and orbiter) may be subjected to a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike. Tests of a proposed <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection method for the external tank and development materials which were subjected to simulated <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes are described. Results show that certain of the high resistant paint strips performed remarkably well in diverting the 50 kA <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000240','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160000240"><span>An Integrated 0-1 Hour First-Flash <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Nowcasting, <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Amount and <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Jump Warning Capability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mecikalski, John; Jewett, Chris; Carey, Larry; Zavodsky, Brad; Stano, Geoffrey; Chronis, Themis</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Using satellite-based methods that provide accurate 0-1 hour convective initiation (CI) nowcasts, and rely on proven success coupling satellite and radar fields in the Corridor Integrated Weather System (CIWS; operated and developed at MIT-Lincoln Laboratory), to subsequently monitor for first-flash <span class="hlt">lightning</span> initiation (LI) and later period <span class="hlt">lightning</span> trends as storms evolve. Enhance IR-based methods within the GOES-R CI Algorithm (that must meet specific thresholds for a given cumulus cloud before the cloud is considered to have an increased likelihood of producing <span class="hlt">lightning</span> next 90 min) that forecast LI. Integrate GOES-R CI and LI fields with radar thresholds (e.g., first greater than or equal to 40 dBZ echo at the -10 C altitude) and NWP model data within the WDSS-II system for LI-events from new convective storms. Track ongoing <span class="hlt">lightning</span> using <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array (LMA) and pseudo-Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper (GLM) data to assess per-storm <span class="hlt">lightning</span> trends (e.g., as tied to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jumps) and outline threat regions. Evaluate the ability to produce LI nowcasts through a "<span class="hlt">lightning</span> threat" product, and obtain feedback from National Weather Service forecasters on its value as a decision support tool.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27328835','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27328835"><span>Relativistic-microwave theory of ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, H-C</p> <p>2016-06-22</p> <p>Ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, a fireball sometimes observed during <span class="hlt">lightnings</span>, has remained unexplained. Here we present a comprehensive theory for the phenomenon: At the tip of a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stroke reaching the ground, a relativistic electron bunch can be produced, which in turn excites intense microwave radiation. The latter ionizes the local air and the radiation pressure evacuates the resulting plasma, forming a spherical plasma bubble that stably traps the radiation. This mechanism is verified by particle simulations. The many known properties of ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, such as the occurrence site, relation to the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channels, appearance in aircraft, its shape, size, sound, spark, spectrum, motion, as well as the resulting injuries and damages, are also explained. Our theory suggests that ball lighting can be created in the laboratory or triggered during thunderstorms. Our results should be useful for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection and aviation safety, as well as stimulate research interest in the relativistic regime of microwave physics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...628263W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...628263W"><span>Relativistic-microwave theory of ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, H.-C.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, a fireball sometimes observed during <span class="hlt">lightnings</span>, has remained unexplained. Here we present a comprehensive theory for the phenomenon: At the tip of a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stroke reaching the ground, a relativistic electron bunch can be produced, which in turn excites intense microwave radiation. The latter ionizes the local air and the radiation pressure evacuates the resulting plasma, forming a spherical plasma bubble that stably traps the radiation. This mechanism is verified by particle simulations. The many known properties of ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, such as the occurrence site, relation to the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channels, appearance in aircraft, its shape, size, sound, spark, spectrum, motion, as well as the resulting injuries and damages, are also explained. Our theory suggests that ball lighting can be created in the laboratory or triggered during thunderstorms. Our results should be useful for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection and aviation safety, as well as stimulate research interest in the relativistic regime of microwave physics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4916449','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4916449"><span>Relativistic-microwave theory of ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, H.-C.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, a fireball sometimes observed during <span class="hlt">lightnings</span>, has remained unexplained. Here we present a comprehensive theory for the phenomenon: At the tip of a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stroke reaching the ground, a relativistic electron bunch can be produced, which in turn excites intense microwave radiation. The latter ionizes the local air and the radiation pressure evacuates the resulting plasma, forming a spherical plasma bubble that stably traps the radiation. This mechanism is verified by particle simulations. The many known properties of ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, such as the occurrence site, relation to the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channels, appearance in aircraft, its shape, size, sound, spark, spectrum, motion, as well as the resulting injuries and damages, are also explained. Our theory suggests that ball lighting can be created in the laboratory or triggered during thunderstorms. Our results should be useful for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection and aviation safety, as well as stimulate research interest in the relativistic regime of microwave physics. PMID:27328835</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA614923','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA614923"><span>Utilizing Four Dimensional <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and Dual-Polarization Radar to Develop <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Initiation Forecast Guidance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-03-26</p> <p>Electrification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.3 <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Discharge ...charge is caused by falling graupel that is positively charged (Wallace and Hobbs 2006). 2.3 <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Discharge <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> occurs when the electric...emission of positive corona from the surface of precipitation particles, causing the electric field to become locally enhanced and supporting the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27116922','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27116922"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Strike in Pregnancy With Fetal Injury.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Galster, Kellen; Hodnick, Ryan; Berkeley, Ross P</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Injuries from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes are an infrequent occurrence, and are only rarely noted to involve pregnant victims. Only 13 cases of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike in pregnancy have been previously described in the medical literature, along with 7 additional cases discovered within news media reports. This case report presents a novel case of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-associated injury in a patient in the third trimester of pregnancy, resulting in fetal ischemic brain injury and long-term morbidity, and reviews the mechanics of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes along with common injury patterns of which emergency providers should be aware. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18814638','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18814638"><span>Beyond the basics: <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-strike injuries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mistovich, Joseph J; Krost, William S; Limmer, Daniel D</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>It is estimated that a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash occurs approximately 8 million times per day throughout the world. Most strikes are benign and cause little damage to property and physical structures; however, when <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes a person or group of people, it is a significant medical and potentially traumatic event that could lead to immediate death or permanent disability. By understanding some basic physics of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and pathophysiology of injuries associated with <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes, EMS providers will be better prepared to identify assessment findings, anticipate complications and provide effective emergency care.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SGeo...34..755P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SGeo...34..755P"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Applications in Weather and Climate Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Price, Colin G.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Thunderstorms, and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in particular, are a major natural hazard to the public, aviation, power companies, and wildfire managers. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> causes great damage and death every year but also tells us about the inner working of storms. Since <span class="hlt">lightning</span> can be monitored from great distances from the storms themselves, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> may allow us to provide early warnings for severe weather phenomena such as hail storms, flash floods, tornadoes, and even hurricanes. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> itself may impact the climate of the Earth by producing nitrogen oxides (NOx), a precursor of tropospheric ozone, which is a powerful greenhouse gas. Thunderstorms themselves influence the climate system by the redistribution of heat, moisture, and momentum in the atmosphere. What about future changes in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and thunderstorm activity? Many studies show that higher surface temperatures produce more <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, but future changes will depend on what happens to the vertical temperature profile in the troposphere, as well as changes in water balance, and even aerosol loading of the atmosphere. Finally, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> itself may provide a useful tool for tracking climate change in the future, due to the nonlinear link between <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, temperature, upper tropospheric water vapor, and cloud cover.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMAE42A..01C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMAE42A..01C"><span>Fifty Years of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Observations from Space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Christian, H. J., Jr.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Some of the earliest satellites, starting with OSO (1965), ARIEL (1967), and RAE (1968), detected <span class="hlt">lightning</span> using either optical and RF sensors, although that was not their intent. One of the earliest instruments designed to detect <span class="hlt">lightning</span> was the PBE (1977). The use of space to study <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity has exploded since these early days. The advent of focal-plane imaging arrays made it possible to develop high performance optical <span class="hlt">lightning</span> sensors. Prior to the use of charged-coupled devices (CCD), most space-based <span class="hlt">lightning</span> sensors used only a few photo-diodes, which limited the location accuracy and detection efficiency (DE) of the instruments. With CCDs, one can limit the field of view of each detector (pixel), and thus improve the signal to noise ratio over single-detectors that summed the light reflected from many clouds with the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> produced by a single cloud. This pixelization enabled daytime DE to increase from a few percent to close to 90%. The OTD (1995), and the LIS (1997), were the first <span class="hlt">lightning</span> sensors to utilize focal-plane arrays. Together they detected global <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity for more than twenty years, providing the first detailed information on the distribution of global <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and its variability. The FORTE satellite was launched shortly after LIS, and became the first dedicated satellite to simultaneously measure RF and optical <span class="hlt">lightning</span> emissions. It too used a CCD focal plane to detect and locate <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. In November 2016, the GLM became the first <span class="hlt">lightning</span> instrument in geostationary orbit. Shortly thereafter, China placed its GLI in orbit. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> sensors in geostationary orbit significantly increase the value of space-based observations. For the first time, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity can be monitored continuously, over large areas of the Earth with high, uniform DE and location accuracy. In addition to observing standard <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, a number of sensors have been placed in orbit to detect transient luminous events and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730018655','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730018655"><span>A three-station <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ruhnke, L. H.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>A three-station network is described which senses magnetic and electric fields of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Directional and distance information derived from the data are used to redundantly determine <span class="hlt">lightning</span> position. This redundancy is used to correct consistent propagation errors. A comparison is made of the relative accuracy of VLF direction finders with a newer method to determine distance to and location of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> by the ratio of magnetic-to-electric field as observed at 400 Hz. It was found that VLF direction finders can determine <span class="hlt">lightning</span> positions with only one-half the accuracy of the method that uses the ratio of magnetic-to-electric field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940018765','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940018765"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> studies using LDAR and LLP data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Forbes, Gregory S.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>This study intercompared <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data from LDAR and LLP systems in order to learn more about the spatial relationships between thunderstorm electrical discharges aloft and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to the surface. The ultimate goal of the study is to provide information that can be used to improve the process of real-time detection and warning of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> by weather forecasters who issue <span class="hlt">lightning</span> advisories. The <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection and Ranging (LDAR) System provides data on electrical discharges from thunderstorms that includes cloud-ground flashes as well as <span class="hlt">lightning</span> aloft (within cloud, cloud-to-cloud, and sometimes emanating from cloud to clear air outside or above cloud). The <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Location and Protection (LLP) system detects primarily ground strikes from <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Thunderstorms typically produce LDAR signals aloft prior to the first ground strike, so that knowledge of preferred positions of ground strikes relative to the LDAR data pattern from a thunderstorm could allow advance estimates of enhanced ground strike threat. Studies described in the report examine the position of LLP-detected ground strikes relative to the LDAR data pattern from the thunderstorms. The report also describes other potential approaches to the use of LDAR data in the detection and forecasting of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> ground strikes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000004589','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000004589"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Protection Guidelines for Aerospace Vehicles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goodloe, C. C.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This technical memorandum provides <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection engineering guidelines and technical procedures used by the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch for aerospace vehicles. The overviews illustrate the technical support available to project managers, chief engineers, and design engineers to ensure that aerospace vehicles managed by MSFC are adequately protected from direct and indirect effects of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Generic descriptions of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> environment and vehicle protection technical processes are presented. More specific aerospace vehicle requirements for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection design, performance, and interface characteristics are available upon request to the MSFC Electromagnetics and Aerospace Environments Branch, mail code EL23.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22104330','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22104330"><span>Secondary missile injury from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blumenthal, Ryan</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>A 48-year-old-woman was struck dead by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> on October 24, 2010, in Pretoria, South Africa. The cause of death was due to direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike. Examination showed secondary missile injury on her legs. This secondary missile (shrapnel) injury was caused by the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> striking the concrete pavement next to her. Small pieces of concrete were located embedded within the shrapnel wounds. This case report represents the first documented case of secondary missile formation (shrapnel injury) due to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike in the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870003628&hterms=thunder+lightning&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dthunder%2Blightning','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870003628&hterms=thunder+lightning&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dthunder%2Blightning"><span>Optical characteristics of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and thunderstorm currents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Krider, E. P.; Blakeslee, R. J.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Researchers determined that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> can be used to determine the diurnal variations of thunderstorms, i.e., storms that produce audible thunder, and that these variations are also in good agreement with diurnal variations in rainfall and convective activity. Measurements of the Maxwell current density, J sub m, under active thunderstorms show that this physical quantity is quasi-steady between <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges and that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> does not produce large changes in J sub m. Maps of J sub m show contours of iso-current density that are consistent with the locations of radar echos and the locations of where <span class="hlt">lightning</span> has altered the cloud charge distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3188012','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3188012"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Strike in Golf Practice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Elena-Sorando, E.; Galeano-Ricaño, N.; Agulló-Domingo, A.; Cimorra-Moreno, G.; Gil-Castillo, C.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Summary The case is presented of a golfer who was struck by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> while playing golf during a thunderstorm. The patient was found lying unconscious on wet grass with his clothes scorched and his spiked golf shoes torn. He had suffered dermal burns affecting the neck, thorax, abdomen, and upper and lower limbs (10% total body surface area), without any cardiovascular or respiratory disturbances. It may be hypothesized that the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> current went over the outside of the patient, causing ignition of his clothes. Treatment included monitoring, adequate fluid management, debridement, and topical treatment (silver sulphadiazine). Complete healing of the wounds was achieved in two weeks. After three years' follow-up, the patient had no sequelae. PMID:21991022</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170007231','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170007231"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Protection and Detection System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mielnik, John J. (Inventor); Woodard, Marie (Inventor); Smith, Laura J. (Inventor); Wang, Chuantong (Inventor); Koppen, Sandra V. (Inventor); Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Szatkowski, George N. (Inventor); Nguyen, Truong X. (Inventor); Ely, Jay J. (Inventor)</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection and detection system includes a non-conductive substrate material of an apparatus; a sensor formed of a conductive material and deposited on the non-conductive substrate material of the apparatus. The sensor includes a conductive trace formed in a continuous spiral winding starting at a first end at a center region of the sensor and ending at a second end at an outer corner region of the sensor, the first and second ends being open and unconnected. An electrical measurement system is in communication with the sensor and receives a resonant response from the sensor, to perform detection, in real-time, of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike occurrences and damage therefrom to the sensor and the non-conductive substrate material.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/959070','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/959070"><span>Indirect <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Safety Assessment Methodology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ong, M M; Perkins, M P; Brown, C G</p> <p>2009-04-24</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> is a safety hazard for high-explosives (HE) and their detonators. In the However, the current flowing from the strike point through the rebar of the building The methodology for estimating the risk from indirect lighting effects will be presented. It has two parts: a method to determine the likelihood of a detonation given a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike, and an approach for estimating the likelihood of a strike. The results of these two parts produce an overall probability of a detonation. The probability calculations are complex for five reasons: (1) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes are stochastic and relatively rare, (2) the quality ofmore » the Faraday cage varies from one facility to the next, (3) RF coupling is inherently a complex subject, (4) performance data for abnormally stressed detonators is scarce, and (5) the arc plasma physics is not well understood. Therefore, a rigorous mathematical analysis would be too complex. Instead, our methodology takes a more practical approach combining rigorous mathematical calculations where possible with empirical data when necessary. Where there is uncertainty, we compensate with conservative approximations. The goal is to determine a conservative estimate of the odds of a detonation. In Section 2, the methodology will be explained. This report will discuss topics at a high-level. The reasons for selecting an approach will be justified. For those interested in technical details, references will be provided. In Section 3, a simple hypothetical example will be given to reinforce the concepts. While the methodology will touch on all the items shown in Figure 1, the focus of this report is the indirect effect, i.e., determining the odds of a detonation from given EM fields. Professor Martin Uman from the University of Florida has been characterizing and defining extreme <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes. Using Professor Uman's research, Dr. Kimball Merewether at Sandia National Laboratory in Albuquerque calculated the EM fields inside a Faraday</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023414','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023414"><span>How to create ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Golka, Robert K., Jr.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Procedures are given on how to produce ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Necessary equipment includes a transformer of 150,000 watts capable of providing approximately 10,000 amperes at 15 volts, 60 cycles; thick one inch cables of stranded wire leading into a 3 by 4 by 1 foot plastic tank; a quarter inch thick 4 by 6 inch aluminum plate to be used as one of the discharge electrodes; and another electrode of heavy copper wire with the insulation stripped back 6 inches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5965181','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5965181"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Burns and Electrical Trauma in a Couple Simultaneously Struck by <span class="hlt">Lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Eyerly-Webb, Stephanie A.; Solomon, Rachele; Lee, Seong K.; Sanchez, Rafael; Carrillo, Eddy H.; Davare, Dafney L.; Kiffin, Chauniqua; Rosenthal, Andrew</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>More people are struck and killed by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> each year in Florida than any other state in the United States. This report discusses a couple that was simultaneously struck by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> while walking arm-in-arm. Both patients presented with characteristic <span class="hlt">lightning</span> burns and were admitted for hemodynamic monitoring, serum labs, and observation and were subsequently discharged home. Despite the superficial appearance of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> burns, serious internal electrical injuries are common. Therefore, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike victims should be admitted and evaluated for cardiac arrhythmias, renal injury, and neurological sequelae.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023313','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023313"><span>Launch pad <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection effectiveness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stahmann, James R.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Using the striking distance theory that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> leaders will strike the nearest grounded point on their last jump to earth corresponding to the striking distance, the probability of striking a point on a structure in the presence of other points can be estimated. The <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes are divided into deciles having an average peak current and striking distance. The striking distances are used as radii from the points to generate windows of approach through which the leader must pass to reach a designated point. The projections of the windows on a horizontal plane as they are rotated through all possible angles of approach define an area that can be multiplied by the decile stroke density to arrive at the probability of strokes with the window average striking distance. The sum of all decile probabilities gives the cumulative probability for all strokes. The techniques can be applied to NASA-Kennedy launch pad structures to estimate the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection effectiveness for the crane, gaseous oxygen vent arm, and other points. Streamers from sharp points on the structure provide protection for surfaces having large radii of curvature. The effects of nearby structures can also be estimated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..117.3113C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..117.3113C"><span>Preliminary <span class="hlt">lightning</span> observations over Greece</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chronis, Themis G.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The first Precision <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Network, monitoring the Cloud-to-Ground (CG) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stroke activity over Greece and surrounding waters is operated and maintained by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service. This paper studies the regional (land/water interface), seasonal and diurnal variability of the CG strokes as a function of density, polarity and peak current. Additional investigation uniquely links the CG stroke current to sea surface salinity and cloud electrical capacitance. In brief, this study's major findings area as follows: (1) The seasonal maps of thunder days agree well with the regional climatic convective characteristics of the study area, (2) the CG diurnal variability is consistent with the global <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity observations over land and ocean, (3) the maxima of monthly averaged CG counts are located over land and water during typical summer and fall months respectively for both polarities, (4) CG peak currents show a distinct seasonality with larger currents during relatively colder months and smaller currents during summer months, and (5) strong linear trends between -CGs and sea surface salinity; (6) this trend is absent for +CGs data analysis of the employed database relate to the thunderstorm's RC constant and agrees with previous numerical modeling studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JGRD..123.2347S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JGRD..123.2347S"><span>Characteristics of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Within Electrified Snowfall Events Using <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Arrays</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schultz, Christopher J.; Lang, Timothy J.; Bruning, Eric C.; Calhoun, Kristin M.; Harkema, Sebastian; Curtis, Nathan</p> <p>2018-02-01</p> <p>This study examined 34 <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes within four separate thundersnow events derived from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> mapping arrays (LMAs) in northern Alabama, central Oklahoma, and Washington DC. The goals were to characterize the in-cloud component of each <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash, as well as the correspondence between the LMA observations and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data taken from national <span class="hlt">lightning</span> networks like the National <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network (NLDN). Individual flashes were examined in detail to highlight several observations within the data set. The study results demonstrated that the structures of these flashes were primarily normal polarity. The mean area encompassed by this set of flashes is 375 km2, with a maximum flash extent of 2,300 km2, a minimum of 3 km2, and a median of 128 km2. An average of 2.29 NLDN flashes were recorded per LMA-derived <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash. A maximum of 11 NLDN flashes were recorded in association with a single LMA-derived flash on 10 January 2011. Additionally, seven of the 34 flashes in the study contain zero NLDN-identified flashes. Eleven of the 34 flashes initiated from tall human-made objects (e.g., communication towers). In at least six <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes, the NLDN detected a return stroke from the cloud back to the tower and not the initial upward leader. This study also discusses <span class="hlt">lightning</span>'s interaction with the human-built environment and provides an example of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> within heavy snowfall observed by Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-16's Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29910996','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29910996"><span>Characteristics of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> within Electrified Snowfall Events using <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Arrays.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schultz, Christopher J; Lang, Timothy J; Bruning, Eric C; Calhoun, Kristin M; Harkema, Sebastian; Curtis, Nathan</p> <p>2018-02-27</p> <p>This study examined 34 <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes within four separate thundersnow events derived from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> mapping arrays (LMAs) in northern Alabama, central Oklahoma, and Washington DC. The goals were to characterize the in-cloud component of each <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash, as well as the correspondence between the LMA observations and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data taken from national <span class="hlt">lightning</span> networks like the National <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network (NLDN). Individual flashes were examined in detail to highlight several observations within the dataset. The study results demonstrated that the structures of these flashes were primarily normal polarity. The mean area encompassed by this set of flashes is 375 km 2 , with a maximum flash extent of 2300 km 2 , a minimum of 3 km 2 , and a median of 128 km 2 . An average of 2.29 NLDN flashes were recorded per LMA-derived <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash. A maximum of 11 NLDN flashes were recorded in association with a single LMA-derived flash on 10 January 2011. Additionally, seven of the 34 flashes in the study contain zero NLDN identified flashes. Eleven of the 34 flashes initiated from tall human-made objects (e.g., communication towers). In at least six <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes, the NLDN detected a return stroke from the cloud back to the tower and not the initial upward leader. This study also discusses <span class="hlt">lightning</span>'s interaction with the human built environment and provides an example of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> within heavy snowfall observed by GOES-16's Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMAE12A..02F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMAE12A..02F"><span>Infrasound from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> measured in Ivory Coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farges, T.; Matoza, R. S.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>It is well established that more than 2,000 thunderstorms occur continuously around the world and that about 45 <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes are produced per second over the globe. More than two thirds (42) of the infrasound stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBTO (Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation) are now certified and routinely measure signals due to natural activity (e.g., airflow over mountains, aurora, microbaroms, surf, volcanoes, severe weather including <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes, ...). Some of the IMS stations are located where worldwide <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection networks (e.g. WWLLN) have a weak detection capability but <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity is high (e.g. Africa, South America). These infrasound stations are well localised to study <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash activity and its disparity, which is a good proxy for global warming. Progress in infrasound array data processing over the past ten years makes such <span class="hlt">lightning</span> studies possible. For example, Farges and Blanc (2010) show clearly that it is possible to measure <span class="hlt">lightning</span> infrasound from thunderstorms within a range of distances from the infrasound station. Infrasound from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> can be detected when the thunderstorm is within about 75 km from the station. The motion of the squall zone is very well measured inside this zone. Up to 25% of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes can be detected with this technique, giving better results locally than worldwide <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection networks. An IMS infrasound station has been installed in Ivory Coast for 8 years. The optical space-based instrument OTD measured a rate of 10-20 flashes/km^2/year in that country and showed strong seasonal variations (Christian et al., 2003). Ivory Coast is therefore a good place to study infrasound data associated with <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity and its temporal variation. First statistical results will be presented in this paper based on 3 years of data (2005-2008).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21909737','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21909737"><span>[<span class="hlt">Lightning</span> strikes and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> injuries in prehospital emergency medicine. Relevance, results, and practical implications].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hinkelbein, J; Spelten, O; Wetsch, W A</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Up to 32.2% of patients in a burn center suffer from electrical injuries. Of these patients, 2-4% present with <span class="hlt">lightning</span> injuries. In Germany, approximately 50 people per year are injured by a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike and 3-7 fatally. Typically, people involved in outdoor activities are endangered and affected. A <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike usually produces significantly higher energy doses as compared to those in common electrical injuries. Therefore, injury patterns vary significantly. Especially in high voltage injuries and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> injuries, internal injuries are of special importance. Mortality ranges between 10 and 30% after a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike. Emergency medical treatment is similar to common electrical injuries. Patients with <span class="hlt">lightning</span> injuries should be transported to a regional or supraregional trauma center. In 15% of all cases multiple people may be injured. Therefore, it is of outstanding importance to create emergency plans and evacuation plans in good time for mass gatherings endangered by possible <span class="hlt">lightning</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990084078&hterms=metal+detector&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmetal%2Bdetector','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990084078&hterms=metal+detector&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dmetal%2Bdetector"><span>Electro-Optic <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koshak, William J.; Solakiewica, R. J.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Electric field measurements are fundamental to the study of thunderstorm electrification, thundercloud charge structure, and the determination of the locations and magnitudes of charges deposited by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Continuous field observations can also be used to warn of impending electrical hazards. For example, the USAF Eastern Range (ER) and NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida currently operate a ground-based network of electric field mill sensors to warn against <span class="hlt">lightning</span> hazards to space vehicle operations/launches. The sensors provide continuous recordings of the ambient field. Others investigators have employed flat-plate electric field antennas to detect changes In the ambient field due to <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. In each approach, electronic circuitry is used to directly detect and amplify the effects of the ambient field on an exposed metal conductor (antenna plate); in the case of continuous field recordings, the antenna plate is alternately shielded and unshielded by a grounded conductor. In this work effort, an alternate optical method for detecting <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-caused electric field changes is Introduced. The primary component in the detector is an anisotropic electro-optic crystal of potassium di-hydrogen phosphate (chemically written as KH2PO4 (KDP)). When a voltage Is placed across the electro-optic crystal, the refractive Indices of the crystal change. This change alters the polarization state of a laser light beam that is passed down the crystal optic axis. With suitable application of vertical and horizontal polarizers, a light transmission measurement is related to the applied crystal voltage (which in turn Is related to the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> caused electric field change). During the past two years, all critical optical components were procured, assembled, and aligned. An optical housing, calibration set-up, and data acquisition system was integrated for breadboard testing. The sensor was deployed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the summer of 1998 to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/28599','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/28599"><span>Verification of the WFAS <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Efficiency Map</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Paul Sopko; Don Latham; Isaac Grenfell</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Ignition Efficiency map was added to the suite of daily maps offered by the Wildland Fire Assessment System (WFAS) in 1999. This map computes a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> probability of ignition (POI) based on the estimated fuel type, fuel depth, and 100-hour fuel moisture interpolated from the Remote Automated Weather Station (RAWS) network. An attempt to verify the...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMAE24A..03Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMAE24A..03Z"><span>Analysis and Modeling of Intense Oceanic <span class="hlt">Lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zoghzoghy, F. G.; Cohen, M.; Said, R.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Inan, U.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Recent studies using <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data from geo-location networks such as GLD360 suggest that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes are more intense over the ocean than over land, even though they are less common [Said et al. 2013]. We present an investigation of the physical differences between oceanic and land <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. We have deployed a sensitive Low Frequency (1 MHz sampling rate) radio receiver system aboard the NOAA Ronald W. Brown research vessel and have collected thousands of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> waveforms close to deep oceanic <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. We analyze the captured waveforms, describe our modeling efforts, and summarize our findings. We model the ground wave (gw) portion of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> sferics using a numerical method built on top of the Stanford Full Wave Method (FWM) [Lehtinen and Inan 2008]. The gwFWM technique accounts for propagation over a curved Earth with finite conductivity, and is used to simulate an arbitrary current profile along the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel. We conduct a sensitivity analysis and study the current profiles for land and for oceanic <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. We find that the effect of ground conductivity is minimal, and that stronger oceanic radio intensity does not result from shorter current rise-time or from faster return stroke propagation speed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=lightning&pg=5&id=EJ351674','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=lightning&pg=5&id=EJ351674"><span>Protecting Your Park When <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Strikes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Frydenlund, Marvin M.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A formula for assessing specific risk of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes is provided. Recent legal cases are used to illustrate potential liability. Six actions park managers can take to minimize danger from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> are presented, and commonsense rules which should be publicly posted are listed. (MT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983RvGSP..21..892W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983RvGSP..21..892W"><span>Planetary <span class="hlt">lightning</span> - Earth, Jupiter, and Venus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Williams, M. A.; Krider, E. P.; Hunten, D. M.</p> <p>1983-05-01</p> <p>The principal characteristics of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> on earth are reviewed, and the evidence for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> on Venus and Jupiter is examined. The mechanisms believed to be important to the electrification of terrestrial clouds are reviewed, with attention given to the applicability of some of these mechanisms to the atmospheres of Venus and Jupiter. The consequences of the existence of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> on Venus and Jupiter for their atmospheres and for theories of cloud electrification on earth are also considered. Since spacecraft observations do not conclusively show that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> does occur on Venus, it is suggested that alternative explanations for the experimental results be explored. Since Jupiter has no true surface, the Jovian <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes are cloud dischargaes. Observations suggest that Jovian <span class="hlt">lightning</span> emits, on average, 10 to the 10 J of optical energy per flash, whereas on earth <span class="hlt">lightning</span> radiates only about 10 to the 6th J per flash. Estimates of the average planetary <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rate on Jupiter range from 0.003 per sq km per yr to 40 per sq km per yr.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770026308','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770026308"><span>Space shuttle program: <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection criteria document</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">lightning</span> environment for space shuttle design is defined and requirements that the design must satisfy to insure protection of the vehicle system from direct and indirect effects of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> are imposed. Specifications, criteria, and guidelines included provide a practical and logical approach to protection problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730000043','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730000043"><span>An automatic <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection and photographic system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wojtasinski, R. J.; Holley, L. D.; Gray, J. L.; Hoover, R. B.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Conventional 35-mm camera is activated by an electronic signal every time <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes in general vicinity. Electronic circuit detects <span class="hlt">lightning</span> by means of antenna which picks up atmospheric radio disturbances. Camera is equipped with fish-eye lense, automatic shutter advance, and small 24-hour clock to indicate time when exposures are made.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=sky&pg=6&id=EJ1128438','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=sky&pg=6&id=EJ1128438"><span>When <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Strikes a Second Time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Allen, Kent</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The chances of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> striking twice are infinitesimal, at best. What are the odds, in middle age, of being struck with a jarring bolt of figurative <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, then a few months later being an eyewitness as the same sizzle in the sky jolts a group of students--those decision-makers of tomorrow? The author describes two experiences that proved…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec35-38.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec35-38.pdf"><span>14 CFR 35.38 - <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> strike.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.38 <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> strike. The applicant must demonstrate, by tests, analysis based on tests, or experience on similar designs, that the propeller can withstand a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike without causing a major or hazardous propeller effect. The limit to which the propeller has...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec35-38.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec35-38.pdf"><span>14 CFR 35.38 - <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> strike.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.38 <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> strike. The applicant must demonstrate, by tests, analysis based on tests, or experience on similar designs, that the propeller can withstand a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike without causing a major or hazardous propeller effect. The limit to which the propeller has...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec35-38.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec35-38.pdf"><span>14 CFR 35.38 - <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> strike.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.38 <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> strike. The applicant must demonstrate, by tests, analysis based on tests, or experience on similar designs, that the propeller can withstand a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike without causing a major or hazardous propeller effect. The limit to which the propeller has...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec35-38.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec35-38.pdf"><span>14 CFR 35.38 - <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> strike.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.38 <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> strike. The applicant must demonstrate, by tests, analysis based on tests, or experience on similar designs, that the propeller can withstand a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike without causing a major or hazardous propeller effect. The limit to which the propeller has...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec35-38.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec35-38.pdf"><span>14 CFR 35.38 - <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> strike.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.38 <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> strike. The applicant must demonstrate, by tests, analysis based on tests, or experience on similar designs, that the propeller can withstand a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike without causing a major or hazardous propeller effect. The limit to which the propeller has...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040170489&hterms=Atlantic+Forest&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DAtlantic%2BForest','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040170489&hterms=Atlantic+Forest&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3DAtlantic%2BForest"><span>The GOES-R <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper Sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buechler, Dennis; Christian, Hugh; Goodman, Steve</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper Sensor on GOES-R builds on previous measurements of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> from low earth orbit by the OTD (Optical Transient Detector) and LIS (<span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor) sensors. Unlike observations from low earth orbit, the GOES-R platform will allow continuous monitoring of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity over the Continental United States and southern Canada, Central and South America, and portions of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The LMS will detect total (cloud-to-ground and intracloud) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> at storm scale resolution (approx. 8 km) using a highly sensitive Charge Coupled Device (CCD) detector array. Discrimination between <span class="hlt">lightning</span> optical transients and a bright sunlit background scene is accomplished by employing spectral, spatial, and temporal filtering along with a background subtraction technique. The result is 24 hour detection capability of total <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. These total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> observations can be made available to users within about 20 seconds. Research indicates a number of ways that total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> observations from LMS could benefit operational activities, including 1) potential increases in lead times and reduced false alarms for severe thunderstorm and tornado Warnings, 2) improved routing of &rail around thunderstorms, 3) support for spacecraft launches and landings, 4) improved ability to monitor tropical cyclone intensity, 5) ability to monitor thunderstorm intensification/weakening during radar outages or where radar coverage is poor, 6) better identification of deep convection for the initialization of numerical prediction models, 7) improved forest fire forecasts, 8) identification of convective initiation, 9) identification of heavy convective snowfall, and 10) enhanced temporal resolution of storm evolution (1 minute) than is available from radar observations. Total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data has been used in an operational environment since July 2003 at the Huntsville, Alabama National Weather Service office. Total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> measurements are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23478564','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23478564"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> injuries in sports and recreation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thomson, Eric M; Howard, Thomas M</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The powers of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> have been worshiped and feared by all known human cultures. While the chance of being struck by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is statistically very low, that risk becomes much greater in those who frequently work or play outdoors. Over the past 2 yr, there have been nearly 50 <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-related deaths reported within the United States, with a majority of them associated with outdoor recreational activities. Recent publications primarily have been case studies, review articles, and a discussion of a sixth method of injury. The challenge in reducing <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-related injuries in organized sports has been addressed well by both the National Athletic Trainers' Association and the National Collegiate Athletic Association in their guidelines on <span class="hlt">lightning</span> safety. Challenges remain in educating the general population involved in recreational outdoor activities that do not fall under the guidelines of organized sports.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850009173','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850009173"><span>Mathematical physics approaches to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kyrala, A.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Mathematical physics arguments useful for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge and generation problems are pursued. A soliton Ansatz for the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stroke is treated including a charge generation term which is the ultimate source for the phenomena. Equations are established for a partially ionized plasma inding the effects of pressure, magnetic field, electric field, gravitation, viscosity, and temperature. From these equations is then derived the non-stationary generalized Ohm's Law essential for describing field/current density relationships in the horizon channel of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stroke. The discharge initiation problem is discussed. It is argued that the ionization rate drives both the convective current and electric displacement current to increase exponentially. The statistical distributions of charge in the thundercloud preceding a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> dischage are considered. The stability of the pre-<span class="hlt">lightning</span> charge distributions and the use of Boltzmann relaxational equations to determine them are discussed along with a covered impedance path provided by the aircraft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMAE22A..02T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMAE22A..02T"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Enhancement Over Major Shipping Lanes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thornton, J. A.; Holzworth, R. H., II; Virts, K.; Mitchell, T. P.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Using twelve years of high resolution global <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stroke data from the World Wide <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Location Network (WWLLN), we show that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> density is enhanced by up to a factor of two directly over shipping lanes in the northeastern Indian Ocean and the South China Sea as compared to adjacent areas with similar climatological characteristics. The <span class="hlt">lightning</span> enhancement is most prominent during the convectively active season, November-April for the Indian Ocean and April - December in the South China Sea, and has been detectable from at least 2005 to the present. We hypothesize that emissions of aerosol particles and precursors by maritime vessel traffic leads to a microphysical enhancement of convection and storm electrification in the region of the shipping lanes. These persistent localized anthropogenic perturbations to otherwise clean regions are a unique opportunity to more thoroughly understand the sensitivity of maritime deep convection and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> to aerosol particles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/39379','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/39379"><span>Progress towards a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> ignition model for the Northern Rockies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Paul Sopko; Don Latham</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>We are in the process of constructing a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> ignition model specific to the Northern Rockies using fire occurrence, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike, ecoregion, and historical weather, NFDRS (National Fire Danger Rating System), <span class="hlt">lightning</span> efficiency and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> "possibility" data. Daily grids for each of these categories were reconstructed for the 2003 fire season (...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0603089','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0603089"><span>RELATIONS BETWEEN <span class="hlt">LIGHTNING</span> DISCHARGES AND DIFFERENT TYPES OF MUSICAL ATMOSPHERICS,</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Recording cathode-ray oscillographs were used for the analysis of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges whose relations to musical atmospherics were investigated...of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges investigated. Through comparative harmonic analyses it was shown that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges producing musical atmospherics...followed by multiple whistlers. An investigation was made of correlations between <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges and musical atmospherics of unusual and irregular</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030061356&hterms=bateman&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dbateman','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030061356&hterms=bateman&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dbateman"><span>A Total <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Climatology for the Tennessee Valley Region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>McCaul, E. W.; Goodman, S. J.; Buechler, D. E.; Blakeslee, R.; Christian, H.; Boccippio, D.; Koshak, W.; Bailey, J.; Hallm, J.; Bateman, M.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Total flash counts derived from the North Alabama <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array are being processed for 2002 to form a climatology of total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> for the Tennessee Valley region. The data from this active and interesting period will be compared to data fiom the National <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network, space-based <span class="hlt">lightning</span> sensors, and weather radars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMAE33A0266A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMAE33A0266A"><span>Acoustic Manifestations of Natural versus Triggered <span class="hlt">Lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arechiga, R. O.; Johnson, J. B.; Edens, H. E.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.; Eack, K.; Eastvedt, E. M.; Aulich, G. D.; Trueblood, J.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Positive leaders are rarely detected by VHF <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection systems; positive leader channels are usually outlined only by recoil events. Positive cloud-to-ground (CG) channels are usually not mapped. The goal of this work is to study the types of thunder produced by natural versus triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and to assess which types of thunder signals have electromagnetic activity detected by the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> mapping array (LMA). Towards this end we are investigating the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection capabilities of acoustic techniques, and comparing them with the LMA. In a previous study we used array beam forming and time of flight information to locate acoustic sources associated with <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Even though there was some mismatch, generally LMA and acoustic techniques saw the same phenomena. To increase the database of acoustic data from <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, we deployed a network of three infrasound arrays (30 m aperture) during the summer of 2010 (August 3 to present) in the Magdalena mountains of New Mexico, to monitor infrasound (below 20 Hz) and audio range sources due to natural and triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. The arrays were located at a range of distances (60 to 1400 m) surrounding the triggering site, called the Kiva, used by Langmuir Laboratory to launch rockets. We have continuous acoustic measurements of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data from July 20 to September 18 of 2009, and from August 3 to September 1 of 2010. So far, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity around the Kiva was higher during the summer of 2009. We will present acoustic data from several interesting <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes including a comparison between a natural and a triggered one.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008654','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008654"><span>The <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM): Status and Recent Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koshak, William; Khan, Maudood; Peterson, Harold</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Improvements to the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM) are discussed. Recent results from an August 2006 run of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system that employs LNOM <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NOx (= NO + NO2) estimates are provided. The LNOM analyzes <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array (LMA) data to estimate the raw (i.e., unmixed and otherwise environmentally unmodified) vertical profile of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NOx. The latest LNOM estimates of (a) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel length distributions, (b) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> 1-m segment altitude distributions, and (c) the vertical profile of NOx are presented. The impact of including LNOM-estimates of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NOx on CMAQ output is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100021055','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100021055"><span>Estimates of the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> NOx Profile in the Vicinity of the North Alabama <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koshak, William J.; Peterson, Harold S.; McCaul, Eugene W.; Blazar, Arastoo</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM) is applied to August 2006 North Alabama <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array (NALMA) data to estimate the (unmixed and otherwise environmentally unmodified) vertical source profile of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> nitrogen oxides, NOx = NO + NO2. Data from the National <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network (Trademark) (NLDN) is also employed. This is part of a larger effort aimed at building a more realistic <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NOx emissions inventory for use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Overall, special attention is given to several important <span class="hlt">lightning</span> variables including: the frequency and geographical distribution of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in the vicinity of the NALMA network, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> type (ground or cloud flash), <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel length, channel altitude, channel peak current, and the number of strokes per flash. Laboratory spark chamber results from the literature are used to convert 1-meter channel segments (that are located at a particular known altitude; i.e., air density) to NOx concentration. The resulting <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NOx source profiles are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900004089','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900004089"><span>Cable coupling <span class="hlt">lightning</span> transient qualification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cook, M.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Simulated <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike testing of instrumentation cabling on the redesigned solid rocket motor was performed. Testing consisted of subjecting the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> evaluation test article to simulated <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes and evaluating the effects of instrumentation cable transients on cables within the system tunnel. The maximum short-circuit current induced onto a United Space Boosters, Inc., operational flight cable within the systems tunnel was 92 A, and the maximum induced open-circuit voltage was 316 V. These levels were extrapolated to the worst-case (200 kA) condition of NASA specification NSTS 07636 and were also scaled to full-scale redesigned solid rocket motor dimensions. Testing showed that voltage coupling to cables within the systems tunnel can be reduced 40 to 90 dB and that current coupling to cables within the systems tunnel can be reduced 30 to 70 dB with the use of braided metallic sock shields around cables that are external to the systems tunnel. Testing also showed that current and voltage levels induced onto cables within the systems tunnel are partially dependant on the cables' relative locations within the systems tunnel. Results of current injections to the systems tunnel indicate that the dominant coupling mode on cables within the systems tunnel is not from instrumentation cables but from coupling through the systems tunnel cover seam apertures. It is recommended that methods of improving the electrical bonding between individual sections of the systems tunnel covers be evaluated. Further testing to better characterize redesigned solid rocket motor cable coupling effects as an aid in developing methods to reduce coupling levels, particularly with respect to cable placement within the systems tunnel, is also recommended.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..3919807E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoRL..3919807E"><span>VHF <span class="hlt">lightning</span> mapping observations of a triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Edens, H. E.; Eack, K. B.; Eastvedt, E. M.; Trueblood, J. J.; Winn, W. P.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Aulich, G. D.; Hunyady, S. J.; Murray, W. C.; Rison, W.; Behnke, S. A.; Thomas, R. J.</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>On 3 August 2010 an extensive <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash was triggered over Langmuir Laboratory in New Mexico. The upward positive leader propagated into the storm's midlevel negative charge region, extending over a horizontal area of 13 × 13 km and 7.5 km altitude. The storm had a normal-polarity tripolar charge structure with upper positive charge over midlevel negative charge. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array (LMA) observations were used to estimate positive leader velocities along various branches, which were in the range of 1-3 × 104 m s-1, slower than in other studies. The upward positive leader initiated at 3.4 km altitude, but was mapped only above 4.0 km altitude after the onset of retrograde negative breakdown, indicating a change in leader propagation and VHF emissions. The observations suggest that both positive and negative breakdown produce VHF emissions that can be located by time-of-arrival systems, and that not all VHF emissions occurring along positive leader channels are associated with retrograde negative breakdown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMAE24A..05F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMAE24A..05F"><span>Monitoring <span class="hlt">lightning</span> from space with TARANIS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farges, T.; Blanc, E.; Pinçon, J.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Some recent space experiments, e.g. OTD, LIS, show the large interest of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> monitoring from space and the efficiency of optical measurement. Future instrumentations are now defined for the next generation of geostationary meteorology satellites. Calibration of these instruments requires ground truth events provided by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> location networks, as NLDN in US, and EUCLID or LINET in Europe, using electromagnetic observations at a regional scale. One of the most challenging objectives is the continuous monitoring of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity over the tropical zone (Africa, America, and Indonesia). However, one difficulty is the lack of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> location networks at regional scale in these areas to validate the data quality. TARANIS (Tool for the Analysis of Radiations from <span class="hlt">lightNings</span> and Sprites) is a CNES micro satellite project. It is dedicated to the study of impulsive transfers of energy, between the Earth atmosphere and the space environment, from nadir observations of Transient Luminous Events (TLEs), Terrestrial Gamma ray Flashes (TGFs) and other possible associated emissions. Its orbit will be sun-synchronous at 10:30 local time; its altitude will be 700 km. Its lifetime will be nominally 2 years. Its payload is composed of several electromagnetic instruments in different wavelengths: X and gamma-ray detectors, optical cameras and photometers, electromagnetic wave sensors from DC to 30 MHz completed by high energy electron detectors. The optical instrument includes 2 cameras and 4 photometers. All sensors are equipped with filters for sprite and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> differentiation. The filters of cameras are designed for sprite and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> observations at 762 nm and 777 nm respectively. However, differently from OTD or LIS instruments, the filter bandwidth and the exposure time (respectively 10 nm and 91 ms) prevent <span class="hlt">lightning</span> optical observations during daytime. The camera field of view is a square of 500 km at ground level with a spatial sampling frequency of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002884','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150002884"><span>An Integrated 0-1 Hour First-Flash <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Nowcasting, <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Amount and <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Jump Warning Capability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mecikalski, John; Jewett, Chris; Carey, Larry; Zavodsky, Brad; Stano, Geoffrey</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> one of the most dangerous weather-related phenomena, especially as many jobs and activities occur outdoors, presenting risk from a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike. Cloud-to-ground (CG) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> represents a considerable safety threat to people at airfields, marinas, and outdoor facilities-from airfield personnel, to people attending outdoor stadium events, on beaches and golf courses, to mariners, as well as emergency personnel. Holle et al. (2005) show that 90% of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> deaths occurred outdoors, while 10% occurred indoors despite the perception of safety when inside buildings. Curran et al. (2000) found that nearly half of fatalities due to weather were related to convective weather in the 1992-1994 timeframe, with <span class="hlt">lightning</span> causing a large component of the fatalities, in addition to tornadoes and flash flooding. Related to the aviation industry, CG <span class="hlt">lightning</span> represents a considerable hazard to baggage-handlers, aircraft refuelers, food caterers, and emergency personnel, who all become exposed to the risk of being struck within short time periods while convective storm clouds develop. Airport safety protocols require that ramp operations be modified or discontinued when <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is in the vicinity (typically 16 km), which becomes very costly and disruptive to flight operations. Therefore, much focus has been paid to nowcasting the first-time initiation and extent of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, both of CG and of any <span class="hlt">lightning</span> (e.g, in-cloud, cloud-to-cloud). For this project three <span class="hlt">lightning</span> nowcasting methodologies will be combined: (1) a GOESbased 0-1 hour <span class="hlt">lightning</span> initiation (LI) product (Harris et al. 2010; Iskenderian et al. 2012), (2) a High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> probability and forecasted <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash density product, such that a quantitative amount of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> (QL) can be assigned to a location of expected LI, and (3) an algorithm that relates Pseudo-GLM data (Stano et al. 2012, 2014) to the so-called "<span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump" (LJ) methodology (Shultz et al</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1285F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.1285F"><span>Infrasound from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> measured in Ivory Coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farges, T.; Millet, C.; Matoza, R. S.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>It is well established that more than 2,000 thunderstorms occur continuously around the world and that about 45 <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes are produced per second over the globe. More than two thirds (42) of the infrasound stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBTO (Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation) are now certified and routinely measure signals due to natural activity (e.g., airflow over mountains, aurora, microbaroms, surf, volcanoes, severe weather including <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes, …). Some of the IMS stations are located where worldwide <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection networks (e.g. WWLLN) have a weak detection capability but <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity is high (e.g. Africa, South America). These infrasound stations are well localised to study <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash activity and its disparity, which is a good proxy for global warming. Progress in infrasound array data processing over the past ten years makes such <span class="hlt">lightning</span> studies possible. For example, Farges and Blanc (2010) show clearly that it is possible to measure <span class="hlt">lightning</span> infrasound from thunderstorms within a range of distances from the infrasound station. Infrasound from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> can be detected when the thunderstorm is within about 75 km from the station. The motion of the squall zone is very well measured inside this zone. Up to 25% of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes can be detected with this technique, giving better results locally than worldwide <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection networks. An IMS infrasound station has been installed in Ivory Coast for 9 years. The <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rate of this region is 10-20 flashes/km2/year from space-based instrument OTD (Christian et al., 2003). Ivory Coast is therefore a good place to study infrasound data associated with <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity and its temporal variation. First statistical results will be presented in this paper based on 4 years of data (2005-2009). For short <span class="hlt">lightning</span> distances (less than 20 km), up to 60 % of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detected by WWLLN has been one-to-one correlated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/21143289-approach-lightning-overvoltage-protection-medium-voltage-lines-severe-lightning-areas','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/21143289-approach-lightning-overvoltage-protection-medium-voltage-lines-severe-lightning-areas"><span>An Approach to the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Overvoltage Protection of Medium Voltage Lines in Severe <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Areas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Omidiora, M. A.; Lehtonen, M.</p> <p>2008-05-08</p> <p>This paper deals with the effect of shield wires on <span class="hlt">lightning</span> overvoltage reduction and the energy relief of MOV (Metal Oxide Varistor) arresters from direct strokes to distribution lines. The subject of discussion is the enhancement of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection in Finnish distribution networks where <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is most severe. The true index of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> severity in these areas is based on the ground flash densities and return stroke data collected from the Finnish meteorological institute. The presented test case is the IEEE 34-node test feeder injected with multiple <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes and simulated with the Alternative Transients Program/Electromagnetic Transients program (ATP/EMTP). Themore » response of the distribution line to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes was modeled with three different cases: no protection, protection with surge arresters and protection with a combination of shield wire and arresters. Simulations were made to compare the resulting overvoltages on the line for all the analyzed cases.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=336118&keyword=air&subject=air%20research&showcriteria=2&fed_org_id=111&datebeginpublishedpresented=09/03/2012&dateendpublishedpresented=09/03/2017&sortby=pubdateyear','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=336118&keyword=air&subject=air%20research&showcriteria=2&fed_org_id=111&datebeginpublishedpresented=09/03/2012&dateendpublishedpresented=09/03/2017&sortby=pubdateyear"><span>A simple <span class="hlt">lightning</span> assimilation technique for improving ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Convective rainfall is often a large source of error in retrospective modeling applications. In particular, positive rainfall biases commonly exist during summer months due to overactive convective parameterizations. In this study, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> assimilation was applied in the Kain-Fritsch (KF) convective scheme to improve retrospective simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The assimilation method has a straightforward approach: force KF deep convection where <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is observed and, optionally, suppress deep convection where <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is absent. WRF simulations were made with and without <span class="hlt">lightning</span> assimilation over the continental United States for July 2012, July 2013, and January 2013. The simulations were evaluated against NCEP stage-IV precipitation data and MADIS near-surface meteorological observations. In general, the use of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> assimilation considerably improves the simulation of summertime rainfall. For example, the July 2012 monthly averaged bias of 6 h accumulated rainfall is reduced from 0.54 to 0.07 mm and the spatial correlation is increased from 0.21 to 0.43 when <span class="hlt">lightning</span> assimilation is used. Statistical measures of near-surface meteorological variables also are improved. Consistent improvements also are seen for the July 2013 case. These results suggest that this <span class="hlt">lightning</span> assimilation technique has the potential to substantially improve simulation of warm-season rainfall in retrospective WRF applications. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=325491&keyword=air&subject=air%20research&showcriteria=2&fed_org_id=111&datebeginpublishedpresented=02/27/2012&dateendpublishedpresented=02/27/2017&sortby=pubdateyear','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?direntryid=325491&keyword=air&subject=air%20research&showcriteria=2&fed_org_id=111&datebeginpublishedpresented=02/27/2012&dateendpublishedpresented=02/27/2017&sortby=pubdateyear"><span>A Simple <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Assimilation Technique For Improving ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Convective rainfall is often a large source of error in retrospective modeling applications. In particular, positive rainfall biases commonly exist during summer months due to overactive convective parameterizations. In this study, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> assimilation was applied in the Kain-Fritsch (KF) convective scheme to improve retrospective simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The assimilation method has a straightforward approach: Force KF deep convection where <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is observed and, optionally, suppress deep convection where <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is absent. WRF simulations were made with and without <span class="hlt">lightning</span> assimilation over the continental United States for July 2012, July 2013, and January 2013. The simulations were evaluated against NCEP stage-IV precipitation data and MADIS near-surface meteorological observations. In general, the use of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> assimilation considerably improves the simulation of summertime rainfall. For example, the July 2012 monthly-averaged bias of 6-h accumulated rainfall is reduced from 0.54 mm to 0.07 mm and the spatial correlation is increased from 0.21 to 0.43 when <span class="hlt">lightning</span> assimilation is used. Statistical measures of near-surface meteorological variables also are improved. Consistent improvements also are seen for the July 2013 case. These results suggest that this <span class="hlt">lightning</span> assimilation technique has the potential to substantially improve simulation of warm-season rainfall in retrospective WRF appli</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/362646-grounding-lightning-protection-volume','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/362646-grounding-lightning-protection-volume"><span>Grounding and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. Volume 5</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Robinson, M.D.</p> <p>1987-12-31</p> <p>Grounding systems protect personnel and equipment by isolating faulted systems and dissipating transient currents. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection systems minimize the possible consequences of a direct strike by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. This volume focuses on design requirements of the grounding system and on present-day concepts used in the design of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection systems. Various types of grounding designs are presented, and their advantages and disadvantages discussed. Safety, of course, is the primary concern of any grounding system. Methods are shown for grounding the non-current-carrying parts of electrical equipment to reduce shock hazards to personnel. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection systems are installed on tall structures (such asmore » chimneys and cooling towers) to minimize the possibility of structural damage caused by direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes. These strokes may carry currents of 200,000 A or more. The volume examines the formation and characteristics of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes and the way stroke characteristics influence the design of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection systems. Because a large portion of the grounding system is buried in soil or concrete, it is not readily accessible for inspection or repair after its installation. The volume details the careful selection and sizing of materials needed to ensure a long, maintenance-free life for the system. Industry standards and procedures for testing the adequacy of the grounding system are also discussed.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1320247','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1320247"><span>A Model <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Safety Policy for Athletics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bennett, Brian L.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Objective: The purpose of this paper is to present a model policy on <span class="hlt">lightning</span> safety for athletic trainers. Background: Among college athletic programs in the United States there is a serious lack of written policy on <span class="hlt">lightning</span> safety. Available evidence shows that most National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institutions, even though they are located in high <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity areas of the country, do not have formal, written <span class="hlt">lightning</span> safety policies. Clinical Advantages/ Recommendations: The policy presented herein, which is at the forefront of such policies, is the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> safety policy written as part of a policies and procedures manual for the division of sports medicine at a public NCAA Division I university. This is a policy based on practicality that utilizes the “flash-to- bang” method for determining the distance of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity from the observer. The policy begins with the importance of prevention, including the daily monitoring of weather reports. The policy defines a “safe shelter” and specifies the chain of command for determining who removes a team or individuals from an athletic site in the event of dangerous <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity. PMID:16558459</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990008509','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990008509"><span>Optical Detection of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> from Space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Boccippio, Dennis J.; Christian, Hugh J.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Optical sensors have been developed to detect <span class="hlt">lightning</span> from space during both day and night. These sensors have been fielded in two existing satellite missions and may be included on a third mission in 2002. Satellite-hosted, optically-based <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection offers three unique capabilities: (1) the ability to reliably detect <span class="hlt">lightning</span> over large, often remote, spatial regions, (2) the ability to sample all (IC and CG) <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, and (3) the ability to detect <span class="hlt">lightning</span> with uniform (i.e., not range-dependent) sensitivity or detection efficiency. These represent significant departures from conventional RF-based detection techniques, which typically have strong range dependencies (biases) or range limitations in their detection capabilities. The atmospheric electricity team of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Global Hydrology and Climate Center has implemented a three-step satellite <span class="hlt">lightning</span> research program which includes three phases: proof-of-concept/climatology, science algorithm development, and operational application. The first instrument in the program, the Optical Transient Detector (OTD), is deployed on a low-earth orbit (LEO) satellite with near-polar inclination, yielding global coverage. The sensor has a 1300 x 1300 sq km field of view (FOV), moderate detection efficiency, moderate localization accuracy, and little data bias. The OTD is a proof-of-concept instrument and its mission is primarily a global <span class="hlt">lightning</span> climatology. The limited spatial accuracy of this instrument makes it suboptimal for use in case studies, although significant science knowledge has been gained from the instrument as deployed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100026543','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100026543"><span>Recent Advancements in <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Jump Algorithm Work</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schultz, Christopher J.; Petersen, Walter A.; Carey, Lawrence D.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In the past year, the primary objectives were to show the usefulness of total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> as compared to traditional cloud-to-ground (CG) networks, test the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump algorithm configurations in other regions of the country, increase the number of thunderstorms within our thunderstorm database, and to pinpoint environments that could prove difficult for any <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump configuration. A total of 561 thunderstorms have been examined in the past year (409 non-severe, 152 severe) from four regions of the country (North Alabama, Washington D.C., High Plains of CO/KS, and Oklahoma). Results continue to indicate that the 2 <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump algorithm configuration holds the most promise in terms of prospective operational <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump algorithms, with a probability of detection (POD) at 81%, a false alarm rate (FAR) of 45%, a critical success index (CSI) of 49% and a Heidke Skill Score (HSS) of 0.66. The second best performing algorithm configuration was the Threshold 4 algorithm, which had a POD of 72%, FAR of 51%, a CSI of 41% and an HSS of 0.58. Because a more complex algorithm configuration shows the most promise in terms of prospective operational <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump algorithms, accurate thunderstorm cell tracking work must be undertaken to track <span class="hlt">lightning</span> trends on an individual thunderstorm basis over time. While these numbers for the 2 configuration are impressive, the algorithm does have its weaknesses. Specifically, low-topped and tropical cyclone thunderstorm environments are present issues for the 2 <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump algorithm, because of the suppressed vertical depth impact on overall flash counts (i.e., a relative dearth in <span class="hlt">lightning</span>). For example, in a sample of 120 thunderstorms from northern Alabama that contained 72 missed events by the 2 algorithm 36% of the misses were associated with these two environments (17 storms).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/380319','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/380319"><span>New mechanism for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> initiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Roussel-Dupre, R.; Buchwald, M.; Gurevich, A.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). To distinguish radio-frequency (rf) signals generated by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> from the electromagnetic pulse produced by a nuclear explosion, it is necessary to understand the fundamental nature of thunderstorm discharges. The recent debate surrounding the origin of transionospheric pulse pairs (TIPPs) detected by the BLACKBEARD experiment aboard the ALEXIS satellite illustrates this point. We have argued that TIPP events could originate from the upward propagating discharges recently identified by optical images taken from the ground, from airplanes, and from the spacemore » shuttle. In addition, the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) measurements of x-ray bursts originating from thunderstorms are almost certainly associated with these upward propagating discharges. When taken together, these three measurements point directly to the runaway electron mechanism as the source of the upward discharges. The primary goal of this research effort was to identify the specific role played by the runaway-air-breakdown mechanism in the general area of thunderstorm electricity and in so doing develop <span class="hlt">lightning</span> models that predict the optical, rf, and x-ray emissions that are observable from space.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmRe.197..255L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmRe.197..255L"><span>Spatio-temporal dimension of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes based on three-dimensional <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>López, Jesús A.; Pineda, Nicolau; Montanyà, Joan; Velde, Oscar van der; Fabró, Ferran; Romero, David</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>3D mapping system like the LMA - <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array - are a leap forward in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> observation. LMA measurements has lead to an improvement on the analysis of the fine structure of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, allowing to characterize the duration and maximum extension of the cloud fraction of a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash. During several years of operation, the first LMA deployed in Europe has been providing a large amount of data which now allows a statistical approach to compute the full duration and horizontal extension of the in-cloud phase of a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash. The "Ebro <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array" (ELMA) is used in the present study. Summer and winter lighting were analyzed for seasonal periods (Dec-Feb and Jun-Aug). A simple method based on an ellipse fitting technique (EFT) has been used to characterize the spatio-temporal dimensions from a set of about 29,000 <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes including both summer and winter events. Results show an average <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash duration of 440 ms (450 ms in winter) and a horizontal maximum length of 15.0 km (18.4 km in winter). The uncertainties for summer <span class="hlt">lightning</span> lengths were about ± 1.2 km and ± 0.7 km for the mean and median values respectively. In case of winter <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, the level of uncertainty reaches up to 1 km and 0.7 km of mean and median value. The results of the successful correlation of CG discharges with the EFT method, represent 6.9% and 35.5% of the total LMA flashes detected in summer and winter respectively. Additionally, the median value of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> lengths calculated through this correlative method was approximately 17 km for both seasons. On the other hand, the highest median ratios of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> length to CG discharges in both summer and winter were reported for positive CG discharges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810030944&hterms=conversion+rate&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dconversion%2Brate%2527','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810030944&hterms=conversion+rate&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dconversion%2Brate%2527"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> on Jupiter - Rate, energetics, and effects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lewis, J. S.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Voyager data on the optical and radio-frequency detection of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges in the atmosphere of Jupiter suggest a stroke rate significantly lower than on the earth. The efficiency of conversion of atmospheric convective energy flux into <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is almost certainly less than on the earth, probably near 10 to the -7th rather than the terrestrial value of 10 to the -4th. At this level the rate of production of complex organic molecules by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and by thunder shock waves is negligible compared to the rates of known photochemical processes for forming colored inorganic solids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17817848','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17817848"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> on jupiter: rate, energetics, and effects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lewis, J S</p> <p>1980-12-19</p> <p>Voyager data on the optical and radio-frequency detection of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges in the atmosphere of Jupiter suggest a stroke rate significantly lower than on the earth. The efficiency of conversion of atmospheric convective energy flux into <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is almost certainly less than on the earth, probably near 10(-7) rather than the terrestrial value of 10(-4). At this level the rate of production of complex organic molecules by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and by thunder shock waves is negligible compared to the rates of known photochemical processes for forming colored inorganic solids.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070038289&hterms=Geostationary&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DGeostationary','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070038289&hterms=Geostationary&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DGeostationary"><span>Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper for GOES-R</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goodman, Steven; Blakeslee, Richard; Koshak, William</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper (GLM) is a single channel, near-IR optical detector, used to detect, locate and measure total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity over the full-disk as part of a 3-axis stabilized, geostationary weather satellite system. The next generation NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series with a planned launch in 2014 will carry a GLM that will provide continuous day and night observations of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> from the west coast of Africa (GOES-E) to New Zealand (GOES-W) when the constellation is fully operational. The mission objectives for the GLM are to 1) provide continuous, full-disk <span class="hlt">lightning</span> measurements for storm warning and Nowcasting, 2) provide early warning of tornadic activity, and 3) accumulate a long-term database to track decadal changes of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. The GLM owes its heritage to the NASA <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor (1997-Present) and the Optical Transient Detector (1995-2000), which were developed for the Earth Observing System and have produced a combined 11 year data record of global <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity. Instrument formulation studies begun in January 2006 will be completed in March 2007, with implementation expected to begin in September 2007. Proxy total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data from the NASA <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, airborne science missions (e.g., African Monsoon Multi-disciplinary Analysis, AMMA), and regional test beds (e.g, <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Arrays) are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. Real time <span class="hlt">lightning</span> mapping data now being provided to selected forecast offices will lead to improved understanding of the application of these data in the severe storm warning process and accelerate the development of the pre-launch algorithms and Nowcasting applications. Proxy data combined with MODIS and Meteosat Second Generation SEVERI observations will also lead to new</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100020940&hterms=lightning+protection+system+buildings&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dlightning%2Bprotection%2Bsystem%2Bbuildings','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100020940&hterms=lightning+protection+system+buildings&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dlightning%2Bprotection%2Bsystem%2Bbuildings"><span>Estimates of the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> NOx Profile in the Vicinity of the North Alabama <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koshak, William J.; Peterson, Harold</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM) is applied to August 2006 North Alabama <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array (LMA) data to estimate the raw (i.e., unmixed and otherwise environmentally unmodified) vertical profile of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> nitrogen oxides, NOx = NO + NO 2 . This is part of a larger effort aimed at building a more realistic <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NOx emissions inventory for use by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Data from the National <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network TM (NLDN) is also employed. Overall, special attention is given to several important <span class="hlt">lightning</span> variables including: the frequency and geographical distribution of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in the vicinity of the LMA network, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> type (ground or cloud flash), <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel length, channel altitude, channel peak current, and the number of strokes per flash. Laboratory spark chamber results from the literature are used to convert 1-meter channel segments (that are located at a particular known altitude; i.e., air density) to NOx concentration. The resulting raw NOx profiles are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........94L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........94L"><span>Investigating <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-to-ionosphere energy coupling based on VLF <span class="hlt">lightning</span> propagation characterization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lay, Erin Hoffmann</p> <p></p> <p>In this dissertation, the capabilities of the World-Wide <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Location Network (WWLLN) are analyzed in order to study the interactions of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> energy with the lower ionosphere. WWLLN is the first global ground-based <span class="hlt">lightning</span> location network and the first <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection network that continuously monitors <span class="hlt">lightning</span> around the world in real time. For this reason, a better characterization of the WWLLN could allow many global atmospheric science problems to be addressed, including further investigation into the global electric circuit and global mapping of regions of the lower ionosphere likely to be impacted by strong <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and transient luminous events. This dissertation characterizes the World-Wide Location Network (WWLLN) in terms of detection efficiency, location and timing accuracy, and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> type. This investigation finds excellent timing and location accuracy for WWLLN. It provides the first experimentally-determined estimate of relative global detection efficiency that is used to normalize <span class="hlt">lightning</span> counts based on location. These normalized global <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data from the WWLLN are used to map intense storm regions around the world with high time and spatial resolution as well as to provide information on energetic emissions known as elves and terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs). This dissertation also improves WWLLN by developing a procedure to provide the first estimate of relative <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stroke radiated energy in the 1-24 kHz frequency range by a global <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection network. These characterizations and improvements to WWLLN are motivated by the desire to use WWLLN data to address the problem of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-to-ionosphere energy coupling. Therefore, WWLLN stroke rates are used as input to a model, developed by Professor Mengu Cho at the Kyushu Institute of Technology in Japan, that describes the non-linear effect of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> electromagnetic pulses (EMP) on the ionosphere by accumulating electron density changes resulting</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20180001961','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20180001961"><span>ENSO Related Inter-Annual <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Variability from the Full TRMM LIS <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Climatology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clark, Austin; Cecil, Daniel</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>The El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) contributes to inter-annual variability of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> production more than any other atmospheric oscillation. This study further investigated how ENSO phase affects <span class="hlt">lightning</span> production in the tropics and subtropics using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor (LIS). <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> data were averaged into mean annual warm, cold, and neutral 'years' for analysis of the different phases and compared to model reanalysis data. An examination of the regional sensitivities and preliminary analysis of three locations was conducted using model reanalysis data to determine the leading convective mechanisms in these areas and how they might respond to the ENSO phases</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMAE12A..06B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMAE12A..06B"><span>Trends in <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Electrical Energy Derived from the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bitzer, P. M.; Koshak, W. J.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>We present results detailing an emerging application of space-based measurement of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>: the electrical energy. This is a little-used attribute of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data which can have applications for severe weather, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> physics, and wildfires. In particular, we use data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor (TRMM/LIS) to find the temporal and spatial variations in the detected spectral energy density. This is used to estimate the total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> electrical energy, following established methodologies. Results showing the trend in time of the electrical energy, as well as the distribution around the globe, will be highlighted. While flashes have been typically used in most studies, the basic scientifically-relevant measured unit by LIS is the optical group data product. This generally corresponds to a return stroke or IC pulse. We explore how the electrical energy varies per LIS group, providing an extension and comparison with previous investigations. The result is an initial climatology of this new and important application of space-based optical measurements of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, which can provide a baseline for future applications using the Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper (GLM), the European <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imager (LI), and the International Space Station <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor (ISS/LIS) instruments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990009077','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19990009077"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Characteristics and <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Strike Peak Current Probabilities as Related to Aerospace Vehicle Operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, Dale L.; Vaughan, William W.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>A summary is presented of basic <span class="hlt">lightning</span> characteristics/criteria for current and future NASA aerospace vehicles. The paper estimates the probability of occurrence of a 200 kA peak <span class="hlt">lightning</span> return current, should <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike an aerospace vehicle in various operational phases, i.e., roll-out, on-pad, launch, reenter/land, and return-to-launch site. A literature search was conducted for previous work concerning occurrence and measurement of peak lighting currents, modeling, and estimating probabilities of launch vehicles/objects being struck by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. This paper presents these results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140007319','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140007319"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Tracking Tool for Assessment of Total Cloud <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> within AWIPS II</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Burks, Jason E.; Stano, Geoffrey T.; Sperow, Ken</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> (intra-cloud and cloud-to-ground) has been widely researched and shown to be a valuable tool to aid real-time warning forecasters in the assessment of severe weather potential of convective storms. The trend of total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> has been related to the strength of a storm's updraft. Therefore a rapid increase in total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> signifies the strengthening of the parent thunderstorm. The assessment of severe weather potential occurs in a time limited environment and therefore constrains the use of total <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. A tool has been developed at NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center to assist in quickly analyzing the total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> signature of multiple storms. The development of this tool comes as a direct result of forecaster feedback from numerous assessments requesting a real-time display of the time series of total <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. This tool also takes advantage of the new architecture available within the AWIPS II environment. SPoRT's <span class="hlt">lightning</span> tracking tool has been tested in the Hazardous Weather Testbed (HWT) Spring Program and significant changes have been made based on the feedback. In addition to the updates in response to the HWT assessment, the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> tracking tool may also be extended to incorporate other requested displays, such as the intra-cloud to cloud-to-ground ratio as well as incorporate the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump algorithm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23761114','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23761114"><span>Central hyperadrenergic state after <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Parsaik, Ajay K; Ahlskog, J Eric; Singer, Wolfgang; Gelfman, Russell; Sheldon, Seth H; Seime, Richard J; Craft, Jennifer M; Staab, Jeffrey P; Kantor, Birgit; Low, Phillip A</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>To describe and review autonomic complications of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike. Case report and laboratory data including autonomic function tests in a subject who was struck by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. A 24-year-old man was struck by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Following that, he developed dysautonomia, with persistent inappropriate sinus tachycardia and autonomic storms, as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and functional neurologic problems. The combination of persistent sinus tachycardia and episodic exacerbations associated with hypertension, diaphoresis, and agitation was highly suggestive of a central hyperadrenergic state with superimposed autonomic storms. Whether the additional PTSD and functional neurologic deficits were due to a direct effect of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike on the central nervous system or a secondary response is open to speculation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GI......3..135C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GI......3..135C"><span>Protection against <span class="hlt">lightning</span> at a geomagnetic observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Čop, R.; Milev, G.; Deželjin, D.; Kosmač, J.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>The Sinji Vrh Geomagnetic Observatory was built on the brow of Gora, the mountain above Ajdovščina, which is a part of Trnovo plateau, and all over Europe one can hardly find an area which is more often struck by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> than this southwestern part of Slovenia. When the humid air masses of a storm front hit the edge of Gora, they rise up more than 1000 m in a very short time, and this causes an additional electrical charge of stormy clouds. The reliability of operations performed in every section of the observatory could be increased by understanding the formation of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in a thunderstorm cloud and the application of already-proven methods of protection against a stroke of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and against its secondary effects. To reach this goal the following groups of experts have to cooperate: experts in the field of protection against <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, constructors and manufacturers of equipment and observatory managers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840040382&hterms=barret&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dbarret','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840040382&hterms=barret&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dbarret"><span>Correlated observations of three triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Idone, V. P.; Orville, R. E.; Hubert, P.; Barret, L.; Eybert-Berard, A.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Three triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes, initiated during the Thunderstorm Research International Program (1981) at Langmuir Laboratory, New Mexico, are examined on the basis of three-dimensional return stroke propagation speeds and peak currents. Nonlinear relationships result between return stroke propagation speed and stroke peak current for 56 strokes, and between return stroke propagation speed and dart leader propagation speed for 32 strokes. Calculated linear correlation coefficients include dart leader propagation speed and ensuing return stroke peak current (32 strokes; r = 0.84); and stroke peak current and interstroke interval (69 strokes; r = 0.57). Earlier natural <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data do not concur with the weak positive correlation between dart leader propagation speed and interstroke interval. Therefore, application of triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> results to natural <span class="hlt">lightning</span> phenomena must be made with certain caveats. Mean values are included for the three-dimensional return stroke propagation speed and for the three-dimensional dart leader propagation speed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002GeoRL..29.2142P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002GeoRL..29.2142P"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> activity during the 1999 Superior derecho</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Price, Colin G.; Murphy, Brian P.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>On 4 July 1999, a severe convective windstorm, known as a derecho, caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> measured by the Canadian <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators of severe weather.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.A71B0092P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFM.A71B0092P"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Activity During the 1999 Superior Derecho</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Price, C. G.; Murphy, B. P.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>On 4 July 1999, a severe convective windstorm, known as a derecho, caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> measured by the Canadian <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators of severe weather.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3737249','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3737249"><span>Central Hyperadrenergic State After <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Strike</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Parsaik, Ajay K.; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Singer, Wolfgang; Gelfman, Russell; Sheldon, Seth H.; Seime, Richard J.; Craft, Jennifer M.; Staab, Jeffrey P.; Kantor, Birgit; Low, Phillip A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objective To describe and review autonomic complications of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike. Methods Case report and laboratory data including autonomic function tests in a subject who was struck by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Results A 24-year-old man was struck by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Following that, he developed dysautonomia, with persistent inappropriate sinus tachycardia and autonomic storms, as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and functional neurologic problems. Interpretation The combination of persistent sinus tachycardia and episodic exacerbations associated with hypertension, diaphoresis, and agitation were highly suggestive of a central hyperadrenergic state with superimposed autonomic storms. Whether the additional PTSD and functional neurologic deficits were due to a direct effect of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike on the CNS or a secondary response is open to speculation. PMID:23761114</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890038205&hterms=rust&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Drust','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19890038205&hterms=rust&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Drust"><span>A solid state <span class="hlt">lightning</span> propagation speed sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mach, Douglas M.; Rust, W. David</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A device to measure the propagation speeds of cloud-to-ground <span class="hlt">lightning</span> has been developed. The <span class="hlt">lightning</span> propagation speed (LPS) device consists of eight solid state silicon photodetectors mounted behind precision horizontal slits in the focal plane of a 50-mm lens on a 35-mm camera. Although the LPS device produces results similar to those obtained from a streaking camera, the LPS device has the advantages of smaller size, lower cost, mobile use, and easier data collection and analysis. The maximum accuracy for the LPS is 0.2 microsec, compared with about 0.8 microsecs for the streaking camera. It is found that the return stroke propagation speed for triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is different than that for natural <span class="hlt">lightning</span> if measurements are taken over channel segments less than 500 m. It is suggested that there are no significant differences between the propagation speeds of positive and negative flashes. Also, differences between natural and triggered dart leaders are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/7156499-lightning-prevention-systems-paper-mills','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/7156499-lightning-prevention-systems-paper-mills"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> prevention systems for paper mills</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Carpenter, R.B. Jr.</p> <p>1989-05-01</p> <p>Paper mills are increasingly relying on sensitive electronic equipment to control their operations. However, the sensitivity of these devices has made mills vulnerable to the effects of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes. An interruption in the power supply or the destruction of delicate microcircuits can have devastating effects on mill productivity. The authors discuss how <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes can be prevented by a Dissipation Array system (DAS). During the past 17 years, the concept has been applied to a host of applications in regions with a high incidence of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity. With nearly 700 systems now installed, more than 4000 system-years of history havemore » been accumulated. Areas as large as 1 km{sup 2} and towers as high as 2000 ft have been protected and completely isolated from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes. There have been very few failures, and in every case, the cause of the failure was determined and corrected.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140007322','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140007322"><span>Correlation of DIAL Ozone Observations with <span class="hlt">Lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Peterson, Harold; Kuang, Shi; Koshak, William; Newchurch, Michael</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this project is to see whether ozone maxima measured by the DIfferential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) instrument in Huntsville, AL may be traced back to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> events occurring 24-48 hours beforehand. The methodology is to start with lidar measurements of ozone from DIAL. The HYbrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model is then used to determine the origin of these ozone maxima 24-48 hours prior. Data from the National <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network (NLDN) are used to examine the presence/absence of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> along the trajectory. This type of analysis suggests that <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-produced NOx may be responsible for some of the ozone maxima over Huntsville.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140006433','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140006433"><span>Correlation of DIAL Ozone Observations with <span class="hlt">Lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Peterson, Harold; Kuang, Shi; Koshak, William; Newchurch, Michael</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this project is to see whether ozone maxima measured by the DIfferential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) instrument in Huntsville, AL may be traced back to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> events occurring 24- 48 hours beforehand. The methodology is to start with lidar measurements of ozone from DIAL as well as ozonesonde measurements. The HYbrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model is then used to determine the origin of these ozone maxima 24-48 hours prior. Data from the National <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network (NLDN) are used to examine the presence/absence of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> along the trajectory. This type of analysis suggests that <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-produced NOx may be responsible for some of the ozone maxima over Huntsville.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840034431&hterms=ATLA&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DATLA','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840034431&hterms=ATLA&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DATLA"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> measurements from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Scarf, F. L.; Russell, C. T.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The plasma wave instrument on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter frequently detects strong and impulsive low-frequency signals when the spacecraft traverses the nightside ionosphere near periapsis. These particular noise bursts appear only when the local magnetic field is strong and steady and when the field is oriented to point down to the ionosphere thus; the signals have all characteristics of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> whistlers. We have tried to identify <span class="hlt">lightning</span> sources between the cloud layers and the planet itself by tracing rays along the B-field from the Orbiter down toward the surface. An extensive data set, consisting of measurements through Orbit 1185, strongly indicates a clustering of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> sources near the Beta and Phoebe Regios, with an additional significant cluster near the Atla Regio at the eastern edge of Aphrodite Terra. These results suggest that there are localized <span class="hlt">lightning</span> sources at or near the planetary surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018NatAs.tmp...69B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018NatAs.tmp...69B"><span>Jovian <span class="hlt">lightning</span> whistles a new tune</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bortnik, Jacob</p> <p>2018-06-01</p> <p>The Juno spacecraft has detected unprecedented numbers of `whistlers' and `sferics' in its orbits around Jupiter, both indications of high <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash rates in the atmosphere of the gas giant planet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=The+AND+lightning&pg=6&id=EJ415490','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=The+AND+lightning&pg=6&id=EJ415490"><span>A Simple <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Flash Polarity Discriminating Counter.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Devan, K. R. S.; Jayaratne, E. R.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Described are the apparatus and procedures needed for a demonstration of a determination of the polarity of charges carried by individual ground flashes of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Discussed are materials, apparatus construction, and experimental results. (CW)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMAE33D..01K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMAE33D..01K"><span>How <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Works Inside Thunderstorms: A Half-Century of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krehbiel, P. R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> is a fascinating and intriguing natural phenomenon, but the most interesting parts of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges are inside storms where they are obscured from view by the storm cloud. Although clouds are essentially opaque at optical frequencies, they are fully transparent at radio frequencies (RF). This, coupled with the fact that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> produces prodigious RF emissions, has allowed us to image and study <span class="hlt">lightning</span> inside storms using various RF and lower-frequency remote sensing techniques. As in all other scientific disciplines, the technology for conducting the studies has evolved to an incredible extent over the past 50 years. During this time, we have gone from having very little or no knowledge of how <span class="hlt">lightning</span> operates inside storms, to being able to 'see' its detailed structure and development with an increasing degree of spatial and temporal resolution. In addition to studying the discharge processes themselves, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> mapping observations provide valuable information on the electrical charge structure of storms, and on the mechanisms by which storms become strongly electrified. In this presentation we briefly review highlights of previous observations, focussing primarily on the long string of remote-sensing studies I have been involved in. We begin with the study of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> charge centers of cloud-to-ground discharges in central New Mexico in the late 1960s and continue up to the present day with interferometric and 3-dimensional time-of-arrival VHF mapping observations of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in normally- and anomalously electrified storms. A particularly important aspect of the investigations has been comparative studies of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in different climatological regimes. We conclude with observations being obtained by a high-speed broadband VHF interferometer, which show in unprecedented detail how individual <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges develop inside storms. From combined interferometer and 3-D mapping data, we are beginning to unlock nature's secrets</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMAE31B0430S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMAE31B0430S"><span>Scientific <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network for Kazakhstan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Streltsov, A. V.; Lozbin, A.; Inchin, A.; Shpadi, Y.; Inchin, P.; Shpadi, M.; Ayazbayev, G.; Bykayev, R.; Mailibayeva, L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In the frame of grant financing of the scientific research in 2015-2017 the project "To Develop Electromagnetic System for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> location and atmosphere-lithosphere coupling research" was found. The project was start in January, 2015 and should be done during 3 years. The purpose is to create a system of electromagnetic measurements for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> location and atmosphere-lithosphere coupling research consisting of a network of electric and magnetic sensors and the dedicated complex for data processing and transfer to the end user. The main tasks are to set several points for electromagnetic measurements with 100-200 km distance between them, to develop equipment for these points, to develop the techniques and software for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> location (Time-of-arrival and Direction Finding (TOA+DF)) and provide a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity research in North Tien-Shan region with respect to seismicity and other natural and manmade activities. Also, it is planned to use <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data for Global Electric Circuit (GEC) investigation. Currently, there are <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection networks in many countries. In Kazakhstan we have only separate units in airports. So, we don't have full <span class="hlt">lightning</span> information for our region. It is planned, to setup 8-10 measurement points with magnetic and electric filed antennas for VLF range. The final data set should be including each stroke location, time, type (CG+, CG-, CC+ or CC-) and waveform from each station. As the magnetic field <span class="hlt">lightning</span> antenna the ferrite rod VLF antenna will be used. As the electric field antenna the wide range antenna with specific frequencies filters will be used. For true event detection TOA and DF methods needs detected stroke from minimum 4 stations. In this case we can get location accuracy about 2-3 km and better.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EOSTr..95s.360W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EOSTr..95s.360W"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> channel current persists between strokes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wendel, JoAnna</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The usual cloud-to-ground <span class="hlt">lightning</span> occurs when a large negative charge contained in a "stepped leader" travels down toward the Earth's surface. It then meets a positive charge that comes up tens of meters from the ground, resulting in a powerful neutralizing explosion that begins the first return stroke of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash. The entire flash lasts only a few hundred milliseconds, but during that time, multiple subsequent stroke-return stroke sequences usually occur.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/981833','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/981833"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection system for a wind turbine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Costin, Daniel P [Chelsea, VT; Petter, Jeffrey K [Williston, VT</p> <p>2008-05-27</p> <p>In a wind turbine (104, 500, 704) having a plurality of blades (132, 404, 516, 744) and a blade rotor hub (120, 712), a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection system (100, 504, 700) for conducting <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to any one of the blades and the region surrounding the blade hub along a path around the blade hub and critical components of the wind turbine, such as the generator (112, 716), gearbox (708) and main turbine bearings (176, 724).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6356663-shielding-theory-upward-lightning','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/6356663-shielding-theory-upward-lightning"><span>A shielding theory for upward <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shindo, Takatoshi; Aihara, Yoshinori</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A new shielding theory is proposed based on the assumption that the occurrence of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes on the Japan Sea coast in winter is due to the inception of upward leaders from tall structures. Ratios of the numbers of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes to high structures observed there in winter show reasonable agreement with values calculated by this theory. Shielding characteristics of a high structure in various conditions are predicted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790009256&hterms=Electricity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DElectricity','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19790009256&hterms=Electricity&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DElectricity"><span>Summary report of the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and Static Electricity Committee</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Plumer, J. A.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection technology as applied to aviation and identifying these technology needs are presented. The flight areas of technical needs include; (1) the need for In-Flight data on <span class="hlt">lightning</span> electrical parameters; (2) technology base and guidelines for protection of advanced systems and structures; (3) improved laboratory test techniques; (4) analysis techniques for predicting induced effects; (5) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike incident data from General Aviation; (6) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection systems; (7) obtain pilot reports of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes; and (8) better training in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> awareness. The nature of each problem, timeliness, impact of solutions, degree of effort required, and the roles of government and industry in achieving solutions are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/952468','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/952468"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Arrestor Connectors Production Readiness</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Marten, Steve; Linder, Kim; Emmons, Jim</p> <p>2008-10-20</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Arrestor Connector (LAC), part “M”, presented opportunities to improve the processes used to fabricate LACs. The A## LACs were the first production LACs produced at the KCP, after the product was transferred from Pinnellas. The new LAC relied on the lessons learned from the A## LACs; however, additional improvements were needed to meet the required budget, yield, and schedule requirements. Improvement projects completed since 2001 include Hermetic Connector Sealing Improvement, Contact Assembly molding Improvement, development of a second vendor for LAC shells, general process improvement, tooling improvement, reduction of the LAC production cycle time, and documention of themore » LAC granule fabrication process. This report summarizes the accomplishments achieved in improving the LAC Production Readiness.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29138444','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29138444"><span>The Elusive Evidence of Volcanic <span class="hlt">Lightning</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Genareau, K; Gharghabi, P; Gafford, J; Mazzola, M</p> <p>2017-11-14</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> strikes are known to morphologically alter and chemically reduce geologic formations and deposits, forming fulgurites. A similar process occurs as the result of volcanic <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge, when airborne volcanic ash is transformed into <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-induced volcanic spherules (LIVS). Here, we adapt the calculations used in previous studies of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-induced damage to infrastructure materials to determine the effects on pseudo-ash samples of simplified composition. Using laboratory high-current impulse experiments, this research shows that within the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge channel there is an ideal melting zone that represents roughly 10% or less of the total channel radius at which temperatures are sufficient to melt the ash, regardless of peak current. The melted ash is simultaneously expelled from the channel by the heated, expanding air, permitting particles to cool during atmospheric transport before coming to rest in ash fall deposits. The limited size of this ideal melting zone explains the low number of LIVS typically observed in volcanic ash despite the frequent occurrence of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> during explosive eruptions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27466230','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27466230"><span>A Fossilized Energy Distribution of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pasek, Matthew A; Hurst, Marc</p> <p>2016-07-28</p> <p>When <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes soil, it may generate a cylindrical tube of glass known as a fulgurite. The morphology of a fulgurite is ultimately a consequence of the energy of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike that formed it, and hence fulgurites may be useful in elucidating the energy distribution frequency of cloud-to-ground <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Fulgurites from sand mines in Polk County, Florida, USA were collected and analyzed to determine morphologic properties. Here we show that the energy per unit length of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes within quartz sand has a geometric mean of ~1.0 MJ/m, and that the distribution is lognormal with respect to energy per length and frequency. Energy per length is determined from fulgurites as a function of diameter, and frequency is determined both by cumulative number and by cumulative length. This distribution parallels those determined for a number of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> parameters measured in actual atmospheric discharge events, such as charge transferred, voltage, and action integral. This methodology suggests a potential useful pathway for elucidating <span class="hlt">lightning</span> energy and damage potential of strikes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4964350','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4964350"><span>A Fossilized Energy Distribution of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pasek, Matthew A.; Hurst, Marc</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>When <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes soil, it may generate a cylindrical tube of glass known as a fulgurite. The morphology of a fulgurite is ultimately a consequence of the energy of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike that formed it, and hence fulgurites may be useful in elucidating the energy distribution frequency of cloud-to-ground <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Fulgurites from sand mines in Polk County, Florida, USA were collected and analyzed to determine morphologic properties. Here we show that the energy per unit length of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes within quartz sand has a geometric mean of ~1.0 MJ/m, and that the distribution is lognormal with respect to energy per length and frequency. Energy per length is determined from fulgurites as a function of diameter, and frequency is determined both by cumulative number and by cumulative length. This distribution parallels those determined for a number of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> parameters measured in actual atmospheric discharge events, such as charge transferred, voltage, and action integral. This methodology suggests a potential useful pathway for elucidating <span class="hlt">lightning</span> energy and damage potential of strikes. PMID:27466230</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28465545','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28465545"><span>On the initiation of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in thunderclouds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chilingarian, Ashot; Chilingaryan, Suren; Karapetyan, Tigran; Kozliner, Lev; Khanikyants, Yeghia; Hovsepyan, Gagik; Pokhsraryan, David; Soghomonyan, Suren</p> <p>2017-05-02</p> <p>The relationship of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and elementary particle fluxes in the thunderclouds is not fully understood to date. Using the particle beams (the so-called Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements - TGEs) as a probe we investigate the characteristics of the interrelated atmospheric processes. The well-known effect of the TGE dynamics is the abrupt termination of the particle flux by the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash. With new precise electronics, we can see that particle flux decline occurred simultaneously with the rearranging of the charge centers in the cloud. The analysis of the TGE energy spectra before and after the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> demonstrates that the high-energy part of the TGE energy spectra disappeared just after <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. The decline of particle flux coincides on millisecond time scale with first atmospheric discharges and we can conclude that Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanches (RREA) in the thundercloud assist initiation of the negative cloud to ground <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Thus, RREA can provide enough ionization to play a significant role in the unleashing of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023316','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023316"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection for shuttle propulsion elements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goodloe, Carolyn C.; Giudici, Robert J.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The results of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection analyses and tests are weighed against the present set of waivers to the NASA <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection specification. The significant analyses and tests are contrasted with the release of a new and more realistic <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection specification, in September 1990, that resulted in an inordinate number of waivers. A variety of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection analyses and tests of the Shuttle propulsion elements, the Solid Rocket Booster, the External Tank, and the Space Shuttle Main Engine, were conducted. These tests range from the sensitivity of solid propellant during shipping to penetration of cryogenic tanks during flight. The Shuttle propulsion elements have the capability to survive certain levels of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes at certain times during transportation, launch site operations, and flight. Changes are being evaluated that may improve the odds of withstanding a major <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike. The Solid Rocket Booster is the most likely propulsion element to survive if systems tunnel bond straps are improved. Wiring improvements were already incorporated and major protection tests were conducted. The External Tank remains vulnerable to burn-through penetration of its skin. Proposed design improvements include the use of a composite nose cone and conductive or laminated thermal protection system coatings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170001583','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170001583"><span>Rationales for the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Launch Commit Criteria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Willett, John C. (Editor); Merceret, Francis J. (Editor); Krider, E. Philip; O'Brien, T. Paul; Dye, James E.; Walterscheid, Richard L.; Stolzenburg, Maribeth; Cummins, Kenneth; Christian, Hugh J.; Madura, John T.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Since natural and triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> are demonstrated hazards to launch vehicles, payloads, and spacecraft, NASA and the Department of Defense (DoD) follow the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) for launches from Federal Ranges. The LLCC were developed to prevent future instances of a rocket intercepting natural <span class="hlt">lightning</span> or triggering a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash during launch from a Federal Range. NASA and DoD utilize the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Advisory Panel (LAP) to establish and develop robust rationale from which the criteria originate. The rationale document also contains appendices that provide additional scientific background, including detailed descriptions of the theory and observations behind the rationales. The LLCC in whole or part are used across the globe due to the rigor of the documented criteria and associated rationale. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) adopted the LLCC in 2006 for commercial space transportation and the criteria were codified in the FAA's Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) for Safety of an Expendable Launch Vehicle (Appendix G to 14 CFR Part 417, (G417)) and renamed <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Flight Commit Criteria in G417.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810029852&hterms=Grounded+theory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DGrounded%2Btheory','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810029852&hterms=Grounded+theory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DGrounded%2Btheory"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection design external tank /Space Shuttle/</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, A.; Mumme, E.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The possibility of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> striking the Space Shuttle during liftoff is considered and the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection system designed by the Martin Marietta Corporation for the external tank (ET) portion of the Shuttle is discussed. The protection system is based on diverting and/or directing a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike to an area of the spacecraft which can sustain the strike. The ET <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection theory and some test analyses of the system's design are reviewed including studies of conductivity and thermal/stress properties in materials, belly band feasibility, and burn-through plug grounding and puncture voltage. The ET <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection system design is shown to be comprised of the following: (1) a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rod on the forward most point of the ET, (2) a continually grounded, one inch wide conductive strip applied circumferentially at station 371 (belly band), (3) a three inch wide conductive belly band applied over the TPS (i.e. the insulating surface of the ET) and grounded to a structure with eight conductive plugs at station 536, and (4) a two inch thick TPS between the belly bands which are located over the weld lands.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900005214','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900005214"><span>JPS heater and sensor <span class="hlt">lightning</span> qualification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cook, M.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Simulated <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike testing of the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) field joint protection system heater assembly was performed at Thiokol Corp., Wendover <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Facility. Testing consisted of subjecting the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> evaluation test article to simulated <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes and evaluating the effects of heater cable transients on cables within the systems tunnel. The maximum short circuit current coupled onto a United Space Boosters, Inc. operational flight cable within the systems tunnel, induced by transients from all cables external to the systems tunnel, was 92 amperes. The maximum open-circuit voltage coupled was 316 volts. The maximum short circuit current coupled onto a United Space Boosters, Inc. operational flight cable within the systems tunnel, induced by heater power cable transients only, was 2.7 amperes; the maximum open-circuit voltage coupled was 39 volts. All heater power cable induced coupling was due to simulated <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges only, no heater operating power was applied during the test. The results showed that, for a worst-case <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge, the heater power cable is responsible for a 3.9 decibel increase in voltage coupling to operational flight cables within the systems tunnel. Testing also showed that current and voltage levels coupled onto cables within the systems tunnel are partially dependant on the relative locations of the cables within the systems tunnel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=335488&Lab=NERL&keyword=forensics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=335488&Lab=NERL&keyword=forensics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> NOx Production in CMAQ Part I – Using Hourly NLDN <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Strike Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span>-produced nitrogen oxides (NOX=NO+NO2) in the middle and upper troposphere play an essential role in the production of ozone (O3) and influence the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. Despite much effort in both observing and modeling <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NOX during the past dec...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMAE41A..06S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMAE41A..06S"><span>Combining GOES-16 Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper with the ground based Earth Networks Total <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stock, M.; Lapierre, J. L.; Zhu, Y.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Recently, the Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper (GLM) began collecting optical data to locate <span class="hlt">lightning</span> events and flashes over the North and South American continents. This new instrument promises uniformly high detection efficiency (DE) over its entire field of view, with location accuracy on the order of 10 km. In comparison, Earth Networks Total <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Networks (ENTLN) has a less uniform coverage, with higher DE in regions with dense sensor coverage, and lower DE with sparse sensor coverage. ENTLN also offers better location accuracy, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> classification, and peak current estimation for their <span class="hlt">lightning</span> locations. It is desirable to produce an integrated dataset, combining the strong points of GLM and ENTLN. The easiest way to achieve this is to simply match located <span class="hlt">lightning</span> processes from each system using time and distance criteria. This simple method will be limited in scope by the uneven coverage of the ground based network. Instead, we will use GLM group locations to look up the electric field change data recorded by ground sensors near each GLM group, vastly increasing the coverage of the ground network. The ground waveforms can then be used for: improvements to differentiation between glint and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> for GLM, higher precision lighting location, current estimation, and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> process classification. Presented is an initial implementation of this type of integration using preliminary GLM data, and waveforms from ENTLN.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018EP%26S...70...88T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018EP%26S...70...88T"><span>Initiation of a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> search using the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and airglow camera onboard the Venus orbiter Akatsuki</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takahashi, Yukihiro; Sato, Mitsuteru; Imai, Masataka; Lorenz, Ralph; Yair, Yoav; Aplin, Karen; Fischer, Georg; Nakamura, Masato; Ishii, Nobuaki; Abe, Takumi; Satoh, Takehiko; Imamura, Takeshi; Hirose, Chikako; Suzuki, Makoto; Hashimoto, George L.; Hirata, Naru; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Sato, Takao M.; Yamada, Manabu; Murakami, Shin-ya; Yamamoto, Yukio; Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Ogohara, Kazunori; Ando, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Ko-ichiro; Kashimura, Hiroki; Ohtsuki, Shoko</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p>The existence of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges in the Venus atmosphere has been controversial for more than 30 years, with many positive and negative reports published. The <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and airglow camera (LAC) onboard the Venus orbiter, Akatsuki, was designed to observe the light curve of possible flashes at a sufficiently high sampling rate to discriminate <span class="hlt">lightning</span> from other sources and can thereby perform a more definitive search for optical emissions. Akatsuki arrived at Venus during December 2016, 5 years following its launch. The initial operations of LAC through November 2016 have included a progressive increase in the high voltage applied to the avalanche photodiode detector. LAC began <span class="hlt">lightning</span> survey observations in December 2016. It was confirmed that the operational high voltage was achieved and that the triggering system functions correctly. LAC <span class="hlt">lightning</span> search observations are planned to continue for several years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20180001922','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20180001922"><span>ENSO Related Interannual <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Variability from the Full TRMM LIS <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Climatology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Clark, Austin; Cecil, Daniel J.</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>It has been shown that the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) contributes to inter-annual variability of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> production in the tropics and subtropics more than any other atmospheric oscillation. This study further investigated how ENSO phase affects <span class="hlt">lightning</span> production in the tropics and subtropics. Using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the Oceanic Nino Index (ONI) for ENSO phase, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data were averaged into corresponding mean annual warm, cold, and neutral 'years' for analysis of the different phases. An examination of the regional sensitivities and preliminary analysis of three locations was conducted using model reanalysis data to determine the leading convective mechanisms in these areas and how they might respond to the ENSO phases. These processes were then studied for inter-annual variance and subsequent correlation to ENSO during the study period to best describe the observed <span class="hlt">lightning</span> deviations from year to year at each location.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFMAE21A..06K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFMAE21A..06K"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Observations: What we are learning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krehbiel, P.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>The use of radio frequency time-of-arrival techniques for accurately mapping <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges is revolutionizing our ability to study <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge processes and to investigate thunderstorms. Different types of discharges are being observed that we have not been able to study before or knew existed. Included are a variety of inverted and normal polarity intracloud and cloud-to-ground discharges, frequent short-duration discharges at high altitude in storms and in overshooting convective tops, highly energetic impulsive discharge events, and horizontally extensive `spider' <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges in large mesoscale convective systems. High time resolution measurements valuably complement interferometric observations and are starting to exceed the ability of interferometers to provide detailed pictures of flash development. Mapping observations can be used to infer the polarity of the breakdown channels and hence the location and sign of charge regions in the storm. The <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity in large, severe storms is found to be essentially continuous and volume-filling, with substantially more <span class="hlt">lightning</span> inside the storm than between the cloud and ground. Spectacular dendritic structures are observed in many flashes. The <span class="hlt">lightning</span> observations can be used to infer the electrical structure of a storm and therefore to study the electrification processes. The results are raising fundamental questions about how storms become electrified and how the electrification evolves with time. Supercell storms are commonly observed to electrify in an inverted or anomalous manner, raising questions about how these storms are different from normal storms, and even what is `normal'. The high <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rates in severe storms raises the distinct possibility that the discharges themselves might be sustaining or enhancing the electrification. Correlated observations with radar, instrumented balloons and aircraft, and ground-based measurements are leading to greatly improved</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090017890&hterms=epa&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Depa','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090017890&hterms=epa&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Depa"><span>A NASA <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Parameterization for CMAQ</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koshak, William; Khan, Maudood; Biazar, Arastoo; Newchurch, Mike; McNider, Richard</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Many state and local air quality agencies use the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to determine compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Because emission reduction scenarios are tested using CMAQ with an aim of determining the most efficient and cost effective strategies for attaining the NAAQS, it is very important that trace gas concentrations derived by CMAQ are accurate. Overestimating concentrations can literally translate into billions of dollars lost by commercial and government industries forced to comply with the standards. Costly health, environmental and socioeconomic problems can result from concentration underestimates. Unfortunately, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> modeling for CMAQ is highly oversimplified. This leads to very poor estimates of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-produced nitrogen oxides "NOx" (= NO + NO2) which directly reduces the accuracy of the concentrations of important CMAQ trace gases linked to NOx concentrations such as ozone and methane. Today it is known that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is the most important NOx source in the upper troposphere with a global production rate estimated to vary between 2-20 Tg(N)/yr. In addition, NOx indirectly influences our climate since it controls the concentration of ozone and hydroxyl radicals (OH) in the atmosphere. Ozone is an important greenhouse gas and OH controls the oxidation of various greenhouse gases. We describe a robust NASA <span class="hlt">lightning</span> model, called the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM) that combines state-of-the-art <span class="hlt">lightning</span> measurements, empirical results from field studies, and beneficial laboratory results to arrive at a realistic representation of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NOx production for CMAQ. NASA satellite <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data is used in conjunction with ground-based <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection systems to assure that the best representation of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> frequency, geographic location, channel length, channel altitude, strength (i.e., channel peak current), and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713577H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713577H"><span>Severe weather detection by using Japanese Total <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hobara, Yasuhide; Ishii, Hayato; Kumagai, Yuri; Liu, Charlie; Heckman, Stan; Price, Colin</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In this paper we demonstrate the preliminary results from the first Japanese Total <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Network. The University of Electro-Communications (UEC) recently deployed Earth Networks Total <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> System over Japan to conduct various <span class="hlt">lightning</span> research projects. Here we analyzed the total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data in relation with 10 severe events such as gust fronts and tornadoes occurred in 2014 in mainland Japan. For the analysis of these events, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump algorithm was used to identify the increase of the flash rate in prior to the severe weather events. We found that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jumps associated with significant increasing <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activities for total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and IC clearly indicate the severe weather occurrence than those for CGs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080002889&hterms=nature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dnature','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080002889&hterms=nature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dnature"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span>: Nature's Probe of Severe Weather for Research and Operations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blakeslee, R.J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span>, the energetic and broadband electrical discharge produced by thunderstorms, provides a natural remote sensing signal for the study of severe storms and related phenomena on global, regional and local scales. Using this strong signal- one of nature's own probes of severe weather -<span class="hlt">lightning</span> measurements prove to be straightforward and take advantage of a variety of measurement techniques that have advanced considerably in recent years. We briefly review some of the leading <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection systems including satellite-based optical detectors such as the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor, and ground-based radio frequency systems such as Vaisala's National <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network (NLDN), long range <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection systems, and the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array (LMA) networks. In addition, we examine some of the exciting new research results and operational capabilities (e.g., shortened tornado warning lead times) derived from these observations. Finally we look forward to the next measurement advance - <span class="hlt">lightning</span> observations from geostationary orbit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/9757','DOTNTL'); return false;" href="https://rosap.ntl.bts.gov/view/dot/9757"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and its effects on railroad signal circuits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntlsearch.bts.gov/tris/index.do">DOT National Transportation Integrated Search</a></p> <p></p> <p>1975-12-31</p> <p>This study discusses the occurrence of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, its effects on railroad signal equipment, and protection of such equipment from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> damage, with special attention to known protective techniques which are employed in a variety of situations in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MNRAS.470..187A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MNRAS.470..187A"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> chemistry on Earth-like exoplanets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ardaseva, Aleksandra; Rimmer, Paul B.; Waldmann, Ingo; Rocchetto, Marco; Yurchenko, Sergey N.; Helling, Christiane; Tennyson, Jonathan</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>We present a model for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> shock-induced chemistry that can be applied to atmospheres of arbitrary H/C/N/O chemistry, hence for extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs. The model couples hydrodynamics and the STAND2015 kinetic gas-phase chemistry. For an exoplanet analogue to the contemporary Earth, our model predicts NO and NO2 yields in agreement with observation. We predict height-dependent mixing ratios during a storm soon after a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> shock of NO ≈10-3 at 40 km and NO2 ≈10-4 below 40 km, with O3 reduced to trace quantities (≪10-10). For an Earth-like exoplanet with a CO2/N2 dominated atmosphere and with an extremely intense <span class="hlt">lightning</span> storm over its entire surface, we predict significant changes in the amount of NO, NO2, O3, H2O, H2 and predict a significant abundance of C2N. We find that, for the Early Earth, O2 is formed in large quantities by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> but is rapidly processed by the photochemistry, consistent with previous work on <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. The chemical effect of persistent global <span class="hlt">lightning</span> storms are predicted to be significant, primarily due to NO2, with the largest spectral features present at ˜3.4 and ˜6.2 μm. The features within the transmission spectrum are on the order of 1 ppm and therefore are not likely detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope. Depending on its spectral properties, C2N could be a key tracer for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> on Earth-like exoplanets with a N2/CO2 bulk atmosphere, unless destroyed by yet unknown chemical reactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/949855-lightning-vulnerability-fiber-optic-cables','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/949855-lightning-vulnerability-fiber-optic-cables"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> vulnerability of fiber-optic cables.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Martinez, Leonard E.; Caldwell, Michele</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>One reason to use optical fibers to transmit data is for isolation from unintended electrical energy. Using fiber optics in an application where the fiber cable/system penetrates the aperture of a grounded enclosure serves two purposes: first, it allows for control signals to be transmitted where they are required, and second, the insulating properties of the fiber system help to electrically isolate the fiber terminations on the inside of the grounded enclosure. A fundamental question is whether fiber optic cables can allow electrical energy to pass through a grounded enclosure, with a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike representing an extreme but very importantmore » case. A DC test bed capable of producing voltages up to 200 kV was used to characterize electrical properties of a variety of fiber optic cable samples. Leakage current in the samples were measured with a micro-Ammeter. In addition to the leakage current measurements, samples were also tested to DC voltage breakdown. After the fiber optic cables samples were tested with DC methods, they were tested under representative <span class="hlt">lightning</span> conditions at the Sandia <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Simulator (SLS). Simulated <span class="hlt">lightning</span> currents of 30 kA and 200 kA were selected for this test series. This paper documents measurement methods and test results for DC high voltage and simulated <span class="hlt">lightning</span> tests performed at the Sandia <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Simulator on fiber optic cables. The tests performed at the SLS evaluated whether electrical energy can be conducted inside or along the surface of a fiber optic cable into a grounded enclosure under representative <span class="hlt">lightning</span> conditions.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090017685&hterms=information+technology+trend&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dinformation%2Btechnology%2Btrend','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090017685&hterms=information+technology+trend&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dinformation%2Btechnology%2Btrend"><span>An Operational Perspective of Total <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Information</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nadler, David J.; Darden, Christopher B.; Stano, Geoffrey; Buechler, Dennis E.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The close and productive collaborations between the NWS Warning and Forecast Office, the Short Term Prediction and Research Transition Center at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the University of Alabama in Huntsville have provided a unique opportunity for science sharing and technology transfer. One significant technology transfer that has provided immediate benefits to NWS forecast and warning operations is the use of data from the North Alabama <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array. This network consists of ten VHF receivers deployed across northern Alabama and a base station located at the National Space Science and Technology Center. Preliminary investigations done at WFO Huntsville, along with other similar total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> networks across the country, have shown distinct correlations between the time rate-of-change of total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and trends in intensity/severity of the parent convective cell. Since May 2003 when WFO HUN began receiving these data - in conjunction with other more traditional remotely sensed data (radar, satellite, and surface observations) -- have improved the situational awareness of the WFO staff. The use of total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> information, either from current ground based systems or future space borne instrumentation, may substantially contribute to the NWS mission, by enhancing severe weather warning and decision-making processes. Operational use of the data has been maximized at WFO Huntsville through a process that includes forecaster training, product implementation, and post event analysis and assessments. Since receiving these data, over 50 surveys have been completed highlighting the use of total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> information during significant events across the Tennessee Valley. In addition, around 150 specific cases of interest have been archived for collaborative post storm analysis. From these datasets, detailed trending information from radar and total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> can be compared to corresponding damage reports. This presentation will emphasize</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880019875','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880019875"><span>The 1983 direct strike <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data, part 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, Mitchel E.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Data waveforms are presented which were obtained during the 1983 direct strike <span class="hlt">lightning</span> tests utilizing the NASA F106-B aircraft specially instrumented for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> electromagnetic measurements. The aircraft was operated in the vicinity of the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, in a thunderstorm environment to elicit strikes. Electromagnetic field data and conduction currents on the aircraft were recorded for attached <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Part 1 contains 435 pages of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike data in chart form.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880019876','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19880019876"><span>The 1983 direct strike <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data, part 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, Mitchel E.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Data waveforms are presented which were obtained during the 1983 direct strike <span class="hlt">lightning</span> tests utilizing the NASA F106-B aircraft specially instrumented for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> electromagnetic measurements. The aircraft was operated in the vicinity of the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, in a thunderstorm environment to elicit strikes. Electromagnetic field data and conduction currents on the aircraft were recorded for attached <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Part 2 contains 443 pages of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike data in chart form.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990108685&hterms=self+harm&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dself%2Bharm','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990108685&hterms=self+harm&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dself%2Bharm"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Launch Commit Criteria for America's Space Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Roeder, W. P.; Sardonia, J. E.; Jacobs, S. C.; Hinson, M. S.; Harms, D. E.; Madura, J. T.; DeSordi, S. P.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The danger of natural and triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> significantly impacts space launch operations supported by the USAF. The <span class="hlt">lightning</span> Launch Commit Criteria (LCC) are used by the USAF to avoid these <span class="hlt">lightning</span> threats to space launches. This paper presents a brief overview of the LCC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title30-vol1-sec57-12065.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title30-vol1-sec57-12065.pdf"><span>30 CFR 57.12065 - Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 57... MINES Electricity Surface Only § 57.12065 Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title30-vol1-sec56-12065.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title30-vol1-sec56-12065.pdf"><span>30 CFR 56.12065 - Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 56... Electricity § 56.12065 Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title30-vol1-sec57-12065.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title30-vol1-sec57-12065.pdf"><span>30 CFR 57.12065 - Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 57... MINES Electricity Surface Only § 57.12065 Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol1-sec56-12065.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol1-sec56-12065.pdf"><span>30 CFR 56.12065 - Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 56... Electricity § 56.12065 Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol1-sec57-12065.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol1-sec57-12065.pdf"><span>30 CFR 57.12065 - Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 57... MINES Electricity Surface Only § 57.12065 Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title30-vol1-sec56-12065.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title30-vol1-sec56-12065.pdf"><span>30 CFR 56.12065 - Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 56... Electricity § 56.12065 Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title30-vol1-sec57-12065.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title30-vol1-sec57-12065.pdf"><span>30 CFR 57.12065 - Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 57... MINES Electricity Surface Only § 57.12065 Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title30-vol1-sec56-12065.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title30-vol1-sec56-12065.pdf"><span>30 CFR 56.12065 - Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 56... Electricity § 56.12065 Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=338768&Lab=NERL&keyword=forensics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=338768&Lab=NERL&keyword=forensics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>A Performance Evaluation of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span>-NO Algorithms in CMAQ</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQv5.2) model, we have implemented two algorithms for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NO production; one algorithm is based on the hourly observed cloud-to-ground <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike data from National <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network (NLDN) to replace the previous m...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol1-sec56-12065.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol1-sec56-12065.pdf"><span>30 CFR 56.12065 - Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 56... Electricity § 56.12065 Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol1-sec57-12065.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol1-sec57-12065.pdf"><span>30 CFR 57.12065 - Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 57... MINES Electricity Surface Only § 57.12065 Short circuit and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec25-1316.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec25-1316.pdf"><span>14 CFR 25.1316 - System <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... airplane; (5) Establishing the susceptibility of the systems to the internal and external <span class="hlt">lightning</span>...) Determining the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike zones for the airplane; (2) Establishing the external <span class="hlt">lightning</span> environment for the zones; (3) Establishing the internal environment; (4) Identifying all the electrical and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec23-954.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec23-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 23.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 23.954... Fuel System § 23.954 Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor within the system by— (a) Direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to areas having a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec23-954.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec23-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 23.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 23.954... Fuel System § 23.954 Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor within the system by— (a) Direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to areas having a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec23-954.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec23-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 23.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 23.954... Fuel System § 23.954 Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor within the system by— (a) Direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to areas having a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec23-954.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec23-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 23.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 23.954... Fuel System § 23.954 Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor within the system by— (a) Direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to areas having a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec23-954.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec23-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 23.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 23.954... Fuel System § 23.954 Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor within the system by— (a) Direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to areas having a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840002593','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840002593"><span>How to protect a wind turbine from <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dodd, C. W.; Mccalla, T., Jr.; Smith, J. G.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>Techniques for reducing the chances of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> damage to wind turbines are discussed. The methods of providing a ground for a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike are discussed. Then details are given on ways to protect electronic systems, generating and power equipment, blades, and mechanical components from direct and nearby <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=The+AND+lightning&pg=5&id=EJ244606','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=The+AND+lightning&pg=5&id=EJ244606"><span>Production of Artificial <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> in An Ordinary Clear Light Bulb.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zaffo, Peter Alfred</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Reported is a method of producing artificial <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in an ordinary clear lightbulb. The appearance of sparks produced is that of a miniature stroke of forked <span class="hlt">lightning</span> seen in natural thunderstorms. The sparks also show the intricate branching patterns often seen in natural <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. (JT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec25-1316.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec25-1316.pdf"><span>14 CFR 25.1316 - System <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... systems to perform these functions are not adversely affected when the airplane is exposed to <span class="hlt">lightning</span>... these functions can be recovered in a timely manner after the airplane is exposed to <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. (c) Compliance with the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection criteria prescribed in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section must...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMAE13A0368Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMAE13A0368Z"><span>Statistical Evolution of the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Flash</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zoghzoghy, F. G.; Cohen, M.; Said, R.; Inan, U. S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Natural <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is one of the most fascinating and powerful electrical processes on Earth. To date, the physics behind this natural phenomenon are not fully understood, due primarily to the difficulty of obtaining measurements inside thunderstorms and to the wide range of timescales involved (from nanoseconds to seconds). Our aim is to use accurate <span class="hlt">lightning</span> geo-location data from the National <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network (NLDN) to study statistical patterns in <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, taking advantage of the fact that millions of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes occur around the globe every day. We present two sets of results, one involving the patterns of flashes in a storm, and a second involving the patterns of strokes in a flash. These patterns can provide a surrogate measure of the timescales and the spatial extents of the underlying physical processes. First, we study the timescales of charge buildup inside thunderstorms. We find that, following a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash, the probability of another neighboring flash decreases and takes tens of seconds to recover. We find that this suppression effect is a function of flash type, stroke peak current, cloud-to-ground (CG) stroke multiplicity, and other <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and geographical parameters. We find that the probabilities of subsequent flashes are more suppressed following oceanic <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, or following flashes with higher peak currents and/or higher multiplicities (for CG flashes). Second, we use NLDN data to study the evolution of the strokes within a CG flash. A CG flash typically includes multiple return strokes, which can occur in the same channel or in multiple channels within a few kilometers. We cluster NLDN stroke data into flashes and produce the probability density function of subsequent strokes as a function of distance and time-delays relative to the previous stroke. Using this technique, we investigate processes which occur during the CG <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash with nanosecond to millisecond timescales. For instance, our results suggest</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100002101&hterms=climate+facts&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dclimate%2Bfacts','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100002101&hterms=climate+facts&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dclimate%2Bfacts"><span>Climate Change and Tropical Total <span class="hlt">Lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Albrecht, R.; Petersen, W.; Buechler, D.; Goodman, S.; Blakeslee, R.; Christian, H.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>While global warming is regarded as a fact by many in the scientific community, its future impact remains a challenge to be determined and measured. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment report (IPCC, 2007) shows inconclusive answers on global rainfall trends and general agreement on a future drier climate with increased global warming. The relationship between temperature, humidity and convection is not linear and is strongly dependent on regional scale features, such as topography and land cover. Furthermore, the relationship between convective <span class="hlt">lightning</span> production (thunderstorms) and temperature is even more complicated, being subjected to the cloud dynamics and microphysics. Total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> (intracloud and cloud-to-ground) monitoring is a relatively new field of observation. Global and tropical total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> began to be more extensively measured by satellites in the mid 90s. In this scope, the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor (LIS) onboard of the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) has been operational for over 11 years. Here we address total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> trends observed by LIS from 1998 to 2008 in different temporal (annual and seasonal) and spatial (large and regional) scales. The observed 11-year trends are then associate to different predicted/hypothesized climate change scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511245D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1511245D"><span>Solar wind modulation of UK <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davis, Chris; Harrison, Giles; Lockwood, Mike; Owens, Mathew; Barnard, Luke</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The response of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rates in the UK to arrival of high speed solar wind streams at Earth is investigated using a superposed epoch analysis. The fast solar wind streams' arrivals are determined from modulation of the solar wind Vy component, measured by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> rate changes around these event times are then determined from the very low frequency Arrival Time Difference (ATD) system of the UK Met Office. Arrival of high speed streams at Earth is found to be preceded by a decrease in total solar irradiance and an increase in sunspot number and Mg II emissions. These are consistent with the high speed stream's source being co-located with an active region appearing on the Eastern solar limb and rotating at the 27 day rate of the Sun. Arrival of the high speed stream at Earth also coincides with a rapid decrease in cosmic ray flux and an increase in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rates over the UK, persisting for around 40 days. The <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rate increase is corroborated by an increase in the total number of thunder days observed by UK Met stations, again for around 40 days after the arrival of a high speed solar wind stream. This increase in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> may be beneficial to medium range forecasting of hazardous weather.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023322','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023322"><span>The Sandia transportable triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> instrumentation facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schnetzer, George H.; Fisher, Richard J.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Development of the Sandia Transportable Triggered <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Instrumentation Facility (SATTLIF) was motivated by a requirement for the in situ testing of a munitions storage bunker. Transfer functions relating the incident flash currents to voltages, currents, and electromagnetic field values throughout the structure will be obtained for use in refining and validating a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> response computer model of this type of structure. A preliminary shakedown trial of the facility under actual operational conditions was performed during summer of 1990 at the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) rocket-triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> test site. A description is given of the SATTLIF, which is readily transportable on a single flatbed truck of by aircraft, and its instrumentation for measuring incident <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel currents and the responses of the systems under test. Measurements of return-stroke current peaks obtained with the SATTLIF are presented. Agreement with data acquired on the same flashes with existing KSC instrumentation is, on average, to within approximately 7 percent. Continuing currents were measured with a resolution of approximately 2.5 A. This field trial demonstrated the practicality of using a transportable triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> facility for specialized test applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=522088','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=522088"><span>Isolation of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span>-Competent Soil Bacteria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cérémonie, Hélène; Buret, François; Simonet, Pascal; Vogel, Timothy M.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Artificial transformation is typically performed in the laboratory by using either a chemical (CaCl2) or an electrical (electroporation) method. However, laboratory-scale <span class="hlt">lightning</span> has been shown recently to electrotransform Escherichia coli strain DH10B in soil. In this paper, we report on the isolation of two “<span class="hlt">lightning</span>-competent” soil bacteria after direct electroporation of the Nycodenz bacterial ring extracted from prairie soil in the presence of the pBHCRec plasmid (Tcr, Spr, Smr). The electrotransformability of the isolated bacteria was measured both in vitro (by electroporation cuvette) and in situ (by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in soil microcosm) and then compared to those of E. coli DH10B and Pseudomonas fluorescens C7R12. The electrotransformation frequencies measured reached 10−3 to 10−4 by electroporation and 10−4 to 10−5 by simulated <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, while no transformation was observed in the absence of electrical current. Two of the isolated <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-competent soil bacteria were identified as Pseudomonas sp. strains. PMID:15466589</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130014258','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130014258"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> NOx Statistics Derived by NASA <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM) Data Analyses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koshak, William; Peterson, Harold</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>What is the LNOM? The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM) [Koshak et al., 2009, 2010, 2011; Koshak and Peterson 2011, 2013] analyzes VHF <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array (LMA) and National <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network(TradeMark) (NLDN) data to estimate the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> nitrogen oxides (LNOx) produced by individual flashes. Figure 1 provides an overview of LNOM functionality. Benefits of LNOM: (1) Does away with unrealistic "vertical stick" <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel models for estimating LNOx; (2) Uses ground-based VHF data that maps out the true channel in space and time to < 100 m accuracy; (3) Therefore, true channel segment height (ambient air density) is used to compute LNOx; (4) True channel length is used! (typically tens of kilometers since channel has many branches and "wiggles"); (5) Distinction between ground and cloud flashes are made; (6) For ground flashes, actual peak current from NLDN used to compute NOx from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> return stroke; (7) NOx computed for several other <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge processes (based on Cooray et al., 2009 theory): (a) Hot core of stepped leaders and dart leaders, (b) Corona sheath of stepped leader, (c) K-change, (d) Continuing Currents, and (e) M-components; and (8) LNOM statistics (see later) can be used to parameterize LNOx production for regional air quality models (like CMAQ), and for global chemical transport models (like GEOS-Chem).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15...32P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15...32P"><span>Visual Analytics approach for <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> data analysis and cell nowcasting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peters, Stefan; Meng, Liqiu; Betz, Hans-Dieter</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Thunderstorms and their ground effects, such as flash floods, hail, <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, strong wind and tornadoes, are responsible for most weather damages (Bonelli & Marcacci 2008). Thus to understand, identify, track and predict <span class="hlt">lightning</span> cells is essential. An important aspect for decision makers is an appropriate visualization of weather analysis results including the representation of dynamic <span class="hlt">lightning</span> cells. This work focuses on the visual analysis of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> cell nowcasting which aim to detect and understanding spatial-temporal patterns of moving thunderstorms. <span class="hlt">Lightnings</span> are described by 3D coordinates and the exact occurrence time of <span class="hlt">lightnings</span>. The three-dimensionally resolved total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data used in our experiment are provided by the European <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection network LINET (Betz et al. 2009). In all previous works, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> point data, detected <span class="hlt">lightning</span> cells and derived cell tracks are visualized in 2D. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> cells are either displayed as 2D convex hulls with or without the underlying <span class="hlt">lightning</span> point data. Due to recent improvements of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data detection and accuracy, there is a growing demand on multidimensional and interactive visualization in particular for decision makers. In a first step <span class="hlt">lightning</span> cells are identified and tracked. Then an interactive graphic user interface (GUI) is developed to investigate the dynamics of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> cells: e.g. changes of cell density, location, extension as well as merging and splitting behavior in 3D over time. In particular a space time cube approach is highlighted along with statistical analysis. Furthermore a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> cell nowcasting is conducted and visualized. The idea thereby is to predict the following cell features for the next 10-60 minutes including location, centre, extension, density, area, volume, lifetime and cell feature probabilities. The main focus will be set to a suitable interactive visualization of the predicted featured within the GUI. The developed visual</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018LPICo2063.3017L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018LPICo2063.3017L"><span>The Deep Space Gateway <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper (DLM) — Monitoring Global Change and Thunderstorm Processes through Observations of Earth's High-Latitude <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> from Cis-Lunar Orbit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lang, T. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Cecil, D. J.; Christian, H. J.; Gatlin, P. N.; Goodman, S. J.; Koshak, W. J.; Petersen, W. A.; Quick, M.; Schultz, C. J.; Tatum, P. F.</p> <p>2018-02-01</p> <p>We propose the Deep Space Gateway <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper (DLM) instrument. The primary goal of the DLM is to optically monitor Earth's high-latitude (50° and poleward) total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> not observed by current and planned spaceborne <span class="hlt">lightning</span> mappers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988JAP....63.3191G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988JAP....63.3191G"><span>Magnetic field generated by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Geri, A.; Veca, G. M.</p> <p>1988-04-01</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection system for today's civil buildings must be electromagnetically compatible with the electronic equipment present in the building. This paper highlights a mathematic model which analyzes the electromagnetic effects in the environment in which the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection system is. This model is developed by means of finite elements of an electrical circuit where each element is represented by a double pole circuit according to the trapezoidal algorithm developed using the finite difference method. It is thus possible to analyze the electromagnetic phenomena associated with the transient effects created by the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stroke even for a high-intensity current. Referring to an elementary system comprised of an air terminal, a down conductor, and a ground terminal, numerical results are here laid out.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22580490','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22580490"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and severe thunderstorms in event management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Walsh, Katie M</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>There are a few national position stands/guidelines that address environmental conditions in athletics, yet they do not govern all outdoor sports. Extreme heat and cold, <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, and severe wind can all be fatal, yet the majority of outdoor sports have no published guidelines addressing these conditions in relation to activity. Available research on extreme heat and cold conditions in athletics provides prevention strategies, to include acclimatization. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and severe wind are two environmental conditions to which humans cannot accommodate, and they both can be deadly. There are strong positions on extreme heat/cold and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> safety in athletics, but none affiliated with severe winds. Medical personnel involved in planning large outdoor sporting events must know of the presence of nationally published weather-related documents and apply them to their event. In addition, research needs to be expanded in the realm of establishing guidelines for safety to participants and spectators in severe wind conditions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023331','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023331"><span>A survey of laser <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rod techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Barnes, Arnold A., Jr.; Berthel, Robert O.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The work done to create a laser <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rod (LLR) is discussed. Some ongoing research which has the potential for achieving an operational laser <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rod for use in the protection of missile launch sites, launch vehicles, and other property is discussed. Because of the ease with which a laser beam can be steered into any cloud overhead, an LLR could be used to ascertain if there exists enough charge in the clouds to discharge to the ground as triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. This leads to the possibility of using LLRs to test clouds prior to launching missiles through the clouds or prior to flying aircraft through the clouds. LLRs could also be used to probe and discharge clouds before or during any hazardous ground operations. Thus, an operational LLR may be able to both detect such sub-critical electrical fields and effectively neutralize them.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GID.....4..213C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GID.....4..213C"><span>Protection against <span class="hlt">lightning</span> on the geomagnetic observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Čop, R.; Milev, G.; Deželjin, D.; Kosmač, J.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The Sinji Vrh Geomagnetic Observatory was built on the brow of the mountain Gora, above Ajdovščina, and all over Europe one may hardly find an area which is more often struck by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> than this south-western part of Slovenia. When the humid air masses of a storm front hit the edge of Gora, they rise up more than 1000 m in a very short time, and this causes the additional electrical charge of stormy clouds. The reliability of operations performed in the every building of observatory could be increased by understanding the formation of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in the thunderstorm cloud, the application of already proven methods of protection against a strike of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and against its secondary effects. To reach this goal the following groups of experts have to co-operate: the experts in the field of protection against lightening phenomenon, the constructors and manufacturers of equipment and the observatory managers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880034919&hterms=thunderstorm+protection&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dthunderstorm%2Bprotection','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880034919&hterms=thunderstorm+protection&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dthunderstorm%2Bprotection"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> threat extent of a small thunderstorm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nicholson, James R.; Maier, Launa M.; Weems, John</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The concern for safety of the personnel at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has caused NASA to promulgate strict safety procedures requiring either termination or substantial curtailment when ground <span class="hlt">lightning</span> threat is believed to exist within 9.3 km of a covered operation. In cases where the threat is overestimated, in either space or time, an opportunity cost is accrued. This paper describes a small thunderstorm initiated over the KSC by terrain effects, that serves to exemplify the impact such an event may have on ground operations at the Center. Data from the Air Force <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Location and Protection System, the AF/NASA Launch Pad <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Warning System field mill network, radar, and satellite imagery are used to describe the thunderstorm and to discuss its impact.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003408','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003408"><span>Objective <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Probability Forecast Tool Phase II</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lambert, Winnie</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This presentation describes the improvement of a set of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> probability forecast equations that are used by the 45th Weather Squadron forecasters for their daily 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) weather briefing during the warm season months of May-September. This information is used for general scheduling of operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group also make thunderstorm forecasts during Shuttle flight operations. Five modifications were made by the Applied Meteorology Unit: increased the period of record from 15 to 17 years, changed the method of calculating the flow regime of the day, calculated a new optimal layer relative humidity, used a new smoothing technique for the daily climatology, and used a new valid area. The test results indicated that the modified equations showed and increase in skill over the current equations, good reliability, and an ability to distinguish between <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and non-<span class="hlt">lightning</span> days.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5393793-horizontal-electric-fields-from-lightning-return-strokes','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5393793-horizontal-electric-fields-from-lightning-return-strokes"><span>Horizontal electric fields from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> return strokes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thomson, E.M.; Uman, M.A.; Johnson, J.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Measurements are presented of simultaneous horizontal and vertical electric fields from both close and distant <span class="hlt">lightning</span> return strokes. The data were obtained during summer 1984 at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, using an electrically isolated spherical antenna having a system bandwidth of 3 Hz to 5 MHz. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> signals were obtained from flashes at distances from a few to 100 kilometers. Since the horizontal electric field is in part determined by the local ground conductivity, that parameter was measured as a function of depth. The horizontal fields from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> return strokes had typically 1/50 the peak amplitude of the verticalmore » fields and waveshapes which were consistant with available theory, as expressed by the ''wavetilt'' formula.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1157093-augmenting-satellite-precipitation-estimation-lightning-information','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1157093-augmenting-satellite-precipitation-estimation-lightning-information"><span>Augmenting Satellite Precipitation Estimation with <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Information</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mahrooghy, Majid; Anantharaj, Valentine G; Younan, Nicolas H.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We have used <span class="hlt">lightning</span> information to augment the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Imagery using an Artificial Neural Network - Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS). Co-located <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data are used to segregate cloud patches, segmented from GOES-12 infrared data, into either electrified (EL) or non-electrified (NEL) patches. A set of features is extracted separately for the EL and NEL cloud patches. The features for the EL cloud patches include new features based on the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> information. The cloud patches are classified and clustered using self-organizing maps (SOM). Then brightness temperature and rain rate (T-R) relationships are derived for the different clusters.more » Rain rates are estimated for the cloud patches based on their representative T-R relationship. The Equitable Threat Score (ETS) for daily precipitation estimates is improved by almost 12% for the winter season. In the summer, no significant improvements in ETS are noted.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920045362&hterms=Global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DGlobal%2Bwarming','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920045362&hterms=Global+warming&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DGlobal%2Bwarming"><span>The effect of global warming on <span class="hlt">lightning</span> frequencies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Price, Colin; Rind, David</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The first attempt to model global <span class="hlt">lightning</span> distributions by using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) GCM is reported. Three sets of observations showing the relationship between <span class="hlt">lightning</span> frequency and cloud top height are shown. Zonally averaged <span class="hlt">lightning</span> frequency observed by satellite are compared with those calculated using the GISS GCM, and fair agreement is found. The change in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> frequency for a double CO2 climate is calculated and found to be nearly 2.23 x 10 exp 6 extra <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes per day.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900037492&hterms=radioastronomy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dradioastronomy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900037492&hterms=radioastronomy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dradioastronomy"><span>Upper limit set for level of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity on Titan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Because optically thick cloud and haze layers prevent <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection at optical wavelength on Titan, a search was conducted for <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-radiated signals (spherics) at radio wavelengths using the planetary radioastronomy instrument aboard Voyager 1. Given the maximum ionosphere density of about 3000/cu cm, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> spherics should be detectable above an observing frequency of 500 kHz. Since no evidence for spherics is found, an upper limit to the total energy per flash in Titan <span class="hlt">lightning</span> of about 10 to the 6th J, or about 1000 times weaker than that of typical terrestrial <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, is inferred.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090033131','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090033131"><span>Developing an Enhanced <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Jump Algorithm for Operational Use</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schultz, Christopher J.; Petersen, Walter A.; Carey, Lawrence D.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Overall Goals: 1. Build on the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump framework set through previous studies. 2. Understand what typically occurs in nonsevere convection with respect to increases in <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. 3. Ultimately develop a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump algorithm for use on the Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper (GLM). 4 <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> jump algorithm configurations were developed (2(sigma), 3(sigma), Threshold 10 and Threshold 8). 5 algorithms were tested on a population of 47 nonsevere and 38 severe thunderstorms. Results indicate that the 2(sigma) algorithm performed best over the entire thunderstorm sample set with a POD of 87%, a far of 35%, a CSI of 59% and a HSS of 75%.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170011702','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170011702"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span>-Related Indicators for National Climate Assessment (NCA) Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koshak, W.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Changes in climate can affect the characteristics of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> (e.g., number of flashes that occur in a region, return stroke current and multiplicity, polarity of charge deposited to ground, and the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> cloud-top optical energy emission). The NASA/MSFC <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Analysis Tool (LAT) monitors these and other quantities in support of the National Climate Assessment (NCA) program. Changes in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> characteristics lead to changes in <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-caused impacts to humans (e.g., fatalities, injuries, crop/property damage, wildfires, airport delays, changes in air quality).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMAE53A..05G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUSMAE53A..05G"><span>Artificial Neural Network applied to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gin, R. B.; Guedes, D.; Bianchi, R.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>The development of video cameras enabled cientists to study <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges comportment with more precision. The main goal of this project is to create a system able to detect images of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges stored in videos and classify them using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN)using C Language and OpenCV libraries. The developed system, can be split in two different modules: detection module and classification module. The detection module uses OpenCV`s computer vision libraries and image processing techniques to detect if there are significant differences between frames in a sequence, indicating that something, still not classified, occurred. Whenever there is a significant difference between two consecutive frames, two main algorithms are used to analyze the frame image: brightness and shape algorithms. These algorithms detect both shape and brightness of the event, removing irrelevant events like birds, as well as detecting the relevant events exact position, allowing the system to track it over time. The classification module uses a neural network to classify the relevant events as horizontal or vertical <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, save the event`s images and calculates his number of discharges. The Neural Network was implemented using the backpropagation algorithm, and was trained with 42 training images , containing 57 <span class="hlt">lightning</span> events (one image can have more than one <span class="hlt">lightning</span>). TheANN was tested with one to five hidden layers, with up to 50 neurons each. The best configuration achieved a success rate of 95%, with one layer containing 20 neurons (33 test images with 42 events were used in this phase). This configuration was implemented in the developed system to analyze 20 video files, containing 63 <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges previously manually detected. Results showed that all the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges were detected, many irrelevant events were unconsidered, and the event's number of discharges was correctly computed. The neural network used in this project achieved a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020078320','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020078320"><span>System and Method of Locating <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Strikes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>A system and method of determining locations of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes has been described. The system includes multiple receivers located around an area of interest, such as a space center or airport. Each receiver monitors both sound and electric fields. The detection of an electric field pulse and a sound wave are used to calculate an area around each receiver in which the lighting is detected. A processor is coupled to the receivers to accurately determine the location of the lighting strike. The processor can manipulate the receiver data to compensate for environmental variables such as wind, temperature, and humidity. Further, each receiver processor can discriminate between distant and local <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9e5004S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9e5004S"><span>Evidence for solar wind modulation of <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scott, C. J.; Harrison, R. G.; Owens, M. J.; Lockwood, M.; Barnard, L.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The response of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rates over Europe to arrival of high speed solar wind streams at Earth is investigated using a superposed epoch analysis. Fast solar wind stream arrival is determined from modulation of the solar wind V y component, measured by the Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> rate changes around these event times are determined from the very low frequency arrival time difference (ATD) system of the UK Met Office. Arrival of high speed streams at Earth is found to be preceded by a decrease in total solar irradiance and an increase in sunspot number and Mg II emissions. These are consistent with the high speed stream’s source being co-located with an active region appearing on the Eastern solar limb and rotating at the 27 d period of the Sun. Arrival of the high speed stream at Earth also coincides with a small (˜1%) but rapid decrease in galactic cosmic ray flux, a moderate (˜6%) increase in lower energy solar energetic protons (SEPs), and a substantial, statistically significant increase in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rates. These changes persist for around 40 d in all three quantities. The <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rate increase is corroborated by an increase in the total number of thunder days observed by UK Met stations, again persisting for around 40 d after the arrival of a high speed solar wind stream. This result appears to contradict earlier studies that found an anti-correlation between sunspot number and thunder days over solar cycle timescales. The increase in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rates and thunder days that we observe coincides with an increased flux of SEPs which, while not being detected at ground level, nevertheless penetrate the atmosphere to tropospheric altitudes. This effect could be further amplified by an increase in mean <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stroke intensity that brings more strokes above the detection threshold of the ATD system. In order to remove any potential seasonal bias the analysis was repeated for daily solar wind triggers occurring during the summer</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730023587','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730023587"><span>Automatic <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection and photographic system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wojtasinski, R. J.; Holley, L. D.; Gray, J. L.; Hoover, R. B. (Inventor)</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>A system is presented for monitoring and recording <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes within a predetermined area with a camera having an electrically operated shutter with means for advancing the film in the camera after activating the shutter. The system includes an antenna for sensing <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes which, in turn, generates a signal that is fed to an electronic circuit which generates signals for operating the shutter of the camera. Circuitry is provided for preventing activation of the shutter as the film in the camera is being advanced.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APJAS..50..133S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APJAS..50..133S"><span>Statistical analysis of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> electric field measured under Malaysian condition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Salimi, Behnam; Mehranzamir, Kamyar; Abdul-Malek, Zulkurnain</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> is an electrical discharge during thunderstorms that can be either within clouds (Inter-Cloud), or between clouds and ground (Cloud-Ground). The <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> characteristics and their statistical information are the foundation for the design of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection system as well as for the calculation of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> radiated fields. Nowadays, there are various techniques to detect <span class="hlt">lightning</span> signals and to determine various parameters produced by a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash. Each technique provides its own claimed performances. In this paper, the characteristics of captured broadband electric fields generated by cloud-to-ground <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges in South of Malaysia are analyzed. A total of 130 cloud-to-ground <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes from 3 separate thunderstorm events (each event lasts for about 4-5 hours) were examined. Statistical analyses of the following signal parameters were presented: preliminary breakdown pulse train time duration, time interval between preliminary breakdowns and return stroke, multiplicity of stroke, and percentages of single stroke only. The BIL model is also introduced to characterize the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> signature patterns. Observations on the statistical analyses show that about 79% of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> signals fit well with the BIL model. The maximum and minimum of preliminary breakdown time duration of the observed <span class="hlt">lightning</span> signals are 84 ms and 560 us, respectively. The findings of the statistical results show that 7.6% of the flashes were single stroke flashes, and the maximum number of strokes recorded was 14 multiple strokes per flash. A preliminary breakdown signature in more than 95% of the flashes can be identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.2128L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.2128L"><span>Nowcasting and forecasting of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity: the Talos project.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lagouvardos, Kostas; Kotroni, Vassiliki; Kazadzis, Stelios; Giannaros, Theodore; Karagiannidis, Athanassios; Galanaki, Elissavet; Proestakis, Emmanouil</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Thunder And <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Observing System (TALOS) is a research program funded by the Greek Ministry of Education with the aim to promote excellence in the field of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> meteorology. The study focuses on exploring the real-time observations provided by the ZEUS <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection system, operated by the National Observatory of Athens since 2005, as well as the 10-year long database of the same system. More precisely the main research issues explored are: - <span class="hlt">lightning</span> climatology over the Mediterranean focusing on <span class="hlt">lightning</span> spatial and temporal distribution, on the relation of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> with topographical features and instability and on the importance of aerosols in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> initiation and enhancement. - nowcasting of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity over Greece, with emphasis on the operational aspects of this endeavour. The nowcasting tool is based on the use of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data complemented by high-time resolution METEOSAT imagery. - forecasting of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity over Greece based on the use of WRF numerical weather prediction model. - assimilation of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> with the aim to improve the model precipitation forecast skill. In the frame of this presentation the main findings of each of the aforementioned issues are highlighted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/976609','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/976609"><span>Global optical <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash rates determined with the Forte satellite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Light, T.; Davis, S. M.; Boeck, W. L.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Using FORTE photodiode detector (PDD) observations of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, we have determined the geographic distribution of nighttime flash rate density. We estimate the PDD flash detection efficiency to be 62% for total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> through comparison to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> observations by the TRMM satellite's <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor (LIS), using cases in which FORTE and TRMM viewed the same storm. We present here both seasonal and l,ot,al flash rate maps. We examine some characteristics of the optical emissions of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in both high and low flash rate environments, and find that while <span class="hlt">lightning</span> occurs less frequently over ocean, oceanic <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes are somewhat moremore » powerful, on average, than those over land.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMAE23A..01L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMAE23A..01L"><span>Toward a Time-Domain Fractal <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liang, C.; Carlson, B. E.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Cohen, M.; Lauben, D.; Inan, U. S.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Electromagnetic simulations of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> are useful for prediction of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> properties and exploration of the underlying physical behavior. Fractal <span class="hlt">lightning</span> models predict the spatial structure of the discharge, but thus far do not provide much information about discharge behavior in time and therefore cannot predict electromagnetic wave emissions or current characteristics. Here we develop a time-domain fractal <span class="hlt">lightning</span> simulation from Maxwell's equations, the method of moments with the thin wire approximation, an adaptive time-stepping scheme, and a simplified electrical model of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel. The model predicts current pulse structure and electromagnetic wave emissions and can be used to simulate the entire duration of a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge. The model can be used to explore the electrical characteristics of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel, the temporal development of the discharge, and the effects of these characteristics on observable electromagnetic wave emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730002931','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730002931"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> criteria relative to space shuttles: Currents and electric field intensity in Florida <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Uman, M. A.; Mclain, D. K.</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The measured electric field intensities of 161 <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes in 39 flashes which occurred between 1 and 35 km from an observation point at Kennedy Space Center, Florida during June and July of 1971 have been analyzed to determine the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel currents which produced the fields. In addition, typical channel currents are derived and from these typical electric fields at distances between 0.5 and 100 km are computed and presented. On the basis of the results recommendations are made for changes in the specification of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> properties relative to space vehicle design as given in NASA TMX-64589 (Daniels, 1971). The small sample of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> analyzed yielded several peak currents in the 100 kA range. Several current rise-times from zero to peak of 0.5 microsec or faster were found; and the fastest observed current rate-of-rise was near 200 kA/microsec. The various sources of error are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140008582','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140008582"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Jump Algorithm Development for the GOES·R Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schultz. E.; Schultz. C.; Chronis, T.; Stough, S.; Carey, L.; Calhoun, K.; Ortega, K.; Stano, G.; Cecil, D.; Bateman, M.; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20140008582'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20140008582_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20140008582_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20140008582_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20140008582_hide"></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Current work on the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump algorithm to be used in GOES-R Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper (GLM)'s data stream is multifaceted due to the intricate interplay between the storm tracking, GLM proxy data, and the performance of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump itself. This work outlines the progress of the last year, where analysis and performance of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump algorithm with automated storm tracking and GLM proxy data were assessed using over 700 storms from North Alabama. The cases analyzed coincide with previous semi-objective work performed using total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> mapping array (LMA) measurements in Schultz et al. (2011). Analysis shows that key components of the algorithm (flash rate and sigma thresholds) have the greatest influence on the performance of the algorithm when validating using severe storm reports. Automated objective analysis using the GLM proxy data has shown probability of detection (POD) values around 60% with false alarm rates (FAR) around 73% using similar methodology to Schultz et al. (2011). However, when applying verification methods similar to those employed by the National Weather Service, POD values increase slightly (69%) and FAR values decrease (63%). The relationship between storm tracking and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump has also been tested in a real-time framework at NSSL. This system includes fully automated tracking by radar alone, real-time LMA and radar observations and the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump. Results indicate that the POD is strong at 65%. However, the FAR is significantly higher than in Schultz et al. (2011) (50-80% depending on various tracking/<span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump parameters) when using storm reports for verification. Given known issues with Storm Data, the performance of the real-time jump algorithm is also being tested with high density radar and surface observations from the NSSL Severe Hazards Analysis & Verification Experiment (SHAVE).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70039773','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70039773"><span>Combining satellite-based fire observations and ground-based <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detections to identify <span class="hlt">lightning</span> fires across the conterminous USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bar-Massada, A.; Hawbaker, T.J.; Stewart, S.I.; Radeloff, V.C.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> fires are a common natural disturbance in North America, and account for the largest proportion of the area burned by wildfires each year. Yet, the spatiotemporal patterns of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> fires in the conterminous US are not well understood due to limitations of existing fire databases. Our goal here was to develop and test an algorithm that combined MODIS fire detections with <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detections from the National <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network to identify <span class="hlt">lightning</span> fires across the conterminous US from 2000 to 2008. The algorithm searches for spatiotemporal conjunctions of MODIS fire clusters and NLDN detected <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes, given a spatiotemporal lag between <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike and fire ignition. The algorithm revealed distinctive spatial patterns of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> fires in the conterminous US While a sensitivity analysis revealed that the algorithm is highly sensitive to the two thresholds that are used to determine conjunction, the density of fires it detected was moderately correlated with ground based fire records. When only fires larger than 0.4 km2 were considered, correlations were higher and the root-mean-square error between datasets was less than five fires per 625 km2 for the entire study period. Our algorithm is thus suitable for detecting broad scale spatial patterns of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> fire occurrence, and especially <span class="hlt">lightning</span> fire hotspots, but has limited detection capability of smaller fires because these cannot be consistently detected by MODIS. These results may enhance our understanding of large scale patterns of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> fire activity, and can be used to identify the broad scale factors controlling fire occurrence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/21570915-number-lightning-discharges-causing-damage-lightning-arrester-cables-aerial-transmission-lines-power-systems','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/21570915-number-lightning-discharges-causing-damage-lightning-arrester-cables-aerial-transmission-lines-power-systems"><span>Number of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges causing damage to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> arrester cables for aerial transmission lines in power systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nikiforov, E. P.</p> <p>2009-07-15</p> <p>Damage by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> arrester cables for 110-175 kV aerial transmission lines is analyzed using data from power systems on incidents with aerial transmission lines over a ten year operating period (1997-2006). It is found that failures of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> arrester cables occur when a tensile force acts on a cable heated to the melting point by a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> current. The <span class="hlt">lightning</span> currents required to heat a cable to this extent are greater for larger cable cross sections. The probability that a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge will develop decreases as the amplitude of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> current increases, which greatly reduces themore » number of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges which damage TK-70 cables compared to TK-50 cables. In order to increase the reliability of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> arrester cables for 110 kV aerial transmission lines, TK-70 cables should be used in place of TK-50 cables. The number of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges per year which damage <span class="hlt">lightning</span> arrester cables is lowered when the density of aerial transmission lines is reduced within the territory of electrical power systems. An approximate relationship between these two parameters is obtained.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.172....1M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.172....1M"><span>The verification of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> location accuracy in Finland deduced from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to trees</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mäkelä, Antti; Mäkelä, Jakke; Haapalainen, Jussi; Porjo, Niko</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We present a new method to determine the ground truth and accuracy of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> location systems (LLS), using natural <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to trees. Observations of strikes to trees are being collected with a Web-based survey tool at the Finnish Meteorological Institute. Since the Finnish thunderstorms tend to have on average a low flash rate, it is often possible to identify from the LLS data unambiguously the stroke that caused damage to a given tree. The coordinates of the tree are then the ground truth for that stroke. The technique has clear advantages over other methods used to determine the ground truth. Instrumented towers and rocket launches measure upward-propagating <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Video and audio records, even with triangulation, are rarely capable of high accuracy. We present data for 36 quality-controlled tree strikes in the years 2007-2008. We show that the average inaccuracy of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> location network for that period was 600 m. In addition, we show that the 50% confidence ellipse calculated by the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> location network and used operationally for describing the location accuracy is physically meaningful: half of all the strikes were located within the uncertainty ellipse of the nearest recorded stroke. Using tree strike data thus allows not only the accuracy of the LLS to be estimated but also the reliability of the uncertainty ellipse. To our knowledge, this method has not been attempted before for natural <span class="hlt">lightning</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900004088','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900004088"><span>Systems tunnel linear shaped charge <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cook, M.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Simulated <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike testing of the systems tunnel linear shaped charge (LSC) was performed at the Thiokol <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Test Complex in Wendover, Utah, on 23 Jun. 1989. The test article consisted of a 160-in. section of the LSC enclosed within a section of the systems tunnel. The systems tunnel was bonded to a section of a solid rocket motor case. All test article components were full scale. The systems tunnel cover of the test article was subjected to three discharges (each discharge was over a different grounding strap) from the high-current generator. The LSC did not detonate. All three grounding straps debonded and violently struck the LSC through the openings in the systems tunnel floor plates. The LSC copper surface was discolored around the areas of grounding strap impact, and arcing occurred at the LSC clamps and LSC ends. This test verified that the present flight configuration of the redesigned solid rocket motor systems tunnel, when subjected to simulated <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes with peak current levels within 71 percent of the worst-case <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike condition of NSTS-07636, is adequate to prevent LSC ignition. It is therefore recommended that the design remain unchanged.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA496692','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA496692"><span>Z-M in <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Forecasting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>hydrometers create a charge separation. Inductive processes rely on a preexisting external electric field to induce charges on polarized particles, which...frozen hydrometers . A. FLORIDA CLIMATE Florida is often referred to as the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> capital of the United States (Hodanish et al. 1997) or</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20134678','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20134678"><span>The laser <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rod system: thunderstorm domestication.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ball, L M</p> <p>1974-10-01</p> <p>An unusual application of the laser, namely protection of life and property from <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, is described. The device relies on multiphoton ionization in mode-locked beams, rather than on collisional (avalanche) electron production. Feasibility is demonstrated numerically, and relevant principles explained. A method of mobile deployment is mentioned, by which economic (as opposed to scientific) feasibility might be achieved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol4-sec420-71.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol4-sec420-71.pdf"><span>14 CFR 420.71 - <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection. 420.71 Section 420.71 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... path connecting an air terminal to an earth electrode system. (iii) Earth electrode system. An earth...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950045227&hterms=emp&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Demp','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950045227&hterms=emp&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Demp"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> driven EMP in the upper atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rowland, H. L.; Fernsler, R. F.; Huba, J. D.; Bernhardt, P. A.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Large <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges can drive electromagnetic pulses (EMP) that cause breakdown of the neutral atmosphere between 80 and 95 km leading to order of magnitude increases in the plasma density. The increase in the plasma density leads to increased reflection and absorption, and limits the pulse strength that propagates higher into the ionosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090033796','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090033796"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Pin Injection Testing on MOSFETS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Mielnik, John J.; Vaughan, Roger K.; Wysocki, Philip F.; Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Sankalita</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> transients were pin-injected into metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) to induce fault modes. This report documents the test process and results, and provides a basis for subsequent <span class="hlt">lightning</span> tests. MOSFETs may be present in DC-DC power supplies and electromechanical actuator circuits that may be used on board aircraft. Results show that unprotected MOSFET Gates are susceptible to failure, even when installed in systems in well-shielded and partial-shielded locations. MOSFET Drains and Sources are significantly less susceptible. Device impedance decreased (current increased) after every failure. Such a failure mode may lead to cascading failures, as the damaged MOSFET may allow excessive current to flow through other circuitry. Preliminary assessments on a MOSFET subjected to 20-stroke pin-injection testing demonstrate that Breakdown Voltage, Leakage Current and Threshold Voltage characteristics show damage, while the device continues to meet manufacturer performance specifications. The purpose of this research is to develop validated tools, technologies, and techniques for automated detection, diagnosis and prognosis that enable mitigation of adverse events during flight, such as from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> transients; and to understand the interplay between <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-induced surges and aging (i.e. humidity, vibration thermal stress, etc.) on component degradation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMAE13A0417M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMAE13A0417M"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> spectra at 100,000 fps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McHarg, M. G.; Harley, J.; Haaland, R. K.; Edens, H. E.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>A fundamental understanding of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> can be inferred from the spectral emissions resulting from the leader and return stroke channel. We examine an event recorded at 00:58:07 on 19 July 2015 at Langmuir Laboratory. We recorded <span class="hlt">lightning</span> spectra using a 100 line per mm grating in front of a Phantom V2010 camera with an 85mm Nikon lens recording at 100,000 frames per second. Coarse resolution spectra (approximately 5nm resolution) are produced from approximately 400 nm to 800 nm for each frame. Electric field data from the Langmuir Electric Field Array for the 03:19:19 event show 10 V/m changes in the electric field associated with multiple return strokes visible in the spectral data. We used the spectral data to compare temperatures at the top, middle and bottom of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array data at Langmuir for the 00:58:07 event show a complex flash extending 10 km in the East-West plane and 6 km in the North-South plane. The imagery data imply that this is a bolt-from-the-blue event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009pcms.confE..98P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009pcms.confE..98P"><span>Relationship between convective precipitation and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity using radar quantitative precipitation estimates and total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pineda, N.; Rigo, T.; Bech, J.; Argemí, O.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>Thunderstorms can be characterized by both rainfall and <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. The relationship between convective precipitation and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity may be used as an indicator of the rainfall regime. Besides, a better knowledge of local thunderstorm phenomenology can be very useful to assess weather surveillance tasks. Two types of approach can be distinguished in the bibliography when analyzing the rainfall and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity. On one hand, rain yields (ratio of rain mass to cloud-to-ground flash over a common area) calculated for long temporal and spatial domains and using rain-gauge records to estimate the amounts of precipitation. On the other hand, a case-by-case approach has been used in many studies to analyze the relationship between convective precipitation and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in individual storms, using weather radar data to estimate rainfall volumes. Considering a local thunderstorm case study approach, the relation between rainfall and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is usually quantified as the Rainfall-<span class="hlt">Lightning</span> ratio (RLR). This ratio estimates the convective rainfall volume per <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash. Intense storms tend to produce lower RLR values than moderate storms, but the range of RLR found in diverse studies is quite wide. This relationship depends on thunderstorm type, local climatology, convective regime, type of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes considered, oceanic and continental storms, etc. The objective of this paper is to analyze the relationship between convective precipitation and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in a case-by-case approach, by means of daily radar-derived quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) and total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data, obtained from observations of the Servei Meteorològic de Catalunya remote sensing systems, which covers an area of approximately 50000 km2 in the NE of the Iberian Peninsula. The analyzed dataset is composed by 45 thunderstorm days from April to October 2008. A good daily correlation has been found between the radar QPE and the CG flash counts (best linear fit with a R^2</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900005749&hterms=thunderstorm+protection&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dthunderstorm%2Bprotection','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900005749&hterms=thunderstorm+protection&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dthunderstorm%2Bprotection"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> on operations of aerospace vehicles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fisher, Bruce D.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Traditionally, aircraft <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes were a major aviation safety issue. However, the increasing use of composite materials and the use of digital avionics for flight critical systems will require that more specific <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection measures be incorporated in the design of such aircraft in order to maintain the excellent <span class="hlt">lightning</span> safety record presently enjoyed by transport aircraft. In addition, several recent <span class="hlt">lightning</span> mishaps, most notably the loss of the Atlas/Centaur-67 vehicle at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida in March 1987, have shown the susceptibility of aircraft and launch vehicles to the phenomenon of vehicle-triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. The recent findings of the NASA Storm Hazards Program were reviewed as they pertain to the atmospheric conditions conducive to aircraft <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes. These data are then compared to recent summaries of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to operational aircraft fleets. Finally, the new launch commit criteria for triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> being used by NASA and the U.S. Defense Department are summarized. The NASA Research data show that the greatest probability of a direct strike in a thunderstorm occurs at ambient temperatures of about -40 C. Relative precipitation and turbulence levels were characterized as negligible to light for these conditions. However, operational fleet data have shown that most aircraft <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes in routine operations occur at temperatures near the freezing level in non-cumulonimbus clouds. The non-thunderstorm environment was not the subject of dedicated airborne <span class="hlt">lightning</span> research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3681151','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3681151"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Sensors for Observing, Tracking and Nowcasting Severe Weather</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Price, Colin</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Severe and extreme weather is a major natural hazard all over the world, often resulting in major natural disasters such as hail storms, tornados, wind storms, flash floods, forest fires and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> damages. While precipitation, wind, hail, tornados, turbulence, etc. can only be observed at close distances, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity in these damaging storms can be monitored at all spatial scales, from local (using very high frequency [VHF] sensors), to regional (using very low frequency [VLF] sensors), and even global scales (using extremely low frequency [ELF] sensors). Using sensors that detect the radio waves emitted by each <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge, it is now possible to observe and track continuously distant thunderstorms using ground networks of sensors. In addition to the number of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges, these sensors can also provide information on <span class="hlt">lightning</span> characteristics such as the ratio between intra-cloud and cloud-to-ground <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, the polarity of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge, peak currents, charge removal, etc. It has been shown that changes in some of these <span class="hlt">lightning</span> characteristics during thunderstorms are often related to changes in the severity of the storms. In this paper different <span class="hlt">lightning</span> observing systems are described, and a few examples are provided showing how <span class="hlt">lightning</span> may be used to monitor storm hazards around the globe, while also providing the possibility of supplying short term forecasts, called nowcasting. PMID:27879700</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018NatCC...8..210F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018NatCC...8..210F"><span>A projected decrease in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> under climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Finney, Declan L.; Doherty, Ruth M.; Wild, Oliver; Stevenson, David S.; MacKenzie, Ian A.; Blyth, Alan M.</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> strongly influences atmospheric chemistry1-3, and impacts the frequency of natural wildfires4. Most previous studies project an increase in global <span class="hlt">lightning</span> with climate change over the coming century1,5-7, but these typically use parameterizations of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> that neglect cloud ice fluxes, a component generally considered to be fundamental to thunderstorm charging8. As such, the response of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> to climate change is uncertain. Here, we compare <span class="hlt">lightning</span> projections for 2100 using two parameterizations: the widely used cloud-top height (CTH) approach9, and a new upward cloud ice flux (IFLUX) approach10 that overcomes previous limitations. In contrast to the previously reported global increase in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> based on CTH, we find a 15% decrease in total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash rate with IFLUX in 2100 under a strong global warming scenario. Differences are largest in the tropics, where most <span class="hlt">lightning</span> occurs, with implications for the estimation of future changes in tropospheric ozone and methane, as well as differences in their radiative forcings. These results suggest that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> schemes more closely related to cloud ice and microphysical processes are needed to robustly estimate future changes in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and atmospheric composition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMGC33E1125K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMGC33E1125K"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span>-Related Indicators for National Climate Assessment (NCA) Studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koshak, W. J.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>With the recent advent of space-based <span class="hlt">lightning</span> mappers [i.e., the Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper (GLM) on GOES-16, and the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the International Space Station], improved investigations on the inter-relationships between <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and climate are now possible and can directly support the goals of the National Climate Assessment (NCA) program. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> nitrogen oxides (LNOx) affect greenhouse gas concentrations such as ozone that influences changes in climate. Conversely, changes in climate (from any causes) can affect the characteristics of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> (e.g., frequency, current amplitudes, multiplicity, polarity) that in turn leads to changes in <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-caused impacts to humans (e.g., fatalities, injuries, crop/property damage, wildfires, airport delays, changes in air quality). This study discusses improvements to, and recent results from, the NASA/MSFC NCA <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Analysis Tool (LAT). It includes key findings on the development of different types of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash energy indicators derived from space-based <span class="hlt">lightning</span> observations, and demonstrates how these indicators can be used to estimate trends in LNOx across the continental US.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25650360','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25650360"><span>Acute transient hemiparesis induced by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rahmani, Seyed Hesam; Faridaalaee, Gholamreza; Jahangard, Samira</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>According to data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,in the years from 1959 to 1994, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> was responsible for more than 3000 deaths and nearly 10,000 casualties. The most important characteristic features of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> injuries are multisystem involvement and widely variable severity. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> strikes are primarily a neurologic injury that affects all 3 components of the nervous system: central, autonomic,and peripheral. Neurologic complications of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes vary from transient benign symptoms to permanent disability. Many patients experience a temporary paralysis called keraunoparalysis. Here we reported a 22-year-old mountaineer man with complaining of left sided hemiparesis after being hit by a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike in the mountain 3 hours ago. There was no loss of consciousness at hitting time. On arrival the patient was alert, awake and hemodynamically stable. In neurologic examination cranial nerves were intact, left sided upper and lower extremity muscle force was I/V with a combination of complete sensory loss, and right-sided muscle force and sensory examination were normal. There is not any evidence of significant vascular impairment in the affected extremities. Brain MRI and CT scan and cervical MRI were normal. During 2 days of admission, with intravenous hydration, heparin 5000 unit SC q12hr and physical therapy of the affected limbs, motor and sensory function improved and was normal except mild paresthesia. He was discharged 1 day later for outpatient follow up while vitamin B1 100mg orally was prescribed.Paresthesia improved after 3 days without further sequels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRD..119.1455M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRD..119.1455M"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> discharges produced by wind turbines</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Montanyà, Joan; van der Velde, Oscar; Williams, Earle R.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>New observations with a 3-D <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array and high-speed video are presented and discussed. The first set of observations shows that under certain thunderstorm conditions, wind turbine blades can produce electric discharges at regular intervals of 3 s in relation to its rotation, over periods of time that range from a few minutes up to hours. This periodic effect has not been observed in static towers indicating that the effect of rotation is playing a critical role. The repeated discharges can occur tens of kilometers away from electrically active thunderstorm areas and may or may not precede a fully developed upward <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge from the turbine. Similar to rockets used for triggering <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, the fast movement of the blade tip plays an important role on the initiation of the discharge. The movement of the rotor blades allows the tip to "runaway" from the generated corona charge. The second observation is an uncommon upward/downward flash triggered by a wind turbine. In that flash, a negative upward leader was initiated from a wind turbine without preceding <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity. The flash produced a negative cloud-to-ground stroke several kilometers from the initiation point. The third observation corresponds to a high-speed video record showing simultaneous upward positive leaders from a group of wind turbines triggered by a preceding intracloud flash. The fact that multiple leaders develop simultaneously indicates a poor shielding effect among them. All these observations provide some special features on the initiation of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> by nonstatic and complex tall structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100021010','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100021010"><span>Assessing Operational Total <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Visualization Products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stano, Geoffrey T.; Darden, Christopher B.; Nadler, David J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In May 2003, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program successfully provided total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data from the North Alabama <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array (NALMA) to the National Weather Service (NWS) office in Huntsville, Alabama. The major accomplishment was providing the observations in real-time to the NWS in the native Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System (AWIPS) decision support system. Within days, the NALMA data were used to issue a tornado warning initiating seven years of ongoing support to the NWS' severe weather and situational awareness operations. With this success, SPoRT now provides real-time NALMA data to five forecast offices as well as working to transition data from total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> networks at Kennedy Space Center and the White Sands Missile Range to the surrounding NWS offices. The only NALMA product that has been transitioned to SPoRT's partner NWS offices is the source density product, available at a 2 km resolution in 2 min intervals. However, discussions with users of total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data from other networks have shown that other products are available, ranging from spatial and temporal variations of the source density product to the creation of a flash extent density. SPoRT and the Huntsville, Alabama NWS are evaluating the utility of these variations as this has not been addressed since the initial transition in 2003. This preliminary analysis will focus on what products will best support the operational warning decision process. Data from 19 April 2009 are analyzed. On this day, severe thunderstorms formed ahead of an approaching cold front. Widespread severe weather was observed, primarily south of the Tennessee River with multiple, weak tornadoes, numerous severe hail reports, and wind. This preliminary analysis is the first step in evaluation which product(s) are best suited for operations. The ultimate goal is selecting a single product for use with all total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> networks to streamline training and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060022021','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20060022021"><span>Bringing Thunder and <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Indoors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Piezoelectric materials convert mechanical energy into electrical energy and electrical energy into mechanical energy. They generate electrical charges in response to mechanical stress and generate mechanical displacement and/or force when subjected to an electric current. Scientists at Langley Research Center have developed a piezoelectric device that is superior in many ways to those that used to be the only ones commercially available. It is tougher, has far greater displacement and greater mechanical load capacity for a comparative voltage operation, can be easily produced at a relatively low cost, and lends itself well to mass production. The NASA-developed piezoelectric device is also unique in that it is more efficient in extracting electrical energy from the mechanical energy that goes in. It works on a simple principle. A thin ceramic piezoelectric wafer is sandwiched between an aluminum sheet and a steel sheet and held together with LaRC-SI, an amorphous thermoplastic adhesive with special properties created by NASA at Langley. The sandwich is heated in an autoclave, and the adhesive melts. When the sandwich cools, the adhesive bonds the parts together into one piezoelectric element. While they cool, the components of the element contract at different rates, since they are made of different materials. This differential shrinkage causes the element to warp in either a convex or concave shape, depending on which way it is oriented. The shrinking of the outside metal layers places the inside piezoelectric ceramic under mechanical stress. If the element is cantilevered by clamping one side and then plucked, it reverberates like a diving board that has just ejected a diver. This way, a small amount of mechanical energy can result in a relatively long period of electrical generation. When the piezoelectric element is used for the creation of electricity, it is called <span class="hlt">Lightning</span>. This same sandwiched piezoelectric wafer can also convert electrical energy into</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018Natur.558...87B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018Natur.558...87B"><span>Prevalent <span class="hlt">lightning</span> sferics at 600 megahertz near Jupiter's poles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brown, Shannon; Janssen, Michael; Adumitroaie, Virgil; Atreya, Sushil; Bolton, Scott; Gulkis, Samuel; Ingersoll, Andrew; Levin, Steven; Li, Cheng; Li, Liming; Lunine, Jonathan; Misra, Sidharth; Orton, Glenn; Steffes, Paul; Tabataba-Vakili, Fachreddin; Kolmašová, Ivana; Imai, Masafumi; Santolík, Ondřej; Kurth, William; Hospodarsky, George; Gurnett, Donald; Connerney, John</p> <p>2018-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> has been detected on Jupiter by all visiting spacecraft through night-side optical imaging and whistler (<span class="hlt">lightning</span>-generated radio waves) signatures1-6. Jovian <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is thought to be generated in the mixed-phase (liquid-ice) region of convective water clouds through a charge-separation process between condensed liquid water and water-ice particles, similar to that of terrestrial (cloud-to-cloud) <span class="hlt">lightning</span>7-9. Unlike terrestrial <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, which emits broadly over the radio spectrum up to gigahertz frequencies10,11, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> on Jupiter has been detected only at kilohertz frequencies, despite a search for signals in the megahertz range12. Strong ionospheric attenuation or a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge much slower than that on Earth have been suggested as possible explanations for this discrepancy13,14. Here we report observations of Jovian <span class="hlt">lightning</span> sferics (broadband electromagnetic impulses) at 600 megahertz from the Microwave Radiometer15 onboard the Juno spacecraft. These detections imply that Jovian <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges are not distinct from terrestrial <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, as previously thought. In the first eight orbits of Juno, we detected 377 <span class="hlt">lightning</span> sferics from pole to pole. We found <span class="hlt">lightning</span> to be prevalent in the polar regions, absent near the equator, and most frequent in the northern hemisphere, at latitudes higher than 40 degrees north. Because the distribution of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is a proxy for moist convective activity, which is thought to be an important source of outward energy transport from the interior of the planet16,17, increased convection towards the poles could indicate an outward internal heat flux that is preferentially weighted towards the poles9,16,18. The distribution of moist convection is important for understanding the composition, general circulation and energy transport on Jupiter.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMAE13A0414L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMAE13A0414L"><span>High Speed Video Observations of Natural <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and Their Implications to Fractal Description of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, N.; Tilles, J.; Boggs, L.; Bozarth, A.; Rassoul, H.; Riousset, J. A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Recent high speed video observations of triggered and natural <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes have significantly advanced our understanding of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> initiation and propagation. For example, they have helped resolve the initiation of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> leaders [Stolzenburg et al., JGR, 119, 12198, 2014; Montanyà et al, Sci. Rep., 5, 15180, 2015], the stepping of negative leaders [Hill et al., JGR, 116, D16117, 2011], the structure of streamer zone around the leader [Gamerota et al., GRL, 42, 1977, 2015], and transient rebrightening processes occurring during the leader propagation [Stolzenburg et al., JGR, 120, 3408, 2015]. We started an observational campaign in the summer of 2016 to study <span class="hlt">lightning</span> by using a Phantom high-speed camera on the campus of Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL. A few interesting natural cloud-to-ground and intracloud <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges have been recorded, including a couple of 8-9 stroke flashes, high peak current flashes, and upward propagating return stroke waves from ground to cloud. The videos show that the propagation of the downward leaders of cloud-to-ground <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges is very complex, particularly for the high-peak current flashes. They tend to develop as multiple branches, and each of them splits repeatedly. For some cases, the propagation characteristics of the leader, such as speed, are subject to sudden changes. In this talk, we present several selected cases to show the complexity of the leader propagation. One of the effective approaches to characterize the structure and propagation of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> leaders is the fractal description [Mansell et al., JGR, 107, 4075, 2002; Riousset et al., JGR, 112, D15203, 2007; Riousset et al., JGR, 115, A00E10, 2010]. We also present a detailed analysis of the high-speed images of our observations and formulate useful constraints to the fractal description. Finally, we compare the obtained results with fractal simulations conducted by using the model reported in [Riousset et al., 2007</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9614008','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9614008"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span>-associated deaths--United States, 1980-1995.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-05-22</p> <p>A <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike can cause death or various injuries to one or several persons. The mechanism of injury is unique, and the manifestations differ from those of other electrical injuries. In the United States, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> causes more deaths than do most other natural hazards (e.g., hurricanes and tornadoes), although the incidence of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-related deaths has decreased since the 1950s. The cases described in this report illustrate diverse circumstances in which deaths attributable to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> can occur. This report also summarizes data from the Compressed Mortality File of CDC's National Center for Health Statistics on <span class="hlt">lightning</span> fatalities in the United States from 1980 through 1995, when 1318 deaths were attributed to <span class="hlt">lightning</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100033708&hterms=Pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DPollution','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100033708&hterms=Pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3DPollution"><span>Weekly Cycle of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span>: Evidence of Storm Invigoration by Pollution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bell, Thomas L.; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Kim, Kyu-Myong</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>We have examined summertime 1998 2009 U.S. <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data from the National <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network (NLDN) to look for weekly cycles in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity. As was found by Bell et al. (2008) for rain over the southeast U.S., there is a significant weekly cycle in afternoon <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity that peaks in the middle of the week there. The weekly cycle appears to be reduced over population centers. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> activity peaks on weekends over waters near the SE U.S. The statistical significance of weekly cycles over the western half of the country is generally small. We found no evidence of a weekly cycle of synoptic-scale forcing that might explain these patterns. The <span class="hlt">lightning</span> behavior is entirely consistent with the explanation suggested by Bell et al. (2008) for the cycles in rainfall and other atmospheric data from the SE U.S., that aerosols can cause storms to intensify in humid, convectively unstable environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030111776&hterms=quantitative+data+analysis&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dquantitative%2Bdata%2Banalysis','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20030111776&hterms=quantitative+data+analysis&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dquantitative%2Bdata%2Banalysis"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and Precipitation: Observational Analysis of LIS and PR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Adamo, C.; Solomon, R.; Goodman, S.; Dietrich, S.; Mugnai, A.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> flash rate can identify areas of convective rainfall when the storms are dominated by ice-phase precipitation. Modeling and observational studies indicate that cloud electrification and microphysics are very closely related and it is of great interest to understand the relationship between <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and cloud microphysical quantities. Analyzing data from the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Image Sensor (LIS) and the Precipitation Radar (PR), we show a quantitative relationship between microphysical characteristics of thunderclouds and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash rate. We have performed a complete analysis of all data available over the Mediterranean during the TRMM mission and show a range of reflective profiles as a function of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity for both convective and stratiform regimes as well as seasonal variations. Due to the increasing global coverage of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection networks, this kind of study can used to extend the knowledge about thunderstorms and discriminate between different regimes in regions where radar measurements are readilly available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860003852','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860003852"><span>Interpretation of F-106B in-flight <span class="hlt">lightning</span> signatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Trost, T. F.; Grothaus, M. G.; Wen, C. T.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Various characteristics of the electromagnetic data obtained on a NASA F-106B aircraft during direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes are presented. Time scales of interest range from 10 ns to 400 microsecond. The following topics are discussed: (1) <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> current, I, measured directly versus I obtained from computer integration of measured I-dot; (2) A method of compensation for the low frequency cutoff of the current transformer used to measure I; (3) Properties of fast pulses observed in the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> time-derivative waveforms; (4) The characteristic D-dot signature of the F-106B aircraft; (5) An RC-discharge interpretation for some <span class="hlt">lightning</span> waveforms; (6) A method for inferring the locations of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel attachment points on the aircraft by using B-dot data; (7) Simple, approximate relationships between D-dot and I-dot and between B and I; and (8) Estimates of energy, charge, voltage, and resistance for a particular <span class="hlt">lightning</span> event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820058794&hterms=rust&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Drust','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820058794&hterms=rust&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Drust"><span>Doppler radar echoes of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and precipitation at vertical incidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Zrnic, D. S.; Rust, W. D.; Taylor, W. L.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Digital time series data at 16 heights within two storms were collected at vertical incidence with a 10-cm Doppler radar. On several occasions during data collection, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> echoes were observed as increased reflectivity on an oscilloscope display. Simultaneously, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> signals from nearby electric field change antennas were recorded on an analog recorder together with the radar echoes. Reflectivity, mean velocity, and Doppler spectra were examined by means of time series analysis for times during and after <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges. Spectra from locations where <span class="hlt">lightning</span> occurred show peaks, due to the motion of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel at the air speed. These peaks are considerably narrower than the ones due to precipitation. Besides indicating the vertical air velocity that can then be used to estimate hydrometeor-size distribution, the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> spectra provide a convenient means to estimate the radar cross section of the channel. Subsequent to one discharge, we deduce that a rapid change in the orientation of hydrometeors occurred within the resolution volume.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.192G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE.192G"><span>Ten years of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor (LIS) data: Preparing the way for geostationary <span class="hlt">lightning</span> imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grandell, J.; Stuhlmann, R.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor (LIS) onboard the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) platform has provided a continuous source of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> observations in the +/- 35 deg latitude region since 1998. LIS, together with its predecessor Optical Transient Detector (OTD) have established an unprecedented database of optical observations of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> from a low-earth orbit, allowing a more consistent and uniform view of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> that has been available from any ground-based system so far. The main disadvantage of LIS is that, since it operates on a low-earth orbit with a low inclination, only a small part of the globe is viewed at a time and only for a duration of ~2 minutes, and for a rapidly changing phenomenon like convection and the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> related thereto this is far from optimal. This temporal sampling deficiency can, however, be overcome with observations from a geostationary orbit. One such mission in preparation is the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imager on-board the Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) satellite, which will provide service continuation to the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) system from 2018 onwards. The current MSG system has become the primary European source of geostationary observations over Europe and Africa with the start of nominal operations in January 2004, and will be delivering observations and services at least until 2017. However, considering the typical development cycle for a new complex space system, it was already for a longer time necessary to plan for and define the MTG system. MTG needs to be available around 2016, before the end of the nominal lifetime of MSG-3. One of the new missions selected for MTG is the previously mentioned <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imager (LI) mission, detecting continuously over almost the full disc the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges taking place in clouds or between cloud and ground with a resolution around 10 km. The LI mission is intended to provide a real time <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection (cloud-to-cloud and cloud-to-ground strokes) and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMED31A0609W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMED31A0609W"><span>Chasing <span class="hlt">Lightning</span>: Sferics, Tweeks and Whistlers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Webb, P. A.; Franzen, K.; Garcia, L.; Schou, P.; Rous, P.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>We all know what <span class="hlt">lightning</span> looks like during a thunderstorm, but the visible flash we see is only part of the story. This is because <span class="hlt">lightning</span> also generates light with other frequencies that we cannot perceive with our eyes, but which are just as real as visible light. Unlike the visible light from <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, these other frequencies can carry the <span class="hlt">lightning</span>'s energy hundreds or thousands of miles across the surface of the Earth in the form of special signals called "tweeks" and "sferics". Some of these emissions can even travel tens of thousands of miles out into space before returning to the Earth as "whistlers". The INSPIRE Project, Inc is a non-profit scientific and educational corporation whose beginning mission was to bring the excitement of observing these very low frequency (VLF) natural radio waves emissions from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> to high school students. Since 1989, INSPIRE has provided specially designed radio receiver kits to over 2,600 participants around the world to make observations of signals in the VLF frequency range. Many of these participants are using the VLF data they collect in very creative projects that include fiction, music and art exhibitions. During the Fall 2008 semester, the first INSPIRE based university-level course was taught at University of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC) as part of its First-Year Seminar (FYS) series. The FYS classes are limited to 20 first-year students per class and are designed to create an active-learning environment that encourages student participation and discussion that might not otherwise occur in larger first-year classes. This presentation will cover the experiences gained from using the INSPIRE kits as the basis of a university course. This will include the lecture material that covers the basic physics of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, thunderstorms and the Earth's atmosphere, as well as the electronics required to understand the basic workings of the VLF kit. It will also cover the students assembly of the kit in an</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMAE43B0273H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMAE43B0273H"><span>Combined VLF and VHF <span class="hlt">lightning</span> observations of Hurricane Rita landfall</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Henderson, B. G.; Suszcynsky, D. M.; Wiens, K. C.; Hamlin, T.; Jeffery, C. A.; Orville, R. E.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Hurricane Rita displayed abundant <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in its northern eyewall as it made landfall at 0740 UTC 24 Sep 2005 near the Texas/Louisiana border. For this work, we combined VHF and VLF <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data from Hurricane Rita, along with radar observations from Gulf Coast WSR-88D stations, for the purpose of demonstrating the combined utility of these two spectral regions for hurricane <span class="hlt">lightning</span> monitoring. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> is a direct consequence of the electrification and breakdown processes that take place during the convective stages of thunderstorm development. As Rita approached the Gulf coast, the VHF <span class="hlt">lightning</span> emissions were distinctly periodic with a period of 1.5 to 2 hours, which is consistent with the rotational period of hurricanes. VLF <span class="hlt">lightning</span> emissions, measured by LASA and NLDN, were present in some of these VHF bursts but not all of them. At landfall, there was a significant increase in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> emissions, accompanied by a significant convective surge observed in radar. Furthermore, VLF and VHF <span class="hlt">lightning</span> source heights clearly increase as a function of time. The evolution of the IC/CG ratio is consistent with that seen in thunderstorms, showing a dominance of IC activity during storm development, followed by an increase in CG activity at the storm’s peak. The periodic VHF <span class="hlt">lightning</span> events are correlated with increases in convective growth (quantified by the volume of radar echo >40 dB) above 7 km altitude. VLF can discriminate between <span class="hlt">lightning</span> types, and in the LASA data, Rita landfall <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity was dominated by Narrow Bi-polar Events (NBEs)—high-energy, high-altitude, compact intra-cloud discharges. The opportunity to locate NBE <span class="hlt">lightning</span> sources in altitude may be particularly useful in quantifying the vertical extent (strength) of the convective development and in possibly deducing vertical charge distributions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900001191','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900001191"><span>The 1984 direct strike <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data, part 3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, Mitchel E.; Carney, Harold K.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Data waveforms are presented which were obtained during the 1984 direct-strike <span class="hlt">lightning</span> tests utilizing the NASA F106-B aircraft specially instrumented for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> electromagnetic measurements. The aircraft was operated in the vicinity of the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, in a thunderstorm environment to elicit strikes. Electromagnetic field data and conduction currents on the aircraft were recorded for attached <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. This is part 3, consisting entirely of charts and graphs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19345842','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19345842"><span>When <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes: bolting down the facts & fiction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Usatch, Ben</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>MYTH: There's no danger from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> until the rain starts. FACT: <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> often precedes the storm by up to 10 miles. A reasonable guideline is the "30-30 rule," by which you count the seconds between the flash and the thunder. If the time span is less than 30 seconds, seek shelter. Additionally, wait a full 30 minutes from last <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash to resume outdoor activities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080037560','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080037560"><span>GOES-R Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper Performance Specifications and Algorithms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mach, Douglas M.; Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Koshak, William J.; Petersen, William A.; Boldi, Robert A.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Bateman, Monte G.; Buchler, Dennis E.; McCaul, E. William, Jr.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper (GLM) is a single channel, near-IR imager/optical transient event detector, used to detect, locate and measure total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity over the full-disk. The next generation NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series will carry a GLM that will provide continuous day and night observations of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. The mission objectives for the GLM are to: (1) Provide continuous, full-disk <span class="hlt">lightning</span> measurements for storm warning and nowcasting, (2) Provide early warning of tornadic activity, and (2) Accumulate a long-term database to track decadal changes of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. The GLM owes its heritage to the NASA <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor (1997- present) and the Optical Transient Detector (1995-2000), which were developed for the Earth Observing System and have produced a combined 13 year data record of global <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity. GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms and applications. The science data will consist of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> "events", "groups", and "flashes". The algorithm is being designed to be an efficient user of the computational resources. This may include parallelization of the code and the concept of sub-dividing the GLM FOV into regions to be processed in parallel. Proxy total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data from the NASA <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds (e.g., <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Arrays in North Alabama, Oklahoma, Central Florida, and the Washington DC Metropolitan area) are being used to develop the prelaunch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......302K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhDT.......302K"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Strike Induced Damage Mechanisms of Carbon Fiber Composites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kawakami, Hirohide</p> <p></p> <p>Composite materials have a wide application in aerospace, automotive, and other transportation industries, because of the superior structural and weight performances. Since carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites possess a much lower electrical conductivity as compared to traditional metallic materials utilized for aircraft structures, serious concern about damage resistance/tolerance against <span class="hlt">lightning</span> has been rising. Main task of this study is to clarify the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> damage mechanism of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy polymer composites to help further development of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike protection. The research on <span class="hlt">lightning</span> damage to carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites is quite challenging, and there has been little study available until now. In order to tackle this issue, building block approach was employed. The research was started with the development of supporting technologies such as a current impulse generator to simulate a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike in a laboratory. Then, fundamental electrical properties and fracture behavior of CFRPs exposed to high and low level current impulse were investigated using simple coupon specimens, followed by extensive parametric investigations in terms of different prepreg materials frequently used in aerospace industry, various stacking sequences, different <span class="hlt">lightning</span> intensity, and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> current waveforms. It revealed that the thermal resistance capability of polymer matrix was one of the most influential parameters on <span class="hlt">lightning</span> damage resistance of CFRPs. Based on the experimental findings, the semi-empirical analysis model for predicting the extent of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> damage was established. The model was fitted through experimental data to determine empirical parameters and, then, showed a good capability to provide reliable predictions for other test conditions and materials. Finally, structural element level <span class="hlt">lightning</span> tests were performed to explore more practical situations. Specifically, filled-hole CFRP plates and patch</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980237715','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980237715"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Radio Source Retrieval Using Advanced <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Direction Finder (ALDF) Networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koshak, William J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, J. C.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>A linear algebraic solution is provided for the problem of retrieving the location and time of occurrence of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> ground strikes from an Advanced <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Direction Finder (ALDF) network. The ALDF network measures field strength, magnetic bearing and arrival time of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> radio emissions. Solutions for the plane (i.e., no Earth curvature) are provided that implement all of tile measurements mentioned above. Tests of the retrieval method are provided using computer-simulated data sets. We also introduce a quadratic planar solution that is useful when only three arrival time measurements are available. The algebra of the quadratic root results are examined in detail to clarify what portions of the analysis region lead to fundamental ambiguities in source location. Complex root results are shown to be associated with the presence of measurement errors when the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> source lies near an outer sensor baseline of the ALDF network. In the absence of measurement errors, quadratic root degeneracy (no source location ambiguity) is shown to exist exactly on the outer sensor baselines for arbitrary non-collinear network geometries. The accuracy of the quadratic planar method is tested with computer generated data sets. The results are generally better than those obtained from the three station linear planar method when bearing errors are about 2 deg. We also note some of the advantages and disadvantages of these methods over the nonlinear method of chi(sup 2) minimization employed by the National <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network (NLDN) and discussed in Cummins et al.(1993, 1995, 1998).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820052191&hterms=comprehensive+review&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DThis%2Bcomprehensive%2Breview%2Bwill','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820052191&hterms=comprehensive+review&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DThis%2Bcomprehensive%2Breview%2Bwill"><span>A review of natural <span class="hlt">lightning</span> - Experimental data and modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Uman, M. A.; Krider, E. P.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A critical review is presented of the currents and the electric and magnetic fields characteristic of each of the salient discharge processes which make up cloud-to-ground and intracloud <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Emphasis is placed on the more recent work in which measured waveform variation is in the microsecond and submicrosecond range, since it is this time-scale that is of primary importance in <span class="hlt">lightning</span>/aircraft interactions. The state-of-the-art of the modeling of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> currents and fields is discussed in detail. A comprehensive bibliography is given of all literature relating to both <span class="hlt">lightning</span> measurements and models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24054789','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24054789"><span>"Thunderstruck": penetrating thoracic injury from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Waes, Oscar J F; van de Woestijne, Pieter C; Halm, Jens A</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> strike victims are rarely presented at an emergency department. Burns are often the primary focus. This case report describes the improvised explosive device like-injury to the thorax due to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike and its treatment, which has not been described prior in (kerauno)medicine. Penetrating injury due to blast from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike is extremely rare. These "shrapnel" injuries should however be ruled out in all patients struck by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22902106','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22902106"><span>Cochlear implantation for severe sensorineural hearing loss caused by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Myung, Nam-Suk; Lee, Il-Woo; Goh, Eui-Kyung; Kong, Soo-Keun</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> strike can produce an array of clinical symptoms and injuries. It may damage multiple organs and cause auditory injuries ranging from transient hearing loss and vertigo to complete disruption of the auditory system. Tympanic-membrane rupture is relatively common in patients with <span class="hlt">lightning</span> injury. The exact pathogenetic mechanisms of auditory lesions in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> survivors have not been fully elucidated. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman with bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss caused by a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike, who was successfully rehabilitated after a cochlear implantation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6487I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6487I"><span>Nowcasting of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span>-Related Accidents in Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ihrlich, Laura; Price, Colin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Tropical Africa is the world capital of thunderstorm activity with the highest density of strikes per square kilometer per year. As a result it is also the continent with perhaps the highest casualties and injuries from direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes. This region of the globe also has little <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection of rural homes and schools, while many casualties occur during outdoor activities (e.g. farming, fishing, sports, etc.) In this study we investigated two <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-caused accidents that got wide press coverage: A <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike to a Cheetah Center in Namibia which caused a huge fire and great destruction (16 October 2013), and a plane crash in Mali where 116 people died (24 July 2014). Using data from the World Wide <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Location Network (WWLLN) we show that the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data alone can provide important early warning information that can be used to reduce risks and damages and loss of life from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes. We have developed a now-casting scheme that allows for early warnings across Africa with a relatively low false alarm rate. To verify the accuracy of our now-cast, we have performed some statistical analysis showing relatively high skill at providing early warnings (lead time of a few hours) based on <span class="hlt">lightning</span> alone. Furthermore, our analysis can be used in forensic meteorology for determining if such accidents are caused by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMAE33A2524B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMAE33A2524B"><span>A first look at <span class="hlt">lightning</span> energy determined from GLM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bitzer, P. M.; Burchfield, J. C.; Brunner, K. N.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper (GLM) was launched in November 2016 onboard GOES-16 has been undergoing post launch and product post launch testing. While these have typically focused on <span class="hlt">lightning</span> metrics such as detection efficiency, false alarm rate, and location accuracy, there are other attributes of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge that are provided by GLM data. Namely, the optical energy radiated by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> may provide information useful for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> physics and the relationship of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> energy to severe weather development. This work presents initial estimates of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> optical energy detected by GLM during this initial testing, with a focus on observations during field campaign during spring 2017 in Huntsville. This region is advantageous for the comparison due to the proliferation of ground-based <span class="hlt">lightning</span> instrumentation, including a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> mapping array, interferometer, HAMMA (an array of electric field change meters), high speed video cameras, and several long range VLF networks. In addition, the field campaign included airborne observations of the optical emission and electric field changes. The initial estimates will be compared with previous observations using TRMM-LIS. In addition, a comparison between the operational and scientific GLM data sets will also be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018HGSS....9...79D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018HGSS....9...79D"><span>An early record of ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span>: Oliva (Spain), 1619</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Domínguez-Castro, Fernando</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p>In a primary documentary source we found an early record of ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span> (BL), which was observed in the monastery of Pi (Oliva, southeastern Spain) on 18 October 1619. The ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span> was observed by at least three people and was described as a <q>rolling burning vessel</q> and a <q>ball of fire</q>. The ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span> appeared following a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash, showed a mainly horizontal motion, crossed a wall, smudged an image of the Lady of Rebollet (then known as Lady of Pi) and burnt her ruff, and overturned a cross.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/372254-electromagnetic-field-radiation-model-lightning-strokes-tall-structures','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/372254-electromagnetic-field-radiation-model-lightning-strokes-tall-structures"><span>Electromagnetic field radiation model for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes to tall structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Motoyama, H.; Janischewskyj, W.; Hussein, A.M.</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>This paper describes observation and analysis of electromagnetic field radiation from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes to tall structures. Electromagnetic field waveforms and current waveforms of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes to the CN Tower have been simultaneously measured since 1991. A new calculation model of electromagnetic field radiation is proposed. The proposed model consists of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> current propagation and distribution model and the electromagnetic field radiation model. Electromagnetic fields calculated by the proposed model, based on the observed <span class="hlt">lightning</span> current at the CN Tower, agree well with the observed fields at 2km north of the tower.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0364.photos.332805p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/hi0364.photos.332805p/"><span>BLDG 101, OVERVIEW WITH <span class="hlt">LIGHTNING</span> POLES Naval Magazine Lualualei, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>BLDG 101, OVERVIEW WITH <span class="hlt">LIGHTNING</span> POLES - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Operational Storage Building, Fifteenth Street near Kolekole Road intersection, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1119585','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1119585"><span>Ionospheric effects of thunderstorms and <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lay, Erin H.</p> <p>2014-02-03</p> <p>Tropospheric thunderstorms have been reported to disturb the lower ionosphere (~65-90 km) by convective atmospheric gravity waves and by electromagnetic field changes produced by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges. However, due to the low electron density in the lower ionosphere, active probing of its electron distribution is difficult, and the various perturbative effects are poorly understood. Recently, we have demonstrated that by using remotely-detected ?me waveforms of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> radio signals it is possible to probe the lower ionosphere and its fluctuations in a spatially and temporally-resolved manner. Here we report evidence of gravity wave effects on the lower ionosphere originating from the thunderstorm.more » We also report variations in the nighttime ionosphere atop a small thunderstorm and associate the variations with the storm’s electrical activity. Finally, we present a data analysis technique to map ionospheric acoustic waves near thunderstorms.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23683210','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23683210"><span>Runaway breakdown and hydrometeors in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> initiation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gurevich, A V; Karashtin, A N</p> <p>2013-05-03</p> <p>The particular electric pulse discharges are observed in thunderclouds during the initiation stage of negative cloud-to-ground <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. The discharges are quite different from conventional streamers or leaders. A detailed analysis reveals that the shape of the pulses is determined by the runaway breakdown of air in the thundercloud electric field initiated by extensive atmospheric showers (RB-EAS). The high amplitude of the pulse electric current is due to the multiple microdischarges at hydrometeors stimulated and synchronized by the low-energy electrons generated in the RB-EAS process. The series of specific pulse discharges leads to charge reset from hydrometeors to the free ions and creates numerous stretched ion clusters, both positive and negative. As a result, a wide region in the thundercloud with a sufficiently high fractal ion conductivity is formed. The charge transport by ions plays a decisive role in the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> leader preconditioning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820052684&hterms=rust&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Drust','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820052684&hterms=rust&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Drust"><span>Radar research on thunderstorms and <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rust, W. D.; Doviak, R. J.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Applications of Doppler radar to detection of storm hazards are reviewed. Normal radar sweeps reveal data on reflectivity fields of rain drops, ionized <span class="hlt">lightning</span> paths, and irregularities in humidity and temperature. Doppler radar permits identification of the targets' speed toward or away from the transmitter through interpretation of the shifts in the microwave frequency. Wind velocity fields can be characterized in three dimensions by the use of two radar units, with a Nyquist limit on the highest wind speeds that may be recorded. Comparisons with models numerically derived from Doppler radar data show substantial agreement in storm formation predictions based on information gathered before the storm. Examples are provided of tornado observations with expanded Nyquist limits, gust fronts, turbulence, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and storm structures. Obtaining vertical velocities from reflectivity spectra is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22227860-structure-conducting-channel-lightning','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22227860-structure-conducting-channel-lightning"><span>Structure of conducting channel of <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Alanakyan, Yu. R.</p> <p>2013-08-15</p> <p>The spatial distribution of the plasma density in a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel is studied theoretically. It is shown that the electric-field double layer is formed at the channel boundary. In this case, the electron temperature changes abruptly and ions are accelerated by the electric field of the double layer. The ion momentum flux density is close to the surrounding gas pressure. Cleaning of the channel from heavy particles occurs in particle-exchange processes between the plasma channel and the surrounding air. Hydrogen ions are accumulated inside the expanding channel from the surrounding air, which is enriched by hydrogen-contained molecules. In this case,more » the plasma channel is unstable and splits to a chain of equidistant bunches of plasma. The hydrogen-enrich bunches burn diffusely after recombination exhibiting the bead <span class="hlt">lightning</span> behavior.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28114174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28114174"><span>Case Report: <span class="hlt">Lightning</span>-Induced Pneumomediastinum.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blumenthal, Ryan; Saayman, Gert</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>We present the case of a 41-year-old woman who was fatally injured during a witnessed <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike event and in whom autopsy revealed the unusual keraunopathological finding of overt pneumomediastinum. The possible pathophysiological mechanism(s) of causation of this phenomenon are discussed, with specific reference also to the "Macklin" effect and the role of blast overpressures associated with <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike. It is suggested that the latter may lead to sudden alveolar rupture, with subsequent rapid tracking of air along bronchovascular sheaths in a centripetal manner toward the hilum of the lung and thus into the mediastinum. A review of the blast literature suggests that this victim would have been exposed to a blast pressure wave of approximately 29-psi (200 kPa) to 72-psi (500 kPa) magnitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170000764','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20170000764"><span>An Assessment of Land Surface and <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Characteristics Associated with <span class="hlt">Lightning</span>-Initiated Wildfires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Coy, James; Schultz, Christopher J.; Case, Jonathan L.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Can we use modeled information of the land surface and characteristics of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> beyond flash occurrence to increase the identification and prediction of wildfires? Combine observed cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes with real-time land surface model output, and Compare data with areas where <span class="hlt">lightning</span> did not start a wildfire to determine what land surface conditions and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> characteristics were responsible for causing wildfires. Statistical differences between suspected fire-starters and non-fire-starters were peak-current dependent 0-10 cm Volumetric and Relative Soil Moisture comparisons were statistically dependent to at least the p = 0.05 independence level for both polarity flash types Suspected fire-starters typically occurred in areas of lower soil moisture than non-fire-starters. GVF value comparisons were only found to be statistically dependent for -CG flashes. However, random sampling of the -CG non-fire starter dataset revealed that this relationship may not always hold.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29168803','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29168803"><span>Photonuclear reactions triggered by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Enoto, Teruaki; Wada, Yuuki; Furuta, Yoshihiro; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Yuasa, Takayuki; Okuda, Kazufumi; Makishima, Kazuo; Sato, Mitsuteru; Sato, Yousuke; Nakano, Toshio; Umemoto, Daigo; Tsuchiya, Harufumi</p> <p>2017-11-22</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and thunderclouds are natural particle accelerators. Avalanches of relativistic runaway electrons, which develop in electric fields within thunderclouds, emit bremsstrahlung γ-rays. These γ-rays have been detected by ground-based observatories, by airborne detectors and as terrestrial γ-ray flashes from space. The energy of the γ-rays is sufficiently high that they can trigger atmospheric photonuclear reactions that produce neutrons and eventually positrons via β + decay of the unstable radioactive isotopes, most notably 13 N, which is generated via 14 N + γ →  13 N + n, where γ denotes a photon and n a neutron. However, this reaction has hitherto not been observed conclusively, despite increasing observational evidence of neutrons and positrons that are presumably derived from such reactions. Here we report ground-based observations of neutron and positron signals after <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. During a thunderstorm on 6 February 2017 in Japan, a γ-ray flash with a duration of less than one millisecond was detected at our monitoring sites 0.5-1.7 kilometres away from the <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. The subsequent γ-ray afterglow subsided quickly, with an exponential decay constant of 40-60 milliseconds, and was followed by prolonged line emission at about 0.511 megaelectronvolts, which lasted for a minute. The observed decay timescale and spectral cutoff at about 10 megaelectronvolts of the γ-ray afterglow are well explained by de-excitation γ-rays from nuclei excited by neutron capture. The centre energy of the prolonged line emission corresponds to electron-positron annihilation, providing conclusive evidence of positrons being produced after the <span class="hlt">lightning</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EOSTr..91...57S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EOSTr..91...57S"><span>Effects of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> in the Upper Atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sentman, Davis D.; Pasko, Victor P.; Morrill, Jeff S.</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>AGU Chapman Conference on Effects of Thunderstorms and <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> in the Upper Atmosphere; University Park, Pennsylvania, 10-14 May 2009; The serendipitous observation in 1989 of electrical discharge in the high atmosphere induced by thundercloud <span class="hlt">lightning</span> launched a new field of geophysical investigation. From this single unexpected observation sprang a vigorous and fertile new research field that simultaneously encompasses geophysical disciplines that are normally pursued independently, such as meteorology and <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, plasma and gas discharge physics, atmospheric chemistry, ionospheric physics, and energetic particle physics. Transient electrical discharge in the upper atmosphere spans the full range of altitudes between the tropopause and the ionosphere and takes a variety of forms that carry the whimsical names red sprites, blue jets, gigantic jets, elves (emissions of light and very low frequency perturbations from electromagnetic pulse sources), and sprite halos, collectively known as transient luminous events (TLEs). To date, TLEs have been observed from ground and airborne or spaceborne platforms above thunderstorm systems worldwide, and radio observations made concomitantly with optical observations have shown that they are produced by the transient far fields of thundercloud <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. TLEs appear to be large-scale (tens of kilometers in dimension), upper atmospheric versions of conventional gas discharge akin to weakly ionized, collision-dominated systems found in laboratory discharge devices (millimeter-centimeter dimensions), with characteristic energies of a few electron volts. The dominant physical processes have been identified as described by the familiar kinetic theory of the photochemistry of the upper atmosphere, but with electric field-driven electron impact ionization playing the role of photolysis or energetic precipitating particle-induced ionization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880043877&hterms=stroke&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dstroke','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880043877&hterms=stroke&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dstroke"><span>Horizontal electric fields from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> return strokes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thomson, E. M.; Medelius, P. J.; Rubinstein, M.; Uman, M. A.; Johnson, J.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>An experiment to measure simultaneously the wideband horizontal and vertical electric fields from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> return strokes is described. Typical wave shapes of the measured horizontal and vertical fields are presented, and the horizontal fields are characterized. The measured horizontal fields are compared with calculated horizontal fields obtained by applying the wavetilt formula to the vertical fields. The limitations and sources of error in the measurement technique are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150009504','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150009504"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Protection for the Orion Space Vehicle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Scully, Robert</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Orion space vehicle is designed to requirements for both direct attachment and indirect effects of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Both sets of requirements are based on a full threat 200kA strike, in accordance with constraints and guidelines contained in SAE ARP documents applicable to both commercial and military aircraft and space vehicles. This paper describes the requirements as levied against the vehicle, as well as the means whereby the design shows full compliance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMAE13A0327E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMAE13A0327E"><span>Acoustic Location of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Using Interferometric Techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Erives, H.; Arechiga, R. O.; Stock, M.; Lapierre, J. L.; Edens, H. E.; Stringer, A.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Acoustic arrays have been used to accurately locate thunder sources in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes. The acoustic arrays located around the Magdalena mountains of central New Mexico produce locations which compare quite well with source locations provided by the New Mexico Tech <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array. These arrays utilize 3 outer microphones surrounding a 4th microphone located at the center, The location is computed by band-passing the signal to remove noise, and then computing the cross correlating the outer 3 microphones with respect the center reference microphone. While this method works very well, it works best on signals with high signal to noise ratios; weaker signals are not as well located. Therefore, methods are being explored to improve the location accuracy and detection efficiency of the acoustic location systems. The signal received by acoustic arrays is strikingly similar to th signal received by radio frequency interferometers. Both acoustic location systems and radio frequency interferometers make coherent measurements of a signal arriving at a number of closely spaced antennas. And both acoustic and interferometric systems then correlate these signals between pairs of receivers to determine the direction to the source of the received signal. The primary difference between the two systems is the velocity of propagation of the emission, which is much slower for sound. Therefore, the same frequency based techniques that have been used quite successfully with radio interferometers should be applicable to acoustic based measurements as well. The results presented here are comparisons between the location results obtained with current cross correlation method and techniques developed for radio frequency interferometers applied to acoustic signals. The data were obtained during the summer 2013 storm season using multiple arrays sensitive to both infrasonic frequency and audio frequency acoustic emissions from <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Preliminary results show that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860035730&hterms=dart&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Ddart','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19860035730&hterms=dart&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Ddart"><span>Anomalous light output from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> dart leaders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Guo, C.; Krider, E. P.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>About 5 percent of the multiple-stroke cloud-to-ground <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges recorded at the NASA Kennedy Space Center during the summer of 1981 contained dart leaders that produced an unusually large light output. An analysis of these cases indicates that the average peak light output per unit length in the leader may be comparable to or even exceed that of the return stroke that follows.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/749610','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/749610"><span>[Auricular consequences of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> (author's transl)].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leveillé-Nizerolle, M; Lintzer, J P; Bérézin, A</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Auricular accidents provoqued by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and induced by telephone are extremely rare. The authors of this paper relate the case of a young lady suffering from an inflammation of the external auditive canal and of an irritation of the tympanic membrane with an perception's hypacusis of 30 db. A physiological explanation is proposed and two factors come into account:--The acoustic traumatism induced by the thunder;--The burn produced by the electrical current.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19970012901&hterms=nasa+shuttle&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dnasa%2Bshuttle','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19970012901&hterms=nasa+shuttle&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dnasa%2Bshuttle"><span>NASA Shuttle <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Research: Observations of Nocturnal Thunderstorms and <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Displays as Seen During Recent Space Shuttle Missions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vaughan, Otha H., Jr.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A number of interesting <span class="hlt">lightning</span> events have been observed using the low light level TV camera of the space shuttle during nighttime observations of thunderstorms near the limb of the Earth. Some of the vertical type <span class="hlt">lightning</span> events that have been observed will be presented. Using TV cameras for observing <span class="hlt">lightning</span> near the Earth's limb allows one to determine the location of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and other characteristics by using the star field data and the shuttle's orbital position to reconstruct the geometry of the scene being viewed by the shuttle's TV cameras which are located in the payload bay of the shuttle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20066646','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20066646"><span>Impact of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes on hospital functions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mortelmans, Luc J M; Van Springel, Gert L J; Van Boxstael, Sam; Herrijgers, Jan; Hoflacks, Stefaan</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Two regional hospitals were struck by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> during a one-month period. The first hospital, which had 236 beds, suffered a direct strike to the building. This resulted in a direct spread of the power peak and temporary failure of the standard power supply. The principle problems, after restoring standard power supply, were with the fire alarm system and peripheral network connections in the digital radiology systems. No direct impact on the hardware could be found. Restarting the servers resolved all problems. The second hospital, which had 436 beds, had a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike on the premises and mainly experienced problems due to induction. All affected installations had a cable connection from outside in one way or another. The power supplies never were endangered. The main problem was the failure of different communication systems (telephone, radio, intercom, fire alarm system). Also, the electronic entrance control went out. During the days after the lightening strike, multiple software problems became apparent, as well as failures of the network connections controlling the technical support systems. There are very few ways to prepare for induction problems. The use of fiber-optic networks can limit damage. To the knowledge of the authors, these are the first cases of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> striking hospitals in medical literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800022141','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800022141"><span>Analysis of electrical transients created by <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nanevicz, J. E.; Vance, E. F.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A series of flight tests was conducted using a specially-instrumented NASA Learjet to study the electrical transients created on an aircraft by nearby <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. The instrumentation included provisions for the time-domain and frequency-domain recording of the electrical signals induced in sensors located both on the exterior and on the interior of the aircraft. The design and calibration of the sensors and associated measuring systems is described together with the results of the flight test measurements. The results indicate that the concept of providing instrumentation to follow the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> signal from propagation field, to aircraft skin current, to current on interior wiring is basically sound. The results of the measurement indicate that the high frequency signals associated with <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stroke precursor activity are important in generating electromagnetic noise on the interior of the aircraft. Indeed, the signals produced by the precursors are often of higher amplitude and of longer duration that the pulse produced by the main return stroke.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NHESS..15.1881T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NHESS..15.1881T"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> fatalities and injuries in Turkey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tilev-Tanriover, Ş.; Kahraman, A.; Kadioğlu, M.; Schultz, D. M.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>A database of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-related fatalities and injuries in Turkey was constructed by collecting data from the Turkish State Meteorological Service, newspaper archives, European Severe Weather Database, and the internet. The database covers January 1930 to June 2014. In total, 742 <span class="hlt">lightning</span> incidents causing human fatalities and injuries were found. Within these 742 incidents, there were 895 fatalities, 149 serious injuries, and 535 other injuries. Most of the incidents (89 %) occurred during April through September, with a peak in May and June (26 and 28 %) followed by July (14 %). <span class="hlt">Lightning</span>-related fatalities and injuries were most frequent in the afternoon. Most of the incidents (86 %) occurred in rural areas, with only 14 % in the urban areas. Approximately, two thirds of the victims with known gender were male. Because of the unrepresentativeness of the historical data, determining an average mortality rate over a long period is not possible. Nevertheless, there were 31 fatalities (0.42 per million) in 2012, 26 fatalities (0.35 per million) in 2013, and 25 fatalities (0.34 per million) in 2014 (as of June). There were 36 injuries (0.49 per million) in each of 2012 and 2013, and 62 injuries (0.84 per million) in 2014 (as of June).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NHESD...3.1889T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NHESD...3.1889T"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> fatalities and injuries in Turkey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tilev-Tanriover, Ş.; Kahraman, A.; Kadioğlu, M.; Schultz, D. M.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>A database of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-related fatalities and injuries in Turkey was constructed by collecting data from the Turkish State Meteorological Service, newspaper archives, European Severe Weather Database, and the internet. The database covers January 1930 to June 2014. In total, 742 <span class="hlt">lightning</span> incidents causing human fatalities and injuries were found. Within these 742 incidents, there were 895 fatalities, 149 serious injuries, and 535 other injuries. Most of the incidents (89%) occurred during April through September, with a peak in May and June (26 and 28 %) followed by July (14%). <span class="hlt">Lightning</span>-related fatalities and injuries were most frequent in the afternoon. Most of the incidents (86%) occurred in the rural areas, with only 14% in the urban areas. Approximately, two thirds of the victims with known gender were male. Because of the unrepresentativeness of the historical data, determining an average mortality rate over a long period is not possible. Nevertheless, there were 31 fatalities (0.42 per million) in 2012, 26 fatalities (0.35 per million) in 2013, and 25 fatalities (0.34 per million) in 2014 (as of June). There were 36 injuries (0.49 per million) in each of 2012 and 2013, and 62 injuries (0.84 per million) in 2014 (as of June).</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMAE31A0420A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMAE31A0420A"><span>Acoustic vs Interferometric Measurements of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arechiga, R. O.; Erives, H.; Sonnenfeld, R. G.; Stanley, M. A.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.; Edens, H. E.; Lapierre, J. L.; Stock, M.; Jensen, D.; Morris, K.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>During the summer of 2015 we acquired acoustic and RF data on severalflashes from thunderstorms over Fort Morgan CO. and Langmuir Laboratoryin the Magdalena mountains of central New Mexico. The acoustic arrayswere located at a distance of roughly 150 m from the interferometers.<span class="hlt">Lightning</span> mapping array and slow antenna data were also obtained. Theacoustic arrays consist of arrays of five audio-range and six infrasoundmicrophones operating at 50 KHz and 1 KHz respectively. The lightninginterferometer at Fort Morgan CO. consists of three flat-plate, 13" diameterantennas at the vertices of an equilateral 50 m per side triangle. Theinterferometer at Langmuir Laboratory consists of three 13" dishes separatedby about 15 m. Both interferometers, operating at 180 Megasamples persecond, use the analysis software and digitizer hardware pioneered byStanley, Stock et al. The high data rate allows for excellent spatialresolution of high speed (and typically high current) processes such asK-changes, return strokes and dart-leaders. In previous studies, we haveshown the usefulness of acoustic recordings to locate thunder sources aswell as infrasound pulses from <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. This work will present acomparison of Acoustic and Interferometric measurements from <span class="hlt">lightning</span>,using some interesting flashes, including a positive cloud to ground,that occurred in these campaigns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990079433&hterms=rain+storm&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Drain%2Bstorm','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990079433&hterms=rain+storm&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Drain%2Bstorm"><span>Characterizing the Relationships Among <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and Storm Parameters: <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> as a Proxy Variable</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goodman, S. J.; Raghavan, R.; William, E.; Weber, M.; Boldi, B.; Matlin, A.; Wolfson, M.; Hodanish, S.; Sharp. D.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>We have gained important insights from prior studies that have suggested relationships between <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and storm growth, decay, convective rain flux, vertical distribution of storm mass and echo volume in the region, and storm energetics. A study was initiated in the Summer of 1996 to determine how total (in-cloud plus ground) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> observations might provide added knowledge to the forecaster in the determination and identification of severe thunderstorms and weather hazards in real-time. The Melbourne Weather Office was selected as a primary site to conduct this study because Melbourne is the only site in the world with continuous and open access to total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> (LDAR) data and a Doppler (WSR-88D) radar. A <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor Data Applications Demonstration (LISDAD) system was integrated into the forecaster's workstation during the Summer 1996 to allow the forecaster to interact in real-time with the multi-sensor data being displayed. LISDAD currently ingests LDAR data, the cloud-to-ground National <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network (NLDN) data, and the Melbourne radar data in f real-time. The interactive features provide the duty forecaster the ability to perform quick diagnostics on storm cells of interest. Upon selection of a storm cell, a pop-up box appears displaying the time-history of various storm parameters (e.g., maximum radar reflectivity, height of maximum reflectivity, echo-top height, NLDN and LDAR <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash rates, storm-based vertically integrated liquid water content). This product is archived to aid on detailed post-analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMAE31B0435H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMAE31B0435H"><span>Performance Study of Earth Networks Total <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Network using Rocket-Triggered <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Data in 2014</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heckman, S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Modern <span class="hlt">lightning</span> locating systems (LLS) provide real-time monitoring and early warning of lightningactivities. In addition, LLS provide valuable data for statistical analysis in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> research. It isimportant to know the performance of such LLS. In the present study, the performance of the EarthNetworks Total <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Network (ENTLN) is studied using rocket-triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data acquired atthe International Center for <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Research and Testing (ICLRT), Camp Blanding, Florida.In the present study, 18 flashes triggered at ICLRT in 2014 were analyzed and they comprise of 78negative cloud-to-ground return strokes. The geometric mean, median, minimum, and maximum for thepeak currents of the 78 return strokes are 13.4 kA, 13.6 kA, 3.7 kA, and 38.4 kA, respectively. The peakcurrents represent typical subsequent return strokes in natural cloud-to-ground <span class="hlt">lightning</span>.Earth Networks has developed a new data processor to improve the performance of their network. Inthis study, results are presented for the ENTLN data using the old processor (originally reported in 2014)and the ENTLN data simulated using the new processor. The flash detection efficiency, stroke detectionefficiency, percentage of misclassification, median location error, median peak current estimation error,and median absolute peak current estimation error for the originally reported data from old processorare 100%, 94%, 49%, 271 m, 5%, and 13%, respectively, and those for the simulated data using the newprocessor are 100%, 99%, 9%, 280 m, 11%, and 15%, respectively. The use of new processor resulted inhigher stroke detection efficiency and lower percentage of misclassification. It is worth noting that theslight differences in median location error, median peak current estimation error, and median absolutepeak current estimation error for the two processors are due to the fact that the new processordetected more number of return strokes than the old processor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100040471','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100040471"><span>Triggered-<span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Interaction with a <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Protective System: Current Distribution and Electromagnetic Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mata, C. T.; Rakov, V. A.; Mata, A. G.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A new comprehensive <span class="hlt">lightning</span> instrumentation system has been designed for Launch Complex 39B (LC3913) at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. This new instrumentation system includes the synchronized recording of six high-speed video cameras; currents through the nine downconductors of the new <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection system for LC3913; four dH/dt, 3-axis measurement stations; and five dE/dt stations composed of two antennas each. A 20:1 scaled down model of the new <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Protection System (LPS) of LC39B was built at the International Center for <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Research and Testing, Camp Blanding, FL. This scaled down <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection system was instrumented with the transient recorders, digitizers, and sensors to be used in the final instrumentation installation at LC3913. The instrumentation used at the ICLRT is also a scaled-down instrumentation of the LC39B instrumentation. The scaled-down LPS was subjected to seven direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes and six (four triggered and two natural nearby flashes) in 2010. The following measurements were acquired at the ICLRT: currents through the nine downconductors; two dl-/dt, 3-axis stations, one at the center of the LPS (underneath the catenary wires), and another 40 meters south from the center of the LPS; ten dE/dt stations, nine of them on the perimeter of the LPS and one at the center of the LPS (underneath the catenary wire system); and the incident current. Data from representative events are presented and analyzed in this paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmRe.197...76S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AtmRe.197...76S"><span>Performance assessment of Beijing <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Network (BLNET) and comparison with other <span class="hlt">lightning</span> location networks across Beijing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Srivastava, Abhay; Tian, Ye; Qie, Xiushu; Wang, Dongfang; Sun, Zhuling; Yuan, Shanfeng; Wang, Yu; Chen, Zhixiong; Xu, Wenjing; Zhang, Hongbo; Jiang, Rubin; Su, Debin</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>The performances of Beijing <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Network (BLNET) operated in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban cluster area have been evaluated in terms of detection efficiency and relative location accuracy. A self-reference method has been used to show the detection efficiency of BLNET, for which fast antenna waveforms have been manually examined. Based on the fast antenna verification, the average detection efficiency of BLNET is 97.4% for intracloud (IC) flashes, 73.9% for cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes and 93.2% for the total flashes. Result suggests the CG detection of regional dense network is highly precise when the thunderstorm passes over the network; however it changes day to day when the thunderstorms are outside the network. Further, the CG stroke data from three different <span class="hlt">lightning</span> location networks across Beijing are compared. The relative detection efficiency of World Wide <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Location Network (WWLLN) and Chinese Meteorology Administration - <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network (CMA-LDN, also known as ADTD) are approximately 12.4% (16.8%) and 36.5% (49.4%), respectively, comparing with fast antenna (BLNET). The location of BLNET is in middle, while WWLLN and CMA-LDN average locations are southeast and northwest, respectively. Finally, the IC pulses and CG return stroke pulses have been compared with the S-band Doppler radar. This type of study is useful to know the approximate situation in a region and improve the performance of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> location networks in the absence of ground truth. Two <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes occurred on tower in the coverage of BLNET show that the horizontal location error was 52.9 m and 250 m, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMAE21A0296W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMAE21A0296W"><span>A comparison between initial continuous currents of different types of upward <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, D.; Sawada, N.; Takagi, N.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>We have observed the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> to a wind turbine and its <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-protection tower for four consecutive winter seasons from 2005 to 2009. Our observation items include (1) thunderstorm electrical fields and <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-caused electric field changes at multi sites around the wind turbine, (2) electrical currents at the bottom of the wind turbine and its <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection tower, (3) normal video and high speed image of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> optical channels. Totally, we have obtained the data for 42 <span class="hlt">lightning</span> that hit either on wind turbine or its <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection tower or both. Among these 42 <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, 38 are upward <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and 2 are downward <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. We found the upward <span class="hlt">lightning</span> can be sub-classified into two types. Type 1 upward <span class="hlt">lightning</span> are self-triggered from a high structure, while type 2 <span class="hlt">lightning</span> are triggered by a discharge occurred in other places which could be either a cloud discharge or a cloud-to-ground discharge (other-triggered). In this study, we have compared the two types of upward <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in terms of initial continuous current rise time, peak current and charge transferred to the ground. We found that the initial current of self-triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> tends to rise significantly faster and to a bigger peak value than the other-triggered <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, although both types of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> transferred similar amount of charge to the ground.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28770051','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28770051"><span>Quantification and identification of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> damage in tropical forests.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yanoviak, Stephen P; Gora, Evan M; Burchfield, Jeffrey M; Bitzer, Phillip M; Detto, Matteo</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>Accurate estimates of tree mortality are essential for the development of mechanistic forest dynamics models, and for estimating carbon storage and cycling. However, identifying agents of tree mortality is difficult and imprecise. Although <span class="hlt">lightning</span> kills thousands of trees each year and is an important agent of mortality in some forests, the frequency and distribution of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-caused tree death remain unknown for most forests. Moreover, because all evidence regarding the effects of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> on trees is necessarily anecdotal and post hoc, rigorous tests of hypotheses regarding the ecological effects of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> are impossible. We developed a combined electronic sensor/camera-based system for the location and characterization of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to the forest canopy in near real time and tested the system in the forest of Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Cameras mounted on towers provided continuous video recordings of the forest canopy that were analyzed to determine the locations of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes. We used a preliminary version of this system to record and locate 18 <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to the forest over a 3-year period. Data from field surveys of known <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike locations (obtained from the camera system) enabled us to develop a protocol for reliable, ground-based identification of suspected <span class="hlt">lightning</span> damage to tropical trees. In all cases, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> damage was relatively inconspicuous; it would have been overlooked by ground-based observers having no knowledge of the event. We identified three types of evidence that can be used to consistently identify <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike damage in tropical forests: (1) localized and directionally biased branch mortality associated with flashover among tree and sapling crowns, (2) mortality of lianas or saplings near lianas, and (3) scorched or wilting epiphytic and hemiepiphytic plants. The longitudinal trunk scars that are typical of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-damaged temperate trees were never observed in this study. Given the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5316997-pioneer-venus-orbiter-search-venusian-lightning','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5316997-pioneer-venus-orbiter-search-venusian-lightning"><span>Pioneer Venus orbiter search for Venusian <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Borucki, W.J.; Dyer, J.W.; Phillips, J.R.</p> <p>1991-07-01</p> <p>During the 1988 and 1990, the star sensor aboard the Pioneer Venus orbiter (PVO) was used to search for optical pulses from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> on the nightside of Venus. Useful data were obtained for 53 orbits in 1988 and 55 orbits in 1990. During this period, approximately 83 s of search time plus 7749 s of control data were obtained. The results again find no optical evidence for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity. With the region that was observed during 1988, the results imply that the upper bound to short-duration flashes is 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} flashes/km{sup 2}/s for flashes that are at leastmore » 50% as bright as typical terrestrial <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. During 1990, when the 2-Hz filter was used, the results imply an upper bound of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} flashes/km{sup 2}/s for long-duration flashes at least 1.6% as bright as typical terrestrial <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes or 33% as bright as the pulses observed by the Venera 9. The upper bounds to the flash rates for the 1988 and 1990 searches are twice and one half the global terrestrial rate, respectively. These two searches covered the region from 60{degrees}N latitude to 30{degrees}S latitude, 250{degrees} to 350{degrees} longitude, and the region from 45{degrees}N latitude to 55{degrees}S latitude, 155{degrees} to 300{degrees} longitude. Both searches sampled much of the nightside region from the dawn terminator to within 4 hours of the dusk terminator. These searches covered a much larger latitude range than any previous search. The results show that the Beat and Phoebe Regio areas previously identified by Russell et al. (1988) as areas with high rates of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity were not active during the two seasons of the observations. When the authors assume that their upper bounds to the nightside flash rate are representative of the entire planet, the results imply that the global flash rate and energy dissipation rate derived by Krasnopol'sky (1983) from his observation of a single storm are too high.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023400','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023400"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> testing at the subsystem level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Luteran, Frank</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>Testing at the subsystem or black box level for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> hardness is required if system hardness is to be assured at the system level. The often applied philosophy of lighting testing only at the system level leads to extensive end of the line design changes which result in excessive costs and time delays. In order to perform testing at the subsystem level two important factors must be defined to make the testing simulation meaningful. The first factor is the definition of the test stimulus appropriate to the subsystem level. Application of system level stimulations to the subsystem level usually leads to significant overdesign of the subsystem which is not necessary and may impair normal subsystem performance. The second factor is the availability of test equipment needed to provide the subsystem level <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stimulation. Equipment for testing at this level should be portable or at least movable to enable efficient testing in a design laboratory environment. Large fixed test installations for system level tests are not readily available for use by the design engineers at the subsystem level and usually require special operating skills. The two factors, stimulation level and test equipment availability, must be evaluated together in order to produce a practical, workable test standard. The neglect or subordination of either factor will guarantee failure in generating the standard. It is not unusual to hear that test standards or specifications are waived because a specified stimulation level cannot be accomplished by in-house or independent test facilities. Determination of subsystem <span class="hlt">lightning</span> simulation level requires a knowledge and evaluation of field coupling modes, peak and median levels of voltages and currents, bandwidths, and repetition rates. Practical limitations on test systems may require tradeoffs in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stimulation parameters in order to build practical test equipment. Peak power levels that can be generated at specified bandwidths with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.178..304S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AtmRe.178..304S"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> climatology in the Congo Basin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Soula, S.; Kasereka, J. Kigotsi; Georgis, J. F.; Barthe, C.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">lightning</span> climatology of the Congo Basin including several countries of Central Africa is analysed in detail for the first time. It is based on data from the World Wide <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Location Network (WWLLN), for the period from 2005 to 2013. A comparison of these data with <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor (LIS) data for the same period shows the relative detection efficiency of the WWLLN (DE) in the 2500 km × 2500 km region increases from about 1.70% in the beginning of the period to 5.90% in 2013, and it is in agreement with previous results for other regions of the world. However, the increase of DE is not uniform over the whole region. The average monthly flash rate describes an annual cycle with a strong activity from October to March and a low one from June to August, associated with the ITCZ migration but not exactly symmetrical on both sides of the equator. The zonal distribution of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes exhibits a maximum between 1°S and 2°S and about 56% of the flashes are located south of the equator in the 10°S-10°N interval. The diurnal evolution of the flash rate has a maximum between 1400 and 1700 UTC, according to the reference year. The annual flash density and number of stormy days show a sharp maximum localized in the eastern part of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) regardless of the reference year and the period of the year. These maxima reach 12.86 fl km- 2 and 189 days, respectively, in 2013, and correspond to a very active region located at the rear of the Virunga mountain range at altitudes that exceed 3000 m. The presence of these mountains plays a role in the thunderstorm development along the year. The estimation of this local maximum of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> density by taking into account the DE, leads to a value consistent with that of the global climatology by Christian et al. (2003).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120014476','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120014476"><span>Using the VAHIRR Radar Algorithm to Investigate <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Cessation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Stano, Geoffrey T.; Schultz, Elise V.; Petersen, Walter A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Accurately determining the threat posed by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is a major area for improved operational forecasts. Most efforts have focused on the initiation of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> within a storm, with far less effort spent investigating <span class="hlt">lightning</span> cessation. Understanding both components, initiation and cessation, are vital to improving <span class="hlt">lightning</span> safety. Few organizations actively forecast <span class="hlt">lightning</span> onset or cessation. One such organization is the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45WS has identified that charged anvil clouds remain a major threat of continued <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and can greatly extend the window of a potential <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike. Furthermore, no discernable trend of total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity has been observed consistently for all storms. This highlights the need for more research to find a robust method of knowing when a storm will cease producing <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Previous <span class="hlt">lightning</span> cessation work has primarily focused on forecasting the cessation of cloud-to -ground <span class="hlt">lightning</span> only. A more recent, statistical study involved total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> (both cloud-to-ground and intracloud). Each of these previous works has helped the 45WS take steps forward in creating improved and ultimately safer <span class="hlt">lightning</span> cessation forecasts. Each study has either relied on radar data or recommended increased use of radar data to improve cessation forecasts. The reasoning is that radar data is able to either directly or by proxy infer more about dynamical environment leading to cloud electrification and eventually <span class="hlt">lightning</span> cessation. The authors of this project are focusing on a two ]step approach to better incorporate radar data and total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> to improve cessation forecasts. This project will utilize the Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR) algorithm originally developed during the Airborne Field Mill II (ABFM II) research project. During the project, the VAHIRR product showed a trend of increasing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMAE13A2230H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMAE13A2230H"><span>Total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> characteristics of recent hazardous weather events in Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hobara, Y.; Kono, S.; Ogawa, T.; Heckman, S.; Stock, M.; Liu, C.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>In recent years, the total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> (IC + CG) activity have attracted a lot of attention to improve the quality of prediction of hazardous weather phenomena (hail, wind gusts, tornadoes, heavy precipitation). Sudden increases of the total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash rate so-called <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump (LJ) preceding the hazardous weather, reported in several studies, are one of the promising precursors. Although, increases in the frequency and intensity of these extreme weather events were reported in Japan, relationship with these events with total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> have not studied intensively yet. In this paper, we will demonstrate the recent results from Japanese total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection network (JTLN) in relation with hazardous weather events occurred in Japan in the period of 2014-2016. Automatic thunderstorm cell tracking was carried out based on the very high spatial and temporal resolution X-band MP radar echo data (1 min and 250 m) to correlate with total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity. Results obtained reveal promising because the flash rate of total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> tends to increase about 10 40 minutes before the onset of the extreme weather events. We also present the differences in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> characteristics of thunderstorm cells between hazardous weather events and non-hazardous weather events, which is a vital information to improve the prediction efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080048200','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080048200"><span>Monte Carlo Simulation to Estimate Likelihood of Direct <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Strikes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mata, Carlos; Medelius, Pedro</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>A software tool has been designed to quantify the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> exposure at launch sites of the stack at the pads under different configurations. In order to predict <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes to generic structures, this model uses leaders whose origins (in the x-y plane) are obtained from a 2D random, normal distribution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MAP...128..303B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MAP...128..303B"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> characteristics of derecho producing mesoscale convective systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bentley, Mace L.; Franks, John R.; Suranovic, Katelyn R.; Barbachem, Brent; Cannon, Declan; Cooper, Stonie R.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Derechos, or widespread, convectively induced wind storms, are a common warm season phenomenon in the Central and Eastern United States. These damaging and severe weather events are known to sweep quickly across large spatial regions of more than 400 km and produce wind speeds exceeding 121 km h-1. Although extensive research concerning derechos and their parent mesoscale convective systems already exists, there have been few investigations of the spatial and temporal distribution of associated cloud-to-ground <span class="hlt">lightning</span> with these events. This study analyzes twenty warm season (May through August) derecho events between 2003 and 2013 in an effort to discern their <span class="hlt">lightning</span> characteristics. Data used in the study included cloud-to-ground flash data derived from the National <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network, WSR-88D imagery from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, and damaging wind report data obtained from the Storm Prediction Center. A spatial and temporal analysis was conducted by incorporating these data into a geographic information system to determine the distribution and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> characteristics of the environments of derecho producing mesoscale convective systems. Primary foci of this research include: (1) finding the approximate size of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity region for individual and combined event(s); (2) determining the intensity of each event by examining the density and polarity of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes; (3) locating areas of highest <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash density; and (4) to provide a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> spatial analysis that outlines the temporal and spatial distribution of flash activity for particularly strong derecho producing thunderstorm episodes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec29-954.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec29-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.954 Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 29.954...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec29-954.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec29-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.954 Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 29.954...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec27-954.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec27-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 27.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.954 Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 27.954...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec25-954.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec25-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 25.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.954 Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 25.954...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec29-954.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec29-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.954 Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 29.954...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec27-954.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec27-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 27.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.954 Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 27.954...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec29-954.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec29-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.954 Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 29.954...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec27-954.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec27-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 27.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.954 Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 27.954...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec25-954.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec25-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 25.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.954 Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 25.954...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec25-954.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec25-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 25.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.954 Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 25.954...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec25-954.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec25-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 25.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.954 Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 25.954...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec27-954.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec27-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 27.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.954 Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 27.954...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec29-954.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec29-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 29.954 Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 29.954...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec27-954.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec27-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 27.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.954 Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 27.954...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec25-954.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec25-954.pdf"><span>14 CFR 25.954 - Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.954 Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel system <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection. 25.954...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec27-610.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec27-610.pdf"><span>14 CFR 27.610 - <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection....610 <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection. (a) The rotorcraft must be protected against... static electricity must— (1) Minimize the accumulation of electrostatic charge; (2) Minimize the risk of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec27-610.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec27-610.pdf"><span>14 CFR 27.610 - <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection....610 <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection. (a) The rotorcraft must be protected against... static electricity must— (1) Minimize the accumulation of electrostatic charge; (2) Minimize the risk of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec29-610.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol1-sec29-610.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.610 - <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection... § 29.610 <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection. (a) The rotorcraft structure must be protected... electricity must— (1) Minimize the accumulation of electrostatic charge; (2) Minimize the risk of electric...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec29-610.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec29-610.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.610 - <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection... § 29.610 <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection. (a) The rotorcraft structure must be protected... electricity must— (1) Minimize the accumulation of electrostatic charge; (2) Minimize the risk of electric...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec29-610.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec29-610.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.610 - <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection... § 29.610 <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection. (a) The rotorcraft structure must be protected... electricity must— (1) Minimize the accumulation of electrostatic charge; (2) Minimize the risk of electric...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec27-610.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec27-610.pdf"><span>14 CFR 27.610 - <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection....610 <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection. (a) The rotorcraft must be protected against... static electricity must— (1) Minimize the accumulation of electrostatic charge; (2) Minimize the risk of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec29-610.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol1-sec29-610.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.610 - <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection... § 29.610 <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection. (a) The rotorcraft structure must be protected... electricity must— (1) Minimize the accumulation of electrostatic charge; (2) Minimize the risk of electric...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec27-610.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol1-sec27-610.pdf"><span>14 CFR 27.610 - <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection....610 <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection. (a) The rotorcraft must be protected against... static electricity must— (1) Minimize the accumulation of electrostatic charge; (2) Minimize the risk of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec27-610.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol1-sec27-610.pdf"><span>14 CFR 27.610 - <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection....610 <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection. (a) The rotorcraft must be protected against... static electricity must— (1) Minimize the accumulation of electrostatic charge; (2) Minimize the risk of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec29-610.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol1-sec29-610.pdf"><span>14 CFR 29.610 - <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection... § 29.610 <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and static electricity protection. (a) The rotorcraft structure must be protected... electricity must— (1) Minimize the accumulation of electrostatic charge; (2) Minimize the risk of electric...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA557155','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA557155"><span>Assimilation of Long-Range <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Data over the Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-09-30</p> <p>convective rainfall analyses over the Pacific, and (iii) to improve marine prediction of cyclogenesis of both tropical and extratropical cyclones through...data over the North Pacific Ocean, refine the relationships between <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and storm hydrometeor characteristics, and assimilate <span class="hlt">lightning</span>...unresolved storm -scale areas of deep convection over the data-sparse open oceans. Diabatic heating sources, especially latent heat release in deep</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023303','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023303"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> location system supervising Swedish power transmission network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Melin, Stefan A.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>For electric utilities, the ability to prevent or minimize <span class="hlt">lightning</span> damage on personnel and power systems is of great importance. Therefore, the Swedish State Power Board, has been using data since 1983 from a nationwide <span class="hlt">lightning</span> location system (LLS) for accurately locating <span class="hlt">lightning</span> ground strikes. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> data is distributed and presented on color graphic displays at regional power network control centers as well as at the national power system control center for optimal data use. The main objectives for use of LLS data are: supervising the power system for optimal and safe use of the transmission and generating capacity during periods of thunderstorms; warning service to maintenance and service crews at power line and substations to end operations hazardous when <span class="hlt">lightning</span>; rapid positioning of emergency crews to locate network damage at areas of detected <span class="hlt">lightning</span>; and post analysis of power outages and transmission faults in relation to <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, using archived <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data for determination of appropriate design and insulation levels of equipment. Staff have found LLS data useful and economically justified since the availability of power system has increased as well as level of personnel safety.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/4266599-model-tests-ball-lightning-modellversuche-zum-kugelblitz','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/4266599-model-tests-ball-lightning-modellversuche-zum-kugelblitz"><span>MODEL TESTS ON BALL <span class="hlt">LIGHTNING</span>; Modellversuche zum Kugelblitz</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>nauer, H.</p> <p>1959-10-31</p> <p>Ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span> phenomena and properties gleaned from a collection of observations are examined. The observations of a diffusion combustion of minute gas admixtures in air are thoroughly examined because they display the greatest resemblance to natural ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. A comparison of properties with the qualities of the luminous clouds during diffusion combustion shows very good agreement. (W.D.M.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SASS...32..123K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SASS...32..123K"><span>21st Century <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Protection for High Altitude Observatories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kithil, Richard</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>One of the first recorded <span class="hlt">lightning</span> insults to an observatory was in January 1890 at the Ben Nevis Observatory in Scotland. In more recent times <span class="hlt">lightning</span> has caused equipment losses and data destruction at the US Air Force Maui Space Surveillance Complex, the Cerro Tololo observatory and the nearby La Serena scientific and technical office, the VLLA, and the Apache Point Observatory. In August 1997 NOAA's Climate Monitoring and Diagnostic Laboratory at Mauna Loa Observatory was out of commission for a month due to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> outages to data acquisition computers and connected cabling. The University of Arizona has reported "<span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes have taken a heavy toll at all Steward Observatory sites." At Kitt Peak, extensive power down protocols are in place where <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection for personnel, electrical systems, associated electronics and data are critical. Designstage <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection defenses are to be incorporated at NSO's ATST Hawaii facility. For high altitude observatories <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection no longer is as simple as Franklin's 1752 invention of a rod in the air, one in the ground and a connecting conductor. This paper discusses selection of engineered <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection subsystems in a carefully planned methodology which is specific to each site.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=The+AND+lightning&pg=3&id=EJ314901','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=The+AND+lightning&pg=3&id=EJ314901"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span>-Strike Disaster: Effects on Children's Fears and Worries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dollinger, Stephen J.; And Others</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Compares fears of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-strike victims (N=29) with matched control children (N=58), using fear reports from children and their mothers. Differences between samples were most pronounced for child-reported fears. Correspondence between mothers' and children's reports of intense storm-related fears was markedly larger in the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> sample than…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10564E..29P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10564E..29P"><span>Narrow-band filters for the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> imager</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Piegari, Angela; Di Sarcina, Ilaria; Grilli, Maria Luisa; Menchini, Francesca; Scaglione, Salvatore; Sytchkova, Anna; Zola, Danilo; Cuevas, Leticia P.</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>The study of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> phenomena will be carried out by a dedicated instrument, the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> imager, that will make use of narrow-band transmission filters for separating the Oxygen emission lines in the clouds, from the background signal. The design, manufacturing and testing of these optical filters will be described here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810016745','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810016745"><span>Noise and interference study for satellite <span class="hlt">lightning</span> sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Herman, J. R.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The use of radio frequency techniques for the detection and monitoring of terrestrial thunderstorms from space are discussed. Three major points are assessed: (1) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and noise source characteristics; (2) propagation effects imposed by the atmosphere and ionosphere; and (3) the electromagnetic environment in near space within which <span class="hlt">lightning</span> RF signatures must be detected. A composite frequency spectrum of the peak of amplitude from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes is developed. Propagation effects (ionospheric cutoff, refraction, absorption, dispersion and scintillation) are considered to modify the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> spectrum to the geosynchronous case. It is suggested that in comparing the modified spectrum with interfering noise source spectra RF <span class="hlt">lightning</span> pulses on frequencies up to a few GHz are detectable above the natural noise environment in near space.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980000303','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980000303"><span>Test Report: Direct and Indirect <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Effects on Composite Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Evans, R. W.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> tests were performed on composite materials as a part of an investigation of electromagnetic effects on the materials. Samples were subjected to direct and remote simulated <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes. Samples included various thicknesses of graphite filament reinforced plastic (GFRP), material enhanced by expanded aluminum foil layers, and material with an aluminum honeycomb core. Shielding properties of the material and damage to the sample surfaces and joints were investigated. Adding expanded aluminum foil layers and increasing the thickness of GFRP improves the shielding effectiveness against <span class="hlt">lightning</span> induced fields and the ability to withstand <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes. A report describing the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike tests performed by the U.S. Army Redstone Technical Test Center, Redstone Arsenal, AL, STERT-TE-E-EM, is included as an appendix.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005EOSTr..86..398S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005EOSTr..86..398S"><span>Katrina and Rita were lit up with <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shao, X.-M.; Harlin, J.; Stock, M.; Stanley, M.; Regan, A.; Wiens, K.; Hamlin, T.; Pongratz, M.; Suszcynsky, D.; Light, T.</p> <p></p> <p>Hurricanes generally produce very little <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity compared to other noncyclonic storms, and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is especially sparse in the eye wall and inner regions within tens of kilometers surrounding the eye [Molinari et al., 1994, 1999]. (The eye wall is the wall of clouds that encircles the eye of the hurricane.) <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> can sometimes be detected in the outer, spiral rainbands, but the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> occurrence rate varies significantly from hurricane to hurricane as well as within an individual hurricane's lifetime.Hurricanes Katrina and Rita hit the U.S. Gulf coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas, and their distinctions were not just limited to their tremendous intensity and damage caused. They also differed from typical hurricanes in their <span class="hlt">lightning</span> production rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/20717491-effect-corona-discharge-lightning-attachment','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/20717491-effect-corona-discharge-lightning-attachment"><span>The Effect of a Corona Discharge on a <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Attachment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aleksandrov, N.L.; Bazelyan, E.M.; Raizer, Yu.P.</p> <p>2005-01-15</p> <p>The interaction between the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> leader and the space charge accumulated near the top of a ground object in the atmospheric electric field is considered using analytical and numerical models developed earlier to describe spark discharges in long laboratory gaps. The specific features of a nonstationary corona discharge that develops in the electric field of a thundercloud and a downward <span class="hlt">lightning</span> leader are analyzed. Conditions for the development of an upward <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge from a ground object and for the propagation of an upward-connecting leader from the object toward a downward <span class="hlt">lightning</span> leader (the process determining the point of strikemore » to the ground) are investigated. Possible mechanisms for the interaction of the corona space charge with an upward leader and prospects of using it to control downward <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges are analyzed.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/978220-regulatory-guidance-lightning-protection-nuclear-power-plants','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/978220-regulatory-guidance-lightning-protection-nuclear-power-plants"><span>Regulatory Guidance for <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Protection in Nuclear Power Plants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kisner, Roger A; Wilgen, John B; Ewing, Paul D</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Abstract - Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was engaged by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) to develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance to address design and implementation practices for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection is becoming increasingly important with the advent of digital and low-voltage analog systems in NPPs. These systems have the potential to be more vulnerable than older analog systems to the resulting power surges and electromagnetic interference (EMI) when <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes facilities or power lines. This paper discusses the technical basis for guidance tomore » licensees and applicants covered in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.204, Guidelines for <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Protection of Nuclear Power Plants, issued August 2005. RG 1.204 describes guidance for practices that are acceptable to the NRC staff for protecting nuclear power structures and systems from direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes and the resulting secondary effects.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22030075-regulatory-guidance-lightning-protection-nuclear-power-plants','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22030075-regulatory-guidance-lightning-protection-nuclear-power-plants"><span>Regulatory guidance for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection in nuclear power plants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kisner, R. A.; Wilgen, J. B.; Ewing, P. D.</p> <p>2006-07-01</p> <p>Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was engaged by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) to develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance to address design and implementation practices for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection is becoming increasingly important with the advent of digital and low-voltage analog systems in NPPs. These systems have the potential to be more vulnerable than older analog systems to the resulting power surges and electromagnetic interference (EMI) when <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes facilities or power lines. This paper discusses the technical basis for guidance to licensees andmore » applicants covered in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.204, Guidelines for <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Protection of Nuclear Power Plants, issued August 2005. RG 1.204 describes guidance for practices that are acceptable to the NRC staff for protecting nuclear power structures and systems from direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes and the resulting secondary effects. (authors)« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10466E..5FB','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10466E..5FB"><span>Methods to estimate <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity using WWLLN and RS data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baranovskiy, Nikolay V.; Belikova, Marina Yu.; Karanina, Svetlana Yu.; Karanin, Andrey V.; Glebova, Alena V.</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>The aim of the work is to develop a comprehensive method for assessing thunderstorm activity using WWLLN and RS data. It is necessary to group <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges to solve practical problems of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection and lightningcaused forest fire danger, as well as climatology problems using information on the spatial and temporal characteristics of thunderstorms. For grouping <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges, it is proposed to use clustering algorithms. The region covering Timiryazevskiy forestry (Tomsk region, borders (55.93 - 56.86)x(83.94 - 85.07)) was selected for the computational experiment. We used the data on <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges registered by the WWLLN network in this region on July 23, 2014. 273 <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges were sampling. A relatively small number of discharges allowed us a visual analysis of solutions obtained during clustering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23458812','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23458812"><span>Smart CMOS image sensor for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection and imaging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rolando, Sébastien; Goiffon, Vincent; Magnan, Pierre; Corbière, Franck; Molina, Romain; Tulet, Michel; Bréart-de-Boisanger, Michel; Saint-Pé, Olivier; Guiry, Saïprasad; Larnaudie, Franck; Leone, Bruno; Perez-Cuevas, Leticia; Zayer, Igor</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>We present a CMOS image sensor dedicated to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection and imaging. The detector has been designed to evaluate the potentiality of an on-chip <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection solution based on a smart sensor. This evaluation is performed in the frame of the predevelopment phase of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detector that will be implemented in the Meteosat Third Generation Imager satellite for the European Space Agency. The <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection process is performed by a smart detector combining an in-pixel frame-to-frame difference comparison with an adjustable threshold and on-chip digital processing allowing an efficient localization of a faint <span class="hlt">lightning</span> pulse on the entire large format array at a frequency of 1 kHz. A CMOS prototype sensor with a 256×256 pixel array and a 60 μm pixel pitch has been fabricated using a 0.35 μm 2P 5M technology and tested to validate the selected detection approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770011155','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770011155"><span>Status of research into <span class="hlt">lightning</span> effects on aircraft</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Plumer, J. A.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Developments in aircraft <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection since 1938 are reviewed. Potential <span class="hlt">lightning</span> problems resulting from present trends toward the use of electronic controls and composite structures are discussed, along with presently available <span class="hlt">lightning</span> test procedures for problem assessment. The validity of some procedures is being questioned because of pessimistic results and design implications. An in-flight measurement program is needed to provide statistics on <span class="hlt">lightning</span> severity at flight altitudes and to enable more realistic tests, and operators are urged to supply researchers with more details on electronic components damaged by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes. A need for review of certain aspects of fuel system vulnerability is indicated by several recent accidents, and specific areas for examination are identified. New educational materials and standardization activities are also noted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9k5009O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9k5009O"><span>Modulation of UK <span class="hlt">lightning</span> by heliospheric magnetic field polarity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Owens, M. J.; Scott, C. J.; Lockwood, M.; Barnard, L.; Harrison, R. G.; Nicoll, K.; Watt, C.; Bennett, A. J.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Observational studies have reported solar magnetic modulation of terrestrial <span class="hlt">lightning</span> on a range of time scales, from days to decades. The proposed mechanism is two-step: <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rates vary with galactic cosmic ray (GCR) flux incident on Earth, either via changes in atmospheric conductivity and/or direct triggering of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. GCR flux is, in turn, primarily controlled by the heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) intensity. Consequently, global changes in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rates are expected. This study instead considers HMF polarity, which doesn't greatly affect total GCR flux. Opposing HMF polarities are, however, associated with a 40-60% difference in observed UK <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and thunder rates. As HMF polarity skews the terrestrial magnetosphere from its nominal position, this perturbs local ionospheric potential at high latitudes and local exposure to energetic charged particles from the magnetosphere. We speculate as to the mechanism(s) by which this may, in turn, redistribute the global location and/or intensity of thunderstorm activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.4735A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.4735A"><span>Location and analysis of acoustic infrasound pulses in <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arechiga, R.; Stock, M.; Thomas, R.; Erives, H.; Rison, W.; Edens, H.; Lapierre, J.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Acoustic, VHF, and electrostatic measurements throw new light onto the origin and production mechanism of the thunder infrasound signature (<10 Hz) from <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. This signature, composed of an initial compression followed by a rarefaction pulse, has been the subject of several unconfirmed theories and models. The observations of two intracloud flashes which each produced multiple infrasound pulses were analyzed for this work. Once the variation of the speed of sound with temperature is taken into account, both the compression and rarefaction portions of the infrasound pulses are found to originate very near <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channels mapped by the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array. We found that none of the currently proposed models can explain infrasound generation by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, and thus propose an alternate theory: The infrasound compression pulse is produced by electrostatic interaction of the charge deposited on the channel and in the streamer zone of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110024188','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110024188"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Protection and Instrumentation at Kennedy Space Center</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Colon, Jose L.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> is a natural phenomenon, but can be dangerous. Prevention of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is a physical impossibility and total protection requires compromises on costs and effects, therefore prediction and measurements of the effects that might be produced by iightn:ing is a most at locat:ions where people or sensitive systems and equipment are exposed. This is the case of the launching pads for the Space Shuttle at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This report summarizes lightring phenomena with a brief explanation of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> generation and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity as related to KSC. An analysis of the instrumentation used at the launching pads for measurements of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> effects with alternatives to improve the protection system and up-grade the actual instrumentation system is indicated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830003391','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830003391"><span>Interpretation methodology and analysis of in-flight <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rudolph, T.; Perala, R. A.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>A methodology is presented whereby electromagnetic measurements of inflight <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stroke data can be understood and extended to other aircraft. Recent measurements made on the NASA F106B aircraft indicate that sophisticated numerical techniques and new developments in corona modeling are required to fully understand the data. Thus the problem is nontrivial and successful interpretation can lead to a significant understanding of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span>/aircraft interaction event. This is of particular importance because of the problem of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> induced transient upset of new technology low level microcircuitry which is being used in increasing quantities in modern and future avionics. Inflight <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data is analyzed and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> environments incident upon the F106B are determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980201084','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980201084"><span>Space Shuttle Video Images: An Example of Warm Cloud <span class="hlt">Lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Vaughan, Otha H., Jr.; Boeck, William L.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Warm cloud <span class="hlt">lightning</span> has been reported in several tropical locations. We have been using the intensified monochrome TV cameras at night during a number of shuttle flights to observe large active thunderstorms and their associated <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. During a nighttime orbital pass of the STS-70 mission on 17 July 1995 at 07:57:42 GMT, the controllers obtained video imagery of a small cloud that was producing <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Data from a GOES infrared image establishes that the cloud top had a temperature of about 271 degrees Kelvin ( -2 degrees Celsius). Since this cloud was electrified to the extent that a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge did occur, it may be another case of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in a cloud that presents little if any evidence of frozen or melting precipitation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/21532036-study-transport-parameters-cloud-lightning-plasmas','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/21532036-study-transport-parameters-cloud-lightning-plasmas"><span>Study of the transport parameters of cloud <span class="hlt">lightning</span> plasmas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Chang, Z. S.; Yuan, P.; Zhao, N.</p> <p>2010-11-15</p> <p>Three spectra of cloud <span class="hlt">lightning</span> have been acquired in Tibet (China) using a slitless grating spectrograph. The electrical conductivity, the electron thermal conductivity, and the electron thermal diffusivity of the cloud <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, for the first time, are calculated by applying the transport theory of air plasma. In addition, we investigate the change behaviors of parameters (the temperature, the electron density, the electrical conductivity, the electron thermal conductivity, and the electron thermal diffusivity) in one of the cloud <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channels. The result shows that these parameters decrease slightly along developing direction of the cloud <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel. Moreover, they represent similar suddenmore » change behavior in tortuous positions and the branch of the cloud <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel.« less</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740025337','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740025337"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> damage to a general aviation aircraft: Description and analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hacker, P. T.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The damage sustained by a Beechcraft King Air Model B90 aircraft by a single <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge is presented and analyzed. The incident occurred during landing approach at Jackson, Michigan, on Feb. 19, 1971. In addition to the usual melted-metal damage at the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> attachment points, there was severe implosion-type damage over a large area on the lower right side of the aircraft and impact- and crushing-type damage on the upper and lower surfaces on the left wingtip near the trailing edge. Analyses indicate that the implosion-type damage was probably caused by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-generated shock waves, that the impact-and crushing-type damage was caused by magnetic forces, and that the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge was a multiple strike with at least 11 strokes separated in time by about 4.5 milliseconds. The evidence indicates that the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge was rather different from the average in character severity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJTPE.132..102S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012IJTPE.132..102S"><span>Seasonal and Local Characteristics of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Outages of Power Distribution Lines in Hokuriku Area</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sugimoto, Hitoshi; Shimasaki, Katsuhiko</p> <p></p> <p>The proportion of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> outages in all outages on Japanese 6.6kV distribution lines is high with approximately 20 percent, and then <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protections are very important for supply reliability of 6.6kV lines. It is effective for the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> performance to apply countermeasures in order of the area where a large number of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> outages occur. Winter <span class="hlt">lightning</span> occurs in Hokuriku area, therefore it is also important to understand the seasonal characteristics of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> outages. In summer 70 percent of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> outages on distribution lines in Hokuriku area were due to sparkover, such as power wire breakings and failures of pole-mounted transformers. However, in winter almost half of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-damaged equipments were surge arrester failures. The number of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> outages per <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes detected by the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> location system (LLS) in winter was 4.4 times larger than that in summer. The authors have presumed the occurrence of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> outages from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stroke density, 50% value of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> current and installation rate of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection equipments and overhead ground wire by multiple regression analysis. The presumed results suggest the local difference in the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> outages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910023286&hterms=threats+information&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dthreats%2Binformation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910023286&hterms=threats+information&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dthreats%2Binformation"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> threat to aircraft: Do we know all we need to know?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mazur, Vladislav</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The problem of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> threat to aircraft has two aspects: strike avoidance and aircraft protection. These two issues are addressed under the following topics: (1) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes, weather conditions, and natural <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rate; (2) the engineering vs. scientific approach to aircraft protection; and (3) the additional information needed to understand <span class="hlt">lightning</span> threat to aircraft.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130000644','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130000644"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Jump Algorithm and Relation to Thunderstorm Cell Tracking, GLM Proxy and other Meteorological Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schultz, Christopher J.; Carey, Larry; Cecil, Dan; Bateman, Monte; Stano, Geoffrey; Goodman, Steve</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Objective of project is to refine, adapt and demonstrate the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Jump Algorithm (LJA) for transition to GOES -R GLM (Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper) readiness and to establish a path to operations Ongoing work . reducing risk in GLM <span class="hlt">lightning</span> proxy, cell tracking, LJA algorithm automation, and data fusion (e.g., radar + <span class="hlt">lightning</span>).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title30-vol1-sec56-12069.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title30-vol1-sec56-12069.pdf"><span>30 CFR 56.12069 - <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection for telephone wires and ungrounded conductors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">lightning</span> shall be equipped with suitable <span class="hlt">lightning</span> arrestors of approved type within 100 feet of the point where the circuit enters the mine. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> arrestors shall be connected to a low resistance grounding... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection for telephone wires and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title30-vol1-sec56-12069.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title30-vol1-sec56-12069.pdf"><span>30 CFR 56.12069 - <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection for telephone wires and ungrounded conductors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">lightning</span> shall be equipped with suitable <span class="hlt">lightning</span> arrestors of approved type within 100 feet of the point where the circuit enters the mine. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> arrestors shall be connected to a low resistance grounding... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection for telephone wires and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol1-sec56-12069.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol1-sec56-12069.pdf"><span>30 CFR 56.12069 - <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection for telephone wires and ungrounded conductors.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">lightning</span> shall be equipped with suitable <span class="hlt">lightning</span> arrestors of approved type within 100 feet of the point where the circuit enters the mine. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> arrestors shall be connected to a low resistance grounding... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection for telephone wires and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018AIPC.1955d0175X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018AIPC.1955d0175X"><span>Simulation study on the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> overvoltage invasion control transformer intelligent substation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xi, Chuyan; Hao, Jie; Zhang, Ying</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>By simulating <span class="hlt">lightning</span> on substation line of one intelligent substation, research the influence of different <span class="hlt">lightning</span> points on <span class="hlt">lightning</span> invasion wave overvoltage, and the necessity of arrester for the main transformer. The results show, in a certain <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection measures, the installation of arrester nearby the main transformer can effectively reduce the overvoltage value of bus and the main transformer [1].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012856','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012856"><span>The GOES-R Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper (GLM) and the Global Observing System for Total <span class="hlt">Lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Koshak, W.; Buechler, D.; Carey, L.; Chronis, T.; Mach, D.; Bateman, M.; Peterson, H.; McCaul, E. W., Jr.; <a style="text-decoration: none; " href="javascript:void(0); " onClick="displayelement('author_20140012856'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20140012856_show'); toggleEditAbsImage('author_20140012856_hide'); "> <img style="display:inline; width:12px; height:12px; " src="images/arrow-up.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20140012856_show"> <img style="width:12px; height:12px; display:none; " src="images/arrow-down.gif" width="12" height="12" border="0" alt="hide" id="author_20140012856_hide"></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>for the existing GOES system currently operating over the Western Hemisphere. New and improved instrument technology will support expanded detection of environmental phenomena, resulting in more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings. Advancements over current GOES include a new capability for total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection (cloud and cloud-to-ground flashes) from the Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper (GLM), and improved temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution for the next generation Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). The GLM will map total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> continuously day and night with near-uniform spatial resolution of 8 km with a product latency of less than 20 sec over the Americas and adjacent oceanic regions. This will aid in forecasting severe storms and tornado activity, and convective weather impacts on aviation safety and efficiency among a number of potential applications. The GLM will help address the National Weather Service requirement for total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> observations globally to support warning decision-making and forecast services. Science and application development along with pre-operational product demonstrations and evaluations at NWS national centers, forecast offices, and NOAA testbeds will prepare the forecasters to use GLM as soon as possible after the planned launch and check-out of GOES-R in 2016. New applications will use GLM alone, in combination with the ABI, or integrated (fused) with other available tools (weather radar and ground strike networks, nowcasting systems, mesoscale analysis, and numerical weather prediction models) in the hands of the forecaster responsible for issuing more timely and accurate forecasts and warnings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.8173H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.8173H"><span>Do cosmic ray air showers initiate <span class="hlt">lightning</span>?: A statistical analysis of cosmic ray air showers and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> mapping array data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hare, B. M.; Dwyer, J. R.; Winner, L. H.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Kotovsky, D. A.; Caicedo, J. A.; Wilkes, R. A.; Carvalho, F. L.; Pilkey, J. T.; Ngin, T. K.; Gamerota, W. R.; Rassoul, H. K.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>It has been argued in the technical literature, and widely reported in the popular press, that cosmic ray air showers (CRASs) can initiate <span class="hlt">lightning</span> via a mechanism known as relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA), where large numbers of high-energy and low-energy electrons can, somehow, cause the local atmosphere in a thundercloud to transition to a conducting state. In response to this claim, other researchers have published simulations showing that the electron density produced by RREA is far too small to be able to affect the conductivity in the cloud sufficiently to initiate <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. In this paper, we compare 74 days of cosmic ray air shower data collected in north central Florida during 2013-2015, the recorded CRASs having primary energies on the order of 1016 eV to 1018 eV and zenith angles less than 38°, with <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array (LMA) data, and we show that there is no evidence that the detected cosmic ray air showers initiated <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Furthermore, we show that the average probability of any of our detected cosmic ray air showers to initiate a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash can be no more than 5%. If all <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes were initiated by cosmic ray air showers, then about 1.6% of detected CRASs would initiate <span class="hlt">lightning</span>; therefore, we do not have enough data to exclude the possibility that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes could be initiated by cosmic ray air showers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=335478&Lab=NERL&keyword=distribution+AND+time&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=335478&Lab=NERL&keyword=distribution+AND+time&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>On the Relationship between Observed NLDN <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Strikes and Modeled Convective Precipitation Rates Parameterization of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> NOx Production in CMAQ</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span>-produced nitrogen oxides (NOX=NO+NO2) in the middle and upper troposphere play an essential role in the production of ozone (O3) and influence the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. Despite much effort in both observing and modeling <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NOX during the past dec...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..12212296W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..12212296W"><span>Improving <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and Precipitation Prediction of Severe Convection Using <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Data Assimilation With NCAR WRF-RTFDDA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Haoliang; Liu, Yubao; Cheng, William Y. Y.; Zhao, Tianliang; Xu, Mei; Liu, Yuewei; Shen, Si; Calhoun, Kristin M.; Fierro, Alexandre O.</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>In this study, a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data assimilation (LDA) scheme was developed and implemented in the National Center for Atmospheric Research Weather Research and Forecasting-Real-Time Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation system. In this LDA method, graupel mixing ratio (qg) is retrieved from observed total <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. To retrieve qg on model grid boxes, column-integrated graupel mass is first calculated using an observation-based linear formula between graupel mass and total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rate. Then the graupel mass is distributed vertically according to the empirical qg vertical profiles constructed from model simulations. Finally, a horizontal spread method is utilized to consider the existence of graupel in the adjacent regions of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> initiation locations. Based on the retrieved qg fields, latent heat is adjusted to account for the latent heat releases associated with the formation of the retrieved graupel and to promote convection at the observed <span class="hlt">lightning</span> locations, which is conceptually similar to the method developed by Fierro et al. Three severe convection cases were studied to evaluate the LDA scheme for short-term (0-6 h) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and precipitation forecasts. The simulation results demonstrated that the LDA was effective in improving the short-term <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and precipitation forecasts by improving the model simulation of the qg fields, updrafts, cold pool, and front locations. The improvements were most notable in the first 2 h, indicating a highly desired benefit of the LDA in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and convective precipitation nowcasting (0-2 h) applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6604N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6604N"><span>Spatio-temporal activity of <span class="hlt">lightnings</span> over Greece</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nastos, P. T.; Matsangouras, I. T.; Chronis, T. G.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Extreme precipitation events are always associated with convective weather conditions driving to intense <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity: Cloud to Ground (CG), Ground to Cloud (GC) and Cloud to Cloud (CC). Thus, the study of <span class="hlt">lightnings</span>, which typically occur during thunderstorms, gives evidence of the spatio-temporal variability of intense precipitation. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> is a natural phenomenon in the atmosphere, being a major cause of storm related with deaths and main trigger of forest fires during dry season. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> affects the many electrochemical systems of the body causing nerve damage, memory loss, personality change, and emotional problems. Besides, among the various nitrogen oxides sources, the contribution from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> likely represents the largest uncertainty. An operational <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection network (LDN) has been established since 2007 by HNMS, consisting of eight time-of-arrival sensors (TOA), spatially distributed across Greek territory. In this study, the spatial and temporal variability of recorded <span class="hlt">lightnings</span> (CG, GC and CC) are analyzed over Greece, during the period from January 14, 2008 to December 31, 2009, for the first time. The data for retrieving the location and time-of-occurrence of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> were acquired from Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). In addition to the analysis of spatio-temporal activity over Greece, the HNMS-LDN characteristics are also presented. The results of the performed analysis reveal the specific geographical sub-regions associated with <span class="hlt">lightnings</span> incidence. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> activity occurs mainly during the autumn season, followed by summer and spring. Higher frequencies of flashes appear over Ionian and Aegean Sea than over land during winter period against continental mountainous regions during summer period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15957322','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15957322"><span>Struck-by-<span class="hlt">lightning</span> deaths in the United States.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Adekoya, Nelson; Nolte, Kurt B</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>The objective of the research reported here was to examine the epidemiologic characteristics of struck-by-<span class="hlt">lightning</span> deaths. Using data from both the National Centers for Health Statistics (NCHS) multiple-cause-of-death tapes and the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI), which is maintained by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the authors calculated numbers and annualized rates of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-related deaths for the United States. They used resident estimates from population microdata files maintained by the Census Bureau as the denominators. Work-related fatality rates were calculated with denominators derived from the Current Population Survey of employment data. Four illustrative investigative case reports of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-related deaths were contributed by the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator. It was found that a total of 374 struck-by-<span class="hlt">lightning</span> deaths had occurred during 1995-2000 (an average annualized rate of 0.23 deaths per million persons). The majority of deaths (286 deaths, 75 percent) were from the South and the Midwest. The numbers of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> deaths were highest in Florida (49 deaths) and Texas (32 deaths). A total of 129 work-related <span class="hlt">lightning</span> deaths occurred during 1995-2002 (an average annual rate of 0.12 deaths per million workers). Agriculture and construction industries recorded the most fatalities at 44 and 39 deaths, respectively. Fatal occupational injuries resulting from being struck by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> were highest in Florida (21 deaths) and Texas (11 deaths). In the two national surveillance systems examined, incidence rates were higher for males and people 20-44 years of age. In conclusion, three of every four struck-by-<span class="hlt">lightning</span> deaths were from the South and the Midwest, and during 1995-2002, one of every four struck-by-<span class="hlt">lightning</span> deaths was work-related. Although prevention programs could target the entire nation, interventions might be most effective if directed to regions with the majority of fatalities because they have the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.8273F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.8273F"><span>Infrasound from <span class="hlt">lightning</span>: characteristics and impact on an infrasound station</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farges, Thomas; Blanc, Elisabeth</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>More than two third of the infrasound stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBTO are now certified and measure routinely signals due particularly to natural activity (swell, volcano, severe weather including <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, …). It is well established that more than 2,000 thunderstorms are continuously active all around the world and that about 45 <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes are produced per second over the globe. During the Eurosprite 2005 campaign, we took the opportunity to measure, in France during summer, infrasound from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and from sprites (which are transient luminous events occurring over thunderstorm). We examine the possibility to measure infrasound from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> when thunderstorms are close or far from the infrasound station. Main results concern detection range of infrasound from <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, amplitude vs. distance law, and characteristics of frequency spectrum. We show clearly that infrasound from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> can be detected when the thunderstorm is within about 75 km from the station. In good noise conditions, infrasound from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> can be detected when thunderstorms are located more than 200 km from the station. No signal is recorded from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes occurring between 75 and 200 km away from the station, defining then a silence zone. When the thunderstorm is close to the station, the infrasound signal could reach several Pascal. The signal is then on average 30 dB over the noise level at 1 Hz. Infrasound propagate upward where the highest frequencies are dissipated and can produce a significant heating of the upper mesosphere. Some of these results have been confirmed by case studies with data from the IMS Ivory Coast station. The coverage of the IMS stations is very good to study the thunderstorm activity and its disparity which is a good proxy of the global warming. Progress in data processing for infrasound data in the last ten years and the appearance of global <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection network as the World Wide <span class="hlt">Lightning</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.S34C..04F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.S34C..04F"><span>Infrasound from <span class="hlt">lightning</span>: characteristics and impact on an infrasound station</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Farges, T.; Blanc, E.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>More than two third of the infrasound stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBTO are now certified and measure routinely signals due particularly to natural activity (swell, volcano, severe weather including <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, …). It is well established that more than 2,000 thunderstorms are continuously active all around the world and that about 45 <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes are produced per second over the globe. During the Eurosprite 2005 campaign, we took the opportunity to measure, in France during summer, infrasound from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and from sprites (which are transient luminous events occurring over thunderstorm). We examine the possibility to measure infrasound from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> when thunderstorms are close or far from the infrasound station. Main results concern detection range of infrasound from <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, amplitude vs. distance law, and characteristics of frequency spectrum. We show clearly that infrasound from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> can be detected when the thunderstorm is within about 75 km from the station. In good noise conditions, infrasound from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> can be detected when thunderstorms are located more than 200 km from the station. No signal is recorded from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes occurring between 75 and 200 km away from the station, defining then a silence zone. When the thunderstorm is close to the station, the infrasound signal could reach several Pascal. The signal is then on average 30 dB over the noise level at 1 Hz. Infrasound propagate upward where the highest frequencies are dissipated and can produce a significant heating of the upper mesosphere. Some of these results have been confirmed by case studies with data from the IMS Ivory Coast station. The coverage of the IMS stations is very good to study the thunderstorm activity and its disparity which is a good proxy of the global warming. Progress in data processing for infrasound data in the last ten years and the appearance of global <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection network as the World Wide <span class="hlt">Lightning</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023318','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19910023318"><span>Evaluation of the damages caused by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> current flowing through bearings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Celi, O.; Pigini, A.; Garbagnati, E.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>A laboratory for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> current tests was set up allowing the generation of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> currents foreseen by the Standards. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> tests are carried out on different objects, aircraft materials and components, evaluating the direct and indirect effects of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. Recently a research was carried out to evaluate the effects of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> current flow through bearings with special reference to wind power generator applications. For this purpose, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> currents of different amplitude were applied to bearings in different test conditions and the damages caused by the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> current flow were analyzed. The influence of the load acting on the bearing, the presence of lubricant and the bearing rotation were studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3600929','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3600929"><span>National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Safety for Athletics and Recreation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Walsh, Katie M.; Cooper, Mary Ann; Holle, Ron; Rakov, Vladimir A.; Roeder, William P.; Ryan, Michael</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objective: To present recommendations for the education, prevention, and management of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> injuries for those involved in athletics or recreation. Background: <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> is the most common severe-storm activity encountered annually in the United States. The majority of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> injuries can be prevented through an aggressive educational campaign, vacating outdoor activities before the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> threat, and an understanding of the attributes of a safe place from the hazard. Recommendations: This position statement is focused on supplying information specific to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> safety and prevention and treatment of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> injury and providing <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-safety recommendations for the certified athletic trainer and those who are involved in athletics and recreation. PMID:23672391</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23672391','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23672391"><span>National Athletic Trainers' Association position statement: <span class="hlt">lightning</span> safety for athletics and recreation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Walsh, Katie M; Cooper, Mary Ann; Holle, Ron; Rakov, Vladimir A; Roeder, William P; Ryan, Michael</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>To present recommendations for the education, prevention, and management of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> injuries for those involved in athletics or recreation. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> is the most common severe-storm activity encountered annually in the United States. The majority of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> injuries can be prevented through an aggressive educational campaign, vacating outdoor activities before the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> threat, and an understanding of the attributes of a safe place from the hazard. This position statement is focused on supplying information specific to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> safety and prevention and treatment of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> injury and providing <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-safety recommendations for the certified athletic trainer and those who are involved in athletics and recreation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMAE33A0265S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMAE33A0265S"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Magnetic Field Measurements around Langmuir Laboratory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stock, M.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.; Aulich, G. D.; Edens, H. E.; Sonnenfeld, R. G.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>In the absence of artificial conductors, underground <span class="hlt">lightning</span> transients are produced by diffusion of the horizontal surface magnetic field of a return stroke vertically downward into the conducting earth. The changing magnetic flux produces an orthogonal horizontal electric field, generating a dispersive, lossy transverse electromagnetic wave that penetrates a hundred meters or more into the ground according to the skin depth of the medium. In turn, the electric field produces currents that flow toward or away from the channel to ground depending on the stroke polarity. The underground transients can produce large radial horizontal potential gradients depending on the distance from the discharge and depth below the surface. In this study we focus on the surface excitation field. The goal of the work is to compare measurements of surface magnetic field waveforms B(t) at different distances from natural <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges with simple and detailed models of the return stroke fields. In addition to providing input to the diffusion mechanism, the results should aid in further understanding return stroke field generation processes. The observational data are to be obtained using orthogonal sets of straightened Rogowski coils to measure magnetic field waveforms in N-S and E-W directions. The waveforms are sampled at 500 kS/s over 1.024 second time intervals and recorded directly onto secure digital cards. The instrument operates off of battery power for several days or weeks at a time in remote, unattended locations and measures magnetic field strengths of up to several tens of amperes/meter. The observations are being made in conjunction with collocated slow electric field change measurements and under good 3-D <span class="hlt">lightning</span> mapping array (LMA) and fast electric field change coverage.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMAE13A0416K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMAE13A0416K"><span>Fast Positive Breakdown, NBEs, and <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Initiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krehbiel, P. R.; Rison, W.; Stock, M.; Edens, H. E.; Shao, X. M.; Thomas, R. J.; Stanley, M. A.; Zhang, Y.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>High power narrrow bipolar events (NBEs) have been found to be produced by arelatively unknown type of discharge, called fast positive breakdown (Rison etal., 2016). The breakdown occurs with a wide range of strengths, both in terms of its broadband sferic and its VHF radiation, and is found to be theinitiating event of many and likely all <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges inside storms. Itdoes not produce a conducting channel but instead appears to be produced by avolumetric system of repeated, cascading positive streamers in virgin air.That positive corona and streamers would be responsible for initiatinglightning was proposed in the 1960s by Loeb, Dawson and Winn. In the 1970sPhelps and Griffiths showed that the streamers would be self-intensifying,leading to negative breakdown being initiated back at their starting points.Petersen et al. (2008) described experimental results showing that thestreamers could be initiated by ice crystals at cold temperatures, and thephysical processes leading to the breakdown being fast has been reported inrecent modeling studies by Shi et al. (2016). In this paper we summarize the observational data in support of the abovefindings, and report on additional observations of NBEs and lightninginitiation currently being obtained at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. References: Rison W., P.R. Krehbiel M.G.Stock, H.E. Edens, X-M. Shao, R.J. Thomas,M.A. Stanley, Y. Zhang, Observations of narrow bipolar events revealhow <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is initiated in thunderstorms, Nature Comms. 7, 2016.doi:10.1038/ncomms10721. Petersen, D., Bailey, M., Beasley, W. & Hallett, J. A brief review ofthe problem of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> initiation and a hypothesis of initiallightning leader formation. J. Geophys. Res. 113, D17205 (2008). Shi, F., N. Liu, and H. K. Rassoul (2016), Properties of relativelylong streamers initiated from an isolated hydrometeor, J. Geophys.Res. Atmos., 121, 7284-7295, doi:10.1002/2015JD024580.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988STIA...8929272T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988STIA...8929272T"><span>Development of concepts for the protection of space launchers against <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taillet, Joseph</p> <p>1988-12-01</p> <p>Following a review of the characteristics of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and the effects of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> on space launchers, various strategies for protection against <span class="hlt">lightning</span> are discussed. Special attention is given to the damage inflicted on the Apollo 12 and Atlas/Centaur vehicles by <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. It is demonstrated that the protection of space launchers is best performed by the real-time observation of atmospheric discharges at high altitude by such systems as the interferometric <span class="hlt">lightning</span> alert system, SAFIR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA158258','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA158258"><span>A Study of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Protection Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1981-10-01</p> <p>from <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, we must bear in mind that it does not follow the law of electric currents such as we are familiar with or those we read about as...radius equal to twice its height. Later on Guy Lussac Introduced M. Charles’ single cone--ie, a similar cone having a base with a radius equal to...or nforms with orrect. Th required d preservatio 1901 two mention the ned. Dr. of Science, Guy Lussac curity, but less good the e means</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA141736','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA141736"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Physics: A Three Year Program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>because these aircraft are controlled poeal’ r r o(z’, I- RIC) with low-voltage digital electronics and are in part construct- 4w J(,3 cR "*t • at ed of... millise - limits pretrigger and delayed-trigger mode,. and a variety of sample conds, and hundreds of microseconds, respectively, the time of simple...processes, but we feel it prudent to discontinue use of the Proctor, D. E., A radio study of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, Ph.D. thesis , Univ. of designations in order</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900000275&hterms=stroke&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dstroke','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900000275&hterms=stroke&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dstroke"><span>Determining Polarities Of Distant <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Strokes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blakeslee, Richard J.; Brook, Marx</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Method for determining polarities of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes more than 400 km away. Two features of signal from each stroke correlated. New method based on fact each stroke observed thus far for which polarity determined unambiguously, initial polarity of tail same as polarity of initial deflection before initial-deflection signal altered by propagation effects. Receiving station equipped with electric-field-change antenna coupled to charge amplifier having time constant of order of 1 to 10 seconds. Output of amplifier fed to signal-processing circuitry, which determines initial polarity of tail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840051534&hterms=rust&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Drust','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840051534&hterms=rust&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Drust"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> activity and severe storm structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Taylor, W. L.; Brandes, E. A.; Rust, W. D.; Macgorman, D. R.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Space-time mapping of VHF sources from four severe storms on June 19, 1980 reveals that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> processes for cloud-to-ground (CG) and large intracloud (IC) flashes are confined to an altitude below about 10 km and closely associated with the central regions of high reflectivity. Another class of IC flashes produces a splattering of sources within the storms' main electrically active volumes and also within the large divergent wind canopy aloft. There is no apparent temporal association between the small high altitude IC flashes that occur almost continuously and the large IC and CG flashes that occur sporadically in the lower portions of storms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/415526-lightning-protection-using-energized-franklin-rods','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/415526-lightning-protection-using-energized-franklin-rods"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection using energized Franklin rods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Abdel-Salam, M.; Al-Abdul-Latif, U.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>In this paper, the onset criterion of the upward streamers from an energized Franklin rod is formulated as a function of the geometry of the rod and the height and current of the downward leader. The electric field in the vicinity of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rod is calculated using the charge simulation technique. The dependency of the radius of protection on the amplitude of the pulse voltage applied to Franklin rod, the downward leader current and the tip radius and height of the rod is investigated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA239988','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA239988"><span>A Survey of Laser <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Rod Techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1991-08-21</p> <p>impossibility of the LLR concept. 4 REFERENCES 1. Hagen, 1969: "Diffraction-limited high irradiance Nd- glass laser system, J. Appl. Phys., 40, 511-516. 2. Greig...study", Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory,, Technical Report AFFDL-TR-78-60. AD A063 847. 8. Schubert, C.N., Jr. and J.R. Lippert , 1979...pp. 132-135. 9. Lippert , J.R.,1978: "Laser-Induced <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Concept Exper- iment", Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory, Technical Report AFFDL-TR</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17777757','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17777757"><span>Daylight time-resolved photographs of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Qrville, R E; Lala, G G; Idone, V P</p> <p>1978-07-07</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> dart leaders and return strokes have been recorded in daylight with both good spatial resolution and good time resolution as part of the Thunder-storm Research International Program. The resulting time-resolved photographs are apparently equivalent to the best data obtained earlier only at night. Average two-dimensional return stroke velocities in four subsequent strokes between the ground and a height of 1400 meters were approximately 1.3 x 10(8) meters per second. The estimated systematic error is 10 to 15 percent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017446','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140017446"><span>First Cloud-to-Ground <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Timing Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Huddleston, Lisa L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>NASA's LSP, GSDO and other programs use the probability of cloud-to-ground (CG) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> occurrence issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) in their daily and weekly <span class="hlt">lightning</span> probability forecasts. These organizations use this information when planning potentially hazardous outdoor activities, such as working with fuels, or rolling a vehicle to a launch pad, or whenever personnel will work outside and would be at-risk from <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. These organizations would benefit greatly if the 45 WS could provide more accurate timing of the first CG <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike of the day. The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) has made significant improvements in forecasting the probability of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> for the day, but forecasting the time of the first CG <span class="hlt">lightning</span> with confidence has remained a challenge. To address this issue, the 45 WS requested the AMU to determine if flow regimes, wind speed categories, or a combination of the two could be used to forecast the timing of the first strike of the day in the Kennedy Space Center (KSC)/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> warning circles. The data was stratified by various sea breeze flow regimes and speed categories in the surface to 5,000-ft layer. The surface to 5,000-ft layer was selected since that is the layer the 45 WS uses to predict the behavior of sea breeze fronts, which are the dominant influence on the occurrence of first <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in Florida during the warm season. Due to small data sample sizes after stratification, the AMU could not determine a statistical relationship between flow regimes or speed categories and the time of the first CG strike.. As expected, although the amount and timing of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity varies by time of day based on the flow regimes and speed categories, there are extended tails of low <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity making it difficult to specify times when the threat of the first <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash can be avoided. However, the AMU developed a graphical user interface with input from the 45 WS</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.5953C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.5953C"><span>The Statistic Results of the ISUAL <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chuang, Chia-Wen; Bing-Chih Chen, Alfred; Liu, Tie-Yue; Lin, Shin-Fa; Su, Han-Tzong; Hsu, Rue-Ron</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The ISUAL (Imager for Sprites and Upper Atmospheric <span class="hlt">Lightning</span>) onboard FORMOSAT-2 is the first science payload dedicated to the study of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-induced transient luminous events (TLEs). Transient events, including TLEs and <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, were recorded by the intensified imager, spectrophotometer (SP), and array photometer (AP) simultaneously while their light variation observed by SP exceeds a programmed threshold. Therefore, ISUAL surveys not only TLEs but also <span class="hlt">lightning</span> globally with a good spatial, temporal and spectral resolution. In the past 12 years (2004-2016), approximately 300,000 transient events were registered, and only 42,000 are classified as TLEs. Since the main mission objective is to explore the distribution and characteristics of TLEs, the remaining transient events, mainly <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, can act as a long-term global <span class="hlt">lightning</span> survey. These huge amount of events cannot be processed manually as TLEs do, therefore, a data pipeline is developed to scan <span class="hlt">lightning</span> patterns and to derive their geolocation with an efficient algorithm. The 12-year statistic results including occurrence rate, global distribution, seasonal variation, and the comparison with the LIS/OTD survey are presented in this report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APh....82...21C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APh....82...21C"><span>Extensive air showers, <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, and thunderstorm ground enhancements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chilingarian, A.; Hovsepyan, G.; Kozliner, L.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>For <span class="hlt">lightning</span> research, we monitor particle fluxes from thunderclouds, the so-called thunderstorm ground enhancements (TGEs) initiated by runaway electrons, and extensive air showers (EASs) originating from high-energy protons or fully stripped nuclei that enter the Earth's atmosphere. We also monitor the near-surface electric field and atmospheric discharges using a network of electric field mills. The Aragats "electron accelerator" produced several TGEs and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> events in the spring of 2015. Using 1-s time series, we investigated the relationship between <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and particle fluxes. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> flashes often terminated the particle flux; in particular, during some TGEs, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> events would terminate the particle flux thrice after successive recovery. It was postulated that a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> terminates a particle flux mostly in the beginning of a TGE or in its decay phase; however, we observed two events (19 October 2013 and 20 April 2015) when the huge particle flux was terminated just at the peak of its development. We discuss the possibility of a huge EAS facilitating <span class="hlt">lightning</span> leader to find its path to the ground.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990109129&hterms=K2&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DK2','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19990109129&hterms=K2&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DK2"><span>A Comparison between <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Activity and Passive Microwave Measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kevin, Driscoll T.; Hugh, Christian J.; Goodman, Steven J.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A recent examination of data from the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) suggests that storm with the highest frequency of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> also possess the most pronounced microwave scattering signatures at 37 and 85 GHz. This study demonstrates a clear dependence between <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and the passive microwave measurements, and accentuates how direct the relationship really is between cloud ice and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity. In addition, the relationship between the quantity of ice content and the frequency of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> (not just the presence of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>) , is consistent throughout the seasons in a variety of regimes. Scatter plots will be presented which show the storm-averaged brightness temperatures as a function of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> density of the storms (L/Area) . In the 85 GHz and 37 GHz scatter plots, the brightness temperature is presented in the form Tb = k1 x log10(L/Area) + k2, where the slope of the regression, k1, is 58 for the 85 GHz relationship and 30.7 for the 37 GHz relationship. The regression for both these fits showed a correlation of 0.76 (r2 = 0.58), which is quite promising considering the simple procedure used to make the comparisons, which have not yet even been corrected for the view angle differences between the instruments, or the polarization corrections in the microwave imager.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118..787Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118..787Z"><span>Statistical patterns in the location of natural <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zoghzoghy, F. G.; Cohen, M. B.; Said, R. K.; Inan, U. S.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> discharges are nature's way of neutralizing the electrical buildup in thunderclouds. Thus, if an individual discharge destroys a substantial fraction of the cloud charge, the probability of a subsequent flash is reduced until the cloud charge separation rebuilds. The temporal pattern of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity in a localized region may thus inherently be a proxy measure of the corresponding timescales for charge separation and electric field buildup processes. We present a statistical technique to bring out this effect (as well as the subsequent recovery) using <span class="hlt">lightning</span> geo-location data, in this case with data from the National <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network (NLDN) and from the GLD360 Network. We use this statistical method to show that a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash can remove an appreciable fraction of the built up charge, affecting the neighboring <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity for tens of seconds within a ˜ 10 km radius. We find that our results correlate with timescales of electric field buildup in storms and suggest that the proposed statistical tool could be used to study the electrification of storms on a global scale. We find that this flash suppression effect is a strong function of flash type, flash polarity, cloud-to-ground flash multiplicity, the geographic location of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, and is proportional to NLDN model-derived peak stroke current. We characterize the spatial and temporal extent of the suppression effect as a function of these parameters and discuss various applications of our findings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100026043&hterms=under+armor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dunder%2Barmor','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20100026043&hterms=under+armor&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dunder%2Barmor"><span>Exploring a Physically Based Tool for <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Cessation: Preliminary Results</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schultz, Elsie V.; Petersen, Walter A.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Buechler, Dennis E.; Gatlin, Patrick N.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville) and NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center are collaborating with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) to enable improved nowcasting of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> cessation. The project centers on use of dual-polarimetric radar capabilities, and in particular, the new C-band dual-polarimetric weather radar acquired by the 45WS. Special emphasis is placed on the development of a physically based operational algorithm to predict <span class="hlt">lightning</span> cessation. While previous studies have developed statistically based <span class="hlt">lightning</span> cessation algorithms, we believe that dual-polarimetric radar variables offer the possibility to improve existing algorithms through the inclusion of physically meaningful trends reflecting interactions between in-cloud electric fields and microphysics. Specifically, decades of polarimetric radar research using propagation differential phase has demonstrated the presence of distinct phase and ice crystal alignment signatures in the presence of strong electric fields associated with <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. One question yet to be addressed is: To what extent can these ice-crystal alignment signatures be used to nowcast the cessation of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity in a given storm? Accordingly, data from the UAHuntsville Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR) along with the North Alabama <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array are used in this study to investigate the radar signatures present before and after <span class="hlt">lightning</span> cessation. A summary of preliminary results will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130012038','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20130012038"><span>Structural Analysis of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Protection System for New Launch Vehicle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cope, Anne; Moore, Steve; Pruss, Richard</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This project includes the design and specification of a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection system for Launch Complex 39 B (LC39B) at Kennedy Space Center, FL in support of the Constellation Program. The purpose of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection system is to protect the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) or Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) and associated launch equipment from direct <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes during launch processing and other activities prior to flight. The design includes a three-tower, overhead catenary wire system to protect the vehicle and equipment on LC39B as described in the study that preceded this design effort: KSC-DX-8234 "Study: Construct <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Protection System LC3 9B". The study was a collaborative effort between Reynolds, Smith, and Hills (RS&H) and ASRC Aerospace (ASRC), where ASRC was responsible for the theoretical design and risk analysis of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection system and RS&H was responsible for the development of the civil and structural components; the mechanical systems; the electrical and grounding systems; and the siting of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection system. The study determined that a triangular network of overhead catenary cables and down conductors supported by three triangular free-standing towers approximately 594 ft tall (each equipped with a man lift, ladder, electrical systems, and communications systems) would provide a level of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection for the Constellation Program CLV and CaLV on Launch Pad 39B that exceeds the design requirements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.1363T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.1363T"><span>Plans of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and airglow measurements with LAC/Akatsuki</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takahashi, Yukihiro; Hoshino, Naoya; Sato, Mitsuteru; Yair, Yoav; Galand, Marina; Fukuhara, Tetsuya</p> <p></p> <p>Though there are extensive researches on the existence of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge in Venus over few decades, this issue is still under controversial. Recently it is reported that the magnetometer on board Venus Express detected whistler mode waves whose source could be <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharge occurring well below the spacecraft. However, it is too early to determine the origin of these waves. On the other hand, night airglow is expected to provide essential information on the atmospheric circulation in the upper atmosphere of Venus. But the number of consecutive images of airglow obtained by spacecraft is limited and even the variations of most enhanced location is still unknown. In order to identify the discharge phenomena in the atmosphere of Venus separating from noises and to know the daily variation of airglow distribution in night-side disk, we plan to observe the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and airglow optical emissions with high-speed and high-sensitivity optical detector with narrow-band filters on board Akatsuki. We are ready to launch the flight model of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and airglow detector, LAC (<span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and Airglow Camera). Main difference from other previous equipments which have provided evidences of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> existence in Venus is the high-speed sampling rate at 32 us interval for each pixel, enabling us to distinguish the optical <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash from other pulsing noises. In this presentation the observation strategies, including ground-based support with optical telescopes, are shown and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29527425','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29527425"><span>The Evolution and Structure of Extreme Optical <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Flashes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peterson, Michael; Rudlosky, Scott; Deierling, Wiebke</p> <p>2017-12-27</p> <p>This study documents the composition, morphology, and motion of extreme optical <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes observed by the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor (LIS). The furthest separation of LIS events (groups) in any flash is 135 km (89 km), the flash with the largest footprint had an illuminated area of 10,604 km 2 , and the most dendritic flash has 234 visible branches. The longest-duration convective LIS flash lasted 28 s and is overgrouped and not physical. The longest-duration convective-to-stratiform propagating flash lasted 7.4 s, while the longest-duration entirely stratiform flash lasted 4.3 s. The longest series of nearly consecutive groups in time lasted 242 ms. The most radiant recorded LIS group (i.e., "superbolt") is 735 times more radiant than the average group. Factors that impact these optical measures of flash morphology and evolution are discussed. While it is apparent that LIS can record the horizontal development of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel in some cases, radiative transfer within the cloud limits the flash extent and level of detail measured from orbit. These analyses nonetheless suggest that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> imagers such as LIS and Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper can complement ground-based <span class="hlt">lightning</span> locating systems for studying physical <span class="hlt">lightning</span> phenomena across large geospatial domains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5843378','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5843378"><span>The Evolution and Structure of Extreme Optical <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Flashes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Peterson, Michael; Rudlosky, Scott; Deierling, Wiebke</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>This study documents the composition, morphology, and motion of extreme optical <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes observed by the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor (LIS). The furthest separation of LIS events (groups) in any flash is 135 km (89 km), the flash with the largest footprint had an illuminated area of 10,604 km2, and the most dendritic flash has 234 visible branches. The longest-duration convective LIS flash lasted 28 s and is overgrouped and not physical. The longest-duration convective-to-stratiform propagating flash lasted 7.4 s, while the longest-duration entirely stratiform flash lasted 4.3 s. The longest series of nearly consecutive groups in time lasted 242 ms. The most radiant recorded LIS group (i.e., “superbolt”) is 735 times more radiant than the average group. Factors that impact these optical measures of flash morphology and evolution are discussed. While it is apparent that LIS can record the horizontal development of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel in some cases, radiative transfer within the cloud limits the flash extent and level of detail measured from orbit. These analyses nonetheless suggest that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> imagers such as LIS and Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper can complement ground-based <span class="hlt">lightning</span> locating systems for studying physical <span class="hlt">lightning</span> phenomena across large geospatial domains. PMID:29527425</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020068017&hterms=channels+distribution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dchannels%2Bdistribution','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020068017&hterms=channels+distribution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dchannels%2Bdistribution"><span>A <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Channel Retrieval Algorithm for the North Alabama <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array (LMA)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koshak, William; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>A new multi-station VHF time-of-arrival (TOA) antenna network is, at the time of this writing, coming on-line in Northern Alabama. The network, called the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array (LMA), employs GPS timing and detects VHF radiation from discrete segments (effectively point emitters) that comprise the channel of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes within cloud and ground flashes. The network will support on-going ground validation activities of the low Earth orbiting <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor (LIS) satellite developed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. It will also provide for many interesting and detailed studies of the distribution and evolution of thunderstorms and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in the Tennessee Valley, and will offer many interesting comparisons with other meteorological/geophysical wets associated with <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and thunderstorms. In order to take full advantage of these benefits, it is essential that the LMA channel mapping accuracy (in both space and time) be fully characterized and optimized. In this study, a new revised channel mapping retrieval algorithm is introduced. The algorithm is an extension of earlier work provided in Koshak and Solakiewicz (1996) in the analysis of the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection and Ranging (LDAR) system. As in the 1996 study, direct algebraic solutions are obtained by inverting a simple linear system of equations, thereby making computer searches through a multi-dimensional parameter domain of a Chi-Squared function unnecessary. However, the new algorithm is developed completely in spherical Earth-centered coordinates (longitude, latitude, altitude), rather than in the (x, y, z) cartesian coordinates employed in the 1996 study. Hence, no mathematical transformations from (x, y, z) into spherical coordinates are required (such transformations involve more numerical error propagation, more computer program coding, and slightly more CPU computing time). The new algorithm also has a more realistic</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/587206-sub-from-lightning-global-distribution-based-lightning-physics','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/587206-sub-from-lightning-global-distribution-based-lightning-physics"><span>NO{sub x} from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> 1. Global distribution based on <span class="hlt">lightning</span> physics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Price, C.; Penner, J.; Prather, M.</p> <p>1997-03-01</p> <p>This paper begins a study on the role of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in maintaining the global distribution of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) in the troposphere. It presents the first global and seasonal distributions of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-produced NO{sub x} (LNO{sub x}) based on the observed distribution of electrical storms and the physical properties of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes. We derive a global rate for cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes of 20{endash}30 flashes/s with a mean energy per flash of 6.7{times}10{sup 9}J. Intracloud (IC) flashes are more frequent, 50{endash}70 flashes/s but have 10{percent} of the energy of CG strokes and, consequently, produce significantly less NO{sub x}. It appears tomore » us that the majority of previous studies have mistakenly assumed that all <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes produce the same amount of NO{sub x}, thus overestimating the NO{sub x} production by a factor of 3. On the other hand, we feel these same studies have underestimated the energy released in CG flashes, resulting in two negating assumptions. For CG energies we adopt a production rate of 10{times}10{sup 16} molecules NO/J based on the current literature. Using a method to simulate global <span class="hlt">lightning</span> frequencies from satellite-observed cloud data, we have calculated the LNO{sub x} on various spatial (regional, zonal, meridional, and global) and temporal scales (daily, monthly, seasonal, and interannual). Regionally, the production of LNO{sub x} is concentrated over tropical continental regions, predominantly in the summer hemisphere. The annual mean production rate is calculated to be 12.2 Tg N/yr, and we believe it extremely unlikely that this number is less than 5 or more than 20 Tg N/yr. Although most of LNO{sub x} is produced in the lowest 5 km by CG <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, convective mixing in the thunderstorms is likely to deposit large amounts of NO{sub x} in the upper troposphere where it is important in ozone production. (Abstract Truncated)« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29087928','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29087928"><span>Case Report: Mass Casualty <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Strike at Ranger Training Camp.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thompson, Shannon N; Wilson, Zachary W; Cole, Christopher B; Kennedy, Andrew R; Aycock, Ryan D</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Although <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes are a rare occurrence, their significance cannot be ignored given military operations in the field during all types of weather. With proper medical management, patients with <span class="hlt">lightning</span> injuries can return to duty. Information for this case report comes from eyewitness account at the 6th Ranger Training Battalion and from review of physician documentation from the 96th Medical Group, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. A <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike injured 44 Ranger School participants during a training exercise on August 12, 2015, at Camp Rudder, Florida. These patients were triaged in the field and transported to emergency department of Eglin Air Force Base. Of the 44 casualties, 20 were admitted. All were returned to duty the following day. One patient had cardiac arrest. This patient, along with two others, was admitted to the intensive care unit. Seventeen other patients were admitted for observation for rhabdomyolysis and/or cardiac arrhythmias. One patient was admitted with suspected acute kidney injury indicated by an elevated creatinine. All patients, including those admitted to the intensive care unit, were released on the day following the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike without restrictions and were allowed to return to duty with increased medical monitoring. This case report highlights the need for proper triage and recognition of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike injury, coordination of care between field operations and emergency department personnel, and close follow-up for patients presenting with <span class="hlt">lightning</span> injury. Symptoms, physical exam, and laboratory findings from rigorous training can be difficult to distinguish from those resulting from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> injury. Secondary injuries resulting from blunt trauma from falls may have been prevented by the use of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike posture. Further analysis of procedures and standard operating protocols to mitigate risk during thunderstorms may be required to prevent <span class="hlt">lightning</span>'s effects on large groups of military personnel</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A33G3278H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A33G3278H"><span>Estimating <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> NOx Emissions for Regional Air Quality Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Holloway, T.; Scotty, E.; Harkey, M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> emissions have long been recognized as an important source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) on a global scale, and an essential emission component for global atmospheric chemistry models. However, only in recent years have regional air quality models incorporated <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NOx emissions into simulations. The growth in regional modeling of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> emissions has been driven in part by comparisons with satellite-derived estimates of column NO2, especially from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aboard the Aura satellite. We present and evaluate a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> inventory for the EPA Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Our approach follows Koo et al. [2010] in the approach to spatially and temporally allocating a given total value based on cloud-top height and convective precipitation. However, we consider alternate total NOx emission values (which translate into alternate <span class="hlt">lightning</span> emission factors) based on a review of the literature and performance evaluation against OMI NO2 for July 2007 conditions over the U.S. and parts of Canada and Mexico. The vertical distribution of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> emissions follow a bimodal distribution from Allen et al. [2012] calculated over 27 vertical model layers. Total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NO emissions for July 2007 show the highest above-land emissions in Florida, southeastern Texas and southern Louisiana. Although agreement with OMI NO2 across the domain varied significantly depending on <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NOx assumptions, agreement among the simulations at ground-based NO2 monitors from the EPA Air Quality System database showed no meaningful sensitivity to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NOx. Emissions are compared with prior studies, which find similar distribution patterns, but a wide range of calculated magnitudes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RaPC...95..188P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RaPC...95..188P"><span>Laser decontamination of the radioactive <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Potiens, A. J.; Dellamano, J. C.; Vicente, R.; Raele, M. P.; Wetter, N. U.; Landulfo, E.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Between 1970 and 1980 Brazil experienced a significant market for radioactive <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rods (RLR). The device consists of an air terminal with one or more sources of americium-241 attached to it. The sources were used to ionize the air around them and to increase the attraction of atmospheric discharges. Because of their ineffectiveness, the nuclear regulatory authority in Brazil suspended the license for manufacturing, commerce and installation of RLR in 1989, and determined that the replaced RLR were to be collected to a centralized radioactive waste management facility for treatment. The first step for RLR treatment is to remove the radioactive sources. Though they can be easily removed, some contaminations are found all over the remaining metal scrap that must decontaminated for release, otherwise it must be treated as radioactive waste. Decontamination using various chemicals has proven to be inefficient and generates large amounts of secondary wastes. This work shows the preliminary results of the decontamination of 241Am-contaminated metal scrap generated in the treatment of radioactive <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rods applying laser ablation. A Nd:YAG nanoseconds laser was used with 300 mJ energy leaving only a small amount of secondary waste to be treated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MNRAS.469L..39K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017MNRAS.469L..39K"><span>Fast radio bursts as pulsar <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Katz, J. I.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>There are striking phenomenological similarities between fast radio bursts (FRBs) and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in the Earth's and planetary atmospheres. Both have very low duty factors, ≲10-8-10-5 for FRBs and (very roughly) ˜10-4 for the main return strokes in an active thundercloud. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> occurs in an electrified insulating atmosphere when a conducting path is created by and permits current flow. FRBs may occur in neutron star magnetospheres whose plasma is believed to be divided by vacuum gaps. Vacuum is a perfect insulator unless electric fields are sufficient for electron-positron pair production by curvature radiation, a high-energy analogue of electrostatic breakdown in an insulating gas. FRB may be 'electrars' powered by the release of stored electrostatic energy, counterparts to soft gamma repeaters powered by the release of stored magnetostatic energy (magnetars). This frees pulsar FRB models from the constraint that their power not exceeds the instantaneous spin-down power. Energetic constraints imply that the sources of more energetic FRBs have shorter spin-down lifetimes, perhaps even less than the 3 yr over which FRB 121102 has been observed to repeat.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840020226','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840020226"><span>Tortuosity of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> return stroke channels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Levine, D. M.; Gilson, B.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Data obtained from photographs of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> are presented on the tortuosity of return stroke channels. The data were obtained by making piecewise linear fits to the channels, and recording the cartesian coordinates of the ends of each linear segment. The mean change between ends of the segments was nearly zero in the horizontal direction and was about eight meters in the vertical direction. Histograms of these changes are presented. These data were used to create model <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channels and to predict the electric fields radiated during return strokes. This was done using a computer generated random walk in which linear segments were placed end-to-end to form a piecewise linear representation of the channel. The computer selected random numbers for the ends of the segments assuming a normal distribution with the measured statistics. Once the channels were simulated, the electric fields radiated during a return stroke were predicted using a transmission line model on each segment. It was found that realistic channels are obtained with this procedure, but only if the model includes two scales of tortuosity: fine scale irregularities corresponding to the local channel tortuosity which are superimposed on large scale horizontal drifts. The two scales of tortuosity are also necessary to obtain agreement between the electric fields computed mathematically from the simulated channels and the electric fields radiated from real return strokes. Without large scale drifts, the computed electric fields do not have the undulations characteristics of the data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JPhCS.996a2011N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JPhCS.996a2011N"><span>Sources and components of ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span> theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nikitin, A. I.; Bychkov, V. L.; Nikitina, T. F.; Velichko, A. M.; Abakumov, V. I.</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>The article describes the cases when ball <span class="hlt">lightning</span> (BL) exhibited an extremely high specific energy store (up to 1010 J/m3), a presence of uncompensated electric charge (up to 10‑3 C) and an ability to generate high frequency pulses (up to 10 MW). It is shown that the realization of a combination of these properties of BL is possible if to consider it as a heterogeneous system consisting of a unipolarly charged core and a dielectric shell. In the electric field of the core charge, arises a force owing to the polarization of the shell that opposes the Coulomb repulsion force of the charges. BL models constructed according to the indicated principle are described: the electrodynamic model and the chemical-thermal model, which treats BL as a hollow sphere filled with steam. The requirement to take into account the main three properties of BL makes it possible to reduce the number of models of this natural phenomenon. Detailed cases of observations of high-energy <span class="hlt">lightning</span> are analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT.......134G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhDT.......134G"><span>Properties of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Strike Protection Coatings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gagne, Martin</p> <p></p> <p>Composite materials are being increasingly used by many industries. In the case of aerospace companies, those materials are installed on their aircraft to save weight, and thus, fuel costs. These aircraft are lighter, but the loss of electrical conductivity makes aircraft vulnerable to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes, which hit commercial aircrafts on average once per year. This makes <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike protection very important, and while current metallic expanded copper foils offer good protection, they increase the weight of composites. Therefore, under the CRIAQ COMP-502 project, a team of industrial partners and academic researchers are investigating new conductive coatings with the following characteristics: High electromagnetic protection, high mechanical resistance, good environmental protection, manufacturability and moderate cost. The main objectives of this thesis, as part of this project, was to determine the main characteristics, such as electrical and tribomechanical properties, of conductive coatings on composite panels. Their properties were also to be tested after destructive tests such as current injection and environmental testing. Bombardier Aerospace provided the substrate, a composite of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy matrix, and the current commercial product, a surfacing film that includes an expanded copper foil used to compare with the other coatings. The conductive coatings fabricated by the students are: silver nanoparticles inside a binding matrix (PEDOT:PSS or a mix of Epoxy and PEDOT:PSS), silvered carbon nanofibers embedded in the surfacing film, cold sprayed tin, graphene oxide functionalized with silver nanowires, and electroless plated silver. Additionally as part of the project and thesis, magnetron sputtered aluminum coated samples were fabricated. There are three main types of tests to characterize the conductive coatings: electrical, mechanical and environmental. Electrical tests consist of finding the sheet resistance and specific resistivity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3169S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3169S"><span>LOFAR for <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-interferometery and mapping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scholten, Olaf; Buitink, Stijn; trinh, Gia; Bonardi, Antonio; Corstanje, Arthur; Ebert, Ute; Falcke, Heino; Hoerandel, Joerg; Mitra, Pragati; Mulrey, Katherine; Nelles, Anna; Rachen, Joerg; Rossetto, Laura; Rutjes, Casper; Schellart, Pim; Thoudam, Satayendra; ter Veen, Sander; Winchen, Tobias; Hare, Brian</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>We show that a new observation mode at the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) for <span class="hlt">Lightning</span>-Interferometery and Mapping (LIM) allows for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> observations with a resolution that is at least an order of magnitude better than presently operating <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Napping Arrays LMAs. Furthermore the polarization of the signal can be used to reconstruct the direction of the discharge. LOFAR, consisting of many thousands of antennas, is a digital radio telescope, primarily build for astronomy observations. The Low Band Antennas (LBA) we use for this work are sensitive to the frequency range of 10 - 90 MHz and consist of two inverted V-shaped dipoles. The antennas are grouped in stations consisting of 48 LBA spread over an area with a diameter of about 30 m for which the relative timing is known accurately. The LOFAR core of approximately 2 km diameter contains 24 such stations located near Exloo in the north of The Netherlands. Remote stations for LIM may lie at a distance of 100 km from the core. Signals are sampled at 200 MS/s (sampling time of 5 ns). All antennas are equipped with ring buffers, that store the raw voltage traces for up to 5 s. When a trigger is received, for example with a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash, the ring buffers are frozen and their contents are copied over the network to a central storage location. We will show an initial analysis of data taken on June 19, 2013, for a thunderstorm at a distance of some 50 km from the telescope. The source location and emission time for each event (<span class="hlt">lightning</span> step) is found by fitting the arrival times of the pulses for each separate antenna adjusting the station offsets, keeping them the same for all events. The fit reproduces the measurements with an accuracy of about 1 time sample. Interestingly much fine structure is seen in the time-traces and examples will be shown for some events. The time traces for antennas in different stations are very similar and thus not due to noise. We also see a clear polarization-dependent structure</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760024088','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760024088"><span>The effects of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> on digital flight control systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Plumer, J. A.; Malloy, W. A.; Craft, J. B.</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Present practices in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection of aircraft deal primarily with the direct effects of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, such as structural damage and ignition of fuel vapors. There is increasing evidence of troublesome electromagnetic effects, however, in aircraft employing solid-state microelectronics in critical navigation, instrumentation and control functions. The potential impact of these indirect effects on critical systems such as digital fly by wire (DFBW) flight controls was studied. The results indicate a need for positive steps to be taken during the design of future fly by wire systems to minimize the possibility of hazardous effects from <span class="hlt">lightning</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22253708','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22253708"><span>Remarkable rates of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike mortality in Malawi.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mulder, Monique Borgerhoff; Msalu, Lameck; Caro, Tim; Salerno, Jonathan</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Livingstone's second mission site on the shore of Lake Malawi suffers very high rates of consequential <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes. Comprehensive interviewing of victims and their relatives in seven Traditional Authorities in Nkhata Bay District, Malawi revealed that the annual rate of consequential strikes was 419/million, more than six times higher than that in other developing countries; the rate of deaths from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> was 84/million/year, 5.4 times greater than the highest ever recorded. These remarkable figures reveal that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> constitutes a significant stochastic source of mortality with potential life history consequences, but it should not deflect attention away from the more prominent causes of mortality in this rural area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820006841','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820006841"><span>Measurement of characteristics of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> at high altitudes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Coquelet, M.; Gall, D.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>New development in aeronautical technology -- the use of composite materials, new electronic components, electric flight controls -- have made aircraft potentially more and more vulnerable to the effects of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. In-flight tests were conducted to evaluate the current in a bolt of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, to measure voltage surge in the onboard circuitry and in certain pieces of equipment, and to document the relationship <span class="hlt">lightning</span> bolt current and the voltage surge so as to develop a theoretical model and thuds to become acquainted with the significant</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900002826','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900002826"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> data study in conjunction with geostationary satellite data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Auvine, Brian; Martin, David W.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>During the summer of 1985, cloud-to-ground stroke <span class="hlt">lightning</span> were collected. Thirty minute samples of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> were compared with GOES IR fractional cold cloud coverage computed for three temperature thresholds (213, 243, and 273 K) twice daily (morning and evening). It was found that satellite measurements of cold cloud have a relationship to the flashrate and, in a more limited way, to the polarity and numbers of return strokes. Results varied little by location. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span>, especially positive strokes, was found to be correlated with fractional cloud coverage, especially for clouds at or below 213 K. Other data and correlations are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhLA..374.2932P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhLA..374.2932P"><span>Transcranial stimulability of phosphenes by long <span class="hlt">lightning</span> electromagnetic pulses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peer, J.; Kendl, A.</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>The electromagnetic pulses of rare long (order of seconds) repetitive <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges near strike point (order of 100 m) are analyzed and compared to magnetic fields applied in standard clinical transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) practice. It is shown that the time-varying <span class="hlt">lightning</span> magnetic fields and locally induced electric fields are in the same order of magnitude and frequency as those established in TMS experiments to study stimulated perception phenomena, like magnetophosphenes. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> electromagnetic pulse induced transcranial magnetic stimulation of phosphenes in the visual cortex is concluded to be a plausible interpretation of a large class of reports on luminous perceptions during thunderstorms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840021328','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19840021328"><span>Cosmic rays, solar activity, magnetic coupling, and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> incidence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ely, J. T. A.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A theoretical model is presented and described that unifies the complex influence of several factors on spatial and temporal variation of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> incidence. These factors include the cosmic radiation, solar activity, and coupling between geomagnetic and interplanetary (solar wind) magnetic fields. Atmospheric electrical conductivity in the 10 km region was shown to be the crucial parameter altered by these factors. The theory reconciles several large scale studies of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> incidence previously misinterpreted or considered contradictory. The model predicts additional strong effects on variations in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> incidence, but only small effects on the morphology and rate of thunderstorm development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1015700','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD1015700"><span>Intelligence Support for the F-35A <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> II</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>106 | Air & Space Power Journal Intelligence Support for the F-35A <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> II Capt Stephanie Anne Fraioli, USAF Disclaimer: The views and opinions...reproduced in whole or in part without permission. If it is reproduced, the Air and Space Power Journal requests a courtesy line. The F-35 <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> II is...airspace. Specifi- cally, the F-35 <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> II is advertised as a multirole follow-on to the A-10, AV-8B, F-16, and F/A-18A/B/C/D aircraft. The F-35 is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080013550&hterms=Geostationary&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DGeostationary','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080013550&hterms=Geostationary&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3DGeostationary"><span>Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper for GOES-R and Beyond</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Koshak, W.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper (GLM) is a single channel, near-IR imager/optical transient event detector, used to detect, locate and measure total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity over the full-disk as part of a 3-axis stabilized, geostationary weather satellite system. The next generation NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) series with a planned launch readiness in December 2014 will carry a GLM that will provide continuous day and night observations of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> from the west coast of Africa (GOES-E) to New Zealand (GOES-W) when the constellation is fUlly operational. The mission objectives for the GLM are to 1) provide continuous, full-disk <span class="hlt">lightning</span> measurements for storm warning and nowcasting, 2) provide early warning of tornadic activity, and 3) accumulate a long-term database to track decadal changes of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>. The GLM owes its heritage to the NASA <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor (1997-Present) and the Optical Transient Detector (1995-2000), which were developed for the Earth Observing System and have produced a combined 13 year data record of global <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity. Instrument formulation studies were completed in March 2007 and the implementation phase to develop a prototype model and up to four flight models will be underway in the latter part of 2007. In parallel with the instrument development, a GOES-R Risk Reduction Team and Algorithm Working Group <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Applications Team have begun to develop the Level 2 algorithms and applications. Proxy total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data from the NASA <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite and regional test beds (e.g., <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Arrays in North Alabama and the Washington DC Metropolitan area) are being used to develop the pre-launch algorithms and applications, and also improve our knowledge of thunderstorm initiation and evolution. Real time <span class="hlt">lightning</span> mapping data are being provided in an experimental mode to selected National Weather Service (NWS</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........48T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhDT........48T"><span>A comparison of two ground-based <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection networks against the satellite-based <span class="hlt">lightning</span> imaging sensor (LIS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thompson, Kelsey B.</p> <p></p> <p>We compared <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stroke data from the ground-based World Wide <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Location Network (WWLLN) and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stroke data from the ground-based Earth Networks Total <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Network (ENTLN) to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> group data from the satellite-based <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor (LIS) from 1 January 2010 through 30 June 2011. The region of study, about 39°S to 39°N latitude, 164°E to 17°W longitude, chosen to approximate the Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper (GLM) field of view, was considered in its entirety and then divided into four geographical sub-regions. We found the highest 18-mon WWLLN coincidence percent (CP) value in the Pacific Ocean at 18.9% and the highest 18-mon ENTLN CP value in North America at 63.3%. We found the lowest 18-mon CP value for both WWLLN and ENTLN in South America at 6.2% and 2.2% respectively. Daily CP values and how often large radiance LIS groups had a coincident stroke varied. Coincidences between LIS groups and ENTLN strokes often resulted in more cloud than ground coincidences in North America and more ground than cloud coincidences in the other three sub-regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29303164','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29303164"><span>Automated Storm Tracking and the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Jump Algorithm Using GOES-R Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper (GLM) Proxy Data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schultz, Elise V; Schultz, Christopher J; Carey, Lawrence D; Cecil, Daniel J; Bateman, Monte</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study develops a fully automated <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump system encompassing objective storm tracking, Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper proxy data, and the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump algorithm (LJA), which are important elements in the transition of the LJA concept from a research to an operational based algorithm. Storm cluster tracking is based on a product created from the combination of a radar parameter (vertically integrated liquid, VIL), and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> information (flash rate density). Evaluations showed that the spatial scale of tracked features or storm clusters had a large impact on the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump system performance, where increasing spatial scale size resulted in decreased dynamic range of the system's performance. This framework will also serve as a means to refine the LJA itself to enhance its operational applicability. Parameters within the system are isolated and the system's performance is evaluated with adjustments to parameter sensitivity. The system's performance is evaluated using the probability of detection (POD) and false alarm ratio (FAR) statistics. Of the algorithm parameters tested, sigma-level (metric of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump strength) and flash rate threshold influenced the system's performance the most. Finally, verification methodologies are investigated. It is discovered that minor changes in verification methodology can dramatically impact the evaluation of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160009780','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160009780"><span>Automated Storm Tracking and the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Jump Algorithm Using GOES-R Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper (GLM) Proxy Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Schultz, Elise; Schultz, Christopher Joseph; Carey, Lawrence D.; Cecil, Daniel J.; Bateman, Monte</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This study develops a fully automated <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump system encompassing objective storm tracking, Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper proxy data, and the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump algorithm (LJA), which are important elements in the transition of the LJA concept from a research to an operational based algorithm. Storm cluster tracking is based on a product created from the combination of a radar parameter (vertically integrated liquid, VIL), and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> information (flash rate density). Evaluations showed that the spatial scale of tracked features or storm clusters had a large impact on the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump system performance, where increasing spatial scale size resulted in decreased dynamic range of the system's performance. This framework will also serve as a means to refine the LJA itself to enhance its operational applicability. Parameters within the system are isolated and the system's performance is evaluated with adjustments to parameter sensitivity. The system's performance is evaluated using the probability of detection (POD) and false alarm ratio (FAR) statistics. Of the algorithm parameters tested, sigma-level (metric of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump strength) and flash rate threshold influenced the system's performance the most. Finally, verification methodologies are investigated. It is discovered that minor changes in verification methodology can dramatically impact the evaluation of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump system.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5749929','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5749929"><span>Automated Storm Tracking and the <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Jump Algorithm Using GOES-R Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper (GLM) Proxy Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>SCHULTZ, ELISE V.; SCHULTZ, CHRISTOPHER J.; CAREY, LAWRENCE D.; CECIL, DANIEL J.; BATEMAN, MONTE</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>This study develops a fully automated <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump system encompassing objective storm tracking, Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper proxy data, and the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump algorithm (LJA), which are important elements in the transition of the LJA concept from a research to an operational based algorithm. Storm cluster tracking is based on a product created from the combination of a radar parameter (vertically integrated liquid, VIL), and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> information (flash rate density). Evaluations showed that the spatial scale of tracked features or storm clusters had a large impact on the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump system performance, where increasing spatial scale size resulted in decreased dynamic range of the system’s performance. This framework will also serve as a means to refine the LJA itself to enhance its operational applicability. Parameters within the system are isolated and the system’s performance is evaluated with adjustments to parameter sensitivity. The system’s performance is evaluated using the probability of detection (POD) and false alarm ratio (FAR) statistics. Of the algorithm parameters tested, sigma-level (metric of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump strength) and flash rate threshold influenced the system’s performance the most. Finally, verification methodologies are investigated. It is discovered that minor changes in verification methodology can dramatically impact the evaluation of the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> jump system. PMID:29303164</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110015811','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110015811"><span>The NASA <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM): Recent Updates and Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koshak, William; Peterson, Harold; Biazar, Arastoo; Khan, Maudood; Wang, Lihua; Park, Yee-Hun</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Improvements to the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM) and its application to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system are presented. The LNOM analyzes <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array (LMA) and National <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network(tm) (NLDN) data to estimate the raw (i.e., unmixed and otherwise environmentally unmodified) vertical profile of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NOx (= NO + NO2). <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> channel length distributions and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> 10-m segment altitude distributions are also provided. In addition to NOx production from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> return strokes, the LNOM now includes non-return stroke <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NOx production due to: hot core stepped and dart leaders, stepped leader corona sheath, K-changes, continuing currents, and M-components. The impact of including LNOM-estimates of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NOx for an August 2006 run of CMAQ is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110015649','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110015649"><span>The NASA <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM): Application to Air Quality Modeling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Koshak, William; Peterson, Harold; Khan, Maudood; Biazar, Arastoo; Wang, Lihua</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Recent improvements to the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Nitrogen Oxides Model (LNOM) and its application to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system are discussed. The LNOM analyzes <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapping Array (LMA) and National <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Detection Network(TradeMark)(NLDN) data to estimate the raw (i.e., unmixed and otherwise environmentally unmodified) vertical profile of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NO(x) (= NO + NO2). The latest LNOM estimates of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel length distributions, <span class="hlt">lightning</span> 1-m segment altitude distributions, and the vertical profile of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NO(x) are presented. The primary improvement to the LNOM is the inclusion of non-return stroke <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NOx production due to: (1) hot core stepped and dart leaders, (2) stepped leader corona sheath, K-changes, continuing currents, and M-components. The impact of including LNOM-estimates of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> NO(x) for an August 2006 run of CMAQ is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810002018','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19810002018"><span>Electrostatic protection of the solar power satellite and rectenna. Part 2: <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection of the rectenna</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Computer simulations and laboratory tests were used to evaluate the hazard posed by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes to ground on the Solar Power Satellite rectenna and to make recommendations on a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection system for the rectenna. The distribution of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> over the lower 48 of the continental United States was determined, as were the interactions of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> with the rectenna and the modes in which those interactions could damage the rectenna. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> protection was both required and feasible. Several systems of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection were considered and evaluated. These included two systems that employed <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rods of different lengths and placed on top of the rectenna's billboards and a third, distribution companies; it consists of short <span class="hlt">lightning</span> rods all along the length of each billboard that are connected by a horizontal wire above the billboard. The distributed <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection system afforded greater protection than the other systems considered and was easier to integrate into the rectenna's structural design.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25466573','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25466573"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> related fatalities in livestock: veterinary expertise and the added value of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> location data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vanneste, E; Weyens, P; Poelman, D R; Chiers, K; Deprez, P; Pardon, B</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Although <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike is an important cause of sudden death in livestock on pasture and among the main reasons why insurance companies consult an expert veterinarian, scientific information on this subject is limited. The aim of the present study was to provide objective information on the circumstantial evidence and pathological findings in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> related fatalities (LRF), based on a retrospective analysis of 410 declarations, examined by a single expert veterinarian in Flanders, Belgium, from 1998 to 2012. Predictive logistic models for compatibility with LRF were constructed based on anamnestic, environmental and pathological factors. In addition, the added value of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> location data (LLD) was evaluated. Pathognomonic singe lesions were present in 84/194 (43%) confirmed reports. Factors which remained significantly associated with LRF in the multivariable model were age, presence of a tree or open water in the near surroundings, tympany and presence of feed in the oral cavity at the time of investigation. This basic model had a sensitivity (Se) of 53.8% and a specificity (Sp) of 88.2%. Relying only on LLD to confirm LRF in livestock resulted in a high Se (91.3%), but a low Sp (41.2%), leading to a high probability that a negative case would be wrongly accepted as an LRF. The best results were obtained when combining the model based on the veterinary expert investigation (circumstantial evidence and pathological findings), together with the detection of cloud-to-ground (CG) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> at the time and location of death (Se 89.1%; Sp 66.7%). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMAE33A2515L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMAE33A2515L"><span>GOES-16 Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper Comparison with the Earth Networks Total <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lapierre, J. L.; Stock, M.; Zhu, Y.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> location systems have shown to be an integral part of weather research and forecasting. The launch of the GOES-16 Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper (GLM) will provide a new tool to help improve <span class="hlt">lightning</span> detection throughout the Americas and ocean regions. However, before this data can be effectively used, there must be a thorough analysis of its performance to validate the data it produces. Here, we compare GLM data to data from the Earth Networks Total <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Network (ENTLN). We analyze data during the months of May and June of 2017 to determine the detection efficiency of each system. A successful match occurs when two flashes overlap in time and are less than 0.2 degrees apart. Of the flashes detected by ENTLN, GLM detects about 50% overall. The highest DEs for GLM are over the ocean and South America, and lowest are in Central America and the Northeastern and Western parts of the U.S. Of the flashes detected by GLM, ENTLN detected over 80% in the Central and Eastern parts of the U.S. and 10-20% in Central and South America. Finally, we determined all the unique flashes detected by both systems and determined the DE of both systems from this unique flash dataset. We find that GLM does very well in South America, over the tropical islands in the Caribbean Sea as well as Northern U.S. It detects above 50% of the unique flashes over Central and off the Eastern Coast of the U.S. as well as in Mexico. GLM detects less than 50% of the unique flashes over Florida, the Mid-Atlantic, Mid-West, and Southwestern U.S., areas where ENTLN is expected to perform well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMAE11A..06M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMAE11A..06M"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Forecasts and Data Assimilation into Numerical Weather Prediction Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>MacGorman, D. R.; Mansell, E. R.; Fierro, A.; Ziegler, C.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>This presentation reviews two aspects of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in numerical weather prediction (NWP) models: forecasting <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and assimilating <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data into NWP models to improve weather forecasts. One of the earliest routine forecasts of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> was developed for fire weather operations. This approach used a multi-parameter regression analysis of archived cloud-to-ground (CG) <span class="hlt">lightning</span> data and archived NWP data to optimize the combination of model state variables to use in forecast equations for various CG rates. Since then, understanding of how storms produce <span class="hlt">lightning</span> has improved greatly. As the treatment of ice in microphysics packages used by NWP models has improved and the horizontal resolution of models has begun approaching convection-permitting scales (with convection-resolving scales on the horizon), it is becoming possible to use this improved understanding in NWP models to predict <span class="hlt">lightning</span> more directly. An important role for data assimilation in NWP models is to depict the location, timing, and spatial extent of thunderstorms during model spin-up so that the effects of prior convection that can strongly influence future thunderstorm activity, such as updrafts and outflow boundaries, can be included in the initial state of a NWP model run. Radar data have traditionally been used, but systems that map <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity with varying degrees of coverage, detail, and detection efficiency are now available routinely over large regions and reveal information about storms that is complementary to the information provided by radar. Because data from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> mapping systems are compact, easily handled, and reliably indicate the location and timing of thunderstorms, even in regions with little or no radar coverage, several groups have investigated techniques for assimilating these data into NWP models. This application will become even more valuable with the launch of the Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper on the GOES-R satellite, which will extend routine</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980236669','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980236669"><span>The Behavior of Total <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Activity in Severe Florida Thunderstorms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Williams, Earle; Boldi, Bob; Matlin, Anne; Weber, Mark; Hodanish, Steve; Sharp, Dave; Goodman, Steve; Raghavan, Ravi; Buechler, Dennis</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>The development of a new observational system called LISDAD (<span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Imaging Sensor Demonstration and Display) has enabled a study of severe weather in central Florida. The total flash rates for storms verified to be severe are found to exceed 60 flashes/min, with some values reaching 500 flashes/min. Similar to earlier results for thunderstorm microbursts, the peak flash rate precedes the severe weather at the ground by 5-20 minutes. A distinguishing feature of severe storms is the presence of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> "jumps"-abrupt increases in flash rate in advance of the maximum rate for the storm. ne systematic total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> precursor to severe weather of all kinds-wind, hail, tornadoes-is interpreted in terms of the updraft that sows the seeds aloft for severe weather at the surface and simultaneously stimulates the ice microphysics that drives the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27451005','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27451005"><span>Inducing Therapeutic Hypothermia in Cardiac Arrest Caused by <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Strike.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scantling, Dane; Frank, Brian; Pontell, Mathew E; Medinilla, Sandra</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Only limited clinical scenarios are grounds for induction of therapeutic hypothermia. Its use in traumatic cardiac arrests, including those from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes, is not well studied. Nonshockable cardiac arrest rhythms have only recently been included in resuscitation guidelines. We report a case of full neurological recovery with therapeutic hypothermia after a <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-induced pulseless electrical activity cardiac arrest in an 18-year-old woman. We also review the important pathophysiology of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-induced cardiac arrest and neurologic sequelae, elaborate upon the mechanism of therapeutic hypothermia, and add case-based evidence in favor of the use of targeted temperature management in <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-induced cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2016 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17595993','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17595993"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> burns and traditional medical treatment: a case report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ikpeme, I A; Udosen, A M; Asuquo, M E; Ngim, N E</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> strikes are relatively uncommon. In our culture where superstitions are strong and natural events often linked to evil forces, the traditional bonesetter/healer is often consulted first. Patients then seek orthodox care when complications develop. Patients also have difficulty accepting ablative treatment when indicated. To present an usual case of bilateral upper limb burns caused by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and complicated by refusal to receive orthodox treatment. A 22 year old woman was struck by <span class="hlt">lightning</span> while asleep. Instead of going to hospital, she was taken to a traditional healer where she spent two months before presenting with gangrenous upper limbs to hospital. Patient refused amputation and abandoned hospital against medical advice. This case report of bilateral upper limb burns resulting from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> is rare. Importantly, the case highlights the role of ignorance, superstition and the disastrous results of traditional medical practice in our healthcare delivery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JASTP.136...98L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JASTP.136...98L"><span>High-altitude electrical discharges associated with thunderstorms and <span class="hlt">lightning</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Ningyu; McHarg, Matthew G.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, Hans C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The purpose of this paper is to introduce electrical discharge phenomena known as transient luminous events above thunderstorms to the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection community. Transient luminous events include the upward electrical discharges from thunderstorms known as starters, jets, and gigantic jets, and electrical discharges initiated in the lower ionosphere such as sprites, halos, and elves. We give an overview of these phenomena with a focus on starters, jets, gigantic jets, and sprites, because similar to ordinary <span class="hlt">lightning</span>, streamers and leaders are basic components of these four types of transient luminous events. We present a few recent observations to illustrate their main properties and briefly review the theories. The research in transient luminous events has not only advanced our understanding of the effects of thunderstorms and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> in the middle and upper atmosphere, but also improved our knowledge of basic electrical discharge processes critical for sparks and <span class="hlt">lightning</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090034169','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090034169"><span>Electrical Characterizations of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Strike Protection Techniques for Composite Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Szatkowski, George N.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Mielnik, John J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The growing application of composite materials in commercial aircraft manufacturing has significantly increased the risk of aircraft damage from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes. Composite aircraft designs require new mitigation strategies and engineering practices to maintain the same level of safety and protection as achieved by conductive aluminum skinned aircraft. Researchers working under the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project are investigating <span class="hlt">lightning</span> damage on composite materials to support the development of new mitigation, diagnosis & prognosis techniques to overcome the increased challenges associated with <span class="hlt">lightning</span> protection on composite aircraft. This paper provides an overview of the electrical characterizations being performed to support IVHM <span class="hlt">lightning</span> damage diagnosis research on composite materials at the NASA Langley Research Center.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JASTP.134...78S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JASTP.134...78S"><span><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and middle atmospheric discharges in the atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Siingh, Devendraa; Singh, R. P.; Kumar, Sarvan; Dharmaraj, T.; Singh, Abhay K.; Singh, Ashok K.; Patil, M. N.; Singh, Shubha</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Recent development in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges including transient luminous events (TLEs) and global electric circuit are discussed. Role of solar activity, convective available potential energy, surface temperature and difference of land-ocean surfaces on convection process are discussed. Different processes of discharge initiation are discussed. Events like sprites and halos are caused by the upward quasi-electrostatic fields associated with intense cloud-to-ground discharges while jets (blue starter, blue jet, gigantic jet) are caused by charge imbalance in thunderstorm during <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges but they are not associated with a particular discharge flash. Elves are generated by the electromagnetic pulse radiated during <span class="hlt">lightning</span> discharges. The present understanding of global electric circuit is also reviewed. Relation between <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity/global electric circuit and climate is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800013445','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800013445"><span>Measurement of Electromagnetic Properties of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> with 10 Nanosecond Resolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Baum, C. E.; Breen, E. L.; Oneill, J. P.; Moore, C. B.; Hall, D. L.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Electromagnetic data recorded from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes are presented. The data analysis reveals general characteristics of fast electromagnetic fields measured at the ground including rise times, amplitudes, and time patterns. A look at the electromagnetic structure of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> shows that the shortest rise times in the vicinity of 30 ns are associated with leader leader streamers. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> location is based on electromagnetic field characteristics and is compared to a nearby sky camera. The fields from both leaders and return strokes were measured and are discussed. The data were obtained during 1978 and 1979 from <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strikes occuring within 5 kilometers of an underground metal instrumentation room located on South Baldy peak near Langmuir Laboratory, New Mexico. The computer controlled instrumentation consisted of sensors previously used for measuring the nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and analog-digital recorders with 10 ns sampling, 256 levels of resolution, and 2 kilobytes of internal memory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790022698','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19790022698"><span>Proceedings: Workshop on the Need for <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Observations from Space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Christensen, L. S. (Editor); Frost, W. (Editor); Vaughan, W. W. (Editor)</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>The results of the Workshop on the Need for <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Observations from Space held February 13-15, 1979, at the University of Tennessee Space Institute, Tullahoma, Tennessee are presented. The interest and active involvement by the engineering, operational, and scientific participants in the workshop demonstrated that <span class="hlt">lightning</span> observations from space is a goal well worth pursuing. The unique contributions, measurement requirements, and supportive research investigations were defined for a number of important applications. <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> has a significant role in atmospheric processes and needs to be systematically investigated. Satellite instrumentation specifically designed for indicating the characteristics of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> are of value in severe storms research, in engineering and operational problem areas, and in providing information on atmospheric electricity and its role in meteorological processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810030017&hterms=stroke&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dstroke','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19810030017&hterms=stroke&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dstroke"><span>Submicrosecond risetimes in <span class="hlt">lightning</span> return-stroke fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Weidman, C. D.; Krider, E. P.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>Measurements of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> electric field, E, and dE/dt signatures have been made near Tampa Bay, Florida, under conditions where the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> locations were known and where the results were not significantly affected by the response time of the measuring system or groundwave propagation. The fast transitions found on the initial portion of return-stroke fields have 10-90% risetimes ranging from 40 to 200 nsec, with a mean of 90 nsec. The maximum field derivatives during return strokes range from 5 to 75 V/m per microsec with a mean of 29 V/m per microsec when normalized to a distance of 100 km. These field risetime and derivative values suggest that return-stroke currents contain large, submicrosecond components, and this in turn suggests that it may be necessary to reevaluate the possible effects of <span class="hlt">lightning</span> and the performance of <span class="hlt">lightning</span>-protection devices in many situations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/wv0222.photos.172889p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="https://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/wv0222.photos.172889p/"><span>32. Credit JTL. Exterior transformer bank; note <span class="hlt">lightning</span> arrestors removed ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>32. Credit JTL. Exterior transformer bank; note <span class="hlt">lightning</span> arrestors removed from pad and smaller arrestors installed on transformers and in area near air switches. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003035','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120003035"><span>A Probabilistic, Facility-Centric Approach to <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Strike Location</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Huddleston, Lisa L.; Roeder, William p.; Merceret, Francis J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A new probabilistic facility-centric approach to <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strike location has been developed. This process uses the bivariate Gaussian distribution of probability density provided by the current <span class="hlt">lightning</span> location error ellipse for the most likely location of a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> stroke and integrates it to determine the probability that the stroke is inside any specified radius of any location, even if that location is not centered on or even with the location error ellipse. This technique is adapted from a method of calculating the probability of debris collisionith spacecraft. Such a technique is important in spaceport processing activities because it allows engineers to quantify the risk of induced current damage to critical electronics due to nearby <span class="hlt">lightning</span> strokes. This technique was tested extensively and is now in use by space launch organizations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Future applications could include forensic meteorology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100004865','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100004865"><span>The Distribution of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Channel Lengths in Northern Alabama Thunderstorms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Peterson, H. S.; Koshak, W. J.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Lightning</span> is well known to be a major source of tropospheric NOx, and in most cases is the dominant natural source (Huntreiser et al 1998, Jourdain and Hauglustaine 2001). Production of NOx by a segment of a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> channel is a function of channel segment energy density and channel segment altitude. A first estimate of NOx production by a <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flash can be found by multiplying production per segment [typically 104 J/m; Hill (1979)] by the total length of the flash s channel. The purpose of this study is to determine average channel length for <span class="hlt">lightning</span> flashes near NALMA in 2008, and to compare average channel length of ground flashes to the average channel length of cloud flashes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMAE32A..04A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMAE32A..04A"><span>Simultaneous Observation of <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> and Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alnussirat, S.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Fishman, G. J.; Burchfield, J. C.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The relative timing between TGFs and <span class="hlt">lightning</span> optical emissions is a critical parameter that may elucidate the production mechanism(s) of TGFs. In this work, we study the correlation between optical emissions detected by the Geostationary <span class="hlt">Lightning</span> Mapper (GLM) and TGFs triggered by the Fermi-GBM. The GLM is the only instrument that detects total <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activities (IC and CG) continuously (day and night) over a large area of the Earth, with very high efficiency and location accuracy. The unique optical emission data from the GLM will enable us to study, for the first time, the <span class="hlt">lightning</span> activity before and after the TGF production. From this investigation, we hope to clarify the production mechanism of TGFs and the characteristics of thundercloud cells that produce them. A description of the GLM concept and operation will be presented and as well as the preliminary results of the TGF-optical emission correlation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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