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Sample records for lignin concentration sensor

  1. Development of a prototype lignin concentration sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Malito, M.L.; Jeffers, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, is sponsoring a research and development program for the development of a real-time, in-situ sensor to measure the concentration of lignin in wood pulp. The program is composed of phase I showing feasibility which is now complete, phase II for development and testing of a Field Prototype, in progress, Phase III commercialization. Phase I work (funded entirely by B W) demonstrated a correlation between the fluorescence intensity and lignin concentration (as measured by TAPPI procedure, T 236 hm-85 Kappa Number of Pulp) for undiluted wood pulp samples. In Phase II, a laboratory test program directed at characterizing the fluorescence of wood pulp has been conducted as a prelude to the design of a prototype sensor. The current report summarizes the testing completed in Phase I and documents the Phase II laboratory testing completed through December 1991. Future Phase II efforts include additional laboratory testing, design and fabrication of a prototype sensor, and field testing of the prototype sensor. Phase III of the program will concentrate on the incorporation of the sensor into a control system and commercialization of the sensor.

  2. Development of a prototype lignin concentration sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Malito, M.L.; Jeffers, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, is sponsoring a research and development program for the development of a real-time, in-situ sensor to measure the concentration of lignin in wood pulp. The program is composed of phase I showing feasibility which is now complete, phase II for development and testing of a Field Prototype, in progress, Phase III commercialization. Phase I work (funded entirely by B&W) demonstrated a correlation between the fluorescence intensity and lignin concentration (as measured by TAPPI procedure, T 236 hm-85 Kappa Number of Pulp) for undiluted wood pulp samples. In Phase II, a laboratory test program directed at characterizing the fluorescence of wood pulp has been conducted as a prelude to the design of a prototype sensor. The current report summarizes the testing completed in Phase I and documents the Phase II laboratory testing completed through December 1991. Future Phase II efforts include additional laboratory testing, design and fabrication of a prototype sensor, and field testing of the prototype sensor. Phase III of the program will concentrate on the incorporation of the sensor into a control system and commercialization of the sensor.

  3. Development of a prototype lignin concentration sensor. Final report. Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffers, L.A.

    1994-11-01

    The ultimate objective of the DOE-sponsored program discussed in this report is to commercialize an instrument for real-time, in-situ measurement of lignin in wood pulp at a variety of locations in the pulp process stream. The instrument will be used as a primary sensor for process control in the pulp and paper industry. Work done by B&W prior to the initiation of this program had shown: there is a functional relationship between the fluorescence intensity and the Kappa number as measured at the pulp mill laboratory. Kappa number is a standard wet chemical method for determination of the lignin concentration; the relationship is one of decreasing intensity with Kappa number, indicating operation in the quenched fluorescence regime; a great deal of scatter in the data. Because of the preliminary nature of the study, the origin of the scatter was not identified. This report documents the results of laboratory measurements made on a variety of well defined pulp samples to generate the data necessary to: determine the feasibility of an instrument for on-line lignin concentration measurement using laser fluorescence; identify the preferred measurement strategy; define the range of applicability of the instrument; and to provide background information to guide the design of a field-worthy prototype.

  4. Lignin Sensor Based On Flash-Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwack, Eug Y.; Lawson, Daniel D.; Shakkottai, Parthasarathy

    1990-01-01

    New lignin sensor takes only few minutes to measure lignin content of specimen of wood, pulp, paper, or similar material. Includes flash pyrolizer and ion-trap detector that acts as mass spectrometer. Apparatus measures amount of molecular fragments of lignin in pyrolysis products of samples. Helpful in controlling digestors in paper mills to maintain required lignin content, and also in bleaching plants, where good control of bleaching becomes possible if quick determination of lignin content made.

  5. Lignin Sensor Based On Flash-Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwack, Eug Y.; Lawson, Daniel D.; Shakkottai, Parthasarathy

    1990-01-01

    New lignin sensor takes only few minutes to measure lignin content of specimen of wood, pulp, paper, or similar material. Includes flash pyrolizer and ion-trap detector that acts as mass spectrometer. Apparatus measures amount of molecular fragments of lignin in pyrolysis products of samples. Helpful in controlling digestors in paper mills to maintain required lignin content, and also in bleaching plants, where good control of bleaching becomes possible if quick determination of lignin content made.

  6. A facile method for processing lignin reinforced chitosan biopolymer microfibres: optimising the fibre mechanical properties through lignin type and concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Loo, L. S.; Goh, K. L.

    2016-03-01

    A chitosan biopolymer microfibre—reinforced by lignin—has been processed by a wet-spinning method. To optimise the fibre mechanical and structural properties two types of lignin, with molecular weights 28 000 g mol-1 and 60 000 g mol-1, were examined and the chitosan fibre was blended with the respective lignin type at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 8 wt% lignin concentrations. The main effects of lignin type and concentration, as well as the interaction between the two parameters, on the fibre tensile stiffness, extensibility, strength and toughness were evaluated using the two-factor analysis of variance. Significant variations in the respective mechanical properties were observed with varying lignin concentrations (P < 0.05). The magnitude of the respective mechanical properties is low at 1 wt% but peaks at 3 wt% before decreasing steadily with increasing lignin concentration. Except for extensibility, significant variations in the strength and toughness were observed with respect to lignin type (P < 0.05) variations in the stiffness were masked by interactions between lignin type and concentration. These results were related to the dispersion of lignin in the fibre and the nature of the bonds between lignin and chitosan, based on findings from scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. This new method for the fabrication of chitosan biopolymer microfibre is inexpensive and versatile and could lend itself to the production of high performance biocomposite structures.

  7. Fiber and lignin analysis in concentrate, forage, and feces: detergent versus enzymatic-chemical method.

    PubMed

    Hindrichsen, I K; Kreuzer, M; Madsen, J; Bach Knudsen, K E

    2006-06-01

    Hemicelluloses, cellulose, and lignin contents of contrasting feeds, with emphasis on concentrate ingredients and complete concentrates, were analyzed using the Van Soest detergent procedure (analyzing neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and acid detergent lignin) and the enzymatic-chemical procedure (analyzing cellulose, soluble and insoluble noncellulosic polysaccharides, and Klason lignin). Also, feces from cows fed concentrates differing in carbohydrate composition were analyzed by the 2 procedures. The correlation between acid detergent lignin and Klason lignin was significant, but not as close as the one between individual structural polysaccharides measured with the 2 procedures. The correlation between the results of the 2 procedures was highly significant for apparent cellulose digestibility, as were the correlations between digestibilities of hemicelluloses with total as well as with insoluble noncellulosic polysaccharides. The relationship between dietary lignin content and fiber digestibility was weak. The exclusion of a group of cows fed a concentrate with apple pulp, however, improved the respective correlations. Klason lignin correlated more closely with the measured fiber digestibility than acid detergent lignin. The study showed that results of the detergent method were comparable to those of the enzymatic-chemical method with cellulose, hemicelluloses, and their digestibilities. However, acid detergent lignin was much lower than Klason lignin. When the carbohydrate composition of concentrate varied widely, lignin was not suitable for the prediction of fiber digestibility.

  8. Lignin Peroxidase from Streptomyces viridosporus T7A: Enzyme Concentration Using Ultrafiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottschalk, Leda M. F.; Bon, Elba P. S.; Nobrega, Ronaldo

    It is well known that lignin degradation is a key step in the natural process of biomass decay whereby oxidative enzymes such as laccases and high redox potential ligninolytic peroxidases and oxidases play a central role. More recently, the importance of these enzymes has increased because of their prospective industrial use for the degradation of the biomass lignin to increase the accessibility of the cellulose and hemicellulose moieties to be used as renewable material for the production of fuels and chemicals. These biocatalysts also present potential application on environmental biocatalysis for the degradation of xenobiotics and recalcitrant pollutants. However, the cost for these enzymes production, separation, and concentration must be low to permit its industrial use. This work studied the concentration of lignin peroxidase (LiP), produced by Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, by ultrafiltration, in a laboratory-stirred cell, loaded with polysulfone (PS) or cellulose acetate (CA) membranes with molecular weight cutoffs (MWCO) of 10, 20, and 50 KDa. Experiments were carried out at 25 °C and pH 7.0 in accordance to the enzyme stability profile. The best process conditions and enzyme yield were obtained using a PS membrane with 10 KDa MWCO, whereby it was observed a tenfold LiP activity increase, reaching 1,000 U/L and 90% enzyme activity upholding.

  9. Lignin Films from Spruce, Eucalyptus, and Wheat Straw Studied with Electroacoustic and Optical Sensors: Effect of Composition and Electrostatic Screening on Enzyme Binding.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Antonio; Hoeger, Ingrid C; Ferrer, Ana; Rencoret, Jorge; Del Rio, José C; Kruus, Kristiina; Rahikainen, Jenni; Kellock, Miriam; Gutiérrez, Ana; Rojas, Orlando J

    2017-04-10

    Lignins were isolated from spruce, wheat straw, and eucalyptus by using the milled wood lignin (MWL) method. Functional groups and compositional analyses were assessed via 2D NMR and (31)P NMR to realize their effect on enzyme binding. Films of the lignins were fabricated and ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, and water contact angle measurements were used for their characterization and to reveal the changes upon enzyme adsorption. Moreover, lignin thin films were deposited on quartz crystal microgravimetry (QCM) and surface plasmon (SPR) resonance sensors and used to gain further insights into the lignin-cellulase interactions. For this purpose, a commercial multicomponent enzyme system and a monocomponent Trichoderma reesei exoglucanase (CBH-I) were considered. Strong enzyme adsorption was observed on the various lignins but compared to the multicomponent cellulases, CBH-I displayed lower surface affinity and higher binding reversibility. This resolved prevalent questions related to the affinity of this enzyme with lignin. Remarkably, a strong correlation between enzyme binding and the syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) ratio was found for the lignins, which presented a similar hydroxyl group content ((31)P NMR): higher protein affinity was determined on isolated spruce lignin (99% G units), while the lowest adsorption occurred on isolated eucalyptus lignin (70% S units). The effect of electrostatic interactions in enzyme adsorption was investigated by SPR, which clearly indicated that the screening of charges allowed more extensive protein adsorption. Overall, this work furthers our understanding of lignin-cellulase interactions relevant to biomass that has been subjected to no or little pretreatment and highlights the widely contrasting effects of the nature of lignin, which gives guidance to improve lignocellulosic saccharification and related processes.

  10. Optimization of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation conditions with amphipathic lignin derivatives for concentrated bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ningning; Koda, Keiichi; Tamai, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Yoko; Takasuka, Taichi E; Uraki, Yasumitsu

    2017-05-01

    Amphipathic lignin derivatives (A-LDs) prepared from the black liquor of soda pulping of Japanese cedar are strong accelerators for bioethanol production under a fed-batch simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process. To improve the bioethanol production concentration, conditions such as reaction temperature, stirring program, and A-LDs loadings were optimized in both small scale and large scale fed-batch SSF. The fed-batch SSF in the presence of 3.0g/L A-LDs at 38°C gave the maximum ethanol production and a high enzyme recovery rate. Furthermore, a jar-fermenter equipped with a powerful mechanical stirrer was designed for 1.5L-scale fed-batch SSF to achieve rigorous mixing during high substrate loading. Finally, the 1.5L fed-batch SSF with a substrate loading of 30% (w/v) produced a high ethanol concentration of 87.9g/L in the presence of A-LDs under optimized conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Lignin extraction--reassessment of the severity factor with respect to hydroxide concentration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Roland A; Berberi, Veronique; Labranche, Joey; Lavoie, Jean-Michel

    2014-10-01

    Steam processes have often been associated with a severity factor, correlating the cooking temperature, time and catalyst used in the process. Although equations for treatments with and without acid catalyst have been suggested, there is so far no simple equation allowing a precise estimation of the amount of lignin extracted from lignocellulosic biomass. In this work, a new version of the severity factor equation is proposed. This has been shown to correlate effectively to the amount of lignin extracted from various types of lignocellulosic materials and different extraction methods. The resulting severity factor is robust with potential to be utilized both for acid and base-catalyzed extraction of lignin. Finally, the proposed correlation between the severity factor and extracted lignin under base conditions has been correlated with empirical data to validate the entire model and especially under mild condition where lesser information was available from open literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Through Lignin Biodegradation to Lignin-based Plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun-Yan

    The consequences of strong noncovalent intermolecular interactions between oligomeric and/or polymeric lignin components are encountered during enzyme-catalyzed lignin degradation and in the properties of lignin-based plastics. A new chapter in the 30-year quest for functional lignin-depolymerizing enzymes has been opened. The lignin-degrading capacity of the flavin-dependent monooxygenase, salicylate hydroxylase acting as a putative lignin depolymerase, has been characterized using a water-soluble native softwood lignin substrate under mildly acidic aqueous conditions. When macromolecular lignins undergo lignin-depolymerase catalyzed degradation, the cleaved components tend to associate with one another, or with nearby associated lignin complexes, through processes mediated by the enzyme acting in a non-catalytic capacity. As a result, the radius of gyration (Rg) falls rapidly to approximately constant values, while the weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of the substrate rises more slowly to an extent dependent on enzyme concentration. Xylanase, when employed in an auxiliary capacity, is able to facilitate dissociation of the foregoing complexes through its interactions with the lignin depolymerase. The flavin-dependent lignin depolymerase must be reduced before reaction with oxygen can occur to form the hydroperoxy intermediate that hydroxylates the lignin substrate prior to cleavage. In the absence of the cofactor, NADH, the necessary reducing power can be provided (albeit more slowly) by the lignin substrate itself. Under such conditions, a simultaneous decrease in R g and Mw is initially observed during the enzymatic process through which the lignin is cleaved. The partially degraded product-lignins arising from lignin depolymerase activity can be readily converted into polymeric materials with mechanical properties that supersede those of polystyrene. Methylation and blending of ball-milled softwood lignins with miscible low-Tg polymers, or simple low

  13. Sensor concentrator unit for the Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System

    SciTech Connect

    Nodine, R.N.; Lenarduzzi, R.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the use and operation of the sensor concentrator in the Continuous Automated Vault Inventory System (CAVIS). The CAVIS electronically verifies the presence of items of stored special nuclear material (SNM). US Department of Energy orders require that stored SNM be inventoried periodically to provide assurance that the material is secure. Currently this inventory is a highly manual activity, requiring personnel to enter the storage vaults. Using a CAVIS allows the frequency of physical inventories to be significantly reduced, resulting in substantial cost savings, increased security, and improved safety. The electronic inventory of stored SNM requires two different types of sensors for each item. The two sensors measure different parameters of the item, usually weight and gamma rays. A CAVIS is constructed using four basic system components: sensors, sensor concentrators, a data collection unit, and a database/user interface unit. One sensor concentrator supports the inventory of up to 20 items (40 sensors) and continuously takes readings from the item sensors. On request the sensor concentrator outputs the most recent sensor readings to the data collection unit. The information transfer takes place over a RS485 communications link. The data collection unit supports from 1 to 120 sensor concentrators (1 to 2,400 items) and is referred to as the Sensor Polling and Configuration System (SPCS). The SPCS is connected by a secure Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) network to the database/user interface unit, which is referred to as the Graphical Facility Information Center (GraFIC). A CAVIS containing more than 2,400 items is supported by connecting additional SPCS units to the GraFIC.

  14. Optical Sensor for Diverse Organic Vapors at ppm Concentration Ranges

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, J. Christopher; Trend, John E.; Rakow, Neal A.; Wendland, Michael S.; Poirier, Richard J.; Paolucci, Dora M.

    2011-01-01

    A broadly responsive optical organic vapor sensor is described that responds to low concentrations of organic vapors without significant interference from water vapor. Responses to several classes of organic vapors are highlighted, and trends within classes are presented. The relationship between molecular properties (vapor pressure, boiling point, polarizability, and refractive index) and sensor response are discussed. PMID:22163798

  15. Application of a two-stream radiative transfer model for leaf lignin and cellulose concentrations from spectral reflectance measurements, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, James E.; Vandenbosch, Jeannette; Grove, Cindy I.

    1993-01-01

    We used the Kubelka-Munk theory of diffuse spectral reflectance in layers to analyze influences of multiple chemical components in leaves. As opposed to empirical approaches to estimation of plant chemistry, the full spectral resolution of laboratory reflectance data was retained in an attempt to estimate lignin or other constituent concentrations from spectral band positions. A leaf water reflectance spectrum was derived from theoretical mixing rules, reflectance observations, and calculations from theory of intrinsic k- and s-functions. Residual reflectance bands were then isolated from spectra of fresh green leaves. These proved hard to interpret for composition in terms of simple two component mixtures such as lignin and cellulose. We next investigated spectral and dilution influences of other possible components (starch, protein). These components, among others, added to cellulose in hypothetical mixtures, produce band displacements similar to lignin, but will disguise by dilution the actual abundance of lignin present in a multicomponent system. This renders interpretation of band positions problematical. Knowledge of end-members and their spectra, and a more elaborate mixture analysis procedure may be called for. Good observational atmospheric and instrumental conditions and knowledge thereof are required for retrieval of expected subtle reflectance variations present in spectra of green vegetation.

  16. A New Multifunctional Sensor for Measuring Concentrations of Ternary Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Guo; Shida, Katsunori

    This paper presents a multifunctional sensor with novel structure, which is capable of directly sensing temperature and two physical parameters of solutions, namely ultrasonic velocity and conductivity. By combined measurement of these three measurable parameters, the concentrations of various components in a ternary solution can be simultaneously determined. The structure and operation principle of the sensor are described, and a regression algorithm based on natural cubic spline interpolation and the least square method is adopted to estimate the concentrations. The performances of the proposed sensor are experimentally tested by the use of ternary aqueous solution of sodium chloride and sucrose, which is widely involved in food and beverage industries. This sensor could prove valuable as a process control sensor in industry fields.

  17. Nano-fiber diameters as liquid concentration sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyad, Radhi M.; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir; Ibrahim, Kamarulazizi

    2013-05-01

    Manufacturing technologies of nano-fiber sensors offer a number of approved properties of optical fiber sensors utilized in various sensory applications. The nano-fiber sensor is utilized to sense the difference in the concentration of D-glucose in double-distilled deionized water and to measure the refractive index (RI) of a sugar solution. Our proposed method exhibited satisfactory capability based on bimolecular interactions in the biological system. The response of the nano-fiber sensors indicates a different kind of interaction among various groups of AAs. These results can be interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions and the structure making or breaking ability of solutes in the given solution. This study utilized spectra photonics to measure the transmission of light through different concentrations of sugar solution, employing cell cumber and nano-optical fibers as sensors.

  18. Optofluidic sensor engineering towards plutonium concentration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allenet, T.; Geoffray, F.; Bucci, D.; Guillerme, L.; Canto, F.; Bouchard, A.; Broquin, J.-E.

    2017-02-01

    Research in nuclear safety and fuel reprocessing has led to a surging need for novel chemical analysis tools with reduced analyte and effluent volumes. Recent technological advances for the elaboration and packaging of glass optofluidic co - integrated sensors have opened up the way for said analysis in harsh environments. We discuss a sensor engineering approach for the construction of an integrated absorption spectrometer with an ion-exchange core. Pu(VI) oxidation state exhibits a major absorption peak at a wavelength of 831 nm with a molar absorption coefficient of 545 L.mol-1.cm-1. An evanescent waveguiding sensing structure that allows guided fluid/light interaction is investigated in order to provide absorption spectroscopy measurements. The work presented consists of optical simulations as well as experimental measurements. Waveguide engineering with respects to modal transmission, field/fluid interaction coefficient Γ and device losses is presented. The simulations are carried out by computing ion-exchanged waveguide refractive index distribution and using it in mode solver software. Device optical characterization and bench tests are carried out to verify approach viability. First device measurements of a neodymium absorption peak in nuclear manipulation conditions are displayed.

  19. Enzymatic Glucose Sensor Compensation for Variations in Ambient Oxygen Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Bradley B.; McShane, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increasing prevalence of diabetes, research toward painless glucose sensing continues. Oxygen sensitive phosphors with glucose oxidase (GOx) can be used to determine glucose levels indirectly by monitoring oxygen consumption. This is an attractive combination because of its speed and specificity. Packaging these molecules together in “smart materials” for implantation will enable non-invasive glucose monitoring. As glucose levels increase, oxygen levels decrease; consequently, the luminescence intensity and lifetime of the phosphor increase. Although the response of the sensor is dependent on glucose concentration, the ambient oxygen concentration also plays a key role. This could lead to inaccurate glucose readings and increase the risk of hyper- or hypoglycemia. To mitigate this risk, the dependence of hydrogel glucose sensor response on oxygen levels was investigated and compensation methods explored. Sensors were calibrated at different oxygen concentrations using a single generic logistic equation, such that trends in oxygen-dependence were determined as varying parameters in the equation. Each parameter was found to be a function of oxygen concentration, such that the correct glucose calibration equation can be calculated if the oxygen level is known. Accuracy of compensation will be determined by developing an overall calibration, using both glucose and oxygen sensors in parallel, correcting for oxygen fluctuations in real time by intentionally varying oxygen, and calculating the error in actual and predicted glucose levels. While this method was developed for compensation of enzymatic glucose sensors, in principle it can also be implemented with other kinds of sensors utilizing oxidases. PMID:26257458

  20. Low cost electrochemical sensor module for measurement of gas concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasinski, Grzegorz; Strzelczyk, Anna; Koscinski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a low cost electrochemical sensor module for gas concentration measurement. A module is universal and can be used for many types of electrochemical gas sensors. Device is based on AVR ATmega8 microcontroller. As signal processing circuit a specialized integrated circuit LMP91000 is used. The proposed equipment will be used as a component of electronic nose system employed for classifying and distinguishing different levels of air contamination.

  1. Lignin degradation during plant litter photodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; King, J. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Lignin is the second most abundant compound, after cellulose, synthesized by plants. Numerous studies have demonstrated that initial lignin concentration is negatively correlated with litter decomposition rate under both laboratory and field conditions. Thus lignin is commonly considered to be a "recalcitrant" compound during litter decomposition. However, lignin can also serve as a radiation-absorbing compound during photodegradation, the process through which solar radiation breaks down organic matter. Here, we synthesize recent studies concerning lignin degradation during litter photodegradation and report results from our study on how photodegradation changes lignin chemistry at a molecular scale. Recent field studies have found that litter with high initial lignin concentration does not necessarily exhibit high mass loss during photodegradation. A meta-analysis (King et al. 2012) even found a weak negative correlation between initial lignin concentration and photodegradation rate. Contradicting results have been reported with regard to the change in lignin concentration during photodegradation. Some studies have found significant loss of lignin during photodegradation, while others have not. In most studies, loss of lignin only accounts for a small proportion of the overall mass loss. Using NMR spectroscopy, we found significant loss of lignin structural units containing beta-aryl ether linkages during photodegradation of a common grass litter, Bromus diandrus, even though conventional forage fiber analysis did not reveal changes in lignin concentration. Both our NMR and fiber analyses supported the idea that photodegradation induced loss of hemicellulose, which was mainly responsible for the litter mass loss during photodegradation. Our results suggest that photodegradation induces degradation, but not necessarily complete breakdown, of lignin structures and consequently exposes hemicellulose and cellulose to microbial decomposition. We conclude that lignin

  2. Fluorescence analyzer for lignin

    DOEpatents

    Berthold, John W.; Malito, Michael L.; Jeffers, Larry

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring lignin concentration in a sample of wood pulp or black liquor comprises a light emitting arrangement for emitting an excitation light through optical fiber bundles into a probe which has an undiluted sensing end facing the sample. The excitation light causes the lignin concentration to produce fluorescent emission light which is then conveyed through the probe to analyzing equipment which measures the intensity of the emission light. Measures a This invention was made with Government support under Contract Number DOE: DE-FC05-90CE40905 awarded by the Department of Energy (DOE). The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  3. Tracking heat flux sensors for concentrating solar applications

    DOEpatents

    Andraka, Charles E; Diver, Jr., Richard B

    2013-06-11

    Innovative tracking heat flux sensors located at or near the solar collector's focus for centering the concentrated image on a receiver assembly. With flux sensors mounted near a receiver's aperture, the flux gradient near the focus of a dish or trough collector can be used to precisely position the focused solar flux on the receiver. The heat flux sensors comprise two closely-coupled thermocouple junctions with opposing electrical polarity that are separated by a thermal resistor. This arrangement creates an electrical signal proportional to heat flux intensity, and largely independent of temperature. The sensors are thermally grounded to allow a temperature difference to develop across the thermal resistor, and are cooled by a heat sink to maintain an acceptable operating temperature.

  4. Preparation and Analysis of Biomass Lignins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compere, Alicia L.; Griffith, William L.

    Lignin, comprised primarily of three randomly polymerized phenylpropenyl monomers, is, arguably, the second most common organic molecule on earth. In current biorefinery applications, lignin is burned, usually in concentrated pulping or hydrolysis liquor, as a source of process steam and both internal and exported electricity. The aromatic content of lignin makes it a potentially attractive feedstock for high-value aromatic chemicals, polymers, and carbon products (graphite, activated carbon, and carbon fiber). Revenue from production of lignin-based chemicals could play a major role in biorefinery profitability if cost-effective methods for lignin separation and purification can be developed. This chapter presents descriptions of methods for assessing and purifying biorefinery lignins so that they can be evaluated for use as feedstock for production of chemical products. Areas covered are: (1) initial evaluations of as-received lignin samples (visual, microscopic, separable organics); (2) analysis of common contaminants (bulk and filterable ash and particulate contaminants in liquid and dry lignin samples); (3) preparation of lignins for experimental use as chemical feedstock (prefiltration, filtration using bench-scale chemical apparatus and larger scale bag filters, one-step lignin precipitation, two-step carbohydrate and lignin precipitation, desalting of dry powdered or precipitated lignin, and lyophilization). These methods have been used successfully at the bench scale to produce the 1-50 kg amounts of wood and grass lignins typically required for bench-scale assessment as chemical feedstocks.

  5. Does elevated N make lignin more recalcitrant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weintraub, M. N.; Rinkes, Z. L.; Grandy, S.; Wickings, K.; Bertrand, I.

    2014-12-01

    Increases in nitrogen (N) availability are often found to reduce decomposition rates of lignin-rich plant litter. However, the biological and chemical mechanisms that cause this inhibitory effect are still unclear. Our goal was to determine why increased N availability inhibits lignin decomposition. We tested two competing hypotheses: 1) decomposers degrade lignin to obtain protected N compounds and stop producing lignin-degrading enzymes if mineral N is available; or 2) chemical reactions between lignin and mineral N make lignin more recalcitrant, thereby limiting the ability of decomposers to break it down. To test these hypotheses, we followed changes in carbon (C) mineralization, microbial biomass and enzyme activities, litter chemistry, and lignin monomer concentrations over a 478-day laboratory incubation of three genotypes of maize stem internodes varying in litter quality. They were factorially combined with either an acidic or neutral pH sandy soil, with and without added N. Adding N reduced C mineralization, microbial biomass, and lignin-degrading enzyme activities in all treatments. Furthermore, our data on litter chemistry and lignin monomers indicate that N addition did not significantly alter the quantity or quality of lignin in any treatment. These results suggest that abiotic interactions between N and lignin compounds did not alter the ability of decomposers to breakdown lignin. Thus, we conclude that mineral N alters microbial enzyme and biomass dynamics, but not lignin chemistry during maize decomposition.

  6. Fiber Optic Immunochemical Sensors For Continuous Monitoring Of Hapten Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, W. Greg; Anderson, F. Philip

    1989-06-01

    We describe a fiber optic sensor based on a homogeneous fluorescence energy transfer immunoassay which operates in a continuous, reversible manner to quantitate the anticonvulsant drug phenytoin. B-phycoerythrin-phenytoin and Texas Red labeled anti-phenytoin antibody were sealed inside a short length of cellulose dialysis tubing which was cemented to the distal end of an optical fiber. When the sensor was placed into a solution of phenytoin, the drug crossed the dialysis membrane, displaced a fraction of the B-phycoerythrin-phenytoin from the antibody, and produced a change in fluorescence signal which was measured with a fiber optic fluorometer. The sensor had a concentration response of 5 to 500μmo1/L phenytoin with a response time of 5 to 15 min and precision of <2.5% CV. The chemical kinetics of the antibody-hapten indicator reaction were modeled mathematically and simulation showed that response time in the minutes range can be achieved when the dissociation rate constant is greater than approximately 10-3 sec-1. The dissociation rate constant influences the time to reach equilibrium and the unbound P* concentration range available for instrumental measurement. The ratio of the labeled and unlabeled hapten dissociation rate constants influences the analyte concentration range to which the sensor will respond.

  7. Fabricated nano-fiber diameter as liquid concentration sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyad, Radhi M.; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir; Ibrahim, Kamarulazizi

    Nanofiber is characterized by thin, long, and very soft silica. Taper fibers are made using an easy and low cost chemical method. Etching is conducted with a HF solution to remove cladding and then a low molarity HF solution to reduce the fiber core diameter. One approach to on-line monitoring of the etching process uses spectrophotometer with a white light source. In the aforementioned technique, this method aims to determine the diameter of the reduced core and show the evolution of the two different processes from the nanofiber regime to the fixed regime in which the mode was remote from the surrounding evanescent field, intensity can propagate outside the segment fiber when the core diameter is less than 500 nm. Manufacturing technologies of nano-fiber sensors offer a number of approved properties of optical fiber sensors utilized in various sensory applications. The nano-fiber sensor is utilized to sense the difference in the concentration of D-glucose in double-distilled deionized water and to measure the refractive index (RI) of a sugar solution. Our proposed method exhibited satisfactory capability based on bimolecular interactions in the biological system. The response of the nano-fiber sensors indicates a different kind of interaction among various groups of AAs. These results can be interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions and the structure making or breaking ability of solutes in the given solution. This study utilized spectra photonics to measure the transmission of light through different concentrations of sugar solution, employing cell cumber and nano-optical fibers as sensors.

  8. Gas sensor characterization at low concentrations of natural oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambemana, H.; Siadat, M.; Lumbreras, M.

    2009-05-01

    Inhalation of essential oils can be used in aromatherapy due to their activating or relaxing effects. The study of these effects requires behavioral measurements on living subjects, by varying the nature and also the quantity of the volatile substances to be present in the atmosphere. So, to permit the evaluation of therapeutic effects of a variety of natural oils, we propose to develop an automatic diffusion/detection system capable to create an ambient air with low stabilized concentration of chosen oil. In this work, we discuss the performance of an array of eight gas sensors to discriminate low and constant concentrations of a chosen natural oil.

  9. Hydrogen peroxide sensing and cytotoxicity activity of Acacia lignin stabilized silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Aadil, Keshaw Ram; Barapatre, Anand; Meena, Avtar Singh; Jha, Harit

    2016-01-01

    The study is aimed at detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) using Acacia lignin mediated silver nanoparticles (AGNPs). The synthesis of AGNPs was achieved at conditions optimized as, 3 ml of 0.02% lignin and 1mM silver nitrate incubated for 30 min at 80°C and pH 9. Initial screening of AGNPs was performed by measuring the surface plasmon resonance peak at 410-430 nm using UV-vis spectrophotometer. Transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and particle size analysis confirmed the spherical shaped face centered cubic structure and 10-50 nm size of AGNPs. The infrared spectroscopy study further revealed that the active functional groups present in lignin were responsible for the reduction of silver ions (Ag(+)) to metallic silver (Ag(0)). Lignin stabilized silver nanoparticles showed good sensitivity and a linear response over wide concentrations of H2O2 (10(-1) to 10(-6)M). Further, the in vitrocytotoxicity activity of the lignin mediated AGNPs (5-500 μg/ml) demonstrated toxicity effects in MCF-7 and A375 cell lines. Thus, lignin stabilized silver nanoparticles based optical sensor for H2O2 could be potentially applied in the determination of reactive oxygen species and toxic chemicals which further expands the importance of lignin stabilized silver nanoparticles.

  10. Use of lignin extracted from different plant sources as standards in the spectrophotometric acetyl bromide lignin method.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Romualdo S; Kerley, Monty S

    2011-04-27

    A nongravimetric acetyl bromide lignin (ABL) method was evaluated to quantify lignin concentration in a variety of plant materials. The traditional approach to lignin quantification required extraction of lignin with acidic dioxane and its isolation from each plant sample to construct a standard curve via spectrophotometric analysis. Lignin concentration was then measured in pre-extracted plant cell walls. However, this presented a methodological complexity because extraction and isolation procedures are lengthy and tedious, particularly if there are many samples involved. This work was targeted to simplify lignin quantification. Our hypothesis was that any lignin, regardless of its botanical origin, could be used to construct a standard curve for the purpose of determining lignin concentration in a variety of plants. To test our hypothesis, lignins were isolated from a range of diverse plants and, along with three commercial lignins, standard curves were built and compared among them. Slopes and intercepts derived from these standard curves were close enough to allow utilization of a mean extinction coefficient in the regression equation to estimate lignin concentration in any plant, independent of its botanical origin. Lignin quantification by use of a common regression equation obviates the steps of lignin extraction, isolation, and standard curve construction, which substantially expedites the ABL method. Acetyl bromide lignin method is a fast, convenient analytical procedure that may routinely be used to quantify lignin.

  11. Bacterial extracellular lignin peroxidase

    DOEpatents

    Crawford, Donald L.; Ramachandra, Muralidhara

    1993-01-01

    A newly discovered lignin peroxidase enzyme is provided. The enzyme is obtained from a bacterial source and is capable of degrading the lignin portion of lignocellulose in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is extracellular, oxidative, inducible by lignin, larch wood xylan, or related substrates and capable of attacking certain lignin substructure chemical bonds that are not degradable by fungal lignin peroxidases.

  12. Concentric Coplanar Capacitive Sensor System with Quantitative Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowler, Nicola (Inventor); Chen, Tianming (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A concentric coplanar capacitive sensor includes a charged central disc forming a first electrode, an outer annular ring coplanar with and outer to the charged central disc, the outer annular ring forming a second electrode, and a gap between the charged central disc and the outer annular ring. The first electrode and the second electrode may be attached to an insulative film. A method provides for determining transcapacitance between the first electrode and the second electrode and using the transcapacitance in a model that accounts for a dielectric test piece to determine inversely the properties of the dielectric test piece.

  13. Lignin nanoparticle synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Dirk, Shawn M.; Cicotte, Kirsten Nicole; Wheeler, David R.; Benko, David A.

    2015-08-11

    A method including reducing a particle size of lignin particles to an average particle size less than 40 nanometers; after reducing the particle size, combining the lignin particles with a polymeric material; and forming a structure of the combination. A method including exposing lignin to a diazonium precursor including a functional group; modifying the lignin by introducing the functional group to the lignin; and combining the modified lignin with a polymeric material to form a composite. An apparatus including a composite of a polymer and lignin wherein the lignin has an average particle size less than 100 micrometers.

  14. In-line concentration measurement in complex liquids using ultrasonic sensors

    PubMed

    Henning; Daur; Prange; Dierks; Hauptmann

    2000-03-01

    Recently there has been increased demand for chemical sensors measuring in-line the concentration of selected substances in complex liquids in order to guarantee a high product quality in the process industry. At present there is a great interest in acoustic sensor systems for concentration measurements. This article presents a new ultrasonic sensor system consisting of a miniaturized multi-sensor arrangement for the comprehensive acoustic characterization of liquid mixtures. The sensor system measures sound velocity, impedance coefficient, attenuation coefficient and temperature.

  15. Micro-LiDAR velocity, temperature, density, concentration sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danehy, Paul M. (Inventor); Dorrington, Adrian A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A light scatter sensor includes a sensor body in which are positioned a plurality of optical fibers. The sensor body includes a surface, in one end of each of the optical fibers terminates at the surface of the sensor body. One of the optical fibers is an illumination fiber for emitting light. A plurality of second optical fibers are collection fibers for collecting scattered light signals. A light sensor processor is connected to the collection fibers to detect the scattered light signals.

  16. Techniques for characterizing lignin

    Treesearch

    Nicole M. Stark; Daniel J. Yelle; Umesh P. Agarwal

    2016-01-01

    Many techniques are available to characterize lignin. The techniques presented in this chapter are considered nondegradative, which are commonly applied to lignin. A brief discussion of lignin structure is included with this chapter to aid the reader in understanding why the discussed characterization techniques are appropriate for the study of lignin. Because the...

  17. Solvent Fractionation of Lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2014-01-01

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. The major issues for the commercial production of value added high performance lignin products are lignin s physical and chemical heterogenities. To overcome these problems, a variety of procedures have been developed to produce pure lignin suitable for high performace applications such as lignin-derived carbon materials. However, most of the isolation procedures affect lignin s properties and structure. In this chapter, a short review of the effect of solvent fractionation on lignin s properties and structure is presented.

  18. Ultrasonic sensor for predicting sugar concentration using multivariate calibration.

    PubMed

    Krause, D; Hussein, W B; Hussein, M A; Becker, T

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a multivariate regression method for the prediction of maltose concentration in aqueous solutions. For this purpose, time and frequency domain of ultrasonic signals are analyzed. It is shown, that the prediction of concentration at different temperatures is possible by using several multivariate regression models for individual temperature points. Combining these models by a linear approximation of each coefficient over temperature results in a unified solution, which takes temperature effects into account. The benefit of the proposed method is the low processing time required for analyzing online signals as well as the non-invasive sensor setup which can be used in pipelines. Also the ultrasonic signal sections used in the presented investigation were extracted out of buffer reflections which remain primarily unaffected by bubble and particle interferences. Model calibration was performed in order to investigate the feasibility of online monitoring in fermentation processes. The temperature range investigated was from 10 °C to 21 °C. This range fits to fermentation processes used in the brewing industry. This paper describes the processing of ultrasonic signals for regression, the model evaluation as well as the input variable selection. The statistical approach used for creating the final prediction solution was partial least squares (PLS) regression validated by cross validation. The overall minimum root mean squared error achieved was 0.64 g/100 g.

  19. Separation of Alcohols from Solution by Lignin Gels

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, William {Bill} L; Compere, A L

    2008-01-01

    Partition relationships of radioisotope labeled ethanol and 1-butanol between aqueous solutions and a hydrated commercial Kraft softwood lignin gel are presented. These initial evaluations indicate that lignin hydrogels preferentially concentrate 1-butanol and, to a lesser extent, ethanol. The process implications and potential use of lignin as an inexpensive extractant are discussed.

  20. Efficiency of Lignin Biosynthesis: a Quantitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    AMTHOR, JEFFREY S.

    2003-01-01

    Lignin is derived mainly from three alcohol monomers: p‐coumaryl alcohol, coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol. Biochemical reactions probably responsible for synthesizing these three monomers from sucrose, and then polymerizing the monomers into lignin, were analysed to estimate the amount of sucrose required to produce a unit of lignin. Included in the calculations were amounts of respiration required to provide NADPH (from NADP+) and ATP (from ADP) for lignin biosynthesis. Two pathways in the middle stage of monomer biosynthesis were considered: one via tyrosine (found in monocots) and the other via phenylalanine (found in all plants). If lignin biosynthesis proceeds with high efficiency via tyrosine, 76·9, 70·4 and 64·3 % of the carbon in sucrose can be retained in the fraction of lignin derived from p‐coumaryl alcohol, coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol, respectively. The corresponding carbon retention values for lignin biosynthesis via phenylalanine are less, at 73·2, 65·7 and 60·7 %, respectively. Energy (i.e. heat of combustion) retention during lignin biosynthesis via tyrosine could be as high as 81·6, 74·5 and 67·8 % for lignin derived from p‐coumaryl alcohol, coniferyl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol, respectively, with the corresponding potential energy retention values for lignin biosynthesis via phenylalanine being less, at 77·7, 69·5 and 63·9 %, respectively. Whether maximum efficiency occurs in situ is unclear, but these values are targets that can be considered in: (1) plant breeding programmes aimed at maximizing carbon or energy retention from photosynthate; (2) analyses of (minimum) metabolic costs of responding to environmental change or pest attack involving increased lignin biosynthesis; (3) understanding costs of lignification in older tissues; and (4) interpreting carbon balance measurements of organs and plants with large lignin concentrations. PMID:12714366

  1. Evaluation of Electrical and Optical Plethysmography Sensors for Noninvasive Monitoring of Hemoglobin Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Justin P.; Hickey, Michelle; Kyriacou, Panayiotis A.

    2012-01-01

    Completely noninvasive monitoring of hemoglobin concentration has not yet been fully realized in the clinical setting. This study investigates the viability of measuring hemoglobin concentration noninvasively by evaluating the performance of two types of sensor using a tissue phantom perfused with a blood substitute. An electrical sensor designed to measure blood volume changes during the cardiac cycle was used together with an infrared optical sensor for detection of erythrocyte-bound hemoglobin. Both sensors demonstrated sensitivity to changes in pulse volume (plethysmography). The electrical sensor produced a signal referred to as capacitance plethysmograph (CPG) a quantity which was invariant to the concentration of an infrared absorbing dye present in the blood substitute. The optical sensor signal (photoplethysmograph) increased in amplitude with increasing absorber concentration. The ratio PPG:CPG is invariant to pulse pressure. This quantity is discussed as a possible index of in vivo hemoglobin concentration. PMID:22438739

  2. MISPS: Module integrated solar position sensor for concentration photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardell, Ricard

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes a new device, the MISPS (Module Integrated. Solar Position Sensor) for CPV systems. Its main innovation lies in it being module integrated, so that the sensor is a constituent part of the module and uses its optics. The MISPS has been designed within the scope of the CPVRS project, but it can be used in any refractive optics CPV system.

  3. Modulating lignin in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  4. Optoelectronic sensor device for monitoring ethanol concentration in winemaking applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Márquez, F.; Vázquez, J.; Úbeda, J.; Rodríguez-Rey, J.; Sánchez-Rojas, J. L.

    2015-05-01

    The supervision of key variables such as sugar, alcohol, released CO2 and microbiological evolution in fermenting grape must is of great importance in the winemaking industry. However, the fermentation kinetics is assessed by monitoring the evolution of the density as it varies during a fermentation, since density is an indicator of the total amount of sugars, ethanol and glycerol. Even so, supervising the fermentation process is an awkward and non-comprehensive task, especially in wine cellars where production rates are massive, and enologists usually measure the density of the extracted samples from each fermentation tank manually twice a day. This work aims at the design of a fast, low-cost, portable and reliable optoelectronic sensor for measuring ethanol concentration in fermenting grape must samples. Different sets of model solutions, which contain ethanol, fructose, glucose, glycerol dissolved in water and emulate the grape must composition at different stages of the fermentation, were prepared both for calibration and validation. The absorption characteristics of these model solutions were analyzed by a commercial spectrophotometer in the NIR region, in order to identify key wavelengths from which valuable information regarding the sample composition can be extracted. Finally, a customized optoelectronic prototype based on absorbance measurements at two wavelengths belonging to the NIR region was designed, fabricated and successfully tested. The system, whose optoelectronics is reduced after a thorough analysis to only two LED lamps and their corresponding paired photodiodes operating at 1.2 and 1.3 μm respectively, calculates the ethanol content by a multiple linear regression.

  5. Diurnal variation in fecal concentrations of acid-detergent insoluble ash and alkaline-peroxide lignin from cattle fed bermudagrass hays of varying nutrient content.

    PubMed

    Kanani, Juvenal; Philipp, Dirk; Coffey, Kenneth P; Kegley, Elizabeth B; West, Charles P; Gadberry, Shane; Jennings, John; Young, Ashley N; Rhein, Robert T

    2015-01-01

    The effect of time of fecal sampling on the accuracy of acid-detergent insoluble ash (ADIA) and alkaline-peroxide lignin (APL) for the prediction of fecal output (FO) in cattle was evaluated. Eight ruminally cannulated cows (594 ± 35.5 kg) were allocated randomly to 4 bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hay diets markedly different in crude protein concentration (79-164 g/kg) with 2 replicates per diet for 3 periods. Cows were offered hay individually at 20 g DM/kg of body weight daily in equal feedings at 08:00 and 16:00 h for a 10-d adaptation period followed by 5-d of total fecal collection. Fecal grab samples also were taken each day during the fecal collection period at 06:00, 12:00, 18:00, and 24:00 h either directly from the rectum or from freshly voided feces. Samples were composited within cow and time across the 5 d total fecal collection period. Additionally, forage, ort, and fecal samples were analyzed for concentrations of APL and ADIA. Fecal concentrations of ADIA and APL were not affected by sampling time (P ≥ 0.22), even though diet affected (P < 0.01) fecal ADIA and APL concentrations. There were no diet × sampling time interactions (P ≥ 0.60). Estimates of FO and dry matter digestibility (DMD) from ADIA and APL were not affected (P ≥ 0.16) by sampling time or the diet × sampling time interaction (P ≥ 0.74). Estimates of FO and DMD from markers from different sampling times or all different combinations of sampling time were not different (P ≥ 0.72) from those of total collection among internal markers. Little variation in concentrations of ADIA and APL in daily fecal excretion across time increases flexibility in fecal grab sampling schedules for predicting FO and DMD.

  6. Sensor development for in situ detection of concentration polarization and fouling of reverse osmosis membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detrich, Kahlil T.; Goulbourne, Nakhiah C.

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate three polymer electroding techniques in developing a novel in situ sensor for an RO system using the electrical response of a thin film composite sensor. Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to measure the sensor response when exposed to sodium chloride solutions with concentrations from 0.1 M to 0.8 M in both single and double bath configurations. An insulated carbon grease sensor was mechanically stable while a composite Direct Assembly Process (DAP) sensor was fragile upon hydration. Scanning electron microscopy results from an impregnation-reduction technique showed gold nanoparticles were deposited most effectively when presoaked in a potassium hydroxide solution and on an uncoated membrane; surface resistances remained too high for sensor implementation. Through thickness carbon grease sensors showed a transient response to changes in concentration, and no meaningful concentration sensitivity was noted for the time scales over which EIS measurements were taken. Surface carbon grease electrodes attached to the polyamide thin film were not sensitive to concentration. The impedance spectra indicated the carbon grease sensor was unable to detect changes in concentration in double bath experiments when implemented with the polyamide surface exposed to salt solutions. DAP sensors lacked a consistent response to changes in concentration too. A reverse double bath experiment with the polysulfone layer exposed to a constant concentration exhibited a transient impedance response similar to through thickness carbon grease sensors in a single bath at constant concentration. These results suggest that the microporous polysulfone layer is responsible for sensor response to concentration.

  7. Lignin reduces ofloxacin-induced mutagenicity in Euglena assay.

    PubMed

    Krizková, L; Polónyi, J; Kosíkova, B; Dobias, J; Belicová, A; Krajcovic, J; Ebringer, L

    2000-01-01

    The possible protective effect of sulphur-free beech lignin polymer on the mutagenicity of ofloxacin in Euglena gracilis was studied. The generation of oxygen species by ofloxacin and their possible interaction with lignin was verified by physico-chemical measurements. The UV absorbance spectra of ofloxacin with and without lignin showed no interaction between these two compounds. The production of superoxide anion radical (O2-) by ofloxacin was significantly reduced in the presence of lignin (AIR = 0.57 +/- 0.03, p < 0.01). Lignin, at concentrations of 125 and 250 micrograms/ml decreased the E. gracilis bleaching activity of ofloxacin to 39.9% and 2.8%, respectively. A lignin concentration of 500 micrograms/ml eliminated the bleaching activity of ofloxacin very efficiently. Our results are consistent with the concept that lignin biopolymer has the capability of reducing genotoxic activity by scavenging reactive oxygen species.

  8. Application of a two-stream radiative transfer model for leaf lignin and cellulose concentrations from spectral reflectance measurements, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, James E.; Vandenbosch, Jeannette; Grove, Cindy I.

    1993-01-01

    Lignin and nitrogen contents of leaves constitute the primary rate-limiting parameters for the decomposition of forest litter, and are determinants of nutrient- and carbon-cyclic rates in forest ecosystems (Melillo et al., 1982). Wessman et al. (1988a) developed empirical multivariate relationships between forest canopy lignin amount and the (first-difference) AIS spectral response in three bands spread over the wavelength interval 1256-1555 nm. Wessman et al. (1988b) and McLellan et al. (1991) developed similar regression relationships from laboratory reflectance measurements on dried samples prepared in a standard fashion. They used four to six infrared bands for analysis of nitrogen, lignin and cellulose content of foliage in forest and prairie species. In the present article (Parts 1 and 2) the feasibility of compositional determinations is explored using positions of composite absorption bands that originate from mixtures of lignin, cellulose, and possibly other chemical constituents in the spectral reflectance of green leaves. To carry out this program, we employ full-spectral-resolution single-leaf diffuse reflectance measurements made with a laboratory spectrometer and integrating sphere. The leaf and other chemical reflectance data compiled by Elvidge (1990) have also been utilized extensively.

  9. Optical fiber sensor temperature coded for concentration measurement of oil-biodiesel blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Possetti, Gustavo Rafael Collere; Kamikawachi, Ricardo Canute; Muller, Marcia; Fabris, José Luís

    2013-12-01

    This work describes the operation of an optical fiber sensor employed in the determination of remaining oil concentration in oil-biodiesel blends. The sensor is based both on the sensitivity of a long period grating to changes in the surroundings refractive index and on the thermo-optical properties of oil-biodiesel blends. The sensor response is provided by a temperature coded interrogation unit that employs an auxiliary fiber Bragg grating. The standard metrological analysis of an optimized sensor showed that is possible to detect until 0.10% v/v of oil in oil-biodiesel blends.

  10. A Wireless, Passive, Magnetically-soft Harmonic Sensor for Monitoring Sodium Hypochlorite Concentrations in Water

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Keat G.; Paulose, Maggie; Grimes, Craig A.

    2003-01-01

    A wireless, passive, remote-query sensor for monitoring sodium hypochlorite (bleach) solutions is reported. The sensor is comprised of a magnetically-soft ferromagnetic ribbon, coated with a layer of polyurethane and alumina, having a large and nonlinear permeability that supports higher-order harmonics in response to a time varying magnetic field. The hypochlorite ions induce swelling in the coating, with the resultant stress altering the harmonic signature of the sensor from which the sodium hypochlorite concentration can be determined. The wireless, passive nature of the sensor platform enables long-term monitoring of bleach concentrations in the environment. The sensor platform can be extended to other chemical analytes of interest as desired.

  11. The effect of grain size and surface area on organic matter, lignin and carbohydrate concentration, and molecular compositions in Peru Margin sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergamaschi, B.A.; Tsamakis, E.; Keil, R.G.; Eglinton, T.I.; Montlucon, D.B.; Hedges, J.I.

    1997-01-01

    A C-rich sediment sample from the Peru Margin was sorted into nine hydrodynamically-determined grain size fractions to explore the effect of grain size distribution and sediment surface area on organic matter content and composition. The neutral monomeric carbohydrate composition, lignin oxidation product yields, total organic carbon, and total nitrogen contents were determined independently for each size fraction, in addition to sediment surface area and abundance of biogenic opal. The percent organic carbon and percent total nitrogen were strongly related to surface area in these sediments. In turn, the distribution of surface area closely followed mass distribution among the textural size classes, suggesting hydrodynamic controls on grain size also control organic carbon content. Nevertheless, organic compositional distinctions were observed between textural size classes. Total neutral carbohydrate yields in the Peru Margin sediments were found to closely parallel trends in total organic carbon, increasing in abundance among grain size fractions in proportion to sediment surface area. Coincident with the increases in absolute abundance, rhamnose and mannose increased as a fraction of the total carbohydrate yield in concert with surface area, indicating these monomers were preferentially represented in carbohydrates associated with surfaces. Lignin oxidation product yields varied with surface area when normalized to organic carbon, suggesting that the terrestrially-derived component may be diluted by sorption of marine derived material. Lignin-based parameters suggest a separate source for terrestrially derived material associated with sand-size material as opposed to that associated with silts and clays. Copyright ?? 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  12. NDIR Gas Sensor for Spatial Monitoring of Carbon Dioxide Concentrations in Naturally Ventilated Livestock Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Luciano B.; Ogink, Nico W. M.; Edouard, Nadège; van Dooren, Hendrik Jan C.; Tinôco, Ilda de Fátima F.; Mosquera, Julio

    2015-01-01

    The tracer gas ratio method, using CO2 as natural tracer, has been suggested as a pragmatic option to measure emissions from naturally ventilated (NV) barns without the need to directly estimate the ventilation rate. The aim of this research was to assess the performance of a low-cost Non-Dispersive Infra-Red (NDIR) sensor for intensive spatial field monitoring of CO2 concentrations in a NV dairy cow house. This was achieved by comparing NDIR sensors with two commonly applied methods, a Photo-Acoustic Spectroscope (PAS) Gas Monitor and an Open-Path laser (OP-laser). First, calibrations for the NDIR sensors were obtained in the laboratory. Then, the NDIR sensors were placed in a dairy cow barn for comparison with the PAS and OP-laser methods. The main conclusions were: (a) in order to represent the overall barn CO2 concentration of the dairy cow barn, the number of NDIR sensors to be accounted for average concentration calculation was dependent on barn length and on barn area occupation; and (b) the NDIR CO2 sensors are suitable for multi-point monitoring of CO2 concentrations in NV livestock barns, being a feasible alternative for the PAS and the OP-laser methods to monitor single-point or averaged spatial CO2 concentrations in livestock barns. PMID:25985166

  13. NDIR Gas Sensor for Spatial Monitoring of Carbon Dioxide Concentrations in Naturally Ventilated Livestock Buildings.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Luciano B; Ogink, Nico W M; Edouard, Nadège; van Dooren, Hendrik Jan C; Tinôco, Ilda de Fátima F; Mosquera, Julio

    2015-05-13

    The tracer gas ratio method, using CO2 as natural tracer, has been suggested as a pragmatic option to measure emissions from naturally ventilated (NV) barns without the need to directly estimate the ventilation rate. The aim of this research was to assess the performance of a low-cost Non-Dispersive Infra-Red (NDIR) sensor for intensive spatial field monitoring of CO2 concentrations in a NV dairy cow house. This was achieved by comparing NDIR sensors with two commonly applied methods, a Photo-Acoustic Spectroscope (PAS) Gas Monitor and an Open-Path laser (OP-laser). First, calibrations for the NDIR sensors were obtained in the laboratory. Then, the NDIR sensors were placed in a dairy cow barn for comparison with the PAS and OP-laser methods. The main conclusions were: (a) in order to represent the overall barn CO2 concentration of the dairy cow barn, the number of NDIR sensors to be accounted for average concentration calculation was dependent on barn length and on barn area occupation; and (b) the NDIR CO2 sensors are suitable for multi-point monitoring of CO2 concentrations in NV livestock barns, being a feasible alternative for the PAS and the OP-laser methods to monitor single-point or averaged spatial CO2 concentrations in livestock barns.

  14. Nanostructure sensor of presence and concentration of a target molecule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system (i) to determine when a selected target molecule is present or absent in a fluid, (2) to estimate concentration of the target molecule in the fluid and (3) estimate possible presence of a second (different) target molecule in the fluid, by analyzing differences in resonant frequencies of vibration of a thin beam suspended in the fluid, after the fluid has moved across the beam.

  15. Effect of lignin on water vapor barrier, mechanical, and structural properties of agar/lignin composite films.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Shiv; Reddy, Jeevan Prasad; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2015-11-01

    Biodegradable composite films were prepared using two renewable resources based biopolymers, agar and lignin alkali. The lignin was used as a reinforcing material and agar as a biopolymer matrix. The effect of lignin concentration (1, 3, 5, and 10wt%) on the performance of the composite films was studied. In addition, the mechanical, water vapor barrier, UV light barrier properties, FE-SEM, and TGA of the films were analyzed. The agar/lignin films exhibited higher mechanical and UV barrier properties along with lower water vapor permeability compared to the neat agar film. The FTIR and SEM results showed the compatibility of lignin with agar polymer. The swelling ratio and moisture content of agar/lignin composite films were decreased with increase in lignin content. The thermostability and char content of agar/lignin composite films increased with increased lignin content. The results suggested that agar/lignin films have a potential to be used as a UV barrier food packaging material for maintaining food safety and extending the shelf-life of the packaged food.

  16. Lignin as immobilization matrix for HIV p17 peptide used in immunosensing.

    PubMed

    Cerrutti, Bianca M; Moraes, Marli L; Pulcinelli, Sandra H; Santilli, Celso V

    2015-09-15

    Immunosensors based on electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are increasingly being used as a fast and potentially low cost method for clinical diagnostics. In this work we fabricated immunosensors by depositing layer-by-layer (LbL) films made with an antigenic peptide (p17-1) sequence (H2N-LSGGELDRWEKIRLRPGG-OH) and lignin on interdigitated gold electrodes, which could detect anti-p17 (HIV, human immune deficiency virus) antibodies (Ab) in phosphate buffered solutions (PBS). The molecular recognition interaction between the peptide (p17-1) and the specific Ab (anti-p17) yielded substantial changes in morphology of the with LbL films, with increased roughness according to atomic force microscopy data. This interaction is behind the high sensitivity of the immunosensor. Indeed, from the EIS results, we noted that the capacitance increased significantly with the specific Ab concentration, before getting close to saturation of available peptide sites at high concentrations. Concentrations of specific antibodies as low as 0.1 ng/mL could be detected and the immunosensors had their activity preserved for two months at least. The selectivity of the immunosensor was confirmed with two types of control experiments. First, no changes in impedance were observed when the lignin/peptide LbL immunosensor was immersed into a PBS solution containing the non-specific Ab (anti-HCV for Hepatitis C) antibodies. Furthermore, for sensing units made LbL films of lignin only, the electrical response was not affected by adding specific antibodies into the PBS buffer. The successful immunosensing for HIV with antigenic peptides in a lignin matrix is also relevant for valorization of lignin, which is an important biomass component in the sugar and ethanol industry, and brings the prospect for all-organic, biocompatible sensors if implantation is ever required.

  17. Study of a computer-controlled integrated optical gas-concentration sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, A A; Egorov, M A; Chekhlova, T K; Timakin, A G

    2008-08-31

    A computer-controlled integrated optical waveguide sensor based on an optical waveguide of the diffusion type with the low attenuation coefficient is developed and studied. It is shown that the response time of the sensor is {approx}0.15 s. According to tests and computer simulations, the sensor can detect gaseous ammonia in air with the limiting theoretical concentration of {approx}0.1 ppm for the signal-to-noise ratio no less than 20. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  18. Determination of chlorine concentration using single temperature modulated semiconductor gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woźniak, Ł.; Kalinowski, P.; Jasiński, G.; Jasiński, P.

    2016-11-01

    A periodic temperature modulation using sinusoidal heater voltage was applied to a commercial SnO2 semiconductor gas sensor. Resulting resistance response of the sensor was analyzed using a feature extraction method based on Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT). The amplitudes of the higher harmonics of the FFT from the dynamic nonlinear responses of measured gas were further utilized as an input for Artificial Neuron Network (ANN). Determination of the concentration of chlorine was performed. Moreover, this work evaluates the sensor performance upon sinusoidal temperature modulation.

  19. Pulsed corona discharge oxidation of aqueous lignin: decomposition and aldehydes formation.

    PubMed

    Panorel, Iris; Kaijanen, Laura; Kornev, Iakov; Preis, Sergei; Louhi-Kultanen, Marjatta; Sirén, Heli

    2014-01-01

    Lignin is the mass waste product of pulp and paper industry mostly incinerated for energy recovery. Lignin is, however, a substantial source of raw material for derivatives currently produced in costly wet oxidation processes. The pulsed corona discharge (PCD) for the first time was applied to lignin oxidation aiming a cost-effective environmentally friendly lignin removal and transformation to aldehydes. The experimental research into treatment of coniferous kraft lignin aqueous solutions was undertaken to establish the dependence of lignin oxidation and aldehyde formation on the discharge parameters, initial concentration of lignin and gas phase composition. The rate and the energy efficiency of lignin oxidation increased with increasing oxygen concentration reaching up to 82 g kW-1 h-1 in 89% vol. oxygen. Oxidation energy efficiency in PCD treatment exceeds the one for conventional ozonation by the factor of two under the experimental conditions. Oxidation at low oxygen concentrations showed a tendency of the increasing aldehydes and glyoxylic acid formation yield.

  20. Smooth model surfaces from lignin derivatives. I. Preparation and characterization.

    PubMed

    Norgren, Magnus; Notley, Shannon M; Majtnerova, Andrea; Gellerstedt, Göran

    2006-01-31

    Lignin model surfaces were prepared from aqueous alkaline solutions by spin-coating on silica wafers. Films of thicknesses between 20 and 140 nm were easily made by variations in the spinning rate or in the lignin concentration. The roughnesses of the lignin surfaces were relatively low, approximately 1.1 nm (rms) on an area of 25 microm2, as determined by atomic force microscopy imaging. The stability of the lignin films in aqueous solutions was found to be excellent. No changes in the thickness of model surfaces immersed in slightly alkaline solutions (pH 9.2) could be detected even after 5 h soaking. A 10 percent reduction in the thickness of the lignin film was observed after 5 h of exposure to a solution containing 0.1 M NaCl. This novel preparation method opens great possibilities for further fundamental studies, where interactions between lignin and other substances are of interest to investigate.

  1. Parallels in lignin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Jing-Ke; Banks, Jo Ann

    2008-01-01

    A hallmark of vascular plants is the development of a complex water-conducting system, which is physically reinforced by the heterogeneous aromatic polymer lignin. Syringyl lignin, a major building block of lignin, is often thought to be uniquely characteristic of angiosperms; however, it was demonstrated over fifty years ago that that syringyl lignin is found in another group of plants, known as the lycophytes, the ancestors of which diverged from all the other vascular plant lineages 400 million years ago.1 To determine the biochemical basis for this common biosynthetic ability, we isolated and characterized cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases (P450s) from the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii and compared them to the enzyme that is required for syringyl lignin synthesis in angiosperms. Our results showed that one of these P450s encodes an enzyme that is functionally analogous to but phylogenetically independent from its angiosperm counterpart. Here, we discuss the evolution of lignin biosynthesis in vascular plants and the role of Selaginella moellendorffii in plant comparative biology and genomics. PMID:19704782

  2. An integrated temperature-compensated flexible shear-stress sensor microarray with concentrated leading-wire.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jian; Liu, Wu; Zhang, Weiping; Sun, Yongming; Chen, Honghai

    2016-02-01

    Flexible shear stress sensor is quite important for characterizing curved surface flows. In this work, a novel integrated shear stress sensor microarray is designed with twenty parallel channels, which share the concentrated leading-wire to transmit the ground signal. Electrical pads in rows are easily connected to the circuits with two separate Wheatstone bridges and constant-temperature-difference mode operation is provided for the hot-wires. Temperature crosstalk between adjacent hot-wires is prevented well and the effectiveness of the temperature compensated circuits is verified. Relatively large output response is obtained as the shear stress varies and the sensitivity of the sensors is measured about 0.086 V(2)/Pa(1/3) with nonlinearity lower than 1%, revealing high performance characteristic of the sensors.

  3. Self-compensated microstructure fiber optic sensor to detect high hydrogen concentration.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shuijing; Zhang, Bo; Li, Zhi; Dai, Jixiang; Wang, Gaopeng; Yang, Minghong

    2015-08-24

    Dual-cavity microstructure fiber optic hydrogen sensor based on evaporated Pt/WO(3) film was proposed and experimentally explored in this paper, which provides a novel solution to detect high hydrogen concentration (10-30% H(2)). Dual-cavity microstructure fabricated by splicer is composed of an inner air-cavity and a collapsed photonic crystal fiber cavity. The proposed sensor has the advantages of miniature structure, stable configuration, low cost. Based on three-beam interference model and verification experiments, the compensation function to the fluctuation of light source and fiber loss is proved from the theoretical simulation and experimental investigation. The sensor has a short response time (1min), good repeatability and reliability. Besides, the change of temperature affects the response value of the hydrogen sensor, but the impact can be neglected in 10-30% H(2).

  4. Polymer optical fiber compound parabolic concentrator tip for enhanced coupling efficiency for fluorescence based glucose sensors.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Nielsen, Kristian; Aasmul, Soren; Bang, Ole

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate that the light excitation and capturing efficiency of fluorescence based fiber-optical sensors can be significantly increased by using a CPC (Compound Parabolic Concentrator) tip instead of the standard plane-cut tip. We use Zemax modelling to find the optimum CPC tip profile and fiber length of a polymer optical fiber diabetes sensor for continuous monitoring of glucose levels. We experimentally verify the improved performance of the CPC tipped sensor and the predicted production tolerances. Due to physical size requirements when the sensor has to be inserted into the body a non-optimal fiber length of 35 mm is chosen. For this length an average improvement in efficiency of a factor of 1.7 is experimentally demonstrated and critically compared to the predicted ideal factor of 3 in terms of parameters that should be improved through production optimization.

  5. Simultaneous measurement of gas concentration and temperature by the ball surface acoustic wave sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Kazushi; Akao, Shingo; Takeda, Nobuo; Tsuji, Toshihiro; Oizumi, Toru; Tsukahara, Yusuke

    2017-07-01

    We have developed a ball surface acoustic wave (SAW) trace moisture sensor with an amorphous silica sensitive film and realized wide-range measurement from 0.017 ppmv [a frost point (FP) of -99 °C] to 6.0 × 103 ppmv (0 °C FP). However, since the sensitivity of the sensor depends on the temperature, measurement results are disturbed when the temperature largely changes. To overcome this problem, we developed a method to simultaneously measure temperature and gas concentration using a ball SAW sensor. Temperature and concentration is derived by solving equations for the delay time change at two frequencies. When the temperature had a large jump, the delay time change was significantly disturbed, but the water concentration was almost correctly measured, by compensating the sensitivity change using measured temperature. The temperature measured by a ball SAW sensor will also be used to control the ball temperature. This method will make a ball SAW sensor reliable in environments of varying temperatures.

  6. The impact of lignin source on its self-assembly in solution

    SciTech Connect

    Ratnaweera, Dilru R.; Saha, Dipendu; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; Labbé, Nicole; Naskar, Amit K.; Dadmun, Mark

    2015-07-30

    Recently, there has been a growing interest in developing value added uses for lignin, including the utilization of lignins as a precursor for carbon materials. Proper understanding of the association behavior of lignins during solution processing provides important structural information that is needed to rationally optimize the use of lignins in industry in a range of value added applications. In this paper, we follow the assembly of lignin molecules from a variety of sources in dimethyl sulfoxide, a good solvent for lignins, using small angle neutron scattering. In order to mimic industrial processing conditions, concentrations of lignins were kept above the overlap concentration. At small length scales, short lignin segments with ~4–10 monolignol units associate to form rigid rod-like/cylindrical building blocks, where the number of repeat units in a cylindrical segment decreases with increasing lignin concentration. These cylindrical building blocks associate to form aggregates with low cross-linking densities and a random coil or network like structures from highly branched lignin structures. The degree of branching of the base lignin molecule, which varies with source, plays a crucial role in determining their association behavior. Finally, the overall sizes of the aggregates decrease with increasing concentration at low cross-linking densities, whereas the opposite trend is observed for highly branched lignins.

  7. The impact of lignin source on its self-assembly in solution

    DOE PAGES

    Ratnaweera, Dilru R.; Saha, Dipendu; Pingali, Sai Venkatesh; ...

    2015-07-30

    Recently, there has been a growing interest in developing value added uses for lignin, including the utilization of lignins as a precursor for carbon materials. Proper understanding of the association behavior of lignins during solution processing provides important structural information that is needed to rationally optimize the use of lignins in industry in a range of value added applications. In this paper, we follow the assembly of lignin molecules from a variety of sources in dimethyl sulfoxide, a good solvent for lignins, using small angle neutron scattering. In order to mimic industrial processing conditions, concentrations of lignins were kept abovemore » the overlap concentration. At small length scales, short lignin segments with ~4–10 monolignol units associate to form rigid rod-like/cylindrical building blocks, where the number of repeat units in a cylindrical segment decreases with increasing lignin concentration. These cylindrical building blocks associate to form aggregates with low cross-linking densities and a random coil or network like structures from highly branched lignin structures. The degree of branching of the base lignin molecule, which varies with source, plays a crucial role in determining their association behavior. Finally, the overall sizes of the aggregates decrease with increasing concentration at low cross-linking densities, whereas the opposite trend is observed for highly branched lignins.« less

  8. Fungal demethylation of Kraft lignin.

    PubMed

    Zou, Linyou; Ross, Brian M; Hutchison, Leonard J; Christopher, Lew P; Dekker, Robert F H; Malek, Lada

    2015-06-01

    Demethylation of industrial lignin has been for long coveted as a pathway to the production of an abundant natural substitute for fossil-oil derived phenol. In an attempt to possibly identify a novel Kraft lignin-demethylating enzyme, we surveyed a collection of fungi by using selected ion flow tube-mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). This method readily identifies methanol resulting from lignin demethylation activity. Absidia cylindrospora, and unidentified Cylindrocladium sp. and Aspergillus sp. were shown to metabolize lignin via different pathways, based on the HPLC analysis of lignin fragments. Of these three, Cylindrocladium and Aspergillus were shown to retain most of the lignin intact after 3 weeks in culture, while removing about 40% of the available methoxy groups. Our results demonstrate that after optimization of culture and lignin recovery methods, biological modification of Kraft lignin may be a feasible pathway to obtaining demethylated lignin for further industrial use.

  9. Isolation and characterization of lignins from Eucalyptus tereticornis (12ABL).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aiping; Lu, Fachuang; Liu, Chuanfu; Sun, Run-Cang

    2010-11-10

    A three-step sequential extraction-precipitation method was used to isolate lignin from Eucalyptus tereticornis. The ball-milled eucalyptus was extracted with 96% dioxane, 50% dioxane, and 80% dioxane containing 1% NaOH at boiling temperature, consecutively resulting in solubilization of lignin and hemicelluloses. By precipitating such solutions into 70% aqueous ethanol, the hemicelluloses were removed substantially although there were still some carbohydrates left over, especially for lignin fraction extracted by 50% dioxane. Lignins dissolved in the 70% ethanol solutions were recovered via concentration and precipitation into acidified water. About 37% of the original lignin was released following such procedure whereas only 13.5% can be isolated by traditional milled wood lignin (MWL) method. The obtained lignin fractions were analyzed by high performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) following acid hydrolysis for sugar composition of the contaminating carbohydrates and characterized by quantitative (31)P NMR as well as two-dimensional heteronuclear single-quantum coherence ((13)C-(1)H) NMR. The results showed that 96% aqueous dioxane extraction of ball-milled wood under conditions used in this study resulted in lignin preparation with very similar structures and sugar composition as traditional MWL. Therefore extracting ball-milled wood with 96% aqueous dioxane produced lignin in 33.6% yield, which makes it very attractive as an alternative to the traditional MWL method. However further extraction with 50% aqueous dioxane or 80% aqueous dioxane containing 1% NaOH gave just a little more lignins with different carbohydrate compositions from those in MWL. The eucalyptus lignins obtained were syringyl and guaiacyl type units. Lignin fraction obtained from 96% dioxane extraction was found to have more phenolic hydroxyl and less aliphatic hydroxyl than the other two preparations.

  10. Single ZnO Nanowire-Based Gas Sensors to Detect Low Concentrations of Hydrogen

    PubMed Central

    Cardoza-Contreras, Marlene N.; Romo-Herrera, José M.; Ríos, Luis A.; García-Gutiérrez, R.; Zepeda, T. A.; Contreras, Oscar E.

    2015-01-01

    Low concentrations of hazardous gases are difficult to detect with common gas sensors. Using semiconductor nanostructures as a sensor element is an alternative. Single ZnO nanowire gas sensor devices were fabricated by manipulation and connection of a single nanowire into a four-electrode aluminum probe in situ in a dual-beam scanning electron microscope-focused ion beam with a manipulator and a gas injection system in/column. The electrical response of the manufactured devices shows response times up to 29 s for a 121 ppm of H2 pulse, with a variation in the nanowire resistance appreciable at room temperature and at 373.15 K of approximately 8% and 14% respectively, showing that ZnO nanowires are good candidates to detect low concentrations of H2. PMID:26690158

  11. Lignin isolation process from rice husk by alkaline hydrogen peroxide: Lignin and silica extracted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma'ruf, Anwar; Pramudono, Bambang; Aryanti, Nita

    2017-03-01

    Biomass is one of abundance resources in the world. Biomass consists of three main materials such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Therefore, biomass can be referred to lignocellulosic material. Both the cellulose and hemicelluloses fractions are polymers of sugars, and thereby a potential source of fermentable sugars, or other processes that convert sugars into products. Lignin is a polymer compound which contains of phenolic compounds. Rice husk is one of biomass, which has high contain of lignin. Rice husk has special characteristics because of silica content. The aim of this paper is to analyze lignin and silica extracted during lignin isolation process of rice husk using alkaline hydrogen peroxide. Three main variables such as solvent/solid ratio, concentration of hydrogen peroxide and pH of the mixture are studied. The optimum conditions for lignin isolation are at solvent/solid ratio 9:1 ml/gr, hydrogen peroxide concentration of 1.5%v and pH of the mixture of 11.

  12. Polymer optical fiber Bragg grating acting as an intrinsic biochemical concentration sensor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Webb, David; Peng, Gangding

    2012-04-15

    We demonstrate an intrinsic biochemical concentration sensor based on a polymer optical fiber Bragg grating. The water content absorbed by the polymer fiber from a surrounding solution depends on the concentration of the solution because of the osmotic effect. The variation of water content in the fiber causes a change in the fiber dimensions and a variation in refractive index and, therefore, a shift in the Bragg wavelength. Saline solutions with concentration from 0% to 22% were used to demonstrate the sensing principle, resulting in a total wavelength shift of 0.9 nm, allowing high-resolution concentration measurements to be realized. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  13. Development of a diagnostic sensor for measuring blood cell concentrations during haemoconcentration.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Craig A; Gourlay, Terence

    2017-03-01

    HemoSep(®) is a commercial ultrafiltration and haemoconcentration device for the concentration of residual bypass blood following surgery. This technology is capable of reducing blood loss in cardiac and other types of "clean site" procedures, including paediatric surgery. Clinical feedback suggested that the device would be enhanced by including a sensor technology capable of discerning the concentration level of the processed blood product. We sought to develop a novel sensor that can, using light absorption, give an accurate estimate of packed cell volume (PCV). A sensor-housing unit was 3D printed and the factors influencing the sensor's effectiveness - supply voltage, sensitivity and emitter intensity - were optimised. We developed a smart system, using comparator circuitry capable of visually informing the user when adequate PCV levels (⩾35%) are attained by HemoSep(®) blood processing, which ultimately indicates that the blood is ready for autotransfusion. Our data demonstrated that the device was capable of identifying blood concentration at and beyond the 35% PCV level. The device was found to be 100% accurate at identifying concentration levels of 35% from a starting level of 20%. The sensory capability was integrated into HemoSep's(®) current device and is designed to enhance the user's clinical experience and to optimise the benefits of HemoSep(®) therapy. The present study focused on laboratory studies using bovine blood. Further studies are now planned in the clinical setting to confirm the efficacy of the device.

  14. Utilizing existing sensor technology to predict spring wheat grain nitrogen concentration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Obtaining optimum grain N concentration and yield in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can be problematic without proper nitrogen (N) fertilizer management. Sensor-based technologies have been used for an accurate and precise application of fertilizers. This technology has also been used to predic...

  15. Characterization and enzymatic hydrolysis of wood from transgenic Pinus taeda engineered with syringyl lignin or reduced lignin content

    DOE PAGES

    Edmunds, Charles W.; Peralta, Perry; Kelley, Stephen S.; ...

    2017-02-22

    Softwood is an abundant resource; however, currently its utilization for bioconversion to obtain platform sugars is limited. Pinus taeda trees which were genetically modified to either produce S lignin or to decrease lignin content were characterized with a suite of analytic techniques. Syringyl lignin was visualized in the secondary xylem of one genetic line with Maule staining. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance identified the S lignin units were coupled into the lignin through β-O-4 linkages, and thioacidolysis measured approximately 13% S lignin content in the same sample. Reductions of the lignin of as much as 33% were observed in the transgenics.more » To better understand how these modifications affect bioconversion, their amenability to hot water and dilute acid pretreatments and enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated. Lignin reductions resulted in 1.9-3.2-fold increases in glucose release compared to the control. However, no apparent benefit was observed by S lignin incorporation at the concentrations reported in this study. Finally, these results highlight the potential for softwood cell wall properties to be improved for bioenergy/biochemical applications.« less

  16. Lignin-degrading enzymes.

    PubMed

    Pollegioni, Loredano; Tonin, Fabio; Rosini, Elena

    2015-04-01

    A main goal of green biotechnology is to reduce our dependence on fossil reserves and to increase the use of renewable materials. For this, lignocellulose, which is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, represents the most promising feedstock. The latter is a complex aromatic heteropolymer formed by radical polymerization of guaiacyl, syringyl, and p-hydroxyphenyl units linked by β-aryl ether linkages, biphenyl bonds and heterocyclic linkages. Accordingly, lignin appears to be a potentially valuable renewable aromatic chemical, thus representing a main pillar in future biorefinery. The resistance of lignin to breakdown is the main bottleneck in this process, although a variety of white-rot fungi, as well as bacteria, have been reported to degrade lignin by employing different enzymes and catabolic pathways. Here, recent investigations have expanded the range of natural biocatalysts involved in lignin degradation/modification and significant progress related to enzyme engineering and recombinant expression has been made. The present review is focused primarily on recent trends in ligninolytic green biotechnology to suggest the potential (industrial) application of ligninolytic enzymes. Future perspectives could include synergy between natural enzymes from different sources (as well as those obtained by protein engineering) and other pretreatment methods that may be required for optimal results in enzyme-based, environmentally friendly, technologies.

  17. Turbidity sensor for determination of concentration, ash presence and particle diameter of sediment suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilro, L.; Prats, S.; Pinto, J. L.; Keizer, J. J.; Nogueira, R. N.

    2011-05-01

    The present work addresses the need for low-cost turbidity sensors felt in the context of an ongoing research project on enhanced soil erosion following wildfire in Portugal. To this end, a system based on plastic optical fibre was developed and tested, including against a commercially-available system. The performance of the sensor was tested using artificially-created samples with a wide range of concentration of three types of very distinct materials, six particle size classes of ashes and real runoff samples collected at the slope and catchment scale in a recently burned area.

  18. A Spectrometric Method for Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration Measurement with a Reusable and Cost-Efficient Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Lo, Yuan-Rong; Lin, Yu-Chian; Shi, Yi-Cen; Li, Pang-Lung

    2015-01-01

    In this study we developed a low cost sensor for measuring the concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in liquids utilizing a spectrometric method. The sensor was tested using various concentrations of a peroxidase enzyme immobilized on a glass substrate. H2O2 can be catalyzed by peroxidase and converted into water and oxygen. The reagent 4-amino-phenazone takes up oxygen together with phenol to form a colored product that has absorption peaks at 510 nm and 450 nm. The transmission intensity is strongly related to the hydrogen peroxide concentration, so can be used for quantitative analysis. The measurement range for hydrogen peroxide is from 5 × 10−5% to 1 × 10−3% (0.5 ppm to 10 ppm) and the results show high linearity. This device can achieve a sensitivity and resolution of 41,400 (photon count/%) and 3.49 × 10−5% (0.35 ppm), respectively. The response time of the sensor is less than 3 min and the sensor can be reused for 10 applications with similar performance. PMID:26473862

  19. Performance of a low-cost methane sensor for ambient concentration measurements in preliminary studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugster, W.; Kling, G. W.

    2012-03-01

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after CO2 and contributes to global warming. Its sources are not uniformly distributed across terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and most of the methane flux is expected to stem from hotspots which often occupy a very small fraction of the total landscape area. Continuous time-series measurements of CH4 concentrations can help identify and locate these methane hot-spots. Newer, low-cost trace gas sensors such as the Figaro TGS 2600 can detect CH4 even at ambient concentrations. Hence, in this paper we tested this sensor under real-world conditions over Toolik Lake, Alaska, to determine its suitability for preliminary studies before placing more expensive and service-intensive equipment at a given locality. A reasonably good agreement with parallel measurements made using a Los Gatos Research FMA 100 methane analyzer was found after removal of the strong cross-sensitivities for temperature and relative humidity. Correcting for this cross-sensitivity increased the absolute accuracy required for in-depth studies, and the reproducibility between two TGS 2600 sensors run in parallel is very good. We conclude that the relative CH4 concentrations derived from such sensors are sufficient for preliminary investigations in the search of potential methane hot-spots.

  20. Performance of a low-cost methane sensor for ambient concentration measurements in preliminary studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugster, W.; Kling, G. W.

    2012-08-01

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after CO2 and contributes to global warming. Its sources are not uniformly distributed across terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and most of the methane flux is expected to stem from hotspots which often occupy a very small fraction of the total landscape area. Continuous time-series measurements of CH4 concentrations can help identify and locate these methane hotspots. Newer, low-cost trace gas sensors such as the Figaro TGS 2600 can detect CH4 even at ambient concentrations. Hence, in this paper we tested this sensor under real-world conditions over Toolik Lake, Alaska, to determine its suitability for preliminary studies before placing more expensive and service-intensive equipment at a given locality. A reasonably good agreement with parallel measurements made using a Los Gatos Research FMA 100 methane analyzer was found after removal of the strong sensitivities for temperature and relative humidity. Correcting for this sensitivity increased the absolute accuracy required for in-depth studies, and the reproducibility between two TGS 2600 sensors run in parallel is very good. We conclude that the relative CH4 concentrations derived from such sensors are sufficient for preliminary investigations in the search of potential methane hotspots.

  1. Cell suspension concentration monitoring by using a miniaturized serial high frequency SAWR sensor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Feng, Hailin; Fang, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a miniaturized cell suspension concentration monitoring method was investigated. The sensing unit was a carbon screen-printed electrode (CSPE) in serial with a 433MHz vacuum-packaged surface acoustic wave resonator (SAWR). SAWR provided a stable and high operating frequency, which helps to keep the stability and sensitivity of the monitoring system. Living cells suspensions in different concentrations were prepared and dropcast on CSPE. Frequency responses of the sensor were recorded. Cell quantity variation within the same culture media volume changed the dielectric properties of CSPE and finally affected the SAWR frequency. SAWR frequency declined with the decrease of cell concentration. The proposed sensor provided high sensitivity and remarkable stability for the cell suspensions. PMID:26588250

  2. Development of a thermal sensor to probe cell viability and concentration in cell suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Byoung Kyoo; Yi, Namwoo; Park, Jaesung; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Dongsik

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a novel biothermal sensor to probe cell viability and concentration of a cell suspension. The sensing technique exploits the thermophysical properties of the suspension, so no labeling of suspended cells is required. When the sensor is periodically heated, the amplitude and phase of the thermal signal are dependent on the thermal properties of the cell suspension, particularly the thermal conductivity k. We measured k of HeLa, hepatocyte, and NIH-3T3 J2 cell suspensions with various concentrations and viabilities. The results demonstrate that the k of a cell suspension has a strong correlation with its concentration and viability. Accordingly, k can be employed as an index of cell concentration and viability. Furthermore, without data processing to obtain k, the electric signal that reflects the thermal response of the sensor can be used as a tool to probe viability of a cell suspension in real time. The proposed thermal sensing technique offers label-free, non-invasive, long-term, and real-time means to probe the viability and concentration of cells in a suspension.

  3. Hydroxide catalysts for lignin depolymerization

    DOEpatents

    Beckham, Gregg T.; Biddy, Mary J.; Chmely, Stephen C.; Sturgeon, Matthew

    2017-04-25

    Solid base catalysts and their use for the base-catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) of lignin to compounds such as aromatics are presented herein. Exemplary catalysts include layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as recyclable, heterogeneous catalysts for BCD of lignin.

  4. Lignin analysis using microwave digestion.

    PubMed

    Gassara, Fatma; Ajila, C M; Brar, Satinder K; Tyagi, R D; Verma, M; Valero, J R

    2012-10-01

    Lignin quantification in apple pomace residues was carried out using a microwave oven to replace traditional refluxing during the mild acidolysis step to augment the selectivity of this step towards cleavage of lignin-carbohydrate bonds and to reduce the time needed to quantify lignin. The pressure, temperature and time were optimized by response surface methodology and the results were compared to the Klason lignin methodology. Temperature and pressure had a significant positive effect (p < 0.05) on the determination of lignin. However, the time was also significant (p < 0.05) on lignin quantification. The optimal conditions of digestion were: 30 bar, 170 °C for 15 min. The digestion using microwave (lignin content = 33 % w/w) was more accurate (p < 0.05) than the the traditional refluxing (lignin content = 27 % w/w).

  5. Operational Implementation of Sea Ice Concentration Estimates from the AMSR2 Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, Walter N.; Stewart, J. Scott; Liu, Yinghui; Key, Jeffrey; Miller, Jeffrey A.

    2017-01-01

    An operation implementation of a passive microwave sea ice concentration algorithm to support NOAA's operational mission is presented. The NASA team 2 algorithm, previously developed for the NASA advanced microwave scanning radiometer for the Earth observing system (AMSR-E) product suite, is adapted for operational use with the JAXA AMSR2 sensor through several enhancements. First, the algorithm is modified to process individual swaths and provide concentration from the most recent swaths instead of a 24-hour average. A latency (time since observation) field and a 24-hour concentration range (maximum-minimum) are included to provide indications of data timeliness and variability. Concentration from the Bootstrap algorithm is a secondary field to provide complementary sea ice information. A quality flag is implemented to provide information on interpolation, filtering, and other quality control steps. The AMSR2 concentration fields are compared with a different AMSR2 passive microwave product, and then validated via comparison with sea ice concentration from the Suomi visible and infrared imaging radiometer suite. This validation indicates the AMSR2 concentrations have a bias of 3.9% and an RMSE of 11.0% in the Arctic, and a bias of 4.45% and RMSE of 8.8% in the Antarctic. In most cases, the NOAA operational requirements for accuracy are met. However, in low-concentration regimes, such as during melt and near the ice edge, errors are higher because of the limitations of passive microwave sensors and the algorithm retrieval.

  6. Chromium adsorption by lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Lalvani, S.B.; Huebner, A.; Wiltowski, T.S.

    2000-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium is a known carcinogen, and its maximum contamination level in drinking water is determined by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Chromium in the wastewaters from plating and metal finishing, tanning, and photographic industries poses environmental problems. A commercially available lignin was used for the removal of hexavalent as well as trivalent chromium from aqueous solution. It is known that hexavalent chromium is present as an anionic species in the solution. It was found that lignin can remove up to 63% hexavalent and 100% trivalent chromium from aqueous solutions. The removal of chromium ions was also investigated using a commercially available activated carbon. This absorbent facilitated very little hexavalent and almost complete trivalent chromium removal. Adsorption isotherms and kinetics data on the metal removal by lignin and activated carbon are presented and discussed.

  7. Femtosecond laser micromachining of compound parabolic concentrator fiber tipped glucose sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Hafeez Ul; Lacraz, Amédée; Kalli, Kyriacos; Bang, Ole

    2017-03-01

    We report on highly accurate femtosecond (fs) laser micromachining of a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) fiber tip on a polymer optical fiber (POF). The accuracy is reflected in an unprecedented correspondence between the numerically predicted and experimentally found improvement in fluorescence pickup efficiency of a Förster resonance energy transfer-based POF glucose sensor. A Zemax model of the CPC-tipped sensor predicts an optimal improvement of a factor of 3.96 compared to the sensor with a plane-cut fiber tip. The fs laser micromachined CPC tip showed an increase of a factor of 3.5, which is only 11.6% from the predicted value. Earlier state-of-the-art fabrication of the CPC-shaped tip by fiber tapering was of so poor quality that the actual improvement was 43% lower than the predicted improvement of the ideal CPC shape.

  8. Utilizing an open-microcavity optoacoustic sensor for spectroscopic determination of methemoglobin concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Ralph W.; Kadugodinandareddy, Kavya; Karunakaran, Vinitha; Whitney, Casey; Ling, Jian; Ye, Jing Yong

    2015-03-01

    We present a simple, non-destructive photoacoustic spectroscopy method utilizing a unique open-microcavity optoacoustic sensor to measure the concentration ratio of Methemoglobin (MetHb) in an optically scattering medium. Elevated levels of MetHb, present for example in the blood disorder Methemeglobinemia, cannot be detected by conventional pulse oximetry, and may result in inaccurate arterial oxygen saturation measurements. Samples with different ratios of Oxygenated Hemoglobin (HbO2), Deoxygenated Hemoglobin (HHb), and MetHb were obtained and mixed with nanoscale latex beads to present an optical scattering effect. Polymer encapsulated hemoglobin (PEH) samples were also studied. A sample chamber containing 20 μL of each sample was positioned directly underneath our patented optoacoustic sensor. Unlike a piezoelectric transducer, our optoacoustic sensor allows an excitation laser beam from an OPO laser to pass through and be absorbed by the sample to produce a photoacoustic signal. The cavity layer of the optoacoustic sensor is exposed directly to the resulting ultrasound signal, which causes an intensity modulation of a HeNe laser that is used to monitor the resonance condition of the sensor. A probe laser beam is total internally reflected off of the sensor and detected with a fiber-coupled APD detector. Three wavelengths are chosen for our excitation laser based on the absorption peaks and isobestic points of HHb, HbO2, and MetHb. Using established values of the molar extinction coefficients of HbO2, HHb, and MetHb a set of three simultaneous equations can be solved to accurately determine the concentration ratio of MetHb.

  9. Extracting lignins from mill wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.

    1977-01-01

    Addition of quaternary ammonium compound and activated charcoal to pulp and mill wastes precipitates lignins in sludge mixture. Methanol dissolves lignins for separation from resulting slurry. Mineral acid reprecipitates lignins in filtered solution. Quaternary ammonium compound, activated charcoal, as well as water may be recovered and recycled from this process.

  10. Extracting lignins from mill wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.

    1977-01-01

    Addition of quaternary ammonium compound and activated charcoal to pulp and mill wastes precipitates lignins in sludge mixture. Methanol dissolves lignins for separation from resulting slurry. Mineral acid reprecipitates lignins in filtered solution. Quaternary ammonium compound, activated charcoal, as well as water may be recovered and recycled from this process.

  11. Transcriptional regulation of lignin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ruiqin; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2009-11-01

    Lignin is the second most abundant plant biopolymer mainly present in the secondary walls of tracheary elements and fibers in wood. Understanding how lignin is biosynthesized has long been an interest to plant biologists and will have a significant impact on tree biotechnology. Lignin is polymerized from monolignols that are synthesized through the lignin biosynthetic pathway. To make lignin, all the genes in the lignin biosynthetic pathway need to be coordinately turned on. It has been shown that a common cis-element, namely the AC element, is present in the majority of the lignin biosynthetic genes and required for their expression in lignifying cells. Important progress has been made in the identification of transcription factors that bind to the AC elements and are potentially involved in the coordinated regulation of lignin biosynthesis. The Arabidopsis MYB58 and MYB63 as well as their poplar ortholog PtrMYB28 are transcriptional activators of the lignin biosynthetic pathway, whereas the eucalyptus EgMYB2 and pine PtMYB4 transcription factors are likely Arabidopsis MYB46 orthologs involved in the regulation of the entire secondary wall biosynthetic program. It was found that the transcriptional regulation of lignin biosynthesis is under the control of the same transcriptional network regulating the biosynthesis of other secondary wall components, including cellulose and xylan. The identification of transcription factors directly activating lignin biosynthetic genes provides unprecedented tools to potentially manipulate the amount of lignin in wood and other plant products based on our needs.

  12. High-sensitivity in situ QCLAS-based ammonia concentration sensor for high-temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, W. Y.; Sur, R.; Strand, C. L.; Spearrin, R. M.; Jeffries, J. B.; Hanson, R. K.

    2016-07-01

    A novel quantum cascade laser (QCL) absorption sensor is presented for high-sensitivity in situ measurements of ammonia (hbox {NH}_3) in high-temperature environments, using scanned wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) with first-harmonic-normalized second-harmonic detection (scanned WMS-2 f/1 f) to neutralize the effect of non-absorption losses in the harsh environment. The sensor utilized the sQ(9,9) transition of the fundamental symmetric stretch band of hbox {NH}_3 at 10.39 {\\upmu }hbox {m} and was sinusoidally modulated at 10 kHz and scanned across the peak of the absorption feature at 50 Hz, leading to a detection bandwidth of 100 Hz. A novel technique was used to select an optimal WMS modulation depth parameter that reduced the sensor's sensitivity to spectral interference from hbox {H}_2hbox {O} and hbox {CO}_2 without significantly sacrificing signal-to-noise ratio. The sensor performance was validated by measuring known concentrations of hbox {NH}_3 in a flowing gas cell. The sensor was then demonstrated in a laboratory-scale methane-air burner seeded with hbox {NH}_3, achieving a demonstrated detection limit of 2.8 ± 0.26 ppm hbox {NH}_3 by mole at a path length of 179 cm, equivalence ratio of 0.6, pressure of 1 atm, and temperatures of up to 600 K.

  13. Dual Mode NOx Sensor: Measuring Both the Accumulated Amount and Instantaneous Level at Low Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Groß, Andrea; Beulertz, Gregor; Marr, Isabella; Kubinski, David J.; Visser, Jaco H.; Moos, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The accumulating-type (or integrating-type) NOx sensor principle offers two operation modes to measure low levels of NOx: The direct signal gives the total amount dosed over a time interval and its derivative the instantaneous concentration. With a linear sensor response, no baseline drift, and both response times and recovery times in the range of the gas exchange time of the test bench (5 to 7 s), the integrating sensor is well suited to reliably detect low levels of NOx. Experimental results are presented demonstrating the sensor’s integrating properties for the total amount detection and its sensitivity to both NO and to NO2. We also show the correlation between the derivative of the sensor signal and the known gas concentration. The long-term detection of NOx in the sub-ppm range (e.g., for air quality measurements) is discussed. Additionally, a self-adaption of the measurement range taking advantage of the temperature dependency of the sensitivity is addressed. PMID:22736980

  14. Flocculation of high purity wheat straw soda lignin.

    PubMed

    Piazza, G J; Lora, J H; Garcia, R A

    2014-01-01

    In industrial process, acidification causes non-sulfonated lignin insolubility. The flocculants poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (pDADMAC) and bovine blood (BB) also caused lignin insolubility while cationic polyacrylamide, chitosan, and soy protein PF 974 were ineffective. Turbidity determined optimal flocculant, but turbidity magnitude with BB was greater than expected. pDADMAC caused negative lignin Zeta potential to became positive, but BB-lignin Zeta potential was always negative. Insoluble lignin did not gravity sediment, and flocculant-lignin mixtures were centrifuged. Pellet and supernatant dry mass and corrected spectroscopic results were in good agreement for optimal pDADMAC and BB. Spectroscopy showed 87-92% loss of supernatant lignin. Nitrogen analysis showed BB concentrated in the pellet until the pellet became saturated with BB. Subtracting ash and BB mass from pellet and supernatant mass confirmed optimal BB. Low levels of alum caused increased lignin flocculation at lower levels of pDADMAC and BB, but alum did not affect optimal flocculant. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Response of direct thoron progeny sensors (DTPS) to various aerosol concentrations and ventilation rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Rosaline; Prajith, R.; Sapra, B. K.; Mayya, Y. S.

    2010-03-01

    Direct thoron/radon progeny sensors (DTPS/DRPS) are absorber mounted LR115 type track detectors for measuring the time-averaged progeny concentrations. Through a large number of experiments, the sensitivity factor of these sensors in natural indoor environment was found to be nearly constant at a value of 0.94 Tr cm -2 d -1/EETC (Bq m -3) for DTPS and 0.09 Tr cm -2 d -1/EERC (Bq m -3) for DRPS. The constancy of the sensitivity factor in the natural environments is attributed primarily to the presence of large aerosol concentrations and relatively low ventilation rates in time-averaged measurements. However, detailed model calculations suggest that in extreme scenario i.e. at high ventilation rate and low aerosol concentrations, the sensitivity factor can be quite different. Such situations are likely to occur in occupational plant areas. Therefore systematic chamber experiments were carried out to using DTPS, to estimate the variability of the sensitivity factor in these extreme conditions. In the first set, the sensitivity factor of DTPS was measured in 6 different aerosol concentrations at zero ventilation rates. The sensitivity factor showed a steep decrease as the aerosol concentration increased to about 8554 particle cm -3, after which it remained almost constant with increase in aerosol concentration. The second set of experiments was conducted at ˜5000 particles cm -3 at three different ventilation rates. The sensitivity factor was found to increase with increase in ventilation rate. The results are further discussed.

  16. Lignin blockers and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Bin [West Lebanon, NH; Wyman, Charles E [Norwich, VT

    2011-01-25

    Disclosed is a method for converting cellulose in a lignocellulosic biomass. The method provides for a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein treatment of high lignin solids. The treatment enhances cellulase availability in cellulose conversion and allows for the determination of optimized pretreatment conditions. Additionally, ethanol yields from a Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process are improved 5-25% by treatment with a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein. Thus, a more efficient and economical method of processing lignin containing biomass materials utilizes a polypeptide/protein treatment step that effectively blocks lignin binding of cellulase.

  17. NMR of lignins

    Treesearch

    John Ralph; Larry L. Landucci

    2010-01-01

    This chapter will consider the basic aspects and findings of several forms of NMR spectroscopy, including separate discussions of proton, carbon, heteronuclear, and multidimensional NMR. Enhanced focus will be on 13C NMR, because of its qualitative and quantitative importance, followed by NMR’s contributions to our understanding of lignin...

  18. [Phenolic foam prepared by lignin from a steam-explosion derived biorefinery of corn stalk].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanhua; Chen, Hongzhang

    2014-06-01

    To increase the integral economic effectiveness, biorefineries of lignocellulosic materials should not only utilize carbohydrates hydrolyzed from cellulose and hemicellulose but also use lignin. We used steam-exploded corn stalk as raw materials and optimized the temperature and alkali concentration in the lignin extraction process to obtain lignin liquor with higher yield and purity. Then the concentrated lignin liquor was used directly to substitute phenol for phenolic foam preparation and the performances of phenolic foam were characterized by microscopic structure analysis, FTIR, compression strength and thermal conductivity detection. The results indicated that, when steam-exploded corn stalk was extracted at 120 degrees C for 2 h by 1% NaOH with a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10, the extraction yield of lignin was 79.67%. The phenolic foam prepared from the concentrated lignin liquor showed higher apparent density and compression strength with the increasing substitution rate of lignin liquor. However, there were not significant differences of thermal conductivity and flame retardant properties by the addition of lignin, which meant that the phenolic foam substituted by lignin liquor was approved for commercial application. This study, which uses alkali-extracted lignin liquor directly for phenolic foam preparation, provides a relatively simple way for utilization of lignin and finally increases the overall commercial operability ofa lignocellulosic biorefinery derived by steam explosion.

  19. Concentration sensor based on a tilted fiber Bragg grating for anions monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, L. B.; Rodrigues, J. M. M.; Farinha, A. S. F.; Marques, C. A.; Bilro, L.; Alberto, N.; Tomé, J. P. C.; Nogueira, R. N.

    2014-08-01

    The ubiquity and importance of anions in many crucial roles accounts for the current high interest in the design and preparation of effective sensors for these species. Therefore, a tilted fiber Bragg grating sensor was fabricated to investigate individual detection of different anion concentrations in ethyl acetate, namely acetate, fluoride and chloride. The influence of the refractive index on the transmission spectrum of a tilted fiber Bragg grating was determined by developing a new demodulation method. This is based on the calculation of the standard deviation between the cladding modes of the transmission spectrum and its smoothing function. The standard deviation method was used to monitor concentrations of different anions. The sensor resolution obtained for the anion acetate, fluoride and chloride is 79 × 10-5 mol/dm3, 119 × 10-5 mol/dm3 and 78 × 10-5 mol/dm3, respectively, within the concentration range of (39-396) × 10-5 mol/dm3.

  20. Fractionation of Organosolv Lignin Using Acetone:Water and Properties of the Obtained Fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeghifar, Hasan; Wells, Tyrone; Le, Rosemary Khuu; Sadeghifar, Fatemeh; Yuan, Joshua S.; Jonas Ragauskas, Arthur

    2016-11-07

    In this study, lignin fractions with different molecular weight were prepared using a simple and almost green method from switchgrass and pine organosolv lignin. Different proportions of acetone in water, ranging from 30 to 60%, were used for lignin fractionation. A higher concentration of acetone dissolved higher molecular weight fractions of the lignin. Fractionated organosolv lignin showed different molecular weight and functional groups. Higher molecular weight fractions exhibited more aliphatic and less phenolic OH than lower molecular weight fractions. Lower molecular weight fractions lead to more homogeneous structure compared to samples with a higher molecular weight. In conclusion, all fractions showed strong antioxidant activity.

  1. Fractionation of Organosolv Lignin Using Acetone:Water and Properties of the Obtained Fractions

    DOE PAGES

    Sadeghifar, Hasan; Wells, Tyrone; Le, Rosemary Khuu; ...

    2016-11-07

    In this study, lignin fractions with different molecular weight were prepared using a simple and almost green method from switchgrass and pine organosolv lignin. Different proportions of acetone in water, ranging from 30 to 60%, were used for lignin fractionation. A higher concentration of acetone dissolved higher molecular weight fractions of the lignin. Fractionated organosolv lignin showed different molecular weight and functional groups. Higher molecular weight fractions exhibited more aliphatic and less phenolic OH than lower molecular weight fractions. Lower molecular weight fractions lead to more homogeneous structure compared to samples with a higher molecular weight. In conclusion, all fractionsmore » showed strong antioxidant activity.« less

  2. Fractionation of Organosolv Lignin Using Acetone:Water and Properties of the Obtained Fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeghifar, Hasan; Wells, Tyrone; Le, Rosemary Khuu; Sadeghifar, Fatemeh; Yuan, Joshua S.; Jonas Ragauskas, Arthur

    2016-11-07

    In this study, lignin fractions with different molecular weight were prepared using a simple and almost green method from switchgrass and pine organosolv lignin. Different proportions of acetone in water, ranging from 30 to 60%, were used for lignin fractionation. A higher concentration of acetone dissolved higher molecular weight fractions of the lignin. Fractionated organosolv lignin showed different molecular weight and functional groups. Higher molecular weight fractions exhibited more aliphatic and less phenolic OH than lower molecular weight fractions. Lower molecular weight fractions lead to more homogeneous structure compared to samples with a higher molecular weight. In conclusion, all fractions showed strong antioxidant activity.

  3. Fractionation of Organosolv Lignin Using Acetone:Water and Properties of the Obtained Fractions

    DOE PAGES

    Sadeghifar, Hasan; Wells, Tyrone; Le, Rosemary Khuu; ...

    2016-11-07

    In this study, lignin fractions with different molecular weight were prepared using a simple and almost green method from switchgrass and pine organosolv lignin. Different proportions of acetone in water, ranging from 30 to 60%, were used for lignin fractionation. A higher concentration of acetone dissolved higher molecular weight fractions of the lignin. Fractionated organosolv lignin showed different molecular weight and functional groups. Higher molecular weight fractions exhibited more aliphatic and less phenolic OH than lower molecular weight fractions. Lower molecular weight fractions lead to more homogeneous structure compared to samples with a higher molecular weight. In conclusion, all fractionsmore » showed strong antioxidant activity.« less

  4. Conversion of lignin into a precursor for the production of graphitic carbon materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.M.; Serio, M.A.; Kroo, E.

    1995-11-01

    Lignin is the most abundant renewable aromatic material. There are roughly 25 x 10{sup 6} tons of lignin produced each year as a byproduct of pulp and papermaking which has a fuel value of between $0.00 and $0.04 per pound. Carbon materials are among the highest value products can be produced from lignin. Consequently, the development of processes which can utilize lignins for carbon fibers or the production of other high value carbon materials has the potential for a high payoff. It would also result in the utilization of lignin as a raw material for high technology, internationally competitive industries. The ability to form graphitic carbon materials from pitch depends on the development of a liquid crystal system called mesophase. A major problem with using lignin as a precursor for the production of mesophase pitch is the high oxygen functional group concentration of lignin which makes it reactive toward crosslinking. Hydrothermal treatment of lignin allows for selective removal of the reactive oxygen functional groups from lignin which normally prevent extensive mesophase formation. Hydrothermal pretreatment of lignin substantially increases the mesophase content of lignin-derived pitch. This development will make lignin a suitable precursor for a range of carbon materials applications.

  5. Lignin-Based Thermoplastic Materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Kelley, Stephen S; Venditti, Richard A

    2016-04-21

    Lignin-based thermoplastic materials have attracted increasing interest as sustainable, cost-effective, and biodegradable alternatives for petroleum-based thermoplastics. As an amorphous thermoplastic material, lignin has a relatively high glass-transition temperature and also undergoes radical-induced self-condensation at high temperatures, which limits its thermal processability. Additionally, lignin-based materials are usually brittle and exhibit poor mechanical properties. To improve the thermoplasticity and mechanical properties of technical lignin, polymers or plasticizers are usually integrated with lignin by blending or chemical modification. This Review attempts to cover the reported approaches towards the development of lignin-based thermoplastic materials on the basis of published information. Approaches reviewed include plasticization, blending with miscible polymers, and chemical modifications by esterification, etherification, polymer grafting, and copolymerization. Those lignin-based thermoplastic materials are expected to show applications as engineering plastics, polymeric foams, thermoplastic elastomers, and carbon-fiber precursors.

  6. Development of New Optical Sensors for Measurements of Mercury Concentrations, Speciation, and Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Lucht

    2008-09-28

    A diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption sensor for elemental mercury was developed and applied for measurements in a high-temperature flow reactor and in the exhaust stream of a coal-fired combustor. The final version of the sensor incorporates a 375-nm single-mode laser and a 784-nm distributed feedback (DFB) laser. The output of these lasers is sum-frequency mixed in a non-linear beta-barium borate crystal to generate a 254-nm beam. By tuning the frequency of the DFB laser, the ultraviolet beam frequency is tuned across the transition frequency of mercury at 253.7-nm. The tuning range is large enough that an off-resonant baseline was clearly visible on both sides of the Hg transition. Because of this large tuning range, the effects of broadband absorption can be effectively eliminated during data analysis. Broadband absorption is a major concern for lamp-based mercury sensor, and the sample to be monitored must be chemically treated prior to analysis to remove species such as SO{sub 2} that absorb near 253.7 nm. No pretreatment is required when our diode-laser-based sensor is used for elemental mercury measurements. Our laser sensor measurements were compared to measurements from a commercial mercury analyzer (CMA), and were generally in good agreement except that the insitu diode-laser-based sensor measurements tended to give somewhat higher concentrations than the CMA measurements, presumably due to absorption of elemental mercury in the sampling lines needed for the CMA measurements. At Texas A&M University, the homogeneous oxidation of elemental mercury was studied using a high-temperature flow reactor.

  7. Design and Operation of an Electrochemical Methanol Concentration Sensor for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, S. R.; Valdez, T. I.; Chun, W.

    2000-01-01

    The development of a 150-Watt packaged power source based on liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells is being pursued currently at the Jet propulsion Laboratory for defense applications. In our studies we find that the concentration of methanol in the fuel circulation loop affects the electrical performance and efficiency the direct methanol fuel cell systems significantly. The practical operation of direct methanol fuel cell systems, therefore, requires accurate monitoring and control of methanol concentration. The present paper reports on the principle and demonstration of an in-house developed electrochemical sensor suitable for direct methanol fuel cell systems.

  8. Design and Operation of an Electrochemical Methanol Concentration Sensor for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, S. R.; Valdez, T. I.; Chun, W.

    2000-01-01

    The development of a 150-Watt packaged power source based on liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells is being pursued currently at the Jet propulsion Laboratory for defense applications. In our studies we find that the concentration of methanol in the fuel circulation loop affects the electrical performance and efficiency the direct methanol fuel cell systems significantly. The practical operation of direct methanol fuel cell systems, therefore, requires accurate monitoring and control of methanol concentration. The present paper reports on the principle and demonstration of an in-house developed electrochemical sensor suitable for direct methanol fuel cell systems.

  9. Using Bayesian Inference Framework towards Identifying Gas Species and Concentration from High Temperature Resistive Sensor Array Data

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yixin; Zhou, Kai; Lei, Yu

    2015-01-01

    High temperature gas sensors have been highly demanded for combustion process optimization and toxic emissions control, which usually suffer from poor selectivity. In order to solve this selectivity issue and identify unknown reducing gas species (CO, CH 4 , and CH 8 ) and concentrations, a high temperature resistive sensor array data set was built in this study based on 5 reported sensors. As each sensor showed specific responses towards different types of reducing gas with certain concentrations, based on which calibration curves were fitted, providing benchmark sensor array response database, then Bayesian inference framework was utilized to processmore » the sensor array data and build a sample selection program to simultaneously identify gas species and concentration, by formulating proper likelihood between input measured sensor array response pattern of an unknown gas and each sampled sensor array response pattern in benchmark database. This algorithm shows good robustness which can accurately identify gas species and predict gas concentration with a small error of less than 10% based on limited amount of experiment data. These features indicate that Bayesian probabilistic approach is a simple and efficient way to process sensor array data, which can significantly reduce the required computational overhead and training data.« less

  10. Establishing a Multi-spatial Wireless Sensor Network to Monitor Nitrate Concentrations in Soil Moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haux, E.; Busek, N.; Park, Y.; Estrin, D.; Harmon, T. C.

    2004-12-01

    The use of reclaimed wastewater for irrigation in agriculture can be a significant source of nutrients, in particular nitrogen species, but its use raises concern for groundwater, riparian, and water quality. A 'smart' technology would have the ability to measure wastewater nutrients as they enter the irrigation system, monitor their transport in situ and optimally control inputs with little human intervention, all in real-time. Soil heterogeneity and economic issues require, however, a balance between cost and the spatial and temporal scales of the monitoring effort. Therefore, a wireless and embedded sensor network, deployed in the soil vertically across the horizon, is capable of collecting, processing, and transmitting sensor data. The network consists of several networked nodes or 'pylons', each outfitted with an array of sensors measuring humidity, temperature, precipitation, soil moisture, and aqueous nitrate concentrations. Individual sensor arrays are controlled by a MICA2 mote (Crossbow Technology Inc., San Jose, CA) programmed with TinyOS (University of California, Berkeley, CA) and a Stargate (Crossbow Technology Inc., San Jose, CA) base-station capable of GPRS for data transmission. Results are reported for the construction and testing of a prototypical pylon at the benchtop and in the field.

  11. Potentiometric Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Multivalent Ion Concentrations in Molten Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Peter A. Zink; Jan-Fong Jue; Brenda E. Serrano; Guy L. Fredrickson; Ben F. Cowan; Steven D. Herrmann; Shelly X. Li

    2010-07-01

    Electrorefining of spent metallic nuclear fuel in high temperature molten salt systems is a core technology in pyroprocessing, which in turn plays a critical role in the development of advanced fuel cycle technologies. In electrorefining, spent nuclear fuel is treated electrochemically in order to effect separations between uranium, noble metals, and active metals, which include the transuranics. The accumulation of active metals in a lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl) eutectic molten salt electrolyte occurs at the expense of the UCl3-oxidant concentration in the electrolyte, which must be periodically replenished. Our interests lie with the accumulation of active metals in the molten salt electrolyte. The real-time monitoring of actinide concentrations in the molten salt electrolyte is highly desirable for controlling electrochemical operations and assuring materials control and accountancy. However, real-time monitoring is not possible with current methods for sampling and chemical analysis. A new solid-state electrochemical sensor is being developed for real-time monitoring of actinide ion concentrations in a molten salt electrorefiner. The ultimate function of the sensor is to monitor plutonium concentrations during electrorefining operations, but in this work gadolinium was employed as a surrogate material for plutonium. In a parametric study, polycrystalline sodium beta double-prime alumina (Na-ß?-alumina) discs and tubes were subject to vapor-phase exchange with gadolinium ions (Gd3+) using a gadolinium chloride salt (GdCl3) as a precursor to produce gadolinium beta double-prime alumina (Gd-ß?-alumina) samples. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and microstructural analysis were performed on the ion-exchanged discs to determine the relationship between ion exchange and Gd3+ ion conductivity. The ion-exchanged tubes were configured as potentiometric sensors in order to monitor real-time Gd3+ ion concentrations in mixtures of gadolinium

  12. Highly Sensitive Multi-Channel IDC Sensor Array for Low Concentration Taste Detection

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Md. Rajibur Rahaman; Kang, Shin-Won

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we designed and developed an interdigitated capacitor (IDC)-based taste sensor array to detect different taste substances. The designed taste sensing array has four IDC sensing elements. The four IDC taste sensing elements of the array are fabricated by incorporating four different types of lipids into the polymer, dioctyl phenylphosphonate (DOPP) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) to make the respective dielectric materials that are individually placed onto an interdigitated electrode (IDE) via spin coating. When the dielectric material of an IDC sensing element comes into contact with a taste substance, its dielectric properties change with the capacitance of the IDC sensing element; this, in turn, changes the voltage across the IDC, as well as the output voltage of each channel of the system. In order to assess the effectiveness of the sensing system, four taste substances, namely sourness (HCl), saltiness (NaCl), sweetness (glucose) and bitterness (quinine-HCl), were tested. The IDC taste sensor array had rapid response and recovery times of about 12.9 s and 13.39 s, respectively, with highly stable response properties. The response property of the proposed IDC taste sensor array was linear, and its correlation coefficient R2 was about 0.9958 over the dynamic range of the taste sensor array as the taste substance concentration was varied from 1 μM to 1 M. The proposed IDC taste sensor array has several other advantages, such as real-time monitoring capabilities, high sensitivity 45.78 mV/decade, good reproducibility with a standard deviation of about 0.029 and compactness, and the circuitry is based on readily available and inexpensive electronic components. The proposed IDC taste sensor array was compared with the potentiometric taste sensor with respect to sensitivity, dynamic range width, linearity and response time. We found that the proposed IDC sensor array has better performance. Finally, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to

  13. Tunable Pickering emulsions with polymer-grafted lignin nanoparticles (PGLNs).

    PubMed

    Silmore, Kevin S; Gupta, Chetali; Washburn, Newell R

    2016-03-15

    Lignin is an abundant biopolymer that has native interfacial functions but aggregates strongly in aqueous media. Polyacrylamide was grafted onto kraft lignin nanoparticles using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) chemistry to form polymer-grafted lignin nanoparticles (PGLNs) that tune aggregation strength while retaining interfacial activities in forming Pickering emulsions. Polymer graft density on the particle surface, ionic strength, and initial water and cyclohexane volume fractions were varied and found to have profound effects on emulsion characteristics, including emulsion volume fraction, droplet size, and particle interfacial concentration that were attributed to changes in lignin aggregation and hydrophobic interactions. In particular, salt concentration was found to have a significant effect on aggregation, zeta potential, and interfacial tension, which was attributed to changes in solubility of both the kraft lignin and the polyacrylamide grafts. Dynamic light scattering, UV-vis spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and tensiometry were used to quantify emulsion properties and nanoparticle behavior. Under all conditions, the emulsions exhibited relatively fast creaming but were stable against coalescence and Ostwald ripening for a period of months. All emulsions were also oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions, as predicted by the Bancroft rule, and no catastrophic phase inversions were observed for any nanoparticle compositions. We conclude that lower grafting density of polyacrylamide on a lignin core resulted in high levels of interfacial activity, as characterized by higher concentration at the water-cyclohexane interface with a corresponding decrease in interfacial tension. These results indicate that the interfacial properties of polymer-grafted lignin nanoparticles are primarily due to the native hydrophobic interactions of the lignin core. These results suggest that the forces that drive aggregation are also correlated with interfacial

  14. Bioaerosol standoff detection and correlation assessment with concentration and viability point sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buteau, Sylvie; Simard, Jean-Robert; Rowsell, Susan; Roy, Gilles

    2010-10-01

    A standoff bioaerosol sensor based on intensified range-gated spectrometric detection of Laser Induced Fluorescence was used to spectrally characterize bioaerosol simulants during in-chamber and open-air releases at Suffield, Canada, in August 2008 from a standoff position. In total, 42 in-chamber Bacillus atrophaeus (formerly Bacillus subtilis var globigii; BG) cloud and 27 open-air releases of either BG, Pantoea agglomerans (formerly Erwinia herbicola; EH), MS2 and ovalbumin (OV) were generated. The clouds were refereed by different point sensors including Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) and slit or impingers samplers. The APS monitored the particle size distribution and concentration and the samplers characterized the viable portion of the cloud. The extracted spectral signatures show robustness to different degree. The correlation assessment showed good results in most cases where the LIF signal to noise ratio was significant. The sensor 4σ sensitivity was evaluated to 1 300, 600, 100 and 30 ppl for BG, OV, MS2 and EH respectively. Correlation results are presented by plotting the SINBAHD metric versus the corresponding particle concentration, in which case, the obtained slope is proportional to the material fluorescence cross-section. The different acquired signal is hence compared in terms of their fluorescence cross-section additionally to their spectral characteristics.

  15. Comparison of different methods for lignin determination as a basis for calibration of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy and implications of lignoproteins.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Kirsten; Blaschke, Lothar; Polle, Andrea

    2002-12-01

    Three commonly employed methods for lignin determination, i.e., the thioglycolic acid (TGA), the acetylbromide (AB), and the acid detergent fiber (ADF) method, were compared using leaves and xylem tissue from five species (Nicotiana tabacum, Populus x canescens, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur, and Picea abies). In each case, cell walls were isolated before lignin determination. Each of the three methods estimated a different lignin concentration in a given tissue, except for spruce wood. The "lignin" concentration determined with the AB method was strongly dependent on whether or not the cell walls were subjected to alkaline hydrolysis to remove covalently bound aromatic nonligneous components before lignin determination. Lignin concentrations determined in hydrolyzed cell walls of different tissues and species by the AB method showed a good correlation with those obtained by the TGA method and, thus, were convertible. In contrast, gravimetrically estimated ADF lignins did not or only moderately correlate with lignins measured with methods based on the UV absorbance of the solubilized lignin degradation products. Leaves of a given species generally contained higher ADF-lignin concentrations than the corresponding stem tissue. Both ADF and TGA lignin data of beech were used to calibrate near-infrared reflectance spectra (NIRS) for lignin prediction. Both NIRS calibration procedures gave good statistical fits with correlation coefficients close to 1, indicating that TGA and ADF lignin concentrations of beech can be estimated by NIRS with high accuracy. However, the two calibrations were based on different empirical terms, showing that TGA and ADF lignins did not share the same physical basis for calibration. C/N analysis revealed the presence of 3.1 and 1.4% nitrogen in ADF lignins of beech leaves and wood, respectively. The major fraction of this nitrogen was recovered in amino acids, which corresponded to 14% and 3% protein in ADF lignins of leaves and wood

  16. Ethanol vapor above skin: determination by a gas sensor instrument and relationship with plasma concentration.

    PubMed

    Giles, H G; Meggiorini, S; Renaud, G E; Thiessen, J J; Vidins, E I; Compton, K V; Saldivia, V; Orrego, H; Israel, Y

    1987-06-01

    Studies with a new instrument show that blood ethanol concentrations in rats and humans can be estimated by measurement of ethanol vapor above the skin. After intravenous bolus administration of ethanol (1 g/kg) to rats a novel device based on the Figaro sensor was placed above the animal's abdomen. Plasma and skin vapor ethanol concentrations, analyzed by gas chromatography and sensor, respectively, declined in parallel (r = 0.96). In healthy human subjects, plasma and skin vapor concentrations, measured on the palm, also declined in parallel after intravenous ethanol infusion (1 hr, 0.5 g/kg), r = 0.99. In 10 alcoholic liver disease outpatients attending clinic in whom plasma ethanol concentrations ranged from 32-304 mg/dl, the correlation of plasma ethanol determined directly by gas chromatography and indirectly by skin vapor analysis was slope = 0.93, intercept = 1.8, r = 0.94. In controlled studies, skin vapor measurements are comparable with breathalyzer determinations; they may be performed in situations where breathalyzer measurements are inconvenient or where continuous monitoring is desirable.

  17. Development of a diagnostic sensor for measuring blood cell concentrations during haemoconcentration

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Craig A.; Gourlay, Terence

    2016-01-01

    Background: HemoSep® is a commercial ultrafiltration and haemoconcentration device for the concentration of residual bypass blood following surgery. This technology is capable of reducing blood loss in cardiac and other types of “clean site” procedures, including paediatric surgery. Clinical feedback suggested that the device would be enhanced by including a sensor technology capable of discerning the concentration level of the processed blood product. We sought to develop a novel sensor that can, using light absorption, give an accurate estimate of packed cell volume (PCV). Materials and methods: A sensor-housing unit was 3D printed and the factors influencing the sensor’s effectiveness – supply voltage, sensitivity and emitter intensity - were optimised. We developed a smart system, using comparator circuitry capable of visually informing the user when adequate PCV levels (⩾35%) are attained by HemoSep® blood processing, which ultimately indicates that the blood is ready for autotransfusion. Results: Our data demonstrated that the device was capable of identifying blood concentration at and beyond the 35% PCV level. The device was found to be 100% accurate at identifying concentration levels of 35% from a starting level of 20%. Discussion: The sensory capability was integrated into HemoSep’s® current device and is designed to enhance the user’s clinical experience and to optimise the benefits of HemoSep® therapy. The present study focused on laboratory studies using bovine blood. Further studies are now planned in the clinical setting to confirm the efficacy of the device. PMID:27591743

  18. Enzymatic tranformations of lignin. Annual report 1 July 1980-30 June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Glasser, W.G.; Hall, P.L.

    1981-06-01

    Research is summarized on biological approaches to the utilization of lignin degradation to raw material for the manufacture of chemicals and materials. This investigation studied the possible involvement of reduced oxygen species produced by the white-rot fungus, C. versicolor, in the initial breakdown of the lignin macromolecule during its biodegradation. This fungus was shown to be capable of exporting superoxide radical. While the degree to which this organism was responsible for actual lignin degradation is not clear, there were indications that a correlation may exist between the concentration of extracellular superoxide radical in the medium and the extent of lignin degradation. Two different fermentation schemes were compared and several control fermentation experiments were made. Research dealing with improvements in lignin structure analysis, liquefaction of lignin preparations by reaction with propylene oxide, and solidification of liquified kraft lignin by crosslinking with diisocyanate compounds was explored. The use of scanning electron microscopy for revealing interaction between fiber and binder is noted.

  19. On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence

    DOEpatents

    Jeffers, L.A.; Malito, M.L.

    1996-01-23

    Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method. 6 figs.

  20. On-line measurement of lignin in wood pulp by color shift of fluorescence

    DOEpatents

    Jeffers, Larry A.; Malito, Michael L.

    1996-01-01

    Lignin concentrations from wood pulp samples are measured by applying an excitation light at a selected wavelength to the samples in order to cause the lignin to emit fluorescence. A spectral distribution of the fluorescence emission is then determined. The lignin concentration is then calculated based on the spectral distribution signal. The spectral distribution is quantified by either a wavelength centroid method or a band ratio method.

  1. Determination of D- and L-alanine concentrations using a pyruvic acid sensor.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Yohei; Hamada-Sato, Naoko; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Imada, Chiaki; Watanabe, Etsuo

    2003-08-01

    The concentrations of D- and L-alanine in bivalves are useful as indicators of environmental pollution. Amino acid oxidase with a low substrate specificity catalyzes the oxidation of various amino acids. Among the various amino acids, pyruvic acid can be generated from alanine only by the catalytic oxidative reaction of this oxidase. Therefore, in this study, the concentrations of D- and L-alanine were determined from the concentration of pyruvic acid, which was determined from the consumption of oxygen based on the oxidative reaction of pyruvate oxidase. From this point of view, there is a very strong possibility that biosensors utilizing enzymes with a low substrate specificity can be developed. The results obtained were as follows. (1) The optimum conditions for the use of pyruvic acid sensor were as follows: temperature of 25 degrees C, pH of 6.8, flow rate of 0.1 ml/min, thiamin diphosphate concentration of 1.5 mM, and injection volume of 50 microl. (2) D-Alanine and L-alanine optimally reacted with D- and L-amino acid oxidase at 30 degrees C, pH 8.2, for 30 min and at 37 degrees C, pH 7.8, for 90 min, respectively. (3) The linear relationships between the concentrations of D- and L-alanine and the output of the sensor were obtained at 3.56-106.8 microg of D-alanine and 5.34-71.3 microg of L-alanine. (4) The concentrations of D- and L-alanine in Meretrix iusoria, Patinopecten yessonsi, and Corbicula leana obtained by the proposed assay were in good agreement with those determined by a conventional method.

  2. Lignin as renewable raw material.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Flores, Francisco García; Dobado, José A

    2010-11-22

    Lignin is by far the most abundant substance based on aromatic moieties in nature, and the largest contributor to soil organic matter. Millions of tonnes of several lignin preparations are produced by the paper industry every year, and a minimal amount of lignin is isolated by direct extraction of lignin from plants. Lignin is used either directly or chemically modified, as a binder, dispersant agent for pesticides, emulsifier, heavy metal sequestrant, or component for composites and copolymers. For value-added applications of lignin to be improved, medium- and long-term conversion technologies must be developed, especially for the preparation of low-molecular-weight compounds as an alternative to the petrochemical industry.

  3. Self-Powered Active Sensor with Concentric Topography of Piezoelectric Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuh, Yiin Kuen; Huang, Zih Ming; Wang, Bo Sheng; Li, Shan Chien

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated a flexible and self-powered sensor based on piezoelectric fibers in the diameter range of nano- and micro-scales. Our work is distinctively different from previous electrospinning research; we fabricated this apparatus precisely via near-field electrospinning which has a spectacular performance to harvest mechanical deformation in arbitrary direction and a novel concentrically circular topography. There are many piezoelectric devices based on electrospinning polymeric fibers. However, the fibers were mostly patterned in parallel lines and they could be actuated in limited direction only. To overcome this predicament, we re-arranged the parallel alignment into concentric circle pattern which made it possible to collect the mechanical energy whenever the deformation is along same axis or not. Despite the change of topography, the output voltage and current could still reach to 5 V and 400 nA, respectively, despite the mechanical deformation was from different direction. This new arbitrarily directional piezoelectric generator with concentrically circular topography (PGCT) allowed the piezoelectric device to harvest more mechanical energy than the one-directional alignment fiber-based devices, and this PGCT could perform even better output which promised more versatile and efficient using as a wearable electronics or sensor.

  4. Self-Powered Active Sensor with Concentric Topography of Piezoelectric Fibers.

    PubMed

    Fuh, Yiin Kuen; Huang, Zih Ming; Wang, Bo Sheng; Li, Shan Chien

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we demonstrated a flexible and self-powered sensor based on piezoelectric fibers in the diameter range of nano- and micro-scales. Our work is distinctively different from previous electrospinning research; we fabricated this apparatus precisely via near-field electrospinning which has a spectacular performance to harvest mechanical deformation in arbitrary direction and a novel concentrically circular topography. There are many piezoelectric devices based on electrospinning polymeric fibers. However, the fibers were mostly patterned in parallel lines and they could be actuated in limited direction only. To overcome this predicament, we re-arranged the parallel alignment into concentric circle pattern which made it possible to collect the mechanical energy whenever the deformation is along same axis or not. Despite the change of topography, the output voltage and current could still reach to 5 V and 400 nA, respectively, despite the mechanical deformation was from different direction. This new arbitrarily directional piezoelectric generator with concentrically circular topography (PGCT) allowed the piezoelectric device to harvest more mechanical energy than the one-directional alignment fiber-based devices, and this PGCT could perform even better output which promised more versatile and efficient using as a wearable electronics or sensor.

  5. Lignin blockers and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Bin; Wyman, Charles E

    2013-11-12

    Disclosed is a method for converting cellulose in a lignocellulosic biomass. The method provides for a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein treatment of high lignin solids. The treatment enhances cellulase availability in cellulose conversion and allows for the determination of optimized pretreatment conditions. Additionally, ethanol yields from a Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process are improved 5-25% by treatment with a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein.

  6. Azo Dye Biodecolorization Enhanced by Echinodontium taxodii Cultured with Lignin

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jing; Yu, Hongbo; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulose facilitates the fungal oxidization of recalcitrant organic pollutants through the extracellular ligninolytic enzymes induced by lignin in wood or other plant tissues. However, available information on this phenomenon is insufficient. Free radical chain reactions during lignin metabolism are important in xenobiotic removal. Thus, the effect of lignin on azo dye decolorization in vivo by Echinodontium taxodii was evaluated. In the presence of lignin, optimum decolorization percentages for Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R, Direct Red 5B, Direct Black 38, and Direct Black 22 were 91.75% (control, 65.96%), 76.89% (control, 43.78%), 43.44% (control, 17.02%), and 44.75% (control, 12.16%), respectively, in the submerged cultures. Laccase was the most important enzyme during biodecolorization. Aside from the stimulating of laccase activity, lignin might be degraded by E. taxodii, and then these degraded low-molecular-weight metabolites could act as redox mediators promoting decolorization of azo dyes. The relationship between laccase and lignin degradation was investigated through decolorization tests in vitro with purified enzyme and dozens of aromatics, which can be derivatives of lignin and can function as laccase mediators or inducers. Dyes were decolorized at triple or even higher rates in certain laccase–aromatic systems at chemical concentrations as low as 10 µM. PMID:25285777

  7. Azo dye biodecolorization enhanced by Echinodontium taxodii cultured with lignin.

    PubMed

    Han, Yuling; Shi, Lili; Meng, Jing; Yu, Hongbo; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulose facilitates the fungal oxidization of recalcitrant organic pollutants through the extracellular ligninolytic enzymes induced by lignin in wood or other plant tissues. However, available information on this phenomenon is insufficient. Free radical chain reactions during lignin metabolism are important in xenobiotic removal. Thus, the effect of lignin on azo dye decolorization in vivo by Echinodontium taxodii was evaluated. In the presence of lignin, optimum decolorization percentages for Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R, Direct Red 5B, Direct Black 38, and Direct Black 22 were 91.75% (control, 65.96%), 76.89% (control, 43.78%), 43.44% (control, 17.02%), and 44.75% (control, 12.16%), respectively, in the submerged cultures. Laccase was the most important enzyme during biodecolorization. Aside from the stimulating of laccase activity, lignin might be degraded by E. taxodii, and then these degraded low-molecular-weight metabolites could act as redox mediators promoting decolorization of azo dyes. The relationship between laccase and lignin degradation was investigated through decolorization tests in vitro with purified enzyme and dozens of aromatics, which can be derivatives of lignin and can function as laccase mediators or inducers. Dyes were decolorized at triple or even higher rates in certain laccase-aromatic systems at chemical concentrations as low as 10 µM.

  8. Producing a True Lignin Depolymerase for Biobleaching Softwood Kraft Pulp

    SciTech Connect

    Simo Sarkanen

    2002-02-04

    This project constituted an intensive effort devoted to producing, from the white-rot fungus Tramets Cingulata, a lignin degrading enzyme (lignin depolymerase) that is directly able to biobleach or delignify softwood kraft pulp brownstock. To this end, the solutions in which T. cingulata was grown contained dissolved kraft lignin which fulfilled two functions; it behaved as a lignin deploymerase substrate and it also appeared to act as an inducer of enzyme expression. However, the lignin depolymerase isoenzymes (and other extracellular T. cingulata enzymes) interacted very strongly with both the kraft lignin components and the fungal hypae, so the isolating these proteins from the culture solutions proved to be unexpectedly difficult. Even after extensive experimentation with a variety of protein purification techniques, only one approach appeared to be capable of purifying lignin depolymerases to homogeneity. Unfortunately the procedure was extremely laborious; it involved the iso electric focusing of concentrated buffer-exchanged culture solutions followed by electro-elution of the desired protein bands from the appropriate polyacrylamide gel segments

  9. Density functional theory study of spirodienone stereoisomers in lignin

    Treesearch

    Thomas Elder; Laura Berstis; Gregg T. Beckham; Michael F. Crowley

    2017-01-01

    The spirodienone structure in lignin is a relatively recent discovery, and it has been found to occur in lignin of various plant species at concentrations of ∼3%, which is sufficiently high to be important for better understanding of its properties and reactivity. The cyclic structure, with a β-1 bond, has been proposed to be a precursor for acyclic β-1 linkages in...

  10. Novel multi wavelength sensor concept to measure carboxy- and methemoglobin concentration non-invasively

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timm, Ulrich; Kraitl, Jens; Gewiss, Helge; Kamysek, Svend; Brock, Beate; Ewald, Hartmut

    2016-03-01

    This paper will describe a novel multi-wavelength photometric method to measure carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and methemoglobin (MetHb) concentration non-invasively. COHb and MetHb are so called dysfunctional hemoglobin derivatives and they are not able to carry oxygen. Standard pulse oximeters are only able to measure two derivatives, namely oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb) but the presence of other derivatives in the blood may distort the readings. The paper presents a new approach of a noninvasive sensor system to measure COHb and MetHb and the validation in vivo and in vitro.

  11. On-chip pressure sensor using single-layer concentric chambers

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chia-Hung Dylan; Kaneko, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    A vision-based on-chip sensor for sensing local pressure inside a microfluidic device is proposed and evaluated in this paper. The local pressure is determined from the change of color intensity in the sensing chamber which is pre-filled with colored fluid. The working principle of the sensor is based on polydimethylsiloxane deformation. The pressure at the point of interest is guided into a deformation chamber, where the structural stiffness is softened by chamber geometry, and thus, the chamber deforms as a result of pressure changes. Such deformation is transmitted to the sensing chamber, a same-layer concentric inside the deformation chamber. The deformation in the sensing chamber causes the colored fluid flowing in or out the chamber and leads to different color intensity from the top view through a microscope. Experimental evaluations on static and dynamic responses by regulated input pressures were conducted. The correlation in static response is 0.97 while the dynamic responses are successfully observed up to 16 Hz. The greatest advantage is that the local pressure can be directly seen without any additional hardware or electricity. The whole sensor is on a single-layer microfluidic design, so that the fabrication is simple, consistent, and low-cost. The single-layer design also provides the convenience of easy integration for existing microfluidic systems. PMID:27076864

  12. Development of novel potentiometric sensors for determination of tartrazine dye concentration in foodstuff products.

    PubMed

    Abu Shawish, Hazem M; Ghalwa, Nasser Abu; Saadeh, Salman M; El Harazeen, Heba

    2013-05-01

    Tartrazine dye Na(3)TZ in foodstuff products was determined by a new modified carbon paste electrode, encoded sensor A, and a coated silver wire electrode, encoded sensor B, based on tartrazine TZ- cetryltrimethyl ammoniumbromide CTAB as a chemical modifier TZ-CTA. The electrodes exhibit the following characteristics listed respectively: a Nernstian slope of 17.9±0.5 and 19.4±0.2 mV/decade for tartrazine ion over a wide concentration range from 4.3×10(-7) to 1.0×10(-2) and 1.1×10(-7) to 1.0×10(-2) M. The lower detection limits: 3.2×10(-7) and 5.5×10(-8) M. Short response time (5-8 s) over the pH range 3.8-7.7 and 4.2-8.1. The proposed sensors display significantly high selectivity for TZ ion over a wide variety of sugars, some anions, common organic, inorganic compounds and additives. The developed electrodes were applied to the potentiometric determination of tartrazine ion in different kinds of foodstuffs: solid jelly (strawberry and custard) powder samples and soft drink (orange) samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Impact of Sepiolite on Sensor Parameters during the Detection of Low Concentrations of Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Suchorska-Woźniak, Patrycja; Rac, Olga; Fiedot, Marta; Teterycz, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of the detection of low-concentration C1–C4 alcohols using a planar sensor, in which a sepiolite filter was applied next to the gas-sensitive layer based on tin dioxide. The sepiolite layer is composed of tubes that have a length of several microns, and the diameter of the single tube ranges from several to tens of nanometers. The sepiolite layer itself demonstrated no chemical activity in the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOC), and the passive filter made of this material did not modify the chemical composition of the gaseous atmosphere diffusing to the gas-sensitive layer. The test results revealed that the structural remodelling of the sepiolite that occurs under the influence of temperature, as well as the effect of the filter (a compound with ionic bonds) with molecules of water, has a significant impact on the improvement of the sensitivity of the sensor in relation to volatile organic compounds when compared to the sensor without a filter. PMID:27834879

  14. A spherical-structure based fiber sensor for simultaneous measurement of ammonia gas concentration and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; Liu, Dejun; Lian, Xiaokang; Mallik, Arun Kumar; Wei, Fangfang; Sun, Lei; Farrell, Gerald; Semenova, Yuliya; Wu, Qiang

    2016-11-01

    A novel fiber sensor for simultaneous measurement of ammonia gas concentration and temperature is proposed. The sensor is fabricated from two sections of single-mode fiber which are cleaved and then a fusion splicer and which is then used to fabricate spherically shaped structures at the end facets. The fusion arc is used to soften the glass which naturally assumes a spherical shape due to surface tension. A short section of multimode fiber is then fusion spliced with the two spherical-shaped ends of the single mode fibers so both the core modes and the cladding modes of the multimode fiber are excited to create two kinds of interference dips: One is created by core modes only which is not sensitive to ammonia gas since the core is isolated by the cladding so the effective refractive index of the core does not change when the refractive index of the environment changes, The other dip is created by the coupling of the core mode and cladding mod, which with a suitable coating is sensitive to ammonia gas. Silica sol-gel was prepared and coated on the fiber surface as a sensing layer for detecting ammonia gas concentration. The experimental results show that the two dips have linear wavelength shift responses but with different sensitivities to ammonia gas concentration (5.03×10-4nm/ppm for dip1 and -2.5×10- 5nm/ppm for dip2) and temperature (0.0067 nm/ºC for dip1 and 0.0149 nm/ºC for dip2. By constructing a wavelength shifts matrix for the two dips vs. ammonia gas concentration and temperature, both the ammonia gas concentration and temperature can be measured simultaneously.

  15. Effects of suspended sediment concentration and grain size on three optical turbidity sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merten, Gustavo Henrique; Capel, Paul D.; Minella, Jean P.G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Optical turbidity sensors have been successfully used to determine suspended sediment flux in rivers, assuming the relation between the turbidity signal and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) has been appropriately calibrated. Sediment size, shape and colour affect turbidity and are important to incorporate into the calibration process. Materials and methods: This study evaluates the effect of SSC and particle size (i.e. medium sand, fine sand, very fine sand, and fines (silt + clay)) on the sensitivity of the turbidity signal. Three different turbidity sensors were used, with photo detectors positioned at 90 and 180 degrees relative to the axis of incident light. Five different sediment ratios of sand:fines (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0) were also evaluated for a single SSC (1000 mg l-1). Results and discussion: The photo detectors positioned at 90 degrees were more sensitive than sensor positioned at 180 degrees in reading a wide variety of grain size particles. On average for the three turbidity sensors, the sensitivity for fines were 170, 40, and 4 times greater than sensitivities for medium sand, fine sand, and very fine sand, respectively. For an SSC of 1000 mg l-1 with the treatments composed of different proportions of sand and fines, the presence of sand in the mixture linearly reduced the turbidity signal. Conclusions: The results indicate that calibration of the turbidity signal should be carried out in situ and that the attenuation of the turbidity signal due to sand can be corrected, as long as the proportion of sand in the SSC can be estimated.

  16. Design of reflective optical fiber sensor for determining refractive index and sugar concentration of aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzuki, Ahmad; Wulan Sari, Nila; Riatun

    2016-02-01

    A reflective optical fiber sensor designed for measuring refractive index and sugar concentration of aqueous solutions is described. Two strains of parallel polymer optical fibers (POF) were wrapped in a bundle such that one of their fiber's end cross-sections had the same distance to the mirror surface. The light coming out from one strain of the fiber was reflected by the mirror to the second fiber. Sugar concentration of the aqueous solution filling the space between the fiber ends and the mirror was varied (1.0 M, 1.5 M, 2.0 M, 2.5 M, 3.0 M, 4.0 M, and 5.0 M). It was shown from the experiment that light intensity detected by photo-detector is linearly related to the percentage of the dissolved sugar in the solution as well as the variation of the sugar solution refractive index (R2 = 0.987).

  17. Recent Advances in Nanoparticle Concentration and Their Application in Viral Detection Using Integrated Sensors.

    PubMed

    Dincau, Brian M; Lee, Yongkuk; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Yeo, Woon-Hong

    2017-10-11

    Early disease diagnostics require rapid, sensitive, and selective detection methods for target analytes. Specifically, early viral detection in a point-of-care setting is critical in preventing epidemics and the spread of disease. However, conventional methods such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays or cell cultures are cumbersome and difficult for field use due to the requirements of extensive lab equipment and highly trained personnel, as well as limited sensitivity. Recent advances in nanoparticle concentration have given rise to many novel detection methodologies, which address the shortcomings in modern clinical assays. Here, we review the primary, well-characterized methods for nanoparticle concentration in the context of viral detection via diffusion, centrifugation and microfiltration, electric and magnetic fields, and nano-microfluidics. Details of the concentration mechanisms and examples of related applications provide valuable information to design portable, integrated sensors. This study reviews a wide range of concentration techniques and compares their advantages and disadvantages with respect to viral particle detection. We conclude by highlighting selected concentration methods and devices for next-generation biosensing systems.

  18. Using Potentiometric Free Drug Sensors to Determine the Free Concentration of Ionizable Drugs in Colloidal Systems.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thuy; Chakraborty, Anjan; Xi, Xi; Bohets, Hugo; Cornett, Claus; Tsinman, Konstantin; Rades, Thomas; Müllertz, Anette

    2017-05-23

    The present study investigates the use of free drug sensors (FDS) to measure free ionized drug concentrations in colloidal systems, including micellar solutions, emulsions, and lipid formulations during in vitro lipolysis. Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DPH) and loperamide hydrochloride (LOP) were selected as model drugs. Self-diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance studies were performed and confirmed the entrapment of drugs in micelles in Brij 35 and sodium taurodeoxycholate (TDC)/phosphatidylcholine (PC) micellar solutions. The FDS measurements indicated that with a constant level of drug, the percentage of free DPH and LOP decreased from 84% to 57% and from 51% to 18%, respectively, as the concentration of Brij 35 was increased from 4.7 to 22 mM; and from 99% to 46% and from 100% to 21%, respectively, as the concentration of TDC/PC was increased from 0.49/0.04 to 8.85/0.78 mM. During the in vitro lipolysis of a lipid formulation, free drug concentration decreased with lipolysis time. The percentage of free DPH was higher than for LOP in the same colloidal system because DPH is less lipophilic than LOP. The study showed that FDS can be used to monitor the free drug concentration in colloidal systems with fast response, no sample treatment and simple data analysis. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lignin Valorization: Improving Lignin Processing in the Biorefinery

    SciTech Connect

    Ragauskas, Arthur; Beckham, Gregg; Biddy, Mary J; Chandra, Richard; Chen, Fang; Davis, Dr. Mark F.; Davison, Brian H; Dixon, Richard; Gilna, Paul; Keller, Martin; Langan, Paul; Naskar, Amit K; Saddler, Jack N; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Tuskan, Gerald A; Wyman, Charles E,; Harber, Karen S

    2014-01-01

    Research and development activities directed toward commercial production of cellulosic ethanol have created the opportunity to dramatically increase the transformation of lignin to value-added products. Here we highlight recent advances in this lignin valorization effort. Discovery of genetic variants in native populations of bioenergy crops and direct manipulation of biosynthesis pathways have produced lignin feedstocks with favorable properties for recovery and downstream conversion. Advances in analytical chemistry and computational modeling detail the structure of the modified lignin and direct bioengineering strategies for future targeted properties. Refinement of biomass pretreatment technologies has further facilitated lignin recovery, and this coupled with genetic engineering will enable new uses for this biopolymer, including low-cost carbon fibers, engineered plastics and thermoplastic elastomers, polymeric foams, fungible fuels, and commodity chemicals.

  20. Lignin valorization: improving lignin processing in the biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Ragauskas, Arthur J; Beckham, Gregg T; Biddy, Mary J; Chandra, Richard; Chen, Fang; Davis, Mark F; Davison, Brian H; Dixon, Richard A; Gilna, Paul; Keller, Martin; Langan, Paul; Naskar, Amit K; Saddler, Jack N; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Tuskan, Gerald A; Wyman, Charles E

    2014-05-16

    Research and development activities directed toward commercial production of cellulosic ethanol have created the opportunity to dramatically increase the transformation of lignin to value-added products. Here, we highlight recent advances in this lignin valorization effort. Discovery of genetic variants in native populations of bioenergy crops and direct manipulation of biosynthesis pathways have produced lignin feedstocks with favorable properties for recovery and downstream conversion. Advances in analytical chemistry and computational modeling detail the structure of the modified lignin and direct bioengineering strategies for future targeted properties. Refinement of biomass pretreatment technologies has further facilitated lignin recovery, and this coupled with genetic engineering will enable new uses for this biopolymer, including low-cost carbon fibers, engineered plastics and thermoplastic elastomers, polymeric foams, fungible fuels, and commodity chemicals.

  1. A Multifunctional Sensor for Concentrations of Ternary Solution with NaCl and Sucrose Employed in Osmotic Dehydration Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Guo; Shida, Katsunori

    2003-08-01

    Ternary solution with NaCl and sucrose is widely employed in the osmotic dehydration process of food. In this paper we present a multifunctional sensor capable of directly sensing temperature and two physical parameters of solutions, namely ultrasonic velocity and electrical conductivity. By combination measurement of these three measurable parameters, the concentrations of various components in ternary solution with NaCl and sucrose can be simultaneously determined. A regression algorithm based on natural cubic spline interpolation and the least squares method is developed to estimate the concentrations of NaCl and sucrose, which considers the temperature influence on the multifunctional sensor and then enables decoupling of the reconstruction of concentrations in 4D space into 3D space. This sensor could prove valuable as a process control sensor in food industry.

  2. UV-Vis as quantification tool for solubilized lignin following a single-shot steam process.

    PubMed

    Lee, Roland A; Bédard, Charles; Berberi, Véronique; Beauchet, Romain; Lavoie, Jean-Michel

    2013-09-01

    In this short communication, UV/Vis was used as an analytical tool for the quantification of lignin concentrations in aqueous mediums. A significant correlation was determined between absorbance and concentration of lignin in solution. For this study, lignin was produced from different types of biomasses (willow, aspen, softwood, canary grass and hemp) using steam processes. Quantification was performed at 212, 225, 237, 270, 280 and 287 nm. UV-Vis quantification of lignin was found suitable for different types of biomass making this a timesaving analytical system that could lead to uses as Process Analytical Tool (PAT) in biorefineries utilizing steam processes or comparable approaches.

  3. Peroxidases Bound to the Growing Lignin Polymer Produce Natural Like Extracellular Lignin in a Cell Culture of Norway Spruce

    PubMed Central

    Warinowski, Tino; Koutaniemi, Sanna; Kärkönen, Anna; Sundberg, Ilari; Toikka, Merja; Simola, Liisa Kaarina; Kilpeläinen, Ilkka; Teeri, Teemu H.

    2016-01-01

    Lignin, an important component of plant cell walls, is a polymer of monolignols derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Monolignols are oxidized in the cell wall by oxidative enzymes (peroxidases and/or laccases) to radicals, which then couple with the growing lignin polymer. We have investigated the characteristics of the polymerization reaction by producing lignin polymers in vitro using different oxidative enzymes and analyzing the structures formed with NMR. The ability of the enzymes to oxidize high-molecular-weight compounds was tested using cytochrome c as a substrate. The results support an idea that lignin structure is largely determined by the concentration ratios of the monolignol (coniferyl alcohol) and polymer radicals involved in the coupling reaction. High rate of the lignin polymer oxidation compared to monolignol oxidation leads to a natural-like structure. The high relative rate can be achieved by an open active site of the oxidative enzyme, close proximity of the enzyme with the polymeric substrate or simply by high enzymatic activity that consumes monolignols rapidly. Monolignols, which are oxidized efficiently, can be seen as competitive inhibitors of polymer oxidation. Our results indicate that, at least in a Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) cell culture, a group of apoplastic, polymer-oxidizing peroxidases bind to the lignin polymer and are responsible for production of natural-like lignin in cell suspension cultures in vivo, and also in vitro. The peroxidases bound to the extracellular lignin had the highest ability to bind to various cell wall polymers in vitro. Extracellular lignin contains pectin-type sugars, making them possible attachment points for these cationic peroxidases. PMID:27803704

  4. Membrane Technology for the Recovery of Lignin: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Humpert, Daniel; Ebrahimi, Mehrdad; Czermak, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Utilization of renewable resources is becoming increasingly important, and only sustainable processes that convert such resources into useful products can achieve environmentally beneficial economic growth. Wastewater from the pulp and paper industry is an unutilized resource offering the potential to recover valuable products such as lignin, pigments, and water [1]. The recovery of lignin is particularly important because it has many applications, and membrane technology has been investigated as the basis of innovative recovery solutions. The concentration of lignin can be increased from 62 to 285 g∙L−1 using membranes and the recovered lignin is extremely pure. Membrane technology is also scalable and adaptable to different waste liquors from the pulp and paper industry. PMID:27608047

  5. Lignin Bioproducts to Enable Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wyman, Charles E.; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2015-09-15

    Here we report that today's and tomorrow's biofuels production facilities could benefit tremendously from increasing the value from the large amount of lignin that results from biofuels operations. Certainly, the scientific community, and biofuels industry has begun to recognize the challenges and opportunities associated with lignin.

  6. Lignin Bioproducts to Enable Biofuels

    DOE PAGES

    Wyman, Charles E.; Ragauskas, Arthur J

    2015-09-15

    Here we report that today's and tomorrow's biofuels production facilities could benefit tremendously from increasing the value from the large amount of lignin that results from biofuels operations. Certainly, the scientific community, and biofuels industry has begun to recognize the challenges and opportunities associated with lignin.

  7. Comparison of XAD with other dissolved lignin isolation techniques and a compilation of analytical improvements for the analysis of lignin in aquatic settings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, R.G.M.; Aiken, G.R.; Dyda, R.Y.; Butler, K.D.; Bergamaschi, B.A.; Hernes, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript highlights numerous incremental improvements in dissolved lignin measurements over the nearly three decades since CuO oxidation of lignin phenols was first adapted for environmental samples. Intercomparison of the recovery efficiency of three common lignin phenol concentration and isolation techniques, namely XAD, C18 with both CH3OH (C18M) and CH3CN (C18A) used independently for priming and elution steps, and tangential flow filtration (TFF) for a range of aquatic samples including fresh, estuarine and marine waters, was undertaken. With freshwater samples XAD8-1, C18M and TFF were all observed to recover ca. 80-90% of the lignin phenols and showed no fractionation effects with respect to diagnostic lignin parameters. With estuarine and marine samples more lignin phenols were recovered with C18M and XAD8-1 than TFF because of the increased prevalence of low molecular weight lignin phenols in marine influenced samples. For marine systems, differences were also observed between diagnostic lignin parameters isolated via TFF vs. C18M and XAD8-1 as a result of the high molecular weight lignin phenols being less degraded than the bulk. Therefore, it is recommended for future studies of marine systems that only one technique is utilized for ease of intercomparison within studies. It is suggested that for studies solely aimed at recovering bulk dissolved lignin in marine environments that C18M and XAD8-1 appear to be more suitable than TFF as they recover more lignin. Our results highlight that, for freshwater samples, all three common lignin phenol concentration and isolation techniques are comparable to whole water concentrated by rotary evaporation (i.e. not isolated) but, that for marine systems, the choice of concentration and isolation techniques needs to be taken into consideration with respect to both lignin concentration and diagnostic parameters. Finally, as the study highlights XAD8-1 to be a suitable method for the isolation of dissolved lignin

  8. Comparison of XAD with other dissolved lignin isolation techniques and a compilation of analytical improvements for the analysis of lignin in aquatic settings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, Robert G. M.; Aiken, George R.; Dyda, Rachael Y.; Butler, Kenna; Bergamaschi, Brian; Hernes, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript highlights numerous incremental improvements in dissolved lignin measurements over the nearly three decades since CuO oxidation of lignin phenols was first adapted for environmental samples. Intercomparison of the recovery efficiency of three common lignin phenol concentration and isolation techniques, namely XAD, C18with both CH3OH (C18M) and CH3CN (C18A) used independently for priming and elution steps, and tangential flow filtration (TFF) for a range of aquatic samples including fresh, estuarine and marine waters, was undertaken. With freshwater samples XAD8-1, C18M and TFF were all observed to recover ca. 80–90% of the lignin phenols and showed no fractionation effects with respect to diagnostic lignin parameters. With estuarine and marine samples more lignin phenols were recovered with C18M and XAD8-1 than TFF because of the increased prevalence of low molecular weight lignin phenols in marine influenced samples. For marine systems, differences were also observed between diagnostic lignin parameters isolated via TFF vs. C18M and XAD8-1 as a result of the high molecular weight lignin phenols being less degraded than the bulk. Therefore, it is recommended for future studies of marine systems that only one technique is utilized for ease of intercomparison within studies. It is suggested that for studies solely aimed at recovering bulk dissolved lignin in marine environments that C18M and XAD8-1 appear to be more suitable than TFF as they recover more lignin. Our results highlight that, for freshwater samples, all three common lignin phenol concentration and isolation techniques are comparable to whole water concentrated by rotary evaporation (i.e. not isolated) but, that for marine systems, the choice of concentration and isolation techniques needs to be taken into consideration with respect to both lignin concentration and diagnostic parameters. Finally, as the study highlights XAD8-1 to be a suitable method for the isolation of dissolved

  9. A microfluidic long-period fiber grating sensor platform for chloride ion concentration measurement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Neng

    2011-01-01

    Optical fiber sensors based on waveguide technology are promising and attractive in chemical, biotechnological, agronomy, and civil engineering applications. A microfluidic system equipped with a long-period fiber grating (LPFG) capable of measuring chloride ion concentrations of several sample materials is presented. The LPFG-based microfluidic platform was shown to be effective in sensing very small quantities of samples and its transmitted light signal could easily be used as a measurand. The investigated sample materials included reverse osmosis (RO) water, tap water, dilute aqueous sample of sea sand soaked in RO water, aqueous sample of sea sand soaked in RO water, dilute seawater, and seawater. By employing additionally a chloride ion-selective electrode sensor for the calibration of chloride-ion concentration, a useful correlation (R2 = 0.975) was found between the separately-measured chloride concentration and the light intensity transmitted through the LPFG at a wavelength of 1,550 nm. Experimental results show that the sensitivity of the LPFG sensor by light intensity interrogation was determined to be 5.0 × 10(-6) mW/mg/L for chloride ion concentrations below 2,400 mg/L. The results obtained from the analysis of data variations in time-series measurements for all sample materials show that standard deviations of output power were relatively small and found in the range of 7.413 × 10(-5)-2.769 × 10(-3) mW. In addition, a fairly small coefficients of variations were also obtained, which were in the range of 0.03%-1.29% and decreased with the decrease of chloride ion concentrations of sample materials. Moreover, the analysis of stability performance of the LPFG sensor indicated that the random walk coefficient decreased with the increase of the chloride ion concentration, illustrating that measurement stability using the microfluidic platform was capable of measuring transmitted optical power with accuracy in the range of -0.8569 mW/ [Formula: see text

  10. Development of a fan-beam TDLAS-based tomographic sensor for rapid imaging of temperature and gas concentration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Xu, Lijun; Chen, Jianliang; Cao, Zhang; Lin, Yuzhen; Cai, Weiwei

    2015-08-24

    This work aims to develop a fan-beam tomographic sensor using tunable diode lasers that can simultaneously image temperature and gas concentration with both high spatial and temporal resolutions. The sensor features three key advantages. First, the sensor bases on a stationary fan-beam arrangement, by which a high spatial resolution is guaranteed because the distance between two neighboring detectors in a view is approximately reduced to the size of a photodiode. Second, fan-beam illumination from five views is simultaneously generated instead of rotating either the fanned beams or the target, which significantly enhances the temporal resolution. Third, a novel set of optics with the combination of anamorphic prism pair and cylindrical lens is designed, which greatly improves the uniformity of the planar beams, and hence improves the reconstruction fidelity. This paper reports the tomographic model, optics design, numerical simulation and experimental validation of the sensor. The sensor exhibits good applicability for flame monitoring and combustion diagnosis.

  11. Software sensors for biomass concentration in a SSC process using artificial neural networks and support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Acuña, Gonzalo; Ramirez, Cristian; Curilem, Millaray

    2014-01-01

    The lack of sensors for some relevant state variables in fermentation processes can be coped by developing appropriate software sensors. In this work, NARX-ANN, NARMAX-ANN, NARX-SVM and NARMAX-SVM models are compared when acting as software sensors of biomass concentration for a solid substrate cultivation (SSC) process. Results show that NARMAX-SVM outperforms the other models with an SMAPE index under 9 for a 20 % amplitude noise. In addition, NARMAX models perform better than NARX models under the same noise conditions because of their better predictive capabilities as they include prediction errors as inputs. In the case of perturbation of initial conditions of the autoregressive variable, NARX models exhibited better convergence capabilities. This work also confirms that a difficult to measure variable, like biomass concentration, can be estimated on-line from easy to measure variables like CO₂ and O₂ using an adequate software sensor based on computational intelligence techniques.

  12. Microfabricated Collector-Generator Electrode Sensor for Measuring Absolute pH and Oxygen Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Dengler, Adam K; Wightman, R Mark; McCarty, Gregory S

    2015-10-20

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) has attracted attention for studying in vivo neurotransmission due to its subsecond temporal resolution, selectivity, and sensitivity. Traditional FSCV measurements use background subtraction to isolate changes in the local electrochemical environment, providing detailed information on fluctuations in the concentration of electroactive species. This background subtraction removes information about constant or slowly changing concentrations. However, determination of background concentrations is still important for understanding functioning brain tissue. For example, neural activity is known to consume oxygen and produce carbon dioxide which affects local levels of oxygen and pH. Here, we present a microfabricated microelectrode array which uses FSCV to detect the absolute levels of oxygen and pH in vitro. The sensor is a collector-generator electrode array with carbon microelectrodes spaced 5 μm apart. In this work, a periodic potential step is applied at the generator producing transient local changes in the electrochemical environment. The collector electrode continuously performs FSCV enabling these induced changes in concentration to be recorded with the sensitivity and selectivity of FSCV. A negative potential step applied at the generator produces a transient local pH shift at the collector. The generator-induced pH signal is detected using FSCV at the collector and correlated to absolute solution pH by postcalibration of the anodic peak position. In addition, in oxygenated solutions a negative potential step at the generator produces hydrogen peroxide by reducing oxygen. Hydrogen peroxide is detected with FSCV at the collector electrode, and the magnitude of the oxidative peak is proportional to absolute oxygen concentrations. Oxygen interference on the pH signal is minimal and can be accounted for with a postcalibration.

  13. Raman spectra of lignin model compounds

    Treesearch

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Richard S. Reiner; Ashok K. Pandey; Sally A. Ralph; Kolby C. Hirth; Rajai H. Atalla

    2005-01-01

    To fully exploit the value of Raman spectroscopy for analyzing lignins and lignin containing materials, a detailed understanding of lignins’ Raman spectra needs to be achieved. Although advances made thus far have led to significant growth in application of Raman techniques, further developments are needed to improve upon the existing knowledge. Considering that lignin...

  14. 21 CFR 573.600 - Lignin sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lignin sulfonates. 573.600 Section 573.600 Food... Additive Listing § 573.600 Lignin sulfonates. Lignin sulfonates may be safely used in animal feeds in... feeds, as liquid lignin sulfonate, in an amount not to exceed 11 percent of the molasses. (4) As a...

  15. 21 CFR 573.600 - Lignin sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lignin sulfonates. 573.600 Section 573.600 Food... Additive Listing § 573.600 Lignin sulfonates. Lignin sulfonates may be safely used in animal feeds in... feeds, as liquid lignin sulfonate, in an amount not to exceed 11 percent of the molasses. (4) As a...

  16. Utilization of chemically modified lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Chem, M.J.

    1996-10-01

    A chemical modification method has been developed to convert lignin into lignin graft copolymers. The graft products are macromolecular surface active agents because, within each molecule, a hydrocarbon sidechain has been gown off of a natural oxyphenylpropyl backbone. Surface activity of the graft copolymers was indicated by their capacity to form stable emulsions between incompatible fluid phases and to adhesively bond to wood surfaces. Lignin has been grafted with ethenylbenzene (styrene), 4-methyl-2-oxy-3-oxopent-4-ene (methylmethacrylate), 2-propenamide(acrylamide), 2-propene nitrile (acrylonitrile), cationic monomers, and anionic monomers. Synthesis with anionic, cationic, or polar nonionic monomers produced water soluble, lignin copolymers that were effective dispersing, flocculating, and surface active agents. The nonionic polymers and their hydrolysis products are effective thinners and suspending agents for drilling mud formulations. In reactions with ethenylbenzene, lignin was used to make thermoplastic materials. These products have been shown to be poly(lignin-g-(1-phenylethylene))-containing materials by a series of solubility and extraction tests and are formed with 90% or more grafting efficiency for lignin. These materials have been shown to be thermoplastics, coupling agents for wood and plastic, and biodegradable plastics.

  17. Synthesis and properties of lignin peroxidase from Streptomyces viridosporus T7A

    SciTech Connect

    Lodha, S.J.; Korus, R.A.; Crawford, D.L.

    1991-12-31

    The production of lignin peroxidase by Streptomyces viridosporus T7A was studied in shake flasks and under aerobic conditions in a 7.5-L batch fermentor. Lignin peroxidase synthesis was found to be strongly affected by catabolite repression. Lignin peroxidase was a non-growth-associated, secondary metabolite. The maximum lignin peroxidase activity was 0.064 U/mL at 36 h. In order to maximize lignin peroxidase activity, optimal conditions were determined. The optimal incubation temperature, pH, and substrate (2,4-dichlorophenol) concentration for the enzyme assays were 45{degrees}C, 6, and 3 m-M, respectively. Stability of lignin peroxidase was determined at 37, 45, and 60{degrees}C, and over the pH range 4-9.

  18. Degradation of Lignin in Agricultural Residues by locally Isolated Fungus Neurospora discreta.

    PubMed

    Pamidipati, Sirisha; Ahmed, Asma

    2016-11-03

    Locally isolated fungus, Neurospora discreta, was evaluated for its ability to degrade lignin in two agricultural residues: cocopeat and sugarcane bagasse with varying lignin concentrations and structures. Using Klason's lignin estimation, high-performance liquid chromatography, and UV-visible spectroscopy, we found that N. discreta was able to degrade up to twice as much lignin in sugarcane bagasse as the well-known white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and produced nearly 1.5 times the amount of lignin degradation products in submerged culture. Based on this data, N. discreta is a promising alternative to white rot fungi for faster microbial pre-treatment of agricultural residues. This paper presents the lignin degrading capability of N. discreta for the first time and also discusses the difference in biodegradability of cocopeat and sugarcane bagasse as seen from the analysis carried out using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  19. Kraft lignin biorefinery: A proposal.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianjun; Zhang, Quanguo; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2017-09-01

    Lignin is a huge energy and carbon reserve but owing to its highly biologically recalcitrant nature it is commonly regarded as a waste in lignocellulosic biomass biorefinery. To realize the lignin biorefinery, it is proposed to use Kraft lignin, isolated from black liquor from Kraft pulping mills, as starting material to be fragmented by fast pyrolysis or selective catalysis to aromatic sub-units and to be post-refining with additional cleavage reaction and separation/purification as commodity aromatics pool in chemical industries. This Note calls for research efforts on detailed investigation of the feasibility of this proposed scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Diagnostics of two-phase flows with high concentration of a solid dispersed phase using fiber-optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evseev, A. R.

    2016-10-01

    This paper is focused on the physical modeling of two-phase flows with high concentration of the dispersed phase. The fiber-optical sensors and their calibration procedure were developed for bubble concentration measurements in the fluidized bed apparatus (FB). Distributions of bubble concentration in the 2D and 3D FB apparatuses, which determine the quality of fluidization and local density of filling material, were obtained. The techniques of particle velocity and concentration measurements in the circulating fluidized bed (CFB) was developed using three-fiber sensor (the differential scheme of LDA) operated in backscattering regime. Sensor operation was analyzed and the main systematic measurement errors were determined; the original construction of the sensor was designed. The data on the velocity and concentration profiles of dispersed phase in a large-scale CFB apparatus were obtained for fluidization of particles by air. It was found that with increasing circulation velocity in the CFB apparatus, the particle concentration increases in the near-wall region much higher than in the flow core. The method of particle velocity measurements in a liquid was developed using the laser Doppler fiber anemometer (LDFA-1), operating in the backscattering regime. The signal to noise ratio was obtained for particles of different size and material in test measurements. The rates of consolidated precipitation of cryolite particles in a sedimentation apparatus with the inclined walls were measured.

  1. A coal mine multi-point fiber ethylene gas concentration sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yubin; Chang, Jun; Lian, Jie; Liu, Tongyu

    2015-03-01

    Spontaneous combustion of the coal mine goaf is one of the main disasters in the coal mine. The detection technology based on symbolic gas is the main means to realize the spontaneous combustion prediction of the coal mine goaf, and ethylene gas is an important symbol gas of spontaneous combustion in the coal accelerated oxidation stage. In order to overcome the problem of current coal ethylene detection, the paper presents a mine optical fiber multi-point ethylene concentration sensor based on the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. Based on the experiments and analysis of the near-infrared spectrum of ethylene, the system employed the 1.62 μm (DFB) wavelength fiber coupled distributed feedback laser as the light source. By using the wavelength scanning technique and developing a stable fiber coupled Herriot type long path gas absorption cell, a ppm-level high sensitivity detecting system for the concentration of ethylene gas was realized, which could meet the needs of coal mine fire prevention goaf prediction.

  2. Compositional dynamics of dissolved lignin in watersheds: small temperate streams to large tropical rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, N. D.; Keil, R. G.; Medeiros, P. M.; Brito, D.; Krusche, A. V.; Richey, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    The most abundant biochemicals on land are cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Lignin, alone, composes roughly 30% of the organic carbon (OC) in the terrestrial biosphere (Boerjan et al., 2003) and a significant portion of the OC mobilized into stream and river networks worldwide. Here we present a synthesis of several studies examining (i) the mobilization dynamics/compositional changes in dissolved lignin during rapid storm events in small temperate streams (Hood Canal, WA, USA), and (ii) the respiration dynamics/biological overturning of dissolved (and particulate) lignin in the Amazon River mainstem. Rapid sampling (3 hour intervals) during short-term rainfall events has revealed that the concentration of dissolved lignin phenols (as well as DOC) in small temperate streams is strongly correlated with river discharge (Ward et al., 2012). Additionally, rapid discharge increases resulted in an increase in Ad/Al and C/V ratios and decrease in the S/V ratio of dissolved lignin phenols, indicating a mobilization of relatively degraded non-woody/gymnosperm-derived material in the dissolved phase during storms occurring after a long dry period. We hypothesize that sorption to soil surfaces imparts an additional control on lignin mobilization: degraded phenols are relatively more soluble than their non-degraded counterparts and are easily mobilized by rapid flow, whereas non-degraded phenols are slowly mobilized by base flow and continuously degraded in soils. Once lignin is mobilized into the aquatic setting it is often assumed to be refractory. However, evidence in the Amazon River mainstem suggests the contrary. We have assessed the biodegradability of dissolved (and particulate) lignin, as well as a vast suite (~120) of similar phenolic compounds with a series of incubation experiments performed on four Amazon River cruises. We estimate that on average the degradation of lignin and similar phenolic compounds supports 30-50% of bulk respiration rates in the river

  3. Effects of lignin-metal complexation on enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose.

    PubMed

    Liu, H; Zhu, J Y; Fu, S Y

    2010-06-23

    This study investigated the inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis by unbound lignin (soluble and insoluble) with or without the addition of metal compounds. Sulfonated, Organosolv, and Kraft lignin were added in aqueous enzyme-cellulose systems at different concentrations before hydrolysis. The measured substrate enzymatic digestibility (SED) of cellulose was decreased by 15% when SL was added to a concentration of 0.1 g/L due to nonproductive adsorption of enzymes onto lignin. Cu(II) and Fe(III) were found to inhibit enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis in the presence of lignin. Ca(II) and Mg(II) were found to reduce or eliminate nonproductive enzyme adsorption by the formation of lignin-metal complex. The addition of Ca(II) or Mg(II) to a concentration of 10 mM can almost completely eliminate the reduction in SED caused by the nonproductive enzyme adsorption onto the lignins studied (SL, OL, or KL at concentration of 0.1 g/L). Ca(II) was also found to reduce the inhibitive effect of bound lignin in pretreated wood substrate, suggesting that Ca(II) can also form complex with bound lignin on pretreated solid lignocelluloses. Significant improvement in SED of about over 27% of a eucalyptus substrate produced by sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) was achieved with the application of Ca(II).

  4. Effects of lignin-metal complexation on enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose

    Treesearch

    H. Liu; Junyong Zhu; S.Y. Fu

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis by unbound lignin (soluble and insoluble) with or without the addition of metal compounds. Sulfonated, Organosolv, and Kraft lignin were added in aqueous enzyme-cellulose systems at different concentrations before hydrolysis. The measured substrate enzymatic digestibility (SED) of cellulose was decreased by...

  5. Higher acid-chlorite reactivity of cell corner middle lamella lignin in black spruce

    Treesearch

    Umesh P. Agarwal

    2007-01-01

    To determine if there was a delignification behavior difference between secondary wall (S2) and middle lamella (cell corner or CC) lignin, black spruce cross-sections were acid-chlorite delignified and the tissue was evaluated in-situ by Raman imaging. Lignin concentration in S2 and CC was determined in numerous latewood cell areas in the two hour delignified cross...

  6. In situ measurement of Cl- concentrations and pH at the reinforcing steel/concrete interface by combination sensors.

    PubMed

    Du, Rong-Gui; Hu, Rong-Gang; Huang, Ruo-Shuang; Lin, Chang-Jian

    2006-05-01

    This paper presents an in situ, nondestructive method of monitoring Cl- concentrations and pH values at the steel/concrete interface. The Ag/AgCl electrodes prepared by the electrochemical anodization and the Ir/IrO2 electrodes prepared by thermal oxidation in carbonate served as Cl- concentration and pH sensors, respectively. The potentiometric response of the Ag/AgCl electrode to the logarithm of Cl- concentrations ranging from 1 x 10(-4) to 2 M in saturated Ca(OH)2 solution simulating the inner electrolytic medium of concrete shows good linearity. The Ir/IrO2 electrode also exhibits an ideal Nernstian response in the range of pH 1-14. The Ag/AgCl and Ir/IrO2 electrodes were combined into a multiplex Cl-/pH sensor, and the sensor was embedded in concrete close to the steel/concrete interface to realize an in situ and long-term measurement of Cl- concentrations and pH values. The results indicate that the combined sensor is robust and sensitive enough to in situ measure Cl- concentrations and pH quantitatively at the steel/concrete interface, which is of indispensable importance to the study of corrosion and protection of the steel in concrete.

  7. Two-color-absorption sensor for time-resolved measurements of gasoline concentration and temperature.

    PubMed

    Pyun, Sung Hyun; Porter, Jason M; Jeffries, Jay B; Hanson, Ronald K; Montoya, Juan C; Allen, Mark G; Sholes, Kevin R

    2009-11-20

    A midinfrared absorption sensor for crank-angle-resolved in-cylinder measurements of gasoline concentration and gas temperature for spark-ignition internal-combustion engines is reported, and design considerations and validation testing in the controlled environments of a heated cell and shock-heated gases are discussed. Mid-IR laser light was tuned to transitions in the strong absorption bands associated with C-H stretching vibration near 3.4 microm, and time-resolved fuel vapor concentration and gas temperature were determined simultaneously from the absorption at two different wavelengths. These two infrared laser wavelengths were simultaneously produced by difference-frequency generation, which combines a near-IR signal laser with two near-IR pump lasers in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. Injection current modulation of the pump lasers produced intensity modulation of the mid-IR, which allowed the transmitted signals from the two laser wavelengths to be detected on a single detector and separated by frequency demultiplexing. Injection current modulation produced a wavelength modulation synchronous with the intensity modulation for each of the laser wavelengths, and accurate measurement of the gasoline absorption signal required the effects of wavelength modulation to be considered. Validation experiments were conducted for a single-component hydrocarbon fuel (2,2,4-trimethyl-pentane, commonly known as iso-octane) and a gasoline blend in a heated static cell (300 < or = T < or = 600 K) and behind planar shock waves (600 < T < 1100 K) in a shock tube. With a bandwidth of 10 kHz, the measured fuel concentrations agreed within 5% RMS and the measured temperature agreed within 3% RMS to the known values. The 10 kHz bandwidth is sufficient to resolve 1 crank-angle degree at 1600 RPM.

  8. Increasing the lignin yield of the Alkaline Polyol Pulping process by treating black liquor with laccases of Myceliophthora thermophila.

    PubMed

    Engel, Norman; Hundt, Martin; Schapals, Tino

    2016-03-01

    The Alkaline Polyol Pulping process separates cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass by dissolving lignin to a great extent. Due to the pulping conditions the dissolved lignin depolymerises and only 75% can be precipitated. To increase this amount, a 24 h reaction of laccases of Myceliophthora thermophila with lignin dissolved in black liquor of the AlkaPolP process was investigated. The influence of pH, temperature, enzyme concentration and partial oxygen pressure was examined in a batch stirred tank reactor using a Box-Behnken factorial design. Due to the enzymatic reaction the lignin polymerises which results in an enhanced lignin precipitation. The addition of a mediator improves the polymerisation but decreases the amount of precipitable lignin. The influence of the parameters on precipitation yield and molecular mass can sufficiently be described with a second-order model and optimum conditions can be assessed. FT-IR spectra of the obtained lignins revealed that its typical phenolic structure is preserved.

  9. Measurement of sucrose and ethanol concentrations in process streams and effluents of sugarcane bioethanol industry by optical fiber sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Eric; Ono, Eduardo; Manfrim, Tarcio P.; Santos, Juliana S.; Suzuki, Carlos K.

    2011-05-01

    The measurement of process streams and effluents from sugar-ethanol industry by using optical fiber sensor based on Fresnel reflection principle is reported. Firstly, binary sucrose-water and ethanol-water solutions were measured in order to determine the calibration curves. Secondly, the co-products from various processing stages were analyzed in order to identify the sucrose or ethanol concentration. The absolute error was calculated by comparison between the nominal concentration values obtained by plant laboratory analysis and the sensor response, yielding errors <= 5 wt% and <= 5 vol% for sucrose and ethanol content, respectively. The fiber sensor provided reliable results even for samples with more complex compositions than pure sucrose or ethanol solutions, with perspectives of application on the several stages of the plant facility.

  10. RECENT ADVANCES IN UNDERSTANDING LIGNIN BIOSYNTHESIS.

    PubMed

    Whetten, Ross W.; MacKay, John J.; Sederoff, Ronald R.

    1998-06-01

    After a long period of little change, the basic concepts of lignin biosynthesis have been challenged by new results from genetic modification of lignin content and composition. New techniques for making directed genetic changes in plants, as well as improvements in the analytical techniques used to determine lignin content and composition in plant cell walls, have been used in experimental tests of the accepted lignin biosynthetic pathway. The lignins obtained from genetically modified plants have shown unexpected properties, and these findings have extended the known range of variation in lignin content and composition. These results argue that the accepted lignin biosynthetic pathway is either incomplete or incorrect, or both; and also suggest that plants may have a high level of metabolic plasticity in the formation of lignins. If this is so, the properties of novel lignins could be of significant scientific and practical interest.

  11. Interfacial properties of lignin-based electrospun nanofibers and films reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Ago, Mariko; Jakes, Joseph E; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Park, Sunkyu; Rojas, Orlando J

    2012-12-01

    Sub-100 nm resolution local thermal analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and water contact angle (WCA) measurements were used to relate surface polymer distribution with the composition of electrospun fiber mats and spin coated films obtained from aqueous dispersions of lignin, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and cellulose nanocrystal (CNC). Defect-free lignin/PVA fibers were produced with radii which were observed to increase with lignin concentration and with the addition of CNCs. XPS and WCA results indicate a nonlinear relationship between the surface and the bulk compositions. A threshold around 50 wt % bulk composition was identified in which extensive partitioning of PVA and lignin components occurred on the surface below and above this value. In 75:25 wt % lignin/PVA solvent cast films, phase separated domains were observed. Using nanoscale thermal analyses, the continuous phase was determined to be lignin-rich and the discontinuous phase had a lignin/PVA dispersion. Importantly, the size of the phase separated domains was reduced by the addition of CNCs. When electrospun fiber surfaces were lignin-rich, the addition of CNCs affected their surfaces. In contrast, no surface effects were observed with the addition of CNCs in PVA-rich fibers. Overall, we highlight the importance of molecular interactions and phase separation on the surface properties of fibers from lignin as an abundant raw material for the fabrication of new functional materials.

  12. Probing the lignin nanomechanical properties and lignin lignin interactions using the atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micic, Miodrag; Benitez, Ivan; Ruano, Melanie; Mavers, Melissa; Jeremic, Milorad; Radotic, Ksenija; Moy, Vincent; Leblanc, Roger M.

    2001-10-01

    By combining atomic force microscopy (AFM) force and environmental scanning electron microscopies (ESEMs), herein we present an evidence for the existence of strong intermolecular forces, which are responsible for holding lignin globules together in higher ordered structures. Based on this observation, we provide a support for the hypothesis that lignin globules consist of at least two individual spherical layers, with space in between filled with solvent or gas.

  13. Fluorescence-based proxies for lignin in freshwater dissolved organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hernes, Peter J.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Eckard, Robert S.; Spencer, Robert G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Lignin phenols have proven to be powerful biomarkers in environmental studies; however, the complexity of lignin analysis limits the number of samples and thus spatial and temporal resolution in any given study. In contrast, spectrophotometric characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) is rapid, noninvasive, relatively inexpensive, requires small sample volumes, and can even be measured in situ to capture fine-scale temporal and spatial detail of DOM cycling. Here we present a series of cross-validated Partial Least Squares models that use fluorescence properties of DOM to explain up to 91% of lignin compositional and concentration variability in samples collected seasonally over 2 years in the Sacramento River/San Joaquin River Delta in California, United States. These models were subsequently used to predict lignin composition and concentration from fluorescence measurements collected during a diurnal study in the San Joaquin River. While modeled lignin composition remained largely unchanged over the diurnal cycle, changes in modeled lignin concentrations were much greater than expected and indicate that the sensitivity of fluorescence-based proxies for lignin may prove invaluable as a tool for selecting the most informative samples for detailed lignin characterization. With adequate calibration, similar models could be used to significantly expand our ability to study sources and processing of DOM in complex surface water systems.

  14. Fractionation and physicochemical characterization of lignin from waste jute bags: Effect of process parameters on yield and thermal degradation.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Dheeraj; Kaushik, Anupama; Chauhan, Ghanshyam S

    2017-04-01

    In this work lignin was extracted from waste jute bags using soda cooking method and effect of varying alkali concentration and pH on yield, purity, structure and thermal degradation of lignin were studied. The Lignin yield, chemical composition and purity were assessed using TAPPI method and UV-vis spectroscopy. Yield and purity of lignin ranged from 27 to 58% and 50-94%, respectively for all the samples and was maximum for 8% alkali concentration and at pH 2 giving higher thermal stability. Chemical structure, thermal stability and elementary analysis of lignin were studied using FTIR, (H)NMR, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Elemental analyzer. FTIR and (H)NMR results showed that core structure of lignin starts breaking beyond 10% alkali concentration. S/G ratio shows the dominance of Syringyl unit over guaiacyl unit.

  15. Enhanced Uranium Ore Concentrate Analysis by Handheld Raman Sensor: FY15 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Orton, Christopher R.

    2015-11-11

    High-purity uranium ore concentrates (UOC) represent a potential proliferation concern. A cost-effective, “point and shoot” in-field analysis capability to identify ore types, phases of materials present, and impurities, as well as estimate the overall purity would be prudent. Handheld, Raman-based sensor systems are capable of identifying chemical properties of liquid and solid materials. While handheld Raman systems have been extensively applied to many other applications, they have not been broadly studied for application to UOC, nor have they been optimized for this class of chemical compounds. PNNL was tasked in Fiscal Year 2015 by the Office of International Safeguards (NA-241) to explore the use of Raman for UOC analysis and characterization. This report summarizes the activities in FY15 related to this project. The following tasks were included: creation of an expanded library of Raman spectra of a UOC sample set, creation of optimal chemometric analysis methods to classify UOC samples by their type and level of impurities, and exploration of the various Raman wavelengths to identify the ideal instrument settings for UOC sample interrogation.

  16. From lignin association to nano-/micro-particle preparation: Extracting higher value of lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Wenwen; Simmons, Blake; Singh, Seema; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Cheng, Gang

    2016-09-26

    As the most abundant source of renewable aromatic compounds on the planet, lignin is gaining growing interest in replacing petroleum-based chemicals and products. Value-added applications of lignin are also essential for economic viability for future bio-refineries. It is however an under-utilized natural resource due to its structural heterogeneities. Lignin nanoparticles offer many opportunities for value-added applications of lignin. The solution structures of lignin were proposed as one of the key elements in controlling lignin nano-/micro-particle preparation. Fundamental understanding of solutionstructures of lignin aid in designing better fabrication of lignin nanoparticles. A deeper understanding of the observed experimental results also points to the need for detailed studies of lignin in solution. Lastly, this review consists of two major topics, the solution structures of lignin and lignin nano-/micro-particle preparation. Suggestions for future studies regarding these two topics were also put forward.

  17. Mechanochemical modification of lignin and application of the modified lignin for thermoplastics and thermosets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaojie; Zhang, Jinwen; Xin, Junna

    In this work, mechanochemical modification of lignin and use of the modified lignin in thermoplastics and thermosets were studied. Oleated lignin was successfully prepared by transesterification between lignin and methyl, and the oleation reaction was performed in a solvent-free and room temperature ball milling process with a relatively short time. PLA/lignin blends were prepared through melt extrusion. Compared with the PLA/lignin blends, the PLA/oleated lignin blends exhibited finer dispersion of lignin in the blends, increased glass transition temperature and higher tensile properties, suggesting improved compatibility between lignin and PLA. Carboxylic and anhydride groups were also introduced into the structure of lignin via mechanochemical modification, and the resulting lignin derivatives were used as curing agents for epoxies. The dynamic mechanical properties and thermal stability of the cured epoxy resins were studied using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).

  18. From lignin association to nano-/micro-particle preparation: Extracting higher value of lignin

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Wenwen; Simmons, Blake; Singh, Seema; ...

    2016-09-26

    As the most abundant source of renewable aromatic compounds on the planet, lignin is gaining growing interest in replacing petroleum-based chemicals and products. Value-added applications of lignin are also essential for economic viability for future bio-refineries. It is however an under-utilized natural resource due to its structural heterogeneities. Lignin nanoparticles offer many opportunities for value-added applications of lignin. The solution structures of lignin were proposed as one of the key elements in controlling lignin nano-/micro-particle preparation. Fundamental understanding of solutionstructures of lignin aid in designing better fabrication of lignin nanoparticles. A deeper understanding of the observed experimental results also pointsmore » to the need for detailed studies of lignin in solution. Lastly, this review consists of two major topics, the solution structures of lignin and lignin nano-/micro-particle preparation. Suggestions for future studies regarding these two topics were also put forward.« less

  19. From lignin association to nano-/micro-particle preparation: Extracting higher value of lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Wenwen; Simmons, Blake; Singh, Seema; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Cheng, Gang

    2016-09-26

    As the most abundant source of renewable aromatic compounds on the planet, lignin is gaining growing interest in replacing petroleum-based chemicals and products. Value-added applications of lignin are also essential for economic viability for future bio-refineries. It is however an under-utilized natural resource due to its structural heterogeneities. Lignin nanoparticles offer many opportunities for value-added applications of lignin. The solution structures of lignin were proposed as one of the key elements in controlling lignin nano-/micro-particle preparation. Fundamental understanding of solutionstructures of lignin aid in designing better fabrication of lignin nanoparticles. A deeper understanding of the observed experimental results also points to the need for detailed studies of lignin in solution. Lastly, this review consists of two major topics, the solution structures of lignin and lignin nano-/micro-particle preparation. Suggestions for future studies regarding these two topics were also put forward.

  20. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-11-16

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, it has been found that lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein, we discuss the lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure–property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon.

  1. Analyzer for measurement of nitrogen oxide concentration by ozone content reduction in gas using solid state chemiluminescent sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelibanov, V. P.; Ishanin, G. G.; Isaev, L. N.

    2014-05-01

    Role of nitrogen oxide in ambient air is described and analyzed. New method of nitrogen oxide concentration measurement in gas phase is suggested based on ozone concentration measurement with titration by nitrogen oxide. Research of chemiluminescent sensor composition is carried out on experimental stand. The sensor produced on the base of solid state non-activated chemiluminescent composition is applied as ozone sensor. Composition is put on the surface of polymer matrix with developed surface. Sensor compositions includes gallic acid with addition of rodamine-6G. Model of interaction process between sensor composition and ozone has been developed, main products appeared during reaction are identified. The product determining the speed of luminescense appearance is found. This product belongs to quinone class. Then new structure of chemiluminescent composition was suggested, with absence of activation period and with high stability of operation. Experimental model of gas analyzer was constructed and operation algorithm was developed. It was demonstrated that developed NO measuring instrument would be applied for monitoring purposes of ambient air. This work was partially financially supported by Government of Russian Federation, Grant 074-U01

  2. Molecular architecture requirements for polymer-grafted lignin superplasticizers.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Chetali; Sverdlove, Madeline J; Washburn, Newell R

    2015-04-07

    Superplasticizers are a class of anionic polymer dispersants used to inhibit aggregation in hydraulic cement, lowering the yield stress of cement pastes to improve workability and reduce water requirements. The plant-derived biopolymer lignin is commonly used as a low-cost/low-performance plasticizer, but attempts to improve its effects on cement rheology through copolymerization with synthetic monomers have not led to significant improvements. Here we demonstrate that kraft lignin can form the basis for high-performance superplasticizers in hydraulic cement, but the molecular architecture must be based on a lignin core with a synthetic-polymer corona that can be produced via controlled radical polymerization. Using slump tests of ordinary Portland cement pastes, we show that polyacrylamide-grafted lignin prepared via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization can reduce the yield stress of cement paste to similar levels as a leading commercial polycarboxylate ether superplasticizer at concentrations ten-fold lower, although the lignin material produced via controlled radical polymerization does not appear to reduce the dynamic viscosity of cement paste as effectively as the polycarboxylate superplasticizer, despite having a similar affinity for the individual mineral components of ordinary Portland cement. In contrast, polyacrylamide copolymerized with a methacrylated kraft lignin via conventional free radical polymerization having a similar overall composition did not reduce the yield stress or the viscosity of cement pastes. While further work is required to elucidate the mechanism of this effect, these results indicate that controlling the architecture of polymer-grafted lignin can significantly enhance its performance as a superplasticizer for cement.

  3. The fate of lignin during hydrothermal pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass benefits from lignin removal, relocation, and/or modification during hydrothermal pretreatment. Phase transition, depolymerization/repolymerization, and solubility effects may all influence these lignin changes. To better understand how lignin is altered, Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides wood samples and cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL) isolated from P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides were subjected to batch and flowthrough pretreatments. The residual solids and liquid hydrolysate were characterized by gel permeation chromatography, heteronuclear single quantum coherence NMR, compositional analysis, and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Results Changes in the structure of the solids recovered after the pretreatment of CEL and the production of aromatic monomers point strongly to depolymerization and condensation being primary mechanisms for lignin extraction and redeposition. The differences in lignin removal and phenolic compound production from native P. trichocarpa x P. deltoides and CEL suggested that lignin-carbohydrate interactions increased lignin extraction and the extractability of syringyl groups relative to guaiacyl groups. Conclusions These insights into delignification during hydrothermal pretreatment point to desirable pretreatment strategies and plant modifications. Because depolymerization followed by repolymerization appears to be the dominant mode of lignin modification, limiting the residence time of depolymerized lignin moieties in the bulk liquid phase should reduce lignin content in pretreated biomass. In addition, the increase in lignin removal in the presence of polysaccharides suggests that increasing lignin-carbohydrate cross-links in biomass would increase delignification during pretreatment. PMID:23902789

  4. Fiber Optic Raman Sensor to Monitor Concentration Ratio of Nitrogen and Oxygen in a Cryogenic Mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, Vidhu S.; Kalluru, Rajamohan R.; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Singh, Jagdish P.; SaintCyr, William

    2007-01-01

    A spontaneous Raman scattering optical fiber sensor is developed for a specific need of NASA/SSC for long-term detection and monitoring of the quality of liquid oxygen (LOX) in the delivery line during ground testing of rocket engines. The sensor performance was tested in the laboratory and with different excitation light sources. To evaluate the sensor performance with different excitation light sources for the LOX quality application, we have used the various mixtures of liquid oxygen and liquid nitrogen as samples. The study of the sensor performance shows that this sensor offers a great deal of flexibility and provides a cost effective solution for the application. However, an improved system response time is needed for the real-time, quantitative monitoring of the quality of cryogenic fluids in harsh environment.

  5. Source to sink: Evolution of lignin composition in the Madre de Dios River system with connection to the Amazon basin and offshore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiaojuan; Feakins, Sarah J.; Liu, Zongguang; Ponton, Camilo; Wang, Renée. Z.; Karkabi, Elias; Galy, Valier; Berelson, William M.; Nottingham, Andrew T.; Meir, Patrick; West, A. Joshua

    2016-05-01

    While lignin geochemistry has been extensively investigated in the Amazon River, little is known about lignin distribution and dynamics within deep, stratified river channels or its transformations within soils prior to delivery to rivers. We characterized lignin phenols in soils, river particulate organic matter (POM), and dissolved organic matter (DOM) across a 4 km elevation gradient in the Madre de Dios River system, Peru, as well as in marine sediments to investigate the source-to-sink evolution of lignin. In soils, we found more oxidized lignin in organic horizons relative to mineral horizons. The oxidized lignin signature was maintained during transfer into rivers, and lignin was a relatively constant fraction of bulk organic carbon in soils and riverine POM. Lignin in DOM became increasingly oxidized downstream, indicating active transformation of dissolved lignin during transport, especially in the dry season. In contrast, POM accumulated undegraded lignin downstream during the wet season, suggesting that terrestrial input exceeded in-river degradation. We discovered high concentrations of relatively undegraded lignin in POM at depth in the lower Madre de Dios River in both seasons, revealing a woody undercurrent for its transfer within these deep rivers. Our study of lignin evolution in the soil-river-ocean continuum highlights important seasonal and depth variations of river carbon components and their connection to soil carbon pools, providing new insights into fluvial carbon dynamics associated with the transfer of lignin biomarkers from source to sink.

  6. Augmented switching linear dynamical system model for gas concentration estimation with MOX sensors in an open sampling system.

    PubMed

    Di Lello, Enrico; Trincavelli, Marco; Bruyninckx, Herman; De Laet, Tinne

    2014-07-11

    In this paper, we introduce a Bayesian time series model approach for gas concentration estimation using Metal Oxide (MOX) sensors in Open Sampling System (OSS). Our approach focuses on the compensation of the slow response of MOX sensors, while concurrently solving the problem of estimating the gas concentration in OSS. The proposed Augmented Switching Linear System model allows to include all the sources of uncertainty arising at each step of the problem in a single coherent probabilistic formulation. In particular, the problem of detecting on-line the current sensor dynamical regime and estimating the underlying gas concentration under environmental disturbances and noisy measurements is formulated and solved as a statistical inference problem. Our model improves, with respect to the state of the art, where system modeling approaches have been already introduced, but only provided an indirect relative measures proportional to the gas concentration and the problem of modeling uncertainty was ignored. Our approach is validated experimentally and the performances in terms of speed of and quality of the gas concentration estimation are compared with the ones obtained using a photo-ionization detector.

  7. Augmented Switching Linear Dynamical System Model for Gas Concentration Estimation with MOX Sensors in an Open Sampling System

    PubMed Central

    Di Lello, Enrico; Trincavelli, Marco; Bruyninckx, Herman; De Laet, Tinne

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a Bayesian time series model approach for gas concentration estimation using Metal Oxide (MOX) sensors in Open Sampling System (OSS). Our approach focuses on the compensation of the slow response of MOX sensors, while concurrently solving the problem of estimating the gas concentration in OSS. The proposed Augmented Switching Linear System model allows to include all the sources of uncertainty arising at each step of the problem in a single coherent probabilistic formulation. In particular, the problem of detecting on-line the current sensor dynamical regime and estimating the underlying gas concentration under environmental disturbances and noisy measurements is formulated and solved as a statistical inference problem. Our model improves, with respect to the state of the art, where system modeling approaches have been already introduced, but only provided an indirect relative measures proportional to the gas concentration and the problem of modeling uncertainty was ignored. Our approach is validated experimentally and the performances in terms of speed of and quality of the gas concentration estimation are compared with the ones obtained using a photo-ionization detector. PMID:25019637

  8. ''The control of lignin synthesis''

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, John E.

    2005-04-07

    In this project we tested the hypothesis that regulation of the synthesis of lignin in secondary xylem cells in conifer trees involves the transport of glucosylated lignin monomers to the wall of xylem cells, followed by de-glucosylation in the cell wall by monolignol-specific glucosidase enzymes, which activates the monomers for lignin polymerization. The information we gathered is relevant to the fundamental understanding of how trees make wood, and to the applied goal of more environmentally friendly pulp and paper production. We characterized the complete genomic structure of the Coniferin-specific Beta-glucosidase (CBG) gene family in the conifers loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), and partial genomic sequences were obtained in several other tree species. Both pine species contain multiple CBG genes which raises the possibility of differential regulation, perhaps related to the multiple roles of lignin in development and defense. Subsequent projects will need to include detailed gene expression studies of each gene family member during tree growth and development, and testing the role of each monolignol-specific glucosidase gene in controlling lignin content.

  9. Unravelling lignin formation and structure

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, N.G. . Inst. of Biological Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    During this study, we established that the Fagaceae exclusively accumulate Z-monolignois/glucosides, and not the E-isomers. Evidence for the presence of a novel E{yields}Z isomerse has been obtained. Our pioneering work in lignin biosynthesis and structure in situ has also progressed smoothly. We established the bonding environments of a woody angiosperm, Leucanea leucocephala, as well as wheat (T. aestivum) and tobacco (N. tabacum). A cell culture system from Pinus taeda was developed which seems ideal for investigating the early stages of lignification. These cultures excrete peroxidase isozymes, considered to be specifically involved in lignin deposition. We also studied the effect of the putative lignin-degrading enzyme, lignin peroxidase, on monolignols and dehydropolymerisates therefrom. In all cases, polymerization was observed, and not degradation; these polymers are identical to that obtained with horseradish peroxidases/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. It seems inconceivable that these enzymes can be considered as being primarily responsible for lignin biodegradation.

  10. Exploring the antioxidant potential of lignin isolated from black liquor of oil palm waste.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rajeev; Khalil, H P S A; Karim, A A

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential antioxidant activity of lignin obtained from black liquor, a hazardous waste product generated during the extraction of palm oil. Antioxidant potential of the extracted lignin was evaluated by dissolving the extracted samples in 2 different solvent systems, namely, 2-methoxy ethanol and DMSO. Results revealed high percent inhibition of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical in the lignin sample dissolved in 2-methoxy ethanol over DMSO (concentration range of 1-100 microg/ml). Lignin extracted in 2-methoxy ethanol exhibited higher inhibition percentage (at 50 microg/ml, 84.2%), whereas a concentration of 100 microg/ml was found to be effective in the case of the DMSO solvent (69.8%). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry revealed that the functional groups from the extracted lignin and commercial lignin were highly similar, indicating the purity of the lignin extracted from black liquor. These results provide a strong basis for further applications of lignin in the food industry and also illustrate an eco-friendly approach to utilize oil palm black liquor.

  11. Selective Cleavage of the Aryl Ether Bonds in Lignin for Depolymerization by Acidic Lithium Bromide Molten Salt Hydrate under Mild Conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohui; Li, Ning; Lin, Xuliang; Pan, Xuejun; Zhou, Yonghong

    2016-11-09

    The present study demonstrates that the concentrated lithium bromide (LiBr) solution with acid as catalyst was able to selectively cleave the β-O-4 aryl ether bond and lead to lignin depolymerization under mild conditions (e.g., in 60% LiBr with 0.3 M HCl at 110 °C for 2 h). Four industrial lignins from different pulping and biorefining processes, including softwood kraft lignin (SKL), hardwood kraft lignin (HKL), softwood ethanol organosolv lignin (EOL), and acid corncob lignin (ACL), were treated in the LiBr solution. The molecular weight, functional group, and interunit linkages of the lignins were characterized using GPC, FTIR, and NMR. The results indicated that the β-O-4 aryl ether bonds of the lignins were selectively cleaved, and both LiBr and HCl played crucial roles in catalyzing the cleavage of the ether bonds.

  12. Changes to Lignin Phenol and Hydroxy Alkanoic Acid yStable Carbon Isotope Composition and Concentration in ySoil Fractions from a Grassland/Woodland Conversion in ya Subtropical Savannay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filley, T.; Gamblin, D.; Boutton, T.; Liao, J.; Jastrow, J.

    2005-12-01

    The response of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools to changes in land cover during woody yplant encroachment is an issue of great importance to soil carbon modeling as grassland ysoils represent a major Earth C stock. Bulk assessments of carbon turn over in soils can ybe obtained in systems where C4 plants are being replaced by C3 trees using stable yisotope modeling along a chronosequence. Few SOC studies, however, approach the yquestion of carbon storage and turn over at the compound specific level even though ybiopolymers turnover at vastly different rates and have selective affinities for long term ypreservation. Defining what compound classes represent relatively recalcitrant or labile ypools can be made in such systems where intrinsic differences in stable isotope ycomposition and molecular chemistry are very large. We quantified changes in lignin yphenol and hydroxyl alkanoic acid chemistry and stable carbon isotope composition of ysize and density fractionated soil from the Rio Grande Plains of Texas where C4 ygrasslands (δ13C = -14%) have undergone succession to subtropical thorn woodland ydominated by C3 trees/shrubs (δ13C = -27%) over an 80 year chronosequence. yComparison of the extant of conversion of the grassland SOM to C3 carbon by bulk SOC yisotope modeling to that obtained using compound specific isotope analysis of lignin yphenols in the microaggreagate (53-250 microns), macroaggregates (>250 microns), and ythe microaggregated particulate organic matter (<1.8 g/cc) demonstrates faster turn over yfor the average bulk pool than for lignin. Additionally, p-hyroxy lignin converts to C3 at yabout twice the rate as does vanillyl and syringyl lignin phenol pools reflecting both ydifferences in input rate and ease by which the different pools can be degraded by ymicrobes. The relative extent of turn over between the physical fractions remained the ysame in the two analyses with macroaggrgates>microaggregated pom>microaggregates. yThis work adds to a

  13.  The application of computational chemistry to lignin

    Treesearch

    Thomas Elder; Laura Berstis; Nele Sophie Zwirchmayr; Gregg T. Beckham; Michael F. Crowley

    2017-01-01

    Computational chemical methods have become an important technique in the examination of the structure and reactivity of lignin. The calculations can be based either on classical or quantum mechanics, with concomitant differences in computational intensity and size restrictions. The current paper will concentrate on results developed from the latter type of calculations...

  14. ISSUES IN LIGNIN CHEMISTRY. "THE HELSINKI CONNECTION"

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This presentation covers advances in lignin chemistry (and our Helsinki connection) on dibenzodioxocins, spirodienones, and reduced structures in lignins. It also explores the various roles in defending lignification theory (based on Freudenberg's original hypothesis) against a supposed new contende...

  15. Recent advances in oxidative valorization of lignin

    DOE PAGES

    Ma, Ruoshui; Guo, Mond; Zhang, Xiao

    2017-07-21

    Lignin, an aromatic macromolecule synthesized by all higher plants, is one of the most intriguing natural materials for utilization across a wide range of applications. Depolymerization and fragmentation of lignin into small chemicals constituents which can either replace current market products or be used building blocks for new material synthesis is a focus of current lignin valorization strategies. And among the variety of lignin degradation chemistries, catalytic oxidation of lignin presents an energy efficient means of lignin depolymerization and generating selective reaction products. Our review provides a summary of the recent advancements in oxidative lignin valorization couched in a discussionmore » on how these chemistries may contribute to the degradation of the lignin macromolecule through three major approaches: 1) inter-unit linkages cleavage; 2) propanyl side-chain oxidative modification; and 3) oxidation of the aromatic ring and ring cleavage reactions.« less

  16. Lignin poly(lactic acid) copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Olsson, Johan Vilhelm; Chung, Yi-Lin; Li, Russell Jingxian; Waymouth, Robert; Sattely, Elizabeth; Billington, Sarah; Frank, Curtis W.

    2017-02-14

    Provided herein are graft co-polymers of lignin and poly(lactic acid) (lignin-g-PLA copolymer), thermoset and thermoplastic polymers including them, methods of preparing these polymers, and articles of manufacture including such polymers.

  17. Photodegradation of acidolysis lignin from BCMP.

    PubMed

    Azadfallah, Mohammad; Mirshokraei, Seyed Ahmad; Latibari, Ahmad Jahan

    2008-12-15

    A mild acidic dioxane extraction method was employed to isolate lignin from hardwood bleached chemimechanical pulp (BCMP). The isolated lignin was then purified and undergone elemental analysis. To study the photodegradation behavior, the lignin samples were impregnated onto the Whatman filter papers and irradiated with UV light for various periods. The photolyzed lignin was then recovered and analyzed by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. Phenylpropane-based formula (C(9)) of CMP pulp lignin and the photolyzed samples were then established with elemental analysis and (1)H-NMR spectroscopy data. The results indicated that the benzaldehyde and benzoic acid type compounds were the main photodegradation products of BCMP lignin. The lignin photodegradation probably involved the degradation of phenylcoumaran units. Irradiation also increased the phenolic hydroxyl group content and decreased that of methoxyl groups, due to demethoxylation. The degrees of aromatic ring condensation were increased upon continuing the irradiation time, which imples the formation of condensed structures in photolyzed lignin.

  18. Proceedings of the DOE/Industry Sensor Working Group meeting, Austin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This paper report contains topics presented at a sensor workshop group meeting. The topics describe measuring instruments of use in the pulp and paper industry. Topics include: measurement of solids fraction; process instrumentation research for the pulp paper industry; real-time non-contact optical surface motion monitor; on-machine sensors to measure paper mechanical properties; hierarchical intelligent control of industrial processes -- an in-parallel lime kiln application; proposal for research on lignin concentration measurement in pulping liquors; and advanced polymeric sensor materials for industrial drying.

  19. Lignin biopolymer based triboelectric nanogenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yukai; Wang, Ruoxing; Lu, Yunmei; Wu, Wenzhuo

    2017-07-01

    Ongoing research in triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) focuses on increasing power generation, but obstacles concerning economical and eco-friendly utilization of TENGs continue to prevail. Being the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, lignin offers a valuable opportunity for low-cost TENG applications in biomedical devices, benefitting from its biodegradability and biocompatibility. Here, we develop for the first time a lignin biopolymer based TENGs for harvesting mechanical energy in the environment, which shows great potential for self-powered biomedical devices among other applications and opens doors to new technologies that utilize otherwise wasted materials for economically feasible and ecologically friendly production of energy devices.

  20. Liquid Fuels from Lignins: Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chum, H. L.; Johnson, D. K.

    1986-01-01

    This task was initiated to assess the conversion of lignins into liquid fuels, primarily of lignins relevant to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes. The task was composed of a literature review of this area and an experimental part to obtain pertinent data on the conversion of lignins germane to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes.

  1. 40 CFR 721.5460 - Organosolv lignin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Organosolv lignin. 721.5460 Section... Substances § 721.5460 Organosolv lignin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as an organosolv lignin (PMN P-95-1584; CAS No. 8068-03-9)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5460 - Organosolv lignin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Organosolv lignin. 721.5460 Section... Substances § 721.5460 Organosolv lignin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as an organosolv lignin (PMN P-95-1584; CAS No. 8068-03-9)...

  3. 40 CFR 721.5460 - Organosolv lignin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Organosolv lignin. 721.5460 Section... Substances § 721.5460 Organosolv lignin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as an organosolv lignin (PMN P-95-1584; CAS No. 8068-03-9)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5460 - Organosolv lignin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Organosolv lignin. 721.5460 Section... Substances § 721.5460 Organosolv lignin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as an organosolv lignin (PMN P-95-1584; CAS No. 8068-03-9)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5460 - Organosolv lignin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organosolv lignin. 721.5460 Section... Substances § 721.5460 Organosolv lignin. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as an organosolv lignin (PMN P-95-1584; CAS No. 8068-03-9)...

  6. Cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising lignin

    DOEpatents

    Fenn, David; Bowman, Mark P; Zawacky, Steven R; Van Buskirk, Ellor J; Kamarchik, Peter

    2013-07-30

    A cationic electrodepositable coating composition is disclosed. The present invention in directed to a cationic electrodepositable coating composition comprising a lignin-containing cationic salt resin, that comprises (A) the reaction product of: lignin, an amine, and a carbonyl compound; (B) the reaction product of lignin, epichlorohydrin, and an amine; or (C) combinations thereof.

  7. Iron addition to soil specifically stabilized lignin

    Treesearch

    Steven J. Hall; Whendee L. Silver; Vitaliy I. Timokhin; Kenneth E. Hammel

    2016-01-01

    The importance of lignin as a recalcitrant constituent of soil organic matter (SOM) remains contested. Associations with iron (Fe) oxides have been proposed to specifically protect lignin from decomposition, but impacts of Fe-lignin interactions on mineralization rates remain unclear. Oxygen (O2) fluctuations characteristic of humid tropical...

  8. Enzymatic monitoring of lignin and lignin derivatives biooxidation.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Victor; Mamo, Gashaw

    2016-01-01

    Lignin oxidation was enzymatically monitored by measuring methanol released during the reaction. The methanol was oxidized to formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide, and the latter used to oxidize ABTS to a product measured spectrophotometrically. The efficiency was comparable to the commonly used gas chromatography method. The assay was fast and inexpensive.

  9. Optimization of lignin production from empty fruit bunch via liquefaction with ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Sidik, Dilaeleyana Abu Bakar; Ngadi, Norzita; Amin, Nor Aishah Saidina

    2013-05-01

    The production of lignin from empty fruit bunch (EFB) has been carried out using liquefaction method with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl) ionic liquid (IL), in presence of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) as a catalyst. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a factorial Central Composite Design (CCD) was employed to identify the optimum condition for lignin yield. The result indicated that the second order model was adequate for all the independent variables on the response with R(2)=0.8609. The optimum temperature, time, ionic liquid to EFB ratio, and catalyst concentration were 150.5 °C, 151 min, 3:1 wt/wt and 4.73 wt%, respectively for lignin yield=26.6%. The presence of lignin liquefied product was confirmed by UV-Vis and FTIR analysis. It was also demonstrated lignin extraction from lignocellulosic using recycled IL gave sufficient performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fractionation of organosolv lignin from olive tree clippings and its valorization to simple phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Toledano, Ana; Serrano, Luis; Balu, Alina Mariana; Luque, Rafael; Pineda, Antonio; Labidi, Jalel

    2013-03-01

    Lignin valorization practices have attracted a great deal of interest in recent years due to the large excess of lignin produced by the pulp and paper industry, together with second-generation bioethanol plants. In this work, a new lignin valorization approach is proposed. It involves ultrafiltration as a fractionation process to separate different molecular weight lignin fractions followed by a hydrogen-free, mild, hydrogenolytic, heterogeneously catalyzed methodology assisted by microwave irradiation to obtain simple phenolic, monomeric products by depolymerization using a nickel-based catalyst. The main products obtained were desaspidinol, syringaldehyde, and syringol; this proves the efficiency of the depolymerization conditions applied. The concentration of these observed compounds increased when the molecular weights of the lignin fractions increased. The applied depolymerization conditions, which take advantage of the use of formic acid as a hydrogen-donating solvent, did not generate any biochar in the systems.

  11. A Low Frequency Electromagnetic Sensor for Indirect Measurement of Glucose Concentration: In Vitro Experiments in Different Conductive Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Tura, Andrea; Sbrignadello, Stefano; Cianciavicchia, Domenico; Pacini, Giovanni; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable interest in the study of glucose-induced dielectric property variations of human tissues as a possible approach for non-invasive glycaemia monitoring. We have developed an electromagnetic sensor, and we tested in vitro its ability to estimate variations in glucose concentration of different solutions with similarities to blood (sodium chloride and Ringer-lactate solutions), differing though in the lack of any cellular components. The sensor was able to detect the effect of glucose variations over a wide range of concentrations (∼78–5,000 mg/dL), with a sensitivity of ∼0.22 mV/(mg/dL). Our proposed system may thus be useful in a new approach for non-invasive and non-contact glucose monitoring. PMID:22219665

  12. A low frequency electromagnetic sensor for indirect measurement of glucose concentration: in vitro experiments in different conductive solutions.

    PubMed

    Tura, Andrea; Sbrignadello, Stefano; Cianciavicchia, Domenico; Pacini, Giovanni; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable interest in the study of glucose-induced dielectric property variations of human tissues as a possible approach for non-invasive glycaemia monitoring. We have developed an electromagnetic sensor, and we tested in vitro its ability to estimate variations in glucose concentration of different solutions with similarities to blood (sodium chloride and Ringer-lactate solutions), differing though in the lack of any cellular components. The sensor was able to detect the effect of glucose variations over a wide range of concentrations (∼78-5,000 mg/dL), with a sensitivity of ∼0.22 mV/(mg/dL). Our proposed system may thus be useful in a new approach for non-invasive and non-contact glucose monitoring.

  13. A novel partially biobased PAN-lignin blend as a potential carbon fiber precursor.

    PubMed

    Seydibeyoğlu, M Özgür

    2012-01-01

    Blends of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and lignin were prepared with three different lignin types by solution blending and solution casting. Among three types of lignin, one type was chosen and different blend concentrations were prepared and casted. The casted blend films were characterized chemically with fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermally with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The mechanical properties of the blends were measured using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). FTIR analysis shows an excellent interaction of PAN and lignin. The interaction of the lignins and PAN was confirmed by TGA analysis. The DMA results reveal that the lignin enhance the mechanical properties of PAN at room temperature and elevated temperatures. The blend structure and morphology were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM images show that excellent polymer blends were prepared. The results show that it is possible to develop a new precursor material with a blend of lignin and PAN. These studies show that the side product of paper and cellulosic bioethanol industries, namely, lignin can be used for new application areas.

  14. New perspective on glycoside hydrolase binding to lignin from pretreated corn stover

    SciTech Connect

    Yarbrough, John M.; Mittal, Ashutosh; Mansfield, Elisabeth; Taylor, II, Larry E.; Hobdey, Sarah E.; Sammond, Deanne W.; Bomble, Yannick J.; Crowley, Michael F.; Decker, Stephen R.; Himmel, Michael E.; Vinzant, Todd B.

    2015-12-18

    Background: Non-specific binding of cellulases to lignin has been implicated as a major factor in the loss of cellulase activity during biomass conversion to sugars. It is believed that this binding may strongly impact process economics through loss of enzyme activities during hydrolysis and enzyme recycling scenarios. The current model suggests glycoside hydrolase activities are lost though non-specific/non-productive binding of carbohydrate-binding domains to lignin, limiting catalytic site access to the carbohydrate components of the cell wall. Results: In this study, we compared component enzyme affinities of a commercial Trichoderma reesei cellulase formulation, Cellic CTec2, towards extracted corn stover lignin using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and p-nitrophenyl substrate activities to monitor component binding, activity loss, and total protein binding. Protein binding was strongly affected by pH and ionic strength. β-D-glucosidases and xylanases, which do not have carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) and are basic proteins, demonstrated the strongest binding at low ionic strength, suggesting that CBMs are not the dominant factor in enzyme adsorption to lignin. Despite strong adsorption to insoluble lignin, β-D-glucosidase and xylanase activities remained high, with process yields decreasing only 4–15 % depending on lignin concentration. Conclusion: We propose that specific enzyme adsorption to lignin from a mixture of biomass-hydrolyzing enzymes is a competitive affinity where β-D-glucosidases and xylanases can displace CBM interactions with lignin. Process parameters, such as temperature, pH, and salt concentration influence the individual enzymes’ affinity for lignin, and both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions are responsible for this binding phenomenon. Moreover, our results suggest that concern regarding loss of critical cell wall degrading enzymes to lignin adsorption may be unwarranted when complex enzyme

  15. Structural modification of lignin and characterization of pretreated wheat straw by ozonation.

    PubMed

    Bule, Mahesh V; Gao, Allan H; Hiscox, Bill; Chen, Shulin

    2013-04-24

    Ozonolysis is potentially an effective method for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass to improve the production of fermentable sugars via enzymatic hydrolysis. Further understanding of the ozonolysis process and identifying specific lignin structural changes are crucial for improving the pretreatment process. Investigation into pretreatment of wheat straw using ozonolysisis is reported in this paper, with special emphasis on selective modification/degradation of lignin subunits. The ozonolysis was performed for 2 h with less than 60 mesh particles in order to achieve maximum lignin oxidation. The results showed that the lignin structure was significantly modified under these conditions, leading to higher sugar recovery of more than 50% which increased from 13.11% to 63.17% corresponding to the control and ozone treated samples, respectively. Moisture content was found to be an important parameter for improving sugar recovery. Ninety percent (w/w) moisture produced the highest sugar recovery. The concentration of acid soluble lignin in the ozone treated sample increased from 4% to 11% after 2 h treatment. NMR analysis revealed that the S2/6 and G2 lignin units in the wheat straw were most prone to oxidation by ozone as the concentration of aromatic units decreased while the carboxylic acids became more abundant. The experimental data suggest the degradation of β-O-4 moieties and aromatic ring opening in lignin subunits. The pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry results revealed that the rate of lignin unit degradation was in the following order: syringyl > guaiacyl > p-hydroxyphenyl. Long ozone exposure resulted in few condensed lignin structure formation. In addition, the formation of condensed units during this process increased the activation energy from ASTM-E, 259.74 kJ/mol; Friedman-E, 270.08 kJ/mol to ASTM-E, 509.29 kJ/mol; Friedman-E, 462.17 kJ/mol. The results provide new information in overcoming lignin barrier for lignocellulose utilization.

  16. Characterization of Miscanthus giganteus lignin isolated by ethanol organosolv process under reflux condition.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Stefan; Sorek, Hagit; Mitchell, Valerie D; Ibáñez, Ana B; Wemmer, David E

    2012-08-22

    Miscanthus giganteus lignin was extracted by an organosolv process under reflux conditions (4 h) with varying concentrations of ethanol (65%, 75%, 85%, 95%) and 0.2 M hydrochloric acid as catalyst. The resulting lignin was extensively characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2D-NMR), and chemical analysis (residual sugars, Klason lignin, ash). The predominant linkage units present were β-O-4' (82-84%), resinol (6-7%), and phenylcoumaran (10-11%). The 65% ethanol solvent system gave the lowest lignin yield (14% of starting biomass) compared to 29-32% of the other systems. Increasing ethanol concentration resulted in decreasing carbohydrate content of the lignins (3.6-1.1%), a higher solubility in tetrahydrofuran (THF), a slight reduction of the molecular weight (M(w) 2.72-2.25 KDa), an increasing α-ethoxylation, and an increase in ethoxylated phenylpropenoic compounds (p-coumaric and ferulic acid), but the S/G ratio of the monolignols (0.63, GC/MS) and Klason lignin content (86-88%) were unaffected. An extraction method for these ethyl-esterified phenylpropenoids and smaller molecular weight lignin compounds was developed. The effect of reaction time (2, 4, and 8 h) was investigated for the 95% ethanol solvent system. Besides increased lignin yield (13-43%), a slight increase in M(w) (2.21-2.38 kDa) and S/G ratio (0.53-0.68, GC-MS) was observed. Consecutive extractions suggested that these changes were not from lignin modifications (e.g., condensations) but rather from extraction of lignin of different composition. The results were compared to similar solvent systems with 95% acetone and 95% dioxane.

  17. Design and application of a class of sensors to monitor Ca2+ dynamics in high Ca2+ concentration cellular compartments

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shen; Wong, Hing-Cheung; Wang, Zhong-Min; Huang, Yun; Zou, Jin; Zhuo, You; Pennati, Andrea; Gadda, Giovanni; Delbono, Osvaldo; Yang, Jenny J.

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of Ca2+ fluctuations in the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR) is essential to defining the mechanisms of Ca2+-dependent signaling under physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we developed a unique class of genetically encoded indicators by designing a Ca2+ binding site in the EGFP. One of them, calcium sensor for detecting high concentration in the ER, exhibits unprecedented Ca2+ release kinetics with an off-rate estimated at around 700 s−1 and appropriate Ca2+ binding affinity, likely attributable to local Ca2+-induced conformational changes around the designed Ca2+ binding site and reduced chemical exchange between two chromophore states. Calcium sensor for detecting high concentration in the ER reported considerable differences in ER Ca2+ dynamics and concentration among human epithelial carcinoma cells (HeLa), human embryonic kidney 293 cells (HEK-293), and mouse myoblast cells (C2C12), enabling us to monitor SR luminal Ca2+ in flexor digitorum brevis muscle fibers to determine the mechanism of diminished SR Ca2+ release in aging mice. This sensor will be invaluable in examining pathogenesis characterized by alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis. PMID:21914846

  18. Effect of ionic liquid treatment on the structures of lignins in solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Gang; Kent, Michael S; He, Lilin; Varanasi, Patanjali; Dibble, Dean; Melnichenko, Yuri B; Simmons, Blake; Singh, Seema

    2012-01-01

    The solution structures of three types of isolated lignin - organosolv (OS), Kraft (K), and low sulfonate (LS) - before and after treatment with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate were studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) over a concentration range of 0.3-2.4 wt %. The results indicate that each of these lignins is comprised of aggregates of well-defined basal subunits, the shapes and sizes of which, in D{sub 2}O and DMSO-d{sub 6}, are revealed using these techniques. LS lignin contains a substantial amount of nanometer-scale individual subunits. In aqueous solution these subunits have a well-defined elongated shape described well by ellipsoidal and cylindrical models. At low concentration the subunits are highly expanded in alkaline solution, and the effect is screened with increasing concentration. OS lignin dissolved in DMSO was found to consist of a narrow distribution of aggregates with average radius 200 {+-} 30 nm. K lignin in DMSO consists of aggregates with a very broad size distribution. After ionic liquid (IL) treatment, LS lignin subunits in alkaline solution maintained the elongated shape but were reduced in size. IL treatment of OS and K lignins led to the release of nanometer-scale subunits with well-defined size and shape.

  19. Enzymatic conversion of lignin into renewable chemicals.

    PubMed

    Bugg, Timothy D H; Rahmanpour, Rahman

    2015-12-01

    The aromatic heteropolymer lignin is a major component of plant cell walls, and is produced industrially from paper/pulp manufacture and cellulosic bioethanol production. Conversion of lignin into renewable chemicals is a major unsolved problem in the development of a biomass-based biorefinery. The review describes recent developments in the understanding of bacterial enzymes for lignin breakdown, such as DyP peroxidases, bacterial laccases, and beta-etherase enzymes. The use of pathway engineering methods to construct genetically modified microbes to convert lignin to renewable chemicals (e.g. vanillin, adipic acid) via fermentation is discussed, and the search for novel applications for lignin (e.g. carbon fibre).

  20. Solution state NMR of lignins

    Treesearch

    John. Ralph; Jane M. Marita; Sally A. Ralph; Ronald D. Hatfield; Fachuang. Lu; Richard M. Ede; Junpeng. Peng; Larry L. Landucci

    1999-01-01

    Despite the rather random and heterogeneous nature of isolated lignins, many of their intimate structural details are revealed by diagnostic NMR experiments. 13C-NMR was recognized early-on as a high-resolution method for detailed structural characterization, aided by the almost exact agreement between chemical shifts of carbons in good low-molecular...

  1. Comparative geochemistries of lignins and carbohydrates in an anoxic fjord

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, S.E.; Hedges, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    A reducing, varved sediment core and monthly (May-September) plankton and sediment trap samples from Saanich Inlet, B.C., Canada, were analyzed for their elemental, lignin and neutral sugar compositions. Total yields of lignin-derived phenols from both the sediment trap and core samples indicated less than 15% and 30%, respectively, of chemically recognizable vascular plant remains, derived predominantly from gymnosperm wood and nonwoody angiosperm tissues. The elevated vanillyl and syringyl acid/aldehyde ratios of this material compared to fresh plant material indicated that it suffered mild aerobic decomposition prior to introduction to the Inlet. Organic carbon, total nitrogen, and total neutral sugars and lignin phenols all exhibited decreasing concentrations with depth in a region of uniform varving (upper 15 cm) in the sediment core. Neutral sugars were consistently the most reactive chemical class, accounting for roughly 15% of the total organic carbon turnover. Although lignin appeared to be degraded within the sediment core, this degradation was nonselective for different lignin types and did not lead to increased acid/aldehyde ratios as occur during aerobic lignin decomposition. Comparisons of the yields of individual neutral sugars from the sediment and sediment trap samples to those expected from the vascular plant component alone indicated that the vascular plant debris in the upper portion of the sediment core had lost a portion of its initial glucose, lyxose, and mannose. In contrast, rhamnose and fucose were produced by all samples in large excess of total yields expected for chemically intact vascular plant and plankton components and must have additional sources.

  2. Advanced Chemical Design for Efficient Lignin Bioconversion

    DOE PAGES

    Xie, Shangxian; Sun, Qining; Pu, Yunqiao; ...

    2017-01-30

    Here, lignin depolymerization mainly involves redox reactions relying on the effective electron transfer. Even though electron mediators were previously used for delignification of paper pulp, no study has established a bioprocess to fragment and solubilize the lignin with an effective laccase–mediator system, in particular, for subsequent microbial bioconversion. Efficient lignin depolymerization was achieved by screening proper electron mediators with laccase to attain a nearly 6-fold increase of kraft lignin solubility compared to the control kraft lignin without laccase treatment. Chemical analysis suggested the release of a low molecular weight fraction of kraft lignin into the solution phase. Moreover, NMR analysismore » revealed that an efficient enzyme–mediator system can promote the lignin degradation. More importantly, the fundamental mechanisms guided the development of an efficient lignin bioconversion process, where solubilized lignin from laccase–HBT treatment served as a superior substrate for bioconversion by Rhodococcus opacus PD630. The cell growth was increased by 106 fold, and the lipid titer reached 1.02 g/L. Overall, the study has manifested that an efficient enzyme–mediator–microbial system can be exploited to establish a bioprocess to solubilize lignin, cleave lignin linkages, modify the structure, and produce substrates amenable to bioconversion.« less

  3. Advanced chemical design for efficient lignin bioconversion

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Shangxian; Sun, Qining; Pu, Yunqiao; Lin, Furong; Sun, Su; Wang, Xin; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Yuan, Joshua S.

    2016-12-22

    Here, lignin depolymerization mainly involves redox reactions relying on the effective electron transfer. Even though electron mediators were previously used for delignification of paper pulp, no study has established a bioprocess to fragment and solubilize the lignin with an effective laccase–mediator system, in particular, for subsequent microbial bioconversion. Efficient lignin depolymerization was achieved by screening proper electron mediators with laccase to attain a nearly 6-fold increase of kraft lignin solubility compared to the control kraft lignin without laccase treatment. Chemical analysis suggested the release of a low molecular weight fraction of kraft lignin into the solution phase. Moreover, NMR analysis revealed that an efficient enzyme–mediator system can promote the lignin degradation. More importantly, the fundamental mechanisms guided the development of an efficient lignin bioconversion process, where solubilized lignin from laccase–HBT treatment served as a superior substrate for bioconversion by Rhodococcus opacus PD630. The cell growth was increased by 106 fold, and the lipid titer reached 1.02 g/L. Overall, the study has manifested that an efficient enzyme–mediator–microbial system can be exploited to establish a bioprocess to solubilize lignin, cleave lignin linkages, modify the structure, and produce substrates amenable to bioconversion.

  4. Improving Processing and Performance of Pure Lignin Carbon Fibers through Hardwood and Herbaceous Lignin Blends

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinaei, Omid; Bozell, Joseph J.; Rials, Timothy G.

    2017-01-01

    Lignin/lignin blends were used to improve fiber spinning, stabilization rates, and properties of lignin-based carbon fibers. Organosolv lignin from Alamo switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) were used as blends for making lignin-based carbon fibers. Different ratios of yellow poplar:switchgrass lignin blends were prepared (50:50, 75:25, and 85:15 w/w). Chemical composition and thermal properties of lignin samples were determined. Thermal properties of lignins were analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Thermal analysis confirmed switchgrass and yellow poplar lignin form miscible blends, as a single glass transition was observed. Lignin fibers were produced via melt-spinning by twin-screw extrusion. Lignin fibers were thermostabilized at different rates and subsequently carbonized. Spinnability of switchgrass lignin markedly improved by blending with yellow poplar lignin. On the other hand, switchgrass lignin significantly improved thermostabilization performance of yellow poplar fibers, preventing fusion of fibers during fast stabilization and improving mechanical properties of fibers. These results suggest a route towards a 100% renewable carbon fiber with significant decrease in production time and improved mechanical performance. PMID:28671571

  5. Improving Processing and Performance of Pure Lignin Carbon Fibers through Hardwood and Herbaceous Lignin Blends.

    PubMed

    Hosseinaei, Omid; Harper, David P; Bozell, Joseph J; Rials, Timothy G

    2017-07-01

    Lignin/lignin blends were used to improve fiber spinning, stabilization rates, and properties of lignin-based carbon fibers. Organosolv lignin from Alamo switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) were used as blends for making lignin-based carbon fibers. Different ratios of yellow poplar:switchgrass lignin blends were prepared (50:50, 75:25, and 85:15 w/w). Chemical composition and thermal properties of lignin samples were determined. Thermal properties of lignins were analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Thermal analysis confirmed switchgrass and yellow poplar lignin form miscible blends, as a single glass transition was observed. Lignin fibers were produced via melt-spinning by twin-screw extrusion. Lignin fibers were thermostabilized at different rates and subsequently carbonized. Spinnability of switchgrass lignin markedly improved by blending with yellow poplar lignin. On the other hand, switchgrass lignin significantly improved thermostabilization performance of yellow poplar fibers, preventing fusion of fibers during fast stabilization and improving mechanical properties of fibers. These results suggest a route towards a 100% renewable carbon fiber with significant decrease in production time and improved mechanical performance.

  6. Bisphenol A Sensors on Polyimide Fabricated by Laser Direct Writing for Onsite River Water Monitoring at Attomolar Concentration.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Shutong; Wu, Jayne; Yu, Yongchao; Li, Ruozhou; Eda, Shigetoshi; Chen, Jiangang; Feng, Guoying; Lawrie, Benjamin; Hu, Anming

    2016-07-20

    This work presents an aptamer-based, highly sensitive and specific sensor for atto- to femtomolar level detection of bisphenol A (BPA). Because of its widespread use in numerous products, BPA enters surface water from effluent discharges during its manufacture, use, and from waste landfill sites throughout the world. On-site measurement of BPA concentrations in water is important for evaluating compliance with water quality standards or environmental risk levels of the harmful compound in the environment. The sensor in this work is porous, conducting, interdigitated electrodes that are formed by laser-induced carbonization of flexible polyimide sheets. BPA-specific aptamer is immobilized on the electrodes as the probe, and its binding with BPA at the electrode surface is detected by capacitive sensing. The binding process is aided by ac electroosmotic effect that accelerates the transport of BPA molecules to the nanoporous graphene-like structured electrodes. The sensor achieved a limit of detection of 58.28 aM with a response time of 20 s. The sensor is further applied for recovery analysis of BPA spiked in surface water. This work provides an affordable platform for highly sensitive, real time, and field-deployable BPA surveillance critical to the evaluation of the ecological impact of BPA exposure.

  7. Dependences of Characteristics of Sensors Based on Tin Dioxide on the Hydrogen Concentration and Humidity of Gas Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaman, V. I.; Almaev, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    An expression is obtained for the energy band bending eφsH on the surface of the SnO2 film in the clean air + hydrogen mixture. It is assumed that the value of eφsH depends not only on the surface charge density of adsorbed oxygen ions O¯, but also on the negative charged hydroxyl groups (OH¯). The results of the analysis of the dependences of eφsH on the hydrogen concentration {n}_{{H}_2} and the absolute humidity of the gas mixture obtained during the operation of the sensor in the thermo-cyclic mode are presented. A method for the determining {n}_{{H}_2} in the examined gas mixture is proposed. The method based on the dependence of eφsH on the hydrogen concentration established during the calibration of the sensor is proposed. The dependences of the energy band bending on the SnO2 surface at {n}_{{H}_2} = 0 and the conductivity of the sensor on its temperature during the heating period are discussed.

  8. Evidence supporting dissimilatory and assimilatory lignin degradation in Enterobacter lignolyticus SCF1

    PubMed Central

    DeAngelis, Kristen M.; Sharma, Deepak; Varney, Rebecca; Simmons, Blake; Isern, Nancy G.; Markilllie, Lye Meng; Nicora, Carrie; Norbeck, Angela D.; Taylor, Ronald C.; Aldrich, Joshua T.; Robinson, Errol W.

    2013-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biofuels are promising as sustainable alternative fuels, but lignin inhibits access of enzymes to cellulose, and by-products of lignin degradation can be toxic to cells. The fast growth, high efficiency and specificity of enzymes employed in the anaerobic litter deconstruction carried out by tropical soil bacteria make these organisms useful templates for improving biofuel production. The facultative anaerobe Enterobacter lignolyticus SCF1 was initially cultivated from Cloud Forest soils in the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Puerto Rico, based on anaerobic growth on lignin as sole carbon source. The source of the isolate was tropical forest soils that decompose litter rapidly with low and fluctuating redox potentials, where bacteria using oxygen-independent enzymes likely play an important role in decomposition. We have used transcriptomics and proteomics to examine the observed increased growth of SCF1 grown on media amended with lignin compared to unamended growth. Proteomics suggested accelerated xylose uptake and metabolism under lignin-amended growth, with up-regulation of proteins involved in lignin degradation via the 4-hydroxyphenylacetate degradation pathway, catalase/peroxidase enzymes, and the glutathione biosynthesis and glutathione S-transferase (GST) proteins. We also observed increased production of NADH-quinone oxidoreductase, other electron transport chain proteins, and ATP synthase and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. This suggested the use of lignin as terminal electron acceptor. We detected significant lignin degradation over time by absorbance, and also used metabolomics to demonstrate moderately significant decreased xylose concentrations as well as increased metabolic products acetate and formate in stationary phase in lignin-amended compared to unamended growth conditions. Our data show the advantages of a multi-omics approach toward providing insights as to how lignin may be used in nature by microorganisms coping

  9. Fractionation of hemp hurds by organosolv pretreatment and its effect on production of lignin and sugars.

    PubMed

    Gandolfi, Stefano; Ottolina, Gianluca; Consonni, Roberto; Riva, Sergio; Patel, Ilabahen

    2014-07-01

    Fractionation of hemp hurds into its three main components, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, was carried out using organosolv pretreatment. The effect of processing parameters, such as temperature, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and methanol (MeOH) concentration, on the dissolution and recovery of hemicellulose and lignin was determined. More than 75% of total hemicellulose and 75% of total lignin was removed in a single step with low amounts of degradation products under the following conditions: 165 °C, 3% H2 SO4 , 20 min reaction time, and 45% MeOH. Enzymatic hydrolysis of the residual pretreated biomass yielded up to 60% of cellulose-to-glucose conversion. The maximum recovery of the main components was obtained at a combined severity factor value of around one. Characterization of pretreated biomass and isolated lignin was carried out with FTIR and 2D (13) C-(1) H correlation HSQC NMR spectroscopy, the latter technique providing detailed structural information about the obtained methanol organosolv lignin (MOSL). Results suggested that xylopyranoside is the major carbohydrate associated with hemp lignin. The chemical properties of MOSL samples in terms of their phenolic group content and antioxidant capacity were also investigated. The results showed that MOSL samples have a high phenolic group content and antioxidant capacity relative to Klason lignin.

  10. Effect of alkaline preswelling on the structure of lignins from Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Jing; Yang, Sheng; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Yun-Yan; Yuan, Tong-Qi; Sun, Run-Cang

    2017-05-02

    A clear elucidation of structural feature of whole lignin in plant cell wall is of great importance for understanding lignin biosynthesis mechanism and developing lignin based chemicals or materials under the current biorefinery scenario. Swollen residual enzyme lignin (SREL) has been identified as an ideal representative for native lignin in the plant walls. To investigate the influence of preswelling conditions on the structural features, the SREL obtained through preswelling the ball-milled Eucalyptus wood powder in 2, 4 and 8% NaOH solutions and subsequent in-situ enzymatic hydrolysis were thoroughly characterized. A cellulolytic enzyme lignin (CEL) was also prepared as a comparison. The quantitative NMR analyses indicated that the relative contents of β-O-4' linkages in SRELs were higher than that in CEL. The lignin structure tended to undergo more destruction with the elevated NaOH concentration. A relatively low NaOH concentration (2% in this study), which could be applied to effectively remove hemicelluloses and transform cellulose structure from cellulose I to cellulose II, was competent to prepare SREL as an ideal representative for the protolignin. An optimization of SREL preparation was essential for a better understanding of the whole protolignin.

  11. Plant growth, biomass partitioning and soil carbon formation in response to altered lignin biosynthesis in Populus tremuloides

    Treesearch

    Jessica E. Hancock; Wendy M. Loya; Christian P. Giardina; Laigeng Li; Vincent L. Chiang; Kurt S. Pregitzer

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a glasshouse mesocosm study that combined 13C isotope techniques with wild-type and transgenic aspen (Populus tremuloides) in order to examine how altered lignin biosynthesis affects plant production and soil carbon formation. Our transgenic aspen lines expressed low stem lignin concentration but normal cellulose...

  12. Integrated production of lignin containing cellulose nanocrystals (LCNC) and nanofibrils (LCNF) using an easily recyclable di-carboxylic acid

    Treesearch

    Huiyang Bian; Liheng Chen; Hongqi Dai; J.Y. Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Here we demonstrate di-carboxylic acid hydrolysis for the integrated production of lignin containing cellulose nanocrystals (LCNC) and nanofibrils (LCNF) using two unbleached hardwood chemical pulps of lignin contents of 3.9 and 17.2%. Acid hydrolysis experiments used maleic acid solution of 60 wt% concentration at 120°C for 120 min under ambient pressure. Yields of...

  13. Bacterial enzymes involved in lignin degradation.

    PubMed

    de Gonzalo, Gonzalo; Colpa, Dana I; Habib, Mohamed H M; Fraaije, Marco W

    2016-10-20

    Lignin forms a large part of plant biomass. It is a highly heterogeneous polymer of 4-hydroxyphenylpropanoid units and is embedded within polysaccharide polymers forming lignocellulose. Lignin provides strength and rigidity to plants and is rather resilient towards degradation. To improve the (bio)processing of lignocellulosic feedstocks, more effective degradation methods of lignin are in demand. Nature has found ways to fully degrade lignin through the production of dedicated ligninolytic enzyme systems. While such enzymes have been well thoroughly studied for ligninolytic fungi, only in recent years biochemical studies on bacterial enzymes capable of lignin modification have intensified. This has revealed several types of enzymes available to bacteria that enable them to act on lignin. Two major classes of bacterial lignin-modifying enzymes are DyP-type peroxidases and laccases. Yet, recently also several other bacterial enzymes have been discovered that seem to play a role in lignin modifications. In the present review, we provide an overview of recent advances in the identification and use of bacterial enzymes acting on lignin or lignin-derived products.

  14. Fabrication of environmentally biodegradable lignin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Frangville, Camille; Rutkevičius, Marius; Richter, Alexander P; Velev, Orlin D; Stoyanov, Simeon D; Paunov, Vesselin N

    2012-12-21

    We developed a method for the fabrication of novel biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) from lignin which are apparently non-toxic for microalgae and yeast. We compare two alternative methods for the synthesis of lignin NPs which result in particles of very different stability upon change of pH. The first method is based on precipitation of low-sulfonated lignin from an ethylene glycol solution by using diluted acidic aqueous solutions, which yields lignin NPs that are stable over a wide range of pH. The second approach is based on the acidic precipitation of lignin from a high-pH aqueous solution which produces NPs stable only at low pH. Our study reveals that lignin NPs from the ethylene glycol-based precipitation contain densely packed lignin domains which explain the stability of the NPs even at high pH. We characterised the properties of the produced lignin NPs and determined their loading capacities with hydrophilic actives. The results suggest that these NPs are highly porous and consist of smaller lignin domains. Tests with microalgae like Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and yeast incubated in lignin NP dispersions indicated that these NPs lack measurable effect on the viability of these microorganisms. Such biodegradable and environmentally compatible NPs can find applications as drug delivery vehicles, stabilisers of cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations, or in other areas where they may replace more expensive and potentially toxic nanomaterials. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Biodegradable lignin/polyolefin composite films

    SciTech Connect

    Kosikova, B.; Demjanova, V.; Mikulasova, M.; Lora, J.H.

    1993-12-31

    From the view point of environmental protection, the plastic wastes, especially from packing materials, represent a potential waste problem. Various approaches were examined to develop partially or completely biodegradable plastics. New type of partially biodegradable polyolefins was prepared by blending of polypropylene with lignin, which was recovered in the ALCELL process, an organosolv pulping process that uses ethanol-water as the delignifying agent. Films of blends with up to 10% wt ALCELL lignin, prepared in absence of commercial stabilizers, had acceptable mechanical strengths. The effect of lignin on biodegradability of the composite films was examined by comparison of behaviour of both pure and lignin containing films during treatment with fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. It was found that this fungus is able to grow and to produce lignolytic enzymes in the presence of the films containing lignin. Biodegradation of lignin in the composite film was confirmed by the releasing of lignin fragments into the extracellular fluid. Because of measurement of mechanical properties offers a mean of direct estimation of polymer degradation, the degree of biodegradation of the films tested was followed by monitoring of elongation at break. The changes of break at elongation in the course of enzymatic treatment revealed that the lignin/PP composite films are potentially environmentally nonpersisting. The micrographs of the lignin containing films obtained by scanning electron microscopy show the significant changes of the film surface upon degradation with Phanerochaete chrysosporium in contrast to unchanged lignin free film.

  16. Headwater Nutrient Concentration Patterns in Response to Storm Events Across Land Use Types using In Situ Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, A.; Wollheim, W. M.; Mulukutla, G. K.; Carey, R. O.; McDowell, W. H.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the aquatic biogeochemical impacts of land use change and climate variability will require improved understanding of nutrient variability over temporal scales ranging from storms to seasons. New in situ sensor technology offers the prospect of efficient nutrient measurements over multiple time scales. We quantified nutrient flux patterns in response to storm events across seasons using in situ nutrient sensors deployed in headwater streams draining three land use types (forest, suburban, and agriculture) within the Lamprey River watershed, New Hampshire, between April-December 2012. We utilized two sensor suites, each consisting of a Satlantic Submersible Ultraviolet Nitrate Analyzer (NO3-N), Turner Designs C6 Multi-Sensor Platform (CDOM, Turbidity, Chl), Hydrolab MS5 (Dissolved Oxygen, pH), WET Labs Cycle P (PO4-P), and Hobo Water Level & Conductivity meters. Preliminary spring/summer comparisons at the suburban site suggest increased baseflow nitrate concentrations and decreased diurnal nitrate variability (~0.05 vs. 0.035 mg/L daily fluctuation) following leaf emergence in spring. Nitrate concentrations were diluted during storms. Hysteresis was evident, suggesting groundwater nitrate sources attributable to septic systems were diluted by surface runoff during spring storms. The agricultural stream showed similar but more extreme patterns of increasing baseflow nitrate during the summer (~2.4 to 4.1 mg/L) and dilution during storms. The compilation of a high-frequency dataset for headwater streams across seasons and land-use types will provide valuable insight into complex land use/water quality relationships in urbanizing watersheds.

  17. Elicitor-Induced Spruce Stress Lignin (Structural Similarity to Early Developmental Lignins).

    PubMed Central

    Lange, B. M.; Lapierre, C.; Sandermann, H.

    1995-01-01

    Suspension cultures of Picea abies (L.) Karst released polymeric material into the culture medium when treated with an elicitor preparation from the spruce needle pathogen Rhizosphaera kalkhoffii. The presence of lignin (about 35%, w/w) was demonstrated by phloroglucinol/HCI reactivity and quantitation with thioglycolic acid. Carbohydrate (about 14%, w/w) and protein (about 32%, w/w) were also detected. Amino acid analysis revealed that hydroxyproline and proline predominated. Thioacidolysis and subsequent Raney nickel desulfurization allowed the analysis of lignin-building units and interunit bonds. Compared with spruce wood lignin, an approximately 20-fold higher relative amount of p-hydroxyphenyl units was determined. A high content of p-hydroxyphenyl units is typical for certain developmental lignins, such as conifer compression wood and middle lamella lignins, as well as all induced cell culture lignins so far analyzed. Cross-linkages of the pinoresinol type ([beta]-[beta]) in the excreted cell culture lignin were markedly increased, whereas [beta]-1 interunit linkages were decreased relative to spruce wood lignin. The amount and nature of cross-linkages were shown to be intermediate between those in wood lignin and in enzymatically prepared lignins. In summary, the elicitor-induced stress lignin was excreted as a lignin-extensin complex that closely resembled early developmental lignins. PMID:12228544

  18. A Novel Sensor to Measure the Concentration of Nitrous Oxide in Anesthetic Mixtures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    its robustness and easier manipulation. The purpose of this study was to extend the results obtained in a previous work in which it has been...II. METODOLOGY The sensor was built from a poli-metil-metacrilate (PMMA) POF manufactured by Mitsubishi Rayon Co. Those fibers have an optic...the core and the cladding [5 - 6]. Therefore, the most important point of this study was to demonstrate the possibility of measuring a refraction

  19. Litter decay rates are determined by lignin chemistry

    Treesearch

    Jennifer M. Talbot; Daniel J. Yelle; James Nowick; Kathleen K. Treseder

    2011-01-01

    Litter decay rates are often correlated with the initial lignin:N or lignin:cellulose content of litter, suggesting that interactions between lignin and more labile compounds are important controls over litter decomposition. The chemical composition of lignin may influence these interactions, if lignin physically or chemically protects labile components from microbial...

  20. Dual role of lignin in plant litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Amy T.; Ballaré, Carlos L.

    2010-01-01

    Plant litter decomposition is a critical step in the formation of soil organic matter, the mineralization of organic nutrients, and the carbon balance in terrestrial ecosystems. Biotic decomposition in mesic ecosystems is generally negatively correlated with the concentration of lignin, a group of complex aromatic polymers present in plant cell walls that is recalcitrant to enzymatic degradation and serves as a structural barrier impeding microbial access to labile carbon compounds. Although photochemical mineralization of carbon has recently been shown to be important in semiarid ecosystems, litter chemistry controls on photodegradative losses are not understood. We evaluated the importance of litter chemistry on photodegradation of grass litter and cellulose substrates with varying levels of lignin [cellulose-lignin (CL) substrates] under field conditions. Using wavelength-specific light attenuation filters, we found that light-driven mass loss was promoted by both UV and visible radiation. The spectral dependence of photodegradation correlated with the absorption spectrum of lignin but not of cellulose. Field incubations demonstrated that increasing lignin concentration reduced biotic decomposition, as expected, but linearly increased photodegradation. In addition, lignin content in CL substrates consistently decreased in photodegradative incubations. We conclude that lignin has a dual role affecting litter decomposition, depending on the dominant driver (biotic or abiotic) controlling carbon turnover. Under photodegradative conditions, lignin is preferentially degraded because it acts as an effective light-absorbing compound over a wide range of wavelengths. This mechanistic understanding of the role of lignin in plant litter decomposition will allow for more accurate predictions of carbon dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:20176940

  1. Dual role of lignin in plant litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Austin, Amy T; Ballaré, Carlos L

    2010-03-09

    Plant litter decomposition is a critical step in the formation of soil organic matter, the mineralization of organic nutrients, and the carbon balance in terrestrial ecosystems. Biotic decomposition in mesic ecosystems is generally negatively correlated with the concentration of lignin, a group of complex aromatic polymers present in plant cell walls that is recalcitrant to enzymatic degradation and serves as a structural barrier impeding microbial access to labile carbon compounds. Although photochemical mineralization of carbon has recently been shown to be important in semiarid ecosystems, litter chemistry controls on photodegradative losses are not understood. We evaluated the importance of litter chemistry on photodegradation of grass litter and cellulose substrates with varying levels of lignin [cellulose-lignin (CL) substrates] under field conditions. Using wavelength-specific light attenuation filters, we found that light-driven mass loss was promoted by both UV and visible radiation. The spectral dependence of photodegradation correlated with the absorption spectrum of lignin but not of cellulose. Field incubations demonstrated that increasing lignin concentration reduced biotic decomposition, as expected, but linearly increased photodegradation. In addition, lignin content in CL substrates consistently decreased in photodegradative incubations. We conclude that lignin has a dual role affecting litter decomposition, depending on the dominant driver (biotic or abiotic) controlling carbon turnover. Under photodegradative conditions, lignin is preferentially degraded because it acts as an effective light-absorbing compound over a wide range of wavelengths. This mechanistic understanding of the role of lignin in plant litter decomposition will allow for more accurate predictions of carbon dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems.

  2. The Influence of Zeolites on Radical Formation During Lignin Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Bährle, Christian; Custodis, Victoria; Jeschke, Gunnar; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A; Vogel, Frédéric

    2016-09-08

    Lignin from lignocellulosic biomass is a promising source of energy, fuels, and chemicals. The conversion of the polymeric lignin to fuels and chemicals can be achieved by catalytic and noncatalytic pyrolysis. The influence of nonporous silica and zeolite catalysts, such as silicalite, HZSM5, and HUSY, on the radical and volatile product formation during lignin pyrolysis was studied by in situ high-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (HTEPR) as well as GC-MS. Higher radical concentrations were observed in the samples containing zeolite compared to the sample containing only lignin, which suggests that there is a stabilizing effect by the inorganic surfaces on the formed radical fragments. This effect was observed for nonporous silica as well as for HUSY, HZSM5, and silicalite zeolite catalysts. However, the effect is far larger for the zeolites owing to their higher specific surface area. The zeolites also showed an effect on the volatile product yield and the product distribution within the volatile phase. Although silicalite showed no effect on the product selectivity, the acidic zeolites such as HZSM5 or HUSY increased the formation of deoxygenated products such as benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX), and naphthalene. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Density Functional Theory Study of Spirodienone Stereoisomers in Lignin

    DOE PAGES

    Beckham, Gregg T.; Berstis, Laura R.; Crowley, Michael F.; ...

    2017-07-10

    The spirodienone structure in lignin is a relatively recent discovery, and it has been found to occur in lignin of various plant species at concentrations of ~3%, which is sufficiently high to be important for better understanding of its properties and reactivity. The cyclic structure, with a ..beta..-1 bond, has been proposed to be a precursor for acyclic ..beta..-1 linkages in lignin. Previous analytical work has revealed the presence, but not the absolute configuration, of two stereoisomeric forms of spirodienone. The objective of the current work was to determine if there are thermodynamic differences that could help identify the experimentallymore » observed stereoisomers. Results from density functional theory calculations reveal the presence of clusters of stereoisomers with varying stability that may be of use in narrowing the list of possible structures. Furthermore, the bond dissociation enthalpy of the cyclic ring exhibited a particularly high value for the C-O cleavage reaction relative to more conventional ether bonds in lignin, perhaps due to limited electron delocalization possibilities.« less

  4. Lignin phenols derivatives in lichens.

    PubMed

    Zavarzina, A G; Romankevich, E A; Peresypkin, V I; Ulyantzev, A S; Belyaev, N A; Zavarzin, A A

    2015-01-01

    Lignin monophenols have been measured in the cupric oxide oxidation products from lichens of different systematic groups. It is shown for the first time that syringyl structures in most lichens strongly dominate over vanillyl and p-hydroxyl ones (S/V 7-583, S/P 3-30). This distinguishes lichens from algae and mosses (p-hydroxyl phenols are dominant) and from higher plants (S/V ratios are from 0 in gymnosperms to 1.1-5.2 in angiosperms). Molecular ratios of phenols as well as the ratios of acids to aldehydes in lichens were different from lignin of higher plants, suggesting contribution of non-lignin phenols in CuO oxidation products. The contents of syringyl and vanillyl phenols in some lichen species were comparable to non-woody tissues of higher plants. Results of the study suggest that lichens can be important source of aromatic structures in soils and hydrosphere, particularly in the regions were lichens are abundant.

  5. Lignin-Retaining Transparent Wood.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Fu, Qiliang; Rojas, Ramiro; Yan, Min; Lawoko, Martin; Berglund, Lars

    2017-09-11

    Optically transparent wood, combining optical and mechanical performance, is an emerging new material for light-transmitting structures in buildings with the aim of reducing energy consumption. One of the main obstacles for transparent wood fabrication is delignification, where around 30 wt % of wood tissue is removed to reduce light absorption and refractive index mismatch. This step is time consuming and not environmentally benign. Moreover, lignin removal weakens the wood structure, limiting the fabrication of large structures. A green and industrially feasible method has now been developed to prepare transparent wood. Up to 80 wt % of lignin is preserved, leading to a stronger wood template compared to the delignified alternative. After polymer infiltration, a high-lignin-content transparent wood with transmittance of 83 %, haze of 75 %, thermal conductivity of 0.23 W mK(-1) , and work-tofracture of 1.2 MJ m(-3) (a magnitude higher than glass) was obtained. This transparent wood preparation method is efficient and applicable to various wood species. The transparent wood obtained shows potential for application in energy-saving buildings. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  6. Arctic sea ice concentrations from special sensor microwave imager and advanced very high resolution radiometer satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, W. J.; Fowler, C.; Maslanik, J.

    1994-01-01

    Nearly coincident data from the special sensor microwave imager (SSM/I) and the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) are used to compute and compare Arctic sea ice concentrations for different regions and times of the year. To help determine overall accuracies and to highlight sources of differences between passive microwave, optical wavelength, and thermal wavelength data, ice concentrations are estimated using two operational SSM/I ice concentration algorithms and with visible- and thermal-infrared wavelength AVHRR data. All algorithms capture the seasonal patterns of ice growth and melt. The ranges of differences fall within the general levels of uncertainty expected for each method and are similar to previous accuracy estimates. The estimated ice concentrations are all highly correlated, with uniform biases, although differences between individual pairs of observations can be large. On average, the NASA Team algorithm yielded 5% higher ice concentrations than the Bootstrap algorithm, while during nonmelt periods the two SSM/I algorithms agree to within 0.5%. These seasonal differences are consistent with the ways that the 19-GHz and 37-GHz microwave channels are used in the algorithms. When compared to the AVHRR-derived ice concentrations, the Team-algorithm results are more similar on average in terms of correlation and mean differences. However, the Team algorithm underestimates concentrations relative to the AVHRR output by 6% during cold months and overestimates by 3% during summer. Little seasonal difference exists between the Bootstrap and AVHRR results, with a mean difference of about 5%. Although the mean differences are less between the SSM/I-derived concentrations and concentrations estimated using AVHRR channel 1, the correlations appear substantially better between the SSM/I data and concentrations derived from AVHRR channel 4, particularly for the Team algorithm output.

  7. Arctic sea ice concentrations from special sensor microwave imager and advanced very high resolution radiometer satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emery, W. J.; Fowler, C.; Maslanik, J.

    1994-01-01

    Nearly coincident data from the special sensor microwave imager (SSM/I) and the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) are used to compute and compare Arctic sea ice concentrations for different regions and times of the year. To help determine overall accuracies and to highlight sources of differences between passive microwave, optical wavelength, and thermal wavelength data, ice concentrations are estimated using two operational SSM/I ice concentration algorithms and with visible- and thermal-infrared wavelength AVHRR data. All algorithms capture the seasonal patterns of ice growth and melt. The ranges of differences fall within the general levels of uncertainty expected for each method and are similar to previous accuracy estimates. The estimated ice concentrations are all highly correlated, with uniform biases, although differences between individual pairs of observations can be large. On average, the NASA Team algorithm yielded 5% higher ice concentrations than the Bootstrap algorithm, while during nonmelt periods the two SSM/I algorithms agree to within 0.5%. These seasonal differences are consistent with the ways that the 19-GHz and 37-GHz microwave channels are used in the algorithms. When compared to the AVHRR-derived ice concentrations, the Team-algorithm results are more similar on average in terms of correlation and mean differences. However, the Team algorithm underestimates concentrations relative to the AVHRR output by 6% during cold months and overestimates by 3% during summer. Little seasonal difference exists between the Bootstrap and AVHRR results, with a mean difference of about 5%. Although the mean differences are less between the SSM/I-derived concentrations and concentrations estimated using AVHRR channel 1, the correlations appear substantially better between the SSM/I data and concentrations derived from AVHRR channel 4, particularly for the Team algorithm output.

  8. Poly(ethylene oxide)-Assisted Macromolecular Self-Assembly of Lignin in ABS Matrix for Sustainable Composite Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Akato, Kokouvi M.; Tran, Chau D.; Chen, Jihua; Naskar, Amit K.

    2015-11-05

    Here we report the compatibilization of biomass-derived lignin polymer in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) thermoplastic matrix without loss of mechanical properties via poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-mediated macromolecular self-assembly. ABS was blended with lignin in different concentrations, and blends with 10 wt % PEO (relative to lignin) were prepared. The relative tensile strength improved slightly at low lignin content but diminished rapidly as the lignin content was increased. However, the inclusion of PEO as an interfacial adhesion promoter helped avoid deleterious effects. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that PEO plasticized the hard phase and thus lowered the activation energy (Ea) for its relaxation but caused stiffening of the soft phase and increased its Ea. Microscopy revealed that incorporating lignin in ABS led to the statistical dispersion of discrete lignin domains (300–1000 nm) which, after PEO addition, were reduced to smaller interconnected particles (200–500 nm). The lignin-extended partially renewable ABS resins showed shear-thinning behavior and reduced viscosity compared to neat ABS. The preferred lignin-loaded compositions reinforced with 20 vol % chopped carbon fibers exhibited mechanical performances (77–80 MPa) equivalent to those of reinforced ABS materials reportedly used in 3D printing applications. In conclusion, this approach could lower the cost of ABS while reducing its carbon footprint.

  9. Poly(ethylene oxide)-Assisted Macromolecular Self-Assembly of Lignin in ABS Matrix for Sustainable Composite Applications

    DOE PAGES

    Akato, Kokouvi M.; Tran, Chau D.; Chen, Jihua; ...

    2015-11-05

    Here we report the compatibilization of biomass-derived lignin polymer in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) thermoplastic matrix without loss of mechanical properties via poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-mediated macromolecular self-assembly. ABS was blended with lignin in different concentrations, and blends with 10 wt % PEO (relative to lignin) were prepared. The relative tensile strength improved slightly at low lignin content but diminished rapidly as the lignin content was increased. However, the inclusion of PEO as an interfacial adhesion promoter helped avoid deleterious effects. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that PEO plasticized the hard phase and thus lowered the activation energy (Ea) for its relaxationmore » but caused stiffening of the soft phase and increased its Ea. Microscopy revealed that incorporating lignin in ABS led to the statistical dispersion of discrete lignin domains (300–1000 nm) which, after PEO addition, were reduced to smaller interconnected particles (200–500 nm). The lignin-extended partially renewable ABS resins showed shear-thinning behavior and reduced viscosity compared to neat ABS. The preferred lignin-loaded compositions reinforced with 20 vol % chopped carbon fibers exhibited mechanical performances (77–80 MPa) equivalent to those of reinforced ABS materials reportedly used in 3D printing applications. In conclusion, this approach could lower the cost of ABS while reducing its carbon footprint.« less

  10. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-11-16

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, it has been found that lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein, we discuss the lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure–property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templatedmore » carbon.« less

  11. Lignin-Derived Advanced Carbon Materials.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-12-07

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. By applying specific pretreatments and manufacturing methods, lignin can be converted into a variety of value-added carbon materials. However, the physical and chemical heterogeneities of lignin complicate its use as a feedstock. Herein lignin manufacturing process, the effects of pretreatments and manufacturing methods on the properties of product lignin, and structure-property relationships in various applications of lignin-derived carbon materials, such as carbon fibers, carbon mats, activated carbons, carbon films, and templated carbon, are discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Preparing spherical lignin from rice husk.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongxi; Zhao, Xu; Ding, Xuefeng; Lei, Hong; Wang, Zichen

    2013-08-01

    Lignin is one of the important branched amorphous polymers, which generally has the irregular and fractal morphology. The preparation of regular sphere of lignin needs long steps and special conditions. In this study, the regular sphere of lignin can be simply prepared from rice husk (RH) under certain conditions. Namely, RH is mixed with 35% ethanol aqueous solution in the proportion of 1:10 (g:mL), non-isothermally heated to 493 K and kept for 5 h. After filtration and air-drying at room temperature, the regular lignin sphere with the diameter of 100-400 nm is obtained. The regular sphere of lignin has the potential utilization in fields such as reactive functional materials, photo sensing materials and surface active materials in cosmetics. The mechanism of formation of the regular spherical lignin is proposed and discussed in this paper.

  13. Elimination of Flammable Gas Effects in Cerium Oxide Semiconductor-Type Resistive Oxygen Sensors for Monitoring Low Oxygen Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Toshio; Izu, Noriya; Akamatsu, Takafumi; Shin, Woosuck; Miki, Yusuke; Hirose, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the catalytic layer in zirconium-doped cerium oxide, Ce0.9Zr0.1O2 (CeZr10) resistive oxygen sensors for reducing the effects of flammable gases, namely hydrogen and carbon monoxide. When the concentration of flammable gases is comparable to that of oxygen, the resistance of CeZr10 is affected by the presence of these gases. We have developed layered thick films, which consist of an oxygen sensor layer (CeZr10), an insulation layer (Al2O3), and a catalytic layer consisting of CeZr10 with 3 wt% added platinum, which was prepared via the screen printing method. The Pt-CeZr10 catalytic layer was found to prevent the detrimental effects of the flammable gases on the resistance of the sensor layer. This effect is due to the catalytic layer promoting the oxidation of hydrogen and carbon monoxide through the consumption of ambient O2 and/or the lattice oxygen atoms of the Pt-CeZr10 catalytic layer. PMID:25905705

  14. Radical nature of C- lignin

    Treesearch

    Laura Berstis; Thomas Elder; Michael Crowley; Gregg T. Beckham

    2016-01-01

    The recently discovered lignin composed of caffeoyl alcohol monolignols or C-lignin is particularly intriguing given its homogeneous, linear polymeric structure and exclusive benzodioxane linkage between monomers. By virtue of this simplified chemistry, the potential emerges for improved valorization strategies with C-lignin relative to other natural heterogeneous...

  15. Isolation and further structural characterization of lignins from the valonea of Quercus variabilis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lina; Wang, Dongmei; Zhou, Dan; Zhang, Yawei; Yang, Tingting

    2017-04-01

    The isolation process of alkali lignin (AL) from the valonea of Quercus variabilis Blume was optimized (liquid/solid ratio, 12.21; isolation time, 4.21h; isolation temperature, 42.21°C; and alkali concentration, 0.85mol/L) using the response surface method (RSM), with the highest isolation rate obtained being 22.67%. Then, the apparent structures of AL, enzymatic hydrolysis lignin (CEL) and milled wood lignin (MWL) were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which indicated that the isolation processes of AL and CEL caused some damage to the apparent structure of lignin. The comprehensive structure characteristics of lignin samples was studied using (1)H, (13)C and 2D-HSQC techniques based on former studies. It was found that (1) three lignins were GSH-type; (2) the relative content of β-O-4' linkages in CEL (75.91%) was lower than those in AL (91.57%) and MWL (83.23%), suggesting that the β-O-4' linkages were largely cleaved during the CEL isolation process. In addition, the existence of phenylcoumarane, ferulic acid, p-coumarates and p-hydroxycinnamyl alcohol end groups can be found; (3) The S/G ratios were estimated to be 8.72, 1.30 and 0.98 for AL, MWL and CEL, respectively, suggesting that the lignin fragment rich in S-units was easily released under the alkali conditions.

  16. Use of Agave tequilana-lignin and zinc oxide nanoparticles for skin photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Hernández, José Manuel; Escalante, Alfredo; Murillo-Vázquez, Raquel Nalleli; Delgado, Ezequiel; González, Francisco Javier; Toríz, Guillermo

    2016-10-01

    The use of sunscreens is essential for preventing skin damage and the potential appearance of skin cancer in humans. Inorganic active components such as zinc oxide (ZnO) have been used commonly in sunscreens due to their ability to block UVA radiation. This ultraviolet (UV) protection might be enhanced to cover the UVB and UVC bands when combined with other components such as titanium dioxide (TiO2). In this work we evaluate the photoprotection properties of organic nanoparticles made from lignin in combination with ZnO nanoparticles as active ingredients for sunscreens. Lignin nanoparticles were synthesized from Agave tequilana lignin. Two different pulping methods were used for dissolving lignin from agave bagasse. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by the precipitation method. All nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy. Nanoparticles were mixed with a neutral vehicle in different concentrations and in-vitro sun protection factor (SPF) values were calculated. Different sizes of spherical lignin nanoparticles were obtained from the spent liquors of two different pulping methods. ZnO nanoparticles resulted with a flake shape. The mixture of all components gave SPF values in a range between 4 and 13. Lignin nanoparticles showed absorption in the UVB and UVC regions which can enhance the SPF value of sunscreens composed only of zinc oxide nanoparticles. Lignin nanoparticles have the added advantage of being of organic nature and its brown color can be used to match the skin tone of the person using it.

  17. Minimizing 1/f Noise in Magnetic Sensors with a MEMS Flux Concentrator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and...observe a field change of I nT at low sent time , we are in the process of completing a fabrica- fields, one would have to detect a voltage change of...4] Moodera, J.S., et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 1995. device can be fabricated by batch processing at the same Vol. 74, p. 3273. time that the sensor is

  18. Lignin Analysis by HPLC and FTIR.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Rivera, Jorge; Terrazas, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a simple non-destructive technique which allows the user to obtain quick and accurate information about the structure of the constituents of wood. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is an analytical technique useful to determine the ratio of the lignin monomers obtained by the alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation method. Furthermore, lignin content has been commonly determined by wet chemical methods; Klason lignin determination is a quick and accessible method. Here, we detail the procedures for chemical analysis of the wood lignin using these techniques.

  19. ZnCl 2 induced catalytic conversion of softwood lignin to aromatics and hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hongliang; Zhang, Libing; Deng, Tiansheng; Ruan, Hao; Hou, Xianglin; Cort, John R.; Yang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Selective cleavage of C-O-C bonds in lignin without disrupting C-C linkages can result in releasing aromatic monomers and dimers that can be subsequently converted into chemicals and fuels. Results showed that both biomass-derived lignin and lignin model compounds were depolymerized in a highly concentrated ZnCl2 solution. Zn2+ ions in highly concentrated ZnCl2 solutions appeared to selectively coordinate with C-O-C bonds to cause key linkages of lignin much easier to cleave. In 63 wt.% ZnCl2 solution at 200 °C for 6 h, nearly half of the softwood technical lignin was converted to liquid products, of which the majority was alkylphenols. Results indicated that most β-O-4 and Cmethyl-OAr bonds of model compounds were cleaved undersame conditions, providing a foundation towards understanding lignin depolymerization in a concentrated ZnCl2 solution. The phenolic products were further converted into cyclic hydrocarbons via hydrodeoxygenation and coupling reactions by co-catalyst Ru/C.

  20. Effects of carbon and nitrogen supplementation on lignin and cellulose decomposition by a Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Barder, M J; Crawford, D L

    1981-08-01

    Effects of nitrogen source and concentration and organic carbon cosubstrates on lignin and cellulose degradation by Streptomyces badius strain 252 were examined using 14C-labeled substrates prepared from Pseudotsuga menziesii twigs. As compared with white-rot fungi, which do not degrade lignin in the absence of a readily metabolizable carbon cosubstrate, degradation of a milled-wood lignin occurred in a minimal medium, although degradation by S. badius was greatly enhanced when organic nitrogen and an organic carbon cosubstrate were added to the medium. Lignin degradation was greatest in the presence of high levels of organic nitrogen. Further enhancement of lignin and cellulose degradation occurred in a medium containing organic nitrogen supplemented with low levels of NO3-. The specific effects of inorganic nitrogen on lignocellulose degradation by S. badius in an otherwise optimal medium included both enhancement and inhibition of lignin or cellulose degradation depending on the source and concentration of inorganic nitrogen used. These effects were distinctly different from those observed with white-rot fungi and were shown to be specific ion effects on polymer degradation and not simply a salt concentration effect on cellular growth.

  1. Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds by Self-assembled Monolayer Coated Sensor Array with Concentration-independent Fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ye; Tang, Ning; Qu, Hemi; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Daihua; Zhang, Hao; Pang, Wei; Duan, Xuexin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have modeled and analyzed affinities and kinetics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) adsorption (and desorption) on various surface chemical groups using multiple self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) functionalized film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) array. The high-frequency and micro-scale resonator provides improved sensitivity in the detections of VOCs at trace levels. With the study of affinities and kinetics, three concentration-independent intrinsic parameters (monolayer adsorption capacity, adsorption energy constant and desorption rate) of gas-surface interactions are obtained to contribute to a multi-parameter fingerprint library of VOC analytes. Effects of functional group’s properties on gas-surface interactions are also discussed. The proposed sensor array with concentration-independent fingerprint library shows potential as a portable electronic nose (e-nose) system for VOCs discrimination and gas-sensitive materials selections. PMID:27045012

  2. Effect of lumophore and plasticiser concentration on the heterogeneity of oxygen quenching in thin film oxygen sensors.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Victoria A; Douglas, Peter

    2006-05-01

    Kinetic heterogeneity of the luminescence decay and oxygen quenching of Pt and Pd octaethylporphyrin/ethyl cellulose (OEP/EC) thin film oxygen sensors has been investigated with respect to (a) concentration of lumophore and (b) addition of plasticiser. The source of kinetic heterogeneity shown by PtOEP films under N2 is a monomer-dimer equilibrium in which the dimer luminescence decays with k = 0.0527 x 10(6) s(-1) and the monomer luminescence with k = 0.0101 x 10(6) s(-1) and KD = 790 (+/-20) mol dm(-3). For PdOEP/EC films there is no detectable aggregation and luminescence decays under N2 show good fits to single exponential curve fits at all concentrations studied. The addition of either tripbutyl phosphate or dimethylphthalate as plasticiser does not decrease kinetic heterogeneity for oxygen quenching of luminescence in the films.

  3. Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds by Self-assembled Monolayer Coated Sensor Array with Concentration-independent Fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ye; Tang, Ning; Qu, Hemi; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Daihua; Zhang, Hao; Pang, Wei; Duan, Xuexin

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we have modeled and analyzed affinities and kinetics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) adsorption (and desorption) on various surface chemical groups using multiple self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) functionalized film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) array. The high-frequency and micro-scale resonator provides improved sensitivity in the detections of VOCs at trace levels. With the study of affinities and kinetics, three concentration-independent intrinsic parameters (monolayer adsorption capacity, adsorption energy constant and desorption rate) of gas-surface interactions are obtained to contribute to a multi-parameter fingerprint library of VOC analytes. Effects of functional group’s properties on gas-surface interactions are also discussed. The proposed sensor array with concentration-independent fingerprint library shows potential as a portable electronic nose (e-nose) system for VOCs discrimination and gas-sensitive materials selections.

  4. Detection of Volatile Organic Compounds by Self-assembled Monolayer Coated Sensor Array with Concentration-independent Fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ye; Tang, Ning; Qu, Hemi; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Daihua; Zhang, Hao; Pang, Wei; Duan, Xuexin

    2016-04-05

    In this paper, we have modeled and analyzed affinities and kinetics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) adsorption (and desorption) on various surface chemical groups using multiple self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) functionalized film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) array. The high-frequency and micro-scale resonator provides improved sensitivity in the detections of VOCs at trace levels. With the study of affinities and kinetics, three concentration-independent intrinsic parameters (monolayer adsorption capacity, adsorption energy constant and desorption rate) of gas-surface interactions are obtained to contribute to a multi-parameter fingerprint library of VOC analytes. Effects of functional group's properties on gas-surface interactions are also discussed. The proposed sensor array with concentration-independent fingerprint library shows potential as a portable electronic nose (e-nose) system for VOCs discrimination and gas-sensitive materials selections.

  5. Chlorophyll pigment concentration using spectral curvature algorithms - An evaluation of present and proposed satellite ocean color sensor bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, Frank E.; Swift, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    During the past several years symmetric three-band (460-, 490-, 520-nm) spectral curvature algorithm (SCA) has demonstrated rather accurate determination of chlorophyll pigment concentration using low-altitude airborne ocean color data. It is shown herein that the in-water asymmetric SCA, when applied to certain recently proposed OCI (NOAA-K and SPOT-3) and OCM (ERS-1) satellite ocean color bands, can adequately recover chlorophyll-like pigments. These airborne findings suggest that the proposed new ocean color sensor bands are in general satisfactorily, but not necessarily optimally, positioned to allow space evaluation of the SCA using high-precision atmospherically corrected satellite radiances. The pigment concentration recovery is not as good when existing Coastal Zone Color Scanner bands are used in the SCA. The in-water asymmetric SCA chlorophyll pigment recovery evaluations were performed using (1) airborne laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and (2) concurrent passive upwelled radiances. Data from a separate ocean color sensor aboard the aircraft were further used to validate the findings.

  6. Chlorophyll pigment concentration using spectral curvature algorithms - An evaluation of present and proposed satellite ocean color sensor bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, Frank E.; Swift, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    During the past several years symmetric three-band (460-, 490-, 520-nm) spectral curvature algorithm (SCA) has demonstrated rather accurate determination of chlorophyll pigment concentration using low-altitude airborne ocean color data. It is shown herein that the in-water asymmetric SCA, when applied to certain recently proposed OCI (NOAA-K and SPOT-3) and OCM (ERS-1) satellite ocean color bands, can adequately recover chlorophyll-like pigments. These airborne findings suggest that the proposed new ocean color sensor bands are in general satisfactorily, but not necessarily optimally, positioned to allow space evaluation of the SCA using high-precision atmospherically corrected satellite radiances. The pigment concentration recovery is not as good when existing Coastal Zone Color Scanner bands are used in the SCA. The in-water asymmetric SCA chlorophyll pigment recovery evaluations were performed using (1) airborne laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence and (2) concurrent passive upwelled radiances. Data from a separate ocean color sensor aboard the aircraft were further used to validate the findings.

  7. Lignin phenols used to infer organic matter sources to Sepetiba Bay - RJ, Brasil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende, C. E.; Pfeiffer, W. C.; Martinelli, L. A.; Tsamakis, E.; Hedges, J. I.; Keil, R. G.

    2010-04-01

    Lignin phenols were measured in the sediments of Sepitiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and in bedload sediments and suspended sediments of the four major fluvial inputs to the bay; São Francisco and Guandu Channels and the Guarda and Cação Rivers. Fluvial suspended lignin yields (Σ8 3.5-14.6 mgC 10 g dw -1) vary little between the wet and dry seasons and are poorly correlated with fluvial chlorophyll concentrations (0.8-50.2 μgC L -1). Despite current land use practices that favor grassland agriculture or industrial uses, fluvial lignin compositions are dominated by a degraded leaf-sourced material. The exception is the Guarda River, which has a slight influence from grasses. The Lignin Phenol Vegetation Index, coupled with acid/aldehyde and 3.5 Db/V ratios, indicate that degraded leaf-derived phenols are also the primary preserved lignin component in the bay. The presence of fringe Typha sp. and Spartina sp. grass beds surrounding portions of the Bay are not reflected in the lignin signature. Instead, lignin entering the bay appears to reflect the erosion of soils containing a degraded signature from the former Atlantic rain forest that once dominated the watershed, instead of containing a significant signature derived from current agricultural uses. A three-component mixing model using the LPVI, atomic N:C ratios, and stable carbon isotopes (which range between -26.8 and -21.8‰) supports the hypothesis that fluvial inputs to the bay are dominated by planktonic matter (78% of the input), with lignin dominated by leaf (14% of the input) over grass (6%). Sediments are composed of a roughly 50-50 mixture of autochthonous material and terrigenous material, with lignin being primarily sourced from leaf.

  8. Valorization of Lignin to Simple Phenolic Compounds over Tungsten Carbide: Impact of Lignin Structure.

    PubMed

    Guo, Haiwei; Zhang, Bo; Qi, Zaojuan; Li, Changzhi; Ji, Jianwei; Dai, Tao; Wang, Aiqin; Zhang, Tao

    2017-02-08

    Lignins isolated from representative hardwood, softwood, and grass materials were effectively hydrocracked to aromatics catalyzed by tungsten carbide over activated carbon (W2 C/AC). The effects of botanical species and fractionation methods on lignin structure and the activity of W2 C/AC were studied in detail. Gas permeation chromatography (GPC), FTIR, elemental analysis, and 2 D HSQC NMR showed that all the extracted samples shared the basic skeleton of lignin, whereas the fractionation method significantly affected the structure. The organosolv process provided lignin with a structure more similar to the native lignin, which was labile to be depolymerized by W2 C/AC. Softwood lignins (i.e., spruce and pine) possessed higher molecular weights than hardwood lignins (i.e., poplar and basswood); whereas corn stalk lignin that has noncanonical subunits and exhibited the lowest molecular weight owing to its shorter growth period. β-O-4 bonds were the major linkages in all lignin samples, whereas softwood lignins contained more resistant linkages of β-5 and less β-β than corn stalk and hardwood lignins; as a result, lowest hydrocracking efficiency was obtained in softwood lignins, followed by corn stalk and hardwood lignins. 2 D HSQC NMR spectra of lignin and the liquid oil as well as the solid residue showed that W2 C/AC exhibited high activity not only in β-O-4 cleavage, but also in deconstruction of other ether linkages between aromatic units, so that high yield of liquid oil was obtained from lignin. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Real-time monitoring of methanol concentration using a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave sensor for direct methanol fuel cell without reference liquid measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tada, Kyosuke; Nozawa, Takuya; Kondoh, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing demand for sensors that continuously measure liquid concentrations and detect abnormalities in liquid environments. In this study, a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) sensor is applied for the continuous monitoring of liquid concentrations. As the SH-SAW sensor functions using the relative measurement method, it normally needs a reference at each measurement. However, if the sensor is installed in a liquid flow cell, it is difficult to measure a reference liquid. Therefore, it is important to establish an estimation method for liquid concentrations using the SH-SAW sensor without requiring a reference measurement. In this study, the SH-SAW sensor is installed in a direct methanol fuel cell to monitor the methanol concentration. The estimated concentration is compared with a conventional density meter. Moreover, the effect of formic acid is examined. When the fuel temperature is higher than 70 °C, it is necessary to consider the influence of liquid conductivity. Here, an estimation method for these cases is also proposed.

  10. Concentration responses of toxicity sensor with Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 growing in bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Gao, Ningshengjie; Zhou, Qixing

    2013-05-15

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) provide an opportunity to detect biological toxicity of water samples. However, the concentration responses of toxins had not been investigated in detail. Using formaldehyde as a toxic substance, the current responses were analyzed over a concentration range from 0.01% to 0.10% in a single chambered BES with 0mV (versus saturated calomel electrode) applied on the anode. The decay percentages of currents increased in proportion with the concentration of formaldehyde after 10000s (∼2.8h), with the peak R(2) of 0.9361 observed at 35,000s (∼9.7h). Fitting results of exponential decay equation showed that the magnification factor (a) closely related with baseline currents and the toxicity factor (b) was in direct proportion to formaldehyde concentration (from 0% to 0.08%) except over the high concentration of 0.10%. These results provide preliminary information about toxin concentration responses in BESs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Synergistic enzymatic and microbial lignin conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Cheng; Xie, Shangxian; Pu, Yunqiao; Zhang, Rui; Huang, Fang; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Yuan, Joshua S.

    2015-10-02

    We represent the utilization of lignin for fungible fuels and chemicals and it's one of the most imminent challenges in modern biorefineries. However, bioconversion of lignin is highly challenging due to its recalcitrant nature as a phenolic heteropolymer. This study addressed the challenges by revealing the chemical and biological mechanisms for synergistic lignin degradation by a bacterial and enzymatic system, which significantly improved lignin consumption, cell growth and lipid yield. The Rhodococcus opacus cell growth increased exponentially in response to the level of laccase treatment, indicating the synergy between laccase and bacterial cells in lignin degradation. Other treatments like iron and hydrogen peroxide showed limited impact on cell growth. Chemical analysis of lignin under various treatments further confirmed the synergy between laccase and cells at the chemical level. 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) suggested that laccase, R. opacus cell and Fenton reaction reagents promoted the degradation of different types of lignin functional groups, elucidating the chemical basis for the synergistic effects. 31P NMR further revealed that laccase treatment had the most significant impact for degrading the abundant chemical groups. The results were further confirmed by the molecular weight analysis and lignin quantification by the Prussian blue assay. The cell–laccase fermentation led to a 17-fold increase of lipid production. Overall, the study indicated that laccase and R. opacus can synergize to degrade lignin efficiently, likely through rapid utilization of monomers generated by laccase to promote the reaction toward depolymerization. The study provided a potential path for more efficient lignin conversion and development of consolidated lignin conversion.

  12. Synergistic enzymatic and microbial lignin conversion

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Cheng; Xie, Shangxian; Pu, Yunqiao; ...

    2015-10-02

    We represent the utilization of lignin for fungible fuels and chemicals and it's one of the most imminent challenges in modern biorefineries. However, bioconversion of lignin is highly challenging due to its recalcitrant nature as a phenolic heteropolymer. This study addressed the challenges by revealing the chemical and biological mechanisms for synergistic lignin degradation by a bacterial and enzymatic system, which significantly improved lignin consumption, cell growth and lipid yield. The Rhodococcus opacus cell growth increased exponentially in response to the level of laccase treatment, indicating the synergy between laccase and bacterial cells in lignin degradation. Other treatments like ironmore » and hydrogen peroxide showed limited impact on cell growth. Chemical analysis of lignin under various treatments further confirmed the synergy between laccase and cells at the chemical level. 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) suggested that laccase, R. opacus cell and Fenton reaction reagents promoted the degradation of different types of lignin functional groups, elucidating the chemical basis for the synergistic effects. 31P NMR further revealed that laccase treatment had the most significant impact for degrading the abundant chemical groups. The results were further confirmed by the molecular weight analysis and lignin quantification by the Prussian blue assay. The cell–laccase fermentation led to a 17-fold increase of lipid production. Overall, the study indicated that laccase and R. opacus can synergize to degrade lignin efficiently, likely through rapid utilization of monomers generated by laccase to promote the reaction toward depolymerization. The study provided a potential path for more efficient lignin conversion and development of consolidated lignin conversion.« less

  13. Accuracy of different sensors for the estimation of pollutant concentrations (total suspended solids, total and dissolved chemical oxygen demand) in wastewater and stormwater.

    PubMed

    Lepot, Mathieu; Aubin, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Many field investigations have used continuous sensors (turbidimeters and/or ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometers) to estimate with a short time step pollutant concentrations in sewer systems. Few, if any, publications compare the performance of various sensors for the same set of samples. Different surrogate sensors (turbidity sensors, UV-visible spectrophotometer, pH meter, conductivity meter and microwave sensor) were tested to link concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), total and dissolved chemical oxygen demand (COD), and sensors' outputs. In the combined sewer at the inlet of a wastewater treatment plant, 94 samples were collected during dry weather, 44 samples were collected during wet weather, and 165 samples were collected under both dry and wet weather conditions. From these samples, triplicate standard laboratory analyses were performed and corresponding sensors outputs were recorded. Two outlier detection methods were developed, based, respectively, on the Mahalanobis and Euclidean distances. Several hundred regression models were tested, and the best ones (according to the root mean square error criterion) are presented in order of decreasing performance. No sensor appears as the best one for all three investigated pollutants.

  14. Effects of lignin structure on hydrodeoxygenation reactivity of pine wood lignin to valuable chemicals

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Hongliang; Ben, Haoxi; Southeast Univ., Nanjing; ...

    2017-01-05

    Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of two dilute acid flow through pretreated softwood lignin samples, including residual lignin in pretreated solid residues (ReL) and recovered insoluble lignin in pretreated liquid (RISL), with apparent different physical and chemical structures, was comprehensively studied. A combination of catalysts (HY zeolite and Ru/Al2O3) was employed to investigate the effects of lignin structures, especially condensed structures, on the HDO upgrading process. Results indicated that the condensed structure and short side chains in lignin hindered its HDO conversion under different reaction conditions, including catalyst loading and composition, hydrogen pressure, and reaction time. In addition to lignin structure, HY zeolitemore » was found crucial for lignin depolymerization, while Ru/Al2O3 and relatively high hydrogen pressure (4 MPa) were necessary for upgrading unstable oxy-compounds to cyclohexanes at high selectivity (>95 wt %). Since the lignin structure essentially affects its reactivity during HDO conversion, the yield and selectivity of HDO products can be predicted by detailed characterization of the lignin structure. Furthermore, the insights gained from this study in the fundamental reaction mechanisms based on the lignin structure will facilitate upgrading of lignin to high-value products for applications in the production of both fuels and chemicals.« less

  15. Changes of Lignin Molecular Structures in a Modification of Kraft Lignin Using Acid Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghoon; Oh, Seungtaek; Lee, Jungmin; Roh, Hyun-Gyoo; Park, Jongshin

    2016-08-05

    The purpose of this study is to modify lignin for better blending with general purpose synthetic polymers. The possible advantages by using this modification would be cost reduction, better physical properties, and biodegradability. In this study, butyrolactone-modified lignin (BLL) and tetrahydrofuran-modified lignin (THFL) were used for aliphatic chain modification of lignin using an acid-catalyzed esterification method in order to mimic the relation of lignin-carbohydrate-complex (LCC) and cellulose. The results of several analyses indicated that lignin was well modified. It was confirmed that the lignin was modified as expected and the reaction sites of the modification, as well as the reaction behaviors, were varied by the reagent types. The result of X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) analysis indicated that modified lignin/polymer blends increased the crystallinity due to their good compatibility. It can be confirmed that the type of alkyl chain and the miscibility gap between the alkyl chain-matrix affected the mechanical properties enormously in the fungi-degradable environment. From this study, a new method of lignin modification is proposed, and it is found that modified lignin retains the property of the substituted aliphatic chain well. This method could be a proper lignin modification method.

  16. Changes of Lignin Molecular Structures in a Modification of Kraft Lignin Using Acid Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sunghoon; Oh, Seungtaek; Lee, Jungmin; Roh, Hyun-gyoo; Park, Jongshin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to modify lignin for better blending with general purpose synthetic polymers. The possible advantages by using this modification would be cost reduction, better physical properties, and biodegradability. In this study, butyrolactone-modified lignin (BLL) and tetrahydrofuran-modified lignin (THFL) were used for aliphatic chain modification of lignin using an acid-catalyzed esterification method in order to mimic the relation of lignin-carbohydrate-complex (LCC) and cellulose. The results of several analyses indicated that lignin was well modified. It was confirmed that the lignin was modified as expected and the reaction sites of the modification, as well as the reaction behaviors, were varied by the reagent types. The result of X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) analysis indicated that modified lignin/polymer blends increased the crystallinity due to their good compatibility. It can be confirmed that the type of alkyl chain and the miscibility gap between the alkyl chain-matrix affected the mechanical properties enormously in the fungi-degradable environment. From this study, a new method of lignin modification is proposed, and it is found that modified lignin retains the property of the substituted aliphatic chain well. This method could be a proper lignin modification method. PMID:28773779

  17. The lignin content in virgin and cultivated peat soils of Belarussian poles'e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambalov, N. N.

    2007-11-01

    The contents of lignin extracted by a mixture of dioxane, water, and hydrochloric acid was determined in peat-forming plants (moss, herbaceous, and woody) corresponding to types of peat, cultivated and virgin peat soils, and stubby barley residues. The balance experiments in the field and in the laboratory over 12 36 months showed that, upon the decomposition of the peat-forming plants, the part of lignin available for microorganisms was humified and mineralized, while the unavailable part accumulated in the peat. A close correlation was revealed between the lignin content in the peat-forming plants and the humic acid concentration in the peat. Upon agricultural use, the lignin content in the plow horizons of the peat soils did not change if the degree of the peat decomposition was identical to that in the virgin soils or if it was higher by 2 2.5% if the peat decomposition rate increased.

  18. Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin

    DOEpatents

    Schroeder, Herbert A.

    1991-01-01

    Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

  19. Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins by extracting demethylated lignin

    DOEpatents

    Schroeder, Herbert A.

    1991-01-01

    Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is preferably dried and stored until it is used (along with an alkali, an aldehyde and an adhesive filler) in compounding an adhesive of the type generally used in the manufacture of plywood.

  20. Solution Concentration and Flow Rate of Fe3+-modified Porphyrin (Red Blood Model) on Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) Sensor Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminudin, A.; Tjahyono, D. H.; Suprijadi; Djamal, M.; Zaen, R.; Nandiyanto, A. B. D.

    2017-03-01

    Red blood has been of great interest for scientists since it relates to human’ and living creature’s life sustainability. One of the important compounds in red blood is porphyrin. Here, the purpose of this study was to develop a method for detecting porphyrin concentration using the assistance of giant magnetoresistance. In short of the method, we added Fe3+ solution to the porphyrin, and the mixed solution was introduced to the magnetic field. Next, the magnetized solution was introduced to the magnetic sensor to indicate the existence of porphyrin in the solution. To confirm the effectiveness of our method in detecting porphyrin, we varied the flow rate and concentration of Fe3+-modified porphyrin solution. The result showed that the more concentration and the slower flow rate affected the higher sensitivity gained. Since this developed method is simple but effective for detecting porphyrin concentration, we believe that further development of this method will be benefit for many applications, specifically relating to the medical uses.

  1. Computing time-series suspended-sediment concentrations and loads from in-stream turbidity-sensor and streamflow data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Gray, John R.; Glysson, G. Doug; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade, use of a method for computing suspended-sediment concentration and loads using turbidity sensors—primarily nephelometry, but also optical backscatter—has proliferated. Because an in- itu turbidity sensor is capa le of measuring turbidity instantaneously, a turbidity time series can be recorded and related directly to time-varying suspended-sediment concentrations. Depending on the suspended-sediment characteristics of the measurement site, this method can be more reliable and, in many cases, a more accurate means for computing suspended-sediment concentrations and loads than traditional U.S. Geological Survey computational methods. Guidelines and procedures for estimating time s ries of suspended-sediment concentration and loading as a function of turbidity and streamflow data have been published in a U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods Report, Book 3, Chapter C4. This paper is a summary of these guidelines and discusses some of the concepts, s atistical procedures, and techniques used to maintain a multiyear suspended sediment time series.

  2. Effect of Penicillium chrysogenum on Lignin Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, A.; Carnicero, A.; Perestelo, F.; de la Fuente, G.; Milstein, O.; Falcón, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    A strain of Penicillium chrysogenum has been isolated from pine forest soils in Tenerife (Canary Islands). This strain was capable of utilizing hydroxylated and nonhydroxylated aromatic compounds, in particular cinnamic acid, as its sole carbon source. In an optimum medium with high levels of nitrogen (25.6 mM) and low levels of glucose (5.5 mM), it was able to decolorize Poly B-411 and to transform kraft, organosolv, and synthetic dehydrogenative polymerisate lignins. After 30 days of incubation, the amount of recovered kraft lignin was reduced to 83.5 and 91.3% of that estimated for uninoculated controls by spectrophotometry and klason lignin, respectively. At the same time, the pattern of molecular mass distribution of the lignin remaining in cultures was changed. The amount of organosolv lignin recovered from cultures was reduced to 90.1 and 94.6% of the initial amount as evaluated by spectrophotometry and klason lignin, respectively. About 6% of total applied radioactivity of O14CH3-organosolv lignin was recovered as 14CO2 after 30 days of incubation, and 18.5% of radioactivity from insoluble O14CH3-organosolv lignin was solubilized. After 26 days of incubation, 2.9% of 14C-β-dehydrogenative polymerisate and 4.1% of 14C-ring-dehydrogenative polymerisate evolved as 14CO2. PMID:16349361

  3. Lignin: Characterization of a Multifaceted Crop Component

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Lignin is a plant component with important implications for various agricultural disciplines. It confers rigidity to cell walls, and is therefore associated with tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses and the mechanical stability of plants. In animal nutrition, lignin is considered an antinutritive component of forages as it cannot be readily fermented by rumen microbes. In terms of energy yield from biomass, the role of lignin depends on the conversion process. It contains more gross energy than other cell wall components and therefore confers enhanced heat value in thermochemical processes such as direct combustion. Conversely, it negatively affects biological energy conversion processes such as bioethanol or biogas production, as it inhibits microbial fermentation of the cell wall. Lignin from crop residues plays an important role in the soil organic carbon cycling, as it constitutes a recalcitrant carbon pool affecting nutrient mineralization and carbon sequestration. Due to the significance of lignin in several agricultural disciplines, the modification of lignin content and composition by breeding is becoming increasingly important. Both mapping of quantitative trait loci and transgenic approaches have been adopted to modify lignin in crops. However, breeding goals must be defined considering the conflicting role of lignin in different agricultural disciplines. PMID:24348159

  4. The degradation of wheat straw lignin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jiaqi

    2017-03-01

    Lignin is a kind of formed by polymerization of aromatic alcohol, prices are lower and sources of renewable resources. Using lignin as raw material, through the push to resolve together preparation phenolic high value-added fine chemicals alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons, such as the high grade biofuels, can partly replace fossil fuels as raw material to the production process, biomass resources is an important part of the comprehensive utilization of effective components. In lignin push solve clustering method, catalytic hydrogenolysis can directly to the lignin into liquid fuels, low oxygen content in the use of biofuels shows great potential. In this paper, through the optimization of the reaction time, reaction temperature, catalyst type and solvent type, dosage of catalyst, etc factors, determines the alcoholysis - hydrogen solution two-step degradation of lignin, the optimal process conditions: lignin alcoholysis under 50% methanol and NaOH catalyst in the solution, the lignin in methanol solution and 50% hydrogen solution under the Pd/C catalyst. In this process, the degradation of lignin yield can reach 42%.

  5. Development of Lignin-Based Polyurethane Thermoplastics

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Tomonori; Perkins, Joshua H; Jackson, Daniel C; Trammell, Neil E; Hunt, Marcus A; Naskar, Amit K

    2013-01-01

    In our continued effort to develop value-added thermoplastics from lignin, here we report utilizing a tailored feedstock to synthesize mechanically robust thermoplastic polyurethanes at very high lignin contents (75 65 wt %). The molecular weight and glass transition temperature (Tg) of lignin were altered through cross-linking with formaldehyde. The cross-linked lignin was coupled with diisocyanate-based telechelic polybutadiene as a network-forming soft segment. The appearance of two Tg s, around 35 and 154 C, for the polyurethanes indicates the existence of two-phase morphology, a characteristic of thermoplastic copolymers. A calculated Flory-Huggins interaction parameter of 7.71 also suggests phase immiscibility in the synthesized lignin polyurethanes. An increase in lignin loading increased the modulus, and an increase in crosslink-density increased the modulus in the rubbery plateau region of the thermoplastic. This path for synthesis of novel lignin-based polyurethane thermoplastics provides a design tool for high performance lignin-based biopolymers.

  6. Method for regulation of plant lignin composition

    DOEpatents

    Chapple, Clint

    1999-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the regulation of lignin composition in plant tissue. Plants are transformed with a gene encoding an active F5H gene. The expression of the F5H gene results in increased levels of syringyl monomer providing a lignin composition more easily degraded with chemicals and enzymes.

  7. (Characterization of lignin peroxidases from Phanerochaete)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-14

    Work has continued on characterizing the kinetics of lignin peroxidases and has now expanded to include the chemistry of Mn peroxidases. Progress in these two area in addition to the authors work on the molecular biology of lignin biodegradation is briefly described below. Copies of two reprints and one preprint which have resulted from the work are attached.

  8. Structural elucidation of inhomogeneous lignins from bamboo.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jia-Long; Sun, Shao-Long; Xue, Bai-Liang; Sun, Run-Cang

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of the inhomogeneous molecular structure of lignin from bamboo is a prerequisite for promoting the "biorefinery" technologies of the bamboo feedstock. A mild and successive method for fractionating native lignin from bamboo species was proposed in the present study. The molecular structure and structural inhomogeneity of the isolated lignin polymers were comprehensively investigated by elemental analysis, carbohydrate analysis, state-of-the-art NMR and analytical pyrolysis techniques (quantitative (13)C NMR, (13)C-DEPT 135 NMR, 2D-HSQC NMR, (31)P NMR, and pyrolysis-GC-MS). The results showed that the proposed method is effective for extracting lignin from bamboo. NMR results showed that syringyl (S) was the predominant unit in bamboo lignin over guaiacyl (G) and p-hydroxyphenyl (H) units. In addition, the lignin was associated with p-coumarates and ferulates via ester and ether bonds, respectively. Moreover, various substructures, such as β-O-4, β-β, β-5, β-1, and α,β-diaryl ether linkages, were identified and quantified by NMR techniques. Based on the results obtained, a proposed schematic diagram of structural heterogeneity of the lignin polymers extracted from the bamboo is presented. In short, well-defined inhomogeneous structures of native lignin from bamboo will facilitate further applications of bamboo in current biorefineries.

  9. On the relationships between leaf-litter lignin and net primary productivity in tropical rain forests.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Kanehiro; Suzuki, Shizuo; Hori, Masato; Takyu, Masaaki; Aiba, Shin-Ichiro; Majalap-Lee, Noreen; Kikuzawa, Kihachiro

    2004-07-01

    We investigated if tropical rainforest trees produced more-lignified leaves in less productive environments using forests on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo. Our investigation was based on two earlier suggestions that slower litter decomposition occurs under less productive forests and that trees under resource limitation invest a large amount of carbon as lignin as a defense substance to minimize the loss from herbivores. When nine forests at different altitudes (700-3100 m) and soil conditions (derived from sedimentary or ultrabasic rocks) but with the same gentle relief position were compared, the concentrations of leaf-litter lignin were positively correlated with litterfall rates and leaf-litter nitrogen concentrations. These patterns would be reinforced in intact leaves if the effects of resorption at the time of leaf shedding were taken into account, because greater magnitude of resorption of mobile elements but not of lignin would occur in less productive environments (i.e. dilution of lignin in intact leaves). These results did not support earlier suggestions to explain the variation of leaf-litter lignin. Instead, we suggest that lower lignin contents are adaptive to recycle minerals without retarding decomposition in less productive environments.

  10. Ferricyanide-based analysis of aqueous lignin suspension revealed sequestration of water-soluble lignin moieties

    SciTech Connect

    Joshua, C. J.; Simmons, B. A.; Singer, S. W.

    2016-06-02

    This study describes the application of a ferricyanide-based assay as a simple and inexpensive assay for rapid analysis of aqueous lignin samples. The assay measures the formation of Prussian blue from the redox reaction between a mixture of potassium ferricyanide and ferric chloride, and phenolic hydroxyl groups of lignin or lignin-derived phenolic moieties. This study revealed that soluble lignin moieties exhibited stronger ferricyanide reactivity than insoluble aggregates. The soluble lignin moieties exhibited higher ferricyanide reactivity because of increased access of the phenolic hydroxyl groups to the ferricyanide reagents. Ferricyanide reactivity of soluble lignin moieties correlated inversely with the molecular weight distributions of the molecules, probably due to the involvement of phenolic hydroxyl groups in bond formation. The insoluble lignin aggregates exhibited low ferricyanide reactivity due to sequestration of the phenolic hydroxyl groups within the solid matrix. The study also highlighted the sequestration of polydispersed water-soluble lignin moieties by insoluble aggregates. The sequestered moieties were released by treatment with 0.01 M NaOH at 37 °C for 180 min. The redox assay was effective on different types of lignin extracts such as Klason lignin from switchgrass, ionic-liquid derived lignin from Eucalyptus and alkali lignin extracts. The assay generated a distinct profile for each lignin sample that was highly reproducible. The assay was also used to monitor consumption of syringic acid by Sphingobium sp. SYK-6. The simplicity and reproducibility of this assay makes it an excellent and versatile tool for qualitative and semi-quantitative characterization and comparative profiling of aqueous lignin samples.

  11. Ferricyanide-based analysis of aqueous lignin suspension revealed sequestration of water-soluble lignin moieties

    DOE PAGES

    Joshua, C. J.; Simmons, B. A.; Singer, S. W.

    2016-06-02

    This study describes the application of a ferricyanide-based assay as a simple and inexpensive assay for rapid analysis of aqueous lignin samples. The assay measures the formation of Prussian blue from the redox reaction between a mixture of potassium ferricyanide and ferric chloride, and phenolic hydroxyl groups of lignin or lignin-derived phenolic moieties. This study revealed that soluble lignin moieties exhibited stronger ferricyanide reactivity than insoluble aggregates. The soluble lignin moieties exhibited higher ferricyanide reactivity because of increased access of the phenolic hydroxyl groups to the ferricyanide reagents. Ferricyanide reactivity of soluble lignin moieties correlated inversely with the molecular weightmore » distributions of the molecules, probably due to the involvement of phenolic hydroxyl groups in bond formation. The insoluble lignin aggregates exhibited low ferricyanide reactivity due to sequestration of the phenolic hydroxyl groups within the solid matrix. The study also highlighted the sequestration of polydispersed water-soluble lignin moieties by insoluble aggregates. The sequestered moieties were released by treatment with 0.01 M NaOH at 37 °C for 180 min. The redox assay was effective on different types of lignin extracts such as Klason lignin from switchgrass, ionic-liquid derived lignin from Eucalyptus and alkali lignin extracts. The assay generated a distinct profile for each lignin sample that was highly reproducible. The assay was also used to monitor consumption of syringic acid by Sphingobium sp. SYK-6. The simplicity and reproducibility of this assay makes it an excellent and versatile tool for qualitative and semi-quantitative characterization and comparative profiling of aqueous lignin samples.« less

  12. Conversion of kraft lignin under hydrothermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue-Fei

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to explore hydrothermal conversion of kraft lignin for value-added products. With ranging between 5.4% and 10.6%, total oil yield decreased with the increase of temperature (130, 180, and 230°C), the longer reaction time (15-60min) led to increased total oil yield. Main compound of oils characterized by GC-MS was guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol) in the range of 19-78% of oil depending on different reaction conditions. Residual kraft lignins were characterized by GPC and FTIR with respect to the conversion mechanism of kraft lignin by this process. The conversion of kraft lignin under hydrothermal conditions had something to do with the degradation of β-O-4 linkages, hydroxyl groups, carbonyl groups, aromatic rings resulting in the increased amount of phenolic OH groups in kraft lignin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Opportunities and challenges in biological lignin valorization

    SciTech Connect

    Beckham, Gregg T.; Johnson, Christopher W.; Karp, Eric M.; Salvachúa, Davinia; Vardon, Derek R.

    2016-12-01

    Lignin is a primary component of lignocellulosic biomass that is an underutilized feedstock in the growing biofuels industry. Despite the fact that lignin depolymerization has long been studied, the intrinsic heterogeneity of lignin typically leads to heterogeneous streams of aromatic compounds, which in turn present significant technical challenges when attempting to produce lignin-derived chemicals where purity is often a concern. In Nature, microorganisms often encounter this same problem during biomass turnover wherein powerful oxidative enzymes produce heterogeneous slates of aromatics compounds. Some microbes have evolved metabolic pathways to convert these aromatic species via ‘upper pathways’ into central intermediates, which can then be funneled through ‘lower pathways’ into central carbon metabolism in a process we dubbed ‘biological funneling’. This funneling approach offers a direct, biological solution to overcome heterogeneity problems in lignin valorization for the modern biorefinery. Coupled to targeted separations and downstream chemical catalysis, this concept offers the ability to produce a wide range of molecules from lignin. This perspective describes research opportunities and challenges ahead for this new field of research, which holds significant promise towards a biorefinery concept wherein polysaccharides and lignin are treated as equally valuable feedstocks. In particular, we discuss tailoring the lignin substrate for microbial utilization, host selection for biological funneling, ligninolytic enzyme–microbe synergy, metabolic engineering, expanding substrate specificity for biological funneling, and process integration, each of which presents key challenges. Ultimately, for biological solutions to lignin valorization to be viable, multiple questions in each of these areas will need to be addressed, making biological lignin valorization a multidisciplinary, co-design problem.

  14. Opportunities and challenges in biological lignin valorization.

    PubMed

    Beckham, Gregg T; Johnson, Christopher W; Karp, Eric M; Salvachúa, Davinia; Vardon, Derek R

    2016-12-01

    Lignin is a primary component of lignocellulosic biomass that is an underutilized feedstock in the growing biofuels industry. Despite the fact that lignin depolymerization has long been studied, the intrinsic heterogeneity of lignin typically leads to heterogeneous streams of aromatic compounds, which in turn present significant technical challenges when attempting to produce lignin-derived chemicals where purity is often a concern. In Nature, microorganisms often encounter this same problem during biomass turnover wherein powerful oxidative enzymes produce heterogeneous slates of aromatics compounds. Some microbes have evolved metabolic pathways to convert these aromatic species via 'upper pathways' into central intermediates, which can then be funneled through 'lower pathways' into central carbon metabolism in a process we dubbed 'biological funneling'. This funneling approach offers a direct, biological solution to overcome heterogeneity problems in lignin valorization for the modern biorefinery. Coupled to targeted separations and downstream chemical catalysis, this concept offers the ability to produce a wide range of molecules from lignin. This perspective describes research opportunities and challenges ahead for this new field of research, which holds significant promise towards a biorefinery concept wherein polysaccharides and lignin are treated as equally valuable feedstocks. In particular, we discuss tailoring the lignin substrate for microbial utilization, host selection for biological funneling, ligninolytic enzyme-microbe synergy, metabolic engineering, expanding substrate specificity for biological funneling, and process integration, each of which presents key challenges. Ultimately, for biological solutions to lignin valorization to be viable, multiple questions in each of these areas will need to be addressed, making biological lignin valorization a multidisciplinary, co-design problem.

  15. Micro-Spectroscopic Imaging of Lignin-Carbohydrate Complexes in Plant Cell Walls and Their Migration During Biomass Pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Yining; Zhao, Shuai; Wei, Hui; Tucker, Melvin P.; Johnson, David K.; Himmel, Michael E.; Mosier, Nathan S.; Meilan, Richard; Ding, Shi-You

    2015-04-27

    In lignocellulosic biomass, lignin is the second most abundant biopolymer. In plant cell walls, lignin is associated with polysaccharides to form lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCC). LCC have been considered to be a major factor that negatively affects the process of deconstructing biomass to simple sugars by cellulosic enzymes. Here, we report a micro-spectroscopic approach that combines fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy and Stimulated Raman Scattering microscopy to probe in situ lignin concentration and conformation at each cell wall layer. This technique does not require extensive sample preparation or any external labels. Using poplar as a feedstock, for example, we observe variation of LCC in untreated tracheid poplar cell walls. The redistribution of LCC at tracheid poplar cell wall layers is also investigated when the chemical linkages between lignin and hemicellulose are cleaved during pretreatment. Our study would provide new insights into further improvement of the biomass pretreatment process.

  16. Isolation of lignin by organosolv process from different varieties of rice husk: Understanding their physical and chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sandip K; Dhepe, Paresh L

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the difference in properties of lignins, those (organosolv lignins (ORGLs, 12±3% yield and 93±5% mass balance) were isolated from diverse rice husk (RH) substrates using organosolv procedure (water:ethanol, H2SO4) carried out at 180°C for 1h. To identify the possible alterations in lignin structures several bulk and molecular level advanced characterization tools were employed. Even though lignins were extracted using common isolation procedure from three varieties of similar species of RH; from XRD, GPC, and elemental analysis it was found that those have comparable properties on bulk level. But molecular level analysis conducted using UV-vis, ATR, 1D/2D HSQC NMR techniques could help disclose that isolated lignins have varying concentrations of G, H, S and T substructures. Additionally, the double bond equivalence of 4.4-4.7 reveals that few of the aromatic rings are devoid of substituent.

  17. Improved noncontact optical sensor for detection of glucose concentration and indication of dehydration level

    PubMed Central

    Ozana, Nisan; Arbel, Nadav; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Mico, Vicente; Sanz, Martin; Garcia, Javier; Anand, Arun; Javidi, Baharam; Epstein, Yoram; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2014-01-01

    The ability to extract different bio-medical parameters from one single wristwatch device can be very applicable. The wearable device that is presented in this paper is based on two optical approaches. The first is the extraction and separation of remote vibration sources and the second is the rotation of linearly polarized light by certain materials exposed to magnetic fields. The technique is based on tracking of temporal changes of reflected secondary speckles produced in the wrist when being illuminated by a laser beam. Change in skin’s temporal vibration profile together with change in the magnetic medium that is generated by time varied glucose concentration caused these temporal changes. In this paper we present experimental tests which are the first step towards an in vivo noncontact device for detection of glucose concentration in blood. The paper also shows very preliminary results for qualitative capability for indication of dehydration. PMID:24940550

  18. Novel multi wavelength sensor concept to detect total hemoglobin concentration, methemoglobin and oxygen saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timm, Ulrich; Gewiss, Helge; Kraitl, Jens; Stuepmann, Kirstin; Hinz, Michael; Koball, Sebastian; Ewald, Hartmut

    2015-03-01

    The paper will describe the novel multi-wavelength photometric device OxyTrue Hb® which is capable to measure the hemoglobin (Hb) and methemoglobin (MetHb) concentration non-invasively. Clinic trails in blood donation centers and during the dialysis are done to prove and demonstrate the performance of the system. The results are compared to the gold standard, the BGA measurement.

  19. Design and test of a low-cost RGB sensor for online measurement of microalgae concentration within a photo-bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Micaela; Mailier, Johan; Hantson, Anne-Lise; Muñoz, Gerardo; Vargas, Alejandro; Van Impe, Jan; Vande Wouwer, Alain

    2015-02-26

    In this study, a low-cost RGB sensor is developed to measure online the microalgae concentration within a photo-bioreactor. Two commercially available devices, i.e., a spectrophotometer for offline measurements and an immersed probe for online measurements, are used for calibration and comparison purposes. Furthermore, the potential of such a sensor for estimating other variables is illustrated with the design of an extended Luenberger observer.

  20. Anti-HCV effect of Lentinula edodes mycelia solid culture extracts and low-molecular-weight lignin.

    PubMed

    Matsuhisa, Koji; Yamane, Seiji; Okamoto, Toru; Watari, Akihiro; Kondoh, Masuo; Matsuura, Yoshiharu; Yagi, Kiyohito

    2015-06-19

    Lentinula edodes mycelia solid culture extract (MSCE) contains several bioactive molecules, including some polyphenolic compounds, which exert immunomodulatory, antitumor, and hepatoprotective effects. In this study, we examined the anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) activity of MSCE and low-molecular-weight lignin (LM-lignin), which is the active component responsible for the hepatoprotective effect of MSCE. Both MSCE and LM-lignin inhibited the entry of two HCV pseudovirus (HCVpv) types into Huh7.5.1 cells. LM-lignin inhibited HCVpv entry at a lower concentration than MSCE and inhibited the entry of HCV particles in cell culture (HCVcc). MSCE also inhibited HCV subgenome replication. LM-lignin had no effect on HCV replication, suggesting that MSCE contains additional active substances. We demonstrate here for the first time the anti-HCV effects of plant-derived LM-lignin and MSCE. The hepatoprotective effect of LM-lignin suggests that lignin derivatives, which can be produced in abundance from existing plant resources, may be effective in the treatment of HCV-related diseases.

  1. A Portable Low-Power Acquisition System with a Urease Bioelectrochemical Sensor for Potentiometric Detection of Urea Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wei-Jhe; Luo, Ching-Hsing; Lin, Jiun-Ling; Chou, Sin-Houng; Chen, Ping-Hung; Syu, Mei-Jywan; Kuo, Shin-Hung; Lai, Shin-Chi

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a portable low-power battery-driven bioelectrochemical signal acquisition system for urea detection. The proposed design has several advantages, including high performance, low cost, low-power consumption, and high portability. A LT1789-1 low-supply-voltage instrumentation amplifier (IA) was used to measure and amplify the open-circuit potential (OCP) between the working and reference electrodes. An MSP430 micro-controller was programmed to process and transduce the signals to the custom-developed software by ZigBee RF module in wireless mode and UART in able mode. The immobilized urease sensor was prepared by embedding urease into the polymer (aniline-co-o-phenylenediamine) polymeric matrix and then coating/depositing it onto a MEMS-fabricated Au working electrode. The linear correlation established between the urea concentration and the potentiometric change is in the urea concentrations range of 3.16 × 10−4 to 3.16 × 10−2 M with a sensitivity of 31.12 mV/log [M] and a precision of 0.995 (R2 = 0.995). This portable device not only detects urea concentrations, but can also operate continuously with a 3.7 V rechargeab-le lithium-ion battery (500 mA·h) for at least four days. Accordingly, its use is feasible and even promising for home-care applications. PMID:27049390

  2. Comparison of chlorophyll a concentration detected by remote sensors and other chlorophyll indices in inhomogeneous turbid waters.

    PubMed

    Sokoletsky, Leonid G; Yacobi, Yosef Z

    2011-10-20

    A new analytical approach for retrieval of the vertically weighted chlorophyll a concentration (Chl(rs)) detected by remote sensors is presented. Model calculations were carried out for the turbid waters of Lake Kinneret, Israel, and showed that Chl(rs) may be replaced by the average chlorophyll a concentration (Chl(p)) within the upper "penetration layer" 0-Z(p). The study also showed a high correlation between Chl(rs) and Chl concentration averaged in the other depth layers, namely, the 0-1 m layer, the euphotic layer (0-Z(e)), and the production layer (0-Z(pr)). Our findings are closely related to models developed for the world ocean, with the exception of periods when the dinoflagellate Peridinium gatunense blooms in the lake. We showed the effect of the pattern of vertical Chl distributions within the penetration layer on the difference between Chl(rs) and other Chl indices was conspicuous when the Chl maximum was in the uppermost 0- m layer of the water column. We assume that the presented approaches are instrumental for further development of optimal, locally adapted algorithms for remote sensing of Chl in any type of natural waters.

  3. Aircraft active and passive microwave validation of sea ice concentration from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program special sensor microwave imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Crawford, J. P.; Drinkwater, M. R.; Eppler, D. T.; Farmer, L. D.; Jentz, R. R.; Wackerman, C. C.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of a series of coordinate special sensor microwave imager (SSM/I) underflights that were carried out during March 1988 with NASA and Navy aircraft over portions of the Bering, Beaufort, and Chukchi seas. NASA DC-8 AMMR data from Bering Sea ice edge crossings were used to verify that the ice edge location, defined as the position of the initial ice bands encountered by the aircraft, corresponds to an SSM/I ice concentration of 15 percent. Direct comparison of SSM/I and aircraft ice concentrations for regions having at least 80 percent aircraft coverage reveals that the SSM/I total ice concentration is lower on average by 2.4 +/-2.4 percent. For multiyear ice, NASA and Navy flights across the Beaufort and Chukchi seas show that the SSM/I algorithm correctly maps the large-scale distribution of multiyear ice: the zone of first-year ice off the Alaskan coast, the large areas of mixed first-year and multiyear ice, and the region of predominantly multiyear ice north of the Canadian archipelago.

  4. A Portable Low-Power Acquisition System with a Urease Bioelectrochemical Sensor for Potentiometric Detection of Urea Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei-Jhe; Luo, Ching-Hsing; Lin, Jiun-Ling; Chou, Sin-Houng; Chen, Ping-Hung; Syu, Mei-Jywan; Kuo, Shin-Hung; Lai, Shin-Chi

    2016-04-02

    This paper presents a portable low-power battery-driven bioelectrochemical signal acquisition system for urea detection. The proposed design has several advantages, including high performance, low cost, low-power consumption, and high portability. A LT1789-1 low-supply-voltage instrumentation amplifier (IA) was used to measure and amplify the open-circuit potential (OCP) between the working and reference electrodes. An MSP430 micro-controller was programmed to process and transduce the signals to the custom-developed software by ZigBee RF module in wireless mode and UART in able mode. The immobilized urease sensor was prepared by embedding urease into the polymer (aniline-co-o-phenylenediamine) polymeric matrix and then coating/depositing it onto a MEMS-fabricated Au working electrode. The linear correlation established between the urea concentration and the potentiometric change is in the urea concentrations range of 3.16 × 10(-4) to 3.16 × 10(-2) M with a sensitivity of 31.12 mV/log [M] and a precision of 0.995 (R² = 0.995). This portable device not only detects urea concentrations, but can also operate continuously with a 3.7 V rechargeab-le lithium-ion battery (500 mA·h) for at least four days. Accordingly, its use is feasible and even promising for home-care applications.

  5. Aircraft active and passive microwave validation of sea ice concentration from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program special sensor microwave imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Crawford, J. P.; Drinkwater, M. R.; Eppler, D. T.; Farmer, L. D.; Jentz, R. R.; Wackerman, C. C.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of a series of coordinate special sensor microwave imager (SSM/I) underflights that were carried out during March 1988 with NASA and Navy aircraft over portions of the Bering, Beaufort, and Chukchi seas. NASA DC-8 AMMR data from Bering Sea ice edge crossings were used to verify that the ice edge location, defined as the position of the initial ice bands encountered by the aircraft, corresponds to an SSM/I ice concentration of 15 percent. Direct comparison of SSM/I and aircraft ice concentrations for regions having at least 80 percent aircraft coverage reveals that the SSM/I total ice concentration is lower on average by 2.4 +/-2.4 percent. For multiyear ice, NASA and Navy flights across the Beaufort and Chukchi seas show that the SSM/I algorithm correctly maps the large-scale distribution of multiyear ice: the zone of first-year ice off the Alaskan coast, the large areas of mixed first-year and multiyear ice, and the region of predominantly multiyear ice north of the Canadian archipelago.

  6. Aerosol assisted self-assembly as a route to synthesize solid and hollow spherical lignin colloids and its utilization in layer by layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Mishra, P K; Wimmer, R

    2017-03-01

    Lignin, a major constituent of plant cell-wall and by-product of paper based industries is traditionally used for low value applications (heat or electricity generation), but its potential in high value utilization has also been widely reported. In this work, we synthesized lignin colloidal particles using ultrasonic spray-freezing route without any chemical functionalization of material, and stabilized it by electrostatic route. As per our knowledge, this technique is the first reported method which yields hollow/solid lignin colloids having good particle size control without any chemical functionalization of material. Dioxane soluble fraction of Alkali lignin (d-lignin) was used without any further chemical functionalization. d-lignin dissolved in DMSO was sprayed upon liquid nitrogen cooled copper plate using an ultrasonic nebulizer. The resulting frozen droplets were collected and found to possess hollow and solid morphology. Particles thus obtained were characterized for their size distribution and morphology, and compared to theoretically anticipated values. Size tunability of particles in relation to concentration of sprayed lignin solution was also studied. In addition to that, six layers of lignin colloids were deposited on quartz slide with the aid of negligible UV absorbing polyelectrolyte aqueous solution PDADMAC [Poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)]. Gradation in UV absorbing ability of lignin with increase in number of layers could be clearly observed. Hollow and solid lignin colloids, apart from their application in sunscreen cosmetics owing to their UV absorbing ability, show potential applications in drug delivery also.

  7. High-value utilization of lignin to synthesize Ag nanoparticles with detection capacity for Hg²⁺.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zuguang; Luo, Yuqiong; Wang, Qun; Wang, Xiaoying; Sun, Runcang

    2014-09-24

    This study reports the rapid preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Tollens' reagent under microwave irradiation. In the synthesis, lignin with reducing groups and spatial three-dimensional structure was used as reducing and stabilizing agents without other chemical reagents, and the effects of the ratio of lignin to Ag(+), reaction temperature, and heating time on the synthesis of AgNPs were investigated. The obtained AgNPs were further characterized by UV-vis, Malvern particle size, TEM, XRD, and XPS analyses. The structural changes of lignin before and after reaction were also studied by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and GC-MS. The results revealed that the obtained AgNPs were mostly spherical with diameters of around 24 nm. The optimum reaction conditions were a ratio 50 mg of lignin to 0.3 mM of Ag(+), a microwave irradiation temperature of 60 °C, and a heating time of 10 min. Moreover, AgNPs redispersed well in water and ethanol after centrifugation for the removal of lignin. During the formation of AgNPs, lignin was oxidized, and the side chains of lignin were partly disrupted into small molecules, such as hydrocarbon and alcohol. The resultant lignin-AgNPs showed highly selective sensing detection for Hg(2+), and the color of the lignin-AgNP solution containing Hg(2+) decreased gradually with increasing amounts of Hg(2+) within seconds, but the other 19 metal ions had little effect on the color and surface plasmon absorption band of the lignin-AgNPs. Also, there was a linear relationship between the absorbance and Hg(2+) concentration, with a limit of detection concentration of 23 nM. This study provides not only a new way to take advantage of agricultural and forestry residues, but also a green and rapid method for the synthesis of AgNPs to detect the toxic ion Hg(2+) selectively and sensitively.

  8. Methanol fractionation of softwood Kraft lignin: impact on the lignin properties.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tomonori; Perkins, Joshua H; Vautard, Frederic; Meyer, Harry M; Messman, Jamie M; Tolnai, Balazs; Naskar, Amit K

    2014-01-01

    The development of technologies to tune lignin properties for high-performance lignin-based materials is crucial for the utilization of lignin in various applications. Here, the effect of methanol (MeOH) fractionation on the molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, glass transition temperature (Tg ), thermal decomposition, and chemical structure of lignin were investigated. Repeated MeOH fractionation of softwood Kraft lignin successfully removed the low-molecular-weight fraction. The separated high-molecular-weight lignin showed a Tg of 211 °C and a char yield of 47 %, much higher than those of as-received lignin (Tg 153 °C, char yield 41 %). The MeOH-soluble fraction of lignin showed an increased low-molecular-weight fraction and a lower Tg (117 °C) and char yield (32%). The amount of low-molecular-weight fraction showed a quantitative correlation with both 1/Tg and char yield in a linear regression. This study demonstrated the efficient purification or fractionation technology for lignin; it also established a theoretical and empirical correlation between the physical characteristics of fractionated lignins. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Methanol Fractionation of Softwood Kraft Lignin: Impact on the Lignin Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Tomonori; Perkins, Joshua H; Vautard, Frederic; Meyer III, Harry M; Messman, Jamie M; Tolnai, Balazs; Naskar, Amit K

    2014-01-01

    The development of technologies to tune lignin properties for high-performance lignin-based materials is crucial for the utilization of lignin in various applications. Here, the effect of methanol (MeOH) fractionation on the molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, glass transition temperature (Tg), thermal decomposition, and chemical structure of lignin were investigated. Repeated MeOH fractionation of softwood Kraft lignin successfully removed the low-molecular-weight fraction. The separated high-molecular-weight lignin showed a Tg of 211 C and a char yield of 47%, much higher than those of asreceived lignin (Tg 153 C, char yield 41%). The MeOH-soluble fraction of lignin showed an increased low-molecular-weight fraction and a lower Tg (117 C) and char yield (32%). The amount of low-molecular-weight fraction showed a quantitative correlation with both 1/Tg and char yield in a linear regression. This study demonstrated the efficient purification or fractionation technology for lignin; it also established a theoretical and empirical correlation between the physical characteristics of fractionated lignins.

  10. A novel inter-fibre light coupling sensor probe using plastic optical fibre for ethanol concentration monitoring at initial production rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memon, Sanober F.; Lewis, Elfed; Pembroke, J. Tony; Chowdhry, Bhawani S.

    2017-04-01

    A novel, low cost and highly sensitive optical fibre probe sensor for concentration measurement of ethanol solvent (C2H5OH) corresponding to bio-ethanol production rate by an algae is reported. The principle of operation of the sensor is based on inter-fibre light coupling through an evanescent field interaction to couple the light between two multimode fibres mounted parallel to each other at a minimum possible separation i.e. < 1mm. The sensor was fabricated using a low cost 1000um plastic optical fibre (POF) and was characterized for real time measurement in the broadband spectrum including visible and near infra-red. The wavelength dependency of this sensor design was also investigated by post processing analysis of real time data and hence the optimum wavelength range determined. The proposed sensor has shown significant response in the range of 0.005 - 0.1 %v/v (%volume/volume or volume concentration) which depicts the high sensitivity for monitoring very minute changes in concentration corresponding refractive index changes of the solution. Numerically, sensor has shown the sensitivity of 21945 intensity counts/%v/v or 109.7 counts per every 0.0050 %v/v.

  11. Genetic Augmentation of Syringyl Lignin in Low-lignin Aspen Trees, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chung-Jui Tsai; Mark F. Davis; Vincent L. Chiang

    2004-11-10

    As a polysaccharide-encrusting component, lignin is critical to cell wall integrity and plant growth but also hinders recovery of cellulose fibers during the wood pulping process. To improve pulping efficiency, it is highly desirable to genetically modify lignin content and/or structure in pulpwood species to maximize pulp yields with minimal energy consumption and environmental impact. This project aimed to genetically augment the syringyl-to-guaiacyl lignin ratio in low-lignin transgenic aspen in order to produce trees with reduced lignin content, more reactive lignin structures and increased cellulose content. Transgenic aspen trees with reduced lignin content have already been achieved, prior to the start of this project, by antisense downregulation of a 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase gene (Hu et al., 1999 Nature Biotechnol 17: 808- 812). The primary objective of this study was to genetically augment syringyl lignin biosynthesis in these low-lignin trees in order to enhance lignin reactivity during chemical pulping. To accomplish this, both aspen and sweetgum genes encoding coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase (Osakabe et al., 1999 PNAS 96: 8955-8960) were targeted for over-expression in wildtype or low-lignin aspen under control of either a constitutive or a xylem-specific promoter. A second objective for this project was to develop reliable and cost-effective methods, such as pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry and NMR, for rapid evaluation of cell wall chemical components of transgenic wood samples. With these high-throughput techniques, we observed increased syringyl-to-guaiacyl lignin ratios in the transgenic wood samples, regardless of the promoter used or gene origin. Our results confirmed that the coniferaldehyde 5-hydroxylase gene is key to syringyl lignin biosynthesis. The outcomes of this research should be readily applicable to other pulpwood species, and promise to bring direct economic and environmental benefits to the pulp and paper industry.

  12. Lignin hydrolysis and phosphorylation mechanism during phosphoric acid-acetone pretreatment: a DFT study.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wu; Wu, Lingnan; Zheng, Zongming; Dong, Changqing; Yang, Yongping

    2014-12-18

    The study focused on the structural sensitivity of lignin during the phosphoric acid-acetone pretreatment process and the resulting hydrolysis and phosphorylation reaction mechanisms using density functional theory calculations. The chemical stabilities of the seven most common linkages (β-O-4, β-β, 4-O-5, β-1, 5-5, α-O-4, and β-5) of lignin in H3PO4, CH3COCH3, and H2O solutions were detected, which shows that α-O-4 linkage and β-O-4 linkage tend to break during the phosphoric acid-acetone pretreatment process. Then α-O-4 phosphorylation and β-O-4 phosphorylation follow a two-step reaction mechanism in the acid treatment step, respectively. However, since phosphorylation of α-O-4 is more energetically accessible than phosphorylation of β-O-4 in phosphoric acid, the phosphorylation of α-O-4 could be controllably realized under certain operational conditions, which could tune the electron and hole transfer on the right side of β-O-4 in the H2PO4- functionalized lignin. The results provide a fundamental understanding for process-controlled modification of lignin and the potential novel applications in lignin-based imprinted polymers, sensors, and molecular devices.

  13. The Use of Esterified Lignin for Synthesis of Durable Composites

    Treesearch

    S. Olsson; E. Ostmark; R.E. Ibach; C.M. Clemons; K.B. Segerholm; F. Englund

    2011-01-01

    Lignin is a natural polymer and one of the most abundant materials on earth. Despite this fact, lignin is often viewed as a by-product in chemical pulp processing and the use of lignin as a sustainable material is low. However, research and public awareness of sustainability have opened up new possibilities for using lignin as a material.

  14. Primary and secondary lignin pyrolysis reaction pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Jegers, H.E.; Klein, M.T.

    1985-01-01

    The reaction pathways involved in the pyrolysis of kraft lignin, kraft lignin plus tetralin, a milled wood lignin, and pine wood were examined. The temporal variations of the quantitative yields of 33 different products, including 12 gases, water, methanol, and 19 phenolics allowed resolution of primary and secondary pathways, description of the influence of reactor design and lignin type on product yields, and formulation of a simple kinetic lumping scheme. Products within separate guaiacol and catechol lumps attained maximal proportions at 7.5 and 15 min, respectively, during kraft lignin pyrolysis at 400/sup 0/C. Within a lump, the secondary reactions of individual species were nearly synchronous. Further, the similarity of the observed rate of the secondary decomposition of guaiacols during kraft lignin pyrolysis with that previously reported for pyrolysis of pure guaiacol suggest that the reactions of lignin's thermally liberated single-ring products are insensitive to the presence of other molecular species or poymer residuum. All of the foregoing indicates that a simple reaction network based on phenol, guaiacol, and catechol lumps could be a useful model of phenolics product evolution.

  15. Lignin from Micro- to Nanosize: Production Methods

    PubMed Central

    Beisl, Stefan; Miltner, Angela; Friedl, Anton

    2017-01-01

    Lignin is the second most abundant biopolymer after cellulose. It has long been obtained as a by-product of cellulose production in pulp and paper production, but had rather low added-value applications. A changing paper market and the emergence of biorefinery projects should generate vast amounts of lignin with the potential of value addition. Nanomaterials offer unique properties and the preparation of lignin nanoparticles and other nanostructures has therefore gained interest as a promising technique to obtain value-added lignin products. Due to lignin’s high structural and chemical heterogeneity, methods must be adapted to these different types. This review focuses on the ability of different formation methods to cope with the huge variety of lignin types and points out which particle characteristics can be achieved by which method. The current research’s main focus is on pH and solvent-shifting methods where the latter can yield solid and hollow particles. Solvent shifting also showed the capability to cope with different lignin types and solvents and antisolvents, respectively. However, process conditions have to be adapted to every type of lignin and reduction of solvent demand or the integration in a biorefinery process chain must be focused. PMID:28604584

  16. Lignin peroxidase functionalities and prospective applications.

    PubMed

    Falade, Ayodeji O; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Iweriebor, Benson C; Green, Ezekiel; Mabinya, Leonard V; Okoh, Anthony I

    2017-02-01

    Ligninolytic extracellular enzymes, including lignin peroxidase, are topical owing to their high redox potential and prospective industrial applications. The prospective applications of lignin peroxidase span through sectors such as biorefinery, textile, energy, bioremediation, cosmetology, and dermatology industries. The litany of potentials attributed to lignin peroxidase is occasioned by its versatility in the degradation of xenobiotics and compounds with both phenolic and non-phenolic constituents. Over the years, ligninolytic enzymes have been studied however; research on lignin peroxidase seems to have been lagging when compared to other ligninolytic enzymes which are extracellular in nature including laccase and manganese peroxidase. This assertion becomes more pronounced when the application of lignin peroxidase is put into perspective. Consequently, a succinct documentation of the contemporary functionalities of lignin peroxidase and, some prospective applications of futuristic relevance has been advanced in this review. Some articulated applications include delignification of feedstock for ethanol production, textile effluent treatment and dye decolourization, coal depolymerization, treatment of hyperpigmentation, and skin-lightening through melanin oxidation. Prospective application of lignin peroxidase in skin-lightening functions through novel mechanisms, hence, it holds high value for the cosmetics sector where it may serve as suitable alternative to hydroquinone; a potent skin-lightening agent whose safety has generated lots of controversy and concern. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Characterization of asparagus lignin by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo-Carmona, S; Fuentes-Alventosa, J M; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, G; Waldron, K W; Smith, A C; Guillén-Bejarano, R; Fernández-Bolaños, J; Jiménez-Araujo, A; Rodríguez-Arcos, R

    2008-09-01

    Lignin is the cell wall component most frequently associated with hardening. Its characterization and quantification are very important to understand the biochemical modifications related to the changes in texture of vegetables such as asparagus (Asparagus officinalis), in which this organoleptic attribute is a very important quality factor. In this study, asparagus lignin from the basal sections of fresh and stored spears was analyzed using 2 methods, the traditional (Klason lignin) and the recently developed derivatization, followed by reductive cleavage (DFRC) method. The latter is a simple and reproducible technique for lignin characterization based on a degradation procedure that produces analyzable monomers and dimers by cleaving alpha- and beta-aryl ethers in lignins. The primary monomers derived from DFRC degradation of lignins are essentially p-coumaryl peracetate, coniferyl peracetate, and sinapyl peracetate. To evaluate the efficiency of the DFRC method, our investigations have been carried on distinct sample types, including wood (data not shown), straw, and asparagus samples. The results have confirmed that lignin composition is affected by plant nature. It has been found that whereas wood samples mostly contain coniferyl units, plant foods, such as straw and asparagus, contain both coniferyl and guaiacyl units.

  18. Characterization of electrospun lignin based carbon fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poursorkhabi, Vida; Mohanty, Amar; Misra, Manjusri

    2015-05-01

    The production of lignin fibers has been studied in order to replace the need for petroleum based precursors for carbon fiber production. In addition to its positive environmental effects, it also benefits the economics of the industries which cannot take advantage of carbon fiber properties because of their high price. A large amount of lignin is annually produced as the byproduct of paper and growing cellulosic ethanol industry. Therefore, finding high value applications for this low cost, highly available material is getting more attention. Lignin is a biopolymer making about 15 - 30 % of the plant cell walls and has a high carbon yield upon carbonization. However, its processing is challenging due to its low molecular weight and also variations based on its origin and the method of separation from cellulose. In this study, alkali solutions of organosolv lignin with less than 1 wt/v% of poly (ethylene oxide) and two types of lignin (hardwood and softwood) were electrospun followed by carbonization. Different heating programs for carbonization were tested. The carbonized fibers had a smooth surface with an average diameter of less than 5 µm and the diameter could be controlled by the carbonization process and lignin type. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study morphology of the fibers before and after carbonization. Thermal conductivity of a sample with amorphous carbon was 2.31 W/m.K. The electrospun lignin carbon fibers potentially have a large range of application such as in energy storage devices and water or gas purification systems.

  19. Non-contact optical sensor for detection of glucose concentration using a magneto-optic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozana, Nisan; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Anand, Arun; Javidi, Baharam; Polani, Sagi; Schwarz, Ariel; Shemer, Amir; García, Javier; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we aim to experimentally verify a speckle based technique for non-contact measurement of glucose concentration in blood stream while the vision for the final device aims to contain a single wristwatch-style device containing an AC (alternating) electro-magnet generated by a solenoid, a laser and a camera. The experiments presented in work are performed in-vitro in order to verify the effects that are responsible for the operation principle. When a glucose substance is inserted into a solenoid generating an alternating magnetic field it exhibits Faraday rotation which affects the temporal changes of the secondary speckle patterns distribution. The temporal frequency resulting from the AC magnetic field was found to have a lock-in amplification role which increased the observability of the relatively small magneto-optic effect. Experimental results to support the proposed concept are presented.

  20. Noncontact speckle-based optical sensor for detection of glucose concentration using magneto-optic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozana, Nisan; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Anand, Arun; Javidi, Baharam; Polani, Sagi; Schwarz, Ariel; Shemer, Amir; Garcia, Javier; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-06-01

    We experimentally verify a speckle-based technique for noncontact measurement of glucose concentration in the bloodstream. The final device is intended to be a single wristwatch-style device containing a laser, a camera, and an alternating current (ac) electromagnet generated by a solenoid. The experiments presented are performed in vitro as proof of the concept. When a glucose substance is inserted into a solenoid generating an ac magnetic field, it exhibits Faraday rotation, which affects the temporal changes of the secondary speckle pattern distributions. The temporal frequency resulting from the ac magnetic field was found to have a lock-in amplification role, which increased the observability of the relatively small magneto-optic effect. Experimental results to support the proposed concept are presented.

  1. Organosolv extraction of lignin from hydrolyzed almond shells and application of the delta-value theory.

    PubMed

    Quesada-Medina, Joaquín; López-Cremades, Francisco Javier; Olivares-Carrillo, Pilar

    2010-11-01

    The solubility of lignin from hydrolyzed almond (Prunus amygdalus) shells in different acetone, ethanol and dioxane-water mixtures and conditions (extraction time and temperature) was studied. The concept of the solubility parameter (delta-value) was applied to explain the effect of organic solvent concentration on lignin solubility. The organic solvent-water mixture that led to the highest lignin extraction was composed of a 75% vol. of organic solvent for all the solvent series investigated (acetone, ethanol and dioxane). Moreover, the best lignin extraction conditions were a temperature of 210 degrees C and an extraction time of 40 min for the acetone and ethanol series, and 25 min for the dioxane series. The delta-value of the hydrolyzed almond shell lignin [14.60 (cal/cm(3))(1/2)] and that of the organic solvent-water mixtures was calculated. The experimental delignification capacity of the aqueous organic solvents clearly reflected the proximity of their delta-value to that of lignin. The hydrogen-bonding capacity of the solvent-water mixtures was also taken into account. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of biomodified lignin from Acacia nilotica wood.

    PubMed

    Barapatre, Anand; Aadil, Keshaw Ram; Tiwary, Bhupendra Nath; Jha, Harit

    2015-04-01

    The antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of biomodified alkali lignin extracted from a deciduous plant Acacia nilotica, was evaluated in vitro. The extracted alkali lignin was subjected to microbial biotransformation by ligninolytic fungus Aspergillus flavus and Emericella nidulans. These modifications were done under varying concentration of carbon to nitrogen sources. The structural feature of the lignin samples were compared by FTIR, functional group analysis and (13)C solid state NMR. All lignin samples were tested for antioxidant efficiency, reducing power and H2O2 scavenging power. Modifications in all lignin samples showed correlation with their antioxidant scavenging activity and reducing power. Antidiabetic properties were evaluated in terms of in vitro glucose movement inhibition and α-amylase inhibition assay. Modified samples exhibited increased glucose binding efficiency as demonstrated by the decreased glucose diffusion (55.5-76.3%) and 1.16-1.18-fold enhanced α-amylase inhibition in comparison to their control samples. The results obtained demonstrate that the structure and functional modifications in lignin significantly affects its bioefficacy in term of antioxidant and antidiabetic activities.

  3. Cytocompatible cellulose hydrogels containing trace lignin.

    PubMed

    Nakasone, Kazuki; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2016-07-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was used as a cellulose resource to prepare transparent and flexible cellulose hydrogel films. On the purification process from bagasse to cellulose, the effect of lignin residues in the cellulose was examined for the properties and cytocompatibility of the resultant hydrogel films. The cellulose was dissolved in lithium chloride/N,N-dimethylacetamide solution and converted to hydrogel films by phase inversion. In the purification process, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment time was changed from 1 to 12h. This resulted in cellulose hydrogel films having small amounts of lignin from 1.62 to 0.68%. The remaining lignin greatly affected hydrogel properties. Water content of the hydrogel films was increased from 1153 to 1525% with a decrease of lignin content. Moreover, lower lignin content caused weakening of tensile strength from 0.80 to 0.43N/mm(2) and elongation from 45.2 to 26.5%. Also, similar tendency was observed in viscoelastic behavior of the cellulose hydrogel films. Evidence was shown that the lignin residue was effective for the high strength of the hydrogel films. In addition, scanning probe microscopy in the morphological observation was suggested that the trace lignin in the cellulose hydrogel affected the cellulose fiber aggregation in the hydrogel network. The trace of lignin in the hydrogels also influenced fibroblast cell culture on the hydrogel films. The hydrogel film containing 1.68% lignin showed better fibroblast compatibility as compared to cell culture polystyrene dish used as reference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A DFT investigation on interactions between lignin and ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ju; Shi, Xiaoqin; Du, Xihua; Cao, Weiliang

    2017-08-01

    The interactions of the lignin model, the lignin oligomer with degree of polymerization n = 2, with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid were investigated through DFT calculations in detail. Computational results revealed that lignin dissolution in ionic liquids should be a result of the joint interactions of lignin with anion and cation of ionic liquid, and the formation of ion pair weakens the interactions between lignin and ionic liquid components. Unlike the dominant H-bonds within the lignin-anion interactions, the lignin-cation interactions involve a combination of hydrogen bond and π-stacking. These results would provide mechanistic insights and suggestions for lignocellulosic dissolution in ionic liquids.

  5. Challenging/interesting lignin times

    DOE PAGES

    Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2016-08-31

    Anyone who is working in the fuels industry knows that we are living in challenging times. On a personal note, I recall that ~5 years ago, some of my children's friends headed out into the petroleum industry to start their careers and several have now returned because of the retrenching work force. Despite these challenging times, the cellulosic ethanol industry continues to develop commercial operations, but with today's cost structure, biofuels production facilities have certainly slowed their pace of development and roll-out. Furthermore, the biological technology platform for biorefining plant polysaccharides to biofuels has been reported to have an intrinsicmore » advantage, if it can convert its waste lignin stream to value-added components.[1]« less

  6. Challenging/interesting lignin times

    SciTech Connect

    Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2016-08-31

    Anyone who is working in the fuels industry knows that we are living in challenging times. On a personal note, I recall that ~5 years ago, some of my children's friends headed out into the petroleum industry to start their careers and several have now returned because of the retrenching work force. Despite these challenging times, the cellulosic ethanol industry continues to develop commercial operations, but with today's cost structure, biofuels production facilities have certainly slowed their pace of development and roll-out. Furthermore, the biological technology platform for biorefining plant polysaccharides to biofuels has been reported to have an intrinsic advantage, if it can convert its waste lignin stream to value-added components.[1

  7. Challenging/interesting lignin times

    SciTech Connect

    Ragauskas, Arthur J.

    2016-08-31

    Anyone who is working in the fuels industry knows that we are living in challenging times. On a personal note, I recall that ~5 years ago, some of my children's friends headed out into the petroleum industry to start their careers and several have now returned because of the retrenching work force. Despite these challenging times, the cellulosic ethanol industry continues to develop commercial operations, but with today's cost structure, biofuels production facilities have certainly slowed their pace of development and roll-out. Furthermore, the biological technology platform for biorefining plant polysaccharides to biofuels has been reported to have an intrinsic advantage, if it can convert its waste lignin stream to value-added components.[1

  8. Investigation of trace metal binding properties of lignin by diffusive gradients in thin films.

    PubMed

    Hojaji, Elahe

    2012-09-01

    The binding behavior of lignin for Pb, Cu, Co, Mn, Cd and Ni was studied using the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT). Samplers with different structures of diffusive gel were used in the well-stirred systems containing known concentrations of metals along with (a) 10, 20 and 40 μM lignin and; (b) 0.64 and 6.47 μM Suwannee river fulvic acid+40 μM lignin at an ionic strength of 0.01 M (NaNO(3)) and pH=7. Diffusion coefficients of lignin complexes in acrylamide gels were estimated and found to be less than 5% of the equivalent coefficients for the uncomplexed metal ions. These values were used to calculate concentrations of labile metals from DGT measurements in solutions, where lignin could discriminate metals in the order of Pb(+2)>Cu(+2)>Cd(+2)>Ni(+2)>Co(+2)>Mn(+2). Stability constants (LogK) were calculated using Visual MINTEQ II and WHAM V software. The K values were compared with the stability constants from titration of Pb and Cd with 10 μM lignin aqueous samples and with those of humic substances in natural waters. The constants obtained from measurement of complexing capacities might bias the real corresponding values unless two line regression analyses on titration data are considered. The DGT study of fractionation of metal species at varying ratios indicated that the proportion of organic complexes decreased with increasing ratios and gradually more metals were exchanged with inorganic phases. Speciation of Pb and Cd is affected by the concentrations of FA, Cd is dominantly bound with FA while Pb is evenly partitioned between the ligands. The comprehensive knowledge of metal-lignin complexes sheds some light on in situ operational speciation information that can be achieved by DGT.

  9. Pseudo-lignin formation and its impact on enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fan; Jung, Seokwon; Ragauskas, Arthur

    2012-08-01

    Pseudo-lignin, which can be broadly defined as aromatic material that yields a positive Klason lignin value and is not derived from native lignin, has been recently reported to form during the dilute acid pretreatment of poplar holocellulose. To investigate the chemistry of pseudo-lignin formation, GPC, FT-IR and 13C NMR were utilized to characterize pseudo-lignin extracted from dilute-acid pretreated α-cellulose and holocellulose. The results showed that pseudo-lignin consisting of carbonyl, carboxylic, aromatic and aliphatic structures was produced from dilute acid pretreated cellulose and hemicellulose. Pseudo-lignin extracted from holocellulose pretreated at different conditions had similar molecular weights (Mn∼1000 g/mol; Mw∼5000 g/mol) and structural features (carbonyl, carboxylic, aromatic and methoxy structures). These characterizations have provided the pseudo-lignin formation mechanisms during pretreatment. The presence and structure of pseudo-lignin is important since pseudo-lignin decreases the enzymatic conversion.

  10. Animal bioavailability of defined xenobiotic lignin metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Sandermann, H. Jr.; Arjmand, M.; Gennity, I.; Winkler, R. ); Struble, C.B.; Aschbacher, P.W. )

    1990-09-01

    Lignin has been recognized as a major component of bound pesticide residues in plants and is thought to be undigestible in animals. Two defined ring-U-{sup 14}C-labeled chloroaniline/lignin metabolites have now been fed to rats, where a release of {approximately}66% of the bound xenobiotic occurred in the form of simple chloroaniline derivatives. The observed high degree of bioavailability indicates that bound pesticidal residues may possess ecotoxicological significance. In parallel studies, the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was more efficient, and a soil system was much less efficient, in the degradation of the (ring-U-{sup 14}C)chloroaniline/lignin metabolites.

  11. Novel multienzyme oxidative biocatalyst for lignin bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Crestini, Claudia; Melone, Federica; Saladino, Raffaele

    2011-08-15

    A novel multienzyme biocatalyst, based on coimmobilization of the laccase and horseradish peroxidase by cross linking and layer-by-layer coating with polyelectrolyte, was designed, synthesized and applied at the development of an oxidative cascade process on lignin. The efficiency and specificity of the new LbL-multienzyme system, the occurrence of a synergy of the co-immobilized enzymes, the lignin oxidation pathway and the nature of the structural modifications occurred in treated lignins have been investigated in the present effort by means of GPC analysis and quantitative (31)P NMR techniques.

  12. FT-Raman investigation of milled-wood lignins : softwood, hardwood, and chemically modified black spruce lignins

    Treesearch

    Umesh P. Agarwal; James D. McSweeny; Sally A. Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is being increasingly applied to study wood and other lignin-containing biomass/biomaterials. Lignin’s contribution to the Raman spectra of such materials needs to be understood in the context of various lignin structures, substructures, and functional groups so that lignin-specific features could be identified and the spectral information could be...

  13. Effect of sulfonated lignin on enzymatic activity of the ligninolytic enzymes Cα-dehydrogenase LigD and β-etherase LigF.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Ouyang, Xianhong; Su, Sisi; Liang, Xiao; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Wenya; Yuan, Qipeng; Li, Qiang

    2016-11-01

    NAD(+)-dependent Cα-dehydrogenase LigD and glutathione-dependent β-etherase LigF which selectively cleave the β-O-4 aryl ether linkage present in lignin, are key-enzymes for the biocatalytic depolymerization of lignin. However, the catalytic efficiency of the two enzymes is low when they are used to break down the β-aryl ether linkage in natural lignin. When sulfonated lignin was added to LigF hydrolysis reactions, the conversion rate of MPHPV decreased significantly from 99.5% to 32.6%. On the contrary, sulfonated lignin has little affection on LigD, which the conversion rate of GGE only decreased from 41.7% to 41%. The strong nonspecific interactions of enzymes onto sulfonated lignin detected by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) was obvious and universal, which can reduce enzyme activity of many enzymes, including ligninolytic enzyme β-etherase LigF. To elucidate the exact mechanisms by which β-etherase LigF interact with lignin, molecular modeling was applied. Finally, analysis on catalytic efficiency of LigD and LigF in different concentrations and molecular weights of sulfonated lignin, solution ionic strength, pH, temperature and concentration of Tween 80 revealed that electrostatic interactions and hydrophobic interactions play important roles in absorption between LigF and sulfonated lignin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Phenolic compounds in ectomycorrhizal interaction of lignin modified silver birch

    PubMed Central

    Sutela, Suvi; Niemi, Karoliina; Edesi, Jaanika; Laakso, Tapio; Saranpää, Pekka; Vuosku, Jaana; Mäkelä, Riina; Tiimonen, Heidi; Chiang, Vincent L; Koskimäki, Janne; Suorsa, Marja; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Häggman, Hely

    2009-01-01

    Background The monolignol biosynthetic pathway interconnects with the biosynthesis of other secondary phenolic metabolites, such as cinnamic acid derivatives, flavonoids and condensed tannins. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether genetic modification of the monolignol pathway in silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) would alter the metabolism of these phenolic compounds and how such alterations, if exist, would affect the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Results Silver birch lines expressing quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides L.) caffeate/5-hydroxyferulate O-methyltransferase (PtCOMT) under the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) promoter showed a reduction in the relative expression of a putative silver birch COMT (BpCOMT) gene and, consequently, a decrease in the lignin syringyl/guaiacyl composition ratio. Alterations were also detected in concentrations of certain phenolic compounds. All PtCOMT silver birch lines produced normal ectomycorrhizas with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Paxillus involutus (Batsch: Fr.), and the formation of symbiosis enhanced the growth of the transgenic plants. Conclusion The down-regulation of BpCOMT in the 35S-PtCOMT lines caused a reduction in the syringyl/guaiacyl ratio of lignin, but no significant effect was seen in the composition or quantity of phenolic compounds that would have been caused by the expression of PtCOMT under the 35S or UbB1 promoter. Moreover, the detected alterations in the composition of lignin and secondary phenolic compounds had no effect on the interaction between silver birch and P. involutus. PMID:19788757

  15. Heterogeneous Ozonolysis of Surface Adsorbed Lignin Pyrolysis Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichs, R. Z.

    2012-12-01

    Biomass combustion releases semi-volatile organic compounds into the troposphere, including many phenols and methoxyphenols as the result of lignin pyrolysis. Given their relatively low vapor pressures, these compounds readily adsorb on inorganic and organic aerosol substrates where they may alter aerosol properties and undergo heterogeneous chemistry. We use infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS and ATR-FTIR) to monitor the adsorption and subsequent heterogeneous ozonolysis of model lignin pyrolysis products, including catechol, eugenol, and 4-propylguaiacol. Ozonolysis reaction kinetics were compared on various inorganic substrates - such as Al2O3 and NaCl, which serve as mineral and sea salt aerosol substrates, respectively - and as a function of ozone concentration and relative humidity. Following in situ FTIR analysis, the adsorbed organics were extracted and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy to identify reaction products and quantify product branching ratios. Ozonolysis of catechol and 4-propylguaiacol readily resulted in ring cleavage forming dicarboxylic acids (e.g., muconic acid). Eugenol ozonolysis proceeded rapidly at the alkene side chain producing homovanillic acid and homovanillin in an approximate 2:1 branching ratio at 0% RH; ring cleavage was also observed. For all lignin pyrolysis products, heterogeneous ozonolysis was faster on NaCl versus Al2O3. Implications for the atmospheric chemistry of semi-volatile methoxylphenols adsorbed on aerosol substrates will be discussed.

  16. Fabry-Pérot based refractive index optical fiber sensor for measurement of oxygen concentration levels in hypoxic tumors during radiotherapy treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viphavakit, Charusluk; Duraibabu, DineshBabu; O'Keeffe, Sinead; Lewis, Elfed

    2017-04-01

    An optical fiber sensor based on Fabry-Pérot interferometer to measure the refractive index changes due to oxygenation level changes in hypoxic tumors for radiotherapy treatments is proposed. The sensors have an outer diameter of 220μm with a 20-30μm length air-cavity and a 30μm thickness end cap located at the tip of the sensor. The sensors are used to measure the phase change in the received optical spectrum when there is a change in refractive index using a Fast Fourier Transform based analysis method. The refractive index change is measured in order to determine the oxygenation level in hypoxic tumors. In this paper, different concentrations of iso-propanol solution are prepared to produce refractive index values between 1.3438 and 1.3655 in order to mimic the refractive index of hemoglobin. The sensors are coated with a 100 nm thick gold layer and a comparison is made with non-coated sensors. The coated sensors have a resolution in order of 10-3 RIU.

  17. Rapid and near-complete dissolution of wood lignin at ≤80°C by a recyclable acid hydrotrope.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liheng; Dou, Jinze; Ma, Qianli; Li, Ning; Wu, Ruchun; Bian, Huiyang; Yelle, Daniel J; Vuorinen, Tapani; Fu, Shiyu; Pan, Xuejun; Zhu, Junyong J Y

    2017-09-01

    We report the discovery of the hydrotropic properties of a recyclable aromatic acid, p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TsOH), for potentially low-cost and efficient fractionation of wood through rapid and near-complete dissolution of lignin. Approximately 90% of poplar wood (NE222) lignin can be dissolved at 80°C in 20 min. Equivalent delignification using known hydrotropes, such as aromatic salts, can be achieved only at 150°C or higher for more than 10 hours or at 150°C for 2 hours with alkaline pulping. p-TsOH fractionated wood into two fractions: (i) a primarily cellulose-rich water-insoluble solid fraction that can be used for the production of high-value building blocks, such as dissolving pulp fibers, lignocellulosic nanomaterials, and/or sugars through subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis; and (ii) a spent acid liquor stream containing mainly dissolved lignin that can be easily precipitated as lignin nanoparticles by diluting the spent acid liquor to below the minimal hydrotrope concentration. Our nuclear magnetic resonance analyses of the dissolved lignin revealed that p-TsOH can depolymerize lignin via ether bond cleavage and can separate carbohydrate-free lignin from the wood. p-TsOH has a relatively low water solubility, which can facilitate efficient recovery using commercially proven crystallization technology by cooling the concentrated spent acid solution to ambient temperatures to achieve environmental sustainability through recycling of p-TsOH.

  18. Molecular-Level Transformations of Lignin During Photo-Oxidation and Biodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X.; Hills, K.; Simpson, A. J.; Simpson, M. J.

    2009-05-01

    As the second most abundant component of terrestrial plant residues, lignin plays a key role in regulating plant litter decomposition, humic substance formation, and dissolved organic matter (OM) production from terrestrial sources. Biodegradation is the primary decomposition process of lignin on land. However, photo- oxidation of lignin-derived compounds has been reported in aquatic systems and is considered to play a vital role in arid and semiarid regions. With increasing ultraviolet (UV) radiation due to ozone depletion, it is important to understand the biogeochemical fate of lignin exposed to photo-oxidation in terrestrial environments. This study examines and compares the transformation of lignin in a three-month laboratory simulation of biodegradation and photo-oxidation using molecular-level techniques. Lignin-derived monomers extracted by copper oxidation were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) from the water-soluble and insoluble OM of 13C-labeled corn leaves. Biodegradation increased the solubility of lignin monomers in comparison to the control samples, and the acid-to-aldehyde (Ad/Al) ratios increased in both the water-soluble and insoluble OM, indicating a higher degree of side-chain lignin oxidation. Photo-oxidation did not produce a significant change on the solubility or Ad/Al ratios of lignin from corn leaves. However, the ratios of trans-to-cis isomers of both cinnamyl units (p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid) increased with photo-oxidation and decreased with biodegradation in the insoluble OM. We also investigated the role of photo-oxidation in lignin transformation in soils cropped with 13C-labeled corn. Interestingly, the organic carbon content increased significantly with time in the water-soluble OM from soil/corn residues under UV radiation. An increase in the concentration of lignin monomers and dimers and the Ad/Al ratios was also observed with photo-oxidation. Iso-branched fatty acids of microbial origin remained in

  19. Molecular-level transformations of lignin during photo-oxidation and biodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X.; Hills, K.; Simpson, A. J.; Simpson, M. J.

    2009-04-01

    As the second most abundant component of terrestrial plant residues, lignin plays a key role in regulating plant litter decomposition, humic substance formation, and dissolved organic matter (OM) production from terrestrial sources. Biodegradation is the primary decomposition process of lignin on land. However, photo-oxidation of lignin-derived compounds has been reported in aquatic systems and is considered to play a vital role in arid and semiarid regions. With increasing ultraviolet (UV) radiation due to ozone depletion, it is important to understand the biogeochemical fate of lignin exposed to photo-oxidation in terrestrial environments. This study examines and compares the transformation of lignin in a three-month laboratory simulation of biodegradation and photo-oxidation using molecular-level techniques. Lignin-derived monomers extracted by copper oxidation were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) from the water-soluble and insoluble OM of 13C-labeled corn leaves. Biodegradation increased the solubility of lignin monomers in comparison to the control samples, and the acid-to-aldehyde (Ad/Al) ratios increased in both the water-soluble and insoluble OM, indicating a higher degree of side-chain lignin oxidation. Photo-oxidation did not produce a significant change on the solubility or Ad/Al ratios of lignin from corn leaves. However, the ratios of trans-to-cis isomers of both cinnamyl units (p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid) increased with photo-oxidation and decreased with biodegradation in the insoluble OM. We also investigated the role of photo-oxidation in lignin transformation in soils cropped with 13C-labeled corn. Interestingly, the organic carbon content increased significantly with time in the water-soluble OM from soil/corn residues under UV radiation. An increase in the concentration of lignin monomers and dimers and the Ad/Al ratios was also observed with photo-oxidation. Iso-branched fatty acids of microbial origin remained in

  20. Influence of Mn concentration on magnetic topological insulator MnxBi2−xTe3 thin-film Hall-effect sensor

    DOE PAGES

    Ni, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Nlebedim, I. C.; ...

    2015-06-11

    Hall-effect (HE) sensors based on high-quality Mn-doped Bi2Te3 topological insulator (TI) thin films have been systematically studied in this paper. Improvement of Hall sensitivity is found after doping the magnetic element Mn into Bi2Te3. The sensors with low Mn concentrations, MnxBi2-xTe3, x = 0.01 and 0.08 show the linear behavior of Hall resistance with sensitivity about 5 Ω/T. And their Hall sensitivity shows weak dependence on temperature. For sensors with high Mn concentration (x = 0.23), the Hall resistance with respect to magnetic field shows a hysteretic behavior. Moreover, its sensitivity shows almost eight times as high as that ofmore » the HE sensors with low Mn concentration. The highest sensitivity can reach 43 Ω/T at very low magnetic field. This increase of Hall sensitivity is caused by the occurrence of anomalous HE (AHE) after ferromagnetic phase transition. Our work indicates that the magnetic-element-doped TIs with AHE are good candidates for HE sensors.« less

  1. Sequestration and Transport of Lignin Monomeric Precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.J.; Miao, Y.-C.; Zhang, K.-W.

    2011-01-18

    Lignin is the second most abundant terrestrial biopolymer after cellulose. It is essential for the viability of vascular plants. Lignin precursors, the monolignols, are synthesized within the cytosol of the cell. Thereafter, these monomeric precursors are exported into the cell wall, where they are polymerized and integrated into the wall matrix. Accordingly, transport of monolignols across cell membranes is a critical step affecting deposition of lignin in the secondarily thickened cell wall. While the biosynthesis of monolignols is relatively well understood, our knowledge of sequestration and transport of these monomers is sketchy. In this article, we review different hypotheses on monolignol transport and summarize the recent progresses toward the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying monolignol sequestration and transport across membranes. Deciphering molecular mechanisms for lignin precursor transport will support a better biotechnological solution to manipulate plant lignification for more efficient agricultural and industrial applications of cell wall biomass.

  2. Computational Design of Lignin Depolymerization Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.; Chmely, S. C.; Sturgeon, M.; Katahira, R.; Paton, R. S.; Beckham, G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Lignin is a major component of plant cell walls that is typically underutilized in selective conversion strategies for renewable fuels and chemicals. The mechanisms by which thermal and catalytic treatments deconstruct lignin remain elusive, for which quantum mechanical calculations can offer fundamental insights. In this work, a computational approach has been used to elucidate the reductive deconstruction pathway of a ruthenium-catalyzed system. Transition states have been computed to determine the rate-limiting steps for a catalyst that cleaves arylether linkages. Our calculations are supported by experimental synthesis and kinetic and thermodynamic measurements of the deconstruction of model lignin dimers by a ruthenium catalyst with the ultimate objective of designing new catalysts to eventually utilize lignin in biorefineries.

  3. Lignin degradation in wood-feeding insects.

    PubMed

    Geib, Scott M; Filley, Timothy R; Hatcher, Patrick G; Hoover, Kelli; Carlson, John E; Jimenez-Gasco, Maria del Mar; Nakagawa-Izumi, Akiko; Sleighter, Rachel L; Tien, Ming

    2008-09-02

    The aromatic polymer lignin protects plants from most forms of microbial attack. Despite the fact that a significant fraction of all lignocellulose degraded passes through arthropod guts, the fate of lignin in these systems is not known. Using tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis, we show lignin degradation by two insect species, the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) and the Pacific dampwood termite (Zootermopsis angusticollis). In both the beetle and termite, significant levels of propyl side-chain oxidation (depolymerization) and demethylation of ring methoxyl groups is detected; for the termite, ring hydroxylation is also observed. In addition, culture-independent fungal gut community analysis of A. glabripennis identified a single species of fungus in the Fusarium solani/Nectria haematococca species complex. This is a soft-rot fungus that may be contributing to wood degradation. These results transform our understanding of lignin degradation by wood-feeding insects.

  4. Expression of brown-midrib in a spontaneous sorghum mutant is linked to a 5'-UTR deletion in lignin biosynthesis gene SbCAD2

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Brown midrib (bmr) mutants in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses are associated with reduced lignin concentration, altered lignin composition and improved cell wall digestibility, which are desirable properties in biomass development for the emerging lignocellulosic b...

  5. Lignin from sugar cane bagasse: extraction, fabrication of nanostructured films, and application.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A A; Martins, G F; Antunes, P A; Conrrado, R; Pasquini, D; Job, A E; Curvelo, A A S; Ferreira, M; Riul, A; Constantino, C J L

    2007-06-05

    Four lignin samples were extracted from sugar cane bagasse using four different alcohols (methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, and 1-butanol) via the organosolv-CO2 supercritical pulping process. Langmuir films were characterized by surface pressure vs mean molecular area (Pi-A) isotherms to exploit information at the molecular level carrying out stability tests, cycles of compression/expansion (hysteresis), subphase temperature variations, and metallic ions dissolved into the water subphase at different concentrations. Briefly, it was observed that these lignins are relatively stable on the water surface when compared to those obtained via different extraction processes. Besides, the Pi-A isotherms are shifted to smaller molecular areas at higher subphase temperatures and to larger molecular areas when the metallic ions are dissolved into the subphase. The results are related to the formation of stable aggregates (domains) onto the water subphase by these lignins, as shown in the Pi-A isotherms. It was found as well that the most stable lignin monolayer onto the water subphase is that extracted with 1-butanol. Homogeneous Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of this lignin could be produced as confirmed by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy and the cumulative transfer parameter. In addition, FTIR analysis showed that this lignin LB film is structured in a way that the phenyl groups are organized preferentially parallel to the substrate surface. Further, these LB films were deposited onto gold interdigitated electrodes and ITO and applied in studies involving the detection of Cd+2 ions in aqueous solutions at low concentration levels through impedance spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements. FTIR spectroscopy was carried out before and after soaking the thin films into Cd+2 aqueous solutions, revealing a possible physical interaction between the lignin phenyl groups and the heavy metal ions. The importance of using nanostructured systems is demonstrated as well by comparing

  6. Biologically produced acid precipitable polymeric lignin

    DOEpatents

    Crawford, Don L.; Pometto, III, Anthony L.

    1984-01-01

    A water soluble, acid precipitable polymeric degraded lignin (APPL), having a molecular weight of at least 12,000 daltons, and comprising, by percentage of total weight, at least three times the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups and carboxylic acid groups present in native lignin. The APPL may be modified by chemical oxidation and reduction to increase its phenolic hydroxyl content and reduce the number of its antioxidant inhibitory side chains, thereby improving antioxidant properties.

  7. Using in-situ spectrophotometric sensors to monitoring dissolved organic carbon concentration: our S::CAN experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Martin; Waldron, Susan; Scott, Marian; Drew, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Dissolved organic carbon, (DOC), is the component of the organic carbon that can pass through a membrane filter, with the accepted maximum pore size of 0.7 μm. There is growing interest in high resolution time series of such data e.g. heterotrophic respiration of DOC in freshwater systems can fuel atmospheric CO2 efflux so observing variation in DOC concentration, [DOC], is meaningful. Field deployable sensors, capable of measuring [DOC] on a continuous basis, have the potential to provide us with a far higher resolution time series data than we can obtain through manual sampling. At a catchment area draining Europe's largest windfarm, Whitelee, we have deployed an S::CAN Spectrolyser. This device scans wavelengths from 200 to 735nm, generating a spectral fingerprint and then, using an inbuilt algorithm, returns a value for the DOC concentration, termed DOC-equivalent, [DOC-eq]. The Spectrolyser also estimates other parameters such as total organic carbon and the true colour of the water. Unfortunately, our field Spectrolyser [DOC] are different from lab based measurement of [DOC] of the same field filtered samples (measured using a Thermalox high temperature catalytic oxidation system). Comparing 28 lab measured [DOC] with Spectrolyser [DOC-eq] shows an average difference of 7.6 mg/l C. Here we discuss our interpretation of why this disparity exists and how to accommodate this offset such that accuracy is improved. We have tried various methods of keeping the lens and path length clean through brushing, acid cleaning and the recent installation of a high pressure air hose (recommended by S::CAN). We will compare output before and after this installation. Further complexity is added because light may be absorbed by other components of the field sample, such as particulate material, and this could compromise the estimated [DOC-eq]. [DOC] may be estimated using absorption measurements made at 254nm and 340nm (Tipping et al, 2009). We have implemented this formula

  8. EFFECTS OF COFIRING LIGNIN AND BIOSOLIDS WITH COAL ON FIRESIDE PERFORMANCE AND COMBUSTION PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin C. Galbreath

    2002-08-01

    Lignin, derived from municipal solid waste and biosolid feedstocks using Masada Resource Group's patented CES OxyNol{trademark} process, and acidified biosolids were evaluated as supplemental fuels with coal for producing steam and electricity. Tests were conducted in a pilot-scale (550,000-Btu/hr [580-MJ/hr]) combustion system to evaluate the effects of coal characteristics, blend mixture (on a dry wt% basis) and furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) on boiler heat-exchange surface slagging and fouling, NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} production, fly ash characteristics, and combustion efficiency. The effects of blending lignin and acidified biosolids with coal on fuel handling and pulverization characteristics were also addressed. An 80 wt% Colorado--20 wt% subbituminous Powder River Basin coal blend from the Tennessee Valley Authority Colbert Steam Plant, hereafter referred to as the Colbert coal, and a bituminous Pittsburgh No. 8 coal were tested. The lignin and acidified biosolids were characterized by possessing higher moisture content and lower carbon, hydrogen, and heating values relative to the coals. Ash contents of the fuels were similar. The lignin also possessed higher concentrations of TiO{sub 2}, CaO, and SO{sub 3} and lower concentrations of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, K{sub 2}O, and N relative to the coals. The sulfur content of lignin could be reduced through a more thorough washing and drying of the lignin in an efficient commercial-scale dewatering device. Acidified biosolids were distinguished by higher concentrations of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and MgO and lower SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} relative to the other fuels. Trace element concentrations, especially for Cr, Pb, Hg, and Ni, were generally greater in the lignin and acidified biosolid fuels relative to the Colbert coal. Maximum trace element emission factors were calculated for 95:5 Colbert coal--lignin and 90:5:5 Colbert coal--lignin--acidified biosolid blends and compared to U

  9. Chemical factors that control lignin polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Sangha, Amandeep K; Davison, Brian H; Standaert, Robert F; Davis, Dr. Mark F.; Smith, Jeremy C; Parks, Jerry M

    2014-01-01

    Lignin is a complex, branched polymer that reinforces plant tissue. Understanding the factors that govern lignin structure is of central importance to the development of technologies for converting lignocellulosic biomass into fuels because lignin imparts resistance to chemical, enzymatic and mechanical deconstruction. Lignin is formed by enzymatic oxidation of phenolic monomers (monolignols) of three main types, guaiacyl (G), syringyl (S) and p- hydroxyphenyl (H). It is known that increasing the relative abundance of H subunits results in lower molecular-weight lignin polymers, and hence more easily deconstructed biomass, but it is not known why. Here, we report an analysis of frontier molecular orbitals in mono-, di- and trilignols, calculated using density functional theory, which points to a requirement of strong p- electron density on the reacting phenolic oxygen atom of the neutral precursor for enzymatic oxidation to occur. This model is consistent with a proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) mechanism and for the first time explains why H subunits in certain linkages ( - or -5) react poorly and tend to cap the polymer. In general, -5 linkages with either a G or H terminus are predicted to inhibit elongation. More broadly, the model correctly accounts for the reactivity of the phenolic groups in a diverse set of dilignols comprising H and G subunits. Thus, we provide a coherent framework for understanding the propensity toward growth or termination of different terminal subunits in lignin.

  10. Metagenomic scaffolds enable combinatorial lignin transformation

    PubMed Central

    Strachan, Cameron R.; Singh, Rahul; VanInsberghe, David; Ievdokymenko, Kateryna; Budwill, Karen; Mohn, William W.; Eltis, Lindsay D.; Hallam, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Engineering the microbial transformation of lignocellulosic biomass is essential to developing modern biorefining processes that alleviate reliance on petroleum-derived energy and chemicals. Many current bioprocess streams depend on the genetic tractability of Escherichia coli with a primary emphasis on engineering cellulose/hemicellulose catabolism, small molecule production, and resistance to product inhibition. Conversely, bioprocess streams for lignin transformation remain embryonic, with relatively few environmental strains or enzymes implicated. Here we develop a biosensor responsive to monoaromatic lignin transformation products compatible with functional screening in E. coli. We use this biosensor to retrieve metagenomic scaffolds sourced from coal bed bacterial communities conferring an array of lignin transformation phenotypes that synergize in combination. Transposon mutagenesis and comparative sequence analysis of active clones identified genes encoding six functional classes mediating lignin transformation phenotypes that appear to be rearrayed in nature via horizontal gene transfer. Lignin transformation activity was then demonstrated for one of the predicted gene products encoding a multicopper oxidase to validate the screen. These results illuminate cellular and community-wide networks acting on aromatic polymers and expand the toolkit for engineering recombinant lignin transformation based on ecological design principles. PMID:24982175

  11. Catalytic depolymerization of lignin in supercritical ethanol.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoming; Korányi, Tamás I; Boot, Michael D; Hensen, Emiel J M

    2014-08-01

    One-step valorization of soda lignin in supercritical ethanol using a CuMgAlOx catalyst results in high monomer yield (23 wt%) without char formation. Aromatics are the main products. The catalyst combines excellent deoxygenation with low ring-hydrogenation activity. Almost half of the monomer fraction is free from oxygen. Elemental analysis of the THF-soluble lignin residue after 8 h reaction showed a 68% reduction in O/C and 24% increase in H/C atomic ratios as compared to the starting Protobind P1000 lignin. Prolonged reaction times enhanced lignin depolymerization and reduced the amount of repolymerized products. Phenolic hydroxyl groups were found to be the main actors in repolymerization and char formation. 2D HSQC NMR analysis evidenced that ethanol reacts by alkylation and esterification with lignin fragments. Alkylation was found to play an important role in suppressing repolymerization. Ethanol acts as a capping agent, stabilizing the highly reactive phenolic intermediates by O-alkylating the hydroxyl groups and by C-alkylating the aromatic rings. The use of ethanol is significantly more effective in producing monomers and avoiding char than the use of methanol. A possible reaction network of the reactions between the ethanol and lignin fragments is discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Multi-step biocatalytic depolymerization of lignin.

    PubMed

    Picart, Pere; Liu, Haifeng; Grande, Philipp M; Anders, Nico; Zhu, Leilei; Klankermayer, Jürgen; Leitner, Walter; Domínguez de María, Pablo; Schwaneberg, Ulrich; Schallmey, Anett

    2017-08-01

    Lignin is a biomass-derived aromatic polymer that has been identified as a potential renewable source of aromatic chemicals and other valuable compounds. The valorization of lignin, however, represents a great challenge due to its high inherent functionalization, what compromises the identification of chemical routes for its selective depolymerization. In this work, an in vitro biocatalytic depolymerization process is presented, that was applied to lignin samples obtained from beech wood through OrganoCat pretreatment, resulting in a mixture of lignin-derived aromatic monomers. The reported biocracking route comprises first a laccase-mediator system to specifically oxidize the Cα hydroxyl group in the β-O-4 structure of lignin. Subsequently, selective β-O-4 ether cleavage of the oxidized β-O-4 linkages is achieved with β-etherases and a glutathione lyase. The combined enzymatic approach yielded an oily fraction of low-molecular-mass aromatic compounds, comprising coniferylaldehyde and other guaiacyl and syringyl units, as well as some larger (soluble) fractions. Upon further optimization, the reported biocatalytic route may open a valuable approach for lignin processing and valorization under mild reaction conditions.

  13. Depolymerization of steam-treated lignin for the production of green chemicals.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Jean-Michel; Baré, Wadou; Bilodeau, Mathieu

    2011-04-01

    In this short communication, lignin produced by steam processing of agricultural (hemp) and forestry (softwood) was depolymerised via a base catalysis to produce a combination of monomers, dimers, trimers and residual char. The lignin broth produced directly after the base-catalysed steam treatment was treated under pressure (from 1300 to 1900 psi) at temperatures varying from 300 to 330 °C in a custom-made batch reactor. The lignin concentration in the aqueous base solution was 10 wt% whilst the NaOH concentration was 5 wt%. Identification of 26 compounds has been done: 17 compounds were common to the two feedstocks while the remaining 9 were specific to each feedstock used.

  14. Lignin conversion: Opportunities and challenges for the integrated biorefinery

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Shangxian; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Yuan, Joshua S.

    2016-06-21

    The utilization of lignin for fungible fuels and products represents one of the most imminent challenges in the modern biorefinery because most of the bioprocesses for lignocellulosic biofuels results in a lignin-containing waste stream. Considering lignin's abundance and relatively high energy content, this waste stream can be used as a feedstock for value-added products to improve the sustainability and economic feasibility of the biorefinery. Bioconversion of lignin with microbes recently emerged as an alternative lignin-valorization approach with significant potential. Typically, the microbial bioconversion of lignin requires three major steps: lignin depolymerization, aromatic compounds catabolism, and target product biosynthesis. In this review, we summarize the most recent advances in lignin bioconversion to address the challenges in each of the three steps. In conclusion, we further discuss strategies and perspectives for future research to address the challenges in bioconversion of lignin.

  15. Lignin conversion: Opportunities and challenges for the integrated biorefinery

    DOE PAGES

    Xie, Shangxian; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Yuan, Joshua S.

    2016-06-21

    The utilization of lignin for fungible fuels and products represents one of the most imminent challenges in the modern biorefinery because most of the bioprocesses for lignocellulosic biofuels results in a lignin-containing waste stream. Considering lignin's abundance and relatively high energy content, this waste stream can be used as a feedstock for value-added products to improve the sustainability and economic feasibility of the biorefinery. Bioconversion of lignin with microbes recently emerged as an alternative lignin-valorization approach with significant potential. Typically, the microbial bioconversion of lignin requires three major steps: lignin depolymerization, aromatic compounds catabolism, and target product biosynthesis. In thismore » review, we summarize the most recent advances in lignin bioconversion to address the challenges in each of the three steps. In conclusion, we further discuss strategies and perspectives for future research to address the challenges in bioconversion of lignin.« less

  16. Lignin conversion: Opportunities and challenges for the integrated biorefinery

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Shangxian; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Yuan, Joshua S.

    2016-06-21

    The utilization of lignin for fungible fuels and products represents one of the most imminent challenges in the modern biorefinery because most of the bioprocesses for lignocellulosic biofuels results in a lignin-containing waste stream. Considering lignin's abundance and relatively high energy content, this waste stream can be used as a feedstock for value-added products to improve the sustainability and economic feasibility of the biorefinery. Bioconversion of lignin with microbes recently emerged as an alternative lignin-valorization approach with significant potential. Typically, the microbial bioconversion of lignin requires three major steps: lignin depolymerization, aromatic compounds catabolism, and target product biosynthesis. In this review, we summarize the most recent advances in lignin bioconversion to address the challenges in each of the three steps. In conclusion, we further discuss strategies and perspectives for future research to address the challenges in bioconversion of lignin.

  17. Fractionation-purification of an industrial kraft lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Lundquist, K.; Kirk, T.K.

    1980-01-01

    The potential of the by-product lignins from kraft pulping operations (kraft lignins) as renewable chemical resources has long been recognized. Research through several decades into the utilization of these modified lignins has resulted in a number of products, and, because of changes in the economics of petroleum-based chemicals, research is probably accelerating. Ready availability has caused kraft lignins also to be used widely as experimental lignins for studies of microbiological degradation and for other investigations. Unfortunately, kraft lignins have often been studied with little if any purification, even without freeing them of non-lignin-derived materials and low-molecular weight kraft degradation products of lignin. As a result, it is often difficult to interpret reported findings. The present paper describes the simple purification, by fractionation, of an industrial kraft lignin and some of the properties of the fractions.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Modified Soda Lignin with Polyethylene Glycol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fangda; Lin, Jian; Zhao, Guangjie

    2016-10-07

    Soda lignin does not have thermal flowing characteristics and it is impossible for it to be further thermally molded. To achieve the fusibility of soda lignin for fiber preparation by melt-spinning, an effective method for soda lignin modification was conducted by cooking it with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 400 at various ratios. The higher the ratio of PEG that was used, the more PEG molecular chains were grafted at the alpha carbon of the soda lignin through ether bonds, resulting in lower thermal transition temperatures and more excellent fusibility. The modified soda lignin with a weight ratio of lignin to PEG of 1:4 exhibited a relative thermal stability of molten viscosity at selected temperatures. Thereafter, the resultant fusible soda lignin was successfully melt-spun into filaments with an average diameter of 33 ± 5 μm, which is smaller than that of some industrial lignins. Accordingly, it is possible to utilize soda lignin to produce fibrous carbonaceous materials.

  19. Multiphase materials with lignin. IV. Blends of hydroxypropyl cellulose with lignin

    Treesearch

    Timothy G. Rials; Wolfgang G. Glasser

    1989-01-01

    Polymer blends of hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and organosolv lignin (OSL) were prepared by mixing in solutions of both pyridine and dioxane, and casting as films, and by mixing in the melt followed by extrusion. All preparations exhibited partial miscibility as evidenced by a single Tg up to a composition of 40 wt % lignin above which phase...

  20. Lignin degradation by a white-rot fungus lacking lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Eggert, C.B.; Eriksson, K.E.L.

    1996-10-01

    Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been the organism of choice for studies of lignin degradation and much of this work has focused on two phenol oxidases, lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP), secreted by the fungus under ligninolytic conditions. However, many white-rot fungi, including a number of aggressive lignin degraders, seem to operate without expressing LiP activity. Laccase is another phenol oxidase that white-rot fungi often produce. However, the role played by laccase in lignin degradation has remained obscured since its low redox potential appeared to make it incapable of oxidizing non-phenolic lignin constituents. We have identified, Pychnoporus cinnabarinus lacking both LiP and MnP, but a high producer of laccase, to degrade lignin as efficiently as UP producing fungi. We have found that P. cinnabarinus, to overcome the redox potential barrier for laccase, produces a mediator for oxidation of non-phenolic lignin structures. This is the first description of how laccase may be used in a biological system for the degradation of lignin.

  1. Multiphase materials with lignin. VI. Effect of cellulose derivative structure on blend morphology with lignin

    Treesearch

    Timothy G. Rials; Wolfgang G. Glasser

    1989-01-01

    Polymeric blends of lignin with ethyl cellulose (EC) and cellulose acetate/butyrate (CAB) prepared by solution casting from dioxane. Fracture surface analysis by scanning electron microscopy revealed phase separation when the lignin content exceeded 10% for blends with EC and 5% in the CAB system. While this phase behavior is as predicted for the EC blends, a greater...

  2. Recovering ultraclean lignins of controlled molecular weight from Kraft black-liquor lignins.

    PubMed

    Klett, A S; Chappell, P V; Thies, M C

    2015-08-18

    By operating in a region of liquid-liquid equilibrium, hot acetic acid-water mixtures can be used to simultaneously clean, fractionate, and solvate Kraft black-liquor lignins. Lignin-rich liquid phases of controlled molecular weight with key metals contents reduced to <50 ppm are obtained without a washing step.

  3. Added value of lignin as lignin-based hybrid polyurethane for a compatibilizing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilmiati, S.; Haris Mustafa, J.; Yaumal, A.; Hanum, F.; Chalid, M.

    2017-07-01

    As biomass-based material, lignin contains abundant hydroxyl groups promising to be used as chain extender in building hybrid polyurethanes. Consisting of polyehtylene glycol (PEG) content as hydrophobic part and lignin as hydrophilic part, the hybrid PU is expected to be as a novel compatibilizing agent in new materials production such as polyblends and composites. The hybrid PU was synthesized via two reaction stages, viz. pre-polyurethanization through reacting 4,4'-Methylenebis (Cyclohexyl Isocyanate) (HMDI) and PEG as polyol, and chain extention through adding lignin in the pre-polyurethanization system. The composition effect of lignin in hybrid PU syntehsis, to chemical structure corelated to hydrophobic to hydrophilic ratio, thermal and morphological properties, was evaluated by measuring NMR, FTIR, DSC, TGA and FE-SEM. The experiments showed that addition of lignin was able to extend the pre-polyurethane into hybrid polyurethane and to increase the lignin/polyol ratio in the hybrid polyurethanes, which were indicated by NMR and FTIR Analysis. And change of the ratio lead to increase the glass transition from 60.9 until 62.1°C and degradation temperature from 413.9 until 416.0°C. Observation of the morphology implied that addition of lignin gave more agglomerations. A Further investigation for this characterization study should be focused on a feasibility for this modified lignin as a novel compatibilizing agent.

  4. The maize brown midrib2 (bm2) gene encodes a methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase that contributes to lignin accumulation.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ho Man; Liu, Sanzhen; Hill-Skinner, Sarah; Wu, Wei; Reed, Danielle; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Nettleton, Dan; Schnable, Patrick S

    2014-02-01

    The midribs of maize brown midrib (bm) mutants exhibit a reddish-brown color associated with reductions in lignin concentration and alterations in lignin composition. Here, we report the mapping, cloning, and functional and biochemical analyses of the bm2 gene. The bm2 gene was mapped to a small region of chromosome 1 that contains a putative methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, which is down-regulated in bm2 mutant plants. Analyses of multiple Mu-induced bm2-Mu mutant alleles confirmed that this constitutively expressed gene is bm2. Yeast complementation experiments and a previously published biochemical characterization show that the bm2 gene encodes a functional MTHFR. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that the bm2 mutants accumulate substantially reduced levels of bm2 transcript. Alteration of MTHFR function is expected to influence accumulation of the methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM). Because SAM is consumed by two methyltransferases in the lignin pathway (Ye et al., ), the finding that bm2 encodes a functional MTHFR is consistent with its lignin phenotype. Consistent with this functional assignment of bm2, the expression patterns of genes in a variety of SAM-dependent or -related pathways, including lignin biosynthesis, are altered in the bm2 mutant. Biochemical assays confirmed that bm2 mutants accumulate reduced levels of lignin with altered composition compared to wild-type. Hence, this study demonstrates a role for MTHFR in lignin biosynthesis.

  5. The maize brown midrib2 (bm2) gene encodes a methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase that contributes to lignin accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ho Man; Liu, Sanzhen; Hill-Skinner, Sarah; Wu, Wei; Reed, Danielle; Yeh, Cheng-Ting; Nettleton, Dan; Schnable, Patrick S

    2014-01-01

    The midribs of maize brown midrib (bm) mutants exhibit a reddish-brown color associated with reductions in lignin concentration and alterations in lignin composition. Here, we report the mapping, cloning, and functional and biochemical analyses of the bm2 gene. The bm2 gene was mapped to a small region of chromosome 1 that contains a putative methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, which is down-regulated in bm2 mutant plants. Analyses of multiple Mu-induced bm2-Mu mutant alleles confirmed that this constitutively expressed gene is bm2. Yeast complementation experiments and a previously published biochemical characterization show that the bm2 gene encodes a functional MTHFR. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that the bm2 mutants accumulate substantially reduced levels of bm2 transcript. Alteration of MTHFR function is expected to influence accumulation of the methyl donor S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM). Because SAM is consumed by two methyltransferases in the lignin pathway (Ye et al., 1994), the finding that bm2 encodes a functional MTHFR is consistent with its lignin phenotype. Consistent with this functional assignment of bm2, the expression patterns of genes in a variety of SAM-dependent or -related pathways, including lignin biosynthesis, are altered in the bm2 mutant. Biochemical assays confirmed that bm2 mutants accumulate reduced levels of lignin with altered composition compared to wild-type. Hence, this study demonstrates a role for MTHFR in lignin biosynthesis. PMID:24286468

  6. Green Diesel from Kraft Lignin in Three Steps.

    PubMed

    Löfstedt, Joakim; Dahlstrand, Christian; Orebom, Alexander; Meuzelaar, Gerrit; Sawadjoon, Supaporn; Galkin, Maxim V; Agback, Peter; Wimby, Martin; Corresa, Elena; Mathieu, Yannick; Sauvanaud, Laurent; Eriksson, Sören; Corma, Avelino; Samec, Joseph S M

    2016-06-22

    Precipitated kraft lignin from black liquor was converted into green diesel in three steps. A mild Ni-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation/hydrogenolysis using 2-propanol generated a lignin residue in which the ethers, carbonyls, and olefins were reduced. An organocatalyzed esterification of the lignin residue with an in situ prepared tall oil fatty acid anhydride gave an esterified lignin residue that was soluble in light gas oil. The esterified lignin residue was coprocessed with light gas oil in a continous hydrotreater to produce a green diesel. This approach will enable the development of new techniques to process commercial lignin in existing oil refinery infrastructures to standardized transportation fuels in the future.

  7. Carbon Fiber Production from a Kraft Hardwood Lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Darren A; Gallego, Nidia C; Baker, Frederick S

    2008-01-01

    Lignin is a renewable resource material that is being evaluated for the low cost production of carbon fiber for automotive and other applications. Solvent extraction of a commercial hardwood lignin product yielded a purified lignin free of the contaminants typical of lignins derived from the Kraft chemical pulping of wood. The purified lignin was highly melt-spinnable into fibers, from which carbon fiber was subsequently produced. The lignin has been evaluated in terms of its rheological properties, fiber melt spinning ability, and potential for manufacture of low cost carbon fiber without the need for plasticizing agents or chemical modifications.

  8. Characterization of electrospun lignin based carbon fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Poursorkhabi, Vida; Mohanty, Amar; Misra, Manjusri

    2015-05-22

    The production of lignin fibers has been studied in order to replace the need for petroleum based precursors for carbon fiber production. In addition to its positive environmental effects, it also benefits the economics of the industries which cannot take advantage of carbon fiber properties because of their high price. A large amount of lignin is annually produced as the byproduct of paper and growing cellulosic ethanol industry. Therefore, finding high value applications for this low cost, highly available material is getting more attention. Lignin is a biopolymer making about 15 – 30 % of the plant cell walls and has a high carbon yield upon carbonization. However, its processing is challenging due to its low molecular weight and also variations based on its origin and the method of separation from cellulose. In this study, alkali solutions of organosolv lignin with less than 1 wt/v% of poly (ethylene oxide) and two types of lignin (hardwood and softwood) were electrospun followed by carbonization. Different heating programs for carbonization were tested. The carbonized fibers had a smooth surface with an average diameter of less than 5 µm and the diameter could be controlled by the carbonization process and lignin type. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study morphology of the fibers before and after carbonization. Thermal conductivity of a sample with amorphous carbon was 2.31 W/m.K. The electrospun lignin carbon fibers potentially have a large range of application such as in energy storage devices and water or gas purification systems.

  9. In muro deacetylation of xylan affects lignin properties and improves saccharification of aspen wood.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Prashant Mohan-Anupama; Derba-Maceluch, Marta; Chong, Sun-Li; Gandla, Madhavi Latha; Bashar, Shamrat Shafiul; Sparrman, Tobias; Ahvenainen, Patrik; Hedenström, Mattias; Özparpucu, Merve; Rüggeberg, Markus; Serimaa, Ritva; Lawoko, Martin; Tenkanen, Maija; Jönsson, Leif J; Mellerowicz, Ewa J

    2017-01-01

    Lignocellulose from fast growing hardwood species is a preferred source of polysaccharides for advanced biofuels and "green" chemicals. However, the extensive acetylation of hardwood xylan hinders lignocellulose saccharification by obstructing enzymatic xylan hydrolysis and causing inhibitory acetic acid concentrations during microbial sugar fermentation. To optimize lignocellulose for cost-effective saccharification and biofuel production, an acetyl xylan esterase AnAXE1 from Aspergillus niger was introduced into aspen and targeted to cell walls. AnAXE1-expressing plants exhibited reduced xylan acetylation and grew normally. Without pretreatment, their lignocellulose yielded over 25% more glucose per unit mass of wood (dry weight) than wild-type plants. Glucose yields were less improved (+7%) after acid pretreatment, which hydrolyses xylan. The results indicate that AnAXE1 expression also reduced the molecular weight of xylan, and xylan-lignin complexes and/or lignin co-extracted with xylan, increased cellulose crystallinity, altered the lignin composition, reducing its syringyl to guaiacyl ratio, and increased lignin solubility in dioxane and hot water. Lignin-associated carbohydrates became enriched in xylose residues, indicating a higher content of xylo-oligosaccharides. This work revealed several changes in plant cell walls caused by deacetylation of xylan. We propose that deacetylated xylan is partially hydrolyzed in the cell walls, liberating xylo-oligosaccharides and their associated lignin oligomers from the cell wall network. Deacetylating xylan thus not only increases its susceptibility to hydrolytic enzymes during saccharification but also changes the cell wall architecture, increasing the extractability of lignin and xylan and facilitating saccharification.

  10. Performance of solid-state sensors for continuous, real-time measurement of soil CO2 concentrations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent advances in sensor technology provide a robust capability for continuous measurement of soil gases. The performance of solid-state CO2 sensors (Model GMM220 series, Vaisala, Finland) was evaluated in laboratory, greenhouse, and irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In ambient CO2 concentrat...

  11. Analysis of Lignin-Polysaccharide Complexes Formed during Grass Lignin Degradation by Cultures of Pleurotus Species.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, A; Bocchini, P; Galletti, G C; Martinez, A T

    1996-06-01

    A brown material, precipitable with ethanol, was formed during wheat straw and lignin degradation by liquid cultures of different species of Pleurotus. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and cross-polarization and magic-angle-spinning (sup13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that most of the precipitable material was formed from exopolysaccharide secreted by the fungus but it also contained an aromatic fraction. The results of acid hydrolysis, methylation analysis, and Smith degradation indicated that the major exopolysaccharide produced by these fungi is a (1(symbl)3)-(beta)-glucan branched at C-6 every two or three residues along the main chain. The presence of lignin or straw in the culture medium had little effect on the composition and structure of the extracellular polysaccharide. Cross-polarization and magic-angle-spinning (sup13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy provided an estimation of the aromatic content of the lignin-polysaccharide complexes, assigning 20% of the total (sup13)C signal in the material recovered from cultures of Pleurotus eryngii in lignin medium to aromatic carbon. Analytical pyrolysis indicated that the aromatic fractions of the lignin-polysaccharide complexes were derived from lignin, since products characteristic of pyrolytic breakdown of H (p-hydroxyphenylpropane), G (guaiacylpropane), and S (syringylpropane) lignin units were identified. These complexes cannot be fractionated by treatment with polyvinylpyrrolidone or extraction with lignin solvents, suggesting that the two polymers were chemically linked. Moreover, differences in composition with respect to the original lignin indicated that this macromolecule was modified by the fungi during the process of formation of the lignin-polysaccharide complexes.

  12. Bayesian probabilistic approach for inverse source determination from limited and noisy chemical or biological sensor concentration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Eugene

    2007-04-01

    Although a great deal of research effort has been focused on the forward prediction of the dispersion of contaminants (e.g., chemical and biological warfare agents) released into the turbulent atmosphere, much less work has been directed toward the inverse prediction of agent source location and strength from the measured concentration, even though the importance of this problem for a number of practical applications is obvious. In general, the inverse problem of source reconstruction is ill-posed and unsolvable without additional information. It is demonstrated that a Bayesian probabilistic inferential framework provides a natural and logically consistent method for source reconstruction from a limited number of noisy concentration data. In particular, the Bayesian approach permits one to incorporate prior knowledge about the source as well as additional information regarding both model and data errors. The latter enables a rigorous determination of the uncertainty in the inference of the source parameters (e.g., spatial location, emission rate, release time, etc.), hence extending the potential of the methodology as a tool for quantitative source reconstruction. A model (or, source-receptor relationship) that relates the source distribution to the concentration data measured by a number of sensors is formulated, and Bayesian probability theory is used to derive the posterior probability density function of the source parameters. A computationally efficient methodology for determination of the likelihood function for the problem, based on an adjoint representation of the source-receptor relationship, is described. Furthermore, we describe the application of efficient stochastic algorithms based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) for sampling from the posterior distribution of the source parameters, the latter of which is required to undertake the Bayesian computation. The Bayesian inferential methodology for source reconstruction is validated against real

  13. Optical water quality model of Lake Ontario. 2: Determination of chlorophyll a and suspended mineral concentrations of natural waters from submersible and low altitude optical sensors.

    PubMed

    Bukata, R P; Bruton, J E; Jerome, J H; Jain, S C; Zwick, H H

    1981-05-01

    Spectrooptical and water quality data collected from a 1979 coordinated in situ and airborne study of western Lake Ontario are used to devise a five-component model from which subsurface chlorophyll a and suspended solids concentrations may be determined from submersible optical sensors capable of measuring spectral irradiance reflectance just beneath the free-surface layer. A water-air interface model, which incorporates the effects of surface reflection, is also presented in an attempt to extend such water quality estimations to low altitude remote sensors. Special emphasis is given to the spectral wavelength bands of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner aboard Nimbus-7.

  14. Sorption of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) on lignin.

    PubMed

    Saad, Rabih; Radovic-Hrapovic, Zorana; Ahvazi, Behzad; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Hawari, Jalal

    2012-01-01

    The present study describes the use of two commercially available lignins, namely, alkali and organosolv lignin, for the removal of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), a chemical widely used by the military and the dye industry, from water. Sorption of DNAN on both lignins reached equilibrium within 10 hr and followed pseudo second-order kinetics with sorption being faster with alkali than with organosolv lignin, i.e. k2 10.3 and 0.3 g/(mg x hr), respectively. In a separate study we investigated sorption of DNAN between 10 and 40 degrees C and found that the removal of DNAN by organosolv lignin increased from 0.8 to 7.5 mg/g but reduced slightly from 8.5 to 7.6 mg/g in the case of alkali lignin. Sorption isotherms for either alkali or organosolv lignin best fitted Freundlich equation with enthalpy of formation, deltaH0 equaled to 14 or 80 kJ/mol. To help understand DNAN sorption mechanisms we characterized the two lignins by elemental analysis, BET nitrogen adsorption-desorption and 31P NMR. Variations in elemental compositions between the two lignins indicated that alkali lignin should have more sites (O- and S-containing functionalities) for H-bonding. The BET surface area and calculated total pore volume of alkali lignin were almost 10 times greater than that of organosolv lignin suggesting that alkali lignin should provide more sites for sorption. 31P NMR showed that organosolv lignin contains more phenolic -OH groups than alkali lignin, i.e., 70% and 45%, respectively. The variations in the type of OH groups between the two lignins might have affected the strength of H-bonding between DNAN and the type of lignin used.

  15. Aqueous acetone fractionation of kraft, organosolv and soda lignins.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Robles, Juan; Tamminen, Tarja; Liitiä, Tiina; Peresin, María Soledad; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Jääskeläinen, Anna-Stiina

    2017-08-20

    Technical lignins are structurally heterogeneous and polydisperse. This work describes the use of a simple and green method for lignin fractionation, using different proportions of acetone (40 and 60%) in water. Lignins from three different sources (wheat straw organosolv lignin, wheat straw soda lignin and softwood kraft lignin) were used in this fractionation protocol. The obtained fractions showed different molar mass and functional groups. The lower molar mass fractions showed more phenolic hydroxyl groups and carboxylic acid moieties than higher molar mass fractions, which also possessed much higher amounts of carbohydrates. The chemical characterization of these fractionated lignins showed that the PREC fraction was exceptionally pure and homogeneous lignin. Its total lignin content was >96% for all three lignins and it was practically free from carbohydrates and inorganics (ash). Furthermore, PREC fraction possessed the highest carbon content for the three lignin samples (63.05-69.26%). These results illustrate that the proposed aqueous acetone fractionation protocol could indeed produce pure and uniform lignin fraction and it was applicable for lignins from different sources. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reductive Catalytic Fractionation of Corn Stover Lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Eric M.; Katahira, Rui; Reed, Michelle; Resch, Michael G.; Karp, Eric M.; Beckham, Gregg T.; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2016-12-05

    Reductive catalytic fractionation (RCF) has emerged as an effective biomass pretreatment strategy to depolymerize lignin into tractable fragments in high yields. We investigate the RCF of corn stover, a highly abundant herbaceous feedstock, using carbon-supported Ru and Ni catalysts at 200 and 250 degrees C in methanol and, in the presence or absence of an acid cocatalyst (H3PO4 or an acidified carbon support). Three key performance variables were studied: (1) the effectiveness of lignin extraction as measured by the yield of lignin oil, (2) the yield of monomers in the lignin oil, and (3) the carbohydrate retention in the residual solids after RCF. The monomers included methyl coumarate/ferulate, propyl guaiacol/syringol, and ethyl guaiacol/syringol. The Ru and Ni catalysts performed similarly in terms of product distribution and monomer yields. The monomer yields increased monotonically as a function of time for both temperatures. At 6 h, monomer yields of 27.2 and 28.3% were obtained at 250 and 200 degrees C, respectively, with Ni/C. The addition of an acid cocatalysts to the Ni/C system increased monomer yields to 32% for acidified carbon and 38% for phosphoric acid at 200 degrees C. The monomer product distribution was dominated by methyl coumarate regardless of the use of the acid cocatalysts. The use of phosphoric acid at 200 degrees C or the high temperature condition without acid resulted in complete lignin extraction and partial sugar solubilization (up to 50%) thereby generating lignin oil yields that exceeded the theoretical limit. In contrast, using either Ni/C or Ni on acidified carbon at 200 degrees C resulted in moderate lignin oil yields of ca. 55%, with sugar retention values >90%. Notably, these sugars were amenable to enzymatic digestion, reaching conversions >90% at 96 h. Characterization studies on the lignin oils using two-dimensional heteronuclear single quantum coherence nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatrography revealed

  17. Base-Catalyzed Depolymerization of Biorefinery Lignins

    DOE PAGES

    Katahira, Rui; Mittal, Ashutosh; McKinney, Kellene; ...

    2016-01-12

    Lignocellulosic biorefineries will produce a substantial pool of lignin-enriched residues, which are currently slated to be burned for heat and power. Going forward, however, valorization strategies for residual solid lignin will be essential to the economic viability of modern biorefineries. To achieve these strategies, effective lignin depolymerization processes will be required that can convert specific lignin-enriched biorefinery substrates into products of sufficient value and market size. Base-catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) of lignin using sodium hydroxide and other basic media has been shown to be an effective depolymerization approach when using technical and isolated lignins relevant to the pulp and paper industry.more » Moreover, to gain insights in the application of BCD to lignin-rich, biofuels-relevant residues, here we apply BCD with sodium hydroxide at two catalyst loadings and temperatures of 270, 300, and 330 °C for 40 min to residual biomass from typical and emerging biochemical conversion processes. We obtained mass balances for each fraction from BCD, and characterized the resulting aqueous and solid residues using gel permeation chromatography, NMR, and GC–MS. When taken together, these results indicate that a significant fraction (45–78%) of the starting lignin-rich material can be depolymerized to low molecular weight, water-soluble species. The yield of the aqueous soluble fraction depends significantly on biomass processing method used prior to BCD. Namely, dilute acid pretreatment results in lower water-soluble yields compared to biomass processing that involves no acid pretreatment. We also find that the BCD product selectivity can be tuned with temperature to give higher yields of methoxyphenols at lower temperature, and a higher relative content of benzenediols with a greater extent of alkylation on the aromatic rings at higher temperature. Our study shows that residual, lignin-rich biomass produced from conventional and

  18. Lacustrine lignin biomarker record reveals a severe drought during the late Younger Dryas in southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xiaodong; Bao, Hongyan; Zheng, Liwei; Li, Dawei; Kao, Shuh-Ji

    2017-03-01

    The Younger Dryas (YD) event, which punctuated the last glacial-Holocene transition period and had a profound impact on global climate, is the most well studied millennial-scale climate event although the triggering mechanism remains debate. Weakened Asian summer monsoon during the YD is recorded in oxygen isotopes of stalagmite from Mainland China. However, lacustrine climate record of the YD event has not been reported from the subtropical land-ocean boundary of the Asian continent near the Pacific warm pool. We provide a lignin biomarker record covering the last deglaciation and early Holocene (17-9 ka BP) from the Dongyuan Lake, southern Taiwan, located at the frontal zone of typhoon invasion. The lignin phenol ratio S/V shows that the vegetation in the catchments had shifted from gymnosperm dominant to angiosperm dominant plants since 12.2 ka BP. Significantly decreased lignin concentrations (TLP and λ8) and elevated lignin degradation parameters ((Ad/Al)v, P/(V + S), DHBA/V) in combination with other organic proxies (TOC, δ13Corg) during the late YD suggest a severe drought had occurred in southern Taiwan during this specific period. Changes in the lignin proxies from the Dongyuan Lake lagged the climate changes registered in stalagmite records by around 500-800 years, suggesting a slow response of vegetation and soil processes to rapid climate changes.

  19. Acid-catalysed xylose dehydration into furfural in the presence of kraft lignin.

    PubMed

    Lamminpää, Kaisa; Ahola, Juha; Tanskanen, Juha

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the effects of kraft lignin (Indulin AT) on acid-catalysed xylose dehydration into furfural were studied in formic and sulphuric acids. The study was done using D-optimal design. Three variables in both acids were included in the design: time (20-80 min), temperature (160-180°C) and initial lignin concentration (0-20 g/l). The dependent variables were xylose conversion, furfural yield, furfural selectivity and pH change. The results showed that the xylose conversion and furfural yield decreased in sulphuric acid, while in formic acid the changes were minor. Additionally, it was showed that lignin has an acid-neutralising capacity, and the added lignin increased the pH of reactant solutions in both acids. The pH rise was considerably lower in formic acid than in sulphuric acid. However, the higher pH did not explain all the changes in conversion and yield, and thus lignin evidently inhibits the formation of furfural.

  20. Lignin Peroxidase Oxidation of Aromatic Compounds in Systems Containing Organic Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael; Westlake, Donald W. S.; Fedorak, Phillip M.

    1994-01-01

    Lignin peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium was used to study the oxidation of aromatic compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic compounds, that are models of moieties of asphaltene molecules. The oxidations were done in systems containing water-miscible organic solvents, including methanol, isopropanol, N, N-dimethylformamide, acetonitrile, and tetrahydrofuran. Of the 20 aromatic compounds tested, 9 were oxidized by lignin peroxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. These included anthracene, 1-, 2-, and 9-methylanthracenes, acenaphthene, fluoranthene, pyrene, carbazole, and dibenzothiophene. Of the compounds studied, lignin peroxidase was able to oxidize those with ionization potentials of <8 eV (measured by electron impact). The reaction products contain hydroxyl and keto groups. In one case, carbon-carbon bond cleavage, yielding anthraquinone from 9-methylanthracene, was detected. Kinetic constants and stability characteristics of lignin peroxidase were determined by using pyrene as the substrate in systems containing different amounts of organic solvent. Benzyl alkylation of lignin peroxidase improved its activity in a system containing water-miscible organic solvent but did not increase its resistance to inactivation at high solvent concentrations. PMID:16349176

  1. Solubility of Organosolv Lignin in γ-Valerolactone/Water Binary Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Lê, Huy Quang; Zaitseva, Anna; Pokki, Juha-Pekka; Ståhl, Marina; Alopaeus, Ville; Sixta, Herbert

    2016-10-20

    The solubility of lignin in a mixture of γ-valerolactone (GVL) and water at different weight ratios was measured using the Hildebrand solubility parameters. Based on the molecular structure of lignin, its solubility parameter (δ-value) was calculated as 25.5 MPa(1/2) . The δ-value for aqueous GVL solvent increased from 23.1 MPa(1/2) for pure GVL to 45.6 MPa(1/2) for pure water. Therefore, the lignin solubility was predicted to increase with increasing GVL concentration in the aqueous mixture up to approximately 92-96 wt % of GVL. A ternary diagram describing the phase behavior of water-GVL-lignin mixtures at room temperature was constructed based on the experimental results. The three-component system exhibited a complex behavior with a liquid-liquid and solid-liquid-liquid phase split. The efficiency of the selected fractionation trials in a previous work was validated using the ternary solubility diagram. A promising recovery pathway and lignin isolation method were deduced from the results of this work. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Examination of tapered plastic multimode fiber-based sensor performance with silver coating for different concentrations of calcium hypochlorite by soft computing methodologies--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Rozalina; Sheng, Ong Yong; Wern, Kam; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Wahab, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul; Petković, Dalibor; Saboohi, Hadi

    2014-05-01

    A soft methodology study has been applied on tapered plastic multimode sensors. This study basically used tapered plastic multimode fiber [polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)] optics as a sensor. The tapered PMMA fiber was fabricated using an etching method involving deionized water and acetone to achieve a waist diameter and length of 0.45 and 10 mm, respectively. In addition, a tapered PMMA probe, which was coated by silver film, was fabricated and demonstrated using a calcium hypochlorite (G70) solution. The working mechanism of such a device is based on the observation increment in the transmission of the sensor that is immersed in solutions at high concentrations. As the concentration was varied from 0 to 6 ppm, the output voltage of the sensor increased linearly. The silver film coating increased the sensitivity of the proposed sensor because of the effective cladding refractive index, which increases with the coating and thus allows more light to be transmitted from the tapered fiber. In this study, the polynomial and radial basis function (RBF) were applied as the kernel function of the support vector regression (SVR) to estimate and predict the output voltage response of the sensors with and without silver film according to experimental tests. Instead of minimizing the observed training error, SVR_poly and SVR_rbf were used in an attempt to minimize the generalization error bound so as to achieve generalized performance. An adaptive neuro-fuzzy interference system (ANFIS) approach was also investigated for comparison. The experimental results showed that improvements in the predictive accuracy and capacity for generalization can be achieved by the SVR_poly approach in comparison to the SVR_rbf methodology. The same testing errors were found for the SVR_poly approach and the ANFIS approach.

  3. Polymerization of pentachlorophenol and ferulic acid by fungal extracellular lignin-degrading enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Rüttimann-Johnson, C; Lamar, R T

    1996-01-01

    High-molecular-weight polymers were produced by a crude concentrated supernatant from ligninolytic Phanerochaete chrysosporium cultures in a reaction mixture containing pentachlorophenol and a humic acid precursor (ferulic acid) in the presence of a detergent and H2O2. Pure manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, and laccase were also shown to catalyze the reaction. PMID:8967777

  4. Single fiber lignin distributions based on the density gradient column method

    Treesearch

    Brian Boyer; Alan W. Rudie

    2007-01-01

    The density gradient column method was used to determine the effects of uniform and non-uniform pulping processes on variation in individual fiber lignin concentrations of the resulting pulps. A density gradient column uses solvents of different densities and a mixing process to produce a column of liquid with a smooth transition from higher density at the bottom to...

  5. Effect of lignin on morphology, biodegradability, mechanical and thermal properties of low linear density polyethylene/lignin biocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghozali, M.; Triwulandari, E.; Haryono, A.; Yuanita, E.

    2017-07-01

    This research is purposed to study effects of lignin compositions on morphology, biodegradability, mechanical and thermal properties of low linear density polyethylene (LLDPE)/Lignin biocomposites. LLDPE/Lignin biocomposites has been manufactured by adding LLDPE, lignin and compatibilizer into rheomix at 200°C with a stirring speed of 70 rpm for 30 min. The composition of lignin added was 5, 10, 15, and 20 phr with compatibilizer 5 phr. LLDPE/lignin films has been made by using hydraulic hot press at 200-210°C with pressure of 6 bar for 20 min. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrum analysis was conducted to determine the functional groups of LLDPE/Lignin biocomposites. The surface morphology was observed by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The mechanical properties was measured as a tensile strength and thermal stability was measured by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). In addition, biodegradation test was also conducted to determine the level of biodegradability. TGA results indicated that at 456°C LLDPE and lignin had similar thermal stability and the addition of lignin into LLDPE/lignin bicomposites can reduce the thermal stability up to temperature of 450-460°C. However, the thermal stability is increased at temperature over 460°C. The tensile strength and elongation at break of all LLDPE/Lignin biocomposites at various compositions is lower compared to those of LLDPE. The more lignin were added into LLDPE/Lignin biocomposites, the more the materials were biodegraded.

  6. Incorporation of Epicatechin Esters into Lignin Enhances Cell Wall Fermentability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyphenolic catechin esters are potentially attractive targets for lignin bioengineering because their copolymerization with monolignols could reduce lignin hydrophobicity and cross-linking to polysaccharides, or facilitate delignification by biomass pretreatments. To test this hypothesis, we biomi...

  7. Lignin-derivatives based polymers, blends and composites: A review.

    PubMed

    Naseem, Amina; Tabasum, Shazia; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Zuber, Mohammad; Ali, Muhammad; Noreen, Aqdas

    2016-12-01

    Lignin and lignin derivatives biopolymers have several properties, such as high thermal stability, antioxidant, biodegradability, antimicrobial actions, adhesive properties, etc., and thus they can be extensively used in wide range of areas. Although human history mostly depend on the biopolymers, however derivatives of lignin such as sulfonate, phenolic, organosolv, Kraft and sodium sulfonate lignin have good mechanical and physicochemical properties. Well-designed materials such as coatings and paints, manufacturing of plastics and resins, for rubber packaging, for fuel production etc., can be obtained by the functionalizations of chemically modified lignin. Considering multi purposes properties of the lignin and lignin derivatives and extensive industrial applications of derivatives, this review sheds a light on lignin derivatives based materials with their prospective applications. All the technical scientific issues have been addressed highlighting the recent advancement.

  8. Formaldehyde stabilization facilitates lignin monomer production during biomass depolymerization.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Li; Amiri, Masoud Talebi; Questell-Santiago, Ydna M; Héroguel, Florent; Li, Yanding; Kim, Hoon; Meilan, Richard; Chapple, Clint; Ralph, John; Luterbacher, Jeremy S

    2016-10-21

    Practical, high-yield lignin depolymerization methods could greatly increase biorefinery productivity and profitability. However, development of these methods is limited by the presence of interunit carbon-carbon bonds within native lignin, and further by formation of such linkages during lignin extraction. We report that adding formaldehyde during biomass pretreatment produces a soluble lignin fraction that can be converted to guaiacyl and syringyl monomers at near theoretical yields during subsequent hydrogenolysis (47 mole % of Klason lignin for beech and 78 mole % for a high-syringyl transgenic poplar). These yields were three to seven times those obtained without formaldehyde, which prevented lignin condensation by forming 1,3-dioxane structures with lignin side-chain hydroxyl groups. By depolymerizing cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin separately, monomer yields were between 76 and 90 mole % for these three major biomass fractions. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Bicomponent lignocellulose thin films to study the role of surface lignin in cellulolytic reactions.

    PubMed

    Hoeger, Ingrid C; Filpponen, Ilari; Martin-Sampedro, Raquel; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Osterberg, Monika; Laine, Janne; Kelley, Stephen; Rojas, Orlando J

    2012-10-08

    Ultrathin bicomponent films of cellulose and lignin derivatives were deposited on silica supports by spin coating, and after conversion into the respective polymer precursor, they were used as a model system to investigate interfacial phenomena relevant to lignocellulose biocatalysis. Film morphology, surface chemical composition, and wettability were determined by atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and water contact angle, respectively. Phase separation of cellulose and lignin produced structures that resembled the cell wall of fibers and were used to monitor enzyme binding and cellulolytic reactions via quartz crystal microgravimetry. The rate and extent of hydrolysis was quantified by using kinetic models that indicated the role of the surface lignin domains in enzyme inhibition. Hydrophobic interactions between cellulases and the substrates and their critical role on irreversible adsorption were elucidated by using acetylated lignin films with different degrees of substitution. Overall, it is concluded that sensors based on the proposed ultrathin films of lignocellulose can facilitate a better understanding of the complex events that occur during bioconversion of cellulosic biomass.

  10. Oxidation of wheat straw lignin by fungal lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase and laccase: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Ingo, M.J.; Kurek, B.

    1996-10-01

    Lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and laccase from Pleurotus eryngii were separately used to degrade alkali wheat straw lignin (AL). In order to characterize the catalytic action of the different enzymes, the chemical structure and the hydrodynamic properties of the treated lignin were analyzed by thioacidolysis-gas chromatography and molecular size exclusion chromatography. The results confirmed that only LiP was able to degrade guiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) structures in non-phenolic methylated lignins. However, provided that some phenolic terminal structures are present, MnP and laccase were able to degrade the non-phenolic portion of the polymer linked by {beta}-O-4 alkyl aryl ether bonds. This suggested that the oxidative reactions catalyzed in alkali straw lignin could progress through bond cleavages generating phenoxy radicals. The molecular size distribution of both thioacidolysis products and the oxidized polymer showed that AL underwent condensation side-reactions regardless of the enzyme treatment, but only LiP oxidation led to the increase in the hydrodynamic volume of the recovered lignin. This indicated that modification of enzymes by bonding patterns in lignin is not always associated with alterations in the spatial network of the polymer.

  11. Lignin Degradation by Streptomyces viridosporus: Isolation and Characterization of a New Polymeric Lignin Degradation Intermediate †

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Don L.; Pometto, Anthony L.; Crawford, Ronald L.

    1983-01-01

    A new, quantitatively significant intermediate formed during lignin degradation by Streptomyces viridosporus T7A was isolated and characterized. In Streptomyces-inoculated cultures, the intermediate, an acid-precipitable, polyphenolic, polymeric lignin (APPL), accumulated in the growth medium. The APPL was a water-soluble polymer probably consisting of a heterogeneous mixture of molecular weight components of ≥20,000. APPLs were precipitable from culture filtrates after they had been acidified to pH <3 to 5. Noninoculated controls yielded little APPL, but supernatant solutions from inoculated cultures produced quantities of APPL that correlated with the biodegradability of the lignocellulose type. Maximal recovery of APPL was obtained from corn lignocellulose, reaching 30% of the initial lignin present in the substrate. APPLs contained small amounts of carbohydrate, organic nitrogen, and inorganic materials. The lignin origin of APPLs was confirmed by chemical analyses, which included acidolysis, permanganate oxidation, elemental analyses, functional group analyses, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and 14C isotopic techniques. Analyses of APPLs from corn lignocelluloses showed that S. viridosporus-degraded APPLs were lignin derived but significantly different in structure from APPLs derived from uninoculated controls or from a standard corn milled-wood lignin. Degraded APPLs were enriched in phenolic hydroxyl groups and, to a small extent, in carboxyl groups. Degradative changes appeared to be largely oxidative and were thought to involve substantial cleavage of p-hydroxy ether linkages and methoxyl groups in the lignin. PMID:16346253

  12. Isolation of bacterial strains able to metabolize lignin and lignin-related compounds.

    PubMed

    Tian, J-H; Pourcher, A-M; Peu, P

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we identified five strains isolated from soil and sediments able to degrade kraft lignin, aromatic dyes and lignin derivatives. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the isolates were identified as Serratia sp. JHT01, Serratia liquefacien PT01, Pseudomonas chlororaphis PT02, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia PT03 and Mesorhizobium sp. PT04. All the isolates showed significant growth on lignin with no water-extractable compounds. Synthetic aromatic dyes were used to assess the presence of oxidative enzymes. All the isolates were able to use the thiazine dye Methylene blue and the anthraquinone dye Remazol Brilliant Blue R as the sole carbon source. Guaiacol, veratryl alcohol and biphenyl were also mineralized by all the strains isolated. These results suggest they could be used for the treatment of aromatic pollutants and for the degradation of the lignocellulosic biomass. The valorization of waste lignin and lignocellulosic biomass by biocatalysis opens up new possibilities for the production of value-added substituted aromatics, biofuel and for the treatment of aromatic pollutants. Bacteria with ligninolytic potential could be a source of novel enzymes for controlled lignin depolymerization. In this work, five soil bacteria were isolated and studied. Every isolate showed significant growth on lignin and was able to degrade several lignin monomers and ligninolytic indicator dyes. They could thus be a source of novel ligninolytic enzymes as well as candidates for a bacterial consortium for the delignification of lignocellulosic biomass. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Deconstruction of Lignin Model Compounds and Biomass-Derived Lignin using Layered Double Hydroxide Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Chmely, S. C.; McKinney, K. A.; Lawrence, K. R.; Sturgeon, M.; Katahira, R.; Beckham, G. T.

    2013-01-01

    Lignin is an underutilized value stream in current biomass conversion technologies because there exist no economic and technically feasible routes for lignin depolymerization and upgrading. Base-catalyzed deconstruction (BCD) has been applied for lignin depolymerization (e.g., the Kraft process) in the pulp and paper industry for more than a century using aqueous-phase media. However, these efforts require treatment to neutralize the resulting streams, which adds significantly to the cost of lignin deconstruction. To circumvent the need for downstream treatment, here we report recent advances in the synthesis of layered double hydroxide and metal oxide catalysts to be applied to the BCD of lignin. These catalysts may prove more cost-effective than liquid-phase, non-recyclable base, and their use obviates downstream processing steps such as neutralization. Synthetic procedures for various transition-metal containing catalysts, detailed kinetics measurements using lignin model compounds, and results of the application of these catalysts to biomass-derived lignin will be presented.

  14. Eco-friendly Fibre from Recycled Polypropylene of Bottle Cap Waste and Lignin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soekoco, A. S.; Basuki, A.; Mardiyati

    2016-01-01

    Ecofriendly fibre is one of potential alternatives to fulfill the rising demand in textile material supply which is limited due to the decreasing reserve of oil. Large amount of polypropylene waste from bottle cap and lignin as a byproduct from pulp industry are potential solutions. Grinded polypropylene bottle cap was blended with lignin powder in concentration of 5 wt. % processed by melt spinning at 170° C temperature. The fibres produced have an average diameter 170 and 250 micrometres. In view of the mechanical properties. the tensile strength is 11.9 MPa for fibre with 170 micrometres diameter and 14.7 MPa for fibre with 250 micrometres diameter. Fibre surface morphology was further studied using micron microscope. and the result shows black flocks spread in the fibre. indicating that the lignin does not blend evenly.

  15. Insight into the solvent, temperature and time effects on the hydrogenolysis of hydrolyzed lignin.

    PubMed

    Shu, Riyang; Zhang, Qi; Ma, Longlong; Xu, Ying; Chen, Pengru; Wang, Chenguang; Wang, Tiejun

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the reaction mediums and conditions for producing high yield of valuable monomers from concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolyzed lignin. The solvent, temperature and time effects on the hydrogenolysis of hydrolyzed lignin were investigated under the catalysis of Pd/C and CrCl3. Supercritical methanol exhibits the best depolymerization performance, because of its unique diffusion, dissolution and acid-base properties. Afterwards, the influence of reaction temperature and time on depolymerization, repolymerization and coking during hydrogenolysis was examined in methanol. The high temperature is found to favor the depolymerization, with the β-O-4 linkages cleaved significantly. However, the repolymerization is promoted simultaneously, and a high amount of β-β groups form. These reactions are in constant competition with each other and the repolymerization is preferred at excessive high temperature, producing bulk char residues, that is coking. This study will provide a beneficial reference for the maximization of lignin waste valorization.

  16. Bio-based phenols and fuel production from catalytic microwave pyrolysis of lignin by activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Bu, Quan; Lei, Hanwu; Wang, Lu; Wei, Yi; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Xuesong; Liu, Yupeng; Yadavalli, Gayatri; Tang, Juming

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study is to explore catalytic microwave pyrolysis of lignin for renewable phenols and fuels using activated carbon (AC) as a catalyst. A central composite experimental design (CCD) was used to optimize the reaction condition. The effects of reaction temperature and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV, h(-1)) on product yields were investigated. GC/MS analysis showed that the main chemical compounds of bio-oils were phenols, guaiacols, hydrocarbons and esters, most of which were ranged from 71% to 87% of the bio-oils depending on different reaction conditions. Bio-oils with high concentrations of phenol (45% in the bio-oil) were obtained. The calorific value analysis revealed that the high heating values (HHV) of the lignin-derived biochars were from 20.4 to 24.5 MJ/kg in comparison with raw lignin (19 MJ/kg). The reaction mechanism of this process was analyzed.

  17. Cell wall lignin is polymerised by class III secretable plant peroxidases in Norway spruce.

    PubMed

    Fagerstedt, Kurt V; Kukkola, Eija M; Koistinen, Ville V T; Takahashi, Junko; Marjamaa, Kaisa

    2010-02-01

    Class III secretable plant peroxidases occur as a large family of genes in plants with many functions and probable redundancy. In this review we are concentrating on the evidence we have on the catalysis of lignin polymerization by class III plant peroxidases present in the apoplastic space in the xylem of trees. Some evidence exists on the specificity of peroxidase isozymes in lignin polymerization through substrate specificity studies, from antisense mutants in tobacco and poplar and from tissue and cell culture lines of Norway spruce (Picea abies) and Zinnia elegans. In addition, real time (RT-)PCR results have pointed out that many peroxidases have tissue specific expression patterns in Norway spruce. Through combining information on catalytic properties of the enzymes, on the expression patterns of the corresponding genes, and on the presence of monolignols and hydrogen peroxide in the apoplastic space, we can show that specific peroxidases catalyze lignin polymerization in the apoplastic space of Norway spruce xylem.

  18. Enhancing Signal Output and Avoiding BOD/Toxicity Combined Shock Interference by Operating a Microbial Fuel Cell Sensor with an Optimized Background Concentration of Organic Matter

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yong; Liang, Peng; Liu, Panpan; Bian, Yanhong; Miao, Bo; Sun, Xueliang; Zhang, Helan; Huang, Xia

    2016-01-01

    In the monitoring of pollutants in an aquatic environment, it is important to preserve water quality safety. Among the available analysis methods, the microbial fuel cell (MFC) sensor has recently been used as a sustainable and on-line electrochemical microbial biosensor for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and toxicity, respectively. However, the effect of the background organic matter concentration on toxicity monitoring when using an MFC sensor is not clear and there is no effective strategy available to avoid the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity. Thus, the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity was systematically studied in this experiment. The background organic matter concentration was optimized in this study and it should be fixed at a high level of oversaturation for maximizing the signal output when the current change (ΔI) is selected to correlate with the concentration of a toxic agent. When the inhibition ratio (IR) is selected, on the other hand, it should be fixed as low as possible near the detection limit for maximizing the signal output. At least two MFC sensors operated with high and low organic matter concentrations and a response chart generated from pre-experiment data were both required to make qualitative distinctions of the four types of combined shock caused by a sudden change in BOD and toxicity. PMID:27563887

  19. Enhancing Signal Output and Avoiding BOD/Toxicity Combined Shock Interference by Operating a Microbial Fuel Cell Sensor with an Optimized Background Concentration of Organic Matter.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong; Liang, Peng; Liu, Panpan; Bian, Yanhong; Miao, Bo; Sun, Xueliang; Zhang, Helan; Huang, Xia

    2016-08-24

    In the monitoring of pollutants in an aquatic environment, it is important to preserve water quality safety. Among the available analysis methods, the microbial fuel cell (MFC) sensor has recently been used as a sustainable and on-line electrochemical microbial biosensor for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and toxicity, respectively. However, the effect of the background organic matter concentration on toxicity monitoring when using an MFC sensor is not clear and there is no effective strategy available to avoid the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity. Thus, the signal interference by the combined shock of BOD and toxicity was systematically studied in this experiment. The background organic matter concentration was optimized in this study and it should be fixed at a high level of oversaturation for maximizing the signal output when the current change (ΔI) is selected to correlate with the concentration of a toxic agent. When the inhibition ratio (IR) is selected, on the other hand, it should be fixed as low as possible near the detection limit for maximizing the signal output. At least two MFC sensors operated with high and low organic matter concentrations and a response chart generated from pre-experiment data were both required to make qualitative distinctions of the four types of combined shock caused by a sudden change in BOD and toxicity.

  20. Mechanochemical Lignin-Mediated Strecker Reaction.

    PubMed

    Dabral, Saumya; Turberg, Mathias; Wanninger, Andrea; Bolm, Carsten; Hernández, José G

    2017-01-17

    A mechanochemical Strecker reaction involving a wide range of aldehydes (aromatic, heteroaromatic and aliphatic), amines, and KCN afforded a library of α-aminonitriles upon mechanical activation. This multicomponent process was efficiently activated by lignocellulosic biomass as additives. Particularly, commercially available Kraft lignin was found to be the best activator for the addition of cyanide to the in situ formed imines. A comparative study of the (31)P-NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) along with IR (Infrared) data analysis for the Kraft lignin and methylated Kraft lignin samples ascertained the importance of the free hydroxyl groups in the activation of the mechanochemical reaction. The solvent-free mechanochemical Strecker reaction was then coupled with a lactamization process leading to the formation of the N-benzylphthalimide (5a) and the isoindolinone derivative 6a.

  1. Fungal biodegradation and enzymatic modification of lignin

    PubMed Central

    Dashtban, Mehdi; Schraft, Heidi; Syed, Tarannum A.; Qin, Wensheng

    2010-01-01

    Lignin, the most abundant aromatic biopolymer on Earth, is extremely recalcitrant to degradation. By linking to both hemicellulose and cellulose, it creates a barrier to any solutions or enzymes and prevents the penetration of lignocellulolytic enzymes into the interior lignocellulosic structure. Some basidiomycetes white-rot fungi are able to degrade lignin efficiently using a combination of extracellular ligninolytic enzymes, organic acids, mediators and accessory enzymes. This review describes ligninolytic enzyme families produced by these fungi that are involved in wood decay processes, their molecular structures, biochemical properties and the mechanisms of action which render them attractive candidates in biotechnological applications. These enzymes include phenol oxidase (laccase) and heme peroxidases [lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and versatile peroxidase (VP)]. Accessory enzymes such as H2O2-generating oxidases and degradation mechanisms of plant cell-wall components in a non-enzymatic manner by production of free hydroxyl radicals (·OH) are also discussed. PMID:21968746

  2. Anaerobic biodegradation of the lignin and polysaccharide components of lignocellulose and synthetic lignin by sediment microflora

    SciTech Connect

    Benner, R.; Maccubbin, A.E.; Hodson, R.E.

    1984-05-01

    Specifically radiolabeled (/sup 14/C-lignin)lignocelluloses and (/sup 14/C-polysaccharide)lignocelluloses were prepared from a variety of marine and freshwater wetland plants including a grass, a sedge, a rush, and a hardwood. These (/sup 14/C)lignocellulose preparations and synthetic (/sup 14/C)lignin were incubated anaerobically with anoxic sediments collected from a salt marsh, a freshwater marsh, and a mangrove swamp. During long-term incubations lasting up to 300 days, the lignin and polysaccharide components of the lignocelluloses were slowly degraded anaerobically to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and /sup 14/CH/sub 4/. Lignocelluloses derived from herbaceous plants were degraded more rapidly than lignocellulose derived from the hardwood. After 294 days, 16.9% of the lignin component and 30.0% of the polysaccharide component of lignocellulose derived from the grass used (Spartina alterniflora) were degraded to gaseous end products. In contrast, after 246 days, only 1.5% of the lignin component and 4.1% of the polysaccharide component of lignocellulose derived from the hardwood used (Rhizophora mangle) were degraded to gaseous end products. Synthetic (/sup 14/C) lignin was degraded anaerobically faster than the lignin component of the hardwood lignocellulose; after 276 days 3.7% of the synthetic lignin was degraded to gaseous end products. Contrary to previous reports, these results demonstrate that lignin and lignified plant tissues are biodegradable in the absence of oxygen. Although lignocelluloses are recalcitrant to anaerobic biodegradation, rates of degradation measured in aquatic sediments are significant and have important implications for the biospheric cycling of carbon from these abundant biopolymers. 31 references.

  3. Lignin removal enhancement from prehydrolysis liquor of kraft-based dissolving pulp production by laccase-induced polymerization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Jahan, M Sarwar; Liu, Shanshan; Miao, Qingxian; Ni, Yonghao

    2014-07-01

    Lignin removal is essential for value-added utilization of hemicelluloses and acetic acid present in the prehydrolysis liquor (PHL) of a kraft-based hardwood dissolving pulp production. In this paper, a novel process concept, consisting of laccase-induced lignin polymerization, followed by filtration/flocculation, was developed to enhance the lignin removal. The results showed that the lignin removal increased from 11% to 46-61% at laccase concentration of 1-4 U mL(-1). The GPC results showed that the molecular weight of the lignin from the laccase treated PHL was increased by 160% in comparison with the original one. The subsequent flocculation using singular Poly-DADMAC system or dual polymer system of Poly-DADMAC/CPAM can further remove 10-15% lignin. The concentrations of hemicelluloses and acetic acid were negligibly affected during the laccase treatment, while flocculation caused 12-15% of total sugar loss. Additionally, the process incorporates this new concept into the kraft-based dissolving pulp production process was proposed.

  4. Selective Conversion of Biorefinery Lignin into Dicarboxylic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Ruoshui; Guo, Mond; Zhang, Xiao

    2014-02-01

    The emerging biomass-to-biofuel conversion industry has created an urgent need for identifying new applications for biorefinery lignin. This paper demonstrates a new route to producing dicarboxylic acids from biorefinery lignin through chalcopyrite-catalyzed oxidation in a highly selective process. Up to 95 % selectivity towards stable dicarboxylic acids was obtained for several types of biorefinery lignin and model compounds under mild, environmentally friendly reaction conditions. The findings from this study paved a new avenue to biorefinery lignin conversions and applications.

  5. The use of natural abundance stable isotopic ratios to indicate the presence of oxygen-containing chemical linkages between cellulose and lignin in plant cell walls.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Youping; Stuart-Williams, Hilary; Farquhar, Graham D; Hocart, Charles H

    2010-06-01

    Qualitative and quantitative understanding of the chemical linkages between the three major biochemical components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) of plant cell walls is crucial to the understanding of cell wall structure. Although there is convincing evidence for chemical bonds between hemicellulose and lignin and the absence of chemical bonds between hemicellulose and cellulose, there is no conclusive evidence for the presence of covalent bonds between cellulose and lignin. This is caused by the lack of selectivity of current GC/MS-, NMR- and IR-based methods for lignin characterisation as none of these techniques directly targets the possible ester and ether linkages between lignin and cellulose. We modified the widely-accepted "standard" three-step extraction method for isolating cellulose from plants by changing the order of the steps for hemicellulose and lignin removal (solubilisation with concentrated NaOH and oxidation with acetic acid-containing NaClO(2), respectively) so that cellulose and lignin could be isolated with the possible chemical bonds between them intact. These linkages were then cleaved with NaClO(2) reagent in aqueous media of contrasting (18)O/(16)O ratios. We produced cellulose with higher purity (a lower level of residual hemicellulose and no detectable lignin) than that produced by the "standard" method. Oxidative artefacts may potentially be introduced at the lignin removal stage; but testing showed this to be minimal. Cellulose samples isolated from processing plant-derived cellulose-lignin mixtures in media of contrasting (18)O/(16)O ratios were compared to provide the first quantitative evidence for the presence of oxygen-containing ester and ether bonds between cellulose and lignin in Zea mays leaves. However, no conclusive evidence for the presence or lack of similar bonds in Araucaria cunninghamii wood was obtained. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The comparative geochemistries of lignins and carbohydrates in an anoxic fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Susan E.; Hedges, John I.

    1988-01-01

    A reducing, varved sediment core and monthly (May-September) plankton and sediment trap samples from Saanich Inlet, B.C., Canada, were analyzed for their elemental, lignin and neutral sugar compositions. Total yields of lignin-derived phenols from both the sediment trap and core samples indicated less than 15% and 30%, respectively, of chemically recognizable vascular plant remains, derived predominantly from gymnosperm wood and nonwoody angiosperm tissues. The elevated vanillyl and syringyl acid/aldehyde ratios of this material compared to fresh plant material indicated that it suffered mild aerobic decomposition prior to introduction to the Inlet. Most of the remaining particular organic material was nitrogen-rich, carbohydrate-poor and apparently plankton-derived. Organic carbon, total nitrogen, and total neutral sugars and lignin phenols all exhibited decreasing concentrations with depth in a region of uniform varving (upper 15 cm) in the sediment core. All profiles exhibited particularly steep concentration decreases within the top 2 cm of sediment. First-order decay constants for all four chemical categories within the upper 14 cm of the core ranged between 0.1-0.2 yr -1. Neutral sugars were consistently the most reactive chemical class, accounting for roughly 15% of the total organic carbon turnover. Although lignin appeared to be degraded within the sediment core, this degradation was nonselective for different lignin types and did not lead to increased acid/aldehyde ratios as occur during aerobic lignin decomposition. Comparisons of the yields of individual neutral sugars from the sediment and sediment trap samples to those expected from the vascular plant component alone indicated that the vascular plant debris in the upper portion of the sediment core had lost a portion of its initial glucose, lyxose, and mannose. In contrast, rhamnose and fucose were produced by all samples in large excess of total yields expected for chemically intact vascular plant

  7. Polymer-grafted lignin surfactants prepared via reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Chetali; Washburn, Newell R

    2014-08-12

    Kraft lignin grafted with hydrophilic polymers has been prepared using reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization and investigated for use as a surfactant. In this preliminary study, polyacrylamide and poly(acrylic acid) were grafted from a lignin RAFT macroinitiator at average initiator site densities estimated to be 2 per particle and 17 per particle. The target degrees of polymerization were 50 and 100, but analysis of cleaved polyacrylamide was consistent with a higher average molecular weight, suggesting not all sites were able to participate in the polymerization. All materials were readily soluble in water, and dynamic light scattering data indicate polymer-grafted lignin coexisted in isolated and aggregated forms in aqueous media. The characteristic size was 15-20 nm at low concentrations, and aggregation appeared to be a stronger function of degree of polymerization than graft density. These species were surface active, reducing the surface tension to as low as 60 dyn/cm at 1 mg/mL, and a greater decrease was observed than for polymer-grafted silica nanoparticles, suggesting that the lignin core was also surface active. While these lignin surfactants were soluble in water, they were not soluble in hexanes. Thus, it was unexpected that water-in-oil emulsions formed in all surfactant compositions and solvent ratios tested, with average droplet sizes of 10-20 μm. However, although polymer-grafted lignin has structural features similar to nanoparticles used in Pickering emulsions, its interfacial behavior was qualitatively different. While at air-water interfaces, the hydrophilic grafts promote effective reductions in surface tension, we hypothesize that the low grafting density in these lignin surfactants favors partitioning into the hexanes side of the oil-water interface because collapsed conformations of the polymer grafts improve interfacial coverage and reduce water-hexanes interactions. We propose that polymer-grafted lignin

  8. Impact of the spatial resolution of satellite remote sensing sensors in the quantification of total suspended sediment concentration: A case study in turbid waters of Northern Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Fearns, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The impact of anthropogenic activities on coastal waters is a cause of concern because such activities add to the total suspended sediment (TSS) budget of the coastal waters, which have negative impacts on the coastal ecosystem. Satellite remote sensing provides a powerful tool in monitoring TSS concentration at high spatiotemporal resolution, but coastal managers should be mindful that the satellite-derived TSS concentrations are dependent on the satellite sensor’s radiometric properties, atmospheric correction approaches, the spatial resolution and the limitations of specific TSS algorithms. In this study, we investigated the impact of different spatial resolutions of satellite sensor on the quantification of TSS concentration in coastal waters of northern Western Australia. We quantified the TSS product derived from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Aqua, Landsat-8 Operational Land Image (OLI), and WorldView-2 (WV2) at native spatial resolutions of 250 m, 30 m and 2 m respectively and coarser spatial resolution (resampled up to 5 km) to quantify the impact of spatial resolution on the derived TSS product in different turbidity conditions. The results from the study show that in the waters of high turbidity and high spatial variability, the high spatial resolution WV2 sensor reported TSS concentration as high as 160 mg L-1 while the low spatial resolution MODIS-Aqua reported a maximum TSS concentration of 23.6 mg L-1. Degrading the spatial resolution of each satellite sensor for highly spatially variable turbid waters led to variability in the TSS concentrations of 114.46%, 304.68% and 38.2% for WV2, Landsat-8 OLI and MODIS-Aqua respectively. The implications of this work are particularly relevant in the situation of compliance monitoring where operations may be required to restrict TSS concentrations to a pre-defined limit. PMID:28380059

  9. Radical Nature of C-Lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Berstis, Laura; Elder, Thomas; Crowley, Michael; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-05-17

    The recently discovered lignin composed of caffeoyl alcohol monolignols or C-lignin is particularly intriguing given its homogeneous, linear polymeric structure and exclusive benzodioxane linkage between monomers. By virtue of this simplified chemistry, the potential emerges for improved valorization strategies with C-lignin relative to other natural heterogeneous lignins. To better understand caffeoyl alcohol polymers, we characterize the thermodynamics of the radical recombination dimerization reactions forming the benzodioxane linkage and the bond dissociation into radical monolignol products. These properties are also predicted for the cross-coupling of caffeoyl alcohol with the natural monolignols, coniferyl alcohol, sinapyl alcohol, and p-coumaryl alcohol, in anticipation of polymers potentially enabled by genetic modification. The average BDEs for the C-lignin benzodioxane $\\alpha$- and β-bonds are 56.5 and 63.4 kcal/mol, respectively, with similar enthalpies for heterodimers. The BDE of the $\\alpha$-bond within the benzodioxane linkage is consistently greater than that of the β-bond in all dimers of each stereochemical arrangement, explained by the ability the $\\alpha$-carbon radical generated to delocalize onto the adjacent phenyl ring. Relative thermodynamics of the heterodimers demonstrates that the substituents on the phenyl ring directly neighboring the bond coupling the monolignols more strongly impact the dimer bond strengths and product stability, compared to the substituents present on the terminal phenyl ring. Enthalpy comparisons furthermore demonstrate that the erythro stereochemical configurations of the benzodioxane bond are slightly less thermodynamically stable than the threo configurations. The overall differences in strength of bonds and reaction enthalpies between stereoisomers are generally found to be insignificant, supporting that postcoupling rearomatization is under kinetic control. Projecting the lowest-energy stereoisomer

  10. Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins

    DOEpatents

    Agblevor, Foster A.

    1998-01-01

    A process for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1-3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof.

  11. Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins

    DOEpatents

    Agblevor, F.A.

    1998-09-15

    A process is described for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400 C to about 600 C at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1--3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof. 16 figs.

  12. Radical Nature of C-Lignin

    DOE PAGES

    Berstis, Laura; Elder, Thomas; Crowley, Michael; ...

    2016-05-17

    The recently discovered lignin composed of caffeoyl alcohol monolignols or C-lignin is particularly intriguing given its homogeneous, linear polymeric structure and exclusive benzodioxane linkage between monomers. By virtue of this simplified chemistry, the potential emerges for improved valorization strategies with C-lignin relative to other natural heterogeneous lignins. To better understand caffeoyl alcohol polymers, we characterize the thermodynamics of the radical recombination dimerization reactions forming the benzodioxane linkage and the bond dissociation into radical monolignol products. These properties are also predicted for the cross-coupling of caffeoyl alcohol with the natural monolignols, coniferyl alcohol, sinapyl alcohol, and p-coumaryl alcohol, in anticipation of polymers potentially enabled by genetic modification. The average BDEs for the C-lignin benzodioxanemore » $$\\alpha$$- and β-bonds are 56.5 and 63.4 kcal/mol, respectively, with similar enthalpies for heterodimers. The BDE of the $$\\alpha$$-bond within the benzodioxane linkage is consistently greater than that of the β-bond in all dimers of each stereochemical arrangement, explained by the ability the $$\\alpha$$-carbon radical generated to delocalize onto the adjacent phenyl ring. Relative thermodynamics of the heterodimers demonstrates that the substituents on the phenyl ring directly neighboring the bond coupling the monolignols more strongly impact the dimer bond strengths and product stability, compared to the substituents present on the terminal phenyl ring. Enthalpy comparisons furthermore demonstrate that the erythro stereochemical configurations of the benzodioxane bond are slightly less thermodynamically stable than the threo configurations. The overall differences in strength of bonds and reaction enthalpies between stereoisomers are generally found to be insignificant, supporting that postcoupling rearomatization is under kinetic control. Projecting the lowest

  13. Process for producing phenolic compounds from lignins

    SciTech Connect

    Agblevor, F.A.

    1998-09-15

    A process is described for the production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds from lignins through the pyrolysis of the lignins in the presence of a strong base. In a preferred embodiment, potassium hydroxide is present in an amount of from about 0.1% to about 5% by weight, the pyrolysis temperature is from about 400 C to about 600 C at atmospheric pressure, and the time period for substantial completion of the reaction is from about 1--3 minutes. Examples of low molecular weight phenolic compounds produced include methoxyphenols, non-methoxylated phenols, and mixtures thereof. 16 figs.

  14. Radical Nature of C-Lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Berstis, Laura; Elder, Thomas; Crowley, Michael; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-05-17

    The recently discovered lignin composed of caffeoyl alcohol monolignols or C-lignin is particularly intriguing given its homogeneous, linear polymeric structure and exclusive benzodioxane linkage between monomers. By virtue of this simplified chemistry, the potential emerges for improved valorization strategies with C-lignin relative to other natural heterogeneous lignins. To better understand caffeoyl alcohol polymers, we characterize the thermodynamics of the radical recombination dimerization reactions forming the benzodioxane linkage and the bond dissociation into radical monolignol products. These properties are also predicted for the cross-coupling of caffeoyl alcohol with the natural monolignols, coniferyl alcohol, sinapyl alcohol, and p-coumaryl alcohol, in anticipation of polymers potentially enabled by genetic modification. The average BDEs for the C-lignin benzodioxane $\\alpha$- and β-bonds are 56.5 and 63.4 kcal/mol, respectively, with similar enthalpies for heterodimers. The BDE of the $\\alpha$-bond within the benzodioxane linkage is consistently greater than that of the β-bond in all dimers of each stereochemical arrangement, explained by the ability the $\\alpha$-carbon radical generated to delocalize onto the adjacent phenyl ring. Relative thermodynamics of the heterodimers demonstrates that the substituents on the phenyl ring directly neighboring the bond coupling the monolignols more strongly impact the dimer bond strengths and product stability, compared to the substituents present on the terminal phenyl ring. Enthalpy comparisons furthermore demonstrate that the erythro stereochemical configurations of the benzodioxane bond are slightly less thermodynamically stable than the threo configurations. The overall differences in strength of bonds and reaction enthalpies between stereoisomers are generally found to be insignificant, supporting that postcoupling rearomatization is under kinetic control. Projecting the lowest-energy stereoisomer

  15. Lignin removal and benzene-alcohol extraction effects on lignin measurements of the hydrothermal pretreated bamboo substrate.

    PubMed

    Ma, X J; Cao, S L; Yang, X F; Lin, L; Chen, L H; Huang, L L

    2014-01-01

    Lignin content of hydrothermal pretreated bamboo chips was determined by the two methods: TAPPI standard method (222om-06) and TAPPI standard method without benzene-alcohol extraction (BAE). The results showed that including BAE resulted in lower Klason lignin (KL) and acid soluble lignin (ASL) measurements in the prehydrolyzed substrate, that is to say, BAE removed parts of KL and ASL. Therefore, the TAPPI standard method should be modified by omitting the BAE for lignin measurements of pretreated substrate. The following lignin removal analysis suggested that lignin was removed from the bamboo substrate during pretreatment by a combination of degradation reaction and deconstruction; thereafter the pseudo lignin generated in the hydrothermal pretreatment and condensation reaction between the lignin fragments accounted for the later KL increase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Flocculation of high purity wheat straw soda lignin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flocculant action on lignocellulose mixtures has been studied, but flocculant action on purified sulfur-free lignin has not been reported. In the last step of the industrial process, the purified lignin solution is acidified with sulfuric acid which causes the lignin to become insoluble. The feasi...

  17. Plant lignin content altered by soil microbial community.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Alison E; Grussu, Dominic; Kam, Jason; Caul, Sandra; Halpin, Claire

    2015-04-01

    Questions have been raised in various fields of research about the consequences of plants with modified lignin production. As a result of their roles in nutrient cycling and plant diversity, plant-soil interactions should be a major focus of ecological studies on lignin-modified plants. However, most studies have been decomposition studies conducted in a single soil or in sterile soil. Thus, we understand little about plant-soil interactions in living lignin-modified plants. In lignin mutants of three different barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars and their corresponding wild-types associated with three different soil microbial communities, we asked: do plant-soil microbiome interactions influence the lignin content of plants?; does a mutation in lignin production alter the outcome of plant-soil microbiome interactions?; does the outcome of plant-soil microbiome interactions depend on host genotype or the presence of a mutation altering lignin production? In roots, the soil community explained 6% of the variation in lignin content, but, in shoots, the soil community explained 21% of the variation in lignin content and was the only factor influencing lignin content. Neither genotype nor mutations in lignin production explained associations with fungi. Lignin content changes in response to a plant's soil microbial community, and may be a defensive response to particular components of the soil community.

  18. Genetics and chemistry of lignin degradation by Streptomyces

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Our research goal was to define the involvement of lignin peroxidases and other extracellular enzymes in lignin degradation by Streptomyces. We examined the biochemistry and genetics of lignin degrading enzyme production by several strains of Streptomyces. The lignin peroxidase ALiP-P3 of S. viridosporus was characterized kinetically and its activity optimized for oxidation of 2,4-dichlorophenol and vanillyl-acetone. Sensitive spectrophotometric assays were developed for monitoring oxidation of these substrates. ALiP-P3 reaction chemistry was examined using both spectrophotometric assays and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Results showed that the enzyme oxidizes phenolic lignin substructure models in strong preference to nonphenolic ones. The peroxidase was also shown to depolymerize native lignin. We also cloned the ALip-P3 gene S. lividans in plasmid vector pIJ702. The cloned gene was partially sequenced, We also immunologically characterized the lignin peroxidase of S. viridosporus T7A and showed it to be structurally related to peroxidases produced by other lignin-solubilizing Streptomyces, but not the the H8 lignin peroxidase of P. chrysosporium. Studies with peroxidase deficient mutants of strain T7A showed that lignin peroxidases of S. viridosporus are directly involved in the solubilization of lignin. Additional research showed that other enzymes are also probably involved in lignin solubilization, possibly including extracellular esterases.

  19. Structure and radical scavenging activity relationships of pyrolytic lignins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This work deals with antioxidant properties of pyrolytic lignins against two free radicals, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and the 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid). Pyrolytic lignins produced by the thermal pyrolysis of the Etek lignin were extracted from the liquid pyrolysi...

  20. Genetic engineering of syringyl-enriched lignin in plants

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Vincent Lee; Li, Laigeng

    2004-11-02

    The present invention relates to a novel DNA sequence, which encodes a previously unidentified lignin biosynthetic pathway enzyme, sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD) that regulates the biosynthesis of syringyl lignin in plants. Also provided are methods for incorporating this novel SAD gene sequence or substantially similar sequences into a plant genome for genetic engineering of syringyl-enriched lignin in plants.

  1. Lignin-Based Electrospun Nanofibers Reinforced with Cellulose Nanocrystals

    Treesearch

    Mariko Ago; Kunihiko Okajima; Joseph E. Jakes; Park Sunkyu; Orlando J. Rojas

    2012-01-01

    Lignin-based fibers were produced by electrospinning aqueous dispersions of lignin, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs). Defect-free nanofibers with up to 90 wt % lignin and 15% CNCs were achieved. The properties of the aqueous dispersions, including viscosity, electrical conductivity, and surface tension, were examined and correlated to the...

  2. Sub-Surface Carbon Dioxide Concentration Measurement Using a Fiber Based Sensor in a Call/Return Geometry for Carbon Sequestration Site Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wicks, G. R.; Soukup, B.; Repasky, K. S.; Carlsten, J.; Barr, J. L.; Dobeck, L.

    2010-12-01

    Geologic carbon sequestration is a means to mitigate the increasing atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) by capturing the CO2 at a source such as a power generation facility and storing the captured CO2 in geologic formations. Many technologic advances will need to occur for successful carbon sequestration including near surface monitoring tools and techniques to ensure site integrity and public safety. Researchers at Montana State University (MSU) are developing a scalable fiber sensor array in a call/return configuration for monitoring near sub-surface CO2 concentrations. The low cost fiber sensor array being developed at MSU for sub-surface CO2 detection for monitoring carbon sequestration sites will utilize a series of fiber probes connected to a two detectors and a 1 x N fiber switch that can direct the light to one of N fiber probes. The fiber sensor array will utilize a single tunable distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser with a center wavelength of 2.004 μm to access CO2 absorption features. The output from the DFB laser is incident on an inline fiber splitter that directs part of the light to a reference detector while the remaining light is directed to a fiber probe where the laser light interacts with the CO2. The light from the fiber probe is directed back through the switch and is incident on a transmission detector. The transmission as a function of wavelength is measured and a CO2 concentration is calculated. The fiber sensor array can easily be reconfigured by simply moving the fiber probes. Low cost is achieved by using inexpensive passive components in the fiber probes while limiting the number of the more expensive components including the DFB laser, the two detectors, and the single fiber switch. The fiber sensor was tested over a thirty day period at the Zero Emission Research Technology (ZERT) facility that was developed for testing surface and near surface carbon sequestration monitoring instrumentation using a controlled

  3. Effects of N-ammonoxidized lignins amendment on N availability and soil fertility: An incubation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    María De la Rosa, José; López-Martín, María; Liebner, Falk; Knicker, Heike

    2013-04-01

    The shift towards a biobased economy will probably generate the application of bioenergy by-products and charred residues to the soil as either amendments or fertilizers. The process of ammonoxidation (application of gaseous oxygen and aqueous ammonia under ambient pressure breaks down aromatic lignin moieties and introduces N in the form of urea, amides and amines), converts lignin, a major by-product of the pulp and paper industry, or other ligneous materials into artificial humic matter (N-lignin). The use of N-ammonoxidized lignin as soil improvers is in theory an economically viable solution, especially interesting for agricultural areas of Mediterranean countries, in which additional factors such as water shortage and fires contribute to declining N availability by lowering nutrient diffusion, litter input or sequestration of N in charred structures. However, limited research has been done to determine how this will influence C and N dynamics and soil fertility. Therefore we performed pot experiments in which a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) was grown on a typical Andalusian soil (chromic Luvisol) after amendment of N-lignins highly enriched in 15N (Sarkanda and Indulin ammonoxidized lignins) for 75 days. For comparison, the incubation was also carried out on soils fertilized with 15NO3 and unfertilized (control). The application of ammonoxidized lignins altered the pH and electrical conductivity of the soil. At higher concentrations a retardation of seed germination was evidenced, an observation that needs further considerations before N-enriched technical lignins can be applied in agriculture. After 75 days, the plant shoots from the pots amended with15N-Indulin and 15N-Sarkanda accumulated 8% and 20%, respectively of the initial 15N (15N0). The N was efficiently sequestered from fast release or leaching and most of 15N0 remained in the soil (64%) in the 15N-Indulin pots. In contrast, the 15N-Sarkanda pots showed a lower efficiency in the N

  4. Extracellular Enzyme Production and Synthetic Lignin Mineralization by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora

    PubMed Central

    Rüttimann-Johnson, Carmen; Salas, Loreto; Vicuña, Rafael; Kirk, T. Kent

    1993-01-01

    The ability of the white rot fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora to mineralize 14C-synthetic lignin was studied under different culture conditions, and the levels of two extracellular enzymes were monitored. The highest mineralization rates (28% after 28 days) were obtained in cultures containing a growth-limiting amount of nitrogen source (1.0 mM ammonium tartrate); under this condition, the levels of manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase present in the culture supernatant solutions were very low compared with cultures containing 10 mM of the nitrogen source. In contrast, cultures containing a limiting concentration of the carbon source (0.1% glucose) showed low levels of both enzymes and also very low mineralization rates compared with cultures containing 1% glucose. Cultures containing 11 ppm of Mn(II) showed a higher rate of mineralization than those containing 0.3 or 40 ppm of this cation. Levels of MnP and laccase were higher when 40 ppm of Mn(II) was used. Mineralization rates were slightly higher in cultures flushed daily with oxygen, whereas laccase levels were lower and MnP levels were approximately the same as in cultures maintained under an air atmosphere. The presence of 0.4 mM veratryl alcohol reduced both mineralization rates and MnP levels, without affecting laccase levels. Lignin peroxidase activity was not detected under any condition. Addition of purified lignin peroxidase to the cultures in the presence or absence of veratryl alcohol did not enhance mineralization rates significantly. PMID:16348955

  5. TREATMENT OF A PENTACHLOROPHENOL AND CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL USING THE LIGNIN-DEGRADING FUNGUS PHANERO- CHAETE SORDIDA: A FIELD DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of large-scale fungal bioaugmentation was evaluated by assessing the ability of the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete sordida to decrease the soil concentrations of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 13 priority pollutant polynuclear aromatic (PNA) creosote component...

  6. TREATMENT OF A PENTACHLOROPHENOL AND CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL USING THE LIGNIN-DEGRADING FUNGUS PHANERO- CHAETE SORDIDA: A FIELD DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of large-scale fungal bioaugmentation was evaluated by assessing the ability of the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete sordida to decrease the soil concentrations of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 13 priority pollutant polynuclear aromatic (PNA) creosote component...

  7. Characteristics of the Fiber Laser Sensor System Based on Etched-Bragg Grating Sensing Probe for Determination of the Low Nitrate Concentration in Water

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Thanh Binh; Bui, Huy; Le, Huu Thang; Pham, Van Hoi

    2016-01-01

    The necessity of environmental protection has stimulated the development of many kinds of methods allowing the determination of different pollutants in the natural environment, including methods for determining nitrate in source water. In this paper, the characteristics of an etched fiber Bragg grating (e-FBG) sensing probe—which integrated in fiber laser structure—are studied by numerical simulation and experiment. The proposed sensor is demonstrated for determination of the low nitrate concentration in a water environment. Experimental results show that this sensor could determine nitrate in water samples at a low concentration range of 0–80 ppm with good repeatability, rapid response, and average sensitivity of 3.5 × 10−3 nm/ppm with the detection limit of 3 ppm. The e-FBG sensing probe integrated in fiber laser demonstrates many advantages, such as a high resolution for wavelength shift identification, high optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR of 40 dB), narrow bandwidth of 0.02 nm that enhanced accuracy and precision of wavelength peak measurement, and capability for optical remote sensing. The obtained results suggested that the proposed e-FBG sensor has a large potential for the determination of low nitrate concentrations in water in outdoor field work. PMID:28025512

  8. Estimation of the particle concentration in hydraulic liquid by the in-line automatic particle counter based on the CMOS image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilin, Dmitriy V.; Kudryavtsev, Ilya A.; McMillan, Alison J.; Osanlou, Ardeshir; Ratcliffe, Ian

    2017-06-01

    Modern hydraulic systems should be monitored on the regular basis. One of the most effective ways to address this task is utilizing in-line automatic particle counters (APC) built inside of the system. The measurement of particle concentration in hydraulic liquid by APC is crucial because increasing numbers of particles should mean functional problems. Existing automatic particle counters have significant limitation for the precise measurement of relatively low concentration of particle in aerospace systems or they are unable to measure higher concentration in industrial ones. Both issues can be addressed by implementation of the CMOS image sensor instead of single photodiode used in the most of APC. CMOS image sensor helps to overcome the problem of the errors in volume measurement caused by inequality of particle speed inside of tube. Correction is based on the determination of the particle position and parabolic velocity distribution profile. Proposed algorithms are also suitable for reducing the errors related to the particles matches in measurement volume. The results of simulation show that the accuracy increased up to 90 per cent and the resolution improved ten times more compared to the single photodiode sensor.

  9. Characteristics of the Fiber Laser Sensor System Based on Etched-Bragg Grating Sensing Probe for Determination of the Low Nitrate Concentration in Water.

    PubMed

    Pham, Thanh Binh; Bui, Huy; Le, Huu Thang; Pham, Van Hoi

    2016-12-22

    The necessity of environmental protection has stimulated the development of many kinds of methods allowing the determination of different pollutants in the natural environment, including methods for determining nitrate in source water. In this paper, the characteristics of an etched fiber Bragg grating (e-FBG) sensing probe-which integrated in fiber laser structure-are studied by numerical simulation and experiment. The proposed sensor is demonstrated for determination of the low nitrate concentration in a water environment. Experimental results show that this sensor could determine nitrate in water samples at a low concentration range of 0-80 ppm with good repeatability, rapid response, and average sensitivity of 3.5 × 10(-3) nm/ppm with the detection limit of 3 ppm. The e-FBG sensing probe integrated in fiber laser demonstrates many advantages, such as a high resolution for wavelength shift identification, high optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR of 40 dB), narrow bandwidth of 0.02 nm that enhanced accuracy and precision of wavelength peak measurement, and capability for optical remote sensing. The obtained results suggested that the proposed e-FBG sensor has a large potential for the determination of low nitrate concentrations in water in outdoor field work.

  10. Spatio-temporal measurement of indoor particulate matter concentrations using a wireless network of low-cost sensors in households using solid fuels.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sameer; Li, Jiayu; Pandey, Apoorva; Pervez, Shamsh; Chakrabarty, Rajan K; Biswas, Pratim

    2017-01-01

    Many households use solid fuels for cooking and heating purposes. There is currently a knowledge gap in our understanding of the variations in indoor air quality throughout the household as most of the studies focus on the areas in the close proximity of the cookstove. A low-cost wireless particulate matter (PM) sensor network was developed and deployed in households in Raipur, India to establish the spatio-temporal variation of PM concentrations. The data from multiple sensors were acquired in real-time with a wireless system. Data collected from the sensors agreed well (R(2) =0.713) with the reference data collected from a commercially available instrument. Low spatial variability was observed within the kitchen due to its small size and poor ventilation - a common feature of most rural Indian kitchens. Due to insufficient ventilation from open doors and windows, high PM concentrations similar to those found in the kitchen were also found in the adjoining rooms. The same household showed significantly different post-extinguished cookstove PM concentration decay rates (0.26mg/m(3)-min and 0.87mg/m(3)-min) on different days, owing to varying natural air exchange rates (7.68m(3)/min and 37.40m(3)/min).

  11. Lignin-based Phenol-Formalehyde Resins from Purified CO2 Precipitated Kraft Lignin (PCO2KL)

    Treesearch

    Yao Chen; Charles R. Frihart; Zhiyong Cai; Linda F. Lorenz; Nicole M. Stark

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the potential for using purified CO2-precipitated Kraft lignin (PCO2KL) with phenol-formaldehyde (PF) for application as an adhesive in plywood production, two lignin replacement procedures were examined to assess lignin’s effect on bond quality. Methylolation and oxidation with hydrogen peroxide (H

  12. Lignin-based Phenol-Formaldehyde Resins from Purified CO2 Precipitated Kraft lignin (PCO2KL)

    Treesearch

    Yao Chen; Charles R. Frihart; Zhiyong Cai; Linda F. Lorenz; Nicole M. Stark

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the potential for using purified CO2-precipitated Kraft lignin (PCO2KL) with phenol-formaldehyde (PF) for application as an adhesive in plywood production, two lignin replacement procedures were examined to assess lignin’s effect on bond quality. Methylolation and oxidation with hydrogen peroxide (H

  13. Measurement of Near-Surface Carbon Dioxide Concentrations with an Open-Path Tunable Diode Laser Sensor and a Non-Dispersive Infrared Sensor at the Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research Site near Fairbanks, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, D. M.; Caine, K. M.; Miller, J. H. H.

    2016-12-01

    Continuous collection of carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations is imperative in understanding seasonal and inter-annual variability of carbon feedbacks above thawing permafrost. Permafrost makes up one-quarter of the Earth's terrestrial surface and has the potential to release twice the amount of carbon than is currently in the atmosphere if global temperatures continue to increase. A collaborative effort with the University of Alaska - Fairbanks, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, and our group at George Washington University is underway to monitor these feedbacks near Fairbanks, Alaska. In June 2016, we deployed an open-path tunable diode laser sensor along with a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) sensor at the Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research Site as an exploratory study for their use in collecting near-surface CO2 concentrations above thawing permafrost. The open-path instrument (OPI) collected spatially-integrated measurements approximately 1.5 meters above the surface of a young thermokarst bog over a 15-day period whereas the NDIR sensor collected localized measurements 1 meter above the surface for 16 days. Near-continuous measurements were achieved with the NDIR sensor which was limited only by the availability of solar-produced power. The OPI measurements were further limited by maintaining laser alignment under changing environmental conditions. However, the campaign achieved a nearly 80% duty cycle for the entire test period. Here we compare both the localized and spatially-integrated carbon dioxide measurements and their observed diurnal concentration cycles, whose magnitude showed a strong dependence on daily weather at the test site.

  14. Identifying New Lignin Bioengineering Targets: 1. Monolignol Substitute Impacts on Lignin Formation and Cell Wall Fermentability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Recent discoveries highlighting the metabolic malleability of plant lignification indicate that lignin can be engineered to dramatically alter its composition and properties. Current plant engineering efforts are primarily aimed at manipulating the biosynthesis of normal monolignols but,...

  15. Identifying New Lignin Bioengineering Targets: Monolignol Substitute Impacts on Lignin Formation and Cell Wall Utilization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent discoveries highlighting the metabolic malleability of plant lignification indicate that lignin can be engineered to dramatically alter its composition and properties. Current plant engineering efforts are primarily aimed at manipulating the biosynthesis of normal monolignols, but in the futu...

  16. Propensity of lignin to associate: light scattering photometry study with native lignins.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Sofía; Gaspar, Armindo R; Guerra, Anderson; Lucia, Lucian A; Argyropoulos, Dimitris S

    2008-12-01

    Many studies of lignins in solution invoke association and aggregation phenomena to explain their solution behavior (e.g., reprecipitation onto pulp fibers, condensation, etc.). Following their colloidal (apparent) molecular weights in solution as a function of time allows us to explore observable dissociation phenomena. These measurements were carried out using multiple angle laser light scattering (MALLS) photometry in the static mode. The challenges and opportunities of measuring the specific refractive index increment (dn/dC) of lignin solutions and determining the kinetics of the dissociation process were thus investigated. Hardwood and softwood representative lignins were isolated, and method for their full dissolution in THF was further developed, which then lead to accurate dn/dC values being obtained as a function of time. When coupled to additional work using light scattering static measurements and Zimm plots for the same solutions, this effort offers insight into the aggregation and ensuing dissociative events that operate within the lignin macromolecules.

  17. Interactions between Cellulolytic Enzymes with Native, Autohydrolysis, and Technical Lignins and the Effect of a Polysorbate Amphiphile in Reducing Nonproductive Binding.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Consuelo; Ferrer, Ana; Salas, Carlos; Jameel, Hasan; Rojas, Orlando J

    2015-12-14

    Understanding enzyme-substrate interactions is critical in designing strategies for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass. In this study we monitored molecular events, in situ and in real time, including the adsorption and desorption of cellulolytic enzymes on lignins and cellulose, by using quartz crystal microgravimetry and surface plasmon resonance. The effect of a nonionic surface active molecule was also elucidated. Three lignin substrates relevant to the sugar platform in biorefinery efforts were considered, namely, hardwood autohydrolysis cellulolytic (HWAH), hardwood native cellulolytic (MPCEL), and nonwood native cellulolytic (WSCEL) lignin. In addition, Kraft lignins derived from softwoods (SWK) and hardwoods (HWK) were used as references. The results indicated a high affinity between the lignins with both, monocomponent and multicomponent enzymes. More importantly, the addition of nonionic surfactants at concentrations above their critical micelle concentration reduced remarkably (by over 90%) the nonproductive interactions between the cellulolytic enzymes and the lignins. This effect was hypothesized to be a consequence of the balance of hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions. Moreover, the reduction of surface roughness and increased wettability of lignin surfaces upon surfactant treatment contributed to a lower affinity with the enzymes. Conformational changes of cellulases were observed upon their adsorption on lignin carrying preadsorbed surfactant. Weak electrostatic interactions were determined in aqueous media at pH between 4.8 and 5.5 for the native cellulolytic lignins (MPCEL and WSCEL), whereby a ∼20% reduction in the enzyme affinity was observed. This was mainly explained by electrostatic interactions (osmotic pressure effects) between charged lignins and cellulases. Noteworthy, adsorption of nonionic surfactants onto cellulose, in the form cellulose nanofibrils, did not affect its hydrolytic conversion. Overall, our results

  18. Fiber optic Raman sensor to monitor the concentration ratio of nitrogen and oxygen in a cryogenic mixture.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vidhu S; Kalluru, Rajamohan R; Yueh, Fang Y; Singh, Jagdish P; Cyr, William St; Khijwania, Sunil K

    2007-06-01

    A spontaneous Raman scattering optical fiber sensor was developed for a specific need of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for long-term detection and monitoring of the purity of liquid oxygen (LO(2)) in the oxidizer feed line during ground testing of rocket engines. The Raman peak intensity ratios for liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) and LO(2) with varied weight ratios (LN(2)/LO(2)) were analyzed for their applicability to impurity sensing. The study of the sensor performance with different excitation light sources has helped to design a miniaturized, cost-effective system for this application. The optimal system response time of this miniaturized sensor for LN(2)/LO(2) measurement was found to be in the range of a few seconds. It will need to be further reduced to the millisecond range for real-time, quantitative monitoring of the quality of cryogenic fluids in a harsh environment.

  19. Study of Halitosis-Substance Sensing at Low Concentration Using an Electrochemical Sensor Array Combined with a Preconcentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaya, Yosuke; Nakamoto, Takamichi

    A method for quantitative detection and discrimination of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) using an electrochemical sensor array combined with a preconcentrator was proposed. Halitosis is due to VSCs produced by bacterial metabolism inside the oral cavity. An organoleptic test is typically performed by a dental clinician for the assessment of halitosis, although it is a subjective test. Thus, an objective evaluation of halitosis is required. In this study, it was possible to discriminate among the VSCs such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH), and dimethyl sulfide ((CH3)2S) over the range of 200ppb to 1000ppb. Moreover, mixture of two VSC vapors (H2S and CH3SH) at various mixing ratios were measured. The results indicated that the sensor responses to mixed samples satisfied the linear superposition. The mixture compositions of VSCs were almost correctly obtained from the sensor responses using partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis.

  20. Lignin-blocking treatment of biomass and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Bin [Hanover, NH; Wyman, Charles E [Norwich, VT

    2009-10-20

    Disclosed is a method for converting cellulose in a lignocellulosic biomass. The method provides for a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein treatment of high lignin solids. The treatment enhances cellulase availability in cellulose conversion. Cellulase efficiencies are improved by the protein or polypeptide treatment. The treatment may be used in combination with steam explosion and acid prehydrolysis techniques. Hydrolysis yields from lignin containing biomass are enhanced 5-20%, and enzyme utilization is increased from 10% to 50%. Thus, a more efficient and economical method of processing lignin containing biomass materials utilizes a polypeptide/protein treatment step that effectively blocks lignin binding of cellulase.

  1. Accelerated solvent extraction of lignin from Aleurites moluccana (Candlenut) nutshells.

    PubMed

    Klein, Andrew P; Beach, Evan S; Emerson, John W; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2010-09-22

    Lignin from candlenut shells was isolated using an ethanol-water accelerated solvent extraction method. Yields (based on Klason lignin) increased from about 14 to 33% as temperature increased from 100 to 195 °C and were also influenced by the amount of aqueous acid used to precipitate lignin from the extraction liquor. These yields were higher than could be obtained using a conventional dioxane-water acidolysis method. The resulting lignin was characterized by IR, 31P NMR, and 1H-13C HMQC NMR spectroscopic techniques. The lignin contained predominantly guaiacyl units, and both the total hydroxyl group content and phenolic hydroxyl group content were high.

  2. 21 CFR 573.600 - Lignin sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) For the purpose of this section, the food additive... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lignin sulfonates. 573.600 Section 573.600 Food...

  3. 21 CFR 573.600 - Lignin sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) For the purpose of this section, the food additive... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lignin sulfonates. 573.600 Section 573.600 Food...

  4. 21 CFR 573.600 - Lignin sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) For the purpose of this section, the food additive... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lignin sulfonates. 573.600 Section 573.600 Food...

  5. Naturally p-Hydroxybenzoylated Lignins in Palms

    Treesearch

    Fachuang Lu; Steven D. Karlen; Matt Regner; Hoon Kim; Sally A. Ralph; Run-Cang Sun; Ken-ichi Kuroda; Mary Ann Augustin; Raymond Mawson; Henry Sabarez; Tanoj Singh; Gerardo Jimenez-Monteon; Sarani Zakaria; Stefan Hill; Philip J. Harris; Wout Boerjan; Curtis G. Wilkerson; Shawn D. Mansfield; John Ralph

    2015-01-01

    The industrial production of palm oil concurrently generates a substantial amount of empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibers that could be used as a feedstock in a lignocellulose based biorefinery. Lignin byproducts generated by this process may offer opportunities for the isolation of value-added products, such as p-hydroxybenzoate (pBz),...

  6. Kinetic Model Development for Lignin Pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.; Robichaud, D.; Nimlos, M.

    2012-01-01

    Lignin pyrolysis poses a significant barrier to the formation of liquid fuel products from biomass. Lignin pyrolyzes at higher temperatures than other biomass components (e.g. cellulose and hemi-cellulose) and tends to form radicals species that lead to cross-linking and ultimately char formation. A first step in the advancement of biomass-to-fuel technology is to discover the underlying mechanisms that lead to the breakdown of lignin at lower temperatures into more stable and usable products. We have investigated the thermochemistry of the various inter-linkage units found in lignin (B-O4, a-O4, B-B, B-O5, etc) using electronic structure calculations at the M06-2x/6-311++G(d,p) on a series of dimer model compounds. In addition to bond homolysis reactions, a variety of concerted elimination pathways are under investigation that tend to produce closed-shell stable products. Such a bottom-up approach could aid in the targeted development of catalysts that produce more desirable products under less severe reactor conditions.

  7. Nylon biodegradation by lignin-degrading fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Deguchi, T; Kakezawa, M; Nishida, T

    1997-01-01

    The biodegradation of nylon by lignin-degrading fungi was investigated. The fungus IZU-154 significantly degraded nylon-66 membrane under ligninolytic conditions. Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis showed that four end groups, CHO, NHCHO, CH3, and CONH2, were formed in the biodegraded nylon-66 membranes, suggesting that nylon-66 was degraded oxidatively. PMID:8979361

  8. Modified kraft lignin for bioremediation applications.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Diva A Simões; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Evtuguin, Dmitry V

    2012-01-01

    Kraft lignin (KL) from industrial pulping of E. globulus wood was subjected to the oxidative modification with the aim to produce sorbent mimicking humic matter for the bioremediation purposes. Lignin was oxidized by polyoxometalate Na(5)[PMo(10)V(2)O(40)] (POM), solely or in the presence of laccase, under pre-selected aerobic conditions (50-60°C, 1-2h, oxygen pressure 5 bar). The most pronounced lignin oxidation without its depolymerisation was observed in the reaction system POM/O(2). Modified lignins possessed increased amounts of COOH (up to 15 %) and CO (up to 500 %) groups, when compared to unmodified KL, and significantly higher molecular weights. Sorption capacity of KL before and after modification towards transition metals (cadmium (II) and mercury (II)) and triazine pesticide (atrazine) was assessed in batch experiments under equilibrium conditions. KL oxidation improved sorption capacity towards transition metals (up to 15 %) but not necessarily the uptake of atrazine that was higher for unmodified KL.

  9. Environmental economics of lignin derived transport fuels.

    PubMed

    Obydenkova, Svetlana V; Kouris, Panos D; Hensen, Emiel J M; Heeres, Hero J; Boot, Michael D

    2017-11-01

    This paper explores the environmental and economic aspects of fast pyrolytic conversion of lignin, obtained from 2G ethanol plants, to transport fuels for both the marine and automotive markets. Various scenarios are explored, pertaining to aggregation of lignin from several sites, alternative energy carries to replace lignin, transport modalities, and allocation methodology. The results highlight two critical factors that ultimately determine the economic and/or environmental fuel viability. The first factor, the logistics scheme, exhibited the disadvantage of the centralized approach, owing to prohibitively expensive transportation costs of the low energy-dense lignin. Life cycle analysis (LCA) displayed the second critical factor related to alternative energy carrier selection. Natural gas (NG) chosen over additional biomass boosts well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions (WTW GHG) to a level incompatible with the reduction targets set by the U.S. renewable fuel standard (RFS). Adversely, the process' economics revealed higher profits vs. fossil energy carrier. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Enzymology and molecular biology of lignin degradation

    Treesearch

    D. Cullen; P.J. Kersten

    2004-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the physiology and genetics of lignin degradation by white rot basidiomycetes. Emphasis is on recent advances and the reader is referred to earlier comprehensive reviews for historical perspective and background (Kirk and Farrell 1987; Gold and Alic 1993; Higuchi 1993; Cullen and Kersten 1996; Cullen 1997). Recent completion of a...

  11. Flash vacuum pyrolysis of lignin model compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Cooney, M.J.; Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III

    1997-03-01

    Despite the extensive research into the pyrolysis of lignin, the underlying chemical reactions that lead to product formation are poorly understood. Detailed mechanistic studies on the pyrolysis of biomass and lignin under conditions relevant to current process conditions could provide insight into utilizing this renewable resource for the production of chemicals and fuel. Currently, flash or fast pyrolysis is the most promising process to maximize the yields of liquid products (up to 80 wt %) from biomass by rapidly heating the substrate to moderate temperatures, typically 500{degrees}C, for short residence times, typically less than two seconds. To provide mechanistic insight into the primary reaction pathways under process relevant conditions, we are investigating the flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of lignin model compounds that contain a {beta}-ether. linkage and {alpha}- or {gamma}-alcohol, which are key structural elements in lignin. The dominant products from the FVP of PhCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OPh (PPE), PhC(OH)HCH{sub 2}OPh, and PhCH{sub 2}CH(CH{sub 2}OH)OPh at 500{degrees}C can be attributed to homolysis of the weakest bond in the molecule (C-O bond) or 1,2-elimination. Surprisingly, the hydroxy-substituent dramatically increases the decomposition of PPE. It is proposed that internal hydrogen bonding is accelerating the reaction.

  12. An Integrated Instrumentation System for Velocity, Concentration and Mass Flow Rate Measurement of Solid Particles Based on Electrostatic and Capacitance Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Kong, Ming; Xu, Chuanlong; Wang, Shimin; Fan, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The online and continuous measurement of velocity, concentration and mass flow rate of pneumatically conveyed solid particles for the high-efficiency utilization of energy and raw materials has become increasingly significant. In this paper, an integrated instrumentation system for the velocity, concentration and mass flow rate measurement of dense phase pneumatically conveyed solid particles based on electrostatic and capacitance sensorsis developed. The electrostatic sensors are used for particle mean velocity measurement in combination with the cross-correlation technique, while the capacitance sensor with helical surface-plate electrodes, which has relatively homogeneous sensitivity distribution, is employed for the measurement of particle concentration and its capacitance is measured by an electrostatic-immune AC-based circuit. The solid mass flow rate can be further calculated from the measured velocity and concentration. The developed instrumentation system for velocity and concentration measurement is verified and calibrated on a pulley rig and through static experiments, respectively. Finally the system is evaluated with glass beads on a gravity-fed rig. The experimental results demonstrate that the system is capable of the accurate solid mass flow rate measurement, and the relative error is within −3%–8% for glass bead mass flow rates ranging from 0.13 kg/s to 0.9 kg/s. PMID:26690434

  13. An Integrated Instrumentation System for Velocity, Concentration and Mass Flow Rate Measurement of Solid Particles Based on Electrostatic and Capacitance Sensors.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Kong, Ming; Xu, Chuanlong; Wang, Shimin; Fan, Ying

    2015-12-10

    The online and continuous measurement of velocity, concentration and mass flow rate of pneumatically conveyed solid particles for the high-efficiency utilization of energy and raw materials has become increasingly significant. In this paper, an integrated instrumentation system for the velocity, concentration and mass flow rate measurement of dense phase pneumatically conveyed solid particles based on electrostatic and capacitance sensorsis developed. The electrostatic sensors are used for particle mean velocity measurement in combination with the cross-correlation technique, while the capacitance sensor with helical surface-plate electrodes, which has relatively homogeneous sensitivity distribution, is employed for the measurement of particle concentration and its capacitance is measured by an electrostatic-immune AC-based circuit. The solid mass flow rate can be further calculated from the measured velocity and concentration. The developed instrumentation system for velocity and concentration measurement is verified and calibrated on a pulley rig and through static experiments, respectively. Finally the system is evaluated with glass beads on a gravity-fed rig. The experimental results demonstrate that the system is capable of the accurate solid mass flow rate measurement, and the relative error is within -3%-8% for glass bead mass flow rates ranging from 0.13 kg/s to 0.9 kg/s.

  14. Export of Dissolved Lignin from Coastal Wetlands to the Louisiana Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, T. S.; Dimarco, S. F.; Smith, R. W.; Schreiner, K. M.

    2008-12-01

    Here we report on spatial and temporal changes in the concentration and composition of dissolved lignin- phenols in surface and bottom waters off the Louisiana coast (USA). Samples were collected at 7 stations on 2 cruises (April, and July, 2008) along a transect that spanned from inside Terrebonne Bay, Louisiana (12 m water depth) to the outer-most station on the inner Louisiana shelf (21 m water depth). The highest average concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved lignin, during both cruises, occurred at the interface between Terrebonne Bay and the inner shelf. Average DOC and dissolved lignin concentrations were significantly higher in April than in July across most stations. Based on hydrologic data, these higher concentrations clearly reflect a combined mixing of DOM from plume waters to the west and local marsh inputs. The cinnamyl/vanillyl (C/V) and syringyl/vanillyl (S/V) ratios indicated that the predominant source of lignin was from non-woody angiosperms - likely the dominant species of wetland plants Spartina alterniflora and S. patens (Spartina spp.) that border the entire bay. The high vanillic acid to vanillin (Ad/Al)v ratios for all stations were typical of that found near estuarine boundaries, where biologically- and photochemically-mediated lignin decay processes are important. This preliminary data indicates that wetlands provide another source of dissolved organic matter (DOM) to the Louisiana shelf that likely contributes to microbial food resources and hence hypoxia, especially in the context of the instability and extensive erosion of these marshes over the past ca. 50 years. This has important implications for the current management plan to reduce hypoxia in the GOM, particularly in those regions that extend west of the nutrient-rich highly productive near-field zones of Atchafalaya-Mississippi river plumes.

  15. Separation characteristics of lignin from Eucalyptus camaldulensis lignin celluloses for biomedical cellulose.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wanxi; Wang, Lansheng; Zhang, Minglong; Lin, Zhi

    2014-05-01

    The separation characteristics of Eucalyptus camaldulensis biomass cell wall were investigated and analyzed by FTIR, UV and XRD. The result showed that the crystallinity of untreated sample were lower than ones of treated samples at 10° C, 20° C and 30° C. Effect of temperature was very notable so as to use the lower temperature if cellulose would be kept natural structure during lignin separation from lignincellulose. Treatment time and temperature had a notably significant effect on SLR of E. camaldulensis lignin cellulose, and the SLR increased gradually with the temperature increment, and SLR were 73.35% at 10° C, 80.14% at 20° C, 83.73% at 30° C. The maximum of SLR increased with the rising of temperature 10° C, 20° C and 30° C. Consequently, the best separation conditions of lignin were 24h and 30° C. During hemicelluloses separation, the peak of C=O disappeared, and the peak of CO-OR, O-H and C-O abated, resulting that acetyl in hemicelluloses were mainly broken by the dehydration, heat decomposition reaction and mild thermal degradation. During lignin separation, the side chain and benzene ring of lignin of E. urophynis lignin cellulose reached the largest bond breaking characteristics under the temperature of 10° C at 7h, 20° C at 7h and 30° C at 24h.

  16. Computational Mechanistic Studies of Acid-Catalyzed Lignin Model Dimers for Lignin Depolymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.; Sturgeon, M. R.; Chmely, S. C.; Paton, R. S.; Beckham, G. T.

    2013-01-01

    Lignin is a heterogeneous alkyl-aromatic polymer that constitutes up to 30% of plant cell walls, and is used for water transport, structure, and defense. The highly irregular and heterogeneous structure of lignin presents a major obstacle in the development of strategies for its deconstruction and upgrading. Here we present mechanistic studies of the acid-catalyzed cleavage of lignin aryl-ether linkages, combining both experimental studies and quantum chemical calculations. Quantum mechanical calculations provide a detailed interpretation of reaction mechanisms including possible intermediates and transition states. Solvent effects on the hydrolysis reactions were incorporated through the use of a conductor-like polarizable continuum model (CPCM) and with cluster models including explicit water molecules in the first solvation shell. Reaction pathways were computed for four lignin model dimers including 2-phenoxy-phenylethanol (PPE), 1-(para-hydroxyphenyl)-2-phenoxy-ethanol (HPPE), 2-phenoxy-phenyl-1,3-propanediol (PPPD), and 1-(para-hydroxyphenyl)-2-phenoxy-1,3-propanediol (HPPPD). Lignin model dimers with a para-hydroxyphenyl ether (HPPE and HPPPD) show substantial differences in reactivity relative to the phenyl ether compound (PPE and PPPD) which have been clarified theoretically and experimentally. The significance of these results for acid deconstruction of lignin in plant cell walls will be discussed.

  17. Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Expression Analysis of Lignin Genes from Sugarcane Genotypes Varying in Lignin Content.

    PubMed

    Kasirajan, Lakshmi; Aruchamy, Kalaivaani; Thirugnanasambandam, Prathima P; Athiappan, Selvi

    2017-04-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is one of the highest biomass-producing plant and the best lignocellulosic feedstock for ethanol production. To achieve more efficient conversion of biomass to ethanol, a better understanding of the main factors affecting biomass recalcitrance is needed. Therefore, with this objective, here, we report a systematic study on lignin content, deposition, identification, and cloning of genes involved in lignin biosynthesis and their differential expression in five sugarcane clones, EC11003, EC11010, IK 76-91, IK 76-99, and Co 86032. Lignin content among the clones varied from 26.87 to 23.19 % with the highest in the clone EC11010 and the lowest in high sugar Co86032. Lignin deposition studied through phloroglucinol staining of the cell walls implied that the sclerenchyma cells of the energy canes (EC11010 and EC11003) have more lignin deposition followed by the Erianthus (IK 76-91 and IK 76-99) clones whereas Co86032 has the minimum amount of lignin deposition. We cloned partial coding regions of important genes of lignification COMT (650 bp), CCR (332 bp), and PAL (650 bp) from Erianthus, wild relative of sugarcane followed by the expression analysis through real-time PCR. Differential expression analysis showed high level of expression for the three genes in the energy cane EC11010.

  18. Phoma herbarum, a soil fungus able to grow on natural lignin and synthetic lignin (DHP) as sole carbon source and cause lignin degradation.

    PubMed

    Bi, Ran; Lawoko, Martin; Henriksson, Gunnar

    2016-08-01

    The fungus Phoma herbarum isolated from soil showed growth on highly pure lignin extracted from spruce wood and on synthetic lignin (DHP). The lignin remaining after cultivation was shown to have a lower molecular weight. The reduction in the numbers of ether linkages of the extracted lignins was also observed by derivatization followed by reductive cleavage (DFRC) in combination with (31)P NMR studies. The fungal strain showed an ability to degrade synthetic lignin by extracellular catalysts. GC-MS was applied to study the evolution of low molar mass adducts, e.g., monolignols and it was shown that a reduced coniferyl alcohol product was produced from DHP in a cell-free environment. The work has demonstrated the ability of soil microbes to grow on lignin as sole carbon source. The potential impact is in the production of low molar mass renewable phenols for material application.

  19. Fractionation of bagasse into cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin with ionic liquid treatment followed by alkaline extraction.

    PubMed

    Lan, Wu; Liu, Chuan-Fu; Sun, Run-Cang

    2011-08-24

    Lignocellulose materials are potentially valuable resources for transformation into biofuels and bioproducts. However, their complicated structures make it difficult to fractionate them into cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, which limits their utilization and economical conversion into value-added products. This study proposes a novel and feasible fractionation method based on complete dissolution of bagasse in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C(4)mim]Cl) followed by precipitation in acetone/water (9:1, v/v) and extraction with 3% NaOH solution. The ionic liquid [C(4)mim]Cl was easily recycled after concentration and treatment with acetonitrile. (1)H NMR analysis confirmed that there was no obvious difference between the recycled [C(4)mim]Cl and fresh material. Bagasse was fractionated with this method to 36.78% cellulose, 26.04% hemicelluloses, and 10.51% lignin, accounting for 47.17 and 33.85% of the original polysaccharides and 54.62% of the original lignin, respectively. The physicochemical properties of the isolated fractions were characterized by chemical analysis, high-performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and (1)H and 2D (13)C-(1)H correlation (HSQC) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results showed that the acetone-soluble lignin and alkaline lignin fractions had structures similar to those of milled wood lignin (MWL). The easy extraction of the noncellulose components from homogeneous bagasse solution and amorphous regenerated materials resulted in the relatively high purity of cellulosic fraction (>92%). The hemicellulosic fraction was mainly 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronoxylans with some α-L-arabinofuranosyl units substituted at C-2 and C-3.

  20. Bisphenol-A sensors on polyimide fabricated by laser direct writing for on-site river water monitoring at attomolar concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Shutong; Wu, Jayne; Yu, Yongchao; Li, Ruozhou; Eda, Shigetoshi; Feng, Guoying; Chen, Jiangang; Lawrie, Benjamin J.; Hu, Anming

    2016-06-28

    This work presents an aptamer-based, highly sensitive and specific sensor for atto- to femtomolar level detection of bisphenol A (BPA). Because of its widespread use in numerous products, BPA enters surface water from effluent discharges during its manufacture, use, and from waste landfill sites throughout the world. On-site measurement of BPA concentrations in water is important for evaluating compliance with water quality standards or environmental risk levels of the harmful compound in the environment. The sensor in this work is porous, conducting, interdigitated electrodes that are formed by laser-induced carbonization of flexible polyimide sheets. BPA-specific aptamer is immobilized on the electrodes as the probe, and its binding with BPA at the electrode surface is detected by capacitive sensing. The binding process is aided by ac electroosmotic effect that accelerates the transport of BPA molecules to the nanoporous graphene-like structured electrodes. The sensor achieved a limit of detection of 58.28 aM with a response time of 20 s. The sensor is further applied for recovery analysis of BPA spiked in surface water. In conclusion, this work provides an affordable platform for highly sensitive, real time, and field-deployable BPA surveillance critical to the evaluation of the ecological impact of BPA exposure.

  1. Bisphenol-A sensors on polyimide fabricated by laser direct writing for on-site river water monitoring at attomolar concentration

    DOE PAGES

    Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Shutong; Wu, Jayne; ...

    2016-06-28

    This work presents an aptamer-based, highly sensitive and specific sensor for atto- to femtomolar level detection of bisphenol A (BPA). Because of its widespread use in numerous products, BPA enters surface water from effluent discharges during its manufacture, use, and from waste landfill sites throughout the world. On-site measurement of BPA concentrations in water is important for evaluating compliance with water quality standards or environmental risk levels of the harmful compound in the environment. The sensor in this work is porous, conducting, interdigitated electrodes that are formed by laser-induced carbonization of flexible polyimide sheets. BPA-specific aptamer is immobilized on themore » electrodes as the probe, and its binding with BPA at the electrode surface is detected by capacitive sensing. The binding process is aided by ac electroosmotic effect that accelerates the transport of BPA molecules to the nanoporous graphene-like structured electrodes. The sensor achieved a limit of detection of 58.28 aM with a response time of 20 s. The sensor is further applied for recovery analysis of BPA spiked in surface water. In conclusion, this work provides an affordable platform for highly sensitive, real time, and field-deployable BPA surveillance critical to the evaluation of the ecological impact of BPA exposure.« less

  2. Bisphenol-A sensors on polyimide fabricated by laser direct writing for on-site river water monitoring at attomolar concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Shutong; Wu, Jayne; Yu, Yongchao; Li, Ruozhou; Eda, Shigetoshi; Feng, Guoying; Chen, Jiangang; Lawrie, Benjamin J.; Hu, Anming

    2016-06-28

    This work presents an aptamer-based, highly sensitive and specific sensor for atto- to femtomolar level detection of bisphenol A (BPA). Because of its widespread use in numerous products, BPA enters surface water from effluent discharges during its manufacture, use, and from waste landfill sites throughout the world. On-site measurement of BPA concentrations in water is important for evaluating compliance with water quality standards or environmental risk levels of the harmful compound in the environment. The sensor in this work is porous, conducting, interdigitated electrodes that are formed by laser-induced carbonization of flexible polyimide sheets. BPA-specific aptamer is immobilized on the electrodes as the probe, and its binding with BPA at the electrode surface is detected by capacitive sensing. The binding process is aided by ac electroosmotic effect that accelerates the transport of BPA molecules to the nanoporous graphene-like structured electrodes. The sensor achieved a limit of detection of 58.28 aM with a response time of 20 s. The sensor is further applied for recovery analysis of BPA spiked in surface water. In conclusion, this work provides an affordable platform for highly sensitive, real time, and field-deployable BPA surveillance critical to the evaluation of the ecological impact of BPA exposure.

  3. Discovery of 12-mer peptides that bind to wood lignin

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Asako; Isozaki, Katsuhiro; Nakamura, Masaharu; Takaya, Hikaru; Watanabe, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Lignin, an abundant terrestrial polymer, is the only large-volume renewable feedstock composed of an aromatic skeleton. Lignin has been used mostly as an energy source during paper production; however, recent interest in replacing fossil fuels with renewable resources has highlighted its potential value in providing aromatic chemicals. Highly selective degradation of lignin is pivotal for industrial production of paper, biofuels, chemicals, and materials. However, few studies have examined natural and synthetic molecular components recognizing the heterogeneous aromatic polymer. Here, we report the first identification of lignin-binding peptides possessing characteristic sequences using a phage display technique. The consensus sequence HFPSP was found in several lignin-binding peptides, and the outer amino acid sequence affected the binding affinity of the peptides. Substitution of phenylalanine7 with Ile in the lignin-binding peptide C416 (HFPSPIFQRHSH) decreased the affinity of the peptide for softwood lignin without changing its affinity for hardwood lignin, indicating that C416 recognised structural differences between the lignins. Circular dichroism spectroscopy demonstrated that this peptide adopted a highly flexible random coil structure, allowing key residues to be appropriately arranged in relation to the binding site in lignin. These results provide a useful platform for designing synthetic and biological catalysts selectively bind to lignin. PMID:26903196

  4. Improvement of polypropylene (PP)-modified bitumen through lignin addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuanita, E.; Hendrasetyawan, B. E.; Firdaus, D. F.; Chalid, M.

    2017-07-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is usually added to bitumen to improve its mechanical properties, however, both of them have different chemical properties. To achieve best mechanical properties of the mixture, coupling agent such as lignin is importantly required. Lignin is an amorphous biopolymer, has bipolar characteristic due to its distinct chemical function which has carbonyl, carboxyl, hydroxyl and phenol chemical function. Otherwise, bitumen and PP have polar and non-polar characteristic, respectively. In the previous research, it is found that lignin is potential to be used as coupling agent. In order to confirm the potential of lignin as a coupling agent, there are various compounds of lignin on PP-bitumen mixtures used in this research. This experiment consists of several stages, ranging from sample preparation, characterization of raw materials, mixing, and characterization of the PP-Modified Bitumen. This experiment used hot melt mixing to mix lignin, PP, and bitumen. The result of this experimental was analyzed by using FTIR and FESEM. The addition of lignin make Polymer Modified Bitumen (PMB) getting better mixing and increase mechanical properties. Furthermore, FESEM characterization indicated that the addition of lignin gave better mixing of PP-Bitumen. FTIR showed a new chemical structure due to the addition of lignin. From this experiment, the addition of lignin can improve mixing between PP and Bitumen. So, we can use lignin as coupling agent.

  5. Discovery of 12-mer peptides that bind to wood lignin.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Asako; Isozaki, Katsuhiro; Nakamura, Masaharu; Takaya, Hikaru; Watanabe, Takashi

    2016-02-23

    Lignin, an abundant terrestrial polymer, is the only large-volume renewable feedstock composed of an aromatic skeleton. Lignin has been used mostly as an energy source during paper production; however, recent interest in replacing fossil fuels with renewable resources has highlighted its potential value in providing aromatic chemicals. Highly selective degradation of lignin is pivotal for industrial production of paper, biofuels, chemicals, and materials. However, few studies have examined natural and synthetic molecular components recognizing the heterogeneous aromatic polymer. Here, we report the first identification of lignin-binding peptides possessing characteristic sequences using a phage display technique. The consensus sequence HFPSP was found in several lignin-binding peptides, and the outer amino acid sequence affected the binding affinity of the peptides. Substitution of phenylalanine7 with Ile in the lignin-binding peptide C416 (HFPSPIFQRHSH) decreased the affinity of the peptide for softwood lignin without changing its affinity for hardwood lignin, indicating that C416 recognised structural differences between the lignins. Circular dichroism spectroscopy demonstrated that this peptide adopted a highly flexible random coil structure, allowing key residues to be appropriately arranged in relation to the binding site in lignin. These results provide a useful platform for designing synthetic and biological catalysts selectively bind to lignin.

  6. Cellulose and lignin biosynthesis is altered by ozone in wood of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × alba).

    PubMed

    Richet, Nicolas; Afif, Dany; Huber, Françoise; Pollet, Brigitte; Banvoy, Jacques; El Zein, Rana; Lapierre, Catherine; Dizengremel, Pierre; Perré, Patrick; Cabané, Mireille

    2011-06-01

    Wood formation in trees is a dynamic process that is strongly affected by environmental factors. However, the impact of ozone on wood is poorly documented. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of ozone on wood formation by focusing on the two major wood components, cellulose and lignin, and analysing any anatomical modifications. Young hybrid poplars (Populus tremula × alba) were cultivated under different ozone concentrations (50, 100, 200, and 300 l l(-1)). As upright poplars usually develop tension wood in a non-set pattern, the trees were bent in order to induce tension wood formation on the upper side of the stem and normal or opposite wood on the lower side. Biosynthesis of cellulose and lignin (enzymes and RNA levels), together with cambial growth, decreased in response to ozone exposure. The cellulose to lignin ratio was reduced, suggesting that cellulose biosynthesis was more affected than that of lignin. Tension wood was generally more altered than opposite wood, especially at the anatomical level. Tension wood may be more susceptible to reduced carbon allocation to the stems under ozone exposure. These results suggested a coordinated regulation of cellulose and lignin deposition to sustain mechanical strength under ozone. The modifications of the cellulose to lignin ratio and wood anatomy could allow the tree to maintain radial growth while minimizing carbon cost.

  7. Phyto-availability and speciation change of heavy metals in soils amended with lignin as micro-fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Songxue; Zhang, Shuzhen; Shan, Xiaoquan; Mu, Huanzhen

    2005-05-01

    Lignin is a primary byproduct from the black liquor treatment in paper making industries, its application as micro-fertilizer in agricultural land might provide a promising alternative to sewage discharge. However, application of such a micro-fertilizer might affect the soil properties and result in soil pollution. In this study, the effects of lignin application on phyto-availability and speciation change of heavy metals in soils were investigated. Greenhouse experiments showed that lignin application improved the growth of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in all three soils investigated. The increase of the biomass for wheat shoot was 59.7%, 39.8% and 12.3% for Beijing soil, Jiangxi soil and Dongbei soil, respectively. In contrast, lignin amendment decreased the concentrations of heavy metals in wheat shoots from 2.2% to 61.0%. Sequential extraction procedure of a three-step BCR was used to investigate the fraction distribution. The extractable fractions were specified as fraction B1: water soluble, exchangeable and carbonate bound or weakly specifically adsorbed; B2: Fe-Mn oxide bound; B3: organic matter and sulfide bound. The results showed that lignin application led to the redistribution of heavy metals in each fraction. Generally, heavy metals decreased in B1 and B2 fractions and increased in B3 fraction. Upon the results short-term application of lignin in agricultural land not only improves the growth of wheat but also reduces the phyto-abailability of heavy metal in wheat.

  8. Cellulose and lignin biosynthesis is altered by ozone in wood of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula×alba)

    PubMed Central

    Richet, Nicolas; Afif, Dany; Huber, Françoise; Pollet, Brigitte; Banvoy, Jacques; El Zein, Rana; Lapierre, Catherine; Dizengremel, Pierre; Perré, Patrick; Cabané, Mireille

    2011-01-01

    Wood formation in trees is a dynamic process that is strongly affected by environmental factors. However, the impact of ozone on wood is poorly documented. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of ozone on wood formation by focusing on the two major wood components, cellulose and lignin, and analysing any anatomical modifications. Young hybrid poplars (Populus tremula×alba) were cultivated under different ozone concentrations (50, 100, 200, and 300 nl l−1). As upright poplars usually develop tension wood in a non-set pattern, the trees were bent in order to induce tension wood formation on the upper side of the stem and normal or opposite wood on the lower side. Biosynthesis of cellulose and lignin (enzymes and RNA levels), together with cambial growth, decreased in response to ozone exposure. The cellulose to lignin ratio was reduced, suggesting that cellulose biosynthesis was more affected than that of lignin. Tension wood was generally more altered than opposite wood, especially at the anatomical level. Tension wood may be more susceptible to reduced carbon allocation to the stems under ozone exposure. These results suggested a coordinated regulation of cellulose and lignin deposition to sustain mechanical strength under ozone. The modifications of the cellulose to lignin ratio and wood anatomy could allow the tree to maintain radial growth while minimizing carbon cost. PMID:21357770

  9. Isolation of a bacterium capable of degrading peanut hull lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, T.A.; Kerr, R.D.; Benner, R.

    1983-11-01

    Thirty-seven bacterial strains capable of degrading peanut hull lignin were isolated by using four types of lignin preparations and hot-water-extracted peanut hulls. One of the isolates, tentatively identified as Arthrobacter species, was capable of utilizing all four lignin preparations as well as extracted peanut hulls as a sole source of carbon. The bacterium was also capable of degrading specifically labeled (/sup 14/C) lignin-labeled lignocellulose and (/sup 14/C)cellulose-labeled lignocellulose from the cordgrass Spartina alterniflora and could also degrade (/sup 14/C) Kraft lignin from slash pine. After 10 days of incubation with (/sup 14/C) cellulose-labeled lignocellulose or (/sup 14/C) lignin-labeled lignocellulose from S. alterniflora, the bacterium mineralized 6.5% of the polysaccharide component and 2.9% of the lignin component. (Refs. 24).

  10. Isolation of a Bacterium Capable of Degrading Peanut Hull Lignin

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Thomas J.; Kerr, Robert D.; Benner, Ronald

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-seven bacterial strains capable of degrading peanut hull lignin were isolated by using four types of lignin preparations and hot-water-extracted peanut hulls. One of the isolates, tentatively identified as Arthrobacter sp., was capable of utilizing all four lignin preparations as well as extracted peanut hulls as a sole source of carbon. The bacterium was also capable of degrading specifically labeled [14C]lignin-labeled lignocellulose and [14C]cellulose-labeled lignocellulose from the cordgrass Spartina alterniflora and could also degrade [14C]Kraft lignin from slash pine. After 10 days of incubation with [14C]cellulose-labeled lignocellulose or [14C]lignin-labeled lignocellulose from S. alterniflora, the bacterium mineralized 6.5% of the polysaccharide component and 2.9% of the lignin component. Images PMID:16346424

  11. Specific lignin accumulation in granulated juice sacs of Citrus maxima.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia-Ling; Pan, Teng-Fei; Guo, Zhi-Xiong; Pan, Dong-Ming

    2014-12-17

    Juice sac granulation occurring in pummelo fruits [Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.] is an undesirable trait, and the underlying mechanism remains unresolved. Previous studies have shown that lignin metabolism is closely associated with the process of juice sac granulation. Here, a method suitable for lignin isolation from pummelo tissues is established. Acetylated lignins from different pummelo tissues and cultivars were analyzed by HSQC NMR. The results showed that lignins in granulated juice sacs were characterized by an extremely high abundance of guaiacyl units (91.13-96.82%), in contrast to lignins from other tissues, including leaves, stems, and segment membranes. The abnormally accumulated lignins in granulated juice sacs were specific and mainly polymerized from coniferyl alcohol. No significant difference was found in lignin types among various cultivars. These findings indicated that the mechanism of juice sac granulation might be similar among various cultivars, although very different degrees of juice sac granulation can be observed.

  12. Method for recovering and using lignin in adhesive resins

    DOEpatents

    Schroeder, Herbert A.

    1993-01-01

    Lignin, or a lignin derived material, which has been significantly demethylated (e.g., the demethylated lignin found in the raffinate produced as a by-product of dimethyl sulfide production which can be carried out using the spent liquor from wood pulping operations) can be isolated by a process wherein an organic solvent is added to a lignin-containing aqueous solution. The organic solvent is typically a polar, and at least a partially water-immiscible substance such as, for example, ethyl acetate. The resulting lignin-containing aqueous solution/organic solvent mixture is acidified to produce a water layer which is discarded and an organic solvent layer which contains the demethylated lignin. Upon its recovery, the demethylated lignin is dissolved in an alkaline solution to which an aldehyde source is added to produce a resol-type resin. The aldehyde source may be formaldehyde in solution, paraformaldehyde, hexamethylenetetramine, or other aldehydes including acetaldehyde, furfural, and their derivatives.

  13. Analytical pyrolysis of hardwood and softwood lignins and its use in lignin-type determination of hardwood vessel elements

    SciTech Connect

    Obst, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Pyrolysis, GC and mass spectrometry were performed on milled wood lignins and wood samples. Among the major pyrolysis products identified from loblolly pine lignin were: guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, 4-vinylguaiacol, vanillin, coniferaldehyde and coniferyl alcohol. White oak lignin pyrolysis products included: guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, vanillin, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, 4-methyl-2,6-dimethoxyphenol, syringaldehyde and sinapaldehyde. By the identification of pyrolysis products it is thus possible to classify lignins as either guaiacyl-type or syringyl/guaiacyl-type. Pyrolysis of isolated vessel elements from white oak, white birch (Betula papyrifera) and American elm (Ulmus americana) indicated that vessel lignin is of the syringyl/guaiacyl type. 14 references.

  14. Chemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1991-07-02

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed. The sensors comprise a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment. They are operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response. 9 figures.

  15. Production of polyols via direct hydrolysis of kraft lignin: effect of process parameters.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Nubla; Yuan, Zhongshun; Schmidt, John; Charles Xu, Chunbao

    2013-07-01

    Kraft lignin (KL) was successfully depolymerized into polyols of moderately high hydroxyl number and yield with moderately low weight-average molecular weight (Mw) via direct hydrolysis using NaOH as a catalyst, without any organic solvent/capping agent. The effects of process parameters including reaction temperature, reaction time, NaOH/lignin ratio (w/w) and substrate concentration were investigated and the polyols/depolymerized lignins (DLs) obtained were characterized with GPC-UV, FTIR-ATR, (1)H NMR, Elemental & TOC analyzer. The best operating conditions appeared to be at 250°C, 1h, and NaOH/lignin ratio ≈0.28 with 20 wt.% substrate concentration, leading to <0.5% solid residues and ∼92% yield of DL (aliphatic-hydroxyl number ≈352 mg KOH/mg and Mw≈3310 g/mole), suitable for replacement of polyols in polyurethane foam synthesis. The overall % carbon recovery under the above best conditions was ∼90%. A higher temperature favored reduced Mw of the polyols while a longer reaction time promoted dehydration/condensation reactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Location and characterization of lignin in tracheid cell walls of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) compression woods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Miao; Lapierre, Catherine; Nouxman, Noor Liyana; Nieuwoudt, Michel K; Smith, Bronwen G; Chavan, Ramesh R; McArdle, Brian H; Harris, Philip J

    2017-09-01

    Tilted stems of softwoods form compression wood (CW) and opposite wood (OW) on their lower and upper sides, respectively. More is known about the most severe form of CW, severe CW (SCW), but mild CWs (MCWs) also occur widely. Two grades of MCWs, MCW1 and MCW2, as well as SCW and OW were identified in the stems of radiata pine (Pinus radiata) that had been slightly tilted. The four wood types were identified by the distribution of lignin in the tracheid walls determined by fluorescence microscopy. A solution of the fluorescent dye acridine orange (AO) (0.02% at pH 6 or 7) was shown to metachromatically stain the tracheid walls and can also be used to determine lignin distribution. The lignified walls fluoresced orange to yellow depending on the lignin concentration. Microscopically well-characterized discs (0.5 mm diameter) of the wood types were used to determine lignin concentrations and lignin monomer compositions using the acetyl bromide method and thioacidolysis, respectively. Lignin concentration and the proportion of p-hydroxyphenyl units (H-units) relative to guaiacyl (G-units) increased with CW severity, with <1% H-units in OW and up to 14% in SCW. Lignin H-units can be used as a marker for CW and CW severity. Similar discs were also examined by Raman and FTIR micro-spectroscopies coupled with principal component analysis (PCA) to determine if these techniques can be used to differentiate the four different wood types. Both techniques were able to do this, particularly Raman micro-spectroscopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Fluorescent Dye-doped Sol-gel Sensor for Highly Sensitive Carbon Dioxide Gas Detection below Atmospheric Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Dansby-Sparks, Royce N.; Jin, Jun; Mechery, Shelly J; Sampathkumaran, Uma; Owens, Thomas W; Yu, Bi Dan; Goswami, Kisholoy; Hong, Kunlun; Grant, Joseph; Xue, Ziling {nmn}

    2009-01-01

    Optical fluorescence sol-gel sensors have been developed for the detection of carbon dioxide gas in the 0.03?30% range with a detection limit of 0.008% (or 80 ppm) and a quantitation limit of 0.02% (or 200 ppm) CO{sub 2}. Sol?gels were spin-coated on glass slides to create an organically modified silica-doped matrix with the 1-hydroxypyrene-3,6,8-trisulfonate (HPTS) fluorescent indicator. The luminescence intensity of the HPTS indicator (513 nm) is quenched by CO{sub 2}, which protonates the anionic form of HPTS. An ion pair technique was used to incorporate the lipophilic dye into the hydrophilic sol?gel matrix. TiO{sub 2} particles (<5 {mu}m diameter) were added to induce Mie scattering and increase the incident light interaction with the sensing film, thus increasing the signal-to-noise ratio. Moisture-proof overcoatings have been used to maintain a constant level of water inside the sensor films. The optical sensors are inexpensive to prepare and can be easily coupled to fiber optics for remote sensing capabilities. A fiber-optic bundle was used for the gas detection and shown to work as part of a multianalyte platform for simultaneous detection of multiple analytes. The studies reported here resulted in the development of sol?gel optical fluorescent sensors for CO{sub 2} gas with sensitivity below that in the atmosphere (ca. 387 ppm). These sensors are a complementary approach to current FT-IR measurements for real-time carbon dioxide detection in environmental applications.

  18. Fluorescent-dye-doped sol-gel sensor for highly sensitive carbon dioxide gas detection below atmospheric concentrations.

    PubMed

    Dansby-Sparks, Royce N; Jin, Jun; Mechery, Shelly J; Sampathkumaran, Uma; Owen, Thomas William; Yu, Bi Dan; Goswami, Kisholoy; Hong, Kunlun; Grant, Joseph; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2010-01-15

    Optical fluorescence sol-gel sensors have been developed for the detection of carbon dioxide gas in the 0.03-30% range with a detection limit of 0.008% (or 80 ppm) and a quantitation limit of 0.02% (or 200 ppm) CO(2). Sol-gels were spin-coated on glass slides to create an organically modified silica-doped matrix with the 1-hydroxypyrene-3,6,8-trisulfonate (HPTS) fluorescent indicator. The luminescence intensity of the HPTS indicator (513 nm) is quenched by CO(2), which protonates the anionic form of HPTS. An ion pair technique was used to incorporate the lipophilic dye into the hydrophilic sol-gel matrix. TiO(2) particles (<5 microm diameter) were added to induce Mie scattering and increase the incident light interaction with the sensing film, thus increasing the signal-to-noise ratio. Moisture-proof overcoatings have been used to maintain a constant level of water inside the sensor films. The optical sensors are inexpensive to prepare and can be easily coupled to fiber optics for remote sensing capabilities. A fiber-optic bundle was used for the gas detection and shown to work as part of a multianalyte platform for simultaneous detection of multiple analytes. The studies reported here resulted in the development of sol-gel optical fluorescent sensors for CO(2) gas with sensitivity below that in the atmosphere (ca. 387 ppm). These sensors are a complementary approach to current FT-IR measurements for real-time carbon dioxide detection in environmental applications.

  19. Ethanol and lignin production from Brazilian empty fruit bunch biomass.

    PubMed

    Raman, Jegannathan Kenthorai; Gnansounou, Edgard

    2014-11-01

    Brazil Government is promoting palm plantations to use degraded land for biofuels. Palm production is expected to increase 35 per cent in future and there would be profuse biomass available that needs to be handled efficiently. Therefore, in this study the potential of EFB from Brazil as raw material for biorefinery was explored by compositional analysis and pretreatment conditions optimization to produce ethanol and co-products. EFB from Brazil contains significant cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and low ash content. The optimized dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment conditions for efficient cellulose and hemicellulose separation were 160°C temperature, 1.025% v/v acid concentration, 10.5min and 20% solid loading. Under optimum pretreatment process conditions, low enzyme loading (10FPU, 20IU cellulase and glucosidase enzyme/g glucan) and 15% solid loading, 51.1g ethanol, 344.1g solid residue (65% lignin and 24.87MJ/kg LHV) and 3.7l xylose rich liquid could be produced per kg dry EFB. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lignin Formation and the Effects of Gravity: A New Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Norman G.

    1997-01-01

    Two aspects of considerable importance in the enigmatic processes associated with lignification have made excellent progress. The first is that, even in a microgravity environment, compression wood formation, and hence altered lignin deposition, can be induced upon mechanically bending the stems of woody gymnosperms. It now needs to be established if an organism reorientating its woody stem tissue will generate this tissue in microgravity, in the absence of externally applied pressure. If it does not, then gravity has no effect on its formation, and instead it results from alterations in the stress gradient experienced by the organism impacted. The second area of progress involves establishing how the biochemical pathway to lignin is regulated, particularly with respect to selective monolignol biosynthesis. This is an important question since individual monomer deposition occurs in a temporally and spatially specific manner. In this regard, the elusive metabolic switch between E-p-coumaryl alcohol and E-coniferyl alcohol synthesis has been detected, the significance of which now needs to be defined at the enzyme and gene level. Switching between monolignol synthesis is important, since it is viewed to be a consequence of different perceptions by plants in the gravitational load experienced, and thus in the control of the type of lignification response. Additional experiments also revealed the rate-limiting processes involved in monolignol synthesis, and suggest that a biological system (involving metabolite concentrations, as well as enzymatic and gene (in)activation processes) is involved, rather than a single rate-limiting step.

  1. Lignin depolymerization by fungal secretomes and a microbial sink

    SciTech Connect

    Salvachúa, Davinia; Katahira, Rui; Cleveland, Nicholas S.; Khanna, Payal; Resch, Michael G.; Black, Brenna A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Zink, Erika M.; Prieto, Alicia; Martínez, María J.; Martínez, Angel T.; Simmons, Blake A.; Gladden, John M.; Beckham, Gregg T.

    2016-08-25

    In Nature, powerful oxidative enzymes secreted by white rot fungi and some bacteria catalyze lignin depolymerization and some microbes are able to catabolize the resulting aromatic compounds as carbon and energy sources. Taken together, these two processes offer a potential route for microbial valorization of lignin. However, many challenges remain in realizing this concept, including that oxidative enzymes responsible for lignin depolymerization also catalyze polymerization of low molecular weight (LMW) lignin. Here, multiple basidiomycete secretomes were screened for ligninolytic enzyme activities in the presence of a residual lignin solid stream from a corn stover biorefinery, dubbed DMR-EH (Deacetylation, Mechanical Refining, and Enzymatic Hydrolysis) lignin. Two selected fungal secretomes, with high levels of laccases and peroxidases, were utilized for DMR-EH lignin depolymerization assays. The secretome from Pleurotus eryngii, which exhibited the highest laccase activity, reduced the lignin average molecular weight by 63% and 75% at pH 7 compared to the Mw of the control treated at the same conditions and the initial DMR-EH lignin, respectively, and was applied in further depolymerization assays as a function of time. As repolymerization was observed after 3 days of incubation, an aromatic-catabolic microbe (Pseudomonas putida KT2440) was incubated with the fungal secretome and DMR-EH lignin. These experiments demonstrated that the presence of the bacterium enhances lignin depolymerization, likely due to bacterial catabolism of LMW lignin, which may partially prevent repolymerization. In addition, proteomics was also applied to the P. eryngii secretome to identify the enzymes present in the fungal cocktail utilized for the depolymerization assays, which highlighted a significant number of glucose/ methanol/choline (GMC) oxidoreductases and laccases. Overall, this study demonstrates that ligninolytic enzymes can be used to partially depolymerize a solid, high

  2. Lignin depolymerization by fungal secretomes and a microbial sink

    DOE PAGES

    Salvachua, Davinia; Katahira, Rui; Cleveland, Nicholas S.; ...

    2016-08-25

    In Nature, powerful oxidative enzymes secreted by white rot fungi and some bacteria catalyze lignin depolymerization and some microbes are able to catabolize the resulting aromatic compounds as carbon and energy sources. Taken together, these two processes offer a potential route for microbial valorization of lignin. However, many challenges remain in realizing this concept, including that oxidative enzymes responsible for lignin depolymerization also catalyze polymerization of low molecular weight (LMW) lignin. Here, multiple basidiomycete secretomes were screened for ligninolytic enzyme activities in the presence of a residual lignin solid stream from a corn stover biorefinery, dubbed DMR-EH (Deacetylation, Mechanical Refining,more » and Enzymatic Hydrolysis) lignin. Two selected fungal secretomes, with high levels of laccases and peroxidases, were utilized for DMR-EH lignin depolymerization assays. The secretome from Pleurotus eryngii, which exhibited the highest laccase activity, reduced the lignin average molecular weight (Mw) by 63% and 75% at pH 7 compared to the Mw of the control treated at the same conditions and the initial DMR-EH lignin, respectively, and was applied in further depolymerization assays as a function of time. As repolymerization was observed after 3 days of incubation, an aromatic-catabolic microbe (Pseudomonas putida KT2440) was incubated with the fungal secretome and DMR-EH lignin. These experiments demonstrated that the presence of the bacterium enhances lignin depolymerization, likely due to bacterial catabolism of LMW lignin, which may partially prevent repolymerization. In addition, proteomics was also applied to the P. eryngii secretome to identify the enzymes present in the fungal cocktail utilized for the depolymerization assays, which highlighted a significant number of glucose/methanol/choline (GMC) oxidoreductases and laccases. Altogether, this study demonstrates that ligninolytic enzymes can be used to partially depolymerize

  3. The impact of water and hydrocarbon concentration on the sensitivity of a polymer-based quartz crystal microbalance sensor for organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Pejcic, Bobby; Crooke, Emma; Doherty, Cara M; Hill, Anita J; Myers, Matthew; Qi, Xiubin; Ross, Andrew

    2011-10-03

    Long-term environmental monitoring of organic compounds in natural waters requires sensors that respond reproducibly and linearly over a wide concentration range, and do not degrade with time. Although polymer coated piezoelectric based sensors have been widely used to detect hydrocarbons in aqueous solution, very little information exists regarding their stability and suitability over extended periods in water. In this investigation, the influence of water aging on the response of various polymer membranes [polybutadiene (PB), polyisobutylene (PIB), polystyrene (PS), polystyrene-co-butadiene (PSB)] was studied using the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). QCM measurements revealed a modest increase in sensitivity towards toluene for PB and PIB membranes at concentrations above 90 ppm after aging in water for 4 days. In contrast, the sensitivity of PS and PSB coated QCM sensors depended significantly on the toluene concentration and increased considerably at concentrations above 90 ppm after aging in water for 4 days. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) showed that there is a change in the sorption mechanism at higher toluene levels for PS and PSB. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) studies were performed to investigate the free volume properties of all polymers and to monitor any changes in the free volume size and distribution due to water and toluene exposure. The PALS did not detect any considerable variation in the free volume properties of the polymer films as a function of solution composition and soaking time, implying that viscoelastic and/or interfacial processes (i.e. surface area changes) are probably responsible for variations in the QCM sensitivity at high hydrocarbon concentrations. The results suggest that polymer membrane conditioning in water is an issue that needs to be considered when performing QCM measurements in the aqueous phase. In addition, the study shows that the hydrocarbon

  4. Novel seed coat lignins in the Cactaceae: structure, distribution and implications for the evolution of lignin diversity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Jackson, Lisa; Nakashima, Jin; Ralph, John; Dixon, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    We have recently described a hitherto unsuspected catechyl lignin polymer (C-lignin) in the seed coats of Vanilla orchid and in cacti of one genus, Melocactus (Chen et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 2012, 109, 1772-1777.). We have now determined the lignin types in the seed coats of 130 different cactus species. Lignin in the vegetative tissues of cacti is of the normal guaiacyl/syringyl (G/S) type, but members of most genera within the subfamily Cactoidae possess seed coat lignin of the novel C-type only, which we show is a homopolymer formed by endwise β-O-4-coupling of caffeyl alcohol monomers onto the growing polymer resulting in benzodioxane units. However, the species examined within the genera Coryphantha, Cumarinia, Escobaria and Mammillaria (Cactoideae) mostly had normal G/S lignin in their seeds, as did all six species in the subfamily Opuntioidae that were examined. Seed coat lignin composition is still evolving in the Cactaceae, as seeds of one Mammillaria species (M. lasiacantha) possess only C-lignin, three Escobaria species (E. dasyacantha, E. lloydii and E. zilziana) contain an unusual lignin composed of 5-hydroxyguaiacyl units, the first report of such a polymer that occurs naturally in plants, and seeds of some species contain no lignin at all. We discuss the implications of these findings for the mechanisms that underlie the biosynthesis of these newly discovered lignin types. © 2012 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. The dual effects of lignin content on enzymatic hydrolysis using film composed of cellulose and lignin as a structure model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Liming; Zhou, Tian; Wu, Yuying; Xu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The degree of delignification during pretreatment is a critical question for economic conversion of biomass to sugar platform. Many models have been used to study the optimum lignin content in biomass, but few of them are able to study without disturbances, such as the complex component and structure of biomass. A novel film model composed of only cellulose and lignin was used to investigate the effect of lignin on enzymatic hydrolysis. High lignin-cellulose proportion (10.00-31.25%) hindered enzymatic hydrolysis, whereas low lignin-cellulose proportion (2.00-8.00%) showed a notable potential to promote enzymatic hydrolysis. The enzymatic hydrolysis rate of lignin-cellulose (6.00%) film was 11.5% higher than that of pure cellulose films. Further study indicated that the promotion was due to the enhancement of film porosity and roughness by residual lignin. Thus, based on the biomimetic model, excessive delignification is not recommended in view of efficient conversion and economy.

  6. Organosolv ethanol lignin from hybrid poplar as a radical scavenger: relationship between lignin structure, extraction conditions, and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xuejun; Kadla, John F; Ehara, Katsunobu; Gilkes, Neil; Saddler, Jack N

    2006-08-09

    Twenty-one organosolv ethanol lignin samples were prepared from hybrid poplar (Populus nigra xP. maximowiczii) under varied conditions with an experimental matrix designed using response surface methodology (RSM). The lignin preparations were evaluated as potential antioxidants. Results indicated that the lignins with more phenolic hydroxyl groups, less aliphatic hydroxyl groups, low molecular weight, and narrow polydispersity showed high antioxidant activity. Processing conditions affected the functional groups and molecular weight of the extracted organosolv ethanol lignins, and consequently influenced the antioxidant activity of the lignins. In general, the lignins prepared at elevated temperature, longer reaction time, increased catalyst, and diluted ethanol showed high antioxidant activity. Regression models were developed to enable the quantitative prediction of lignin characteristics and antioxidant activity based on the processing conditions.

  7. SOYBEAN STEM LIGNIN CONCENTRATION RELATES TO RESISTANCE TO SCLEROTINIA SCLEROTIORUM

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR), caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is an economically important disease of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) in the north central United States and other temperate regions throughout the world. The occurrence and severity of SSR in the field is highly depend...

  8. High-Throughput Synthesis of Lignin Particles (∼30 nm to ∼2 μm) via Aerosol Flow Reactor: Size Fractionation and Utilization in Pickering Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Ago, Mariko; Huan, Siqi; Borghei, Maryam; Raula, Janne; Kauppinen, Esko I; Rojas, Orlando J

    2016-09-07

    An aerosol flow reactor was used for the first time for high-throughput, high yield synthesis of spherical lignin particles with given inherent hydrophilicity, depending on the precursor biomolecule. In situ fractionation via Berner type impactor afforded populations with characteristic sizes ranging from ∼30 nm to 2 μm. The as-produced, dry lignin particles displayed excellent mechanical integrity, even after redispersion under high shear in either mineral oil or water. They were effective in the stabilization of oil-in-water (O/W) Pickering emulsions with tunable droplet size, depending on the dimension of the lignin particles used for emulsification. The emulsion stability correlated with particle concentration as well as the respective lignin type. For the O/W emulsions stabilized with the more hydrophilic lignin particles, negligible changes in phase separation via Ostwald ripening and coalescence were observed over a period of time of more than two months. Together with the fact that the lignin particle concentrations used in emulsification were as low as 0.1%, our results reveal a remarkable ability to endow emulsified systems with high colloidal stability. Overall, we offer a new, high-yield, scalable nanomanufacturing approach to producing dry spherical lignin particles with size control and high production capacity. A number of emerging applications for these organic particles can be envisioned and, as a proof-of-concept, we illustrate here surfactant-free emulsification.

  9. Lignin down-regulation of Zea mays via dsRNAi and klason lignin analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Hyuck; Ong, Rebecca Garlock; Mei, Chuansheng; Sticklen, Mariam

    2014-07-23

    To facilitate the use of lignocellulosic biomass as an alternative bioenergy resource, during biological conversion processes, a pretreatment step is needed to open up the structure of the plant cell wall, increasing the accessibility of the cell wall carbohydrates. Lignin, a polyphenolic material present in many cell wall types, is known to be a significant hindrance to enzyme access. Reduction in lignin content to a level that does not interfere with the structural integrity and defense system of the plant might be a valuable step to reduce the costs of bioethanol production. In this study, we have genetically down-regulated one of the lignin biosynthesis-related genes, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (ZmCCR1) via a double stranded RNA interference technique. The ZmCCR1_RNAi construct was integrated into the maize genome using the particle bombardment method. Transgenic maize plants grew normally as compared to the wild-type control plants without interfering with biomass growth or defense mechanisms, with the exception of displaying of brown-coloration in transgenic plants leaf mid-ribs, husks, and stems. The microscopic analyses, in conjunction with the histological assay, revealed that the leaf sclerenchyma fibers were thinned but the structure and size of other major vascular system components was not altered. The lignin content in the transgenic maize was reduced by 7-8.7%, the crystalline cellulose content was increased in response to lignin reduction, and hemicelluloses remained unchanged. The analyses may indicate that carbon flow might have been shifted from lignin biosynthesis to cellulose biosynthesis. This article delineates the procedures used to down-regulate the lignin content in maize via RNAi technology, and the cell wall compositional analyses used to verify the effect of the modifications on the cell wall structure.

  10. Lignin Down-regulation of Zea mays via dsRNAi and Klason Lignin Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Hyuck; Ong, Rebecca Garlock; Mei, Chuansheng; Sticklen, Mariam

    2014-01-01

    To facilitate the use of lignocellulosic biomass as an alternative bioenergy resource, during biological conversion processes, a pretreatment step is needed to open up the structure of the plant cell wall, increasing the accessibility of the cell wall carbohydrates. Lignin, a polyphenolic material present in many cell wall types, is known to be a significant hindrance to enzyme access. Reduction in lignin content to a level that does not interfere with the structural integrity and defense system of the plant might be a valuable step to reduce the costs of bioethanol production. In this study, we have genetically down-regulated one of the lignin biosynthesis-related genes, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (ZmCCR1) via a double stranded RNA interference technique. The ZmCCR1_RNAi construct was integrated into the maize genome using the particle bombardment method. Transgenic maize plants grew normally as compared to the wild-type control plants without interfering with biomass growth or defense mechanisms, with the exception of displaying of brown-coloration in transgenic plants leaf mid-ribs, husks, and stems. The microscopic analyses, in conjunction with the histological assay, revealed that the leaf sclerenchyma fibers were thinned but the structure and size of other major vascular system components was not altered. The lignin content in the transgenic maize was reduced by 7-8.7%, the crystalline cellulose content was increased in response to lignin reduction, and hemicelluloses remained unchanged. The analyses may indicate that carbon flow might have been shifted from lignin biosynthesis to cellulose biosynthesis. This article delineates the procedures used to down-regulate the lignin content in maize via RNAi technology, and the cell wall compositional analyses used to verify the effect of the modifications on the cell wall structure. PMID:25080235

  11. Optimization of the dust sensor in the Mars MetNet Mission; extension to in situ CO2 concentration and surface temperature measurements by infrared multispectral sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortés, F.; González, A.; Llopis, A.; de Castro, A. J.; Meléndez, J.; López, F.

    2012-12-01

    Martian atmosphere contains two main mechanisms leading the heat transfer process: CO2 and suspended dust. The flight model (FM) of the current Dust Sensor (DS) of the Mars MetNet Mission has already been fabricated providing only with the ability for measuring the particle size distribution. The optimized DS proposed in this work includes two sub-instruments more for measuring both, CO2 concentration and ground temperature. This DS will allow correlate the particle size distribution of the airborne dust, the CO2 concentration and the ground temperature, in a specific location on the Martian surface. All of these parameters will be measured as an in-situ parameter, giving very valuable information about the Martian Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL). The scope of the Mars MetNet Mission is to deploy, in successive flights, several tens of mini atmospheric stations on the Martian surface. Infrared Lab in University Carlos III (LIR- UC3M) is in charge of the design and development of the DS, a micro-sensor (mass <100 g and mean power <1W) which scope is the characterization of airborne dust and other parameters of interest in the heat transfer process. The DS detection principle is of MIE scattering wavelength dependence when particle size is similar to that., so the sensor is provided with spectral resolution,. The optimized DS incorporates angular dependence, so the data retrieval algorithm takes both spectral and angular information making the algorithm most robust. The incorporation of new parameters such as CO2 and ground temperature is possible thanks to the addition of new sensor elements, properly spectrally tuned. As in the previous DS each parameter is also measured within the MWIR range and the spectral resolution is provided by a interference filter, specifically designed for.

  12. A titania nanotube-array room-temperature sensor for selective detection of hydrogen at low concentrations.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Oomman K; Mor, Gopal K; Grimes, Craig A; Paulose, Maggie; Mukherjee, Niloy

    2004-09-01

    A tremendous variation in electrical resistance, from the semiconductor to metallic range, has been observed in titania nanotube arrays at room temperature, approximately 25 degrees C, in the presence of < or = 1000 ppm hydrogen gas. The nanotube arrays are fabricated by anodizing titanium foil in an aqueous electrolyte solution containing hydrofluoric acid and acetic acid. Subsequently, the arrays are coated with a 10 nm layer of palladium by evaporation. Electrical contacts are made by sputtering a 2 mm diameter platinum disk atop the Pd-coated nanotube array. These sensors exhibit a resistance variation of the order of 10(4) in the presence of 100 ppm hydrogen at 25 degrees C. The sensors demonstrate complete reversibility, repeatability, high selectivity, negligible drift and wide dynamic range. The nanoscale geometry of the nanotubes, in particular the points of tube-to-tube contact, is believed to be responsible for the outstanding hydrogen gas sensitivities.

  13. Characterization and genomic analysis of kraft lignin biodegradation by the beta-proteobacterium Cupriavidus basilensis B-8.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan; Chai, Liyuan; Tang, Chongjian; Yang, Zhihui; Zhang, Huan; Chen, Runhua; Chen, Yuehui; Zheng, Yu

    2013-01-08

    Lignin materials are abundant and among the most important potential sources for biofuel production. Development of an efficient lignin degradation process has considerable potential for the production of a variety of chemicals, including bioethanol. However, lignin degradation using current methods is inefficient. Given their immense environmental adaptability and biochemical versatility, bacterial could be used as a valuable tool for the rapid degradation of lignin. Kraft lignin (KL) is a polymer by-product of the pulp and paper industry resulting from alkaline sulfide treatment of lignocellulose, and it has been widely used for lignin-related studies. Beta-proteobacterium Cupriavidus basilensis B-8 isolated from erosive bamboo slips displayed substantial KL degradation capability. With initial concentrations of 0.5-6 g L-1, at least 31.3% KL could be degraded in 7 days. The maximum degradation rate was 44.4% at the initial concentration of 2 g L-1. The optimum pH and temperature for KL degradation were 7.0 and 30°C, respectively. Manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase (Lac) demonstrated their greatest level of activity, 1685.3 U L-1 and 815.6 U L-1, at the third and fourth days, respectively. Many small molecule intermediates were formed during the process of KL degradation, as determined using GC-MS analysis. In order to perform metabolic reconstruction of lignin degradation in this bacterium, a draft genome sequence for C. basilensis B-8 was generated. Genomic analysis focused on the catabolic potential of this bacterium against several lignin-derived compounds. These analyses together with sequence comparisons predicted the existence of three major metabolic pathways: β-ketoadipate, phenol degradation, and gentisate pathways. These results confirmed the capability of C. basilensis B-8 to promote KL degradation. Whole genomic sequencing and systematic analysis of the C. basilensis B-8 genome identified degradation steps and intermediates from this bacterial

  14. Characterization and genomic analysis of kraft lignin biodegradation by the beta-proteobacterium Cupriavidus basilensis B-8

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lignin materials are abundant and among the most important potential sources for biofuel production. Development of an efficient lignin degradation process has considerable potential for the production of a variety of chemicals, including bioethanol. However, lignin degradation using current methods is inefficient. Given their immense environmental adaptability and biochemical versatility, bacterial could be used as a valuable tool for the rapid degradation of lignin. Kraft lignin (KL) is a polymer by-product of the pulp and paper industry resulting from alkaline sulfide treatment of lignocellulose, and it has been widely used for lignin-related studies. Results Beta-proteobacterium Cupriavidus basilensis B-8 isolated from erosive bamboo slips displayed substantial KL degradation capability. With initial concentrations of 0.5–6 g L-1, at least 31.3% KL could be degraded in 7 days. The maximum degradation rate was 44.4% at the initial concentration of 2 g L-1. The optimum pH and temperature for KL degradation were 7.0 and 30°C, respectively. Manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase (Lac) demonstrated their greatest level of activity, 1685.3 U L-1 and 815.6 U L-1, at the third and fourth days, respectively. Many small molecule intermediates were formed during the process of KL degradation, as determined using GC-MS analysis. In order to perform metabolic reconstruction of lignin degradation in this bacterium, a draft genome sequence for C. basilensis B-8 was generated. Genomic analysis focused on the catabolic potential of this bacterium against several lignin-derived compounds. These analyses together with sequence comparisons predicted the existence of three major metabolic pathways: β-ketoadipate, phenol degradation, and gentisate pathways. Conclusion These results confirmed the capability of C. basilensis B-8 to promote KL degradation. Whole genomic sequencing and systematic analysis of the C. basilensis B-8 genome identified degradation steps and

  15. Systems biology-guided biodesign of consolidated lignin conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lu; Cheng, Yanbing; Pu, Yunqiao; Sun, Su; Li, Xiao; Jin, Mingjie; Pierson, Elizabeth A.; Gross, Dennis C.; Dale, Bruce E.; Dai, Susie Y.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Yuan, Joshua S.

    2016-07-12

    Lignin is the second most abundant biopolymer on the earth, yet its utilization for fungible products is complicated by its recalcitrant nature and remains a major challenge for sustainable lignocellulosic biorefineries. In this study, we used a systems biology approach to reveal the carbon utilization pattern and lignin degradation mechanisms in a unique lignin-utilizing Pseudomonas putida strain (A514). The mechanistic study further guided the design of three functional modules to enable a consolidated lignin bioconversion route. First, P. putida A514 mobilized a dye peroxidase-based enzymatic system for lignin depolymerization. This system could be enhanced by overexpressing a secreted multifunctional dye peroxidase to promote a two-fold enhancement of cell growth on insoluble kraft lignin. Second, A514 employed a variety of peripheral and central catabolism pathways to metabolize aromatic compounds, which can be optimized by overexpressing key enzymes. Third, the β-oxidation of fatty acid was up-regulated, whereas fatty acid synthesis was down-regulated when A514 was grown on lignin and vanillic acid. Therefore, the functional module for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production was designed to rechannel β-oxidation products. As a result, PHA content reached 73% per cell dry weight (CDW). Further integrating the three functional modules enhanced the production of PHA from kraft lignin and biorefinery waste. Furthermore, this study elucidated lignin conversion mechanisms in bacteria with potential industrial implications and laid out the concept for engineering a consolidated lignin conversion route.

  16. Systems biology-guided biodesign of consolidated lignin conversion

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, Lu; Cheng, Yanbing; Pu, Yunqiao; ...

    2016-07-12

    Lignin is the second most abundant biopolymer on the earth, yet its utilization for fungible products is complicated by its recalcitrant nature and remains a major challenge for sustainable lignocellulosic biorefineries. In this study, we used a systems biology approach to reveal the carbon utilization pattern and lignin degradation mechanisms in a unique lignin-utilizing Pseudomonas putida strain (A514). The mechanistic study further guided the design of three functional modules to enable a consolidated lignin bioconversion route. First, P. putida A514 mobilized a dye peroxidase-based enzymatic system for lignin depolymerization. This system could be enhanced by overexpressing a secreted multifunctional dyemore » peroxidase to promote a two-fold enhancement of cell growth on insoluble kraft lignin. Second, A514 employed a variety of peripheral and central catabolism pathways to metabolize aromatic compounds, which can be optimized by overexpressing key enzymes. Third, the β-oxidation of fatty acid was up-regulated, whereas fatty acid synthesis was down-regulated when A514 was grown on lignin and vanillic acid. Therefore, the functional module for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production was designed to rechannel β-oxidation products. As a result, PHA content reached 73% per cell dry weight (CDW). Further integrating the three functional modules enhanced the production of PHA from kraft lignin and biorefinery waste. Furthermore, this study elucidated lignin conversion mechanisms in bacteria with potential industrial implications and laid out the concept for engineering a consolidated lignin conversion route.« less

  17. Production and Application of Lignosulfonates and Sulfonated Lignin.

    PubMed

    Aro, Thomas; Fatehi, Pedram

    2017-03-02

    Lignin is the largest reservoir of aromatic compounds on earth and has great potential to be used in many industrial applications. Alternative methods to produce lignosulfonates from spent sulfite pulping liquors and kraft lignin from black liquor of kraft pulping process are critically reviewed herein. Furthermore, options to increase the sulfonate contents of lignin-based products are outlined and the industrial attractiveness of them is evaluated. This evaluation includes sulfonation and sulfomethylation of lignin. To increase the sulfomethylation efficiency of lignin, various scenarios, including hydrolysis, oxidation, and hydroxymethylation, were compared. The application of sulfonated lignin-based products is assessed and the impact of the properties of these products on the characteristics of their end-use application is critically evaluated. Sulfonated lignin-based products have been used as dispersants in cement admixtures and dye solutions more than other applications, and their molecular weight and degree of sulfonation were crucial in determining their efficiency. The use of lignin-based sulfonated products in composites may result in an increase in the hydrophilicity of some composites, but the sulfonated products may need to be desulfonated with an alkali and/or oxygen prior to their use in composites. To be used as a flocculant, sulfonated lignin-based products may need to be cross-linked to increase their molecular weight. The challenges associated with the use of lignin-based products in these applications are comprehensively discussed herein.

  18. Systems biology-guided biodesign of consolidated lignin conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lu; Cheng, Yanbing; Pu, Yunqiao; Sun, Su; Li, Xiao; Jin, Mingjie; Pierson, Elizabeth A.; Gross, Dennis C.; Dale, Bruce E.; Dai, Susie Y.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Yuan, Joshua S.

    2016-07-12

    Lignin is the second most abundant biopolymer on the earth, yet its utilization for fungible products is complicated by its recalcitrant nature and remains a major challenge for sustainable lignocellulosic biorefineries. In this study, we used a systems biology approach to reveal the carbon utilization pattern and lignin degradation mechanisms in a unique lignin-utilizing Pseudomonas putida strain (A514). The mechanistic study further guided the design of three functional modules to enable a consolidated lignin bioconversion route. First, P. putida A514 mobilized a dye peroxidase-based enzymatic system for lignin depolymerization. This system could be enhanced by overexpressing a secreted multifunctional dye peroxidase to promote a two-fold enhancement of cell growth on insoluble kraft lignin. Second, A514 employed a variety of peripheral and central catabolism pathways to metabolize aromatic compounds, which can be optimized by overexpressing key enzymes. Third, the β-oxidation of fatty acid was up-regulated, whereas fatty acid synthesis was down-regulated when A514 was grown on lignin and vanillic acid. Therefore, the functional module for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production was designed to rechannel β-oxidation products. As a result, PHA content reached 73% per cell dry weight (CDW). Further integrating the three functional modules enhanced the production of PHA from kraft lignin and biorefinery waste. Furthermore, this study elucidated lignin conversion mechanisms in bacteria with potential industrial implications and laid out the concept for engineering a consolidated lignin conversion route.

  19. Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of kraft lignins

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidl, W.; Dong, D.; Fricke, A.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Kraft lignins are the lignin degradation products from kraft pulping. They are complex, heterogeneous polymers with some polar character. The molecular weight of kraft lignins greatly affect the physical properties of black liquors, and are of primary importance in separation from black liquor and in evaluating potential uses. Several purified kraft lignins from slash pine were analyzed for number average molecular weight by vapor pressure osmometry (VPO), for weight average molecular weight by low angle laser light scattering (LALLS), and for the molecular weight distribution by high temperature size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The lignins were run in tetrahydrofuran (THF), N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF), DMF with 0.1M LiBr, an