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Sample records for liguria region italy

  1. A retrospective analysis of the occurrence of accidents during 20 years of neonatal transport in Liguria region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Carlo; Risso, Francesco M; Sannia, Andrea; Campone, Francesco; Traggiai, Cristina; Ramenghi, Luca A

    2017-02-01

    Our article focuses on a retrospective analysis of the occurrence of accidents relating to 20 years of activity of Neonatal Emergency Transport Service (NETS) in Liguria region, Italy. The objective of this study is to determine the vehicle accident rate for a specialized emergency medical services-NETS transport system between 1995 and 2015. We reviewed 5035 medical records related to the activity of our NETS from its beginning, in February 1995 to June 2015. We identified the occurrence of three road accidents (rate ∼1 : 1600 transports; 1 : 170 000 driven km), no helicopter accidents and only one technical problem during helicopter use; our service was not involved in any crashes resulting in injury. We discussed some reasons possibly explaining these good results.

  2. Fifteen years of epidemiologic, virologic and syndromic influenza surveillance: A focus on type B virus and the effects of vaccine mismatch in Liguria region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Grammatico, Federico; Canepa, Paola

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In order to estimate the burden of influenza and to describe the genetic evolutionary pattern and antigenic variability of type B viral strains, data deriving from 3 surveillance systems active in Liguria region, Northern Italy, were described. Since the re-emergence of the Victoria lineage in 2001, the clinical-epidemiological and syndromic surveillances demonstrated the heavy burden of influenza like illness (ILI) syndrome. Focusing on type B influenza virus, it predominated or played a relevant epidemic role in the 50% of the evaluated influenza seasons. Furthermore, the virologic surveillance demonstrated the frequent co-circulation of both lineages an heterogeneous circulation of different influenza B strains, determining a partial or complete mismatch in at least 6 influenza seasons. The undemonstrated cross-reactivity between lineages and the unpredictability of predominant lineage arose the scientific debate about the opportunity to include the quadrivalent influenza vaccine among the preventive tools to improve the protection against type B viruses. The integration of different surveillance systems highly contribute to estimate the poorly evaluated burden of type B influenza virus and help to find variants to include in the vaccine formulation. PMID:27924684

  3. Detection of West Nile and Usutu Viruses in Italian Free Areas: Entomological Surveillance in Piemonte and Liguria Regions, 2014.

    PubMed

    Pautasso, Alessandra; Radaelli, Maria Cristina; Ballardini, Marco; Francese, Danila Raffaella; Verna, Federica; Modesto, Paola; Grattarola, Carla; Desiato, Rosanna; Bertolini, Silvia; Vitale, Nicoletta; Ferrari, Angelo; Rossini, Irene; Accorsi, Annalisa; Mosca, Andrea; Monaco, Federica; Savini, Giovanni; Prearo, Marino; Mignone, Walter; Chiavacci, Laura; Casalone, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    West Nile virus and Usutu virus have established in different parts of Italy over the past 10 years. Piemonte and Liguria Regions (Northwestern Italy) are known to be nonendemic areas, despite the presence of competent vectors and environmental conditions conducive to maintaining infection. This work evidences for the first time, through an entomological surveillance implemented on the basis of risk factor approach, the presence of West Nile and Usutu viruses in Piemonte and Liguria Regions (Northwestern Italy).

  4. The occurrence of taeniids of wolves in Liguria (northern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Francesca; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Milanesi, Pietro; Serafini, Matteo; Magi, Marta; Deplazes, Peter; Macchioni, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Canids are definitive hosts of Taenia and Echinococcus species, which infect a variety of mammals as intermediate or accidental hosts including humans. Parasite transmission is based on domestic, semi-domestic and wildlife cycles; however, little is known of the epidemiological significance of wild large definitive hosts such as the wolf. In this study, 179 scats of wolves (Canis lupus italicus) collected throughout the Italian region of Liguria were analyzed for the detection of taeniid infection. Taeniid egg isolation was performed using a sieving/flotation technique, and the species level was identified by PCR (gene target: 12S rRNA and nad 1) followed by sequence analyses. Based on sequence homologies of ≥99%, Taenia hydatigena was identified in 19.6%, Taenia krabbei in 4.5%, Taenia ovis in 2.2%, Taenia crassiceps in 0.6%, Hydatigera taeniaeformis in 0.6% and Echinococcus granulosus in 5.6% of the samples. According to these results, Canis lupus italicus can be considered as involved in the wild (including cervids and rodents) and semi-domestic cycles (including sheep and goats) of taeniids in this area. PMID:26042204

  5. Analysis of climate and topographic effect on wildfire regime in Liguria, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorucci, Paolo; Biondi, Guido; Campo, Lorenzo; D'Andrea, Mirko; Degli Esposti, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    Wildfire risk is particularly significant in Italy, both in summer and winter season due to the high topographic and vegetation heterogeneity of the territory. Liguria is one of the few regions in Italy affected by wildfires both in summer and winter. Most of the fires in Italy occur in summer season and the burned area is largely greater than in winter season. In Liguria, the number of wildfires and the burned area is higher in winter than in summer. Winter fire regime is mainly due to frequent extremely dry winds from the north in condition of curing for most of the herbaceous species. Southern and central regions and the large islands are characterized by a severe summer fire regime, because of the higher temperatures and prolonged lack of precipitation. The threat of wildfires in Italy is not confined to wooded areas as they extend to agricultural areas and urban-forest interface areas. In view of the limited availability of fire risk management resources, most of which are used in the management of national and regional air services, it is necessary to precisely identify the areas most vulnerable to fire risk. The few resources available can thus be used on a yearly basis to mitigate problems in the areas at highest risk by defining a program of forest management interventions. The availability of a mapping of fire perimeters spans almost 20 years (1996-2013), and this, combined with a detailed knowledge of topography, climate and land cover allowed to understand which are the main features involved in forest fire occurrences and their behavior. The seasonality of the fire regime was also considered, partitioning the analysis in two macro season (November-April and May- October). Total precipitation and average air temperature obtained from the interpolation of 30 years-long time series from 164 raingauges and 127 thermometers series were considered. The analysis was based on a recursive-quantiles subdivision of the territory in classes based on the different

  6. Clinical epidemiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Liguria, Italy: An update of LIGALS register.

    PubMed

    Scialò, Carlo; Novi, Giovanni; Bandettini di Poggio, Monica; Canosa, Antonio; Sormani, Maria Pia; Mandich, Paola; Origone, Paola; Truffelli, Romina; Mancardi, Giovanni Luigi; Caponnetto, Claudia

    Our objectives were: (1) to assess amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) incidence and its trend over time in Liguria, an Italian north-western region, performing an analysis of data prospectively collected from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2014; (2) to determine the mean and median survival in the 2009-2014 Ligurian ALS incident cases; and (3) to evaluate the presence of disease prognostic factors. The Liguria Register for ALS (LIGALS) is an ongoing, multicentre prospective register enrolling all ALS incident cases in Liguria. Cases were identified using several concurrent sources. ALS diagnosis was based on El Escorial revised criteria (EEC-R). Two hundred and ninety-eight patients were enrolled in this study. The mean annual crude incidence rate in the 2009-2014 period was 3.11/100,000 population (95% CI 2.77-3.49); the point prevalence at 31 December 2014 was 7.85/100,000 (95% CI 6.54-9.36) population. Survival analysis demonstrated a median survival from symptom onset of 37.0 months (95% CI 32.0-42.0). In conclusion, ALS crude incidence in Liguria is higher compared to other Italian regions. Clinical and epidemiological data are comparable with those of the Italian ALS population. Survival analysis showed that higher age at onset, bulbar onset, definite EEC-R diagnostic category and a shorter diagnostic delay are related with worse outcomes.

  7. The role of the sea on the flash floods events over Liguria (northwestern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassola, F.; Ferrari, F.; Mazzino, A.; Miglietta, M. M.

    2016-04-01

    The sensitivity to sea surface temperature (SST) of small-scale, flood-causing convective systems in Mediterranean coastal areas is analyzed by means of mesoscale numerical simulations. Two different SST initializations are considered: a coarse field provided by a global atmospheric model and a high-resolution multisatellite analysis. Quantitative precipitation forecasts are evaluated for a number of recent severe rainfall episodes in Liguria (northwestern Italy). In several cases, using a higher-resolution SST leads to more realistic precipitation estimates in the forecasting range 36-48 h. In the shorter range, the satellite SST has a limited, or even negative, impact, due to the relatively slow adjustment of initial atmospheric fields. In one case, the satellite SST is beneficial for the only run forced with accurate large-scale initial conditions. The results of this work suggest that a potentially significant improvement in severe precipitation forecasting in the Mediterranean could be achieved using realistic small-scale SST fields.

  8. Syndrome surveillance and molecular epidemiology for early detection and tracing of an outbreak of measles in Liguria, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ansaldi, Filippo; Orsi, Andrea; Altomonte, Fiorella; Bertone, Giuseppe; Parodi, Valentina; Carloni, Roberto; Moscatelli, Paolo; Pasero, Ermanno; Comaschi, Marco; Oreste, Paola; Orengo, Giovanni; Durando, Paolo; Icardi, Giancarlo

    2009-10-01

    The performances of surveillance systems for measles in Europe are poorly investigated, despite the fundamental role they should play in the early detection of outbreaks and in the assessment of the progress towards elimination. A new chief complaint syndrome surveillance system has been developed in Genoa, Italy, using data from the Emergency Department records of the regional reference university hospital and its ability to early detect an outbreak of measles that began during the winter months of 2007/2008 was evaluated. For the 23-month period from January 2007 to November 2008, the Emergency Department registration and triage software was used to obtain the time series of daily counts, that were related with cases notified by the statutory notification system and detection and characterization data from the measles regional reference laboratory. One hundred fifty five cases of measles-like illness were identified by the syndrome surveillance system. Two epidemic threshold breakthroughs were able to anticipate the first notified case by 54 and 11 days. Globally, the new syndrome surveillance system allows the activation of the alert state with a specificity of 94.3% and a sensitivity of 91%. Molecular investigation showed the spread of the virus from United Kingdom to Piemonte and then to Liguria and allowed us to exclude the re- circulation of strains circulating in Northern Italy during the previous seasons. Syndrome surveillance integrated with a rapid detection and characterization of the agent responsible for the disease could be an effective, specific and sensitive tool for measles surveillance.

  9. Anaphylaxis: a one-year survey on Medical Emergency Service in Liguria (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ruffoni, S; Furgani, A; Schiavetti, I; Ciprandi, G

    2015-05-01

    Anaphylaxis is a severe, life-threatening, generalized or systemic hypersensitivity reaction. The diagnosis is mainly based on clinical ground. This study aimed at evaluating the records of phone calls and medical visits for anaphylaxis occurred in Region Liguria during 2013. The phone call is managed in each headquarter, and classified according to a level of care intensity and a presumed level of criticality, according to established criteria. Criticality is then re-evaluated (detected criticality) at the end of medical visit, following the same score adding the black code defining died patients. Most of the phone calls (553) to the MES were recorded in summer (37.4%). Anaphylaxis was confirmed in about half of patients. There was a fair agreement between presumed and detected criticality (k=0.322, p<0.001). In addition, 530 patients (95.8%) were transported to Emergency Room. In conclusion, the present study shows that anaphylaxis represents a serious and relevant medical problem in the general population at any age, and should always be carefully managed.

  10. The influence of the maintenance of terraced areas on slope stability during the November 2014 flood event in Liguria (northwestern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordan, Daniele; Poggi, Flavio; Baldo, Marco; Cignetti, Martina

    2016-04-01

    Terraced environments are a widespread feature of the coastal settlement of eastern Liguria (northwestern Italy) and they constitute a well-known favorable role in slope stability. In this region, starting from the twentieth century, the progressive abandonment of agriculture determines a progressively increasing lack of maintenance of the terraces, consequently raising the level of slope instability. Moreover, it should be taken into account not only the level of terraces maintenance, but also their interaction with several factors as i) geological and geomorphological conditions, ii) soil properties, iii) hydrological and hydrogeological conditions, and iv) land use, causing an increase in landslides occurrence. The definition of managed terraces effects on slope stability and their response to external stress like a flood event is rather complicated; a possible approach is a statistical analysis of the effects of a flood event over a large terraced area, distinguishing the maintained sectors from the abandoned ones. After the November 2014 flood event, which affected several sectors of the Liguria region, where a high number of shallow landslides were triggered, an airborne LiDAR survey of the damaged area was carried out. In particular, a high resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM) resampled to a lower density (1 square meter grid spacing) and a photogrammetric coverage of the area was performed, in order to create a landslide map of the flood event. The surveyed area covered more than 380 square kilometers, and over 1600 shallow landslides triggered by the flood event were identified and inventoried. The high resolution DTM allowed the identification of terraced areas also in wooded sectors and a sharp mapping of the extension of terraced slopes in this portion of Liguria region. By considering: i) the terraced areas recognized through DTM analysis, ii) the mapped landslides, and iii) the land use classification, a correlation between the presence of terraces

  11. What if the 25 October 2011 event that struck Cinque Terre (Liguria) had happened in Genoa, Italy? Flooding scenarios, hazard mapping and damage estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestro, Francesco; Rebora, Nicola; Rossi, Lauro; Dolia, Daniele; Gabellani, Simone; Pignone, Flavio; Trasforini, Eva; Rudari, Roberto; De Angeli, Silvia; Masciulli, Cristiano

    2016-08-01

    During the autumn of 2011 two catastrophic, very intense rainfall events affected two different parts of the Liguria Region of Italy causing various flash floods. The first occurred in October and the second at the beginning of November. Both the events were characterized by very high rainfall intensities (> 100 mm h-1) that persisted on a small portion of territory causing local huge rainfall accumulations (> 400 mm 6 h-1). Two main considerations were made in order to set up this work. The first consideration is that various studies demonstrated that the two events had a similar genesis and similar triggering elements. The second very evident and coarse concern is that two main elements are needed to have a flash flood: a very intense and localized rainfall event and a catchment (or a group of catchments) to be affected. Starting from these assumptions we did the exercise of mixing the two flash flood ingredients by putting the rainfall field of the first event on the main catchment struck by the second event, which has its mouth in the biggest city of the Liguria Region: Genoa. A complete framework was set up to quantitatively carry out a "what if" experiment with the aim of evaluating the possible damages associated with this event. A probabilistic rainfall downscaling model was used to generate possible rainfall scenarios maintaining the main characteristics of the observed rainfall fields while a hydrological model transformed these rainfall scenarios in streamflow scenarios. A subset of streamflow scenarios is then used as input to a 2-D hydraulic model to estimate the hazard maps, and finally a proper methodology is applied for damage estimation. This leads to the estimation of the potential economic losses and of the risk level for the people that stay in the affected area. The results are interesting, surprising and in a way worrying: a rare but not impossible event (it occurred about 50 km away from Genoa) would have caused huge damages estimated between

  12. Landslide hazard assessment : LIFE+IMAGINE project methodology and Liguria region use case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spizzichino, Daniele; Campo, Valentina; Congi, Maria Pia; Cipolloni, Carlo; Delmonaco, Giuseppe; Guerrieri, Luca; Iadanza, Carla; Leoni, Gabriele; Trigila, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Scope of the work is to present a methodology developed for analysis of potential impacts in areas prone to landslide hazard in the framework of the EC project LIFE+IMAGINE. The project aims to implement a web services-based infrastructure addressed to environmental analysis, that integrates, in its own architecture, specifications and results from INSPIRE, SEIS and GMES. Existing web services has been customized to provide functionalities for supporting environmental integrated management. The implemented infrastructure has been applied to landslide risk scenarios, developed in selected pilot areas, aiming at: i) application of standard procedures to implement a landslide risk analysis; ii) definition of a procedure for assessment of potential environmental impacts, based on a set of indicators to estimate the different exposed elements with their specific vulnerability in the pilot area. The landslide pilot and related scenario are focused at providing a simplified Landslide Risk Assessment (LRA) through: 1) a landslide inventory derived from available historical and recent databases and maps; 2) landslide susceptibility and hazard maps; 3) assessment of exposure and vulnerability on selected typologies of elements at risk; 4) implementation of a landslide risk scenario for different sets of exposed elements 5) development of a use case; 6) definition of guidelines, best practices and production of thematic maps. The LRA has been implemented in Liguria region, Italy, in two different catchment areas located in the Cinque Terre National Park, characterized by a high landslide susceptibility and low resilience. The landslide risk impact analysis has been calibrated taking into account the socio-economic damage caused by landslides triggered by the October 2011 meteorological event. During this event, over 600 landslides were triggered in the selected pilot area. Most of landslides affected the diffuse system of anthropogenic terraces and caused the direct

  13. Crop changes from the XVI century to the present in a hill/mountain area of eastern Liguria (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Gentili, Rodolfo; Gentili, Elio; Sgorbati, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronological information on the composition and structure of agrocenoses and detailed features of land cover referring to specific areas are uncommon in ethnobotanical studies, especially for periods before the XIX century. The aim of this study was to analyse the type of crop or the characteristics of soil cover from the XVI century to the present. Methods This diachronic analysis was accomplished through archival research on the inventories of the Parish of St. Mary and those of the Municipality of Pignone and from recent surveys conducted in an area of eastern Liguria (Italy). Results Archival data revealed that in study area the primary means of subsistence during the last five centuries, until the first half of the XX century, was chestnuts. In the XVIII and XIX centuries, crop diversification strongly increased in comparison with previous and subsequent periods. In more recent times, the abandonment of agricultural practices has favoured the re-colonisation of mixed woodland or cluster-pine woodland. Conclusion Ancient documents in the ecclesiastic or municipal inventories can be a very useful tool for enhancing the knowledge of agricultural practice, as well as of subsistence methods favoured by local populations during a particular time and for reconstructing land use change over time. PMID:19361339

  14. Cost per care of the first year of direct antiviral agents in the Liguria Region: a multicenter analysis.

    PubMed

    Cenderello, Giovanni; Fanizza, Caterina; Marenco, Simona; Nicolini, Laura Ambra; Artioli, Stefania; Baldissarro, Isabella; Dentone, Chiara; De Leo, Pasqualina; Di Biagio, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Despite the remarkable efficacy shown in clinical practice, concerns have been raised about the costs associated with direct antiviral agent (DAA) therapy. This article presents the real-life costs for DAA treatment sustained by the Italian National Health Service in the Liguria Region (Northern Italy). A retrospective analysis of the cost per care sustained for DAA treatment, relating to the period from January 1 to December 31, 2015 in five centers in Liguria was performed. All patients undergoing DAA-based treatments for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were enrolled. On-treatment costs included: HCV treatment, laboratory test, outpatient services, attended visits, drugs used for the management of adverse events (erythropoietin, albumin or red blood cell packs) and inpatient service admissions. In total, 327 patients were enrolled. No difference in terms of sustained virologic response (SVR) rate among different treatments was reported. The majority (85.0%) of patients did not report any side effects and only 15 (4.6%) required hospital admission. Forty-two patients (12.8%) required high-cost drugs for the management of adverse events. The overall cost sustained was €14,744,433. DAA±ribavirin (RBV) accounted for the wide majority of this cost (98.9%; €14,585,123). Genotype (GT) 1, the most commonly treated GT, was associated with an average cost of €43,445 per patient. Detailed analysis of the costs for GT 1 showed the treatment based on ritonavir boosted paritaprevir/ombitasvir + dasabuvir±RBV with an average cost of €24,978 (RBV+) and €25,448 (RBV-) per patient was the most cost-effective. The average cost per SVR was €48,184. Once again, the ritonavir boosted paritaprevir/ombitasvir + dasabuvir regimen was associated with the lowest cost/SVR (€25,448/SVR [GT 1b] and similar results for other GTs). Antiviral regimen is the major contributor to costs in the treatment of HCV infection. Appropriate regimen selection could result in a major cost

  15. Cost per care of the first year of direct antiviral agents in the Liguria Region: a multicenter analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cenderello, Giovanni; Fanizza, Caterina; Marenco, Simona; Nicolini, Laura Ambra; Artioli, Stefania; Baldissarro, Isabella; Dentone, Chiara; De Leo, Pasqualina; Di Biagio, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Aims Despite the remarkable efficacy shown in clinical practice, concerns have been raised about the costs associated with direct antiviral agent (DAA) therapy. This article presents the real-life costs for DAA treatment sustained by the Italian National Health Service in the Liguria Region (Northern Italy). Methods A retrospective analysis of the cost per care sustained for DAA treatment, relating to the period from January 1 to December 31, 2015 in five centers in Liguria was performed. All patients undergoing DAA-based treatments for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection were enrolled. On-treatment costs included: HCV treatment, laboratory test, outpatient services, attended visits, drugs used for the management of adverse events (erythropoietin, albumin or red blood cell packs) and inpatient service admissions. Results In total, 327 patients were enrolled. No difference in terms of sustained virologic response (SVR) rate among different treatments was reported. The majority (85.0%) of patients did not report any side effects and only 15 (4.6%) required hospital admission. Forty-two patients (12.8%) required high-cost drugs for the management of adverse events. The overall cost sustained was €14,744,433. DAA±ribavirin (RBV) accounted for the wide majority of this cost (98.9%; €14,585,123). Genotype (GT) 1, the most commonly treated GT, was associated with an average cost of €43,445 per patient. Detailed analysis of the costs for GT 1 showed the treatment based on ritonavir boosted paritaprevir/ombitasvir + dasabuvir±RBV with an average cost of €24,978 (RBV+) and €25,448 (RBV−) per patient was the most cost-effective. The average cost per SVR was €48,184. Once again, the ritonavir boosted paritaprevir/ombitasvir + dasabuvir regimen was associated with the lowest cost/SVR (€25,448/SVR [GT 1b] and similar results for other GTs). Conclusion Antiviral regimen is the major contributor to costs in the treatment of HCV infection. Appropriate regimen

  16. Assessment of the predisposing factors for shallow landslides activation in terraced areas: the case of the Rupinaro catchment, Liguria (northwestern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cignetti, Martina; Godone, Danilo; Giordan, Daniele

    2017-04-01

    The shallow landslides occurrence is strongly correlated with climatic conditions and environmental settings. In the Liguria region (northwestern Italy), the landscape presents an ancient human intervention represented by terraces and, in the last century, by a general overbuilding, both in the few flat areas and in the steep slope hinterland. From the twentieth century, the progressive abandonment of agriculture generated a lack of maintenance of terraced areas, which associated to the urban and the road net development, supported the slope susceptibility to instability. This makes the assessment of the predisposing factors for shallow landslides a multidisciplinary task, combining natural and man-made issues. In this work, we try to define all the main predisposing factors of the Rupinaro catchment (southeast Liguria). We operate starting from a high-resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM) supplied by an airborne LiDAR survey carried out after the autumn 2014 rainfall events. From this DTM, we mapped a total amount of 96 landslides in the study area. Then, we implemented a classification methodology based on a simple parametric score. In GIS environment we overlaid several layers: i) lithological and hydrogeological map, ii) slope iii) aspect, iv) the land use information, available by the CORINE land cover, and iv) the presence of terraces. Each spatial data was than reclassified according a numerical code. The sum, by raster math, of these factors provided an overall score raster for the entire basin. This method allows the characterization of the entire watershed, gathering all the predisposing factors for the shallow landslides activation. A categorization of the landslides area mapped from the DTM and stored in a vector layer has been made. In particular, we estimated the most frequent code within each landslide polygon, obtaining a representative data of the most influential factors that triggered shallow landslides. The results showed the prevalent

  17. Maintenance and recovery of agricultural terraces to reduce geo-hydrological hazards: the Santa Giulia in Centaura (Liguria, Italy) and Valstagna (Veneto, Italy) case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giostrella, Paola; Ferrarese, Francesco; Faccini, Francesco; Brandolini, Pierluigi; Lazzeri, Riccardo; Melillo, Massimo; Mozzi, Paolo; Varotto, Mauro; Tarolli, Paolo; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    Throughout the World, men have built terraced landscapes to gain ground suitable for cultivation in steep terrain. Beyond the historical and cultural importance of terraced slopes, terraces have played an important role for soil conservation and water management. In many areas, their abandonment has led to more frequent and/or abundant geo-hydrological hazards. We analyse two terraced areas in northern Italy, including (i) the Valstagna prealpine terraces (Veneto) where the Republic of Venice initiated the cultivation of tobacco in 1600, and (ii) the coastal terraces of Santa Giulia di Centaura (Liguria) where terraces host vineyards and olive groves since 2000 years. Using a combination of direct and indirect mapping methods and tools, including LiDAR topographic surveys, the visual interpretation of aerial photographs and the analysis of historical maps, we performed a systematic mapping of the terraces. Using the available maps, we determined statistics for the width, height and extent of stonewalls and we evaluated the historical evolution of the terraces for the past 50 years, considering changes in land use, the expansion of forest, and the changes in the precipitation regime. Finally, through a preliminary cost-benefit analysis, we propose good practices to help the recovery of the terraces in the two study areas.

  18. Groundwater vulnerability to climate variability: modelling experience and field observations in the lower Magra Valley (Liguria, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menichini, Matia; Doveri, Marco; El Mansoury, Bouabid; El Mezouary, Lhoussaine; Lelli, Matteo; Raco, Brunella; Scozzari, Andrea; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The aquifer of the Lower Magra Valley (SE Liguria, Italy) extends in a flat plain, where two main rivers (Magra and Vara) flow. These rivers are characterized by a wide variation of water level and water chemical composition (TDS, Cl and SO4) due to the combination of rainfall regime and the presence of thermal springs in the inner part of the catchment area. Groundwater flow is apparently controlled by stream water infiltration, which affects both water levels and water quality. In particular, the wide range of variation of some particular chemical species in the stream water influences the groundwater chemistry on a seasonal basis. In the area of interest, there is an important well-field, which supplies most of the drinking water to the nearby city of La Spezia. In this context, the groundwater system is exposed to a high degree of vulnerability, both in terms of quality and quantity. This study is aimed to develop a predictive flow and transport model in order to assess the vulnerability s.l. of the Magra Valley aquifer system and to evaluate its behaviour in awaited climate scenarios. A flow and transport model was developed by using MODFLOW and MT3DMS codes, and it's been calibrated in both steady state and transient conditions. The model confirmed the importance of the Magra river in the water balance and chemical composition of the extracted groundwater. In addition, a data-driven modelling approach was applied in order to determine boundary conditions (e.g. rivers and constant head or general head boundaries) of the physical model under hypothetic future climate scenarios. For this purpose, fully synthetic datasets have been generated as a training set of the data-driven scheme, with input variables inspired by selected climate models and input/output relationships estimated by past observations. An experimental run of the flow-transport model for 30 years ahead was performed, based on such hypothetic scenarios. This approach highlighted how the

  19. A large scale lateral spreading, its genesis and Quaternary evolution in the coastal sector between Cogoleto and Varazze (LiguriaItaly)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carobene, Luigi; Cevasco, Andrea

    2011-06-01

    The results of a study carried out on a coastal area of central-western Liguria (Northern Italy), where metamorphosed basic and ultrabasic rocks outcrop, are presented. The study indicates that a wide area (16 km2) was involved in a large scale “deep-seated gravitational slope deformation” (DSGSD). This movement has special features related to the lithology and structure of the involved rock mass, to the Plio-Quaternary uplifting and brittle tectonics, affecting an area where a paleosurface was recognised, and to the continental shelf dynamics. The particular geometry of the DSGSD was recognised on the basis of detailed analyses of the above-mentioned aspects. Due to its characteristics, the deep-seated deformation can be classified as a “lateral spreading”. The current altitude of the Pliocene marine clay outcrops and their deposition bathymetry allowed estimation of the uplift rate of the coastal area. The altitudinal variations of an ancient marine terrace, which was displaced by the DSGSD, were used to reconstruct the chronology of the gravitational movement. A final issue concerns the very large scale and the particular kind of phenomenon, both of which are certainly new in Liguria.

  20. Geohydrological hazards and urban development in the Mediterranean area: an example from Genoa (Liguria, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccini, F.; Luino, F.; Sacchini, A.; Turconi, L.; De Graff, J. V.

    2015-12-01

    The metropolitan area and the city of Genoa has become a national and international case study for geohydrological risk, mainly due to the frequency of floods. In 2014, there were landslides again, as well as flash floods that have particularly caused casualties and economic damage. The weather features of the Gulf of Genoa and the geomorphological-environmental setting of the Ligurian coastal land are the predisposing factors that determine heavy rains and their resulting effects on the ground. This study analysed the characteristics of the main meteorological disasters that have hit Genoa since the start of the 20th century; changes in the rainfall regime are evaluated and the main stages of urbanization of the area are detailed, with the resulting changes to the drainage network, in order to identify the main causes of this high geohydrological risk. To this end, scientists have used climate data recorded at the station of Genoa University, in operation since 1833, and at Ponte Carrega station, located in the middle reach of the Bisagno stream, a well-known watercourse because of its frequent floods. Urban sprawl was evaluated through a multi-temporal mapping comparison, using maps available from the beginning of the 19th century up to the current regional technical maps. The average air temperature in Genoa shows a statistically significant increase, while the number of rainy days displays an equally clear decrease over time. The total annual rain value does not seem to indicate rather noticeable changes. The intensity of rain in Genoa expressed as rainfall rate, i.e.~the ratio of annual rainfall and number of rainy days, shows statistically significant growth. The geohydrological vulnerability in Genoa has increased over time due to urban development which has established modifications in land use, from agricultural to urban, especially in the valley floor. Waterways have been confined and reduced to artificial channels, often covered in their final stretch

  1. Feasibility of performing high resolution cloud-resolving simulations of historic extreme events: The San Fruttuoso (Liguria, italy) case of 1915.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parodi, Antonio; Boni, Giorgio; Ferraris, Luca; Gallus, William; Maugeri, Maurizio; Molini, Luca; Siccardi, Franco

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies show that highly localized and persistent back-building mesoscale convective systems represent one of the most dangerous flash-flood producing storms in the north-western Mediterranean area. Substantial warming of the Mediterranean Sea in recent decades raises concerns over possible increases in frequency or intensity of these types of events as increased atmospheric temperatures generally support increases in water vapor content. Analyses of available historical records do not provide a univocal answer, since these may be likely affected by a lack of detailed observations for older events. In the present study, 20th Century Reanalysis Project initial and boundary condition data in ensemble mode are used to address the feasibility of performing cloud-resolving simulations with 1 km horizontal grid spacing of a historic extreme event that occurred over Liguria (Italy): The San Fruttuoso case of 1915. The proposed approach focuses on the ensemble Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model runs, as they are the ones most likely to best simulate the event. It is found that these WRF runs generally do show wind and precipitation fields that are consistent with the occurrence of highly localized and persistent back-building mesoscale convective systems, although precipitation peak amounts are underestimated. Systematic small north-westward position errors with regard to the heaviest rain and strongest convergence areas imply that the Reanalysis members may not be adequately representing the amount of cool air over the Po Plain outflowing into the Liguria Sea through the Apennines gap. Regarding the role of historical data sources, this study shows that in addition to Reanalysis products, unconventional data, such as historical meteorological bulletins, newspapers and even photographs can be very valuable sources of knowledge in the reconstruction of past extreme events.

  2. Sensitivity analysis of seismic hazard for Western Liguria (North Western Italy): A first attempt towards the understanding and quantification of hazard uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barani, Simone; Spallarossa, Daniele; Bazzurro, Paolo; Eva, Claudio

    2007-05-01

    The use of logic trees in probabilistic seismic hazard analyses often involves a large number of branches that reflect the uncertainty in the selection of different models and in the selection of the parameter values of each model. The sensitivity analysis, as proposed by Rabinowitz and Steinberg [Rabinowitz, N., Steinberg, D.M., 1991. Seismic hazard sensitivity analysis: a multi-parameter approach. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 81, 796-817], is an efficient tool that allows the construction of logic trees focusing attention on the parameters that have greater impact on the hazard. In this paper the sensitivity analysis is performed in order to identify the parameters that have the largest influence on the Western Liguria (North Western Italy) seismic hazard. The analysis is conducted for six strategic sites following the multi-parameter approach developed by Rabinowitz and Steinberg [Rabinowitz, N., Steinberg, D.M., 1991. Seismic hazard sensitivity analysis: a multi-parameter approach. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 81, 796-817] and accounts for both mean hazard values and hazard values corresponding to different percentiles (e.g., 16%-ile and 84%-ile). The results are assessed in terms of the expected PGA with a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years for rock conditions and account for both the contribution from specific source zones using the Cornell approach [Cornell, C.A., 1968. Engineering seismic risk analysis. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 58, 1583-1606] and the spatially smoothed seismicity [Frankel, A., 1995. Mapping seismic hazard in the Central and Eastern United States. Seismol. Res. Lett. 66, 8-21]. The influence of different procedures for calculating seismic hazard, seismic catalogues (epicentral parameters), source zone models, frequency-magnitude parameters, maximum earthquake magnitude values and attenuation relationships is considered. As a result, the sensitivity analysis allows us to identify the parameters with higher influence on the hazard. Only these

  3. The Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Dynamics of Influenza B Virus in Two Italian Regions during 2010-2015: The Experience of Sicily and Liguria.

    PubMed

    Tramuto, Fabio; Orsi, Andrea; Maida, Carmelo Massimo; Costantino, Claudio; Trucchi, Cecilia; Alicino, Cristiano; Vitale, Francesco; Ansaldi, Filippo

    2016-04-13

    Molecular epidemiology of influenza B virus remained poorly studied in Italy, despite representing a major contributor to seasonal epidemics. This study aimed to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity of the hemagglutinin gene sequences of 197 influenza B strains circulating in both Southern (Sicily) and Northern (Liguria) Italy between 2010 and 2015. Upper respiratory tract specimens of patients displaying symptoms of influenza-like illness were screened by real-time RT-PCR assay for the presence of influenza B virus. PCR-positive influenza B samples were further analyzed by sequencing. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees were constructed and the amino-acid alignments were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed clusters in B/Victoria clade 1A/1B (n = 29, 14.7%), and B/Yamagata clades 2 (n = 112, 56.8%) and 3 (n = 56, 28.4%). Both influenza B lineages were found to co-circulate during the study period, although a lineage swap from B/Victoria to B/Yamagata occurred in Italy between January 2011 and January 2013. The most represented amino-acid substitutions were N116K in the 120-loop (83.9% of B/Yamagata clade 3 strains) and I146V in the 150-loop (89.6% of B/Victoria clade 1 strains). D197N in 190-helix was found in almost all viruses collected. Our findings provide further evidence to support the adoption of quadrivalent influenza vaccines in our country.

  4. Assessment of aflatoxin exposure of laboratory worker during food contamination analyses. Assessment of the procedures adopted by an A.R.P.A.L. laboratory (Liguria Region Environmental Protection Agency).

    PubMed

    Traverso, A; Bassoli, Viviana; Cioè, A; Anselmo, Silvia; Ferro, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins derived from foodstuffs colonized by fungal species of the genus Aspergillus; they are common food contaminants with immunosuppressive, mutagenic and carcinogenic activity. Aflatoxins are heat-resistant and are thus easily transmitted along the food chain. They are hepatotoxic and have the potential to induce hepatocellular carcinoma. Agri-food industry workers are thus at risk of ingestion as well as transmucosal absorption or inhalation of toxins released during product preparation or processing. To measure the levels of airborne mycotoxins, particularly aflatoxins, in a laboratory analysing imported foodstuffs for mycotoxin contamination. The protocol used to analyse a batch of shelled peanuts from Vietnam, especially the grinding phase, which is held to be at the highest risk ofgenerating airborne toxins, was assessed at the A.R.PA.L. laboratory (Liguria Region Environmental Protection Agency) of Genoa, Italy, which participates in a European aflatoxin monitoring project. Wet grinding was performed to avoid production of large amounts of dust. Comparison of airborne concentrations before and after grinding with legal thresholds disclosed that the analytical procedures involved negligible aflatoxin levels for operators (environmental burden 0.11 pg/ m3). Given the toxicity of aflatoxins, worker protection measures should be consistently adopted and enforced. Threshold limit values for working environments should be introduced besides the existing ones for public health.

  5. Active Ageing and Active Citizenship in Liguria: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Liguria has the oldest age structure in Europe because of a low birth rate and long lifespans and therefore is a very interesting laboratory region in which to experiment with active ageing policies. The generations that are now approaching retirement hold a high level of personal and professional resources; so the "new" elderly people…

  6. Active Ageing and Active Citizenship in Liguria: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Liguria has the oldest age structure in Europe because of a low birth rate and long lifespans and therefore is a very interesting laboratory region in which to experiment with active ageing policies. The generations that are now approaching retirement hold a high level of personal and professional resources; so the "new" elderly people…

  7. Bullous pemphigoid in Liguria: a 2-year survey.

    PubMed

    Cozzani, E; Parodi, A; Rebora, A; Delmonte, S; Barile, M; Nigro, A; Priano, L; Troiano, G; Patri, P L

    2001-07-01

    The epidemiology of bullous pemphigoid (BP) is not clear because of the heterogeneity of the disease, and its possible association with internal malignancies has been under debate for many years. We report the findings of a 2-year study on incident BP cases in the Liguria region of Italy. Thirty-two patients with BP were collected over the 2-year period. Diagnosis was made based on clinical findings and confirmed by histology, direct immunofluorescence (DIF) and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) with salt-split skin and monkey oesophagus, and immunoblotting (IB). All patients were thoroughly investigated for possible malignancies and all were followed up for 6 months to monitor the response to treatment. DIF showed linear deposits at the dermoepidermal junction in all but one patient. IIF gave positive findings for 15 sera tested with monkey oesophagus and 20 tested with salt-split skin. IB gave positive findings in 19 cases. There was a malignancy in six cases, but no clinical or immunological features that could be considered to predict this occurrence. The findings of this study are in accordance with most of the data found in the literature, including the fact that IgG serum levels did not predict the course of the disease. Contrary to previous indications, IgE levels were not indicative of disease course either. Mucosal lesions, erythema multiform-like lesions, negative IIF findings and antibodies to AgPB2 were not a prediction for the development of malignancy.

  8. Effect of temperature on the release and remobilization of ecotoxic elements in AMD colloidal precipitates: the example of the Libiola copper mine, Liguria, (Italy).

    PubMed

    Consani, S; Carbone, C; Salviulo, G; Zorzi, F; Dinelli, E; Botter, R; Nodari, L; Badocco, D; Lucchetti, G

    2016-07-01

    Due to their characteristics, colloidal particles are able to control the dispersion of many organic and inorganic pollutants in soils and streams. Colloidal precipitates generated by acid mine drainage (AMD) process are usually amorphous or nanocrystalline materials, and their stability plays a crucial role in controlling the fate of metals released by sulphide oxydation. This paper describes a study of elements release (Fe, Al, Mn, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, S, Zn) due to desorption or destabilization of three different colloidal precipitates, two ochreous and a greenish-blue precipitate, sampled at the Libiola mine site (northwest Italy). The samples were heated at high temperature in order to verify this treatment as inertization process. At room temperature, the most easily extracted element was S (with released percentages from 8.39 to 29.17 %), but considerable amounts of Cu, Zn and Mn (up to 16.6, 610.6 and 595.6 mg/kg, respectively) were also observed in the leachates for greenish-blue precipitates. The highest release of elements (S > Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd > Co, Ni > Al, Fe, Cr), with minor differences depending on the mineralogical composition of the samples, was observed for heat-treated samples obtained through moderate heating and mainly formed by anhydrous phases. Samples treated at high temperature had the lowest release, with only Cu showing a significant concentration in the leachate of greenish-blue precipitates. The results showed that dissolution/desorption is limited from ochreous natural colloidal precipitates occurring at the Libiola mine site but also that high amounts of some metals can be remobilized from greenish-blue precipitates. The destabilization of all percipitates through dehydratation-dehydroxylation can further remobilize important amounts of ecotoxic elements. Heat treatment at high temperature could be a definitive, although expensive, way to fix heavy metals in the solid fraction, preventing their dispersion in the surrounding

  9. Italy. Section 23. Weather and Climate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1953-09-01

    Tramontana . . . . . .. ...... . 23- 6 (4) Foehn . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. 6 3, Regional discussion of climate ....... . . 23- 6 a. Italian Alps...all of Italy, the Po Valley a cold front, has the most extreme climate. Winters are cild, (4) Poehn - The foehn is a. downslope wind cloudy, and...in Liguria and northern noon. In the western part of the valley, the foggy Tuscany, The foehn is usually associated with the weather may persist for

  10. Health promotion in Local Health Unit 4 Chiavarese--Liguria Region, Italy. "Unplugged" project: needs, methodology and implementation.

    PubMed

    Carpi, A; Ferrari Bravo, M; Poggi, L; Chiesa, S; Costa, A; De Leo, A; Rebolini, G; Gabutti, G

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to use and evaluate the unplugged project, a school-based program of proven effectiveness aimed at the prevention of substance abuse based on social influence. This project was conducted during the school-year 2011/2012; it involved the Local Health Unit (LHU)'s personnel specifically and adequately formed and was addressed to teachers working in the three districts of the LHU4 Chiavarese. The courses involved teachers in three consecutive days and provided both theoretical inputs and practical exercises designed to enpower skills and to make the same effective. As a whole, 25 teachers of the secondary schools (public and private) of first and second level were trained. Following the training, 14 curricular courses have been launched and 286 students have been involved. The teachers have mainly worked on personal and social components of their students, stimulating their critical assessment of standards and skills potentially transferable in everyday life. The benefits for students have been: establishment of the classroom, positive relationship with the teacher, empathy, decrease of conflicts, increased self-awareness and self-esteem, better school results. Besides, teachers benefit from increased respect, self-reliance and confidence, as well as acquisition of new skills. Both the interest shown by teachers and the results achieved in classrooms have stimulated school leadership and personnel belonging to LHU4 Chiavarese to plan a new edition of the program the next autumn.

  11. Veneto Region, Italy. Health system review.

    PubMed

    Toniolo, Franco; Mantoan, Domenico; Maresso, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. This HiT is one of the first to be written on a subnational level of government and focuses on the Veneto Region of northern Italy. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The Veneto Region is one of Italy's richest regions and the health of its resident population compares favourably with other regions in Italy. Life expectancy for both men and women, now at 79.1 and 85.2 years, respectively, is slightly higher than the national average, while mortality rates are comparable to national ones. The major causes of death are tumours and cardiovascular diseases. Under Italy's National Health Service, the organization and provision of health care is a regional responsibility and regions must provide a nationally defined (with regional input) basic health benefit package to all of their citizens; extra services may be provided if budgets allow. Health care is mainly financed by earmarked central and regional taxes, with regions receiving their allocated share of resources from the National Health Fund. Historically, health budget deficits have been a major problem in most Italian regions, but since the early 2000s the introduction of efficiency measures and tighter procedures on financial management have contributed to a significant decrease in the Veneto Regions health budget deficit.The health system is governed by the Veneto Region government (Giunta) via the Departments of Health and Social Services, which receive technical support from a single General Management Secretariat. Health care is

  12. 9 CFR 94.13 - Restrictions on importation of pork or pork products from specified regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER, SWINE VESICULAR DISEASE, AND BOVINE SPONGIFORM ENCEPHALOPATHY: PROHIBITED...), Yugoslavia, and the Regions in Italy of Friuli, Liguria, Marche, and Valle d'Aosta are declared free of swine...

  13. Regional sinkhole susceptibility maps: The Latium Region case (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Vigna, F.; Teoli, P.; Mazza, R.; Leoni, G.; Capelli, G.

    2012-04-01

    Several and frequent studies were internationally presented about landslide susceptibility, meanwhile in literature is missing a broad diffusion of studies regarding sinkhole susceptibility. That's why sinkhole recurrence depends on several geological conditions related to specific geological and hydrogeological context (sinkhole prone area) that vary case by case. Notwithstanding this regionalization problem of sinkhole recurrence, in the central Appenine sedimentary basins (Italy) a certain number of geological, geomorphologic and hydrogeological conditions (sinkhole predisposing issues) can be considered in common between the surveyed sinkholes. Eventually this could be compared with similar geological conditions and sinkhole occurrence in the rest of Italy or in other countries. In this case study is presented a probabilistic approach regarding the Latium Region deriving from the comparison between the regional sinkhole inventory realized during a precedent project and the dataset of the new Hydrogeological Map of Latium Region (scale 1:100.000). Indexed elements, chosen because associated to the majority of sinkhole phenomena, are: outcropping lithologies, water table depth, main faults (even if buried), hydrothermal springs, land use and the epicentres of recent earthquakes. These indexed elements were weighted and combined in a matrix which preliminary result is the sinkhole susceptibility map of Latium Region. When definitively validated, this approach could be suitable for local authorities to planning more targeted studies in major hazard areas.

  14. [Acute pancreatitis hospitalization in Veneto Region, Italy].

    PubMed

    Saia, M; Pietrobon, F

    2009-01-01

    The incidence rate of acute pancreatitis (AP) has been reported as having increased during recent decades and associated mortality lies around 10%. This study was undertaken to establish the current AP hospitalization and mortality rates in Veneto Region. A retrospective study of all cases of acute pancreatitis admitted in hospital between 2000 and 2007 was carried out in all Veneto population. Data concerning patients discharged with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis (ICD 9-CM code: 577.0) were obtained from the Regional data warehouse and analysed on a computer database. Altogether 11,685 discharges for AP were recorded; median age of the patients was 61.6 +/- 20.3 years. The mean annual AP hospitalization rate was 30.6 per 100,000 and in-hospital annual mortality rate (death from all causes) was 1.1 per 100,000 population. Hospitalization and mortality rates were larger in older and increased sharply with age. Hospital admissions for AP rose from 29.3 in 2000 to 32.2 per 100,000 population in 2007 without significative variations in mortality rate probably due to the increase of effectiveness and quality of care. The AP hospitalization rate in Veneto population is comparable to what has been found elsewhere in Italy and AP remains an increasing disease with high mortality.

  15. High-resolution analysis of 1 day extreme precipitation in a wet area centred over eastern Liguria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolini, Andrea; Brunetti, Michele; Maugeri, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    The north of Tuscany and eastern Liguria have experienced several exceptional precipitation episodes and floods during the last century, with serious damage to human life and the environment. In recent years, the damage related to these extreme events appears to increase. In this context, we perform a detailed investigation of observed 1-day precipitation extremes and their frequency distribution, based on a dense data set of high-quality, homogenized station records in 1951-2010. Our dataset is composed of about 800 precipitation series coming from the databases of various regional agencies of central and northern Italy (ARPA Emilia Romagna, ARPA Liguria, SIR Toscana and ARPA Piemonte). As well as for any other meteorological measure, physical signals in raw precipitation data series are often hidden behind measuring errors and non-climatic noise caused mainly by station relocation and changes in instruments, in the environment around the station or in the observing conventions. Therefore, we developed specific codes to control the possible outliers, identify periods of failure and malfunction of the weather station, and to control of the values recorded after periods of missing data (suspected cumulative values). Finally, we have subjected the longer series to the Craddock homogeneity test to verify the relative homogeneity of the records and, if necessary, we have homogenized them, to remove all signals of non-climatic origin. After this process of control and homogenization of the data, we have about 400 validated precipitation series available for the study area centred on the eastern Liguria (8.25°E - 43.50 °N to 11.00°E - 45.00 °N, of about 30.000 km2) that we use to estimate very high quantiles (return levels) corresponding to 10-, 50- and 100-year return periods, as predicted by a generalized extreme value distribution. Return level estimates are produced on a regular high-resolution grid (30 arcsec) using a variant of regional frequency analysis

  16. International cooperation and networking in genetic health care provision: issues arising from the genetic services plan for the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Calzolari, E; Baroncini, A

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this report are to describe the genetic plan for Emilia-Romagna, a region in Italy, and to contribute to the international exchange of information on developing and applying policy frameworks to provide high-quality and comprehensive genetic health care in the publicly funded health systems. At the present time there is no national policy for genetic medicine in Italy, and only two regions, Emilia-Romagna and Liguria, have formally agreed to a strategic plan for health care in genetics. The current provision of genetic services in Emilia-Romagna is described focusing on the intra- and inter-organizational linkages to ensure a comprehensive system of coordinated activities. Strengths and implementation areas are highlighted. Points that must be solved within the regional or national context are the definition of the level of assistance required in genetic medicine, the formal professional recognition of the genetic counselor and the adjustment of the billing mechanisms to the complexities of clinical genetic services. Issues that need to be addressed at a wider level include full assessment of genetic tests before their introduction into clinical practice, networking to provide tests for the rarest genetic diseases, consensus on fundamental terminology and clinical and administrative data sets to promote a cohesive framework for the flow of information throughout the health care systems with respect to genetics.

  17. Regional Development and Vocational Training. Development of Human Resources in Regions of Economic Reconversion Benefiting from Community Financial Support. Regional Monographs (Lorraine, Northern England, Province of Limburg, South-West of Ireland, Liguria, Andalusia). First Edition. CEDEFOP Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (West Germany).

    This publication contains monographs on vocational training and regional development for six regions of the European Communities. The monograph on Lorraine (France) by Gerard Calais describes basic training structures, redeployment policies, requalification of job seekers, and coordination of training efforts. Profiles of development technicians…

  18. Post-stroke rehabilitation in Italy: inconsistencies across regional strategies.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, D; Spallazzi, M; Baldereschi, M; Di Carlo, A; Ferro, S; Rota E Morelli, N; Immovilli, P; Toni, D; Polizzi, B M; Inzitari, D

    2014-06-01

    Remarkable differences among European countries have been found in stroke rehabilitation models, owing to the fact that stroke rehabilitation services are embedded in health care systems. Comprehensive data on service utilization by stroke survivors in Italy are lacking, but would be instrumental in improving efficiency and effectiveness of post-acute stroke care, and consequently, in containing costs and improving outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to survey the Italian regional legislations in order to examine the provision of rehabilitation services for stroke survivors in Italy. This is a cross-sectional, observational study. Post-stroke intra- and extra-hospital rehabilitation. All decrees and resolutions as to post-acute stroke rehabilitation were collected from each Italian region. All decrees and resolutions were examined by the means of a check list including quantitative and qualitative characteristics, selected in accordance with national official recommendations. Each completed check list was then sent to each regional reference person, who filled in the section on the implementation of the indications and compliance. The study was carried out from November 2009 to September 2010. The documents were collected from 19 out of the 20 Italian regions. The results of the study indicate that there are many, remarkable regional variations in health policies concerning post-stroke care. Instruments for evaluation and criteria for allocating stroke patients to proper rehabilitation setting vary across regions, but data on the potential impact of these variations on clinical outcomes are still lacking. The study highlights the issue that, in Italy, delivery of post-stroke rehabilitation services is not uniform nation-wide and varies substantially across regions. The lack of a comprehensive post-acute stroke strategy is a major obstacle to service availability. The study results advocate the need for a consistent and comprehensive strategic planning of

  19. Trends of influenza B during the 2010-2016 seasons in 2 regions of north and south Italy: The impact of the vaccine mismatch on influenza immunisation strategy.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Andrea; Colomba, Giuseppina Maria Elena; Pojero, Fanny; Calamusa, Giuseppe; Alicino, Cristiano; Trucchi, Cecilia; Canepa, Paola; Ansaldi, Filippo; Vitale, Francesco; Tramuto, Fabio

    2017-07-14

    Influenza A and B viruses are responsible for respiratory infections, representing globally seasonal threats to human health. The 2 viral types often co-circulate and influenza B plays an important role in the spread of infection. A 6-year retrospective surveillance study was conducted between 2010 and 2016 in 2 large administrative regions of Italy, located in the north (Liguria) and in the south (Sicily) of the country, to describe the burden and epidemiology of both B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages in different healthcare settings. Influenza B viruses were detected in 5 of 6 seasonal outbreaks, exceeding influenza A during the season 2012-2013. Most of influenza B infections were found in children aged ≤ 14 y and significant differences were observed in the age-groups infected by the different lineages. B/Victoria strains prevailed in younger population than B/Yamagata, but also were more frequently found in the community setting. Conversely, B/Yamagata viruses were prevalent among hospitalized cases suggesting their potential role in the development of more severe disease. The relative proportions of viral lineages varied from year to year, resulting in different lineage-level mismatch for the B component of trivalent influenza vaccine. Our findings confirmed the need for continuous virological surveillance of seasonal epidemics and bring attention to the adoption of universal influenza immunization program in the childhood. The use of tetravalent vaccine formulations may be useful to improve the prevention and control of the influenza burden in general population.

  20. Estimating temporal changes in extreme rainfall in Sicily Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, Brunella; Aronica, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    An intensification of extreme rainfall events have characterized several areas of peninsular and insular Italy since the early 2000s, suggesting an upward ongoing trend likely driven by climate change. In the present study temporal changes in 1-, 3-, 6-, 12- and 24-hour annual maxima rainfall series from more than 200 sites in Sicily region (Italy) are examined. A regional study is performed in order to reduce the uncertainty in change detection related to the limited length of the available records of extreme rainfall series. More specifically, annual maxima series are treated according to a regional flood index - type approach to frequency analysis, by assuming stationarity on a decadal time scale. First a cluster analysis using at-site characteristics is used to determine homogeneous rainfall regions. Then, potential changes in regional L-moment ratios are analyzed using a 10-year moving window. Furthermore, the shapes of regional growth curves, derived by splitting the records into separate decades, are compared. In addition, a jackknife procedure is used to assess uncertainty in the fitted growth curves and to identify significant trends in quantile estimates. Results reveal that, despite L-moment ratios show a general decreasing trend and that growth curves corresponding to the last decade (2000-2009) are usually less steep than the ones of the previous periods, rainfall quantile estimates have increased during the 2000s due to a large increase in regional average median, mainly in Western Sicily.

  1. Regional frequency analysis of extreme precipitation for Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestieri, Angelo; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley; Lo Conti, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of extreme precipitation has always been included among most relevant hydrological applications because of the several important activities linked to the availability of tools for the estimation of extreme rainfall quantiles. These activities include the design of hydraulic civil structures and the evaluation and management of hydraulic and hydrological risk. In this study a frequency analysis of annual maxima precipitation measurements has been carried out for the area of Sicily (Italy). A typical hierarchical regional approach has been adopted for the parameter estimation procedure based on the L-moments method. The identification of homogeneous regions within the procedure has been pursued with a data driven procedure constituted by a principal component analysis of an ensemble of selected auxiliary variables, and a K-means cluster analysis algorithm. Auxiliary variables comprise meteo-climatic information and a representation of the average seasonal distribution of intense events. Results have been evaluated by means of a Monte Carlo experiment based on the comparison between at-site and regional fitted frequency distributions. Moreover, results have been compared with previous analyses performed for the same area. The study provides an updated tool for the modelling of extreme precipitation for the area of Sicily (Italy), with different features respect to previous tools both in terms of definition of homogeneous zones and in terms of parameters of the frequency distribution. Meteo-climatic information and the seasonality of extreme events retrieved from the dataset has been proficuously exploited in the analysis.

  2. Improving regional universal newborn hearing screening programmes in Italy.

    PubMed

    Molini, E; Cristi, M C; Lapenna, R; Calzolaro, L; Muzzi, E; Ciciriello, E; Della Volpe, A; Orzan, E; Ricci, G

    2016-02-01

    The Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) programme aims at achieving early detection of hearing impairment. Subsequent diagnosis and intervention should follow promptly. Within the framework of the Ministry of Health project CCM 2013 "Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children", the limitations and strengths of current UNHS programs in Italy have been analysed by a group of professionals working in tertiary centres involved in regional UNHS programmes, using SWOT analysis and a subsequent TOWS matrix. Coverage and lost-to-follow up rates are issues related to UNHS programmes. Recommendations to improve the effectiveness of the UNHS programme have been identified. The need for homogeneous policies, high-quality information and dissemination of knowledge for operators and families of hearing-impaired children emerged from the discussion. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale.

  3. [Malaria and memory in the Veneto region of Italy].

    PubMed

    Pegoraro, Manuela; Crotti, Daniele

    2009-09-01

    Malaria and emigration are two terms deeply embedded in Veneto history, related to images far back in the past, unknown to younger generations. Losing one's own collective historical memory is a source of personal and cultural impoverishment and inevitably compromises one's awareness of the present, possibly leading to superficial judgements and hastily formed opinions. Such a situation is all the more serious in a geographical area, north-eastern Italy, where immigration is so abundant. In this paper the authors seek to retrieve, at least in part, this memory, especially in terms of history (to what extent malaria afflicted residents in Veneto and migrants from the region) and biology (how much imprinting from malaria has remained in the native population's genetic make-up).

  4. Italy.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    For "Background Notes" on Italy, the U.S. State Department, Bureau of Public Affairs, covers geography, people, history, government, politics, economy, defense and foreign relations. Italy had 57.3 million persons in 1986, with a growth rate of 2.3%. The life expectancy is 73 years; the infant mortality rate is 14.3/1000 live births. 98% of the people are literate. The current constitutional republic has existed since 1948. Mean per capita income is $6,447. The people work mainly in services (60%), industry (30%) and agriculture (10%). Most of the country is mountainous, without significant food, energy or natural resources, so Italy's central position in the Mediterranean has influenced economic development since ancient times. The nation is highly homogeneous, as the government is centralized. Although there are several influential political parties, the diverse structure of the Christian Democrats has given them power since the war. The current prime minister, Bettino Craxi, is a member of the centralist Italian Socialist Party. The Italian Communist Party is the largest such party in the free world, polling 30% of the vote in 1983. Italy is a member of NATO.

  5. Analysis of extreme hydrological phenomena in southern Italy (Calabria region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caloiero, Tommaso; Aceto, Luigi; Aurora Pasqua, A.; Petrucci, Olga

    2017-04-01

    Calabria (southern Italy) is a region exposed to the effects of contrasting climatic and hydrological phenomena. In fact, due to its oblong shape, to its position in the middle of the Mediterranean Basin, and for its mountainous nature, Calabria shows a high spatial variability of the climatic features and of related phenomena such as floods and drought. The present paper is based on the historical database ASICal (Historically flooded areas in Calabria), a catalogue of effects of floods and rain-related landslides that occurred in the region since the XIX Century. The catalogue has been built using the typical historical data sources as chronicles, diaries, historical books, local and regional agencies, press archives, scientific papers, and documents of civil protection offices. From these sources, we selected information on damage caused by rain related phenomena at a municipal scale and chronologically sorted by year, month and day. The analysis of the entire catalogue allows highlighting the regional Damaging Hydrogeological Events (DHE), defined as periods of intense rain causing damage on regional sectors conventionally selected as larger than 30% of the entire regional territory. For each event, as a measure of the magnitude of rainfall, the return period of the daily rainfall recorded during the event has been evaluated. In addition, we recently carried out a similar historical research to identify the main drought events affecting the region. In this case, due to the spatial and temporal characteristics of drought, data are collected both at municipal and regional scale, and the temporal scale is generally monthly or annual. For each event, we used as climatic descriptors a drought index for monitoring drought phenomena. Among drought indices, we used the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) which can be considered the most robust and effective, since it can be calculated for different time-scales and can be used to analyse different drought categories

  6. [Management of gastrointestinal bleeding in Veneto Region, Italy].

    PubMed

    Saia, M; Callegaro, G; Pilerci, C; Pietrobon, F

    2010-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding (GB) is still a common medical emergency and an important cause of morbidity and mortality. There is clear evidence that early endoscopic intervention is effective in reducing mortality, length of stay and surgery procedures utilization in high-risk patients. In the last decades advances in medical practice and in endoscopic technology have influenced the management of GB, but their impact on the incidence and mortality is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate retrospectively time trends (2000-2007) in GB hospitalizations and in-hospital mortality, and describe the organization of endoscopic services of Veneto region, Italy. Data were collected from regional database of hospital discharge from 2000 to 2007 and all patients with an ICD 9-CM discharge diagnosis of GB were included. Overall hospitalization and in-hospital mortality rates were respectively 99.3 and 4.5 per 100.000 inh./year, the last being related to older age. Surgery procedures utilization was 5%. Hospitalization and mortality rates decreased significantly over years, probably owing to advances in the acute management of GB, principally represented by endoscopic procedures.

  7. The effect of regional politics on regional life expectancy in Italy (1980-2010).

    PubMed

    Jonker, Marcel F; D'Ippolito, Edoardo; Eikemo, Terje A; Congdon, Peter D; Nante, Nicola; Mackenbach, Johan P; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M

    2017-03-01

    The evidence on the association between politics and health is scarce considering the importance of this topic for population health. Studies that investigated the effect of different political regimes on health outcomes show inconsistent results. Bayesian time-series cross-section analyses are used to examine the overall impact of regional politics on variations in Italian regional life expectancy (LE) at birth during the period 1980-2010. Our analyses control for trends in and unobserved determinants of regional LE, correct for temporal as well as spatial autocorrelation, and employ a flexible specification for the timing of the political effects. In the period from 1980 to 1995, we find no evidence that the communist, left-oriented coalitions and Christian Democratic, centre-oriented coalitions have had an effect on regional LE. In the period from 1995 onwards, after a major reconfiguration of Italy's political regimes and a major healthcare reform, we again find no evidence that the Centre-Left and Centre-Right coalitions have had a significant impact on regional LE. The presented results provide no support for the notion that different regional political regimes in Italy have had a differential effect on regional LE, even though Italian regions have had considerable and increasing autonomy over healthcare and health-related policies and expenditures.

  8. Mortality pattern of silicotic subjects in the Latium region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Forastiere, F; Lagorio, S; Michelozzi, P; Perucci, C A; Axelson, O

    1989-12-01

    A mortality study was carried out on 595 workers who were compensated for silicosis in the Latium region, Italy, during the period 1946-84 who died between 1 January 1969 and 31 December 1984. Respiratory disorders, tuberculosis, lung cancer, bone cancer, and cirrhosis of the liver showed significantly increased risk ratios (4.1, 3.7, 1.5, 4.1, and 1.9 respectively); excesses of brain cancer and leukaemia did not reach statistical significance. Lung cancer mortality was further analysed by age, period of compensation, final degree of disability, and occupational activity. The possible confounding role of smoking was assessed by comparing the lifetime smoking habits of a sample of silicotic subjects with those of the general male population as estimated by a national health survey; the prevalence of ever smokers among silicotic subjects (70.7%) was similar to that estimated for the general population (68.5%). The present study indicates that silicosis is associated with lung cancer even though it does not clarify the respective roles of exposure to silica and silicosis.

  9. Increased incidence of multiple sclerosis in the Veneto region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Puthenparampil, M; Seppi, D; Rinaldi, F; Federle, L; Calabrese, M; Perini, P; Gallo, P

    2013-04-01

    To what extent the progressive increase in the incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) observed in the province of Padova over the period 1970-1999 was an expression of a real increased risk of developing MS remained unclear. The objective of this paper is to update the epidemiological figures of MS and probe whether the risk of having MS has increased in the province of Padova during the decade 2000-2009. All patients born in Italy and having a diagnosis of MS or possible MS identified through analysis of all available sources of information were included in the study. The incidence and prevalence rates between 2000 and 2009 were obtained and compared with our previously published data. On 31 December 2009, the overall prevalence was 139.5/100,000, 192.0 ± 9.5 for females and 83.9 ± 6.3 for males. During the decade 2000-2009, the overall incidence rate of MS was 5.5 ± 0.5, 7.4 ± 0.8 for females and 3.5 ± 0.6 for males. The onset-diagnosis delay, the female/male ratio and the mean age at onset did not significantly change compared to the prior period of observation. Our findings support the hypothesis of a real increased risk of developing MS in the province of Padova. Moreover, the actual prevalence of 1.4/1000 makes our region a high-risk geographical area for MS. The role played by exogenous factors in determining susceptibility to MS needs to be thoroughly investigated.

  10. Nowcasting and assessing thunderstorm risk on the Lombardy region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonelli, P.; Marcacci, P.; Bertolotti, E.; Collino, E.; Stella, G.

    2011-06-01

    The problem of severe thunderstorm risk in the Lombardy region (Italy) is serious. In fact during the warm season many thunderstorms (TS) occur in high density populated area located between the river Po and the Alps. In the year 2003, about 90 TS caused damage to people, houses, cars, agriculture and electrical lines. About 30 municipalities undergo damage by tornadoes. The 2003 summer was not particularly anomalous with respect to others for TS activity. In this region storms are well detected by some C-band radars and the Meteosat satellites, but the study of the correlation between these variables and the TS severity needs the collection of many met-data at the ground. Unfortunately the lack of a fine mesh met-station network forces the use of local press news or subjective reports to identify the impact of TS. Since 2006 ERSE has been collaborating with the Lombardy Region - Civil Protection Service/Office - in developing and testing a system to detect and nowcast severe thunderstorms, STAF (Storm Track Alert and Forecast). STAF is a nowcasting tool based on Radar and MSG (Meteosat Second Generation) data that selects only severe TS, tracks them and produces alert messages to users. In order to evaluate the severity of a TS, a crucial issue for STAF is the correlation between variables detected by the remote-sensing instruments and the effects at the ground. The paper describes a method to classify the severity of a TS by computing an index named "probability of damage" (PD). The index has been carried out by means of a storm archive, where radar and satellite data are stored together with damages reports from newspapers, all collected in 2003 summer. The index has been verified during the 2009 summer, when STAF was applied in a field test involving a group of Civil Protection observers and users. The results of this test are reported in the paper. The test has been also an occasion for verifying the effectiveness of information provided by STAF to selected

  11. Fractal scaling of landslide distribution in the Umbria Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liucci, Luisa; Melelli, Laura; Ponziani, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    The application of the fractal theory has made a great contribution to the understanding of surface processes governing landscape evolution. In this study we focus on landslide events, which also have critical implications in Natural Hazard assessment. Several works have shown that landslides can be described as processes characterized by self-organized criticality. Based on this, the distribution of landslides in the Umbria Region (Central Italy) was analysed by means of fractal techniques. Statistical self-similarity in space was investigated by applying the box-counting method and the Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm to the inventory map of landslide trigger points. Results showed the existence of fractal scaling and provided an estimate of the Capacity Dimension (D0) and Correlation Dimension (D2) of the sample, the latter expressed as the mean regional value. The characteristic minimum distance of landslides was extrapolated from the lower scaling limit for D0. In order to investigate the spatial pattern of landslides, artificial point maps were generated. Three different distributions were imposed on the points: i) uniform distribution, ii) random distribution and iii) cluster distribution. The box-counting method was applied to each distribution and the calculated Capacity Dimensions were compared with that of the natural sample. Results showed that landslides in the Umbria Region display spatial clustering. In addition, the D0 measured for the uniform distribution, lower than 2, highlights that the statement that a D0 equal to 2 indicates a uniform distribution of points in a 2-dimensional space must be carefully considered on a case by case basis, since the shape of the embedding space strongly affects its value. Additional analyses were carried out to address the problem of the 'edge effect' in the computation of D2, which results in the underestimation of its value and may lead to incorrect interpretations of the statistical distribution of points. We

  12. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in coastal areas: lessons learned from applications in Liguria, NW Mediterranean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovere, A.; Casella, E.; Pedroncini, A.; Mucerino, L.; Casella, M.; Cusati, L. A.; Vacchi, M.; Ferrari, M.; Firpo, M.

    2014-12-01

    In 2013 we started to apply small UAVs to the study of coastal areas in Liguria, NW Mediterranean Sea. In this region monitoring coastal evolution and the impact of sea storms is a primary administrative need, as a large part of the economic income derives from summer tourism. In two years, we accumulated almost 200 hours of flight with two different UAVs, a professional-grade Mikrokopter Okto and a consumer-grade Phantom DJI. We used photogrammetric and orthorectification techniques to obtain Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and orthophotos of different beaches in the region. Data from UAVs allowed us to answer several questions. What is the accuracy of DEMs obtained from UAVs in low-relief areas such as beaches? What are the problems encountered in the photogrammetric procedure near the shoreline? Are the results obtained with consumer-grade UAVs comparable to those obtained with professional-grade ones? Aside from these technical questions, we used the data obtained from UAVs for different local studies aimed at giving management tools to the local administrations. We used the cloudpoint obtained from DEMs and the orthophotos to set up a runup modelling chain, to detect short-term changes in the coastal zone, and to give a first estimate of the debris deposited on the beach after a major storm. As stated by Watts et al., 2012 (Remote Sensing 4, 1671-1692) the application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and photogrammetry techniques in earth sciences is flourishing, and has the potential to revolutionize the study of geomorphology. Surely, UAVs opened new research perspectives for our group, which has been actively working on coastal changes in Liguria for almost 25 years.

  13. Comparative analysis of antibacterial properties and chemical composition of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. from Astrakhan region (Russia) and Calabria region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Astaf'eva, O V; Sukhenko, L T

    2014-04-01

    We compared antibacterial activity of various extracts of two licorice subspecies against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis. Diethyl carbonate extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra root from Astrakhan region (Russia) exhibited maximum activity against the test microbial strains; activity of Astrakhan licorice was superior among 50% ethanol extracts from Astrakhan (Russia) and Calabria (Italy). Antibacterial activity is directly proportional to the content of glycyrrhizin and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid in the extracts. According to preliminary data, the content of these chemical components in Glycyrrhiza glabra root from Astrakhan region is higher than in licorice growing in Italy, which is presumably related to climate and geographic characteristics of Astrakhan region.

  14. Promoting ICT Entrepreneurship in the Campania Region of Italy: A Network of Academic Incubators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corti, Eugenio; Torello, Rita Ilenia

    2004-01-01

    The government of the Campania region in southern Italy has established a technology transfer centre for the information and communications technology (ICT) sector. The Regional Centre for ICT Competencies (RCICT) promotes the transfer of ICT to local small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and encourages the creation of new knowledge-based…

  15. Promoting ICT Entrepreneurship in the Campania Region of Italy: A Network of Academic Incubators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corti, Eugenio; Torello, Rita Ilenia

    2004-01-01

    The government of the Campania region in southern Italy has established a technology transfer centre for the information and communications technology (ICT) sector. The Regional Centre for ICT Competencies (RCICT) promotes the transfer of ICT to local small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and encourages the creation of new knowledge-based…

  16. Albanian: The Albanian Language in Education in Italy. Regional Dossiers Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belluscio, Giovanni, Comp.

    2010-01-01

    This regional dossier aims to provide concise, descriptive information and basic educational statistics about minority language education in a specific region of Europe--"Arberishtja" of Italy. Aspects that are addressed include features of the education system, recent educational policies, main actors, legal arrangements, and support…

  17. Adolescents in southern regions of Italy adhere to the Mediterranean diet more than those in the northern regions.

    PubMed

    Noale, Marianna; Nardi, Mariateresa; Limongi, Federica; Siviero, Paola; Caregaro, Lorenza; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Maggi, Stefania

    2014-09-01

    There is a large amount of literature regarding the benefits of the Mediterranean diet in the adult population; however, there is growing curiosity about the individuals who naturally adhere to those principles early in life. The "Evaluation of Dietary Habits in Adolescents," carried out by the National Research Council of Italy in 2009, is a survey that aimed to assess the dietary habits and lifestyles of Italian adolescents and their adherence to the Mediterranean diet. We hypothesized that there would be differences across regions, with a higher adherence in Southern Italy compared with Northern Italy based on geography. The survey was conducted in 3 different geographic locations in Italy and included a convenience sample of adolescents who attended either a middle or high school. The participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning demographic data, lifestyle factors, and eating patterns, and scores were assigned according to adherence to the Mediterranean diet, as calculated using Trichopoulou's Mediterranean diet scale. The final sample included 565 adolescents, between 12 and 19 years old, who attended school in the northeastern, northwestern, or southern regions of Italy in 2009. According to the findings, 38.6% of the respondents had scores indicating a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet, whereas only 14% had scores showing a high adherence. Teenagers from the Southern region showed the highest adherence. Those with a high adherence to the Mediterranean diet consumed higher quantities of fiber, iron, vitamin B6, vitamin C, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin D, and monounsaturated fats.

  18. The way forward in Italy for iodine.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Antonella; DI Cosmo, Caterina; DE Angelis, Simona; DA Cas, Roberto; Stacchini, Paolo; Pastorelli, Augusto; Vitti, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Italy is dealing with iodine deficiency since ancient times. In 1848 an ad hoc committee appointed by the king of Sardinia, identified extensive areas afflicted by endemic goiter and endemic cretinism in Piedmont, Liguria and Sardinia. Since then many epidemiological studies have been conducted in our country. These showed that iodine deficiency was present not only in mountain areas but also in coastal areas. In 1972 the iodization of salt at 15 mg/kg was allowed by law and iodized salt was distributed on request to selected endemic areas. Five years later the distribution was extended to the whole country. However the sale of iodized salt was not mandatory at that time and only a small fraction of the Italian population started using iodized salt. In 1991 the content of iodine in the salt was raised to 30 mg/kg and in 2005 a nationwide salt iodization program was finally implemented. Some years later a nationwide monitoring program of iodine prophylaxis was also implemented. Since 2005 the sale of iodized salt in Italian supermarkets has increased (34% in 2006, 55% in 2012), although it has been observed that the use of iodized salt is still low in the communal eating areas and in the food industry. These data are coherent with recent epidemiological studies showing that some regions in our country are still characterized by mild iodine deficiency and a high frequency of goiter and other iodine deficiency disorders. This implies that further efforts should be made to successfully correct iodine deficiency in Italy.

  19. West Nile virus Epidemic in Horses, Tuscany Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Autorino, Gian Luca; Battisti, Antonio; Deubel, Vincent; Ferrari, Giancarlo; Forletta, Riccardo; Giovannini, Armando; Lelli, Rossella; Murri, Severine; Scicluna, Maria Teresa

    2002-01-01

    During the late summer of 1998, veterinary authorities in Tuscany, Italy, received reports of cases of neurologic disease among horses residing in a large wetland area located in the provinces of Florence and Pistoia. West Nile virus was isolated from two of the six horses that died or were euthanized. A retrospective epidemiologic study identified 14 clinical neurologic cases that occurred from August 20 to October 6 (attack rate of 2.8%). A serologic survey conducted over a 700-km2 area in stables with and without apparent clinical cases confirmed a wider spread of the infection, with an overall seroprevalence rate of 38% in the affected area. No significant differences in age-specific prevalence were observed, suggesting that the horses residing in the area had not been exposed previously to West Nile virus and supporting the hypothesis of its introduction in the wetland area during the first half of 1998. PMID:12498650

  20. The Marine Technology Liguria District, an opportunity for Collaboration and Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmisciano, C.; Tivegna, P.; Sgherri, R. G.; Gambetta, M.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Stefanelli, P.; Cocchi, L.

    2008-05-01

    This work focus on the newly born DLTM, namely the Distretto Ligure delle Tecnologie Marine, based in La Spezia, Liguria Region (IT). The main involved partners are: Ministries, Regione Liguria Council, Spedia SpA Company, Industries, SMEs (SMBs), Universities and National Research Institutes. The DLTM has been created as an answer to the local versus global needs of marine products innovation, technology and science. In order to provide, both the local and international community, effective solutions the DLTM aims to: - promote Innovation and pre-competitiveness of activities related to industrial research; - enhance the value and visibility of excellence areas existing in the Ligurian region (in the big enterprises as well as in SMEs) concerning marine technology; - enhance the value of academic activities focusing their R&D on industrial products/processes, assuring, evaluating and preventing environmental sustainability also in case of extreme events; - harmonize/make sustainable the economy and the society promoting scientific innovation and technological development, by means of Universities, Public and Private Research Institutes (at regional, national and EU level); - help the exchange of ideas and realization of projects aimed at developing the District objectives; - increase the dissemination and valorisation of District results and achievements, build capacity in the sectors of interest to the District. The DLTM is characterized by two main macro-themes. The first concerns infrastructures, materials and processes, while the second is committed to eco-compatible solutions for harbours, ships and coastal scenarios, security and control management of human activities, risky operations and extreme natural events. The former macro-theme is expected to provide the community with innovative solutions, technologies, materials, processes applied to marine sectors, shipyard and related subsystems and components, in a wide sense such as leisure, commercial, navy

  1. Surveillance for West Nile, dengue, and chikungunya virus infections, Veneto Region, Italy, 2010.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, Federico; Barzon, Luisa; Capelli, Gioia; Angheben, Andrea; Pacenti, Monia; Napoletano, Giuseppina; Piovesan, Cinzia; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Martini, Simone; Rigoli, Roberto; Cattelan, Anna M; Rinaldi, Roberto; Conforto, Mario; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2012-04-01

    In 2010, in Veneto Region, Italy, surveillance of summer fevers was conducted to promptly identify autochthonous cases of West Nile fever and increase detection of imported dengue and chikungunya in travelers. Surveillance highlighted the need to modify case definitions, train physicians, and when a case is identified, implement vector control measures.

  2. Surveillance for West Nile, Dengue, and Chikungunya Virus Infections, Veneto Region, Italy, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Barzon, Luisa; Capelli, Gioia; Angheben, Andrea; Pacenti, Monia; Napoletano, Giuseppina; Piovesan, Cinzia; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Martini, Simone; Rigoli, Roberto; Cattelan, Anna M.; Rinaldi, Roberto; Conforto, Mario; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, in Veneto Region, Italy, surveillance of summer fevers was conducted to promptly identify autochthonous cases of West Nile fever and increase detection of imported dengue and chikungunya in travelers. Surveillance highlighted the need to modify case definitions, train physicians, and when a case is identified, implement vector control measures PMID:22469230

  3. Cases of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) infestations in Northwest Italy.

    PubMed

    Giorda, Federica; Guardone, Lisa; Mancini, Marialetizia; Accorsi, Annalisa; Macchioni, Fabio; Mignone, Walter

    2013-01-01

    CBed bugs (Cimex lectularius) have been a common problem for humans for at least 3,500 years and in Europe their presence was endemic until the end of World War II, when infestations began to decrease. However, since the beginning of the 21st century new cases of infestations have been reported in developed countries. Many theories have been put forward to explain this change of direction, but none has been scientifically proven. The aim of this study is to provide some reports of bed bug infestations in Northern Italy (Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta valley regions) and a brief summary about their identification, clinical significance, bioecology and control. From 2008 to date, 17 bed bug infestations were identified in Northwest Italy. Knowledge about the presence and distribution of bed bugs in Italy is scanty, prior to this work only 2 studies reported the comeback of these arthropods in the Italian territory; further investigations would be necessary to better understand the current situation.

  4. Modelling rural population change in the Cilento region of southern Italy.

    PubMed

    White, P E

    1985-10-01

    The relevance of established models of rural population change to the situation in the Cilento region of southern Italy is considered. The author notes that in this region, tourism seems to be the major factor explaining rural population change between 1961 and 1971. The need for a family of models to explain rural population change while taking into account a variety of cultural and developmental factors is suggested.

  5. Epidemiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus in the pediatric population in Veneto Region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Marigliano, Marco; Tadiotto, Elisa; Morandi, Anita; Sabbion, Alberto; Contreas, Giovanna; Avossa, Francesco; Fedeli, Ugo; Maffeis, Claudio

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Veneto Region in Italy. The average prevalence and incidence rates were 1.26/1000 subjects and 16.5/100,000 person-years, respectively. This study shows that the Veneto Region is an area with intermediate-high risk of T1DM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Regional Frequency Analysis of extreme rainfall events, Tuscany (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporali, E.; Chiarello, V.; Rossi, G.

    2014-12-01

    The assessment of extreme hydrological events at sites characterized by short time series or where no data record exists has been mainly obtained by regional models. Regional frequency analysis based on the index variable procedure is implemented here to describe the annual maximum of rainfall depth of short durations in Tuscany region. The probability distribution TCEV - Two Component Extreme Value is used in the frame of the procedure for the parameters estimation based on a three levels hierarchical approach. The methodology deal with the delineation of homogeneous regions, the identification of a robust regional frequency distribution and the assessment of the scale factor, i.e. the index rainfall. The data set includes the annual maximum of daily rainfall of 351 gauge stations with at least 30 years of records, in the period 1916 - 2012, and the extreme rainfalls of short duration, 1 hour and 3, 6, 12, 24 hours. Different subdivisions hypotheses have been verified. A four regions subdivision, coincident with four subregions, which takes into account the orography, the geomorphological and climatic peculiarities of the Tuscany region, has been adopted. Particularly, for testing the regional homogeneity, the cumulate frequency distributions of the observed skewness and variation coefficients of the recorded times series, are compared with the theoretical frequency distribution obtained through a Monte Carlo technique. The related L-skewness and L-variation coefficients are also examined. The application of the Student t -test and the Wilcoxon test for the mean, as well as the χ2 was also performed. Further tests of subdivision hypotheses have been made through the application of discordancy D and heterogeneity H tests and the analysis of the observed and the theoretical TCEV model growth curves. For each region the daily rainfall growth curve has been estimated. The growth curves for the hourly duration have been estimated when the daily rainfall growth curve

  7. Alien insects in Italy: comparing patterns from the regional to European level.

    PubMed

    Inghilesi, Alberto F; Mazza, Giuseppe; Cervo, Rita; Gherardi, Francesca; Sposimo, Paolo; Tricarico, Elena; Zapparoli, Marzio

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of species outside their native range contributes to the loss of biodiversity, alters the structure and functioning of ecosystems, and damages economy and human health. Insects are one of the taxa with the highest frequency of introduction due to their high diversity, biological properties, and close association with human activities. Here, the allodiversity of Italian entomofauna was analyzed, with a focus on Tuscany (Central Italy). A list of alien insects in Tuscany is included. The status of the alien entomofauna in Italy was updated. The number of alien insects amounts to 122 in Tuscany and 923 in Italy. An introduction rate of 98 species per decade was estimated in Italy. In Tuscany, alien insects belong to 10 orders, mostly Coleoptera (38%), Hemiptera (Sternorrhyncha and Auchenorrhyncha) (23%), and Hymenoptera (13%). They have been most often introduced through vegetable items (ornamental plants or crops). Most species come from the Nearctic region (26%) and are both phytophagous (63%) and amphigonic (80%). Differences and similarities in introduction patterns and in insect abundances across orders among regional, national, and European scales, also considering worldwide abundances, are discussed. Finally, a paucity of information regarding the negative impacts of many species, except for economic pests, phytosanitary threats, and vectors of disease, is underlined. A deeper understanding of the alien insects' ecological impact might help designate policies aimed at preventing further introductions and control the invasive populations of already established species.

  8. Usutu Virus Antibodies in Blood Donors and Healthy Forestry Workers in the Lombardy Region, Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Percivalle, Elena; Sassera, Davide; Rovida, Francesca; Isernia, Paola; Fabbi, Massimo; Baldanti, Fausto; Marone, Piero

    2017-09-01

    Usutu virus (USUV), a member of the genus Flavivirus, is known to circulate at low prevalence in Northern Italy, and has been reported to cause overt infection. USUV was first reported in Europe in 2001, but a retrospective study showed that it has been present in Italy at least since 1996. Seroprevalence data for USUV antibodies in sera are being collected in different European countries, showing circulation at low prevalence in human populations. Interestingly, two consecutive studies in Northern Italy indicate a possible increase in the presence of the virus, from 0% to 0.23% seroprevalence in blood donors. In this study, antibodies against USUV were measured in 3 consecutive blood samples collected from October 2014 to December 2015 from 33 forestry workers in the Po river valley, while samples from 200 blood donors from the same geographical area were tested in parallel. Neutralizing and IgG antibodies were found in six forestry workers (18.1%) and in two blood donors (1%). Our results indicate that USUV circulation in the examined area, part of a highly populated region in Northern Italy, is higher than expected. Healthy subjects exhibit a higher prevalence than what was found in a previous report in an adjoining region (0.23%), while the population at risk shows a much higher prevalence value (18.1%).

  9. [The outpatient care in the Latium region (Italy) in 2001].

    PubMed

    Torri, C; Balducci, M; Silvestri, I; Trifelli, S; Pasquarella, A; Guasticchi, G

    2004-01-01

    The Region of Latium has been operating an Outpatient Care Information System (SIAS) since 1997 to monitor the supply of outpatient care in a territory with a population of over five million. The present work has the aim of describing the outpatient care in the region, in terms of number of facilities involved by category (public and private, operating in the regional public health system) and volume of procedures rendered to residents in 2001. Of the 971 outpatient facilities operating in hospitals and elsewhere--37% state managed and 67% private--distributed in a non-uniform manner throughout the region, the majority is concentrated in the city of Rome, which by itself accounts for 49% of its total amount of facilities, and in a lesser measure in the other provincial capitals (Viterbo, Rieti, Frosinone, Latina). In 2001, 71 million procedures were performed, comprising 17 million prescriptions, for an economic value of over 400 million Euros. The three specialties of greatest use were Lab Analysis, Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, and Radiology, making up 88% of the total outpatient procedures performed within the precinct of the regional health service, in respective measures of 57%, 27%, and 4%. It is noted that the public facilities are prevalently polyspecialistic while a great number of private facilities are monospecialistic and perform procedures almost exclusively (96%) in the three specialties of greatest use. The other specialties which receive notable use are Cardiology, Eye Care, Orthopedics and Neurology. In general, the greater the number of facilities there are in either the public or private sector, the greater the level of activity in terms of procedures performed, with the exception of the area of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation where the correlation is inversely proportioned; in fact, for this specialty the public facilities, which are represented in a much greater number throughout the region, supply only 7% of the volume of activity.

  10. [Healthcare research and regional programming in Umbria (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Carlo; Minelli, Liliana

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between regional programming and national health research policy, and in particular evaluates the role that intellectual capital plays in innovation processes of knowledge-based organizations. The concepts of intellectual capital and knowledge-based organization are defined in the paper, as these are especially useful when speaking of university, healthcare systems and research and development companies. The paper also examines the various types of healthcare research (basic research, clinical trial, epidemiological research, valutative research) and the role that each type of research plays in healthcare programming at the national and regional levels.

  11. West Nile Virus Surveillance in the Lombardy Region, Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Chiari, M; Prosperi, A; Faccin, F; Avisani, D; Cerioli, M; Zanoni, M; Bertoletti, M; Moreno, A M; Bruno, R; Monaco, F; Farioli, M; Lelli, D; Lavazza, A

    2015-08-01

    In 2013, the circulation of West Nile virus (WNV) was detected in the Lombardy region and the following year a surveillance programme was activated with the aim of early identification of the viral distribution in mosquitoes and wild birds. A total of 50 959 Culex spp. mosquitoes grouped in six hundred and forty-seven pools as well as 1400 birds were screened by RT-PCR for the presence of West Nile virus leading to the identification of the viral genome in 32 mosquito pools and 13 wild birds. The surveillance was able to detect the WNV circulation on an average of 42 days (CI 95% 29.98-53.86; Student's t-distribution) before the occurrence of human West Nile disease (WND) cases in the same area. These results demonstrate the presence of WNV in the Lombardy region and confirm entomological and wild birds surveillance as an effective measure for the early identification of WNV circulation in infected areas, thus providing a useful and cost-effective tool for the public health authorities in the application of measures to prevent human infection. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. West Nile virus outbreak in the Lombardy region, northern Italy, summer 2013.

    PubMed

    Rovida, Francesca; Sarasini, Antonella; Campanini, Giulia; Percivalle, Elena; Gorini, Giovanna; Mariani, Bianca; Pan, Angelo; Cuzzoli, Antonio; Possenti, Stefano; Manzini, Lisa; Castelli, Francesco; Bossini, Nicola; Grossi, Paolo Antonio; Castilletti, Concetta; Calzolari, Mattia; Lelli, Davide; Piatti, Alessandra; Baldanti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    In the summer of 2013, an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) infection occurred in the Lombardy, a region of northern Italy to the west of districts affected by WNV in previous years. Eighteen cases of human WNV infection were diagnosed--10 cases of acute WNV neuroinvasive disease and eight of WNV fever. In the same period, WNV was detected in birds (one crow) in horses (11 cases) and from mosquitoes (six pools).

  13. Impact of regional copayment policy on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) consumption and expenditure in Italy.

    PubMed

    Damiani, Gianfranco; Federico, Bruno; Silvestrini, Giulia; Bianchi, Caterina Bianca Neve Aurora; Anselmi, Angela; Iodice, Lanfranco; Ronconi, Alessandra; Navarra, Pierluigi; Da Cas, Roberto; Raschetti, Roberto; Ricciardi, Walter

    2013-04-01

    The continuous growth of antidepressant consumption and expenditure, especially for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), has led to the adoption of several policy measures directed toward cost control in Western countries. In Italy, copayment policies have been heterogeneously introduced at a regional level as part of a strategy designed to reduce drug consumption. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether regional copayment policies have affected trends in the consumption of and expenditure for SSRIs from 2001 to 2007. The consumption of SSRIs was measured in terms of defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants (DDD/1000) per day from May 2001 to December 2007. Time trends in consumption and expenditure before and after the introduction of copayment policies were examined using segmented regression analysis of interrupted time-series, adjusting for seasonal components. The study was conducted for 17 regions, nine of which had implemented a copayment policy. The overall consumption of SSRIs in Italy increased during the study period, from a monthly consumption of 12.85 DDD/1000 per day in May 2001 to 23.40 DDD/1000 per day in December 2007. The average monthly increase in SSRI use was 0.82 % in regions with a copayment policy versus 0.77 % in regions without a copayment policy (P = 0.329). According to the multivariable analysis, copayment was associated with a 1 % reduction in the monthly growth rate of SSRI consumption (P  = 0.01). The impact of copayment on expenditure was statistically significant (P  < 0.005) on both the level and the trend, even though the estimate of the effect was negligible. The implementation of copayment policies in Italy affected both the use and expenditure of SSRIs between 2001 and 2007 to only to a minor extent.

  14. Non-susceptible landslide areas in Italy and in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesini, I.; Ardizzone, F.; Alvioli, M.; Rossi, M.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-04-01

    We used landslide information for 13 study areas in Italy and morphometric information obtained from the 3 arc-second SRTM DEM to determine areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be null or negligible in Italy, and in the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. The morphometric information consisted in the local terrain slope computed in a square 3 × 3 cell moving window, and in the regional relative relief computed in a circular 15 × 15 cell moving window. We tested three different models to determine the non-susceptible landslide areas, including a linear model (LR), a quantile linear model (QLR), and a quantile non-linear model (QNL). We tested the performance of the three models using independent landslide information represented by the Italian Landslide Inventory (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia - IFFI). Best results were obtained using the QNL model. The corresponding zonation of non-susceptible landslide areas was intersected in a GIS with geographical census data for Italy. The result allowed determining that 57.5% of the population of Italy (in 2001) was located in areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be null or negligible, and that the remaining 42.5% was located in areas where some landslide susceptibility is expected. We applied the QNL model to the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, and we tested the synoptic non-susceptibility zonation using independent landslide information for three study areas in Spain. Results proved that the QNL model was capable of determining where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible in the Mediterranean area. We expect our results to be applicable in similar study areas, facilitating the identification of non-susceptible and susceptible landslide areas, at the synoptic scale.

  15. Non-susceptible landslide areas in Italy and in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesini, I.; Ardizzone, F.; Alvioli, M.; Rossi, M.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-08-01

    We used landslide information for 13 study areas in Italy and morphometric information obtained from the 3-arcseconds shuttle radar topography mission digital elevation model (SRTM DEM) to determine areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible in Italy and in the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. The morphometric information consisted of the local terrain slope which was computed in a square 3 × 3-cell moving window, and in the regional relative relief computed in a circular 15 × 15-cell moving window. We tested three different models to classify the "non-susceptible" landslide areas, including a linear model (LNR), a quantile linear model (QLR), and a quantile, non-linear model (QNL). We tested the performance of the three models using independent landslide information presented by the Italian Landslide Inventory (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia - IFFI). Best results were obtained using the QNL model. The corresponding zonation of non-susceptible landslide areas was intersected in a geographic information system (GIS) with geographical census data for Italy. The result determined that 57.5% of the population of Italy (in 2001) was located in areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible. We applied the QNL model to the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, and we tested the synoptic non-susceptibility zonation using independent landslide information for three study areas in Spain. Results showed that the QNL model was capable of determining where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible in the validation areas in Spain. We expect our results to be applicable in similar study areas, facilitating the identification of non-susceptible landslide areas, at the synoptic scale.

  16. Infant immunization coverage in Italy: estimates by simultaneous EPI cluster surveys of regions. ICONA Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Salmaso, S.; Rota, M. C.; Ciofi Degli Atti, M. L.; Tozzi, A. E.; Kreidl, P.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, a series of regional cluster surveys (the ICONA Study) was conducted simultaneously in 19 out of the 20 regions in Italy to estimate the mandatory immunization coverage of children aged 12-24 months with oral poliovirus (OPV), diphtheria-tetanus (DT) and viral hepatitis B (HBV) vaccines, as well as optional immunization coverage with pertussis, measles and Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) vaccines. The study children were born in 1996 and selected from birth registries using the Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) cluster sampling technique. Interviews with parents were conducted to determine each child's immunization status and the reasons for any missed or delayed vaccinations. The study population comprised 4310 children aged 12-24 months. Coverage for both mandatory and optional vaccinations differed by region. The overall coverage for mandatory vaccines (OPV, DT and HBV) exceeded 94%, but only 79% had been vaccinated in accord with the recommended schedule (i.e. during the first year of life). Immunization coverage for pertussis increased from 40% (1993 survey) to 88%, but measles coverage (56%) remained inadequate for controlling the disease; Hib coverage was 20%. These results confirm that in Italy the coverage of only mandatory immunizations is satisfactory. Pertussis immunization coverage has improved dramatically since the introduction of acellular vaccines. A greater effort to educate parents and physicians is still needed to improve the coverage of optional vaccinations in all regions. PMID:10593033

  17. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in a low-incidence Italian region with high immigration rates: differences between not Italy-born and Italy-born TB cases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Emilia Romagna, a northern Italian region, has a population of 4.27 million, of which 9.7% are immigrants. The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) during the period 1996-2006 in not Italy-born compared to Italy-born cases. Methods Data was obtained from the Regional TB surveillance system, from where personal data, clinical features and risk factors of all notified TB cases were extracted. Results 5377 TB cases were reported. The proportion of immigrants with TB, over the total number of TB cases had progressively increased over the years, from 19.1% to 53.3%. In the not Italy-born population, TB incidence was higher than in Italians (in 2006: 100.7 cases per 100 000 registered not Italy-born subjects and 83.9/100 000 adding 20% of estimated irregular presences to the denominators. TB incidence among Italians was 6.5/100 000 Italians). A progressive rise in the not Italy-born incident cases was observed but associated with a decline in TB incidence. Not Italy-born cases were younger compared to the Italy-born cases, and more frequently classified as "new cases" (OR 2.0 95%CI 1.61-2.49 for age group 20-39); 60.7% had pulmonary TB, 31.6% extra pulmonary and 7.6% disseminated TB. Risk factors for TB in this population group were connected to lower income status (homeless: OR 149.9 95%CI 20.7-1083.3 for age group 40-59). Conclusions In low-incidence regions, prevention and control of TB among sub-groups at risk such as the foreign-born population is a matter of public health concern. In addition, increasing immigration rates may affect TB epidemiology. TB among immigrants is characterized by particular clinical features and risk factors, which should be analyzed in order to plan effective action. PMID:21605460

  18. Subsidence mapping at regional scale using persistent scatters interferometry (PSI): The case of Tuscany region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosi, Ascanio; Tofani, Veronica; Agostini, Andrea; Tanteri, Luca; Tacconi Stefanelli, Carlo; Catani, Filippo; Casagli, Nicola

    2016-10-01

    In this paper the mapping of subsidences in Tuscany (Italy) is presented. To achieve our goal satellite SAR data processed with persistent scatters interferometry (PSI) technique have been used. Several subsiding areas have been identified and three of them have been analyzed in detail and subsequently compared with literature work both to validate the results and to analyze the evolution of the identified subsidences. In general, this comparison confirmed the quality of the analyses and, furthermore, lead to the identification of an important ground uplift close to Prato city, an area that was historically affected by subsidence.

  19. Orbital Cyclicities Above and Below the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary, Umbria-Marche Region, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, D. T., Jr.; Petruny, L. W.; Rampino, M. R.; Prokoph, A.; Pope, K.; Fischer, A. G.; Montanari, A.; Ocampo, A. C.

    2000-01-01

    In the Umbria-Marche region of central Italy, the deep basinal carbonate Scaglia Rossa Formation contains an important sequence of Cretaceous-Tertiary strata including a detailed paleomagnetic record and the distal impactoclastic Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary clay layer. In addition to this significant paleomagnetic and impactoclastic record, the Scaglia Rossa also contains potentially important stratigraphic evidence of relatively long-term oceanic and atmospheric consequences of the Cretaceous-Tertiary bolide catastrophe, which we will describe for the first time herein. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Orbital Cyclicities Above and Below the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary, Umbria-Marche Region, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, D. T., Jr.; Petruny, L. W.; Rampino, M. R.; Prokoph, A.; Pope, K.; Fischer, A. G.; Montanari, A.; Ocampo, A. C.

    2000-01-01

    In the Umbria-Marche region of central Italy, the deep basinal carbonate Scaglia Rossa Formation contains an important sequence of Cretaceous-Tertiary strata including a detailed paleomagnetic record and the distal impactoclastic Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary clay layer. In addition to this significant paleomagnetic and impactoclastic record, the Scaglia Rossa also contains potentially important stratigraphic evidence of relatively long-term oceanic and atmospheric consequences of the Cretaceous-Tertiary bolide catastrophe, which we will describe for the first time herein. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. [The history of cholera in the Puglia region (Italy), 1836-1994].

    PubMed

    Barbuti, Giovanna; Bernardi, Antonella; Napoli, Christian; Montagna, Maria Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Historians and epidemiologists agree that seven pandemics of cholera have occurred from 1817 to the present time. However they do not always agree on the date of onset and extinction of several of the pandemics. Cholera appeared for the first time in Europe and therefore in Italy in the first half of the 19th century. In this context, the population of the Puglia region (Italy) was first affected by cholera starting in 1836, during the second pandemic, and then again during the following pandemics and in more recent local outbreaks in 1973 and 1994. This article describes the impact of the disease in the Puglia region, not only in terms of morbidity and mortality but also in terms of collective behaviour and public health interventions. Information was obtained from documents held by the State Archives of the city of Bari and from local documents. This historical analysis highlights the great progress made in this Region in terms of environmental rehabilitation and control of infectious diseases.

  2. West Nile virus infection in Veneto region, Italy, 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Barzon, L; Squarzon, L; Cattai, M; Franchin, E; Pagni, S; Cusinato, R; Palu, G

    2009-08-06

    We report here an update on human cases of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Veneto region, northeastern Italy. In addition to two cases of WNV neuroinvasive disease notified through a surveillance programme started in September 2008, further four cases were retrospectively identified (in May 2009) by investigating patients with aseptic meningoencephalitis of unknown aetiology occurring in Veneto region in June-September 2008. All six patients had symptom onset in August-September 2008 and were resident in a wetland area close to the Po river delta in Rovigo province. Further five cases of asymptomatic WNV infection, including four residents of the same area in Rovigo, were identified in a seroprevalence study in farm workers from Veneto region. To date, no human cases have been notified in 2009.

  3. Carbapenemases-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in hospitals of two regions of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Calia, Carla; Pazzani, Carlo; Oliva, Marta; Scrascia, Maria; Lovreglio, Piero; Capolongo, Carmen; Dionisi, Anna Maria; Chiarelli, Adriana; Monno, Rosa

    2017-05-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections are reported with increasing frequency elsewhere in the world, representing a worrying phenomenon for global health. In Italy, there are hotspot data on the diffusion and type of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and K. pneumoniae in particular, with very few data coming from Apulia and Basilicata, two regions of Southern Italy. This study was aimed at characterizing by phenotypic and genotypic methods carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolated from several Hospitals of Apulia and Basilicata, Southern Italy. Antibiotic susceptibility was also evaluated. The relatedness of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae strains was established by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among the 150 K. pneumoniae carbapenemase producers, KPC-3 genotype was the most predominant (95%), followed by VIM-1 (5%). No other genotypes were found and no co-presence of two carbapenemase genes was found. A full concordance between results obtained by both the phenotypic and the genotypic tests was observed. All strains were resistant to β-lactam antibiotics including carbapenems, and among antibiotics tested, only tetracycline and gentamycin showed low percentage of resistance (18% and 15%, respectively). Resistance to colistin was detected in 17.3% of strains studied. The analysis of PFGE profiles of the carbapenemases-positive strains shows that one group (B) of the five (A to E) main groups identified was the most prevalent and detected in almost all the hospitals considered, while the other groups were randomly distributed. Three different sequence types (ST 307, ST 258, and ST 512) were detected with the majority of isolates belonging to the ST 512. Our results demonstrated the wide diffusion of K. pneumoniae KPC-3 in the area considered, the good concordance between phenotypic and genotypic tests. Gentamicin and colistin had a good activity against these strains. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons

  4. Radon radioactivity in groundwater from the Calabria region, south of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, F.; D'Agostino, M.; Belvedere, A.; Marguccio, S.; Belmusto, G.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study the radon radioactivity in selected groundwater (boreholes and wells) from the Calabria region, south of Italy, was investigated. Water samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometry and by RAD7 + RAD H2O setup to determine the 222Rn activity concentration. Obtained values were used with the ingested dose conversion factor for 222Rn to estimate the annual effective dose for adult members of public due to consumption of the groundwater. The estimated average value was (88±5) μ Sv/y. It was compared with the estimated average annual effective dose due to ingestion of groundwater by the WHO (100 μ Sv/y) and that due to ingestion of food and water (290 μ Sv/y) by the UNSCEAR (2000). Results show that the presence of radon may not pose any radiological health hazard to the public due to the consumption of groundwater in the investigated region.

  5. Traveling for care: inter-regional mobility for aortic valve substitution in Italy.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Giovanni; Petrarca, Giuseppina; Torbica, Aleksandra

    2014-07-01

    Patient flows across the regions of the Italian National Health Service can shed light on patient mobility, including cross-border flows within the European Union. We used 2009 data on 11,531 NHS admissions for aortic valve replacement operations to measure the extent of inter-regional patient mobility and to determine whether resident and non-resident patients differ. We also investigated whether public and private hospitals behave differently in terms of attracting patients. For this major cardio-surgical intervention, patient mobility in Italy is substantial (13.6% of total admissions). Such mobility mainly involves patients moving from southern to northern regions, which often requires several hundred kilometers of travel and a transfer of financial resources from poorer to richer regions. Patients admitted in the regions where they reside are older than those admitted outside their regions (69.2 versus 65.6, p<0.0001), and stay in hospital approximately 0.7 days longer (14.7 versus 14.0, p=0.017). Compared to public hospitals, private hospitals are more likely to admit non-resident patients (OR between 2.1 and 4.4). The extent and direction of patients' mobility raise equity concerns, as receiving care in locations that are distant from home requires substantial financial and relational resources.

  6. Update on epidemiology of HCV in Italy: focus on the Calabria Region

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiological profile of HCV infection is evolving in Europe, as well as in Italy. We have previously showed genotype distributions and their dynamics in 2,153 HCV RNA positive patients living in Calabria, Southern Italy, over 11 years. In this study, we extend and update this information by evaluating a hospital-based cohort of 945 HCV RNA positive patients attending five hospitals in the Calabria Region from January 2011 to August 2013. We assessed rates of HCV genotypes according to age and gender and the dynamics of HCV genotype distribution over the 3-year period studied. Data showed that genotype 1b is the most prevalent, followed by subtypes 2a/2c and genotype 3. Genotype 4 exhibited an increase between 2011 and 2013. Also, we found a significant decrease in the median age of subjects infected with HCV genotype 3 and 4 during the period studied. Since HCV genotypes are important in epidemiology, pathogenesis and response to antiviral therapy, a continuous epidemiological surveillance is needed. PMID:25236184

  7. Update on epidemiology of HCV in Italy: focus on the Calabria Region.

    PubMed

    Marascio, Nadia; Liberto, Maria; Barreca, Giorgio; Zicca, Emilia; Quirino, Angela; Lamberti, Angelo; Bianco, Giovanna; Matera, Giovanni; Surace, Lorenzo; Berardelli, Giuseppina; Surace, Lidia; De Maria, Vincenzo; Giancotti, Francesca; Leone, Rosa; Villella, Vilma; Nisticò, Salvatore; Borelli, Annelisa; Caruso, Vincenzina; Calderazzo, Massimo; Griffo, Gianfranco; Masciari, Rosanna; Minchella, Pasquale; Cosco, Lucio; Laganà, Carmelo; Oliva, Angela; Foti, Giuseppe; Fiorillo, Maria; Bocchiaro, Giuseppa; Surace, Pasquale; Ciccaglione, Anna; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Cesario, Francesco; Torti, Carlo; Focà, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiological profile of HCV infection is evolving in Europe, as well as in Italy. We have previously showed genotype distributions and their dynamics in 2,153 HCV RNA positive patients living in Calabria, Southern Italy, over 11 years. In this study, we extend and update this information by evaluating a hospital-based cohort of 945 HCV RNA positive patients attending five hospitals in the Calabria Region from January 2011 to August 2013. We assessed rates of HCV genotypes according to age and gender and the dynamics of HCV genotype distribution over the 3-year period studied. Data showed that genotype 1b is the most prevalent, followed by subtypes 2a/2c and genotype 3. Genotype 4 exhibited an increase between 2011 and 2013. Also, we found a significant decrease in the median age of subjects infected with HCV genotype 3 and 4 during the period studied. Since HCV genotypes are important in epidemiology, pathogenesis and response to antiviral therapy, a continuous epidemiological surveillance is needed.

  8. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria Chiara; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary In Italy, dog shelters are overcrowded because the rate of dog adoption is lower than that of abandonment. A project called “RandAgiamo” was implemented in a rescue shelter in central Italy. RandAgiamo provides training, socialization and advertising of adult shelter dogs. Official data of the Umbria regional health authorities from the year 2014 showed a higher rate of adoption in shelters involved in the project. RandAgiamo dogs had triple odds of being adopted compared to others housed in shelters of the same province. The increase in adoption rate can be beneficial for both dog welfare and shelter management. Abstract Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this “no-kill policy” has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project “RandAgiamo” implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs’ adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs’ visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (p < 0.001). The RandAgiamo project could be beneficial for the dogs’ welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities. PMID:26479385

  9. Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucchese, Fernando; Medori, Simone

    2008-01-01

    Background In the years 2003–2005 research was carried out concerning ethno-medicine in the high Molise (central- southern Italy), a region that has been the object of very little investigation from the ethnobotanical point of view. Upper Molise is a continuation of the mountain profiles of the Abruzzi Appenines: a series of hills, steep slopes and deep fluvial valleys making communications difficult. Primordial traditions (e.g. harvest feasts) are typical of the region. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews in the field. These were conducted on both an individual and group level, fresh plants gathered from surrounding areas being displayed. In other cases, individual interviews were conducted by accompanying the person involved to the places where they perform their activities (for example, in the woods with woodcutters, kitchen gardens and fields with housewives, pastures with shepherds, etc.). In total 54 individuals were interviewed. Results Data of 70 taxa belonging to 39 families were gathered. Among the species, 64 are used in human therapy, 5 as insect repellents, 11 in veterinary medicine, 1 to keep eggs and cheeses and 4 for magic purposes. The most important findings in ethno-medicine relate to the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. (wounds) and to some vascular plant species: Asplenium trichomanes L. and Ceterach officinarum Willd. (to regularize menstruation), Cyclamen hederifolium (chilblains), Centaurium erythraea Rafn. and Pulmonaria apennina Cristof. & Puppi (bruises), while in the ethno-veterinary field, we have Valeriana officinalis L. (wounds sustained by mules). Also worthy of note, given the isolation of the area, is the number of plants used to protect foodstuffs from parasites, among which Allium sativum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. Conclusion The research revealed a deep-rooted and widespread habit of husbanding the family's resources. Whilst isolation and snowfalls contributed to the widespread knowledge of means

  10. Unravelling the competing influence of regional uplift and active normal faulting in SW Calabria, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Alex; Roda Boluda, Duna; Boulton, Sarah; Erhardt, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The Neogene geological and geomorphological evolution of Southern Italy is complex and is fundamentally controlled by the subduction of the Ionian slab along the Apennine belt from the Calabrian Arc, and back-arc extension driven by trench rollback. In the area of Calabria and the Straits of Messina the presence of (i) uplifted, deformed and dissected basin sediments and marine terraces, ranging in age from the early to mid-Pleistocene and (ii) seismicity associated with NE-SW normal faults that have well-developed footwall topography and triangular facets have led workers to suggest that both significant regional uplift and extensional faulting in SW Calabria have played a role in generating relief in the area since the mid Pleistocene. However, there is considerable uncertainty in the rates of total surface uplift relative to sea level in both time and space, and the relative partitioning of this uplift between a mantle-driven regional signal, potentially related to a slab tear, and the active extensional structures. Additionally, despite the widespread recognition of normal faults in Calabria to which historical earthquakes are often linked, there is much less agreement on (i) which ones are active and for what length of time; (ii) how the faults interact; and (iii) what their throw and throw rates are. In particular, the ability to resolve both regional uplift and normal faulting in SW Calabria is essential in order to fully understand the tectonic history of the region, while an understanding of location and slip rate of active faults, in an area where the population numbers more than two million people, is essential to assess regional seismic hazards. Here we address these important questions using a combination of tectonic geomorphology and structural geology. We critically examine existing constraints on the rates and distribution of active normal faulting and regional uplift in the area, and we derive new constraints on the along-strike variation in throw

  11. 137Cs activity concentration in mosses in the Calabria region, south of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, F.; Belvedere, A.; D'Agostino, M.; Marguccio, S.

    2017-05-01

    Many studies carried out after the Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 showed that mosses are suitable bioindicators of the radioactive fall-out, given their long life expectancy. 137Cs activity concentration was measured through HPGe gamma spectrometry in different mosses (Hypnum Cupressiforme, Hypnum Andoi, Homalothecium Sericeum, Philonotis Fontana), collected, in 2008 and 2015, from four sampling sites in the Calabria region, south of Italy. Experimental specific activities allowed us to determine the effective and the biological half-time of 137Cs for the investigated plants. The effective half-time was found in the range from (4.2 ± 1.1) to (7.4 ± 1.8) years; the biological half-time varied from (4.9 ± 1.3) to (9.9 ± 2.4) years. Data reported in this article provide useful information on the environmental risk of the studied area and can be further used for a radiological mapping.

  12. Radon Exposure Assessment and Relative Effective Dose Estimation to Inhabitants of Puglia Region, South Italy

    PubMed Central

    Quarto, Maria; Pugliese, Mariagabriella; La Verde, Giuseppe; Loffredo, Filomena; Roca, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations were measured in dwellings of the Puglia region in Southern Italy using LR-115 passive detectors. The results show that the radon concentrations varied from 15 ± 2 to 2166 ± 133 Bq/m3 with a geometric mean of 114 Bq/m3 and a geometric standard deviation of 2.3. An analysis on the factors affecting radon concentration such as age of the dwellings, floors, and stories, was performed. The mean effective dose to inhabitants has been calculated and found to be 8.2 mSv/y. Finally, for estimation of cancer risks, the lifetime risk and lung cancer cases per years per million have been calculated. PMID:26610543

  13. Characterization of monovarietal olive oils obtained from mills of Calabria region (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Piscopo, Amalia; De Bruno, Alessandra; Zappia, Angela; Ventre, Carmine; Poiana, Marco

    2016-12-15

    The qualitative characteristics of four monovarietal olive oils produced in Calabria region (Southern Italy) were evaluated. The aim of this work was to evidence the differences on chemical parameters due to variety and to growing environment. Results demonstrated a large variability in qualitative indexes according to the variety. Most of the Grossa di Gerace oils sampled in Ionian Southern coast revealed a high total acidity (percentage upper 0.8% of oleic acid). Fatty acid composition showed some varietal characters: in Grossa di Gerace oils possessed a low content of oleic acid and many Carolea oils showed a heptadecenoic acid level higher than 0.3% as European Rules requires for the extra virgin olive oil category. Carolea cultivar is widely grown in different sites of Calabria and so it is influenced by the different climatic conditions: the obtained oils strongly differed according to the production area. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Radon Exposure Assessment and Relative Effective Dose Estimation to Inhabitants of Puglia Region, South Italy.

    PubMed

    Quarto, Maria; Pugliese, Mariagabriella; La Verde, Giuseppe; Loffredo, Filomena; Roca, Vincenzo

    2015-11-23

    Indoor radon concentrations were measured in dwellings of the Puglia region in Southern Italy using LR-115 passive detectors. The results show that the radon concentrations varied from 15 ± 2 to 2166 ± 133 Bq/m³ with a geometric mean of 114 Bq/m³ and a geometric standard deviation of 2.3. An analysis on the factors affecting radon concentration such as age of the dwellings, floors, and stories, was performed. The mean effective dose to inhabitants has been calculated and found to be 8.2 mSv/y. Finally, for estimation of cancer risks, the lifetime risk and lung cancer cases per years per million have been calculated.

  15. Seismogenic stress field estimation in the Calabrian Arc region (south Italy) from a Bayesian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totaro, C.; Orecchio, B.; Presti, D.; Scolaro, S.; Neri, G.

    2016-09-01

    A new high-quality waveform inversion focal mechanism database of the Calabrian Arc region has been compiled by integrating 292 mechanisms selected from literature and catalogs with 146 newly computed solutions. The new database has then been used for computation of posterior density distributions of stress tensor components by a Bayesian method never applied in south Italy before the present study. The application of this method to the enhanced database has allowed us to provide a detailed picture of seismotectonic stress regimes in this very complex area where lithospheric unit configuration and geodynamic engines are still strongly debated. Our results well constrain the extensional domain of Calabrian Arc and the compressional one of the southernmost Tyrrhenian Sea. In addition, previously undetected transcurrent regimes have been identified in the Ionian offshore. The new information released here will furnish useful tools and constraints for future geodynamic investigations.

  16. Outbreak of type C botulism in birds and mammals in the Emilia Romagna region, northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Defilippo, Francesco; Luppi, Andrea; Maioli, Giulia; Marzi, Dario; Fontana, Maria Cristina; Paoli, Federica; Bonilauri, Paolo; Dottori, Michele; Merialdi, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    Over a 7-day period beginning 8 August 2011, a large number of wild birds of several species were found dead or with neurologic clinical signs along the shore of Crostolo stream, in the Emilia Romagna region, Italy. Twenty-eight Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), two Hooded Crows (Corvus corone cornix), and three coypus (Myocastor coypus) were found moribund on the Crostolo stream bank, collected, and sent to Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell'Emilia Romagna, Reggio Emilia Section. The cause of mortality was determined to be Clostridium botulinum type C toxin. The toxin was identified by a mouse bioassay for botulinum toxins and confirmed in bird sera and blowfly larvae (Lucilia caesar) collected from the stomachs of birds.

  17. A statistical approach to evaluate flood risk at the regional level: an application to Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Mauro; Marchesini, Ivan; Salvati, Paola; Donnini, Marco; Guzzetti, Fausto; Sterlacchini, Simone; Zazzeri, Marco; Bonazzi, Alessandro; Carlesi, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Floods are frequent and widespread in Italy, causing every year multiple fatalities and extensive damages to public and private structures. A pre-requisite for the development of mitigation schemes, including financial instruments such as insurance, is the ability to quantify their costs starting from the estimation of the underlying flood hazard. However, comprehensive and coherent information on flood prone areas, and estimates on the frequency and intensity of flood events, are not often available at scales appropriate for risk pooling and diversification. In Italy, River Basins Hydrogeological Plans (PAI), prepared by basin administrations, are the basic descriptive, regulatory, technical and operational tools for environmental planning in flood prone areas. Nevertheless, such plans do not cover the entire Italian territory, having significant gaps along the minor hydrographic network and in ungauged basins. Several process-based modelling approaches have been used by different basin administrations for the flood hazard assessment, resulting in an inhomogeneous hazard zonation of the territory. As a result, flood hazard assessments expected and damage estimations across the different Italian basin administrations are not always coherent. To overcome these limitations, we propose a simplified multivariate statistical approach for the regional flood hazard zonation coupled with a flood impact model. This modelling approach has been applied in different Italian basin administrations, allowing a preliminary but coherent and comparable estimation of the flood hazard and the relative impact. Model performances are evaluated comparing the predicted flood prone areas with the corresponding PAI zonation. The proposed approach will provide standardized information (following the EU Floods Directive specifications) on flood risk at a regional level which can in turn be more readily applied to assess flood economic impacts. Furthermore, in the assumption of an appropriate

  18. Is variation management included in regional healthcare governance systems? Some proposals from Italy.

    PubMed

    Nuti, Sabina; Seghieri, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    The Italian National Health System, which follows a Beveridge model, provides universal healthcare coverage through general taxation. Universal coverage provides uniform healthcare access to citizens and is the characteristic usually considered the added value of a welfare system financed by tax revenues. Nonetheless, wide differences in practice patterns, health outcomes and regional usages of resources that cannot be justified by differences in patient needs have been demonstrated to exist. Beginning with the experience of the health care system of the Tuscany region (Italy), this study describes the first steps of a long-term approach to proactively address the issue of geographic variation in healthcare. In particular, the study highlights how the unwarranted variation management has been addressed in a region with a high degree of managerial control over the delivery of health care and a consolidated performance evaluation system, by first, considering it a high priority objective and then by actively integrating it into the regional planning and control mechanism. The implications of this study can be useful to policy makers, professionals and managers, and will contribute to the understanding of how the management of variation can be implemented with performance measurements and financial incentives. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Regional flood frequency analysis in Triveneto (Italy): climate and scale controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persiano, Simone; Castellarin, Attilio; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Brath, Armando

    2016-04-01

    The growing concern about the possible effects of climate change on flood frequency regime is leading Authorities to review previously proposed procedures for design-flood estimation, such as national regionalization approaches. Our study focuses on the Triveneto region, a broad geographical area in North-eastern Italy consisting of the administrative regions of Trentino-Alto Adige, Veneto and Friuli-Venezia Giulia. A reference procedure for design flood estimation in Triveneto is available from the Italian NCR research project "VA.PI.", which developed a regional model using annual maximum series (AMS) of peak discharges that were collected up to the 80s by the former Italian Hydrometeorological Service. We consider a very detailed AMS database that we recently compiled for ~80 catchments located in Triveneto. Our dataset includes the historical data mentioned above, together with more recent data obtained from Regional Services and annual maximum peak streamflows extracted from inflow series to artificial reservoirs and provided by dam managers. All ~80 study catchments are characterized in terms of several geomorphologic and climatic descriptors. The main objectives of our study are: (1) to check whether climatic and scale controls on flood frequency regime in Triveneto are similar to the controls that were recently found in Europe; (2) to verify the possible presence of trends as well as abrupt changes in the intensity and frequency of flood extremes by looking at changes in time of regional L-moments of annual maximum floods; (3) to assess the reliability and representativeness of the reference procedure for design flood estimation relative to flood data that were not included in the VA.PI. dataset (i.e. more recent data collected after the 80s and historical data provided by dam managers); (4) to develop an updated reference procedure for design flood estimation in Triveneto by using a focused-pooling approach (i.e. Region of Influence, RoI).

  20. [Risk management in a regional screening program for breast cancer in the region of Lazio, Italy].

    PubMed

    Federici, A; Consolante, C A; Barca, A; Baiocchi, D; Borgia, P; Marzolini, L; Guasticchi, G

    2006-01-01

    In the Lazio Region, it has been put into effect a plan of clinical Risk Management for the Breast Cancer Screening Regional Program (BCSP), involving all of the 12 Local Health Units and the Public Health Agency of Lazio (ASP). Being the BCSP a health care service, it consists of a perfect integration of health care structures, professionals and skills working for the citizens. This program originates from an unexpressed health need and leads to a evidence-based health benefit. The BCSP provides free breast screening for 700,000 women aged between 50 and 69 in the Lazio region; the Public Health Agency carries out the clinical governance of the BCSP The prevention of errors and incidents represents a fundamental basis of governance: it is a contribution to the achievement of efficacy in breast cancer screening. The BCSP deals with screening incidents from a systemic point of view and actively involves several Local Health Units staff going through each step of the whole patient's clinical path, from the identification of the target population, to the oncological treatment of positive cases. The programme is an integration of different tools: literature research, process analysis using the HFMEA methodology and reporting system. The results reached so far are the following: the regional severity rating scale, the regional Master-List of possible adverse events, occurrence and detection rating scale.

  1. Modeling regional initiation of rainfall-induced shallow landslides in the eastern Umbria Region of central Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salciarini, D.; Godt, J.W.; Savage, W.Z.; Conversini, P.; Baum, R.L.; Michael, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    We model the rainfall-induced initiation of shallow landslides over a broad region using a deterministic approach, the Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Slope-stability (TRIGRS) model that couples an infinite-slope stability analysis with a one-dimensional analytical solution for transient pore pressure response to rainfall infiltration. This model permits the evaluation of regional shallow landslide susceptibility in a Geographic Information System framework, and we use it to analyze susceptibility to shallow landslides in an area in the eastern Umbria Region of central Italy. As shown on a landslide inventory map produced by the Italian National Research Council, the area has been affected in the past by shallow landslides, many of which have transformed into debris flows. Input data for the TRIGRS model include time-varying rainfall, topographic slope, colluvial thickness, initial water table depth, and material strength and hydraulic properties. Because of a paucity of input data, we focus on parametric analyses to calibrate and test the model and show the effect of variation in material properties and initial water table conditions on the distribution of simulated instability in the study area in response to realistic rainfall. Comparing the results with the shallow landslide inventory map, we find more than 80% agreement between predicted shallow landslide susceptibility and the inventory, despite the paucity of input data.

  2. Hospital-acquired infections in Italy: a region wide prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Zotti, C M; Messori Ioli, G; Charrier, L; Arditi, G; Argentero, P A; Biglino, A; Farina, E C; Moiraghi Ruggenini, A; Reale, R; Romagnoli, S; Serra, R; Soranzo, M L; Valpreda, M; Hospital Coordinator Group

    2004-02-01

    Between October and December 2000, a region-wide prevalence study of hospital-acquired infections (HAI) was conducted in all public hospitals (59 facilities with ca. 16000 beds; 560000 admission yearly) in Piemonte Region, Italy, and in the one hospital of the neighbouring autonomous region of Valle d'Aosta. The study population comprised a total of 9467 patients hospitalized for at least 24 h. The prevalence of HAI was 7.84%, with marked differences in prevalence among the participating hospitals (range: 0-47.8%). The higher relative frequency of urinary tract infections (UTI; 52.7%) was due to the inclusion of urine cultures obtained on the day of the study from asymptomatic UTI in catheterized patients. A significant correlation was found with major risk factors related to medical procedures (urinary catheter, mechanical ventilation, surgical drainage, intravascular catheters). Patients with HAI were found to be older and to have a greater mean length of stay in hospital. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that lack of independence, indwelling urinary catheter and mechanical ventilation were the risk factors more significantly associated with HAI. The use of antibiotics, in particular prophylactic agents used in surgery (cephalosporins, glycopeptides), provided an incentive for corrective intervention in antibiotic administration and in training of healthcare workers.

  3. Analysis of drought in the region of Abruzzo (Central Italy) by the Standardized Precipitation Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lena, B.; Vergni, L.; Antenucci, F.; Todisco, F.; Mannocchi, F.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a comprehensive analysis of drought phenomena in the Region of Abruzzo (Central Italy) using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) computed at different time scales (3, 6, 12, 24 months). The study is based on monthly precipitation data collected from 1951 to 2009 at 69 climatic stations uniformly distributed over the region. According to the trend analysis, most stations are characterized by increments in both drought severity and variability, particularly at the longer time scales. A principal component analysis applied to SPI time series enabled to identify two main patterns: the first more correlated to the coastal areas, the second more correlated to the inland, mountainous areas. However, the spatial patterns become less defined as the time scale increases, making more uncertain the definition of homogenous areas to be used in drought management plans. In most cases, the identified drought patterns have similar negative overall tendencies, but different trend directions in some sub-periods. In particular, the first drought pattern is clearly characterized by a trend reversal (from decreasing to increasing) during the last decade. This temporal evolution, consistent with that observed by large-scale analyses in the corresponding (or near) grid points, was not detected for the second pattern, which is probably influenced by local topographic and/or orographic factors. The results confirm the complexity of drought phenomenon in a typical Mediterranean region and the necessity of high-resolution datasets to capture its temporal and spatial variability.

  4. Verification of a probabilistic flood forecasting system for an Alpine Region of northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laiolo, P.; Gabellani, S.; Rebora, N.; Rudari, R.; Ferraris, L.; Ratto, S.; Stevenin, H.

    2012-04-01

    Probabilistic hydrometeorological forecasting chains are increasingly becoming an operational tool used by civil protection centres for issuing flood alerts. One of the most important requests of decision makers is to have reliable systems, for this reason an accurate verification of their predictive performances become essential. The aim of this work is to validate a probabilistic flood forecasting system: Flood-PROOFS. The system works in real time, since 2008, in an alpine Region of northern Italy, Valle d'Aosta. It is used by the Civil Protection regional service to issue warnings and by the local water company to protect its facilities. Flood-PROOFS uses as input Quantitative Precipitation Forecast (QPF) derived from the Italian limited area model meteorological forecast (COSMO-I7) and forecasts issued by regional expert meteorologists. Furthermore the system manages and uses both real time meteorological and satellite data and real time data on the maneuvers performed by the water company on dams and river devices. The main outputs produced by the computational chain are deterministic and probabilistic discharge forecasts in different cross sections of the considered river network. The validation of the flood prediction system has been conducted on a 25 months period considering different statistical methods such as Brier score, Rank histograms and verification scores. The results highlight good performances of the system as support system for emitting warnings but there is a lack of statistics especially for huge discharge events.

  5. Allergy in urban elderly population living in Campania region (Southern Italy). A multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Liccardi, G; Baldi, G; Berra, A; Ciccarelli, A; Cutajar, M; D'Amato, M; D'Angelo, R; Gargano, D; Giannattasio, D; Leone, G; Lo Schiavo, M; Madonna, F; Montera, C; Monti, R; Parente, R; Pedicini, A; Pio, A; Russo, M; Salzillo, A; Stanziola, A; Vatrella, A; Manzi, F; Bilò, M B

    2016-07-01

    Given the increasing life expectancy observed in Western countries, there is a marked interest to know more about how aging could influence respiratory health. The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence, clinical characteristics and age of onset of allergic sensitization and clinical symptoms in a sample of atopic elders living in Campania region area (Southern Italy). Fourteen Allergy units or Centres examined a total of 462 patients. In this context 215 (46.53%) had positive skin prick tests (SPTs) to at least one allergen and were diagnosed with respiratory allergy. Parietaria represents the most common sensitizing agent in elders living in Campania region, followed by dust mites, grass pollen and Olea europaea. A relatively high percentage of atopic subjects suffered from respiratory symptoms at a fairly advanced age, namely 8.3% at 60-64 years, 10.2% at 65-70 and 5.7% at > 70 years. In conclusion, the prevalence and clinical significance of airway allergic sensitization in the elderly living in Campania region is more significant than expected in latter stages of life. Physicians should not neglect the role of atopy as a risk factor for the onset of allergic respiratory symptoms even in elderly patients.

  6. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of salmonella in European wild boar (Sus scrofa); Latium Region - Italy.

    PubMed

    Zottola, T; Montagnaro, S; Magnapera, C; Sasso, S; De Martino, L; Bragagnolo, A; D'Amici, L; Condoleo, R; Pisanelli, G; Iovane, G; Pagnini, U

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of Salmonella spp. infection was determined in 499 wild boars harvested during the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 hunting seasons in the Latium Region of Italy. We conducted a microbiological assessment on faeces collected at slaughter and we examined serum samples for the presence of antibodies to Salmonella spp. by ELISA assay. Out of 383 serum samples examined, 255 (66.5%) were positive for Salmonella spp. antibodies. Overall, 10.8% (54/499) of the animals were positive by microbiological assessment. The Salmonellae most frequently isolated were S. enterica subsp. salamae II (24%), S. enterica subsp. Diarizonae III b (12.9%), S. enterica subsp. houtenae IV (11.1%) and S. Fischerhuette (7.4%); less common Salmonella isolates included S. Veneziana (5.5%), S. Napoli (5.5%), S. Kottbus (5.5%), S. Thompson (5.5%), S. enterica subsp. arizonae III a (3.7%), S. Toulon (3.7%), S. Burgas (1.8%), S. Tennelhone (1.8%), S. Ferruch (1.8%), S. choleraesuis (1.8%), S. Paratyphi (1.8%), S. Stanleyville (1.8%), S. Typhimurium (1.8%) and S. enterica subsp. enterica 4,5,12:1:- (1.8%). These isolates were tested against 16 antimicrobial agents and exhibited resistance to sulphonamides (92.5%), sulphonamides and thrimetroprim (14.8%), colistin (14.8%), streptomycin (18.5%), gentamycin (5.5%), tetracycline (5.5%), ceftiofur (3.7%), cefazoline (1.8%), cefotaxime (1.8%), nalidixic acid (1.8%), amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (1.8%) and ampicillin (3.7%). Our data, the first collected on this species in Italy, suggest that European wild boars are frequent carriers of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonellae and are likely involved in the transmission of antimicrobial resistance throughout the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Using online databases for landslide susceptibility assessment: an example from the Veneto Region (northeastern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floris, M.; Iafelice, M.; Squarzoni, C.; Zorzi, L.; de Agostini, A.; Genevois, R.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, spatial data available in the Italian portals was used to evaluate the landslide susceptibility of the Euganean Hills Regional Park, located SW of Padua (northeastern Italy). Quality, applicability and possible analysis scales of the online data were investigated. After a brief overview on the WebGIS portals around the world, their contents and tools for natural risk analyses, a susceptibility analysis of the study area was carried out using a simple probabilistic approach that compared landslide distribution and influencing factors. The input factors used in the analysis depended on available data and included landslides, morphometric data (elevation, slope, curvature, profile and plan Curvature) and non-morphometric data (land use, distance to roads and distance to rivers). Great attention was paid to the pre-processing step, in particular the re-classification of continuous data that was performed following objective, geologic and geomorphologic criteria. The results of the study show that the simple probabilistic approach used for the susceptibility evaluation showed quite good accuracy and precision (repeatability). However, heuristic, statistical or deterministic methods could be applied to the online data to improve the prediction. The data available online for the Italian territory allows susceptibility assessment at medium and large scales. Morphometric factors, such as elevation and slope angle, are important because they implicitly include information that is not available, such as lithologic and structural data. The main drawback of the Italian online databases is the lack of information on the frequency of landslides; thus, a complete hazard analysis is not possible. Despite the good results achieved to date, collection and sharing of data on natural risks must be improved in Italy and around the world. The creation of spatial data infrastructure and more WebGIS portals is desirable.

  8. Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project and geothermal activities in Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Natale, Giuseppe; Troise, Claudia; Troiano, Antonio; Giulia Di Giuseppe, Maria; Mormone, Angela; Carlino, Stefano; Somma, Renato; Tramelli, Anna; Vertechi, Enrico; Sangianantoni, Agata; Piochi, Monica

    2013-04-01

    The Campanian volcanic area has a huge geothermal potential (Carlino et al., 2012), similar to the Larderello-Radicondoli-Amiata region, in Tuscany (Italy), which has been the first site in the World exploited for electric production. Recently, the Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project (CFDDP), sponsored by ICDP and devoted to understand and mitigate the extreme volcanic risk in the area, has also risen new interest for geothermal exploration in several areas of Italy. Following the new Italian regulations which favour and incentivise innovative pilot power plants with zero emission, several geothermal projects have started in the Campania Region, characterized by strict cooperation among large to small industries, Universities and public Research Centers. INGV department of Naples (Osservatorio Vesuviano) has the technical/scientific leadership of such initiatives. Most of such projects are coordinated in the framework of the Regional District for Energy, in which a large part is represented by geothermal resource. Leading geothermal projects in the area include 'FORIO' pilot plant project, aimed to build two small (5 MWe each one) power plants in the Ischia island and two projects aimed to build pilot power plants in the Agnano-Fuorigrotta area in the city of Naples, at the easternmost part of Campi Flegrei caldera. One of the Campi Flegrei projects, 'SCARFOGLIO', is aimed to build a 5 MWe geothermal power plant in the Agnano area, whereas the 'START' project has the goal to build a tri-generation power plant in the Fuorigrotta area, fed mainly by geothermal source improved by solar termodynamic and bio-mass. Meanwhile such projects enter the field work operational phase, the pilot hole drilling of the CFDDP project, recently completed, represents an important experience for several operational aspects, which should contitute an example to be followed by the next geothermal activities in the area. It has been furthermore a source of valuable data for geothermal

  9. Central Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Clouds and haze cover most of the Italian peninsula in this view of central Italy (41.5N, 14.0E) but the Bay of Naples region with Mt. Vesuvius and the island of Capri are clear. The Adriatic Sea in the background separates Italy from the cloud covered Balkans of eastern Europe and the Tyrrhenian Sea in the foreground lies between the Italian mainland and the off scene islands of Corsica and Sardinia. Several aircraft contrails can also be seen.

  10. Content of Cadmium and Lead in Vegetables and Fruits Grown in the Campania Region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Mauro; Picazio, Giuseppe; Serpe, Paola; Lambiase, Sara; Cerino, Pellegrino

    2015-09-01

    Illegal practices of waste combustion and their burial in some land devoted to agricultural crops caused a severe economic crisis of the agriculture and food sector in the Campania region of Italy. To assess the levels of contamination by lead and cadmium, the only metals subject to European Union legislation, a system of monitoring of plant foods in the whole territory of the region has been promoted, with the goal of certifying productions and consumer protection. In fact, products that comply with European Union standards are assigned a Quick Response Code, which guarantees the traceability of the product (manufacturer and location). The code also ensures the safety of the product, as it allows the consumer to see the results of the analysis performed on the specific chain of production. The content of lead and cadmium was determined in 750 vegetable samples by using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry after microwave mineralization. These levels were below the maximum limits in all but three samples; two samples of tomatoes exceeded the maximum level of cadmium, and one sample of valerian contained an excess of lead.

  11. Endosulfan poisoning in canids and felids in the Calabria region of southern Italy.

    PubMed

    De Roma, Antonella; Rossini, Carmela; Riverso, Caterina; Galiero, Giorgio; Esposito, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Endosulfan, a highly toxic insecticide and acaricide, was globally banned under the Stockholm Convention in May 2011 because of its threats to human health and the environment. Despite the ban on its use, endosulfan is still present in the environment, causing poisoning events in domestic animals and wildlife. Toxicologic analysis of poisoned animals conducted by the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Mezzogiorno revealed that in the past 3 y, this pesticide has not disappeared in the regions of interest. More than 650 samples (baits and animal organs) collected from 2013 to 2015 were analyzed through solid-phase extraction followed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection. This methodology allowed us to identify 45 positive samples from the Calabria region of southern Italy (10.2 % of the total samples). Most were samples of gastric content (alpha-endosulfan range: 1.27-3,800 mg/kg) and baits (alpha-endosulfan range: 92-1,497 mg/kg). Lower concentrations of pesticide were found in samples of stomach (alpha-endosulfan: 6.7-118 mg/kg) and liver (alpha-endosulfan: 0.38-14.2 mg/kg).

  12. Epidemiology of tetanus in the Marches Region of Italy, 1992-95.

    PubMed Central

    Prospero, E.; Appignanesi, R.; D'Errico, M. M.; Carle, F.

    1998-01-01

    Reported is the incidence of tetanus in the Marches Region of Italy for the period 1992-95. Data were obtained from both the regional public health committee's notification forms for infectious diseases and from hospital clinical records. A total of 36 cases were examined, comprising 7 males (19.4%) and 29 females. The raw annual incidence was 6.3 per million population; the standardized incidence for females was four times greater than that for males (9.2 and 2.4 per million population annually, respectively). The patients' ages varied from 31 years to 88 years (median, 73.5 years). The incidence among subjects older than 65 years was approximately ten times greater than that among younger individuals. Chronic wounds, such as trophic lesions, represented the site of tetanus infection in 14.3% of cases whose infection entry point was identified. Treatment of the 36 cases required a total of 1239 hospital days, of which 58.7% were in intensive care and 29.6% were in infectious diseases departments. The raw annual mortality rate for the period considered was 0.7 per million population; the case-fatality ratio was 11%. The results of our study confirm the limits of the current Italian immunization programmes, which exclude a large portion of the population from antitetanus protection. PMID:9615496

  13. Occupational exposure to crystalline silica: estimating the number of workers potentially at high risk in Italy.

    PubMed

    Scarselli, Alberto; Binazzi, Alessandra; Marinaccio, Alessandro

    2008-12-01

    Occupational exposure to free silica is widespread in several economic sectors and is well known to cause silicosis. This study was designed to establish a database of enterprises and workers in industrial sectors involving silica exposure in Italy and to estimate the number of workers potentially at high risk of exposure. The industrial sectors at risk of silica exposure were identified by selecting the industrial sector that employed people who were compensated for silicosis in 2000-2004. The enterprises and the number of workers (blue-collar) potentially at risk of silica exposure were selected from the Italian database of workplaces. The number of workers potentially at high risk of silica exposure, were 28,712. The most involved sectors were: construction, mining and quarrying, metal working, and manufacturing of non-metallic products. Among regions in Italy, some exposure-disease scenarios were cited in literature, particularly in Sardinia, Liguria, and Tuscany. Establishing a database of industries related to silica dust exposure and identifying the number of workers potentially at high risk can be useful to reinforce preventive measures and to control exposure. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Scale-Invariance in the Spatial Development of Landslides in the Umbria Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liucci, Luisa; Melelli, Laura; Suteanu, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the spatial distribution of mass movements is a major issue in the management and forecasting of landslide risk. In this context, the present study examines the most widespread types of landslide in the Umbria region (central Italy), that is, slides and flows, in order to establish if it is possible to identify a well-defined structure in their spatial pattern. By using the landslide inventory map available for the area and by resorting to the principles of fractal theory, the scaling properties of the landslide sample were investigated. The application of the box-counting algorithm to the maps of landslide triggering points and landslide areas allowed for the identification of a clear scale-invariant structure. Two distinct types of fractal behaviour were recognized, separated by a scale value of 1 km and characterized by capacity dimensions of 1.35 and 1.76, in the ranges of 25 m-1 km and 1-16 km, respectively. The comparison between the scaling exponents obtained from a map of points and one of areas, and the elaboration of the cumulative frequency distributions of landslide areas supported the interpretation of this result: the higher capacity dimension describes the spatial distribution of landslides in the Umbria region, while the lower contains additional information about their geometries, suggesting that the latter also possess scaling properties. Based on the finding of two different types of behaviour of landslides in space, the hypothesis is discussed that the contribution of each causal factor (i.e., predisposing and triggering factors) to the occurrence of landslide events and to their spatial development could be different in the two scale ranges identified, depending on its spatial variability at local and regional scale. According to this hypothesis, factors with high local variability (i.e., topographic attributes) would mainly affect the assortment of landslide geometries, while those with high regional variability (e.g., rainfalls

  15. Features and organization of Pain Centers in the Lazio Region, Italy, in 2011.

    PubMed

    Latina, R; De Marinis, M G; Baglìo, G; Cattaruzza, M S; Notaro, P; Guzzetti, V; Osborn, J; Sansoni, J; Giannarelli, D; Piredda, M; D'Angelo, D; Mastroianni, C; Casale, G; Gatti, A; Tarsitani, G; Pain Centers Group, P C G

    2014-01-01

    Evidence on pain management highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in order to achieve optimal therapeutic results. Such programs can be guaranteed by the Centers for Pain Management (CPMs), in which multidisciplinary teams are able to provide advanced and specialized activities for the assessment, diagnosis and treatment of chronic benign pain. To date, information related to healthcare supply and the organizational structure of these centers in Italy is incomplete. The aim of this paper was to provide an overview of the healthcare network of the CPMs in the Lazio region. A descriptive survey was conducted in all the 37 CPMs existing in the Lazio region in 2011 of which 28 participated. CPMs were located either in Universities or in public or private hospital facilities. They included a clinic, a Day Hospital service, Day surgery and day-beds. CPMs were managed by anaesthesiologists who, in most instances, did not work in a multidisciplinary team. The number of other health professionals available, such as nurses, psychologists and physiotherapists, was limited. CPMs mainly provided drug therapy, Complementary Alternative Medicine (CAM) and complex interventional treatments. The median waiting time was 30 days. The clinics were not homogeneously distributed in the region with a higher concentration in Rome (56%), followed by other provinces of the Lazio region (26%) and the province of Rome (18%). Clearly, Rome was the city which offered the greatest range of healthcare services and the highest number of consultations with patients, which significantly differed from those of the other areas (χ²=19.6 p<0.01). In 2011, the availability of CPMs was not equally distributed throughout the territory, and there was an over-utilization of the facilities in Rome and an under-utilization in the provincial areas. Moreover, this study showed a lack of a multi-professional approach to chronic pain management.

  16. The Regional Mass Balance of Lombardy Alps (Italy) during 2007-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonardi, L.; La Barbera, L.; Scotti, R.; Villa, F.

    2012-04-01

    The regional mass balance project aims to estimate the mass balance of Lombardy glaciers (Central Alps, Italy) over the survey period 2007-2011. A network of 52 stakes was established, where measurements were taken yearly. The network was designed to cover 15 of the largest glaciers within the region, as well as to inspect all the glaciarized mountain sectors. Given the geographical representativity, the methodology applied for surveying mass balance at a regional scale followed an elevation criteria. The 244 Lombardy glaciers, for a total surface of 90.4 km2, were considered as one and a classical glaciological mass balance was implemented. Seven elevation ranges were identified, and stakes where positioned accordingly. The correlation between the specific balance and aspect of single stakes was so weak that this parameter was not taken into account. A mass balance value was associated to each altitude range, averaging the measurements taken at the correspondent stakes. In cases of stakes showing a considerably different trend in comparison to the average of the same altitude, a separate analysis was carried out and they were considered representative of the specific glacier only. The consistency of the field measurements was confirmed by the evidences emerged from the monitoring data and pictures collected every year for the Servizio Glaciologico Lombardo glaciological survey, and from projects of glaciological and geodetic mass balance carried out on specific glaciers.Altitude ranges and glaciers surface have been updated to 2007 thanks to newly available Digital Surface Models and aerial photos. The results show a strong negative mass balance: approx. - 615 million cubic meters of water over five years. The hydrological year 2006/2007 accounted for 30% of the loss while the less negative mass balance was recorded in 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 (accounting for 15% of the total loss each). Considering the regional glaciers volume in 2003, it is relevant to notice

  17. Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis in the Marches region (Italy): 1997–2007

    PubMed Central

    D'Errico, Marcello M; Barbadoro, Pamela; Bacelli, Sonia; Esposto, Elisabetta; Moroni, Vania; Scaccia, Federica; Tantucci, Luana; Prospero, Emilia

    2008-01-01

    Background The last case of poliomyelitis due to transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus occurred in Italy in 1982, however, it is important to guarantee a high quality surveillance as there is a risk of importation of cases from areas where polio is endemic. Stopping poliovirus transmission is pursued through a combination of high infant immunization coverage and surveillance for wild poliovirus through reporting and laboratory testing of all cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among children under fifteen years of age. The aim of this study was to describe and to evaluate 11 years of active surveillance in the Marches (Italy) in terms of: incidence, aetiology and clinical manifestation of AFP cases. Methods The active Acute Flaccid Paralysis surveillance has been carried out in the Marches region since February 1997 by the Chair of Hygiene which established a regional hospital network. Active surveillance involves 15 hospital centres. Results In the considered period, 0–15 years population varied between 187,051 in 1997 to 201,625 in 2007, so the number of AFP expected cases is 2 per year. From February 1997 to October 2007, 27 cases were found with rates of 1.0/100,000 in 1997; 2.0/100,000 in 1998; 1.0/100,000 in 1999; 0.5/100,000 in 2000; 2.5/100,000 in 2001; 1.0/100,000 in 2002; 0 in 2003; 0.5/100,000 in 2004; 1.5/100,000 in 2005; 2.0/100,000 in 2006; 1.5/100,000 in 2007. In 29.6% of cases two stool samples were collected in 14 days from the symptoms onset. The 60-days follow-up is available for 23 out of 27 cases reported. In 44.5% of cases the definite diagnosis was Guillain Barrè syndrome. Conclusion In general, the surveillance activity is satisfactory even if in presence of some criticalities in biological samples collection. The continuation of surveillance, in addition to the maintenance of current levels of performance, will tend to a further and more detailed sensitization of all workers involved, in order to obtain spontaneous and prompt

  18. Regional earthquake loss estimation in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huttenlau, Matthias; Winter, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Beside storm events geophysical events cause a majority of natural hazard losses on a global scale. However, in alpine regions with a moderate earthquake risk potential like in the study area and thereupon connected consequences on the collective memory this source of risk is often neglected in contrast to gravitational and hydrological hazards processes. In this context, the comparative analysis of potential disasters and emergencies on a national level in Switzerland (Katarisk study) has shown that earthquakes are the most serious source of risk in general. In order to estimate the potential losses of earthquake events for different return periods and loss dimensions of extreme events the following study was conducted in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol (Italy). The applied methodology follows the generally accepted risk concept based on the risk components hazard, elements at risk and vulnerability, whereby risk is not defined holistically (direct, indirect, tangible and intangible) but with the risk category losses on buildings and inventory as a general risk proxy. The hazard analysis is based on a regional macroseismic scenario approach. Thereby, the settlement centre of each community (116 communities) is defined as potential epicentre. For each epicentre four different epicentral scenarios (return periods of 98, 475, 975 and 2475 years) are calculated based on the simple but approved and generally accepted attenuation law according to Sponheuer (1960). The relevant input parameters to calculate the epicentral scenarios are (i) the macroseismic intensity and (ii) the focal depth. The considered macroseismic intensities are based on a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) of the Italian earthquake catalogue on a community level (Dipartimento della Protezione Civile). The relevant focal depth are considered as a mean within a defined buffer of the focal depths of the harmonized earthquake catalogues of Italy and Switzerland as well as

  19. Variability of adenoidectomy/tonsillectomy rates among children of the Veneto Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Fedeli, Ugo; Marchesan, Maria; Avossa, Francesco; Zambon, Francesco; Andretta, Marilisa; Baussano, Iacopo; Spolaore, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite national guidelines in 2003 aimed at limiting the recourse to tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy (A/T), the latter are among the most frequent pediatric surgeries performed in Italy. Aim of the study is to investigate variability of A/T rates among children of the Veneto Region, Italy. Methods All discharges of Veneto residents with Diagnosis-Related Groups 57–60 and ICD9-CM intervention codes 28.2 (tonsillectomy), 28.3 (adenotonsillectomy), 28.6 (adenoidectomy) were selected in the period 2000–2006 for a descriptive analysis. A multilevel Poisson regression model was applied to estimate Incidence Rate Ratios (IRR) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for A/T surgery among children aged 2–9 years in 2004–2006, while taking into account clustering of interventions within the 21 Local Health Units. Results Through 2000–2006, the overall number of A/T surgeries decreased (-8%); there was a decline of adenoidectomies (-20%) and tonsillectomies (-8%), whereas adenotonsillectomies raised (+18%). Analyses on children aged 2–9 resulted in an overall rate of 14.4 surgeries per 1000 person-years (16.1 among males and 12.5 among females), with a wide heterogeneity across Local Health Units (range 8.1–27.6). At random intercept Poisson regression, while adjusting for sex and age, intervention rates were markedly lower among foreign than among Italian children (IRR = 0.57, CI 0.53–0.61). A/T rates in the 10–40 age group (mainly tonsillectomies) computed for each Local Health Unit and introduced in the regression model accounted for 40% of the variance at Local Health Unit level of pediatric rates (mainly adenoidectomies and adenotonsillectomies). Conclusion A/T rates in the Veneto Region, especially adenoidectomies among children aged 2–9 years, remain high notwithstanding a decrease through 2000–2006. A wide heterogeneity according to nationality and Local Health Units is evident. The propensity to A/T surgery of each Local Health Unit is

  20. Variability of adenoidectomy/tonsillectomy rates among children of the Veneto Region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Fedeli, Ugo; Marchesan, Maria; Avossa, Francesco; Zambon, Francesco; Andretta, Marilisa; Baussano, Iacopo; Spolaore, Paolo

    2009-02-07

    Despite national guidelines in 2003 aimed at limiting the recourse to tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy (A/T), the latter are among the most frequent pediatric surgeries performed in Italy. Aim of the study is to investigate variability of A/T rates among children of the Veneto Region, Italy. All discharges of Veneto residents with Diagnosis-Related Groups 57-60 and ICD9-CM intervention codes 28.2 (tonsillectomy), 28.3 (adenotonsillectomy), 28.6 (adenoidectomy) were selected in the period 2000-2006 for a descriptive analysis. A multilevel Poisson regression model was applied to estimate Incidence Rate Ratios (IRR) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for A/T surgery among children aged 2-9 years in 2004-2006, while taking into account clustering of interventions within the 21 Local Health Units. Through 2000-2006, the overall number of A/T surgeries decreased (-8%); there was a decline of adenoidectomies (-20%) and tonsillectomies (-8%), whereas adenotonsillectomies raised (+18%). Analyses on children aged 2-9 resulted in an overall rate of 14.4 surgeries per 1000 person-years (16.1 among males and 12.5 among females), with a wide heterogeneity across Local Health Units (range 8.1-27.6). At random intercept Poisson regression, while adjusting for sex and age, intervention rates were markedly lower among foreign than among Italian children (IRR = 0.57, CI 0.53-0.61). A/T rates in the 10-40 age group (mainly tonsillectomies) computed for each Local Health Unit and introduced in the regression model accounted for 40% of the variance at Local Health Unit level of pediatric rates (mainly adenoidectomies and adenotonsillectomies). A/T rates in the Veneto Region, especially adenoidectomies among children aged 2-9 years, remain high notwithstanding a decrease through 2000-2006. A wide heterogeneity according to nationality and Local Health Units is evident. The propensity to A/T surgery of each Local Health Unit is similar in different age groups and for different surgical

  1. Wild food plants traditionally consumed in the area of Bologna (Emilia Romagna region, Italy).

    PubMed

    Sansanelli, Sabrina; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2014-09-25

    This research was performed in an area belonging to the province of the city of Bologna (Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy). The purpose of the present survey was to record the local knowledge concerning traditional uses of wild food plants and related practices, such as gathering, processing, cooking, therapeutic uses, with the aim of preserving an important part of the local cultural heritage. Thirty-nine people still retaining Traditional Local Knowledge (TLK) were interviewed between March-April 2012 and September-October 2013 by means of open and semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews. For each plant species mentioned, we recorded the botanical family, the English common name, the Italian common and/or folk names, the parts of the plant used, the culinary preparation, and the medicinal usage. The relative frequency of citation index (RFC), a tool that measures the local cultural importance of a plant species, was also included. The folk plants mentioned by the respondents belonged to 33 botanical families, of which the Rosaceae (14 plants) and the Asteraceae (9 plants) were the most representative. The species with the highest RFC index (0.77) were Crepis vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia (Thuill) Thell and Taraxacum officinale Weber. Eleven folk plants were indicated as having therapeutic effects. T. officinale Weber, C. vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia (Thuill) Thell and Sonchus spp., which are used as food, were reported to be depurative, blood cleaning, refreshing, diuretic and laxative. The most commonly used species was Urtica spp, which was also the most frequently cited for medicinal uses. The present survey documented the wild food plant traditional knowledge of an area belonging to the province of the city of Bologna (Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy). The general perception obtained is that on one side the TLK related to wild food plants has strongly been eroded, mainly due to immigration and urbanization phenomena, whereas on the other side

  2. Possible future lakes resulting from continued glacier shrinkage in the Aosta Valley Region (Western Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viani, Cristina; Machguth, Horst; Huggel, Christian; Godio, Alberto; Perotti, Luigi; Giardino, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Aosta Valley (NW-Alps, Italy) is the region with the largest glaciarized area of Italy (133.73 km2). Like the other alpine regions it has shown a significant glacier retreat starting from the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA, ca. 1850 AD), by losing about 60% of its glaciarized area. As a direct consequence of glacier shrinkage, within glacially-sculpted landscapes, glacier-bed overdeepenings become exposed, offering suitable conditions for glacier lakes formation. In the Aosta Valley region, about 200 glacier lakes have been recognized in different time periods within LIA maximum extent boundaries, mainly dammed by bedrock landforms. With respect to human activities, glacier lakes represent both opportunities (e.g. Miage lake for tourism) and risks (e.g. outburst flood of the Gran Croux lake above Cogne in August 2016) in such a densely populated and developed region. The objective of this contribution is to assess locations of possible future glacier lakes in the Aosta Valley by using the GlabTop2 model (Glacier Bed Topography model version 2). Understanding where future lakes will appear is of fundamental importance for the identification of potential hazards and the interpretation of conditioning factors and dynamics. We first assessed ice thickness and consequently glacier bed topography over large glaciated areas of the region, by using both glaciers outlines related to 1999 (provided by the GlaRiskAlp project) and the regional DEM of 1990 (provided by the Aosta Valley Region) as input data. We performed several runs by varying different input parameters (e,g.: pixel size and basal shear stress). Then we compared modelled results on selected test glaciers (Rutor and Grand Etrèt) with available GPR data. As a validation, we also carried out a GPR survey during summer 2016 on the central area of Indren Glacier (Monte Rosa massif) where GlabTop2 shows the presence of a possible subglacial overdeepening morphology. We found that ice thickness and consequently the

  3. Rotation Period Determination for 46 Hestia, 118 Peitho, 333 Badenia, 356 Liguria, and 431 Nephele

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilcher, Frederick

    2017-10-01

    Synodic rotation periods and amplitudes are found for 46 Hestia: 21.036 ± 0.001 h, 0.09 ± 0.01 mag; 118 Peitho: 7.805 ± 0.001 h, 0.14 ± 0.01 mag; 333 Badenia: 9.862 ± 0.001 h, 0.24 ± 0.01 mag; 356 Liguria: 31.701 ± 0.001 h or 63.395 ± 0.002 h, 0.14 ± 0.01 mag; 431 Nephele: 13.530 ± 0.001 h, 0.13 ± 0.01 mag.

  4. MOMENT TENSOR SOLUTIONS OF RECENT EARTHQUAKES IN THE CALABRIAN REGION (SOUTH ITALY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orecchio, B.; D'Amico, S.; Gervasi, A.; Guerra, I.; Presti, D.; Zhu, L.; Herrmann, R. B.; Neri, G.

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study is to provide moment tensor solutions for recent events occurred in the Calabrian region (South Italy), an area struck by several destructive earthquakes in the last centuries. The seismicity of the area under investigation is actually characterized by low to moderate magnitude earthquakes (up to 4.5) not properly represented in the Italian national catalogues of focal mechanisms like RCMT (Regional Centroid Moment Tensor, Pondrelli et al., PEPI, 2006) and TDMT (Time Domain Moment Tensors, Dreger and Helmerger, BSSA, 1993). Also, the solutions estimated from P-onset polarities are often poorly constrained due to network geometry in the study area. We computed the moment tensor solutions using the “Cut And Paste” method originally proposed by Zhao and Helmerger (BSSA, 1994) and later modified by Zhu and Helmerger (BSSA, 1996). Each waveform is broken into the Pnl and surface wave segments and the source depth and focal mechanisms are determined using a grid search technique. The technique allows time shifts between synthetics and observed data in order to reduce dependence of the solution on the assumed velocity model and earthquake locations. This method has shown to provide good-quality solutions for earthquakes of magnitude as small as 2.5. The data set of the present study consists of waveforms from more than 100 earthquakes that were recorded by the permanent seismic network run by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) and about 40 stations of the NSF CAT/SCAN project. The results concur to check and better detail the regional geodynamic model assuming subduction of the Ionian lithosphere beneath the Tyrrhenian one and related response of the shallow structures in terms of normal and strike-slip faulting seismicity.

  5. Extending the temporal context of ethnobotanical databases: the case study of the Campania region (southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    De Natale, Antonino; Pezzatti, Gianni Boris; Pollio, Antonino

    2009-01-01

    Background Ethnobotanical studies generally describe the traditional knowledge of a territory according to a "hic et nunc" principle. The need of approaching this field also embedding historical data has been frequently acknowledged. With their long history of civilization some regions of the Mediterranean basin seem to be particularly suited for an historical approach to be adopted. Campania, a region of southern Italy, has been selected for a database implementation containing present and past information on plant uses. Methods A relational database has been built on the basis of information gathered from different historical sources, including diaries, travel accounts, and treatises on medicinal plants, written by explorers, botanists, physicians, who travelled in Campania during the last three centuries. Moreover, ethnobotanical uses described in historical herbal collections and in Ancient and Medieval texts from the Mediterranean Region have been included in the database. Results 1672 different uses, ranging from medicinal, to alimentary, ceremonial, veterinary, have been recorded for 474 species listed in the data base. Information is not uniformly spread over the Campanian territory; Sannio being the most studied geographical area and Cilento the least one. About 50 plants have been continuously used in the last three centuries in the cure of the same affections. A comparison with the uses reported for the same species in Ancient treatises shows that the origin of present ethnomedicine from old learned medical doctrines needs a case-by-case confirmation. Conclusion The database is flexible enough to represent a useful tool for researchers who need to store and compare present and previous ethnobotanical uses from Mediterranean Countries. PMID:19228384

  6. Trapping sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Eva; Pilani, Roberto; Carrieri, Marco; Bellini, Romeo

    2007-12-01

    The efficiency and practicality of two trapping methods for adult Phlebotomine sand flies in two areas of the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy) were evaluated. Suction traps (CO2) and sticky traps (ST) were used to collect sand flies every two weeks, from June to September, 1999, from 16:00 to 07:00. Two CO2 traps were activated at the same time for each area (one with light and one without light), whereas 38 (four with light and 34 without lights) and 48 (four with light and 44 without) sticky traps were activated in Borghi and Longiano, respectively. An Index of Apparent Abundance (IAA) was calculated for each trap type and area. A total of 2,253 sand flies was trapped over the four-month period, with 1,765 collected from Borghi and 488 from Longiano. Phlebotomus perfiliewi was the most abundant species collected, comprising 99.6% and 84.6% of the total flies trapped in Borghi and Longiano, respectively. Other species were also collected within the two areas (Phlebotomus perniciosus and Phlebotomus mascittii) but were not considered for further analyses due to low catches. Significantly more specimens were caught using CO2 than sticky traps and the addition of a light source also improved the catches, however, a significantly greater number of female specimens were collected by a CO2 trap without a light source. Phlebotomus perfiliewi thus appears to show a photophobic reaction in the case of females when trapped using CO2/light attractants.

  7. Genetic diversity of Armillaria spp. infecting highbush blueberry in northern Italy (Trentino region).

    PubMed

    Prodorutti, D; Vanblaere, T; Gobbin, D; Pellegrini, A; Gessler, C; Pertot, I

    2009-06-01

    Armillaria spp. are the causal agents of root rots of several woody plants, including highbush blueberry. Since 2003, highbush blueberry plants infected by Armillaria spp. have been found in Valsugana Valley, Trentino region, northern Italy. Our aim was to identify the Armillaria spp. involved in these infections, as well as possible sources of inoculum in blueberry fields. Samples of Armillaria spp. were collected from diseased blueberry plants in 13 infected blueberry fields, from bark spread along the blueberry rows, from infected trees in the vicinity of the fields, and from four forest locations. The identification of Armillaria spp. was accomplished using a species-specific multiplex polymerase chain reaction method and by sequencing the rDNA at a specific locus. The differentiation between genotypes was performed by using simple-sequence repeat analysis. Armillaria mellea and A. gallica were the most frequently observed species infecting blueberry in the Valsugana Valley. Three to eight Armillaria genotypes were identified in each blueberry field. No individual genotypes were found in more than one blueberry field. Two-thirds of the genotypes found colonizing trees in the immediate vicinity of infected fields and two-thirds of the genotypes found colonizing the bark spread in blueberry rows were also isolated from blueberry plants in the field, indicating that bark used as mulch and infected trees surrounding the fields may be important sources of inoculum.

  8. Definition of radon prone areas in Friuli Venezia Giulia region, Italy, using geostatistical tools.

    PubMed

    Cafaro, C; Bossew, P; Giovani, C; Garavaglia, M

    2014-12-01

    Studying the geographical distribution of indoor radon concentration, using geostatistical interpolation methods, has become common for predicting and estimating the risk to the population. Here we analyse the case of Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG), the north easternmost region of Italy. Mean value and standard deviation are, respectively, 153 Bq/m(3) and 183 Bq/m(3). The geometric mean value is 100 Bq/m(3). Spatial datasets of indoor radon concentrations are usually affected by clustering and apparent non-stationarity issues, which can eventually yield arguable results. The clustering of the present dataset seems to be non preferential. Therefore the areal estimations are not expected to be affected. Conversely, nothing can be said on the non stationarity issues and its effects. After discussing the correlation of geology with indoor radon concentration It appears they are created by the same geologic features influencing the mean and median values, and can't be eliminated via a map-based approach. To tackle these problems, in this work we deal with multiple definitions of RPA, but only in quaternary areas of FVG, using extensive simulation techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adult immunization with 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine in Campania region, South Italy: an economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Giorgio; Parlato, Antonino; Zamparelli, Alessandro Sanduzzi; Belfiore, Patrizia; Gallé, Francesca; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Riganti, Carla; Zamparelli, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Pneumococcal pneumonia has a high clinical burden in terms of morbidity, mortality and hospitalization rate, with heavy implications for worldwide health systems. In particular, higher incidence and mortality rates of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) cases, with related costs, are registered among elderly. This study aimed to an economic evaluation about the immunization with PCV13 in the adult population in Campania region, South Italy. For this purpose we performed, considering a period of 5 y, a budget impact analysis (BIA) and a cost-effectiveness analysis which considered 2 scenarios of immunization compared with lack of immunization for 2 targeted cohorts: first, the high risk subjects aged 50-79 y, and second the high risk individuals aged 50-64 y, together with all those aged 65 y. Regarding the first group, the decrease of pneumonia could give savings equal to €29,005,660, while the immunization of the second cohort could allow savings equal to €10,006,017. The economic evaluation of pneumococcal vaccine for adult groups represents an essential instrument to support health policies. This study showed that both hypothesized immunization strategies could produce savings. Obtained results support the use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for adults. This strategy could represent a sustainable and savings-producer health policy.

  10. Biomonitoring with honeybees of heavy metals and pesticides in nature reserves of the Marche Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ruschioni, Sara; Riolo, Paola; Minuz, Roxana Luisa; Stefano, Mariassunta; Cannella, Maddalena; Porrini, Claudio; Isidoro, Nunzio

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out biomonitoring with honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) to assess the presence of pesticides and heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead) in all of the ten nature reserves of the Marche Region (central–eastern Italy). The study was carried out during the spring and summer seasons when the honeybees were active, over 3 years (2008–2010). Twenty-two colonies of honeybees bred in hives were used. Samples of live and dead honeybees and of honey were collected from 11 sampling stations from May to October in each year. No pesticide pollution was found. Significant differences in heavy metal concentrations were found among years, months and sites, and in particular situations. The analysis reveals that high heavy-metal concentrations occurred exclusively in live honeybees. For the seasonal averages, the most detected heavy metal was chromium, which exceeded the threshold more often than for the other elements, followed by cadmium and lead; nickel never exceeded the threshold. The data are discussed with an evaluation of the natural and anthropic sources taken from the literature and from local situations that were likely to involve heavy metal pollution.

  11. Hepatitis E in a region of Italy: An emerging autochthonous infection?

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Giuseppe; Bagnarelli, Patrizia; Marzioni, Marco; Marinelli, Katia; Surace, Giulia; Traini, Sara; Baroni, Gianluca Svegliati; Menzo, Stefano; Benedetti, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Recent data showed an increasing number of "autochthonous" cases of hepatitis E in Italy. Analysing cases of acute hepatitis E to define frequency, clinical features, prognosis and risk factors. We considered all the patients admitted to our Regional Hospital between August 2011 and September 2014, with a diagnosis of acute hepatitis; serological screening for hepatitis B, C and A viruses was performed; in the event of negative results, sera were tested for cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr and hepatitis E viruses. Among 200 patients, 66 were affected by viral infection. IgM anti-HEV was detected in 14 patients with a predominance of males (79%) with a mean age of 55. Genotype 3 of HEV was found in 8 patients. Only one patient died of acute on chronic liver failure; all others evolved favourably towards clinical remission within two months from clinical onset. Thirteen patients had had local exposure to infection and 9 reported the consumption of raw or undercooked locally produced pork. The incidence of HEV in our cohort of patients with acute viral hepatitis is high (about 20% per year). In over 85% an autochthonous exposure to infection could be recognised, with a clear link with food habits. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. CYP2D6 genotyping in natives and immigrants from the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Riccardi, Laura N; Lanzellotto, Rossana; Luiselli, Donata; Ceccardi, Stefania; Falconi, Mirella; Bini, Carla; Pelotti, Susi

    2011-11-01

    Pharmacogenetic testing of drug metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms provides an important tool to improve prescribing decisions, avoiding therapeutic failure and adverse drug reactions. Cytochrome P450 2D6 isoform plays an important role in the metabolism of about 20%-25% of widely used clinical drugs. Interethnic differences in allele frequency distribution of the CYP2D6 gene are well established, but interethnic admixture, introducing variations in population ancestry and resulting in distinct levels of population structure, should be acknowledged in pharmacogenomic studies to avoid inappropriate extrapolation of CYP2D6 data. The aim of the present research was to characterize CYP2D6 polymorphism in a random sample of 122 natives and 175 immigrants from Africa, Asia, and South America living in the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy), considering the present scenario of immigration and back migration events, which is a source of admixture. The results are today consistent with the known interethnic genetic variation, but the observed significant divergence between natives and Africans or South-East Asians predicts that admixture will reshape the population structure and the native metabolic ratio curve requiring, for drug prescription and pharmacogenetics studies, an interdisciplinary approach applied in an appropriate biogeographical and anthropological frame.

  13. Effects of particulate matter exposure on multiple sclerosis hospital admission in Lombardy region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Laura, Angelici; Mirko, Piola; Tommaso, Cavalleri; Giorgia, Randi; Francesca, Cortini; Roberto, Bergamaschi; Andrea, Baccarelli A; Alberto, Bertazzi Pier; Cecilia, Pesatori Angela; Valentina, Bollati

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, characterized by recurrent relapses of inflammation that cause mild to severe disability. Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) has been associated with acute increases in systemic inflammatory responses and neuroinflammation. In the present study, we hypothesize that exposure to PM < 10 µm in diameter (PM10) might increase the occurrence of MS-related hospitalizations. Methods We obtained daily concentrations of PM10 from 53 monitoring sites covering the study area and we identified 8287 MS-related hospitalization through hospital admission-discharge records of the Lombardy region, Italy, between 2001 and 2009. We used a Poisson regression analysis to investigate the association between exposure to PM10 and risk of hospitalization. Results A higher RR of hospital admission for MS relapse was associated with exposure to PM10 at different time intervals. The maximum effect of PM10 on MS hospitalization was found for exposure between days 0 and 7: Hospital admission for MS increased 42% (95%CI 1.39–1.45) on the days preceded by one week with PM10 levels in the highest quartile. The p-value for trend across quartiles was < 0.001. Conclusions These data support the hypothesis that air pollution may have a role in determining MS occurrence and relapses. Our findings could open new avenues for determining the pathogenic mechanisms of MS and potentially be applied to other autoimmune diseases. PMID:26624240

  14. Unsafe tap water in households supplied from groundwater in the Salento Region of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Masciopinto, Constantino; La Mantia, Rosanna; Carducci, Annalaura; Casini, Beatrice; Calvario, Agata; Jatta, Edoardo

    2007-03-01

    Although the fractured aquifer of the Salento supplies over 80% of the drinking water requirements of the local population, its exposure to pollution has recently increased. In recent years, owing to the arid climate and droughts, the spreading of wastewater on soil for irrigation has become much more frequent. Consequently, hazardous and pathogenic microorganisms released with wastewater have been transported into the subsoil and have contaminated groundwater. An elaboration of epidemiological data has shown that the local population has the highest exposure to endemic gastroenteritis in Italy. In order to reduce human exposure to unsafe groundwater, the setback distance for drinking wells necessary to achieve the 'natural disinfection' criteria, has been determined experimentally at the Nardò aquifer (Salento region), supported by groundwater monitoring results and a mathematical transport model able to determine the apparent pathogenic microorganism pathways in fractures. The results also provided valuable inactivation constants of cultural indicators (coliforms, enterococci, Clostridium spores and somatic coliphages) and viruses in the wastewater that have been injected into the fractured aquifer since 1991. Furthermore, the efficacy of chlorine to remove viral indicators from water in a well 500 m from wastewater injection was tested. Hypochlorination reduces somatic coliphages and Clostridium spores in groundwaters but did not achieve complete inactivation in all tests. Complete disinfection of groundwater samples was possible only when there was an initial Clostridium spores count of < or = 10 CFU 100 ml (-1).

  15. Microbiological quality of Burrata cheese produced in Puglia region: southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Dambrosio, Angela; Quaglia, Nicoletta Cristiana; Saracino, Mara; Malcangi, Maria; Montagna, Cosimo; Quinto, Marcello; Lorusso, Vanessa; Normanno, Giovanni

    2013-11-01

    Burrata cheese is a popular typical Italian food product, produced in Puglia (an administrative region of southern Italy), and this study investigated the microbiological quality of 404 samples of this cheese. The samples were analyzed in order to quantify Escherichia coli and to detect the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes. No sample exceeded the values of E. coli set by EC Regulation 1441/07 for some dairy products, while 15 (3.7%) samples tested coagulase-positive staphylococci positive, with values greater than 10(3) CFU/g. One strain of S. aureus was identified and characterized from each of these positive samples, and of these strains, 7 (46.6%) produced staphylococcal enterotoxin A, 5 (33.3%) produced staphylococcal enterotoxin C, 2 (13.3%) produced staphylococcal enterotoxin D, and 1 (6.6%) produced both staphylococcal enterotoxins A and D. All strains were mecA negative. The 15 S. aureus isolates were tested for their antimicrobial resistance patterns, and all analyzed strains showed antimicrobial resistance properties for at least one of the tested antibiotics. Testing for the other pathogens mentioned above gave negative results. The results of our study mean that the microbiological quality of Burrata cheese can be assumed to be good, although care must be taken with raw materials and good hygiene during processing in order to guarantee greater food safety.

  16. HIV-1 early and late diagnosis in the Emilia Romagna Region (Italy): a three year study.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, Giuseppina; Magnani, Giacomo; Bon, Isabella; Longo, Serena; Bertoldi, Alessia; Degli Antoni, Anna Maria; Rossi, Maria Rita; Ruggeri, Alessandro; Sambri, Vittorio; Semprini, Simona; Sighinolfi, Laura; Ursitti, Maria Alessandra; Zerbini, Alessandro; Colangeli, Vincenzo; Calza, Leonardo; Finarelli, Alba Carola; Massimiliani, Erika; Re, Maria Carla

    2016-10-01

    It is crucial to establish the timing of infection and distinguish between early and long-lasting HIV-1 infections not only for partner notification and epidemiological surveillance, but also to offer early drug treatment and contain the spread of infection. This study analyzed serum and/or plasma samples with a first positive HIV antibody/antigen result coming from different Medical Centers in the Emilia Romagna Region, North East Italy, using the avidity assay, Western Blotting, RNA viral load, CD4 cell counts and genotyping assay. From May 2013 to May 2016, we certified 845 new HIV-1 infections, 18.7% of which were classified on the basis of avidity index as recent infections and 81.3% as long-lasting infections, with an estimated conversion time exceeding six months at the time of study. Western Blotting showed reactivity to only one or two HIV-1 proteins in recently infected patients (RIPs), while a complete pattern to gag, env and pol proteins was observed in most long-lasting infected patients (LLIPs). The median age, gender, nationality and risk transmission factors were comparable in RIPs and LLIPs. Phylogenetic analysis performed in available plasma disclosed B strains, non-B subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) in both groups of patients, with a major presence of CRFs in non-Italian HIV subjects. The large number of patients unaware of their HIV status makes it crucial to discover hidden epidemics and implement appropriate targeted public health interventions.

  17. Drinking water contamination from perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS): an ecological mortality study in the Veneto Region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Mastrantonio, Marina; Bai, Edoardo; Uccelli, Raffaella; Cordiano, Vincenzo; Screpanti, Augusto; Crosignani, Paolo

    2017-05-23

    : Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), a heterogeneous group of highly stable man-made chemicals, have been widely used since 1960s and can be detected almost ubiquitously in all environmental matrices. In Italy, on January 2014, drinking water contamination in an area of the Veneto Region was detected mainly due to the drain of fluorinated chemicals by a manufacturing company operating since 1964. : The present ecological mortality study was aimed at comparing mortality for some causes of death selected on the basis of previous reported associations, during the period 1980-2013, in municipalities with PFAS contaminated and uncontaminated drinking water on the basis of the levels indicated by the Italian National Health Institute (ISS). Sex-specific number, standardized mortality rates and rate ratios (RR) for PFAS contaminated and uncontaminated areas were computed for each cause of death through the ENEA epidemiological database. : In both sexes, statistically significant RRs were detected for all causes mortality, diabetes, cerebrovascular diseases, myocardial infarction and Alzheimer's disease. In females, RRs significantly higher than 1.0 were also observed for kidney and breast cancer, and Parkinson's disease. Increased risk, although not statistically significant, was observed for bladder cancer in both sexes, and for testicular cancer, pancreatic cancer and leukemia in males only. : Higher mortality levels for some causes of death, possibly associated with PFAS exposure, were detected in contaminated municipalities in comparison with uncontaminated ones with similar socioeconomic status and smoking habits. These results warrant further individual level analytic studies to delineate casual associations.

  18. Relationship between geo- and biodiversity: an example from the Piemonte Region (NW Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Enrico; Ghiraldi, Luca; Pistarino, Annalaura; Giardino, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The portion of floodplain located in the southern sector of Piemonte region (NW Italy) nearby the Langhe hills, is characterized by a complex and heterogeneous geomorphological system. It is the results of geological processes and climate changes occurred since Pliocene and continued in the Upper Pleistocene with the piracy of the Tanaro River, which because of the change of the base level it triggered processes of intense headward erosion, helped by the sedimentary nature of the substrate. As a consequence of this action the landscape can be subdivided in three main geomorphological units: i) the deep incisions on the floodplain where the main rivers flow; ii) the uplands rising above the plain characterized in the eastern portion by several fluvial terraces, while in the northern one they are cut by streams that dug deep gorges where marine deposits of the Piemonte Tertiary Basin outcrop; iii) the hilly area of Langhe and Roero, which shaped on sedimentary rocks, represents a monocline structure dipping to the north-west. The aim of the present work is to identify a complex of geomorphosites able to describe not only the geological and geomorphological evolution, but also the conditioning that the geomorphological features produce on the vegetation. In particular this kind of analysis has been carried out on a limited area located nearby the city of Cherasco. In this sector the presence of deep narrow gorges created a characteristic environment with ecological niches occupied by plant communities of alpine origin, considered as glacial relicts.

  19. Epidemiology of diabetes mellitus in the fragility fracture population of a region of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Notarnicola, A; Maccagnano, G; Tafuri, S; Moretti, L; Laviola, L; Moretti, B

    2016-01-01

    Increased risk of osteoporosis and its clinical significance in patients with diabetes is controversial. This study aims to increase the data which are available regarding the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients affected by fragility fracture in Italy. We retrospectively studied Hospital Discharge Data (HDD) in the Apulian database for the period 2006–2010 to identify a fragility fracture diagnosis in males over 65 years of age and in females over 50. The database was then checked for drug prescriptions to identify those persons who had taken at least one osteoporosis drug. Within this latter group, thanks to hospital admission and prescription records, the subjects affected with diabetes mellitus were identified. Between 2006 and 2010 in Apulia 177,639 patients were hospitalized and diagnosed as having fragility fracture. The greatest number of those fragility fractures were found to be in the 70 to 79 age range (64,917 total; females 56,994, males 7,923). The prevalence of diabetes subjects in Apulia in this period was estimated at 6.5%. In the same region and period 21.1% of subjects affected by diabetes experienced a fragility fracture; in particular, this number was 27% for males and for 20.5% females. This is the first study providing data on the prevalence of fragility fractures and diabetes in the Apulian population. The data confirm that diabetes is a risk factor which influences bone density and risk of fractures and therefore the need of osteoporosis screening and treatment in diabetic patients.

  20. Meteorological operational services for civil protection in Veneto region (North-eastern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbi, A.; Monai, M.; Zardini, F.

    2009-09-01

    The Meteorological Centre of Teolo (CMT), part of the Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention and Protection of the North-eastern Italian region Veneto (ARPAV), is the operational regional meteorological service. Since April 2009 the Centre is linked to and supplies meteorological monitoring and forecasting to the recently constituted Functional Centre of the regional civil protection (CFD Veneto), which operates in the framework of National Civil Protection. The CFD Veneto supplies a multi-disciplinary, technical-scientific support to civil protection activities, to early warnings of natural hazards, in particular related to hydrogeological, hydraulic, and avalanches risks. The north-eastern part of Italy is known to be one of the rainiest regions in Europe. The region Veneto, due to its topographic configuration which includes Alpine reliefs, plans and a coast exposed to the Adriatic Sea, is conducive to heavy and long-lasting precipitation events. Also, strong thunderstorm activity with high precipitation rates, hail, wind gusts, and even tornadoes are relatively frequent occurrences. In this contribution two recent examples of different types of extreme events are briefly analysed by means of the ARPAV multi-sensor observing system which includes weather radar and a dense surface network. We show some of the impacts of such weather events on the territory, the services provided by CFD Veneto, in terms of meteorological forecasting and nowcasting products, and hydrogeologic/hydraulic hazard bullettins. The analysis highlights the difficulty of an efficient wheather forecast for civil defence purposes in a complex situation as ours, where many types of different events are possible. Especially cases of rapid convective events with their intense and very localized phenomena are a significant challenge. It is well-known that such events can bring remarkable material damages and serious danger for the people. For this reason an effective warning system which

  1. Preliminary notes about Heritage Stone Resources from Apulia region South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeone, Vincenzo; Doglioni, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Apulia region in south Italy is characterized by a calcareous basement of cretaceous limestone outcropping in the large Murgia highland in central Apulia and by the presence of Miocenic and Pleistocenic calcareous sandstone that historically the have been used for many buildings and architectural purpose and can be considered as part of heritage stone resources that still today are used for several building purpose. Here is presented a preliminary overview of the main kind of stone that can be properly included in the global stone resources. The main limestone stones are the Bari cretaceous limestone that have been used to build up many Apulia Romanic cathedrals as Trani Cathedral, and also many mediaeval castle as the famous Castel del Monte built by Fredric II. The most famous variety is Trani stone dug in large open quarry in the area at north of Bari. A second important stone resource is the Lecce sandstone. It is a quite homogeneous and compact Miocenic sandstone, made up by fragments of limestone and fossil carbonate with calcites cement and the presence of other substances included dispersion of clay minerals. It has a light-colored or pale yellow with tiny pink veins. It is dug in large quarries throughout the Salento peninsula in southern Apulia. It is a rock relatively soft and easily workable also due to the presence of small quantities of clay. Improves its characteristics of resistance as a result of drying. Even if it was largely used for architecture and decorative purpose it is easily degradable for effect of weathering effects. It was the base of famous monuments and decoration of Lecce Baroque in the XVIII century, including the palace of Celestine and the adjacent Santa Croce Church, the Church of Santa Chiara and the Cathedral. A third relevant heritage stone is the Gravina calcareous sandstone (Upper Pleistocene) largely outcropping along the border of Murge calcareous horst. It has been used for several historical ancient building (XVII

  2. Priority persistent contaminants in people dwelling in critical areas of Campania Region, Italy (SEBIOREC biomonitoring study).

    PubMed

    De Felip, Elena; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Bove, Crescenzo; Cori, Liliana; D'Argenzio, Angelo; D'Orsi, Giancarlo; Fusco, Mario; Miniero, Roberto; Ortolani, Rosanna; Palombino, Raffaele; Parlato, Antonino; Pelliccia, Maria Grazia; Peluso, Filomena; Piscopo, Giovanni; Pizzuti, Renato; Porpora, Maria Grazia; Protano, Domenico; Senofonte, Oreste; Spena, Silvana Russo; Simonetti, Andrea; di Domenico, Alessandro

    2014-07-15

    To investigate if protracted living in degraded environments of the Caserta and Naples provinces (Campania Region, Italy) had an impact on exposure of local people, highly toxic persistent contaminants were measured in blood, blood serum, and human milk of a large number of healthy donors. Sampling was carried out from 2008 to 2009. Blood was collected from over 850 20-64-year old donors; by pooling, 84 blood and 84 serum samples were obtained. Milk was donated by 52 mothers: specimens were pooled into six samples. Polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs, dioxin-like (DL) and non-dioxin-like (Σ6PCBs)), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) were measured in serum (organic biomarkers) and blood (metals); these chemicals and polybromobiphenyl ethers (Σ9PBDEs) were analyzed in milk. PCDD+PCDF, DL-PCB, TEQTOT, and Σ6PCB concentration ranges (medians) in serum were 6.26-23.1 (12.4), 3.42-31.7 (11.5), 10.0-52.8 (23.9) pgTEQ97/g fat, and 55.5-647 (219) ng/g fat, respectively, while in milk concentration ranges were 5.99-8.77, 4.02-6.15, 10.0-14.2 pgTEQ97/g fat, and 48.7-74.2 ng/g fat. Likewise, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb findings in blood spanned 2.34-13.4 (5.83), 0.180-0.930 (0.475), 1.09-7.60 (2.60), 10.2-55.9 (28.8) μg/L, respectively; only Pb could be measured in milk (2.78-5.99 μg/L). Σ9PBDE levels in milk samples were 0.965-6.05 ng/g fat. Biomarkers' concentrations were found to be compatible with their current values in European countries and in Italy, and consistent with an exposure primarily determined by consumption of commercial food from the large distribution system. Based on relatively higher biomarker values within the hematic biomonitoring database, the following municipalities were flagged as possibly deserving attention for health-oriented interventions: Brusciano and Caivano (As), Giugliano (Hg), Pianura (PCDDs+PCDFs), and Qualiano-Villaricca (As, Hg). The analysis of samples

  3. [Mortality excess analysis for year 2015 in Palermo Province (Sicily Region, Southern Italy)].

    PubMed

    Pinzone, Filippo; Cusimano, Rosanna; Casuccio, Nicolò; Mancuso, Adriana; Pitarresi, Angela

    2017-01-01

    a death number increment compared to the previous years was observed in Italy for the year 2015; its causes are under study. to verify if the mortality occurred in Palermo Province (Sicily Region, Southern Italy) for the year 2015 was greater than the one observed in the previous period (years 2009-2014) and to find which death causes it would be attributable to. observed number of deaths in 2015 were compared with expected numbers calculated with the traditional analysis of direct adjusted rates, and with a 90% predictive interval estimated fitting a Generalized Additive Model (GAM), via a quasi-Poisson distribution of the observed deaths in the period 2009-2014; various measures of the environmental temperature were used as regressor. The latter method was used also to analyse causes of death. all deaths occurred in residents in Palermo Province in the years 2009-2015. for each population subgroup based on sex and residence, direct adjusted rates for 2015 were lower than those observed in the previous period, but for women resident in towns outside Palermo (observed/estimated ratio: 1.04; 95%IC 1.00-1.08). GAM analysis shows mortality excesses only in men aged more than 64 years; in Palermo residents, excesses were shown in the 2nd week of December; in residents in towns of the Province excesses were shown in the 2nd and 3rd week of February and in the 1st and 2nd week of August. In the death causes analysis, mortality excesses were shown for pneumonia and bronchial pneumonia in the 1st and 2nd weeks of January; 3rd week of February; in the 1st, 2nd and 4th week of August; and in the 1st week of October. For infectious diseases, these excesses were observed in the 1st week of March. it is plausible that in some weeks of the year 2015 there have been a mortality excess; however, as all-year mortality is lower or equal to that of the previous periods, the Authors believe that there is an harvesting effect, that is a mortality displacement that does not affect total

  4. Evolution of the techniques for subsidence monitoring at regional scale: the case of Emilia-Romagna region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitelli, G.; Bonsignore, F.; Pellegrino, I.; Vittuari, L.

    2015-11-01

    The recent decades have seen a significant evolution of the methodologies and techniques for the monitoring of subsidence on a regional scale: from the traditional levelling technique to GNSS and finally to SAR interferometry. The case study of Emilia-Romagna, Italy, is a prime example of this evolution. As known, the Emilia-Romagna plain is subject to a phenomenon of subsidence with a natural and an anthropogenic component, both of varying amounts depending on the area. The first contributes a few mm/year; the second, particularly evident in the last 60 years, is mainly correlated to excessive withdrawal of fluids from underground and reaches higher values (in the past, subsidence rates of several cm per year were observed in the Po delta and near Bologna). The geodetic monitoring of subsidence started in the 1950s by different entities, establishing and measuring levelling networks of varying size and with various characteristics, mainly located where the phenomenon was most clearly manifest. These local initiatives were not able to provide a consistent understanding of the phenomenon throughout the entire Emilia-Romagna plain. The first regional-scale monitoring of the Emilia-Romagna plain was initiated in 1999, with a large levelling network (about 3000 km) and a coupled network of 60 GNSS points. In subsequent years, the monitoring approach has mainly focused on the most modern remote sensing techniques integrated with each other, with the adoption of the method DInSAR calibrated to a GNSS Continuous Operating Reference Stations (CORS) database. The application of DInSAR methods resulted in subsidence maps with a greater level of detail. The paper analyzes the methodology choices made during 1999-2012, through three successive campaigns that adopted and integrated the different techniques.

  5. A Bayesian Belief Network framework to predict SOC stock change: the Veneto region (Italy) case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Ferro, Nicola; Quinn, Claire Helen; Morari, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    A key challenge for soil scientists is predicting agricultural management scenarios that combine crop productions with high standards of environmental quality. In this context, reversing the soil organic carbon (SOC) decline in croplands is required for maintaining soil fertility and contributing to mitigate GHGs emissions. Bayesian belief networks (BBN) are probabilistic models able to accommodate uncertainty and variability in the predictions of the impacts of management and environmental changes. By linking multiple qualitative and quantitative variables in a cause-and-effect relationships, BBNs can be used as a decision support system at different spatial scales to find best management strategies in the agroecosystems. In this work we built a BBN to model SOC dynamics (0-30 cm layer) in the low-lying plain of Veneto region, north-eastern Italy, and define best practices leading to SOC accumulation and GHGs (CO2-equivalent) emissions reduction. Regional pedo-climatic, land use and management information were combined with experimental and modelled data on soil C dynamics as natural and anthropic key drivers affecting SOC stock change. Moreover, utility nodes were introduced to determine optimal decisions for mitigating GHGs emissions from croplands considering also three different IPCC climate scenarios. The network was finally validated with real field data in terms of SOC stock change. Results showed that the BBN was able to model real SOC stock changes, since validation slightly overestimated SOC reduction (+5%) at the expenses of its accumulation. At regional level, probability distributions showed 50% of SOC loss, while only 17% of accumulation. However, the greatest losses (34%) were associated with low reduction rates (100-500 kg C ha-1 y-1), followed by 33% of stabilized conditions (-100 < SOC < 100 kg ha-1 y-1). Land use management (especially tillage operations and soil cover) played a primary role to affect SOC stock change, while climate conditions

  6. A methodology for elemental and organic carbon emission inventory and results for Lombardy region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Caserini, Stefano; Galante, Silvia; Ozgen, Senem; Cucco, Sara; de Gregorio, Katia; Moretti, Marco

    2013-04-15

    This paper presents a methodology and its application for the compilation of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) emission inventories. The methodology consists of the estimation of EC and OC emissions from available total suspended particulate matter (TSP) emission inventory data using EC and OC abundances in TSP derived from an extensive literature review, by taking into account the local technological context. In particular, the method is applied to the 2008 emissions of Lombardy region, Italy, considering 148 different activities and 30 types of fuels, typical of Western Europe. The abundances estimated in this study may provide a useful basis to assess the emissions also in other emission contexts with similar prevailing sources and technologies. The dominant sources of EC and OC in Lombardy are diesel vehicles for EC and the residential wood combustion (RWC) for OC which together account for about 83% of the total emissions of both pollutants. The EC and OC emissions from industrial processes and other fuel (e.g., gasoline, kerosene and LPG) combustion are significantly lower, while non-combustion sources give an almost negligible contribution. Total EC+OC contribution to regional greenhouse gas emissions is positive for every sector assuming whichever GWP100 value within the range proposed in literature. An uncertainty assessment is performed through a Monte Carlo simulation for RWC, showing a large uncertainty range (280% of the mean value for EC and 70% for OC), whereas for road transport a qualitative analysis identified a narrower range of uncertainty. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Geological, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater bodies in the Tuscany region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerrina Feroni, A.; da Prato, S.; Doveri, M.; Ellero, A.; Lelli, M.; Marini, L.; Masetti, G.; Nisi, B.; Raco, B.; Scozzari, A.

    2009-04-01

    This work describes the study for the characterization of meaningful groundwater bodies (CISS, Corpi Idrici Significativi Sotterranei) in Tuscany region (Italy), by way of a multidisciplinary approach, that includes geological and hydrogeological aspects, together with applied hydro-geochemistry. Due to the high degree of exploitation of such areas, both geological, and hydrogeological, as well as hydrogeochemical data are available, being produced by governmental research agencies and other interested parties. Said high human pressure resulted in local situations of degradation, such as those related to the ingression of marine and brackish water, the use of nitrogenous fertilizers in agricultural practices, and industrial processes which involve borates. An additional important aspect that emerged in this framework, is represented by the localization in some wells of this area of the Cr (VI), whose origin is not yet clearly assessed. In such context, this work is intended to contribute to the assessment of water quality at the catchment scale in the whole territory, as a first step towards a deeper assessment of origin, pathway and understanding of the transport micropollutants. A multilayer geometric reconstruction has been performed by the stratigraphic interpretation of available data in the Underground and Water Resource Data Base (BDSRI) of the Geological Survey of Tuscany Region, identifying the main aquifer levels, acquitards and acquicludes. The study of the piezometric surfaces corresponding to different hydrogeological regimes, led to the individuation of the areas characterized by the largest water exploitation, which significantly affect the quality and quantity of the resource. Hydrogeochemical characterization was carried out using: (i) a deterministic approach based on classification plots, Eh-pH diagrams, calculations of speciation-saturation, activity diagrams, etc. (ii) a geo-statistical approach, which enabled the geochemical mapping of the

  8. Exploiting teleconnection indices for probabilistic forecasting of drought class transitions in Sicily region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, Brunella; Cancelliere, Antonino

    2015-04-01

    In the present study two probabilistic models for short-medium term drought forecasting able to include information provided by teleconnection indices are proposed and applied to Sicily region (Italy). Drought conditions are expressed in terms of the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) at different aggregation time scales. More specifically, a multivariate approach based on normal distribution is developed in order to estimate: 1) on the one hand transition probabilities to future SPEI drought classes and 2) on the other hand, SPEI forecasts at a generic time horizon M, as functions of past values of SPEI and the selected teleconnection index. To this end, SPEI series at 3, 4 and 6 aggregation time scales for Sicily region are extracted from the Global SPEI database, SPEIbase , available at Web repository of the Spanish National Research Council (http://sac.csic.es/spei/database.html), and averaged over the study area. In particular, SPEIbase v2.3 with spatial resolution of 0.5° lat/lon and temporal coverage between January 1901 and December 2013 is used. A preliminary correlation analysis is carried out to investigate the link between the drought index and different teleconnection patterns, namely: the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Scandinavian (SCA) and the East Atlantic-West Russia (EA-WR) patterns. Results of such analysis indicate a strongest influence of NAO on drought conditions in Sicily with respect to other teleconnection indices. Then, the proposed forecasting methodology is applied and the skill in forecasting of the proposed models is quantitatively assessed through the application of a simple score approach and of performance indices. Results indicate that inclusion of NAO index generally enhance model performance thus confirming the suitability of the models for short- medium term forecast of drought conditions.

  9. Experimental study on the rheologic behavior of debris flow material in the Campania region, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotto di Santolo, A.; Evangelista, A.; Pellegrino, A.

    2009-04-01

    The rheologic behavior of the natural material collected in the source area of debris flows occurred in the Campania region has been investigated. Several studies have been carried out on the conditions leading to the triggering of landslides. Less information is available on the transition between soil behavior and fluid behavior. In this work the rheologic flow behavior of the suspension of these materials in distilled water has been investigated with a standard viscosimeter (AR 2000ex TA Instruments) at different solid volumetric concentrations Cv (20, 30 and 40%). The materials tested were taken from the source area of three debris flows occurred in the mountainsides of the Northwestern Campania region (Southern Italy): Nocera, Salerno (March 2005) material A in the following; Monteforte Irpino, Avellino (May 1998) material B; Astroni, Naples (December 2005) material C. The soil type regards the most recent pyroclastic deposits deriving from the volcanic activity of mount Somma/Vesuvius (comprising the Sorrento Penisula and the mountains of Sarno-Quindici) for materials A and B. For material C, the soil type regards the most recent pyroclastic deposits deriving from the volcanic activity of the Phlegrean Fields (part of the city of Naples). For each solid volumetric concentration Cv, two kinds of tests have been performed: test on fine particle suspension (maximum diameter of 0.1 mm); test on large particle suspension (maximum diameter of 0.5 mm). The principal result is that the flow behavior is almost the same for all pyroclastic deposits: the materials behave like a Non-Newtonian fluid with a threshold shear stress (yield stress). The shear stress increases with increase of shear strain in the range analyzed (1< γ י

  10. Background seismicity in the Central Apennines of Italy: The Abruzzo region case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagh, S.; Chiaraluce, L.; De Gori, P.; Moretti, M.; Govoni, A.; Chiarabba, C.; Di Bartolomeo, P.; Romanelli, M.

    2007-11-01

    We investigate background seismic activity of the Abruzzo region, a 5000 km 2 area located within the Central Apennines of Italy, where in the past 600 years at least 5 large earthquakes (I = XI-X) have occurred. Between April 2003 and September 2004, a dense temporary seismic network composed of 30 digital three-component seismic stations recorded 850 earthquakes with 0.9 < ML < 3.7. We present earthquake locations and focal mechanisms obtained by standard procedures and an optimized velocity model computed with a search technique based on genetic algorithms. The seismicity occurs at a low and constant rate of ˜ 2.6 e- 04 events/day *km 2 and is sparsely distributed within the first 15 km of the crust. Minor increases in the seismicity rate are related to the occurrence of small and localised seismic sequences that occur at the tip of major active normal faults along secondary structures. We observe that during the 16 months of study period, the Fucino fault system responsible for the 1915 Fucino earthquake ( MS = 7.0), and the major normal faults of the area, did not produce significant seismic activity. Fault plane solutions evaluated using P-wave polarity data show the predominance of normal faulting mechanisms (˜ 55%) with NE-trending direction of extension coherent with the regional stress field active in this sector of the Apennines. Around 27% of the focal solutions have pure strike-slip mechanisms and the rest shows transtensional faulting mechanisms that mainly characterise the kinematics of the secondary structures activated by the small sequences. We hypothesize that the largest known NW-trending normal faults are presently locked and we propose that in the case of activation, the secondary structures located at their tips may act as transfer faults accommodating a minor part of the extensional deformation with strike-slip motion.

  11. Incidence of neuroepithelial primary brain tumors among adult population of Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Baldin, Elisa; Testoni, Stefania; de Pasqua, Silvia; Ferro, Salvatore; Albani, Fiorenzo; Baruzzi, Agostino; D'Alessandro, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    Incidence of neuroepithelial Primary Brain Tumors (nPBT) varies, ranging from 7.3 to 11.6 cases/100,000/year across Europe. We present incidence and survival of nPBT in the Emilia-Romagna region (ER), Italy. This study is the largest in Southern Europe. Specialists in neurosurgery, neurology, neuroradiology, oncology, radiotherapy, genetics, and pathology of ER notified all suspected nPBT adult cases residing in ER (4,337,966 inhabitants) observed during 2009. Furthermore, through ICD-9 discharge codes, we identified and reviewed all possible cases. Neuroepithelial PBT diagnosis was based on histological or radiological findings. We included 400 incident nPBT cases, of which 102 (25%) were retrospectively identified. These latter were significantly older. The standardized incidence was 10.5/100,000/year (95% CI 9.4-11.5), higher for men. It was 9.2/100,000/year (95% CI 8.3-10.2) for astrocytic tumors, 0.6/100,000/year (95% CI 0.4-0.9) for oligodendroglial tumors, and 7.1 (95% CI 6.3-8.0) for glioblastoma (GBM). Among GBM patients, median survival was 249 days if prospectively identified vs. 132 days when identified through ICD-9 codes (p < 0.0001). The incidence of nPBT in the ER region is among the highest in the literature. Older patients were more likely to escape an active surveillance system. This should be considered when comparing incidence rates across studies, giving the increasing number of elderly people in the general population.

  12. Homogeneous regions in Italy: an analysis of the mean and extreme climate characteristics and their impact on agriculture.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, M.; Coccimiglio, P.

    2009-09-01

    Adverse environmental conditions, lasting for several days in a row, can cause stress over ecosystems, humans and animals with a negative impact on crop yield, human health, and on animal production and reproduction, to name few aspects, and therefore leading to severe economic losses. Namely, in the last decades, the enhanced frequency and intensity of summer heat waves in Italy have increased the importance of assessing the damages they cause. Another example is the occurrence of late spring frost causing damages not only to subsistence crops, but moreover for the so-called cash-crops. An example is the kiwifruit production in Italy specifically grown to fulfil the global demand, more than the national market, being the Italian production out of phase with the other major producers, such as New Zealand and South America. Using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) applied to daily maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation and then a hierarchical cluster analysis, based on Ward's method, on a set of 100 stations covering the period 1971-2006, we divided the 100 sites into 8 homogeneous classes. For each cluster the climate characteristics have been analyzed, in order to have a description of the mean climate of the cluster. In addition, we analyzed the occurrence of the extreme events in each cluster, their duration and intensity, and their trend over the last decades. Focusing on the kiwifruit production regions in Italy a first attempt is presented to compare actual/suitable production regions in Italy and similar regions in New Zealand from the point of view of their respective climate trends and variability. Long term trends in agroclimatic indices and results of comparison analysis will be discussed for regions in the two Countries. The study has been partly supported by the Short term mobility programme of the Italian National Research Council, under the sponsorship of the CNR-Agrofood Department.

  13. Development of a landlside EWS based on rainfall thresholds for Tuscany Region, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosi, Ascanio; Segoni, Samuele; Battistini, Alessandro; Rossi, Guglielmo; Catani, Filippo; Casagli, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    We present the set-up of a landslide EWS based on rainfall thresholds for the Tuscany region (central Italy), that shows a heterogeneous distribution of reliefs and precipitation. The work started with the definition of a single set of thresholds for the whole region, but it resulted unsuitable for EWS purposes, because of the heterogeneity of the Tuscan territory and non-repeatability of the analyses, that were affected by a high degree of subjectivity. To overcome this problem, the work started from the implementation of a software capable of objectively defining the rainfall thresholds, since some of the main issues of these thresholds are the subjectivity of the analysis and therefore their non-repeatability. This software, named MaCumBA, is largely automated and can analyze, in a short time, a high number of rainfall events to define several parameters of the threshold, such as the intensity (I) and the duration (D) of the rainfall event, the no-rain time gap (NRG: how many hours without rain are needed to consider two events as separated) and the equation describing the threshold. The possibility of quickly perform several analyses lead to the decision to divide the territory in 25 homogeneous areas (named alert zones, AZ), so as a single threshold for each AZ could be defined. For the definition of the thresholds two independent datasets (of joint rainfall-landslide occurrences) have been used: a calibration dataset (data from 2000 to 2007) and a validation dataset (2008-2009). Once the thresholds were defined, a WebGIS-based EWS has been implemented. In this system it is possible to focus both on monitoring of real-time data and on forecasting at different lead times up to 48 h; forecasting data are collected from LAMI (Limited Area Model Italy) rainfall forecasts. The EWS works on the basis of the threshold parameters defined by MaCumBA (I, D, NRG). An important feature of the warning system is that the visualization of the thresholds in the Web

  14. Vocational Training in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (West Germany).

    This document on vocational training in Italy contains eight chapters. Chapter 1 describes the population of Italy. Chapter 2 describes the Italian economy through the agricultural, industrial, and service sectors. Chapter 3 describes education and vocational training in Italy, including regional agricultural and nonagricultural vocational…

  15. Emergency department triage performance timing. A regional multicenter descriptive study in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bambi, Stefano; Ruggeri, Marco; Sansolino, Sandra; Gabellieri, Massimo; Tellini, Sabrina; Giusti, Monica; Ciulli, Elisa; Franchi, Federica; Petrocchi, Laura; Olivi, Mauro; Gravili, Raffaele Carlo; Biancalana, Paola; Millanti, Andrea; Martini, Luca; Sgrevi, Paola

    2016-11-01

    We explored the time employed by nurses to perform the ED triage process in the clinical setting. Moreover, we assessed the influences on triage timing performance exerted by variables related to nurses, local EDs' features, and by interruptions. This is a multicenter prospective descriptive-explorative study performed in 11 EDs of the Tuscany region (Italy), using a 5 tier triage system. The sample was made up of 1/3 of nurses working in each ED. Sampling was performed by a stratified proportional randomization (length of service classes: <5 years; 5-10 years; >10 years). Triage nurses were observed during their triage work-shift. In 2014, 120 nurses were observed, during 1114 triage processes. The timings of triage phases were: waiting time to triage, median 2.55 min (IQR 1.28-5.03 min; range 0.1-56.25 min); triage duration, median 2.58 min (IQR 1.36-4.35 min; range 0.07-50 min). 400 interruptions were recorded (35.9%). In 9.9% there were 2 interruptions at least. There were significant differences in the medians of triage duration among the years of nurses' triage experience (P < 0.001). The presence of interruption was significantly associated with the increasing of the time intervals in all the triage phases (P < 0.0001). Finally, we recorded significant differences in all the triage time phases between the EDs. We found that the nurses triage time performances are similar to other triage systems in the world. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Fatal injuries at work in Tuscany Region (Central Italy): content analysis of newspapers].

    PubMed

    Romeo, Gianpaolo; Bertini, Giulia; Biffino, Marco; Baldasseroni, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    to describe how journalists report events such as fatal accidents work through the newspapers. analysis of the textual content of titles and texts, using qualitative and quantitative techniques. 184 articles related to 180 work-related fatalities occurred in Tuscany Region (Central Italy) in the period 2008-2009 were examined. frequency of citation of significant adjectives relating to the use of frames in titles was measured; frequency of citation of the laquo;subjects attended the venue for office tasksraquo; and laquo;subjects whose statements are reported in relation to the eventraquo; in relation to the circumstances of the event and some available demographic features was also evaluated. compared to texts, titles of the articles are characterized by higher frequency of adjectives that describe the emotional intensity. Articles describing tractors or road accidents and articles that describe sudden deaths are shorter than the others. Among the subgroups of subjects quoted in the text of the articles, health authorities are less mentioned in the articles dealing with road accidents, while they are more common in those due to falls from a height, where also social forces which issue statements to the press are more frequently mentioned. The analysis of co-occurrences visually shows which activities are carried out by these subgroups of subjects in the texts of the selected articles. the study shows the message that is conveyed to the public by the mass medium newspaper. Hopefully, in the future, following results of similar studies, it will be easier focusing awareness and transmission of information, which are essential for prioritization process of public health initiatives to be taken. This study was preliminary in nature, opening a field of interest so far little practised in our Country.

  17. Consumers and foodborne diseases: knowledge, attitudes and reported behavior in one region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Angelillo, I F; Foresta, M R; Scozzafava, C; Pavia, M

    2001-02-28

    A survey was conducted to investigate knowledge, attitudes and related behavior on foodborne diseases and food-handling practices among consumers in one region of Italy. A self-administered questionnaire was offered to a random sample of mothers of children attending public schools. Of the 394 responding mothers, 36% knew about all the six foodborne pathogens investigated but only 11.1% correctly indicated six related different food vehicles; education level was a predictor of this knowledge. A positive attitude towards foodborne disease control, significantly higher in older and more educated women, was reported by the great majority, who agreed that improper storage of food represents a health hazard (95.7%), that washing hands before handling unwrapped raw or cooked food reduces the risk of food poisoning (93.2%), and that the awareness of the temperature of the refrigerator is crucial in reducing risk of food poisoning (90.1%). Only 53.9% reported washing hands before and after touching raw or unwrapped food and 50.4% reported using soap to wash hands. A total of 75.6% clean kitchen benches after every use and 81.1% use hot water and soap for this purpose. Only 25.6% thaw food in the refrigerator and 49.9% put leftovers in the refrigerator soon after meals. Washing hands before and after touching unwrapped food was significantly higher in women living in larger families and who had been informed by physicians about foodborne diseases. Educational programs and the counseling efforts of physicians, particularly focused to less educated subjects, are greatly needed.

  18. Elements levels in dogs from "triangle of death" and different areas of Campania region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Zaccaroni, Annalisa; Corteggio, Annunziata; Altamura, Gennaro; Silvi, Marina; Di Vaia, Roberto; Formigaro, Costanza; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe

    2014-08-01

    In the last twenty years, many concerns have raised in Campania region (Southern Italy) about illegal waste dumping and toxic waste and their possible adverse effects on health. Many human activities are considered to be important sources of environmental pollutants, elements among them. In this study, pet dogs were enrolled as environmental sentinels from three different areas of Campania, with a different degree of pollution, evaluating elements in blood and hair. The obtained data indicated that dogs from less polluted area were exposed to a hot spot of pollution, as only animals from one city (Sessa Aurunca) presented elements concentrations very close to toxic levels. When excluding these animals, the area proved to be the less contaminated. The present report confirm the higher degree of pollution of the most industrialized areas, and a certain concern originates from Cr, Ni and As, which are present as levels well above toxic thresholds. These data are indicative of a reduced pollution of the areas considered by Cd and Pb, but arise concern for Hg, As, Cr and Ni, which reach concentrations high enough to impact dogs and humans health, in term of acute (in the city of Sessa Aurunca) and chronic toxicity (i.e. reproduction impairment, endocrine disruption, immunosuppression). Additional studies are necessary to better define not only the precise distribution of hot spots of pollution, but also the real impact of such an exposure on the health of dogs, in term of endocrine balance and/or immune system activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A landscape character assessment of three terraced areas in Campania region, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravagnuolo, Antonia; Ronza, Maria; Di Martino, Ferdinando; De Rosa, Fortuna

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural terraces represent the territorial structure of many cultural landscapes in the Campania region, Italy. Historic urban/rural settlements and hydraulic-agrarian systems have been developed on mountains and hills, producing diverse cultural landscapes depending on the specific geological, pedological and geomorphological characteristics, which influenced the character and functions of terraces. These unique landscapes are multi-functional and provide many ecosystem services: provisioning (food, water retention, building materials); regulating and maintenance (hydrogeological stability, soil fertility, protection from soil erosion, maintenance of genetic diversity, habitat); cultural services (heritage and traditional knowledge conservation, tourism and recreation, spiritual experience, education, aesthetic quality). Three terraced landscapes in Campania are analysed, which present a rich diversity in the geological structure and formal/functional characteristics: the Roccamonfina vulcanic area, a highly fertile and lapillous soil; the Monte di Bulgheria, a clay-rich area; and finally the well-known UNESCO World Heritage site of the Amalfi Coast, a calcareous, steep rock faced area. A landscape character assessment of the three sites is processed, identifying the biophysical structure of the sites, natural systems and land use, and cultural and anthropic elements. Terraced landscapes in Campania can be regenerated, taking again an active social and economic role for the society, enhancing their multifunctionality as a key source of wellbeing. Ecosystem services are mapped and evaluated to assess benefits and costs in a multidimensional framework. Spatial analysis in GIS environment supports this process, providing a decision-support tool for mapping and assessment of terraced landscapes, to convert their actual and potential value into a resource of economic sustainable development.

  20. Hospitalization for diseases attributable to human papillomavirus in the Veneto Region (North-East Italy).

    PubMed

    Baldo, Vincenzo; Cocchio, Silvia; Buja, Alessandra; Baldovin, Tatjana; Furlan, Patrizia; Bertoncello, Chiara; Saia, Mario

    2013-10-05

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually-transmitted pathogens. A number of studies in the literature have estimated the burden of HPV-related diseases by collecting data at primary care level, while a comprehensive assessment of the global burden of HPV-related diseases on hospital resources is still lacking. This was a retrospective cohort study based on hospital discharge data collected from 2000 to 2010 in the Veneto Region (north-east Italy). All hospitalizations for diseases potentially associated with HPV were identified by searching the hospital discharge records, then the proportion of these hospitalizations relating to diseases attributable to the HPV infection was calculated. Overall, the annual hospitalization rate for HPV-related diseases was 21.3 per 100,000 individuals in the general population, 15.8 per 100,000 males, and 27.6 per 100,000 females. Hospitalizations were due mainly to genital warts, and peak among 15- to 44-year-olds in both genders. Taking both sexes together, the hospitalizations attributable to HPV dropped from 24.5/100,000 in 2000 to 17.5/100,000 in 2011, showing a significant decline during this period, with an average annual percent change (AAPC) of -1.9% (CI 95%: -2.8, -0.9;). On the other hand, the hospitalization rate for genital warts tended to increase significantly (AAPC 3.0% [CI 95%: 1.4;4.7]), whilst there was a significantly declining trend in the hospitalization rate for anal cancer (AAPC - 5.0% [CI 95%: -7.7;-2.2]), genital cancer (AAPC -6.2% [CI 95%: -7.8;-4.6]) and oropharyngeal cancer (AAPC -4.3% [CI 95%: -4.8;-3,8]). Data derived from the hospital records indicate that HPV-related diseases are an important public health issue.

  1. A radiometric and petrographic approach to risk assessment at Alte Madonie Mounts region (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lanzo, G; Rizzo, S; Tomarchio, E

    2014-03-01

    The main goal of this work was to assess the radiological hazard at Alte Madonie Mounts region (north-central Sicily, Italy) in response to rumours of an increase in the incidence of cancer in this area. A correlation between the natural radionuclide contents and the petrographic features of the soil and rock samples was also evaluated. A total of 41 samples of selected soils and rocks were collected, powdered, dried and sealed in 'Marinelli' beakers for 20 d prior to measurement to ensure that a radioactive equilibrium between (226)Ra and (214)Bi had been reached. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to quantify the radioactivity concentrations. To determine (238)U and (232)Th activities, the 609.3-keV line from (214)Bi in secular equilibrium with (226)Ra and the 911-keV line from (228)Ac, with which (232)Th can be assumed to be in equilibrium, were used, respectively. The gamma transition of 1461 keV was used to determine (40)K activity. The average values of the concentrations of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K were 30, 17 and 227 Bq kg(-1), respectively, whereas the greatest values were 134, 59 and 748 Bq kg(-1), respectively. A linear relationship was found between the activity values of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K. An exception was found for a group of samples in which the (214)Bi activities were much higher than expected. The chemical compositions and mineralogical features of the samples permitted the justification of these anomalies. The results of the primordial radionuclide contents are reassuring from a radiation protection point of view because the activities of the uranium and thorium series products and of the (40)K do not present a significant radiological hazard.

  2. Rainstorms able to induce flash floods in a Mediterranean-climate region (Calabria, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terranova, O. G.; Gariano, S. L.

    2014-09-01

    Heavy rainstorms often induce flash flooding, one of the natural disasters most responsible for damage to man-made infrastructures and loss of lives, also adversely affecting the opportunities for socio-economic development of Mediterranean countries. The frequently dramatic damage of flash floods are often detected, with sufficient accuracy, by post-event surveys, but rainfall causing them are still only roughly characterized. With the aim of improving the understanding of the temporal structure and spatial distribution of heavy rainstorms in the Mediterranean context, a statistical analysis was carried out in Calabria (southern Italy) concerning rainstorms that mainly induced flash floods, but also shallow landslides and debris flows. Thus, a method is proposed - based on the overcoming of heuristically predetermined threshold values of cumulated rainfall, maximum intensity, and kinetic energy of the rainfall event - to select and characterize the rainstorms able to induce flash floods in the Mediterranean-climate countries. Therefore, the obtained (heavy) rainstorms were automatically classified and studied according to their structure in time, localization, and extension. Rainfall-runoff watershed models can consequently benefit from the enhanced identification of design storms, with a realistic time structure integrated with the results of the spatial analysis. A survey of flash flood events recorded in the last decades provides a preliminary validation of the method proposed to identify the heavy rainstorms and synthetically describe their characteristics. The notable size of the employed sample, including data with a very detailed resolution in time that relate to several rain gauges well-distributed throughout the region, gives robustness to the obtained results.

  3. Rainstorms able to induce flash floods in a Mediterranean-climate region (Calabria, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terranova, O. G.; Gariano, S. L.

    2014-03-01

    Heavy rainstorms often induce flash flooding, one of the natural disasters most responsible for damage to man-made infrastructure and loss of lives, adversely affecting also the opportunities for socio-economic development of Mediterranean Countries. The frequently dramatic damage of flash floods are often detected with sufficient accuracy by post-event surveys, but rainfall causing them are still only roughly characterized. With the aim of improving the understanding of the temporal structure and spatial distribution of heavy rainstorms in the Mediterranean context, a statistical analysis was carried out in Calabria (southern Italy) concerning rainstorms that mainly induced flash floods, but also shallow landslides and debris-flows. Thus a method is proposed - based on the overcoming of heuristically predetermined threshold values of cumulated rainfall, maximum intensity, and kinetic energy of the rainfall event - to select and characterize the rainstorms able to induce flash floods in the Mediterranean-climate Countries. Therefore the obtained (heavy) rainstorms were automatically classified and studied according to their structure in time, localization and extension. Rainfall-runoff watershed models can consequently benefit from the enhanced identification of design storms, with a realistic time structure integrated with the results of the spatial analysis. A survey of flash flood events recorded in the last decades provides a preliminary validation of the method proposed to identify the heavy rainstorms and synthetically describe their characteristics. The notable size of the employed sample, including data with a very detailed resolution in time, that relate to several rain gauges well-distributed throughout the region, give robustness to the obtained results.

  4. Hospitalization for diseases attributable to human papillomavirus in the Veneto Region (North-East Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually-transmitted pathogens. A number of studies in the literature have estimated the burden of HPV-related diseases by collecting data at primary care level, while a comprehensive assessment of the global burden of HPV-related diseases on hospital resources is still lacking. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study based on hospital discharge data collected from 2000 to 2010 in the Veneto Region (north-east Italy). All hospitalizations for diseases potentially associated with HPV were identified by searching the hospital discharge records, then the proportion of these hospitalizations relating to diseases attributable to the HPV infection was calculated. Results Overall, the annual hospitalization rate for HPV-related diseases was 21.3 per 100,000 individuals in the general population, 15.8 per 100,000 males, and 27.6 per 100,000 females. Hospitalizations were due mainly to genital warts, and peak among 15- to 44-year-olds in both genders. Taking both sexes together, the hospitalizations attributable to HPV dropped from 24.5/100,000 in 2000 to 17.5/100,000 in 2011, showing a significant decline during this period, with an average annual percent change (AAPC) of −1.9% (CI 95%: -2.8, -0.9;). On the other hand, the hospitalization rate for genital warts tended to increase significantly (AAPC 3.0% [CI 95%: 1.4;4.7]), whilst there was a significantly declining trend in the hospitalization rate for anal cancer (AAPC - 5.0% [CI 95%: -7.7;-2.2]), genital cancer (AAPC −6.2% [CI 95%: -7.8;-4.6]) and oropharyngeal cancer (AAPC −4.3% [CI 95%: -4.8;-3,8]). Conclusion Data derived from the hospital records indicate that HPV-related diseases are an important public health issue. PMID:24094080

  5. Six years genotype distribution of Human Papillomavirus in Calabria Region, Southern Italy: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Galati, Luisa; Peronace, Cinzia; Fiorillo, Maria Teresa; Masciari, Rosanna; Giraldi, Cristina; Nisticò, Salvatore; Minchella, Pasquale; Maiolo, Vincenzo; Barreca, Giorgio Settimo; Marascio, Nadia; Lamberti, Angelo Giuseppe; Giancotti, Aida; Lepore, Maria Gabriella; Greco, Francesca; Mauro, Maria Vittoria; Borelli, Annelisa; Bocchiaro, Giuseppa Lo; Surace, Giovanni; Liberto, Maria Carla; Focà, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Although analysis of the Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype spread in a particular area has a crucial impact on public health and prevention programmes, there is a lack of epidemiological data regarding HPV in the Calabria region of Italy. We therefore update information on HPV age/genotype distribution by retrospectively analysing a cohort of women, with and without cervical lesions, living in Calabria, who underwent HPV DNA testing; moreover, we also evaluated HPV age/genotype distribution in a subset of patients with cervical lesions. Cervical scrape specimens obtained from 9590 women (age range 20-75 years) from January 2010 to December 2015 were tested for HPV DNA. Viral types were genotyped by Linear Array HPV Genotyping® test (Roche, USA) at the Clinical Microbiology Operative Unit of six hospitals located in four provinces of the Calabria region. Cervical scrape specimens were also used to perform Pap smears for cytological analysis in a subset of 405 women; cytological classification of the samples was performed according to the Bethesda classification system. A total of 2974 women (31%) (C.I. 95% 30.09-31.94) were found to be HPV DNA positive for at least one (57.3%) or several (42.7%) HPV genotypes. Of single genotype HPV infections, 46.5% and 36.4 % were classed as high-risk (HR, Group 1) and low-risk (LR, Group 3) respectively, while 16.9% were classed as probably/possibly carcinogenic and 0.2% undetermined risk. Stratified by age, total HPV distribution, showed the highest prevalence within the range 30-39 years (37.2%), while single genotype infection distribution displayed a peak in women from the age range 20-29 years (37.5%). The most common high-risk HPV type was HPV 16 (19.1%), followed by HPV 31 (9.1%). We provide epidemiological data on HPV age/genotype distribution in women living in the Calabria region with or without cytological abnormalities, further to the enhancement of HPV screening/prevention programmes for the local population.

  6. Cascading disasters in the huge coastal aquifer of Salento (Apulia region, Southern Italy) ensuing droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, Alessandro; Fidelibus, Maria Dolores

    2017-04-01

    their evolution compared to the promptness of surface effects. The study area is the Salento coastal karstic aquifer (Apulia region, Southern Italy), where the groundwater flows according to a regional flow system. It has been subject to successive meteorological droughts between 1960 and 2010. The groundwater monitoring performed during this period, even with some gaps, allows identifying time lags between superficial effects and underground system response, potential tipping points, and emerging signals of the cascading disasters.

  7. Hygienic and sanitary requirements of gyms in force in Italy: national issues and analysis of regional regulations.

    PubMed

    Capasso, L; Arpesella, M; Gaeta, M; D'Alessandro, D

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the awareness of the importance of physical activity for human health is growing, as people practicing it; the number of gyms has also substantially increased. Currently, in Italy there is not a consistent regulation regarding hygienic and sanitary requirements of gyms. Several Italian regions issued laws about this topic. The authors analyse the standards required by the Italian Olympic Committee (CONI) and the regional laws, highlighting the numerous issues, among which the possible location of gyms in semi-basements and basements. They eventually call for a national regulation that should clearly transpose the hygienic and sanitary requirements of gyms into a satisfactory rule of law.

  8. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and karst spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vita, P.; Allocca, V.; Manna, F.; Fabbrocino, S.

    2012-05-01

    Thus far, studies on climate change have focused mainly on the variability of the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle, investigating the impact of this variability on the environment, especially with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods. Conversely, the impacts of climate change on the recharge of aquifers and on the variability of groundwater flow have been less investigated, especially in Mediterranean karst areas whose water supply systems depend heavily upon groundwater exploitation. In this paper, long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater recharge were analysed by examining decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy), coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, from 1921 to 2010, using 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations with the most continuous functioning. The time series of the winter NAO index and of the discharges of 3 karst springs, selected from those feeding the major aqueducts systems, were collected for the same period. Regional normalised indexes of the precipitation, air temperature and karst spring discharges were calculated, and different methods were applied to analyse the related time series, including long-term trend analysis using smoothing numerical techniques, cross-correlation and Fourier analysis. The investigation of the normalised indexes highlighted the existence of long-term complex periodicities, from 2 to more than 30 yr, with differences in average values of up to approximately ±30% for precipitation and karst spring discharges, which were both strongly correlated with the winter NAO index. Although the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) had already been demonstrated in the long-term precipitation and streamflow patterns of different European countries and Mediterranean areas, the results

  9. Leveraging social media for flood emergency management: an experience in Campania region (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biafore, Mauro

    2017-04-01

    Campania is the Italian region with the highest population density (419 inhabitants/km2). Almost 20% of its territory (13669 km2) is exposed to severe hydrogeological risk scenarios, triggered by extreme rainfall events with duration ranging from a few tens of minutes to several hours. Many of these risk scenarios can only be mitigated by non-structural measures, which are mainly designed to increase the resilience of the exposed communities. Several studies have evidenced that the effectiveness of civil protection actions can be enhanced by using social media for disseminating and collecting information relevant for crisis preparedness, response and recovery. However, the application of social media in the management of hydrogeological risks is still in its infancy. The civil protection of Campania Region, as part of a FP7 project called SUPER (Social sensors for secUrity Assessments and Proactive EmeRgencies management), has been validating an integrated framework enabling optimal blending of social media in the emergency management processes. The SUPER project is a joint effort of social media experts (including social network providers) and security experts (including security and civil protection agencies), towards introducing an integrated and privacy-friendly approach to the use of social media in emergencies and security incidents. As part of the project outcomes, the "SUPER platform" has been developed. It consists of a set of social media processing components integrated in a Common Operational Picture, designed for supporting security and emergency management. A demonstration was primarily setup to evaluate how the SUPER platform can effectively facilitate the exploitation of social media data for improving civil protection actions during a simulated emergency scenario. To this purpose, a civil protection exercise took place in the city of Sorrento (Naples, Italy), involving tens of volunteers and emergency operators. The simulated emergency scenario was

  10. Geodiversity of the Umbria region (central Italy): a GIS-based quantitative index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melelli, Laura; Pica, Alessia; Del Monte, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    The measure of natural range related to geological bedrock, landforms and geomorphological processes is the necessary starting point to geodiversity evaluation. Geodiversity plays a strategic role in landscape management. Whereas geotourism and geosites are identified as a driving power for the scientific and economic promotion of an area, the geodiversity knowledge is required for a complete and accurate research. For example, high values of this abiotic parameter identify and support the foundation of geoparks. According to this perspective, the geodiversity is the unifying factor for these areas of interest. While a subjective and qualitative approach may be adequate for geosites definition, identification and cultural promotion, the geodiversity concept needs a different evaluation method. A quantitative procedure allows achieving an objective and repeatable process exportable in different geographic units. Geographical Information Systems and spatial analysis techniques are the base to quantitative evaluation involving topographic, geological and geomorphological data. Therefore, the assessment of a numerical index derived from the overlay of spatial parameters can be conveniently computed in GIS environment. In this study, a geodiversity index is proposed where geological, geomorphological and landcover factors deriving mainly from maps and field survey; topographic ones are employed from DEM and remote sensed data. Each abiotic parameter is modelled in a grid format; focal functions do provide neighbourhood analysis and computing variety statistics. A particular extent is dedicated to topographic information and terrain roughness, that are strictly related to efficiency of geomorphological processes and generally corresponding to the abiotic components variability. The study area is located in central Italy and is characterized by a well known natural heritage. Thirty-seven geosites are detected in the Umbria region, where seven regional and one natural

  11. Potentiality of SENTINEL-1 for landslide detection: first results in the Molise Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barra, Anna; Monserrat, Oriol; Mazzanti, Paolo; Esposito, Carlo; Crosetto, Michele; Scarascia Mugnozza, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    A detailed inventory map, including information on landslide activity, is one of the most important input to landslide susceptibility and hazard analyses. The contribution of satellite SAR Interferometry in landslide risk mitigation is well-known within the scientific community. In fact, many encouraging results have been obtained, principally, in areas characterized by high coherence of the images (e.g. due to rock lithology or urban environment setting). In terms of coherence, the expected increased capabilities of Sentinel-1 for landslide mapping and monitoring are connected to both wavelength (55.5 mm) and short temporal baseline (12 days). The latter one is expected to be a key feature for increasing coherence and for defining monitoring and updating plans. With the aim of assessing these potentialities, we processed a set of 14 Sentinel-1 SLC images, acquired during a temporal span of 7 months, over the Molise region (Southern Italy), a critical area geologically susceptible to landslides. Even though Molise is mostly covered by crops and forested areas (63% and 35% respectively), that means a non-optimal coherence condition for SAR interferometry, promising results have been obtained. This has been achieved by integrating differential interferometric SAR techniques (12-days interferograms and time series) with GIS multilayer analysis (optical, geological, geomorphological, etc.). Specifically, analyzing a single burst of a Sentinel-1 frame (approximately 1875 km2), 62 landslides have been detected, thus allowing to improve the pre-existing inventory maps both in terms of landslide boundaries and state of activity. The results of our ongoing research show that Sentinel-1 can give a significant improvement in terms of exploitation of SAR data for landslide mapping and monitoring. As a matter of fact, by analyzing longer periods, it is expected to achieve a better understanding of landslide behavior and its relationship with triggering factors. This will be key

  12. [Cancer mortality of residents near a steel factory in Udine (Friuli Venezia Giulia Region, Northern Italy)].

    PubMed

    Castriotta, Luigi; Casetta, Anica; Barbone, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the association between distance of residence from a steel factory, a point source of air pollution within an industrial area in Udine (Friuli Venezia Giulia Region, Northern Italy), and cancer mortality. retrospective study. To evaluate the association between mortality rates and distance from the source, a Stone test analysis for all cases occurred in the entire area was conducted. The significance level was determined using Monte Carlo simulations. a GIS mapped residential history of Friuli Venezia Giulia population was completed. Among residents within 5 km from the principal industrial plant of the area from 1989 to 2012, deaths caused by cancer were selected. Furthermore, according to the prevalent wind direction, an analysis was conducted also in a subgroup of residents located into the South-Western quadrant. A set of 8 bands with increasing distance from the point-source was defined. The total population was 37,473 inhabitants. in each band, observed and expected cancer-related deaths (calculated on the basis of mortality rates in the entire area) and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed to test for decline in risk of mortality at different distances from the main chimney. Stone test, in which a decline in risk of disease with an increase in distance from the source of pollution is tested, was used. the risk for all cancers and lung cancer was higher than expected. For male residents located within 2 km into the South-Western quarter there were 21 observed deaths from lung cancer vs. 13 expected (SMR: 1.62; p-value=0.02). despite the fact that in the whole area cancer mortality is not increased, this study seems to support evidence of an excess of cancer deaths, especially lung cancer among males, near a steel factory. However, the study has limitations because of the small number of cases and the lack of individual exposure data and information about confounders (e.g., smoke habits and professional exposure). Therefore, a

  13. The characteristics and activities of child and adolescent mental health services in Italy: a regional survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To date, no studies have assessed in detail the characteristics, organisation, and functioning of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). This information gap represents a major limitation for researchers and clinicians because most mental disorders have their onset in childhood or adolescence, and effective interventions can therefore represent a major factor in avoiding chronicity. Interventions and mental health care are delivered by and through services, and not by individual, private clinicians, and drawbacks or limitations of services generally translate in inappropriateness and ineffectiveness of treatments and interventions: therefore information about services is essential to improve the quality of care and ultimately the course and outcome of mental disorders in childhood and adolescence. The present paper reports the results of the first study aimed at providing detailed, updated and comprehensive data on CAMHS of a densely populated Italian region (over 4 million inhabitants) with a target population of 633,725 subjects aged 0-17 years. Methods Unit Chiefs of all the CAMHS filled in a structured 'Facility Form', with activity data referring to 2008 (data for inpatient facilities referred to 2009), which were then analysed in detail. Results Eleven CAMHS were operative, including 110 outpatient units, with a ratio of approximately 20 child psychiatrists and 23 psychologists per 100,000 inhabitants aged 0-17 years. All outpatient units were well equipped and organized and all granted free service access. In 2008, approximately 6% of the target population was in contact with outpatient CAMHS, showing substantial homogeneity across the eleven areas thereby. Most patients in contact in 2008 received a language disorder- or learning disability diagnosis (41%). First-ever contacts accounted for 30% of annual visits across all units. Hospital bed availability was 5 per 100,000 inhabitants aged 0-17 years. Conclusion The percentage of

  14. Assessing the impact of climate-change scenarios on landslide occurrence in Umbria Region, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciabatta, L.; Camici, S.; Brocca, L.; Ponziani, F.; Stelluti, M.; Berni, N.; Moramarco, T.

    2016-10-01

    Landslides are frequent and widespread geomorphological phenomena causing loss of human life and damage to property. The main tool for assessing landslide risk relies on rainfall thresholds and thus, many countries established early warning systems aimed to landslide hazard assessment. The Umbria Region Civil Protection Centre developed an operational early warning system for landslide risk assessment, named PRESSCA, based on the soil saturation conditions to identify rainfall thresholds. These thresholds, currently used by the Civil Protection operators for the day-by-day landslide hazard assessment, provided satisfactory results with more than 86% of the landslides events correctly identified during the period 1990-2013. In this study, the PRESSCA system was employed for the assessment of climate change impact on landslide hazard in Central Italy. The outputs of five different Global Circulation Models (GCMs) were downscaled and weather generators were used for obtaining hourly rainfall and temperature time series from daily GCMs projection. Then, PRESSCA system was employed to estimate the number of landslide occurrence per year. By comparing results obtained for three different periods (1990-2013 (baseline), 2040-2069 and 2070-2099), for the Umbria territory a general increase in events occurrence was expected (up to more than 40%) in the future period, mainly during the winter season. The results also revealed that the effect of climate change on landslides was not straightforward to identify and the close interaction between rainfall magnitude/intensity, temperature and soil moisture should be analysed in depth. Overall, soil moisture was projected to decrease throughout the year but during the wet season the variations with respect to the present period were very small. Specifically, it was found that during the warm-dry season, due to the strong decrease of soil moisture, even for a sensible increase in rainfall intensity, the landslide occurrence was

  15. Organization and regional distribution of centers for the management of children and adolescents with diabetes in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giorgetti, Chiara; Ferrito, Lucia; Zallocco, Federica; Iannilli, Antonio; Cherubini, Valentino

    2015-10-08

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes in childhood is increasing by 3 % per year, placing growing demands on healthcare professionals and medical expenditures. Aim of this study wars to assess the organization of care to children with diabetes in Italy. During 2012 a structured questionnaire was sent to all of the members of Italian Society of Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology (ISPED). Questions examined organizational structure of Centers, personnel dedicated to the care of children with diabetes, number of subjects followed, local legal legislation supporting centres. A total of 68 centers taking care to 15,563 children and adolescents with diabetes under 18 years of age were identified with a prevalence of 1.4 per 1,000 people. A wide variation in the organizational background was also reported. Fourty-four centers were organized as outpatient departments, 17 as simple units, 5 as complex units and 2 as simple departmental structures. Most centers had a multidisciplinary team. Ten out of twenty Italian regions had introduced supportive regional legislation, but it was fully applied only in six of them. Great differences between regions were found in organizational structures, staffing levels and supportive legislation. The national legislation on diabetes was broadly implemented throughout the country regions. Further efforts are needed to improve standards and consistency of pediatric diabetes care in Italy.

  16. Operational setup of a diagnostic chain, implemented within the Proterina-C project, to include weather measures in the RISICO system for dynamic wildfire risk evaluation in Sardinia (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessy, C.; Di Carlo, L.; Fois, G.; Fiorucci, P.; d'Andrea, M.; Trasforini, E.

    2012-04-01

    Within the Operational Project "PROTERINA-C" (a forecast and prevention system for climate change impacts on risk variability for wildlands and urban areas), co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) under the Italy-France Maritime Program, methods and strategies, already in use in the regions of Sardinia, Liguria and Corsica, for the predictions of wildlands fires have been developed and adapted; RISICO System, by CIMA Foundation which plays the role of technical and scientific support for the region of Liguria, used by the Italian National Civil Protection Department, is one of them. In such a prediction model of risk of wildlands fires it is arranged the integration, on a regional scale, of products related to the main meteorological, diagnostics and prognostics forcing measured by ground stations, weather radar and advanced limited area weather prediction models. With the aim to improve prediction of wildlands fires in Sardinia, an operational chain to insert in RISICO weather data provided in near-real time by the meteorological monitoring network has been designed and developed. In fact, the forecast errors can be reduced by conditioning the initial state of dynamic models of fuel moisture on the information obtained from sensors on land, at every time interval at which the fields of meteorological variables of interest are available. A dataset of wildlands fires occurred in Sardinia has been considered in order to valuate the system effectiveness; for these cases the developed setup has improved the fires risk assessment to respect a version of RISICO initialised only by a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model. In the present work the system setup, the configuration of the network of meteorological stations and some preliminary analysis results are argued.

  17. Definition of a Sinkhole hazard methodology in the Pontina Plain (Latium Region, Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teoli, Pamela; Mazza, Roberto; Capelli, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    The work presented here is the continuation of " Sinkhole Project of Latium Region" (2002), carried out by Researchers of the Laboratory of Applied Geology and Hydrogeology of the Department of Geological Sciences of the University "Roma Tre", Rome (Italy), through which were found, in different plain of the whole Region, Sinkhole prone areas, using a methodology based on the superimposition of thematic layers corresponding to geological and anthropogenic breaking factors. In the last years several specific investigations have been conducted by Researchers of the Laboratory in the Pontina Plain, that is located in the south west of the Latium Region, concerning the geological-stratigraphic setting, the sketch of flow in the aquifers located in the Pontine depression, the chemiphysical groundwater characheteristics, the density of wells, the amount of well pumping and piezometric changes. This required the implementation of several piezometric and chemiphysical surveys, the collection and validation of a large number of stratigraphic and geophysical data. All data in the archive have been computerized and the maps vectorized. This makes it possible today to address the analysis with Geographical Information Systems and to start numerical flow simulations, regarding both the heavily drained deep confined aquifer, and the areas subject to the presence of an important water exchange between the recharge area in the Lepini Mountains (carbonatic ridge) and terrigenous aquifers of the plain. Among the main causes that trigger the catastrophic collapses there are, in fact, all the phenomena that cause the mass density reduction through erosion, leaching, dissolution. All these agents are associated with water circulation: flow, velocity, CO2 saturation rate, carbonates saturation rate. The spread in the Pontina plain of deep and high pumping wells, wrongly built without the correct way of progress, and without the realization of cemented portions properly located, can lead

  18. A regional structural model for the northern sector of the Calabrian Arc (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dijk, J. P.; Bello, M.; Brancaleoni, G. P.; Cantarella, G.; Costa, V.; Frixa, A.; Golfetto, F.; Merlini, S.; Riva, M.; Torricelli, S.; Toscano, C.; Zerilli, A.

    2000-10-01

    A SW-NE-oriented structural crustal section of northern Calabria (Southern Italy) extending from back-arc (SW 'internal') up to foreland (NE. 'external') areas illustrates the tectonic evolution of this key sector of the Central Mediterranean Calabrian Arc. The outcropping terrains of this part of Calabria show a thrust sheet pile of basement units ('Calabrian basement Complex'), which are from top to bottom: a Hercynian assemblage of gneisses, granites, and metapelites ('Calabride' Units), with a partly detached Jurassic-Paleogene cover and former foredeep sequences, a series of Alpine metamorphic units comprising a Cretaceous to Paleogene metapelitic/ophiolitic/carbonate assemblage ('Liguride' Units). This highly tectonized and cataclastic assemblage overlies a Triassic carbonate series that outcrops in a number of tectonic windows along the internal, Tyrrhenian side of the Arc. Our field studies revealed that these can be assigned to the 'San Donato-Campotenese Unit' that shows a comprehensive Triassic pelitic to carbonatic platform series, more extensively outcropping in the northern part of the area. Along the external part of the section, well data show that the basement assemblage tectonically overlies a deformed carbonate unit and its Paleogene-Lower Miocene cover. These data confirm the hypothesis that the Calabrian basement was first deformed during Late Eocene (eo-Alpine phase) times and later overthrusted Tethyan carbonate platform areas, already deformed in the Apennine Chain. Highly detailed tectonostratigraphic studies of the Calabrian intra-arc and fore-arc basins, previously published and recently calibrated with a regional interpretation of the available two-dimensional and three-dimensional seismic and well database, showed that the subsequent Late Neogene evolution was characterized by the activity of a number of oblique crustal shear zones that controlled the evolution of a wide range of thrust belt basins. Basin inversion phases during middle

  19. Flow-type landslides magnitude evaluation: the case study of the Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santo, Antonio; De Falco, Melania; Di Crescenzo, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    In the last years studies concerning the triggering and the run-out susceptibility for different kind of landslides have become more and more precise. In the most of the cases the methodological approach involve the production of detailed thematic maps (at least 1:5000 scale) which represent a very useful tool for territorial planning, especially in urbanized areas. More recently these researches were accompanied by the growth of other studies dealing with landslide magnitude evaluation (especially in terms of volume and velocity estimate). In this paper the results of a flow-type landslides magnitude evaluation are presented. The study area is located in Southern Italy and is very wide (1,500 square kilometres) including all the Campania region. In this context flow type landslides represent the most frequent instabilities as shown by the large number of victims and the huge economic damage caused in the last few centuries. These shallow landslides involve thin cohesionless, unsaturated pyroclastic soils found over steep slopes around Somma-Vesuvio and Phlegrean district, affecting a wide area where over 100 towns are located. Since the potential volume of flow-type landslides is a measure of event magnitude we propose to estimate the potential volume at the scale of slope or basin for about 90 municipalities affecting 850 hierarchized drainage basins and 900 regular slopes. An empirical approach recently proposed in literature (De Falco et al., 2012), allows to estimate the volume of the pyroclastic cover that can be displaced along the slope. The method derives from the interpretation of numerous geological and geomorphological data gathered from a vast amount of case histories on landslides in volcanic and carbonatic contexts and it is based on determining the thickness of the pyroclastic cover and the width of the detachment and erosion-transport zone. Thickness can be evaluated with a good degree of approximation since, in these landslides, the failure

  20. [Infantile visceral leishmaniasis in the Campania region, Italy: experience from a Paediatric Referral Centre].

    PubMed

    di Martino, L; Gramiccia, M; Occorsio, P; Di Muccio, T; Scalone, A; Gradoni, L

    2004-06-01

    In the first half of the 20th century, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was a common infantile syndrome in coastal territories of the Campania region of Italy. After World War II, the incidence dropped to a few cases/year for three decades; in late 1980s the disease reemerged among both children and adults. To face the VL recrudescence, a Paediatric Reference Centre was established at the Santobono-Pausilipon hospital in Naples, for the clinical diagnosis, care and drug treatment of all infantile VL cases occurred in the Campania region. Rapid laboratory diagnosis was secured by a Diagnostic Reference Centre established at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità. Here, we report on the epidemiological and parasitological features of all cases referred to the Centre in the past 15 years. From 1990 to March 2004, a total of 255 cases were diagnosed and treated at the Centre. The Figure shows the yearly trend of patients (min. 3 cases in 1990 and 1991, max. 30 cases in 2000). There were 135 males (52.9%); the age ranged 4 months-14 years, but 189 patients (74.1%) were < or = 3 years old. The majority of the patients (189, 74.1%) were from the Naples province, with a cluster of 102 cases (40% of total patients) from the towns and districts surrounding Vesuvius. Twenty-seven cases (10.6%) were from the town of Maddaloni, Caserta province, whereas 15 cases (5.9%) were from coastal villages of the Salerno province. Only 1 and 2 cases were from Benevento and Avellino provinces, respectively. All patients but seven, who have been treated with antimonial drugs in the 1990-1993 period, were successfully treated with a liposomal amphotericin B regimen. From bone-marrow aspirate samples, 138 Leishmania cultures were obtained in EMTM and Sloppy Evans' media, of which 134 have been typed by the electrophoretic analysis of 13 isoenzymes. Two zymodemes (Z) of L. infantum were routinely identified over the study period, ZMON-1 (the commonest zymodeme in the Mediterranean area) and ZMON-72

  1. Crustal structure, seismicity and seismotectonics of the Trentino region (Southern Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viganò, Alfio; Scafidi, Davide; Martin, Silvana; Spallarossa, Daniele; Froner, Luca; Groaz, Oscar

    2013-04-01

    The Trentino region is located at the junction between the central and eastern Southern Alps (Italy), at the intersection between the Giudicarie, Schio-Vicenza and Valsugana fault systems. This area is characterized by relevant lithological and structural lateral heterogeneities, both at the crustal and lithospheric scales. A low-to-moderate seismicity is located in the upper crust, where faults are seismically active under a dominant compressive with variable strike-slip component regime. Here we study the crustal structure of this portion of the Southern Alps (Adria plate) from interpretation of local earthquake tomography images, in relation with distribution of relocated seismicity and regional tectonic patterns. Local earthquake tomography derives from a set of 476 selected earthquakes in the period 1994-2007, with local magnitudes comprised between 0.8 and 5.3. Hypocenter distribution, and number and quality of manually-repicked phases (6322 P and 5483 S) ensure optimal seismic ray coverage. Original recordings are principally from the Provincia Autonoma di Trento (PAT), that manages the Trentino seismic network since 1981, and from other networks (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale - INOGS; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - INGV; others available via the European Integrated Data Archive). The code HYPOELLIPSE is used to perform initial earthquake relocations. The code VELEST is then used to calculate a new minimum 1-D velocity model, as input for tomography. The 3-D tomographic inversion (V P and V P-V S ratio) is obtained via the code SIMULPS, with the implementation of an accurate shooting ray-tracer. The crustal volume is discretized in order to have a regular grid with a homogenous horizontal spatial resolution of 7.5 km. The resolution in depth varies according to the obtained minimum 1-D velocity model. Reliability and accuracy of results are estimated by analyzing the Resolution Diagonal Elements of the

  2. Distinct Leishmania infantum Strains Circulate in Humans and Dogs in the Emilia-Romagna Region, Northeastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Rugna, Gianluca; Carra, Elena; Corpus, Francesco; Calzolari, Mattia; Salvatore, Daniela; Bellini, Romeo; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Franceschini, Erica; Bruno, Antonella; Poglayen, Giovanni; Varani, Stefania; Vitale, Fabrizio; Merialdi, Giuseppe

    2017-06-01

    Human leishmaniasis is an emerging problem in Italy and is on the increase in the Emilia-Romagna region, northeastern part of the country. Nevertheless, studies dealing with the molecular characterization of Leishmania spp. circulating in these areas are limited. In the present work, we explored the genetic polymorphism of Leishmania isolates from 28 cases of canine leishmaniasis and three cases of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which occurred in 2013-2014 in the Emilia-Romagna region. The characterization was carried out in comparison with nine human isolates of Leishmania from other VL endemic Italian regions and two reference strains. Nucleic acid from 31 Leishmania-positive phlebotomine sandfly pools, sampled in 2012-2013 in the Emilia-Romagna region, were also evaluated. DNA amplification and sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-1 and of a repetitive nuclear region on chromosome 31 were carried out for genotyping. Two size polymorphic targets were also analyzed by PCR, the cpb E/F-gene and the k26-gene. Altogether, the analysis showed the circulation of different Leishmania infantum genotypes in the Emilia-Romagna region: two genotypes found in dogs from public kennels were similar to VL isolates from other Italian regions, whereas a third genotype was detected in VL cases of the Emilia-Romagna region and in all but one of the sandfly pools. The combined molecular tools applied in this study can constitute a helpful support for parasite tracking (e.g., in outbreak investigations) and for a better understanding of the epidemiological evolution of leishmaniasis in northeastern Italy.

  3. Past earthquake history and seismic hazard in Fucino region, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlagenhauf, A.; Manighetti, I.; Benedetti, L. C.; Gaudemer, Y.; Pou, K.

    2009-12-01

    Using the reappraised 36Cl exposure dating protocol developed by Schlagenhauf et al. (Schlagenhauf et al., Using in-situ Chlorine-36 cosmonuclide to recover past earthquake histories on limestone normal fault scarps: A reappraisal of methodology and interpretations; Submitted to Geophys. J. Int., 2009; see also Benedetti et al., this meeting), we have recovered the Holocene earthquake history (in last 14 ka) of three important active normal faults (Magnola, Velino, Trasacco) in the Fucino region (Central Italy), site of a Mw 7 devastating earthquake in 1915, and a few km south of L’Aquila where the April 2009 earthquake occurred. Magnola (L: 13 km) and Velino (L: 12 km) are parts of a 45 km-long NNW-striking fault system (‘Western Fucino north’ or WFN), while Trasacco (L: 30 km) is part of another yet adjacent fault system. We have analyzed the 36Cl content of 400 exhumed scarp samples collected at 6 sites along the faults, 4 on Magnola, one on Velino, and one on Trasacco. The modeling of the 36Cl profiles yield similar earthquake ages at the 5 sites along Magnola and Velino, suggesting that the two faults broke concurrently in the past, about 13.7, 10.7, 9.2, 8.5, 7.4, 4.8, 3.8, 3.3, and 1.1 ka ago (average uncertainties of 0.5-1 ka). Their rupturing occurred in phases apparently cycling at three different time scales: 1) The Magnola-Velino system primarily broke in discrete phases of paroxysmal activity (11-7.5 ka, then 5-3.5 ka), each lasting 2-4 ka, separated by 3 kyrs-long quiescence phases. The paroxysmal phases led to the breakage of the entire WFN system. 2) During each paroxysmal phase, 3-4 large ‘rupture episodes’ occurred at 0.5-1 ka intervals, each producing at most 1.5-3 m of vertical slip on the faults. 3) Each of those rupture episodes seems to have been an earthquake sequence, made of several large earthquakes repeating at short time intervals (a few 10-100 yrs) and breaking in cascade the entire WFN fault system. If each earthquake broke

  4. Past earthquake history and seismic hazard in Fucino region, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlagenhauf, Aloe; Manighetti, Isabelle; Benedetti, Lucilla; Gaudemer, Yves; Pou, Khemrak

    2010-05-01

    Using 36Cl exposure dating (Schlagenhauf et al. 2009), we have recovered the Holocene earthquake history (in last ≈14 ka) of three large active normal faults (Magnola, Velino, Trasacco) in the Fucino region, Central Italy (last large earthquake in 1915, 30 000 casualties), nearby L'Aquila (last large earthquake in April 2009, 300 casualties). Magnola (L ~13 km) and Velino (L ~12 km) are parts of a ~45 km-long NNW-striking fault system (‘western Fucino north' or WFN), while Trasacco (L ~30 km) is part of another yet adjacent fault system. We have analyzed the 36Cl content of 400 exhumed scarp samples collected at 6 sites along the faults, 4 on Magnola, one on Velino, and one on Trasacco. The Magnola and Velino faults broke concurrently in the past. Their rupturing occurred in phases apparently cycling at three different time scales: 1) The Magnola-Velino system primarily broke in discrete phases of paroxysmal activity (11-7.5 ka, then 5-3.5 ka), each lasting 2-4 ka, separated by ~3 kyrs-long quiescence phases. The paroxysmal phases actually led to the breakage of the entire WFN system. 2) During each paroxysmal phase, 3-4 large ‘rupture episodes' occurred at 0.5-1 ka intervals, each producing at most 1.5-3 m of vertical slip on the faults. In more detail, the last major rupture episodes to have broken the Magnola and Velino faults occurred ~13.7, 10.7, 9.2, 8.5, 7.4, 4.8, 3.8, 3.3, and 1.1 ka ago (uncertainties of 0.5-1 ka on average). 3) Each of those rupture episodes seems to have been an earthquake sequence, made of several large earthquakes repeating at short time intervals (a few 10-100 yrs) and breaking in cascade the entire WFN fault system. If each earthquake broke a single major fault within the WFN system, the magnitudes estimated for those earthquakes are ~6.5-6.9. The adjacent Trasacco fault shows a similar behavior, as it primarily broke during two 2-3 kyrs-long periods of paroxysmal activity, at 14.5-12 ka and 8.5-6.5 ka, which thus do not

  5. A Late Variscan Sn province: the Arburese region (SW Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naitza, Stefano; Secchi, Francesco; Oggiano, Giacomo; Cuccuru, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Late Variscan Sn - rich European provinces (e. g. Erzgebirge, Cornwall) are of particular relevance as they offer key insights into crustal evolution, intrusive processes and ore genesis. In Sardinia (Italy), small Sn deposits are only known in the Arburese historical mining region (SW Sardinia), hosted in low-grade metamorphics close to the contacts with intrusives. This region is characterised by two late variscan intrusions, which differ in age and composition: the Arbus and the Monte Linas pluton, aging 304 ± 1 Ma, and 289 ± 1 Ma respectively. They emplaced at shallow crustal levels and crosscut the basal thrust between the alloctonous prism and the foreland of the Variscan belt of Sardinia. The Arbus Pluton (AP) is a composite intrusion of piroxene- and amphibole- granodiorites hosting minor amounts of monzogabbroic rocks and cordierite-bearing granites with a wide core of leuco-monzogranites. Tourmaline greisens and pegmatites garnish the contact between the border facies and the host metamorphic rocks. The Monte Linas Pluton (MLP) has biotite monzogranite composition. The pluton is internally zoned, from medium grained monzogranite in the core to hololeucocratic fine-grained rock-types at the top, where often F-greisen, fayalite-pegmatite pods and sill are common. In both plutons the igneous associations are high-K ilmenite series, suggesting derivation from low- fO2 magmas possibly linked to a common crustal contribution; however, in the Linas Pluton magnetite in the fine-grained facies may indicate an increase in oxygen fugacity. The AP-related Sn ores consist of high-temperature As-Sn quartz veins. They are vertically zoned, from quartz-chlorite-cassiterite to large quartz-arsenopyrite veins. Ore microscopy and SEM-EDS analyses evidenced a vein texture made of thick idiomorphic and frequently twinned cassiterite crystals, alternated with several generations of banded/geodic quartz. Chlinoclore aggregates are included into the quartz. The arsenopyrite

  6. [Tetanus in Italy and in the Campania region: retrospective analysis. The importance of vaccinations].

    PubMed

    Parlato, Antonino; Marinelli, Alessandra; Alfieri, Rosa; Albano, Luciana; Liguori, Giorgio

    2003-01-01

    The authors intend to draw the attention on the issue of tetanus infections in adult patients whose history is often unknown or incomplete. For these people, current regulations (Presidential Decree 7th Nov 2001 no. 464) provides for more extended vaccination coverage. The input data were drawn by different sources (ISS; MS; National Statistics Institute; Campania Epidemiological Observatory) and allowed for the tetanus infections having occurred in Italy and Campania in the last ten years.

  7. The role of the wolf in endemic sylvatic Trichinella britovi infection in the Abruzzi region of Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Badagliacca, Pietro; Di Sabatino, Daria; Salucci, Stefania; Romeo, Gianfranco; Cipriani, Micaela; Sulli, Nadia; Dall'Acqua, Francesca; Ruggieri, Marco; Calistri, Paolo; Morelli, Daniela

    2016-11-15

    During the period 2004-2014 in the Abruzzi region (Central Italy), muscle samples gathered from hunted wild boars (n=16,323) and retrieved from carcasses of other susceptible wild mammals (n=838) and birds (n=438) were tested for Trichinella larvae according to European Union regulations. Although no positive samples were found from wild birds, 91 wild mammals tested positive. Six species were found to harbor Trichinella spp. infections, namely wolf (Canis lupus, 59 positive samples out of 218), red fox (Vulpes vulpes, 24/480), wild boar (Sus scrofa, 3/16,323), stone marten (Martes foina, 2/27), pine marten (Martes martes, 2/6) and wildcat (Felis silvestris, 1/8). All isolates tested for species attribution belonged to Trichinella britovi. The overall prevalence was 0.52% (IC 95%: 0.4-0.6). The higher frequency of positive samples in wolf, compared to red fox, was statistically significant (p=0.001). In spite of the limited geographical area of investigation and the random nature of sampling, this study provides new data on the circulation of T. britovi in Italy. In particular, the highest prevalence being found among wolves allows us to consider this species as a sentinel for T. britovi infection in the investigated area, and probably also in other apennine regions, which is different from the alpine regions where the red fox was reputed as the primary reservoir of Trichinella spp. infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Trends from 1999 to 2007 in the surgical treatments of kidney cancer in Europe: data from the Veneto Region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Fedeli, Ugo; Novara, Giacomo; Alba, Natalia; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Artibani, Walter; Spolaore, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    To investigate trends in the incidence of overall renal oncological surgery, and the trends and determinants of nephron-sparing (NSS) and minimally invasive surgery, in the Veneto region of North-eastern Italy. The regional archive of hospital discharge records (HDRs) in the Veneto region of North-eastern Italy was assessed to identify discharged patients with a diagnosis of neoplasm of the kidney and intervention codes for partial nephrectomy (PN) or radical nephrectomy (RN) in 1999-2007. An indirect method for identifying minimally invasive surgery was also adopted. Demographic characteristics, year of intervention, presence of comorbidities, and hospital nephrectomy volume were retrieved from HDRs. The influence of patient and hospital variables on the adoption of nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) was assessed through multivariate models. The crude rate of surgery for kidney cancer increased from 11.5 to 17.0 per 100 000 population and overall 7221 procedures were included in the evaluated period. The use of PN increased through the study period, reaching 31% of kidney cancer operations in 2007. Younger age, male sex and being hospitalized in facilities with a higher procedural volume were strongly associated with NSS. Laparoscopic nephrectomies, uncommon in 1999, increased to approximately 18% of all procedures by the end of the study period, irrespective of hospital volume. The proportion of open RNs declined to about half of all kidney cancer surgery by 2007; this was the result of an increase in NSS and an even greater increase in laparoscopic RN.

  9. Development of an experimental geographic information system for bee-keeping in the Marche region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Cordoni, Guido; Spagnuolo, Loreta Maria

    2007-01-01

    Bee-keeping in the Marche region of Italy is an ancient tradition. Besides the production of honey and other products of the apiary (wax, propolis, royal jelly, bee bread and venom), bees also play a fundamental role in the pollination of cultivated and natural plants. For these reasons, and to update information on the status of apiculture in the Territorial Zone 7 (TZ 7) of the Marche Region of Italy, a survey was conducted in 2005 using geographic information system (GIS) technology. A CD-Rom was developed in html; this tool enables the visualisation of data using any operating system and browser. We collected information on the health status of 57 apiaries out of 169 for a total of 1 570 hives. Samples of honey were tested for the presence of antibiotics and pesticides. The data collected on American foulbrood showed that this disease is endemic in the area and the extent of spread appears to be largely under-estimated. No antibiotics were detected in any of the honey samples tested using the bacterial growth inhibition method. Similarly, high performance liquid chromatography did not detect any pesticide residues. Further research will be conducted by geo-referencing all apiaries in the same area and in apiaries located in other territorial zones of the Marche region.

  10. Non-Susceptible Landslide Areas in Italy and in the Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvioli, Massimiliano; Ardizzone, Francesca; Guzzetti, Fausto; Marchesini, Ivan; Rossi, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    Landslide susceptibility is the likelihood of a landslide occurring in a given area. Over the past three decades, researchers, and planning and environmental organisations have worked to assess landslide susceptibility at different geographical scales, and to produce maps portraying landslide susceptibility zonation. Little effort was made to determine where landslides are not expected, where susceptibility is null, or negligible. This is surprising because planners and decision makers are also interesting in knowing where landslides are not foreseen, or cannot occur in an area. We propose a method for the definition of non-susceptible landslide areas, at the synoptic scale. We applied the method in Italy and to the territory surrounding the Mediterranean Sea and we produced two synoptic-scale maps showing areas where landslides are not expected in Italy and in the Mediterranean area. To construct the method we used digital terrain elevation and landslide information. The digital terrain consisted in the 3-arc-second SRTM DEM, the landslide information was obtained for 13 areas in Italy where landslide inventory maps were available to us. We tested three different models to determine the non-susceptible landslide areas, including a linear model (LR), a quantile linear model (QLR), and a quantile non-linear model (QNL). Model performances have been evaluated using independent landslide information represented by the Italian Landslide Inventory (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia - IFFI). Best results were obtained using the QNL model. The corresponding zonation of non- susceptible landslide areas was intersected in a GIS with geographical census data for Italy. The results show that the 57.5% of the population of Italy (in 2001) was located in areas where landslide susceptibility was expected to be null or negligible, while the remaining 42.5% in areas where some landslide susceptibility was significant or not negligible. We applied the QNL model to the

  11. Popular uses of wild plant species for medicinal purposes in the Nebrodi Regional Park (North-Eastern Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Licata, Mario; Leto, Claudio; Bonsangue, Giuseppe; Letizia Gargano, Maria; Venturella, Giuseppe; La Bella, Salvatore

    2014-11-18

    The area of the Nebrodi Regional Park (North-Eastern Sicily, Italy) has been quantitatively investigated in an ethnobotanical study for the first time. A total of 90 wild species are used for medicinal purposes and the uses of 5 species have not previously been reported in ethnobotanical studies in Italy (e.g., the use of Arisarum vulgare O. Targ. Tozz. for the treatment of rheumatic pains, the use of Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke for the treatment of liver diseases). The aim of this paper was to understand to what extent current knowledge on the medicinal use of plants is still an element of the culture within the rural populations of the Nebrodi Park. Materials and methods Semi-structured interviews were carried out in the local communities within the Nebrodi Regional Park with local people retained experts in rural traditions. A total of 226 people over the age of 60 were interviewed. Local plant uses were evaluated using ethnobotanical indices (e.g., cultural importance index, index of ethnobotanical diversity, informant consensus factor) and then compared with uses in other localities in Sicily, Italy and the Mediterranean area. Results Local communities use a total number of 90 wild species belonging to 44 plant families as medicinal remedies. The majority of the species are used as treatments against gastrointestinal system. The cultural importance index showed that Malva sylvestris (1.31) and Clinopodium nepeta (0.86) are the most important species to the Nebrodi area in terms of medicinal use. The use of Brassica rupestris Raf. for therapeutic purposes is limited to Sicily and it is an innovative finding of this study. The research shows an ongoing process of cultural erosion in an advanced stage, but quantitative indices still highlight only for those species was a natural remedy deemed highly effective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Local Earthquakes Tomography in the Southern Tyrrhenian Region (Italy): Geophysical and Petrological Inferences on Subducting Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calo, M.; Dorbath, C.; Luzio, D.; Rotolo, S. G.; D'Anna, G.

    2007-12-01

    The Calabrian Arc, Southern Italy, is characterised by the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere -since Middle Miocene- beneath the Tyrrhenian basin. The related Benioff zone is seismically active to a depth > 500 km. The tomoDD code [Zhang and Thurber, 2003] was adopted to perform the tomography, using a set of 2463 earthquakes located in the window 14°30' E - 17°E and 37°N - 41°N, and recorded by seismic networks of the INGV in the period 1981-2005. Several inversions were performed using different selections of absolute and differential data obtained varying the maximum RMS and the threshold of the inter-event distance. Various synthetic and experimental tests were executed to evaluate the resolution and stability of the tomographic inversion. The inversions carried out for the synthetic and the restoration-resolution test [Zhao et al., 1992] were repeated several times with the same procedure used in the inversion of experimental data. The lack of bias in the models, related to the different grid- node positions, was tested performing inversions rotating, translating and deforming the original grid. To evaluate the dependence on the initial model, several inversions were also done using different 1D and 3D models simulating slab features. Finally, 35 models resulting from the inversions were synthesized in an average model obtained by interpolating each velocity model into a fixed grid. Each velocity value interpolated was weighted with a corresponding DWS (Derivative Weight Sum) resulting thus a Weighted Average Velocity model. The highly resolved sections through the average Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs models allowed us to image several relevant features of the structure of the subducting Ionian slab and of the Southern Tyrrhenian mantle: -the hypocenters are localized in the NW dipping fast area (Vp>8.2 km/s), 50-60 km thick, most likely composed litospheric mantle. Just below, an aseismic low Vp zone (6.6 - 7.7 km/s) 20-25 km thick, is assigned to the partially

  13. Comparison of Predicted and Measured Soil Retention Curve in Lombardy Region Northern of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassar, Fatma; Rienzner, Michele; Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Water retention characteristics are crucial input parameters in any modeling study on water flow and solute transport. These properties are difficult to measure and therefore the use of both direct and indirect methods is required in order to adequately describe them with sufficient accuracy. Several field methods, laboratory methods and theoretical models for such determinations exist, each having their own limitations and advantages (Stephens, 1994). Therefore, extensive comparisons between estimated, field and laboratory results to determine it still requires their validity for a range of different soils and specific cases. This study attempts to make a contribution specifically in this connection. The soil water retention characteristics were determined in two representative sites (PMI-1 and PMI-5) located in Landriano field, in Lombardy region, northern Italy. In the laboratory, values of both volumetric water content (θ) and soil water matric potential (h) are measured in the same sample using the tensiometric box and pressure plate apparatus. Field determination of soil water retention involved measurements of soil water content with SENTEK probes, and matric potential with tensiometers. The retention curve characteristics were also determined using some of the most commonly cited and some recently developed PTFs that use soil properties such as particle-size distribution (sand, silt, and clay content), organic matter or organic Carbon content, and dry bulk density. Field methods are considered to be more representative than laboratory and estimation methods for determining water retention characteristics (Marion et al., 1996). Therefore, field retention curves were compared against retention curves obtained from laboratory measurements and PTFs estimations. The performances of laboratory and PTFs in predicting field measured data were evaluated using root mean square error (RMSE) and bias. The comparison showed that laboratory measurements were the most

  14. Ground motion prediction and earthquake scenarios in the volcanic region of Mt. Etna (Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Horst; Tusa, Giuseppina; Luciano, Scarfi; Azzaro, Raffaela

    2013-04-01

    One of the principal issues in the assessment of seismic hazard is the prediction of relevant ground motion parameters, e. g., peak ground acceleration, radiated seismic energy, response spectra, at some distance from the source. Here we first present ground motion prediction equations (GMPE) for horizontal components for the area of Mt. Etna and adjacent zones. Our analysis is based on 4878 three component seismograms related to 129 seismic events with local magnitudes ranging from 3.0 to 4.8, hypocentral distances up to 200 km, and focal depth shallower than 30 km. Accounting for the specific seismotectonic and geological conditions of the considered area we have divided our data set into three sub-groups: (i) Shallow Mt. Etna Events (SEE), i.e., typically volcano-tectonic events in the area of Mt. Etna having a focal depth less than 5 km; (ii) Deep Mt. Etna Events (DEE), i.e., events in the volcanic region, but with a depth greater than 5 km; (iii) Extra Mt. Etna Events (EEE), i.e., purely tectonic events falling outside the area of Mt. Etna. The predicted PGAs for the SEE are lower than those predicted for the DEE and the EEE, reflecting their lower high-frequency energy content. We explain this observation as due to the lower stress drops. The attenuation relationships are compared to the ones most commonly used, such as by Sabetta and Pugliese (1987)for Italy, or Ambraseys et al. (1996) for Europe. Whereas our GMPEs are based on small earthquakes, the magnitudes covered by the two above mentioned attenuation relationships regard moderate to large magnitudes (up to 6.8 and 7.9, respectively). We show that the extrapolation of our GMPEs to magnitues beyond the range covered by the data is misleading; at the same time also the afore mentioned relationships fail to predict ground motion parameters for our data set. Despite of these discrepancies, we can exploit our data for setting up scenarios for strong earthquakes for which no instrumental recordings are

  15. [An example of the evaluation of risks of repeated movements in pottery plants located in western Liguria].

    PubMed

    Clerici, P; Gallanelli, R; Magnante, D; Meinero, G; Mattarelli, M; Sarto, D; Zecchi, C

    2005-01-01

    Pottery manufacturing is typical in western Liguria and it represents one of the most important economical resources of this area. The major part of manufacturers are handicrafts, although some bigger firms have developed industrialized production cycles. Both types of productions, however, require hand work at almost all levels of processing. Most workers are women and a significant part of these are affected by Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. INAIL (Direzione Regionale Liguria) carries on a dedicated program for employers' insurance and Health & Safety implementation but--in order to do so--INAIL needs to achieve more knowledge about risk factors in this field. The aim of this study was to assess CTD risk in two pottery industries located in Albisola: in particular, two productions Cycles equipped with assembly lines have been investigated. The method used for risk assessment was OCRA Index (OCcupational Repetitive Actions), adapted to be applied to pottery industries.

  16. Notes about the uses of plants by one of the last healers in the Basilicata Region (South Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The paper refers to the knowledge and uses of plants and to the linked ritual practices as referred by Matteo (It.‘Zì Matteo’, En. ‘Uncle Matthew’), one of the last elder healers in the Basilicata Region (South Italy). Particular attention is also paid to the uses of ‘Vruca’ (Tamarix gallica L.) as a medicinal and magical plant used to heal common warts on various parts of the body. Methods After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through an open interview about the uses of the plants and on the associated ritual practices. For each species, data were collected that included the vernacular names, preparation, plant parts utilized and their method of use. Results The uses of 52 taxa are described. Among these, 43 are or were employed medicinally, eight as culinary foodstuffs, and 4 for domestic, handicraft or ethnoveterinary uses. Among the major findings: the ritual and magical use of Tamarix gallica L. to heal warts is described in detail; so far, no records of similar use were found in any Italian ethnobotanical studies conducted in southern Italy. Conclusion Phytotherapy in the Basilicata region is practiced by elderly people who resort to medicinal plants for mild illnesses; we interviewed one of those traditional healers who is very experienced in the field, and possesses rich ethno-pharmacological knowledge. PMID:22546322

  17. The epidemiology and surveillance of visceral leishmaniasis in the Campania region of Italy. The value of zymodeme typing.

    PubMed Central

    Gradoni, L.; Pizzuti, R.; di Martino, L.; Gramiccia, M.; Pempinello, R.; Gaeta, G. B.; Ferrara, M.; Scotti, S.; Altieri, S.

    1993-01-01

    Although human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a notifiable disease in Italy, there is evidence that the actual number of cases is far higher than that notified. A programme for active surveillance of VL in the 14 Italian endemic regions was launched by the Istituto Superiore di Sanità. We report data collected during a 3-year period of active surveillance in Campania, a south Tyrrhenian region covering 4.5% of the Italian territory. Out of 120 clinically suspected cases referred to medical and diagnostic references centres, there were 52 confirmed VL cases (17.3/year), i.e. 10-fold more than previously notified. Most of the infection sites were in rural areas or peripheral districts of towns in hilly parts of Naples province. An epidemic cluster of 10 cases was identified in a microfocus of Caserta province. The biochemical analysis of 23 Leishmania stocks showed a zymodeme composition indicating Campania as an old and well-established focus of VL. The data obtained emphasize that the present notification system for VL in Italy is inadequate. PMID:8405156

  18. Seasonal monitoring and estimation of regional aerosol distribution over Po valley, northern Italy, using a high-resolution MAIAC product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvani, Barbara; Pierce, R. Bradley; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Ghermandi, Grazia; Teggi, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the new 1 km-resolved Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm is employed to characterize seasonal PM10 - AOD correlations over northern Italy. The accuracy of the new dataset is assessed compared to the widely used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 5.1 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data, retrieved at 0.55 μm with spatial resolution of 10 km (MYD04_L2). We focused on evaluating the ability of these two products to characterize both temporal and spatial distributions of aerosols within urban and suburban areas. Ground PM10 measurements were obtained from 73 of the Italian Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA) monitoring stations, spread across northern Italy, during a three-year period from 2010 to 2012. The Po Valley area (northern Italy) was chosen as the study domain because of its severe urban air pollution, resulting from it having the highest population and industrial manufacturing density in the country, being located in a valley where two surrounding mountain chains favor the stagnation of pollutants. We found that the global correlations between the bin-averaged PM10 and AOD are R2 = 0.83 and R2 = 0.44 for MYD04_L2 and for MAIAC, respectively, suggesting a greater sensitivity of the high-resolution product to small-scale deviations. However, the introduction of Relative Humidity (RH) and Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) depth corrections allowed for a significant improvement to the bin-averaged PM - AOD correlation, which led to a similar performance: R2 = 0.96 for MODIS and R2 = 0.95 for MAIAC. Furthermore, the introduction of the PBL information in the corrected AOD values was found to be crucial in order to capture the clear seasonal cycle shown by measured PM10 values. The study allowed us to define four seasonal linear correlations that estimate PM10 concentrations satisfactorily from the remotely sensed MAIAC AOD retrieval. Overall, the results show that the high

  19. Seasonal Monitoring and Estimation of Regional Aerosol Distribution over Po Valley, Northern Italy, Using a High-Resolution MAIAC Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvani, Barbara; Pierce, R. Bradley; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Ghermandi, Grazia; Teggi, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the new 1-km-resolved Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm is employed to characterize seasonal AOD-PM10 correlations over northern Italy. The accuracy of the new dataset is assessed versus the widely used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 5.1 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data, retrieved at 0.55 microns with spatial resolution of 10 km (MYD04). We focused on evaluating the ability of these two products to characterize both temporal and spatial distributions of aerosols within urban and suburban areas. Ground PM10 measurements were obtained from 73 of the Italian Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA) monitoring stations, spread across northern Italy, for a three-year period from 2010 to 2012. The Po Valley area (northern Italy) was chosen as the study domain because of severe urban air pollution, resulting from the highest population and industrial manufacturing density in the country, being located in a valley where two surrounding mountain chains favor the stagnation of pollutants. We found that the global correlations between PM10 and AOD are R(sup 2) = 0.83 and R(sup 2) = 0.44 for MYD04_L2 and for MAIAC, respectively, suggesting for a greater sensitiveness of the high-resolution product to small-scale deviations. However, the introduction of Relative Humidity (RH) and Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) depth corrections gave a significant improvement to the PM AOD correlation, which led to similar performance: R(sup 2) = 0.96 for MODIS and R(sup 2) = 0.95 for MAIAC. Furthermore, the introduction of the PBL information in the corrected AOD values was found to be crucial in order to capture the clear seasonal cycle shown by measured PM10 values. The study allowed us to define four seasonal linear correlations that estimate PM10 concentrations satisfactorily from the remotely sensed MAIAC AOD retrieval. Overall, the results show that the high resolution provided by MAIAC

  20. Air quality across a European hotspot: Spatial gradients, seasonality, diurnal cycles and trends in the Veneto region, NE Italy.

    PubMed

    Masiol, Mauro; Squizzato, Stefania; Formenton, Gianni; Harrison, Roy M; Agostinelli, Claudio

    2017-01-15

    The Veneto region (NE Italy) lies in the eastern part of the Po Valley, a European hotspot for air pollution. Data for key air pollutants (CO, NO, NO2, O3, SO2, PM10 and PM2.5) measured over 7years (2008/2014) across 43 sites in Veneto were processed to characterise their spatial and temporal patterns and assess the air quality. Nitrogen oxides, PM and ozone are critical pollutants frequently breaching the EC limit and target values. Intersite analysis demonstrates a widespread pollution across the region and shows that primary pollutants (nitrogen oxides, CO, PM) are significantly higher in cities and over the flat lands due to higher anthropogenic pressures. The spatial variation of air pollutants at rural sites was then mapped to depict the gradient of background pollution: nitrogen oxides are higher in the plain area due to the presence of strong diffuse anthropogenic sources, while ozone increases toward the mountains probably due to the higher levels of biogenic ozone-precursors and low NO emissions which are not sufficient to titrate out the photochemical O3. Data-depth classification analysis revealed a poor categorization among urban, traffic and industrial sites: weather and urban planning factors may cause a general homogeneity of air pollution within cities driving this poor classification. Seasonal and diurnal cycles were investigated: the effect of primary sources in populated areas is evident throughout the region and drives similar patterns for most pollutants: road traffic appears the predominant potential source shaping the daily cycles. Trend analysis of experimental data reveals a general decrease of air pollution across the region, which agrees well with changes assessed by emission inventories. This study provides key information on air quality across NE Italy and highlights future research needs and possible developments of the regional monitoring network. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Studies of delayed hypersensitivity responses in children in an industrialized region of Italy

    SciTech Connect

    La Rosa, M.; Mancuso, G.R.; Greco, D.; Di Paola, M.; Schiliro, G.; Bagnato, G.F.; Bellanti, J.A. )

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to chemical pollutants on cell mediated immune responses in a pediatric population living in Priolo, an industrialized area of Italy, by means of skin test (Multitest CMI). The results suggest that children living in Priolo display significantly lower delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response than those seen in an age-matched and socioeconomically similar group of children living in Taormina, a nonindustrialized area. The lowered incidence of DTH scores in Priolo is not due to the number of positive skin test responses to individual antigens, but rather to the size of individual reactions.

  2. Natural and induced endoreic hydrological conditions in the Alta Murgia karstic region (Apulia, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canora, F.; Fidelibus, M. D.; Spilotro, G.

    2009-04-01

    A study aimed at understanding the hydrological processes in karst areas related to the presence of natural and artificial endoreic basins and their modification due to land use change, as well as the influence of above factors on the infiltration rate has been carried out in the Alta Murgia region (Apulia, Southern Italy). The region is a Cretaceous limestone plateau of the Apulian platform, characterized by a mature karstic landscape: due to its elevation, climatic conditions and lithology, the plateau constitutes the main recharge area of the Murgia aquifer. The typical karst topography is essentially related to the subterranean drainage (sinkholes, caves, conduit): surface and subsurface karst geomorphology is strictly interrelated with hydrology. The morphological features of the karstic plateau are defined by the high density of surface karstic forms (mainly dolines), the presence of exposed karst and karren fields, as well as by the extensive outcrop of fractured rocks. Karst surface shows, on the bottom of the morpho-structural depressions called "lame", natural distribution of modest deposits of "terra rossa" and regolith. The "lame" work as streams during and after intense rainfall events, often outlining a primordial ephemeral hydrographical network, frequently convergent towards dolines, poljes or endoreic basins. Alta Murgia shows many natural endoreic basin conditions in a quite flat morphology. In this environment, when intense rainfall events cover large areas and rainfall intensity exceeds the infiltration capacity of soils and/or sinkholes, significant runoff amounts are produced and stored in the basins causing floods. Most of the natural endoreic basins are small and independent: while the majority of them continue functioning as endoreic even in presence of extreme events of high return time, others (quasi-endoreic), under the same circumstances can start contributing to other basins, due to exceeding their water storage capability. This way

  3. Improved 2-D attenuation analysis for Northern Italy using a merged dataset from selected regional seismic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morasca, Paola; Massa, Marco; Laprocina, Enrica; Mayeda, Kevin; Phillips, Scott; Malagnini, Luca; Spallarossa, Daniele; Costa, Giovanni; Augliera, Paolo

    2010-10-01

    A merged, high-quality waveform dataset from different seismic networks has been used to improve our understanding of lateral seismic attenuation for Northern Italy. In a previous study on the same region, Morasca et al. (Bull Seismol Soc Am 98:1936-1946, 2008) were able to resolve only a small area due to limited data coverage. For this reason, the interpretation of the attenuation anomalies was difficult given the complexity of the region and the poor resolution of the available data. In order to better understand the lateral changes in the crustal structure and thickness of this region, we selected 770 earthquakes recorded by 54 stations for a total of almost 16,000 waveforms derived from seismic networks operating totally or partially in Northern Italy. Direct S-wave and coda attenuation images were obtained using an amplitude ratio technique that eliminates source terms from the formulation. Both direct and early-coda amplitudes are used as input for the inversions, and the results are compared. Results were obtained for various frequency bands ranging between 0.3 and 25.0 Hz and in all cases show significant improvement with respect to the previous study since the resolved area has been extended and more crossing paths have been used to image smaller scale anomalies. Quality-factor estimates are consistent with the regional tectonic structure exhibiting a general trend of low attenuation under the Po Plain basin and higher values for the Western Alps and Northern Apennines. The interpretation of the results for the Eastern Alps is not simple, possibly because our resolution for this area is still not adequate to resolve small-scale structures.

  4. Past trends and future prediction of mesothelioma incidence in an industrialized area of Italy, the Veneto Region.

    PubMed

    Girardi, Paolo; Bressan, Vittoria; Merler, Enzo

    2014-10-01

    Malignant Mesothelioma (MM) is so associated with (professional, familial or environmental) asbestos exposure that trends in incidence and mortality parallel, after 30-40 years, the trend in asbestos consumption. In recent decades, the industrialized countries have witnessed a steady growth of pleural MM (MPM), following a stabilization or decline in rates in the countries that first adopted restrictive policies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the temporal variations of pleural MM incidence in the Veneto Region of Italy in the period 1987-2010. We included only MPM with histological or cytological diagnosis. Age-Period-Cohort (APC) models were used to assess the trend in the incidence of MPM in both genders. Future predictions were evaluated by using a Bayesian APC model. In the period 1987-2010, 1600 MPMs have occurred. We observe a positive trend in the incidence in the whole period considered. The APC model showed that in both genders the cohort at higher risk is the one born between the years 1940-1945. Future projections indicate that the trend will decrease after the incidence peak of 2010; yet 1234 men are expected to develop a mesothelioma between 2011 and 2026. Among women, the future MPM rates will be stable or slightly decreasing. The asbestos ban introduced in Italy in the year 1992 as a prospective result will certainly determine a decreasing incidence. However, the extremely long latency of MPM means that its influence is not yet observable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Childhood vaccination coverage in Italy: results of a seven-region survey. The Italian Vaccine Coverage Survey Working Group.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    In Italy few data exist on vaccination coverage and timeliness. We therefore carried out cluster surveys on 12-23-month-olds in nine Italian cities and regions using standard Expanded Programme on Immunization methodology. The study areas accounted for 40% of all live births in Italy in 1991. Coverage levels for the third dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and for oral poliovirus vaccine, which are mandatory, exceeded 90% in all but one area. However, less than two-thirds of the children had completed the primary vaccine series by their first birthday. The commonest reason for failure to complete the series in time was that the child had been sick and was not brought for vaccination. For the two optional vaccines (pertussis and measles) coverage was much poorer, ranging from 8% to 71% for pertussis and from 9% to 53% for measles. The commonest reason given by the mothers for pertussis non-vaccination was that they had been advised against it, while for measles the commonest reasons were that the child was sick and that they had been advised against it. These findings suggest that although coverage for the mandatory vaccines is high, coverage for pertussis and measles is very low. Additional education of physicians and mothers is needed concerning the true contraindications for vaccination. Also, in the absence of legislation making pertussis and measles vaccines mandatory, greater efforts are needed to convince physicians and the public about the benefits of their use. PMID:7867134

  6. Childhood vaccination coverage in Italy: results of a seven-region survey. The Italian Vaccine Coverage Survey Working Group.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    In Italy few data exist on vaccination coverage and timeliness. We therefore carried out cluster surveys on 12-23-month-olds in nine Italian cities and regions using standard Expanded Programme on Immunization methodology. The study areas accounted for 40% of all live births in Italy in 1991. Coverage levels for the third dose of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and for oral poliovirus vaccine, which are mandatory, exceeded 90% in all but one area. However, less than two-thirds of the children had completed the primary vaccine series by their first birthday. The commonest reason for failure to complete the series in time was that the child had been sick and was not brought for vaccination. For the two optional vaccines (pertussis and measles) coverage was much poorer, ranging from 8% to 71% for pertussis and from 9% to 53% for measles. The commonest reason given by the mothers for pertussis non-vaccination was that they had been advised against it, while for measles the commonest reasons were that the child was sick and that they had been advised against it. These findings suggest that although coverage for the mandatory vaccines is high, coverage for pertussis and measles is very low. Additional education of physicians and mothers is needed concerning the true contraindications for vaccination. Also, in the absence of legislation making pertussis and measles vaccines mandatory, greater efforts are needed to convince physicians and the public about the benefits of their use.

  7. Interaction between regional and local tectonic forcing along a complex Quaternary extensional basin: Upper Tiber Valley, Northern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucci, S.; Mirabella, F.; Pazzaglia, F.; Barchi, M. R.; Melelli, L.; Tuccimei, P.; Soligo, M.; Saccucci, L.

    2014-10-01

    In extending areas undergoing regional tectonic uplift, the persistence of subsidence at a normal-fault hanging-wall depends on the competition between regional and local tectonic effects. When regional uplift exceeds the subsidence of the hanging-wall block, denudation prevails at both the hanging-wall and the foot-wall. When local tectonic subsidence exceeds regional uplift, sedimentation occurs over the hanging-wall block, supplied by foot-wall erosion. We analyzed a Pliocene-Quaternary continental basin, currently crossed by the Tiber River in Italy. The tectono-sedimentary evolution of the basin developed at the hanging-wall of a regional low-angle extensional detachment, the Alto Tiberina Fault, in the axial region of the Northern Apennines of Italy. This area is affected by regional uplift on the order of 0.5-1.0 mm/yr. The present-day activity of the fault is revealed by both microseismicity and geodetic (GPS) data. We investigated the mid- (10-100 ka) and long-term (0.5-3.0 Ma) evolution of the three depocenters by studying the continental Pleistocene succession infilling the basin as well as fluvial terraces and higher paleosurfaces carved into the Pleistocene deposits. By using surficial geologic data and an interpretation of a set of seismic reflection profiles, we show that the three depocenters experienced a fairly similar evolution during the Pliocene-Early Pleistocene, when a 1000-m-thick continental succession was deposited. On the contrary, geomorphological observations indicate that, at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, a switch occurred in the evolution of the three depocenters. In the northernmost Sansepolcro sub-basin, bounding normal faults are active and hanging-wall subsidence outpaces regional uplift. Concurrently, in the Umbertide and Ponte Pattoli sub-basins uplift dominates over the hanging-wall subsidence, promoting river incision and exhumation of the Pleistocene deposits. For these two depocenters, by means of terrace

  8. Joint geophysical measurements to investigate the Rossano of Vaglio archaeological site affected by landslide phenomena (Basilicata region, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, A.; Chianese, D.; Lapenna, V.; Lorenzo, P.; Piscitelli, S.; Rizzo, E.; Sdao, F.

    2003-04-01

    In the frame of a project supported by the Italian Ministry of Research: "Geomorphological study and landslides control in some areas of the Basilicata region characterized by historical-cultural heritage", the I.M.A.A. of the CNR (Tito Scalo, Potenza) and the Di.S.G.G. of the Basilicata University, developed a research activity focussed on the realization of combined geophysical measurements for the study of archaeological areas affected by landslide phenomena in Basilicata region (Southern Italy). Since IV century b.C., the birth and the evolution of many religious places is observed in the Basilicata region. Location and construction of these sanctuaries were influenced by the geological and geomorphological setting: many of them were built near important springs; others on morphological terraces, representing the main effect of the large and ancient landslides, often reactivated during the years. In this work we report the results regarding the application of 2D electrical resistivity tomographies, electromagnetic and magnetic measurements carried out in the Rossano of Vaglio (Potenza, Italy), where in the late IV century b.C. raised a sanctuary devoted to the Mephitis goddess (Adamasteanu and Dilthey, 1992; Masseria and D'Anisi, 2001). The sacred area was affected by a multiple and retrogressive rototranslational slide, historically and actually subject to reactivation. The geophysical results, obtained combining advanced technologies for data acquisition and new methods for data inversion (Loke and Barker, 1996; Ciminale and Loddo, 2001; Nuzzo et al, 2002), allowed us to define the geometrical characteristics of the landslide body, to outline the sliding surfaces and to individuate the buried structures of the sanctuary.

  9. Relationships of local lithium concentrations in drinking water to regional suicide rates in Italy.

    PubMed

    Pompili, Maurizio; Vichi, Monica; Dinelli, Enrico; Pycha, Roger; Valera, Paolo; Albanese, Stefano; Lima, Annamaria; De Vivo, Benedetto; Cicchella, Domenico; Fiorillo, Andrea; Amore, Mario; Girardi, Paolo; Baldessarini, Ross J

    2015-01-01

    Higher natural concentrations of lithium in drinking water may be associated with lower local rates of suicide. Lithium concentrations in drinking water were assayed by mass spectrometry at 145 sites in Italy, and compared with reported local suicide rates for men and women between 1980 and 2011. Lithium concentrations in drinking water averaged 5.28 [CI: 4.08-6.48] μg/L (0.761 [0.588-0.934] μEq/L) and ranged from 0.110 to 60.8 μg/L (1.58 to 8.76 μEq/L). Lithium concentrations and local suicide rates were not significantly inversely related, except in 1980-1989, particularly among women. A proposed association between trace lithium concentrations in drinking water and risk of suicide was only partially supported, and mechanisms for potential clinical effects of trace levels of lithium are unknown.

  10. [Unhealthy food choices of adolescent schoolchildren in the Campania region (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Cammarota, Giancarlo; Di Stasio, Michele; Laurino, Carmine; Criscuolo, Assunta; Filosa, Carmela; Visone, Mariano; Palmieri, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    A questionnaire study to evaluate the eating habits of a sample of adolescents was conducted in 2009-2010 in Campania (Italy). The study involved 1,066 secondary school students aged 15 to 16 years. Fifty-two percent of participants were male and 96% lived in an urban area. Questionnaires were self-administered and anonymous. Results show an association between the consumption of different types of alcoholic beverages. Adolescents who drink carbonated beverages as a mid-morning snack tend to do the same during the mid-afternoon snack. Moreover, drinking carbonated beverages during morning and afternoon snacks was associated with the use of vending machines. Twenty-nine percent of participating students reported eating red meat more than four times per week.

  11. Occurrence of Killer Yeasts in Spontaneous Wine Fermentations from the Tuscany Region of Italy

    PubMed Central

    Vagnoli, Paola; Musmanno, Rosa Anna; Cresti, Stefania; Di Maggio, Tiziana; Coratza, Grazietta

    1993-01-01

    The occurrence of killer yeasts in an area of Tuscany (central Italy) was studied. Killer yeasts were found in 88% of spontaneous wine fermentations from 18 wineries. The incidence of killers varied with respect to fermentation stage and vintage period, increasing from the first vintage to successive ones and from the commencement to the end of fermentation. At the end of fermentation, the proportion of killer strains relative to total yeast population was below 25% in 15 cases, above 75% in 6 cases, from 25 to 50% in 5 cases, and from 50 to 75% in 3 cases. Karyotype analysis also showed a mixed killer population in the fermentations in which the killers dominated. Images PMID:16349105

  12. Spatio-temporal patterns of distribution of West Nile virus vectors in eastern Piedmont Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background West Nile Virus (WNV) transmission in Italy was first reported in 1998 as an equine outbreak near the swamps of Padule di Fucecchio, Tuscany. No other cases were identified during the following decade until 2008, when horse and human outbreaks were reported in Emilia Romagna, North Italy. Since then, WNV outbreaks have occurred annually, spreading from their initial northern foci throughout the country. Following the outbreak in 1998 the Italian public health authority defined a surveillance plan to detect WNV circulation in birds, horses and mosquitoes. By applying spatial statistical analysis (spatial point pattern analysis) and models (Bayesian GLMM models) to a longitudinal dataset on the abundance of the three putative WNV vectors [Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas 1771), Culex pipiens (Linnaeus 1758) and Culex modestus (Ficalbi 1890)] in eastern Piedmont, we quantified their abundance and distribution in space and time and generated prediction maps outlining the areas with the highest vector productivity and potential for WNV introduction and amplification. Results The highest abundance and significant spatial clusters of Oc. caspius and Cx. modestus were in proximity to rice fields, and for Cx. pipiens, in proximity to highly populated urban areas. The GLMM model showed the importance of weather conditions and environmental factors in predicting mosquito abundance. Distance from the preferential breeding sites and elevation were negatively associated with the number of collected mosquitoes. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was positively correlated with mosquito abundance in rice fields (Oc. caspius and Cx. modestus). Based on the best models, we developed prediction maps for the year 2010 outlining the areas where high abundance of vectors could favour the introduction and amplification of WNV. Conclusions Our findings provide useful information for surveillance activities aiming to identify locations where the potential for WNV

  13. Analysis of the cost-effectiveness of varicella vaccine programmes based on an observational survey in the Latium region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Gialloreti, Leonardo Emberti; Divizia, Maurizio; Pica, Francesca; Volpi, Antonio

    2005-10-01

    Varicella is the most widespread childhood disease in Italy. However, as in many parts of the world, the country does not yet have a unified approach to the management of the disease. A cost-effectiveness analysis of varicella vaccination strategies, using the Latium region in Italy as a case study, was undertaken. Mass vaccination is only recommended if the immunization programme can achieve coverage of over 85% in a short time. However, experience in Italy with non-compulsory vaccinations has shown this is difficult to achieve. Consequently, eradication of the disease is not seen as an attainable short-term goal. For mass varicella vaccination to be successful, it must be run at a national as well as regional level in combination with education programmes, and a reliable surveillance system. The interaction between varicella and herpes zoster must also be taken into account when considering vaccination strategies, as zoster vaccination strategies may have an impact on varicella coverage.

  14. Evaluation of the health effects of the new driving penalty point system in the Lazio Region, Italy, 2001–4

    PubMed Central

    Farchi, Sara; Chini, Francesco; Rossi, Paolo Giorgi; Camilloni, Laura; Borgia, Piero; Guasticchi, Gabriella

    2007-01-01

    Objective The penalty point system was introduced in Italy in June 2003. The aim of this study was to evaluate the health effects of this legislation in the Lazio region. Methods Poisson models were used to compare emergency department visits, hospitalizations and death between the pre‐law and post‐law periods (July 2001–June 2003; July 2003–June 2004). Results The emergency department visit rate ratio (RR) of the two periods was 0.87 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86 to 0.88); the corresponding hospital admission RR was 0.87 (95% CI 0.84 to 0.9). The death RR was 0.93 (95% CI 0.82 to 1.05). Conclusion After the legislation was introduced, there were fewer visits to the emergency department, hospitalizations and death from road traffic injuries. However, the effect was lower than expected, and it decreased over time. PMID:17296692

  15. The effectiveness of PIXE approach to the study of urban and regional atmospheric pollution in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga Marcazzan, G. M.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize some results of studies on air pollution carried out in areas of different characteristics in Northern Italy and to emphasize how an appropriate sampling strategy combined with a powerful analytical technique such as PIXE is effective. Multivariate methods applied to 24 h multielemental concentration data sets showed that few components dominate in particulate matter composition in all urban sites: soil dust particles, vehicular emissions and sulphur componds are the most important. Emissions from industries are site dependent and affect the concentrations of specific elements mainly. The diurnal cycles obtained by streaker sampling showed differences for groups of elements and indicated sources acting on different time scales. Transport phenomena on local scale were evidenced by high resolution time sequences of elemental concentrations. The contribution of sulphur compounds is enhanced in mountain and rural sites and S time variation in relation with meterological parameters pointed out a prevalent regional source.

  16. Revision of Errhomeninae and Aphrodinae (Hemiptera, Cicadomorpha) in Italy with remarks on their variability and distribution in adjacent regions and description of three new taxa.

    PubMed

    Guglielmino, Adalgisa; Bückle, Christoph

    2015-01-15

    A revision of the subfamilies Errhomeninae and Aphrodinae in Italy is presented. Two new species, Anoscopus gorloppus and Anoscopus carlebippus, and one new subspecies Anoscopus albifrons mappus are described. Anoscopus dubius Gębicki & Bednarzyk is established as subspecies of Anoscopus flavostriatus (Donovan) (stat. nov.), Aphrodes siracusae (Matsumura) is transferred to the genus Anoscopus (comb. nov.). Anoscopus samuricus Tshmir is recorded in Italy for the first time. Information concerning ecology and regional distribution is given for all taxa present in Italy. Genital morphology and variability of colouration are figured for many taxa. A morphometric analysis based on measurements of aedeagus and body is conducted for the taxa of the Aphrodes bicincta group. Keys for the Italian species of Aphrodes and Anoscopus are given. Distribution and specific characters of Anoscopus assimilis (Signoret) and Anoscopus alpinus (Wagner) are presented. Differences between Italian populations and conspecific ones in other European regions, and reasons for the particularly high variability in the Alpine areas of Italy are discussed. A list of 19 species and two subspecies, presently recorded from Italy is given. 

  17. Alert system procedure and population information means in the Liguria region: criticity in the communication chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannoni, F.; Turato, B.

    2009-09-01

    In such rough environment as the Northen Mediterranean coastline, where basins response time is in the order of few hours and flash floods develop rapidly inundating suddenly the terminal flood plains, traditional warning systems based on rainfall observation and rainfall runoff modelling do not provide timely predictions in order to implement the required precautionary civil protection measures. Social safety demands that meteorologists and hydrologists reliably predict ground effects at least 24 hours in advance. The warning can be effective only if the population is effectively informed regarding the alert status and is already educated on how to behave during an alert situation. In this work the hydrometreological forecasting chain in use at the Ligurian CF is briefly described together with the procedure that leads to the alert issuing. Emphasis is put on information means to population: traditional alert systems (i.e., TV, radio) and web site channel. Moreover the change in population response and press response in the last 6 years are analysed.

  18. Geo-hydrological risk management for civil protection purposes in the urban area of Genoa (Liguria, NW Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandolini, P.; Cevasco, A.; Firpo, M.; Robbiano, A.; Sacchini, A.

    2012-04-01

    Over the past century the municipal area of Genoa has been affected by recurring flood events and several landslides that have caused severe damage to urbanized areas on both the coastal-fluvial plains and surrounding slopes, sometimes involving human casualties. The analysis of past events' annual distribution indicates that these phenomena have occurred with rising frequency in the last seventy years, following the main land use change due to the development of harbour, industrial, and residential areas, which has strongly impacted geomorphological processes. Consequently, in Genoa, civil protection activities are taking on an increasing importance for geo-hydrological risk mitigation. The current legislative framework assigns a key role in disaster prevention to municipalities, emergency plan development, as well as response action coordination in disaster situations. In view of the geomorphological and environmental complexity of the study area and referring to environmental laws, geo-hydrological risk mitigation strategies adopted by local administrators for civil protection purposes are presented as examples of current land/urban management related to geo-hydrological hazards. Adopted measures have proven to be effective on several levels (planning, management, structure, understanding, and publication) in different cases. Nevertheless, the last flooding event (4 November 2011) has shown that communication and public information concerning the perception of geo-hydrological hazard can be improved.

  19. Diatom diversity and response in metal-polluted river environment: preliminary reports from Gromolo Torrent (Liguria, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capello, Marco; Tolotti, Raffaella; Bernabè, Dimitri; Carbone, Cristina; Consani, Sirio; Vagge, Greta; Cutroneo, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Mineral content and physico-chemical properties of the freshwaters are the main factors affecting both algal assemblages and distributions, while presence of dissolved silicon, low water conductivity, and rocky-mountain habitats host benthic diatom assemblages of high species richness. It is shown that diatoms are sensible to the freshwater acidification (used as pH indicators in acid waters), environmental and climate changes, river organic load, and heavy metal water pollution. For this characteristic, diatoms are among the major biological markers for a variety of environmental and stratigraphic applications. In particular, qualitative and quantitative analyses (assemblage analyses) together with biotic indices as well as morphological and ultrastructure parameterisation provide tools for detailed environmental control and paleo-environmental reconstructions. Severe environmental problems are typically caused by "abandoned mine" and are consequences of the cessation of the mining activity with a lack in infrastructure maintenance. The mine waters which flow into the Gromolo Torrent are almost acidic (pH varying from 2.4 to 5) and enriched in heavy metals and SO42-. This pollution is caused by Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) processes that interest the Libiola mining area, known as a typical example of active AMD processes. The aim of this work is: 1) to characterise the local benthic diatom assemblages along the acidic mine effluents that discharge from Libiola mine, the entire Gromolo torrent course, and in the marine area off the torrent mouth; 2) to identify the main diatom biomarker taxa; 3) to highlight striking situations of equilibrium-disequilibrium in the algal communities, and 4) to point out types and frequency of some teratologies affecting specific diatom taxa as a response to environmental stressors (such as metal-metalloid enrichment). A total of 17 diatom samples was collected and examined, including some marine samples. Diatoms were collected in the riverbed from the hard surface of selected cobblestone by scraping. In laboratory all the samples were washed (by digestion with hydrogen peroxide) and mounted according to the protocol used by the DISTAV Laboratories (University of Genoa). Identification and enumeration of diatom valves was performed using an LM Reichert Jung-Polyvar microscope with 1000x oil-immersion lens. Moreover, a representative subsample of each preparation was observed using SEM images providing an interesting iconographic dataset. Preliminary results show that diatom assemblages are characteristic (in both quality and quantity) in the three different environmental conditions highlighted: a) in AMD environment diatoms are quantitatively scarcely, represented by both typically pioneer and highly tolerant species; b) in the Gromolo torrent diatoms are well represented with fairly well-structured communities, but present specific types and different frequencies in teratological frustula, whereas c) in marine environment they are very poorly represented.

  20. Sales of antidepressants, suicides and hospital admissions for depression in Veneto Region, Italy, from 2000 to 2005: an ecological study.

    PubMed

    Guaiana, Giuseppe; Andretta, Margherita; Griez, Eric; Biancosino, Bruno; Grassi, Luigi

    2011-09-30

    Increased prescription of antidepressants has been consistently associated with a decrease in suicide rates in several countries. The aim of this study is to explore antidepressant consumption, suicide rates and admission for depression in the Veneto Region, Italy, in order to see whether the same pattern could be detected. Data from the Italian Ministry of Health (admissions for depression), the Pharmacy Service of a Local Health Unit (antidepressant prescribing) and from the Epidemiological System of the Veneto region (suicide rates) were collected from 2000 to 2005 for the Veneto region. Suicide rates did not show any marked increase but were stable in males and females. Antidepressant prescribing increased exponentially over the period examined, whilst admissions for depression markedly decreased. The trend for an exponential increase in antidepressant prescribing in the Veneto region is shared with other countries and locales. It is possible that the increase in antidepressant prescribing might be associated with earlier treatment of depression, thus decreasing the likelihood of aggravation of depression.

  1. Land Contamination and Soil-Plant Interactions in the Imperina Valley Mine (Belluno, Venetian Region, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Fontana, Silvia; Zilioli, Diana

    2010-05-01

    In Italy, ore exploitation, particularly that of mixed sulphides, has been abandoned since the final thirty years of the last century, and a quantity of mine dumps has been discharged in wide areas of the land, provoking evident environmental damages to landscape, soil and vegetation, with potential risk for human health. The present study concerns the distribution and mobility of heavy metals (Ni, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe and Mn) in the soils of a mine site and their transfer to wild flora. Soils and wild plants were sampled from mixed sulphides mine dumps in Imperina valley (Belluno, Italy), and the concentrations of heavy metals were determined. Chemical analyses carried out on 10 soil profiles (mostly entisols) of the mineralised area revealed metal concentrations generally above the international target levels (Cu up to 3160 mg kg-1 , Pb up to 23600 mg kg-1, Zn up to 1588 mg kg-1, Fe up to 52,30 %). The concentrations of Ni, Cr and Mn, instead, are below the reference limits. Moreover, a highly significant correlation was observed between the concentrations of metals in soils (Fe, Pb, Zn and Cu). Metal concentration in selected wild plants of the mineralized area is moderately high, in particolar Cu, Pb, Zn in the roots of Plantago major, Pb and Zn in the leaves of Taraxacum officinale, Zn and Pb in Salix spp. The translocation coefficient (BAC) from soil to plant (hypogean portion), and within the plant (epigean portion) vary from 0,37 in Plantago major to 2,97 in Silene dioica, two known accumulator plants. Salix spp present high translocation coefficients from soil to plant, and from roots to leaves. In particular, essential metals present a translocation coefficient ≥1 (with the order Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe), while toxic metals have coefficients <1 (Pb

  2. Ethical issues of prison nursing: A qualitative study in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Sasso, Loredana; Delogu, Barbara; Carrozzino, Roberto; Aleo, Giuseppe; Bagnasco, Annamaria

    2016-04-12

    Prisons are contexts where nurses are required to have specific skills to ensure that, in a setting designed for the expiation of crime, prisoners receive the same type of care as anyone else. But this is not always the case, giving rise to ethical issues. 'How do correctional nurses describe their working experience in prisons? What issues emerged?' This is a qualitative descriptive study. Following purposive sampling, we conducted five focus groups. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Our sample included 31 correctional nurses in seven prisons in Northern Italy. The scientific merit of this study was recognized by the Academic Board of the University of Genoa. Approval to conduct the study was obtained from the Liguria Regional Government that funded this study and from the Local Health Authority that was the prison nurses' employer. Formal consent was obtained from all the nurses who volunteered to participate in this study. Five themes emerged from the focus groups: (1) prisoners' healthcare needs, (2) negotiation between custody and care, (3) satisfaction of working in prisons, (4) obstacles to quality care and (5) safety. 'Manipulation' was a transversal theme that emerged from all the focus groups. The problems generated by the clash between prison security and nursing care priorities did not enable nurses to practice autonomously and provide the best possible to care prisoners, giving rise to ethical issues and moral distress. This in turn causes high nursing turnover rates that negatively impact continuum of care. In Italy, correctional nurses urgently require specific education interventions with the participation of all those who work in prisons. Interventions based on the post-modern concept of restorative nursing could offer prison nurses the opportunity to both resolve ethical issues and reduce moral distress. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Prevalence of multiple sclerosis in the Lazio region, Italy: use of an algorithm based on health information systems.

    PubMed

    Bargagli, Anna Maria; Colais, Paola; Agabiti, Nera; Mayer, Flavia; Buttari, Fabio; Centonze, Diego; Di Folco, Marta; Filippini, Graziella; Francia, Ada; Galgani, Simonetta; Gasperini, Claudio; Giuliani, Manuela; Mirabella, Massimiliano; Nociti, Viviana; Pozzilli, Carlo; Davoli, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Compared with other areas of the country, very limited data are available on multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence in Central Italy. We aimed to estimate MS prevalence in the Lazio region and its geographical distribution using regional health information systems (HIS). To identify MS cases we used data from drug prescription, hospital discharge and ticket exemption registries. Crude, age- and gender-specific prevalence estimates on December 31, 2011 were calculated. To compare MS prevalence between different areas within the region, we calculated age- and gender-adjusted prevalence and prevalence ratios using a multivariate Poisson regression model. Crude prevalence rate was 130.5/100,000 (95 % CI 127.5-133.5): 89.7/100,000 for males and 167.9/100,000 for females. The overall prevalence rate standardized to the European Standard Population was 119.6/100,000 (95 % CI 116.8-122.4). We observed significant differences in MS prevalence within the region, with estimates ranging from 96.3 (95 % CI 86.4-107.3) for Latina to 169.6 (95 % CI 147.6-194.9) for Rieti. Most districts close to the coast showed lower prevalence estimates compared to those situated in the eastern mountainous area of the region. In conclusion, this study produced a MS prevalence estimate at regional level using population-based health administrative databases. Our results showed the Lazio region is a high-risk area for MS, although with an uneven geographical distribution. While some limitations must be considered including possible prevalence underestimation, HIS represent a valuable source of information to measure the burden of SM, useful for epidemiological surveillance and healthcare planning.

  4. Natural radioactivity and metal contamination of river sediments in the Calabria region, south of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, F.; Marguccio, S.; D'Agostino, M.; Belvedere, A.; Belmusto, G.

    2016-05-01

    River sediments from eight different sites of the coast of Calabria, south of Italy, were sampled to determine natural radioactivity and metal concentrations, in order to assess any possible radiological hazard, the level of contamination and the possible anthropogenic impact in the area. Gamma and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry were employed and results of this study show that the mean activity concentrations of radium (in secular equilibrium with uranium) ranged from 15.1Bq/kg to 26.7Bq/kg, that of thorium from 21.8Bq/kg to 48.3Bq/kg and that of potassium from 541.3Bq/kg to 1452.2Bq/kg. In terms of mean mass concentrations, XRF analysis revealed that uranium was lower than 1.5ppm (minimum detectable value), thorium ranged from 6.1ppm to 10.3ppm while potassium ranged from 2.5% to 4.4%. The degree of sediment contaminations were computed using an enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index ( I geo for some potential hazardous elements. Results suggested that enrichment factor and geoaccumulation values of Pb and Mn were greatest among the studied metals. The study revealed that on the basis of computed indexes, the eight investigated rivers can be classified as no polluted ones.

  5. Analysis of Information on Food Chain in Europe and Piedmont Region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pattono, Daniele; Bertolina, Barbara; Bottero, Maria Teresa; Chiesa, Francesco; Civera, Tiziana

    2014-08-28

    Food chain information (FCI) is an innovation of the new European regulation. Its purpose is to enhance the concept of food security. FCI includes specifications such as: health status, information on treatments and diseases, analytical reports on control plans, zoonoses or environmental contaminants, production performance, etc. The aim of this article is to compare the different European guidelines and analyse the situation in Piedmont in order to assess potential problems and propose solutions. European guidelines are similar one another, but they have been tailored to the epidemiological situations of each state. Except for Spain and Germany, FCI models are different for each species and the poultry sector is the most detailed. Unfortunately, Italy has not provided guidelines yet, and this has generated considerable differences. Overall, the number of FCI models with incomplete information is the largest group compared to the models not completed for each entry. The main deficiencies are related to pharmacological treatments. The health status of the farm is listed consistently regarding the compulsory eradication plans, but other national voluntary or accreditation plans are rarely mentioned. The situation is similar in other European countries. In conclusion, FCI is an effective tool if applied with consistency and reason. Only in this way the collection of data will be effective and representative of the food chain.

  6. Mediterranean storms and impact analysis on people of Calabria region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, O.; Polemio, M.; Pasqua, A. A.

    2010-09-01

    Mediterranean storms are a source of multiple hazards because they can trigger several types of damaging phenomena which may cause different types of impacts on a complex of natural and manmade elements in an incredible wide range of circumstances. Phenomena which occur during and after Mediterranean storms can be roughly sorted in some main groups: landslides, floods, erosion processes and sea storms. Each type of phenomenon is characterized by a proper dynamic and, according to the social and economical framework in which develops, it can cause different impacts. Despite during Mediterranean storms all these phenomena occur at the same time (or in a short while), often strongly amplifying damage and hinting emergency management, studies available in literature tend to analyze each type of phenomenon (and its impact) separately, supplying a fragmentary framework of effects. In the present work, basing on a 40-year dataset concerning effects of storms in Calabria (southern Italy), a classification of effects on people affected by the different types of phenomena triggered by rainfall is carried out. The results is a schematization of main circumstances during which the different types of phenomenon triggered by storms can hit, in some way, people, and the amount of damage reported. This kind of result can be useful in education programs for people living in risk prone areas, in order promote more conscious life-style and to avoid unnecessary risk-taking behavior.

  7. Development and transferability of a nitrogen dioxide land use regression model within the Veneto region of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcon, Alessandro; de Hoogh, Kees; Gulliver, John; Beelen, Rob; Hansell, Anna L.

    2015-12-01

    When measurements or other exposure models are unavailable, air pollution concentrations could be estimated by transferring land-use regression (LUR) models from other areas. No studies have looked at transferability of LUR models from regions to cities. We investigated model transferability issues. We developed a LUR model for 2010 using annual average nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations retrieved from 47 regulatory stations of the Veneto region, Northern Italy. We applied this model to 40 independent sites in Verona, a city inside the region, where NO2 had been monitored in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) during 2010. We also used this model to estimate average NO2 concentrations at the regulatory network in 2008, 2009 and 2011. Of 33 predictor variables offered, five were retained in the LUR model (R2 = 0.75). The number of buildings in 5000 m buffers, industry surface area in 1000 m buffers and altitude, mainly representing large-scale air pollution dispersion patterns, explained most of the spatial variability in NO2 concentrations (R2 = 0.68), while two local traffic proxy indicators explained little of the variability (R2 = 0.07). The performance of this model transferred to urban sites was poor overall (R2 = 0.18), but it improved when only predicting inner-city background concentrations (R2 = 0.52). Recalibration of LUR coefficients improved model performance when predicting NO2 concentrations at the regulatory sites in 2008, 2009 and 2011 (R2 between 0.67 and 0.80). Models developed for a region using NO2 regulatory data are unable to capture small-scale variability in NO2 concentrations in urban traffic areas. Our study documents limitations in transferring a regional model to a city, even if it is nested within that region.

  8. Assessment of desertification risk in semi-arid Mediterranean environments: the case study of Apulia region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladisa, Gaetano; Todorovic, Mladen; Trisorio Liuzzi, Giuliana

    2010-05-01

    This work focuses on the risk assessment of the areas threatened with desertification in the semi-arid Mediterranean environments. The presented approach uses as a reference the ESAs model (Environmental Sensitive Areas to Desertification; Kosmas et al., 1999) which is modified through a set of new indicators which take into account the region-specific environmental characteristics as well as identifiable parameters relevant for planning control measures. These supplementary indicators, comprehending socio-economic and environmental factors, are integrated in the ESAs model and, by using a GIS, applied to Apulia region (Southern Italy). This area represents a typical Mediterranean landscape affected by land degradation and desertification risks. The analyses include the elaboration of the whole set of indices on both the regional and the administrative scales which constitute the principal territorial units for the management of natural resources. The results have demonstrated that the introduction of the new indices has improved substantially the overall evaluation of the desertification risk in the Apulia region. The proposed approach permits not only the identification and refinement of different degrees of sensibility of an area to land degradation, but also the analyses of the factors affecting desertification and their evaluation in terms of spatial and temporal distribution. Moreover, the presented method is conceptually very simple and easy to implement from local to regional and national scale, and can be proposed as a methodology for the definition of priorities in adoption of strategies to mitigate desertification in the semi-arid Mediterranean environments. Key words: desertification risk, sensitivity areas, Apulia region, Mediterranean environment.

  9. Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Wolf (Canis lupus) Breeding Areas in a Mountainous Region of Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, Elena; Willis, Stephen G.; Passilongo, Daniela; Mattioli, Luca; Apollonio, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in Italy represent a relict west European population. They are classified as vulnerable by IUCN, though have increased in number and expanded their range in recent decades. Here we use 17 years of monitoring data (from 1993 to 2010) collected in a mountainous region of central Italy (Arezzo, Tuscany) in an ecological niche-based model (MaxEnt) to characterize breeding sites (i.e. the areas where pups were raised) within home ranges, as detected from play-back responses. From a suite of variables related to topography, habitat and human disturbance we found that elevation and distance to protected areas were most important in explaining the locality of wolf responses. Rendezvous sites (family play-back response sites) typically occurred between 800 and 1200 m a.s.l., inside protected areas, and were usually located along mountain chains distant from human settlements and roads. In these areas human disturbance is low and the densities of ungulates are typically high. Over recent years, rendezvous sites have occurred closer to urban areas as the wolf population has continued to expand, despite the consequent human disturbance. This suggests that undisturbed landscapes may be reaching their carrying capacity for wolves. This, in turn, may lead to the potential for increased human-wolf interactions in future. Applying our model, both within and beyond the species’ current range, we identify sites both within the current range and also further afield, that the species could occupy in future. Our work underlines the importance of the present protected areas network in facilitating the recolonisation by wolves. Our projections of suitability of sites for future establishment as the population continues to expand could inform planning to minimize future wolf-human conflicts. PMID:26035174

  10. Contribution to the knowledge of the veterinary science and of the ethnobotany in Calabria region (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Passalacqua, Nicodemo G; De Fine, Giuseppe; Guarrera, Paolo Maria

    2006-12-11

    A series of preliminary research projects on plants used in Calabria (Southern Italy) in veterinary science and in other ethno-botanical fields (minor nourishment, domestic and handicraft sector) was carried out in the last twenty years. From the ethno-botanical point of view, Calabria is one of the most interesting region, since in the ancient times it was subject to the dominant cultures of several people (Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Normans etc.). Until some decades ago the road network was poorly developed and villages were isolated, so that the culture of the "subsistence" and some archaic customs were kept. Data were collected by means of "open" interviews to farmers, shepherds and housewives in the last twenty years. More than 100 informants were interviewed, mostly over 50 years old. Plants were identified by local informants through gathering in the area or through examination of the fresh plants collected by the researchers. The collected data were compared with pharmacobotanical papers mainly of southern Italy and with other studies, in order to highlight novelties or concordances of uses. The use of 62 taxa distributed into 34 families are described. Among these, 8 are or were employed in veterinary science, 8 as anti-parasitic agents, 19 in minor nourishment, 5 as seasoning, 38 for other uses. Some toxic species for cattle are also mentioned. Among the major findings: the use of Helleborus bocconei for bronchitis of bovines and of Scrophularia canina for lameness in veterinary science; Nerium oleander and Urginea maritima as anti-parasitic agents; Epilobium angustifolium, Centaurea napifolia L. and C. sphaerocephala L. in minor nourishment.

  11. Contribution to the knowledge of the veterinary science and of the ethnobotany in Calabria region (Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Passalacqua, Nicodemo G; De Fine, Giuseppe; Guarrera, Paolo Maria

    2006-01-01

    Background A series of preliminary research projects on plants used in Calabria (Southern Italy) in veterinary science and in other ethno-botanical fields (minor nourishment, domestic and handicraft sector) was carried out in the last twenty years. From the ethno-botanical point of view, Calabria is one of the most interesting region, since in the ancient times it was subject to the dominant cultures of several people (Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Normans etc.). Until some decades ago the road network was poorly developed and villages were isolated, so that the culture of the "subsistence" and some archaic customs were kept. Methods Data were collected by means of "open" interviews to farmers, shepherds and housewives in the last twenty years. More than 100 informants were interviewed, mostly over 50 years old. Plants were identified by local informants through gathering in the area or through examination of the fresh plants collected by the researchers. The collected data were compared with pharmacobotanical papers mainly of southern Italy and with other studies, in order to highlight novelties or concordances of uses. Results The use of 62 taxa distributed into 34 families are described. Among these, 8 are or were employed in veterinary science, 8 as anti-parasitic agents, 19 in minor nourishment, 5 as seasoning, 38 for other uses. Some toxic species for cattle are also mentioned. Conclusion Among the major findings: the use of Helleborus bocconei for bronchitis of bovines and of Scrophularia canina for lameness in veterinary science; Nerium oleander and Urginea maritima as anti-parasitic agents; Epilobium angustifolium, Centaurea napifolia L. and C. sphaerocephala L. in minor nourishment. PMID:17156472

  12. Antimicrobial use and microbiological testing in district general hospital ICUs of the Veneto region of north-east Italy.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, P; Sefton, A M; Menegozzo, M; Guerriero, C; Bordignon, G; Da Rin, G; Romualdi, C; Pellizzer, G; Livermore, D M

    2016-10-01

    International - predominantly American - studies undertaken in the ICUs of teaching centres show that inadequate antibiotic therapy increases mortality and length of stay. We sought to ascertain whether this also pertains to smaller ICUs in the Veneto region of north-east Italy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such survey in the Veneto area or in Italy as a whole. A retrospective, observational study was performed across five general-hospital ICUs to examine appropriateness of microbiological sampling, empirical antibiotic adequacy, and outcomes. Among 911 patients (mean age, 65.8 years ± 16.2 SD; median ICU stay, 17.0 days [IQR, 8.0-29.0]), 757 (83.1 %) were given empirical antibiotics. Treatment adequacy could be fully assessed in only 212 patients (28.0 %), who received empirical treatment and who had a relevant clinical sample collected at the initiation of this antibiotic (T0). Many other patients only had delayed microbiological investigation of their infections between day 1 and day 10 of therapy. Mortality was significantly higher among the 34.9 % of patients receiving inadequate treatment (48.6 % vs 18.80 %; p < 0.001). Only 32.5 % of combination regimens comprised a broad-spectrum Gram-negative β-lactam plus an anti-MRSA agent, and many combinations were irrational. Inadequate treatment was frequent and was strongly associated with mortality; moreover, there was delayed microbiological investigation of many infections, precluding appropriate treatment modification and de-escalation. Improvements in these aspects and in antibiotic stewardship are being sought.

  13. Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Wolf (Canis lupus) Breeding Areas in a Mountainous Region of Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Elena; Willis, Stephen G; Passilongo, Daniela; Mattioli, Luca; Apollonio, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in Italy represent a relict west European population. They are classified as vulnerable by IUCN, though have increased in number and expanded their range in recent decades. Here we use 17 years of monitoring data (from 1993 to 2010) collected in a mountainous region of central Italy (Arezzo, Tuscany) in an ecological niche-based model (MaxEnt) to characterize breeding sites (i.e. the areas where pups were raised) within home ranges, as detected from play-back responses. From a suite of variables related to topography, habitat and human disturbance we found that elevation and distance to protected areas were most important in explaining the locality of wolf responses. Rendezvous sites (family play-back response sites) typically occurred between 800 and 1200 m a.s.l., inside protected areas, and were usually located along mountain chains distant from human settlements and roads. In these areas human disturbance is low and the densities of ungulates are typically high. Over recent years, rendezvous sites have occurred closer to urban areas as the wolf population has continued to expand, despite the consequent human disturbance. This suggests that undisturbed landscapes may be reaching their carrying capacity for wolves. This, in turn, may lead to the potential for increased human-wolf interactions in future. Applying our model, both within and beyond the species' current range, we identify sites both within the current range and also further afield, that the species could occupy in future. Our work underlines the importance of the present protected areas network in facilitating the recolonisation by wolves. Our projections of suitability of sites for future establishment as the population continues to expand could inform planning to minimize future wolf-human conflicts.

  14. Agricultural terraces montoring and modeling: a field survey in Chianti region, Firenze, Italy - First part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preti, Federico; Caruso, Marco; Dani, Andrea; Errico, Alessandro; Guastini, Enrico; Trucchi, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The two abstracts present the design and set-up of an experimental field plant whose aim is the study and modeling of water circulation in a terraced slope together with its influence on the stability of the retaining dry stone walls. The pilot plant is located at "Fattoria di Lamole" (Greve in Chianti, Firenze, Italy) where both ancient and recently restored or rebuilt dry stone retaining walls are present. The intense vineyards cultivation makes it very representative in terms of range of external stresses that affect both hillslopes and walls. The research is developed within a bigger framework of landscape preservation as a way to prevent hydrogeological instabilities and landslide risks. First Part A first/preliminary field survey was carried out in order to estimate the hydraulic and mechanical soil characteristics. Field saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements with the Simplified Falling Head (SFH) method on a terrace along an alignment were performed. Infiltrometer tests with a double ring device and soil texture determinations with both fine particle-size and skeleton fraction distributions were also performed. The Direct shear test on undisturbed and reconstituted soil samples will offer an estimation of the Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope parameters (friction angle and cohesion). A reference portion of a dry stone wall will be also monitored. Lateral earth pressure at backfill-retaining wall interface (compared to temperature and air pressure measured values), backfill volumetric water content (both in saturated and unsaturated states) and ground-water level are measured. Acknowledgements Italian Research Project of Relevant Interest (PRIN2010-2011), prot. 20104ALME4, National network for monitoring, modeling, and sustainable management of erosion processes in agricultural land and hilly-mountainous area

  15. Agricultural terraces montoring and modeling: a field survey in Chianti region, Firenze, Italy – Second part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preti, Federico; Caruso, Marco; Dani, Andrea; Cassiani, Giorgio; Romano, Nunzio; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The two abstracts present the design and set-up of an experimental campaign which aims at sup-porting the modeling (conceptual and numerical) of water circulation in a terraced slope, and its in-fluence on stability of retaining dry stone walls. The case study is located at "Fattoria di Lamole" (Greve in Chianti, Firenze, Italy). At Lamole site both ancient and recently restored or rebuilt (with different techniques) dry stone walls are present. Furthermore the intense vineyards cultivation makes it very representative in terms of range of external stresses that affect both hillslopes and wall. The survey is developed within the bigger framework of landscape preservation as a way to prevent hydrogeological instabilities and landslide risks. Second Part A second effort is devoted to couple hydrological, hydraulic and geotechnical modeling: - Flow directions and the drainage area have been derived from DTM (high-resolution digital terrain model obtained by a terrestrial laser scanner.), and served for the RPII index calcula-tion (Tarolli et al., 2013), that is coherent with the critical spots observed in situ and marked with GPS. - Direct shear test on undisturbed and reconstituted soil samples will offer an estimation of the Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope parameters (friction angle and cohesion). - Retention curves related with different depths have been derived. - Geoelectric analysis in order to locate the bedrock and to determine the subterranean water flows originated from controlled infitration tests (1 l/s discharge). - A simple dry-wall stability model has been carried out; this model analyses the wall stability with finite elements method, evaluating pressures derived from uphill water infiltration, stone friction and buoyancy in retaining wall layers: simulated deformation are suitable with the observed ones. Acknowledgements Italian Research Project of Relevant Interest (PRIN2010-2011), prot. 20104ALME4, National network for monitoring, modeling, and

  16. Analysis of the precipitation and streamflow extremes in Northern Italy using high resolution reanalysis dataset Express-Hydro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestro, Francesco; Parodi, Antonio; Campo, Lorenzo

    2017-04-01

    The characterization of the hydrometeorological extremes, both in terms of rainfall and streamflow, in a given region plays a key role in the environmental monitoring provided by the flood alert services. In last years meteorological simulations (both near real-time and historical reanalysis) were available at increasing spatial and temporal resolutions, making possible long-period hydrological reanalysis in which the meteo dataset is used as input in distributed hydrological models. In this work, a very high resolution meteorological reanalysis dataset, namely Express-Hydro (CIMA, ISAC-CNR, GAUSS Special Project PR45DE), was employed as input in the hydrological model Continuum in order to produce long time series of streamflows in the Liguria territory, located in the Northern part of Italy. The original dataset covers the whole Europe territory in the 1979-2008 period, at 4 km of spatial resolution and 3 hours of time resolution. Analyses in terms of comparison between the rainfall estimated by the dataset and the observations (available from the local raingauges network) were carried out, and a bias correction was also performed in order to better match the observed climatology. An extreme analysis was eventually carried on the streamflows time series obtained by the simulations, by comparing them with the results of the same hydrological model fed with the observed time series of rainfall. The results of the analysis are shown and discussed.

  17. Friulian: The Friulian Language in Education in Italy. Regional Dossiers Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petris, Cinzia, Comp.

    2014-01-01

    This regional dossier aims to provide a concise, description and basic statistics about minority language education in a specific region of Europe. Aspects that are addressed include features of the education system, recent educational policies, main actors, legal arrangements, and support structures, as well as quantitative aspects, such as the…

  18. Ladin: The Ladin Language in Education in Italy, 2nd Edition. Regional Dossiers Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verra, Roland, Comp.

    2016-01-01

    This regional dossier aims to provide a concise, description and basic statistics about minority language education in a specific region of Europe. Aspects that are addressed include features of the education system, recent educational policies, main actors, legal arrangements, and support structures, as well as quantitative aspects, such as the…

  19. Prevalence of Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy in the Adult Population of Bologna and Modena, Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Vignatelli, Luca; Bisulli, Francesca; Giovannini, Giada; Licchetta, Laura; Naldi, Ilaria; Mostacci, Barbara; Rubboli, Guido; Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo; Meletti, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) in the adults of two areas of the Emilia-Romagna region (northeast Italy) and to describe the clinical features from a population-based perspective. Design: Population-based retrospective cohort study including adults with NFLE. Setting: Two areas of the Emilia-Romagna region: the city of Bologna (330,901 adult residents) and five districts of the province of Modena (424,007). Prevalence day: December 31, 2010. Participants: Patients with NFLE collected from multiple databases of neurologic hub centers of the districts involved. Diagnostic criteria: clinical history of sleep related bizarre motor attacks and videopolysomnographic recording confirming the typical features of NFLE. Inclusion criteria for prevalence calculation: residence in one of the two geographic areas on the prevalence day and an “active” or “in remission with treatment” form of NFLE. Measurements and Results: Six subjects from Bologna and eight from Modena were included. Crude prevalence (per 100,000 residents) was 1.8 (95% confidence interval 0.7–4.0) in Bologna and 1.9 (0.8–3.7) in Modena. Similarly, the main clinical features were consistent: onset during adolescence (median age 11–13 y), mainly hyperkinetic seizures, nonlesional form in more than two-thirds of cases, an active form of epilepsy in more than two-thirds of cases. A family history of epilepsy was reported only for two patients. Conclusions: This epidemiologic study establishes that nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy is a rare epileptic condition, fulfilling the definition for rare disease. Because of methodological limitations of our case ascertainment, the estimates we disclose must be considered the minimum prevalence. Citation: Vignatelli L, Bisulli F, Giovannini G, Licchetta L, Naldi I, Mostacci B, Rubboli G, Provini F, Tinuper P, Meletti S. Prevalence of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy in the adult population of Bologna and

  20. Application of the Flood-IMPAT procedure in the Valle d'Aosta Region, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minucci, Guido; Mendoza, Marina Tamara; Molinari, Daniela; Atun, Funda; Menoni, Scira; Ballio, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Flood Risk Management Plans (FRMPs) established by European "Floods" Directive (Directive 2007/60/EU) to Member States in order to address all aspects of flood risk management, taking into account costs and benefits of proposed mitigation tools must be reviewed by the same law every six years. This is aimed at continuously increasing the effectiveness of risk management, on the bases of the most advanced knowledge of flood risk and most (economically) feasible solutions, also taking into consideration achievements of the previous management cycle. Within this context, the Flood-IMPAT (i.e. Integrated Meso-scale Procedure to Assess Territorial flood risk) procedure has been developed aiming at overcoming limits of risk maps produced by the Po River Basin Authority and adopted for the first version of the Po River FRMP. The procedure allows the estimation of flood risk at the meso-scale and it is characterized by three main peculiarities. First is its feasibility for the entire Italian territory. Second is the possibility to express risk in monetary terms (i.e. expected damage), at least for those categories of damage for which suitable models are available. Finally, independent modules compose the procedure: each module allows the estimation of a certain type of damage (i.e. direct, indirect, intangibles) on a certain sector (e.g. residential, industrial, agriculture, environment, etc.) separately, guaranteeing flexibility in the implementation. This paper shows the application of the Flood-IMPAT procedure and the recent advancements in the procedure, aiming at increasing its reliability and usability. Through a further implementation of the procedure in the Dora Baltea River Basin (North of Italy), it was possible to test the sensitivity of risk estimates supplied by Flood-IMPAT with respect to different damage models and different approaches for the estimation of assets at risk. Risk estimates were also compared with observed damage data in the investigated areas

  1. Suspected adverse reactions to contrast media in Campania Region (Italy): results from 14 years of post-marketing surveillance.

    PubMed

    Sessa, Maurizio; Rossi, Claudia; Mascolo, Annamaria; Grassi, Enrico; Fiorentino, Sonia; Scavone, Cristina; Reginelli, Alfonso; Rotondo, Antonio; Sportiello, Liberata

    2015-01-01

    During the last years in Italy, contrast media (CM) use increased. An increase of monitoring activities on CM-induced adverse drug reaction (ADR) is necessary, also in our regional territory. The main aim of this study was to give a preliminary evaluation of all Spontaneous Reports of ADRs (SRA) attributed to CM sent to Campania Pharmacovigilance Regional Center (CRFVC) from 01 January 2001 to 31 October 2014. For each SRA we evaluated: frequency and source, ADRs onset (time to event, seriousness and outcome), socio-demographic characteristics and risk factors of cases, the most reported CM (checking for pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions). A total of 111 SRA were sent to CRFVC; specialist in radiology was the main source of reports. Ninety-seven SRA (87.3%) were referable to hypersensitivity reactions. Thirty-four SRA (30.6%) reported serious ADRs. The most reported CM were iopamidol, gadobenic acid and gadoteric acid. We identified two SRA induced by pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic interactions. During 14 years of post-marketing surveillance, only few SRA concerning CM-induced ADRs were sent to CRFVC probably due to underreporting. We aim to improve monitoring activity on CM-induced ADRs especially in hospitals. Most reported ADR and CM were in line with current body of literature.

  2. Occurrence of Salmonella in swine in the Latium Region (central Italy) from 1980 to 1989: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Di Guardo, G; Fontanelli, G; Panfili, G; Condoleo, R; De Grossi, L; Brozzi, A M; Bozzano, A I

    1992-04-01

    An extensive survey was carried out on 849 biological samples (dead animals, organs and viscera, faeces, and rectal swabs) from pigs in the Latium Region (Central Italy) throughout the years 1980-1989. In total, 46 of the samples (5.4%) were found to be bacteriologically positive for salmonellae. Among dead animals, typical gross lesions were observed in 6 clinically infected animals. As far as serotypes are concerned, 11 different ones were isolated, with a predominance of Salmonella typhimurium (26.1%), S. anatum (21.7%), S. bovis-morbificans (15.2%), and S. heidelberg (10.8%). According to Kauffmann-White's classification scheme, 39.1% of the isolated strains belonged to serogroup B, 13% to serogroup C1, 17.4% tot serogroup C2, 6.5% to serogroup D, and 23.9% to serogroup E1. In conclusion, the authors speculate that the relatively low Salmonella isolation frequency (5.4%) reported in this study was not dependent upon the cultural procedures used, since different enrichment and plating methods were used, but rather upon the great number of rural-type herds which were investigated over the decade compared to industrial-type herds. Other factors such as stress conditions, which are particularly pronounced in industrial-type herds, and overall climatic situations, which tend to be characterised by warm, dry and long summers in the Latium Region, are also considered in this respect.

  3. Seasonal variations in injury rates in children: evidence from a 10-year study in the Veneto Region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Foltran, Francesca; Avossa, Francesco; Fedeli, Ugo; Baldi, Ileana; Spolaore, Paolo; Gregori, Dario

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the long term trend of pediatric injuries in Veneto Region (North-East of Italy) over 10 years, evaluating if seasonality in injury hospitalisations exists. Regional data on hospital admissions during the period 2000-2009 were analysed. Injury was defined as any condition identified by the International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes 800-999, excluding late effects from injury (ICD-9-CM codes 905-909), and complications of surgical and medical care, not classified elsewhere (ICD-9-CM code 995-999) in the first diagnostic field. Cyclic trends in seasonality of injuries were tested with Nam test. Thirty-five thousand seven hundred and fifty-one hospitalisations due to an injury have been recorded. Significant seasonal variation in hospitalisations for injuries was observed, with a summer to winter ratio ranging from 1.8 for minor injuries to 2.0 for severe injuries (p <0.001). The observed pattern of increased admission in the summer months should guide resource planning and implementation of preventive strategies.

  4. [Extending traceability of malignant testicular tumours using hospital discharge records: an experience in Veneto Region (Northern Italy)].

    PubMed

    Saugo, Mario; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Blengio, Gianstefano; Righetto, Gianferruccio

    2017-01-01

    validation of codes of hospital discharge records (SDO) for identification of new cases of malignant testicular tumour in the Veneto Region (Northern Italy). record linkage between the regional archive of SDO and the archive of the Veneto Tumour Registry (VTR). extraction of cases from SDO source with ICD-9-CM 186 code for diagnosis and 62.3-62.4 codes for surgical procedure, and from VTR database using ICD-O-3 C62 code for site and 9060-9062, 9064-9066, 9070, 9071, 9080-9083, 9085, 9100, 9101 codes for morphology, with 5th digit behaviour code equal to "/3". Comparison of the two sources in a classification table using VTR data as gold standard. positive predictive value and sensitivity of SDO, with 95% confidence interval (95%CI) based on binomial distribution. from 2006 to 2008, in areas covered by the registry, SDO and VTR identified, respectively, 221 and 216 cases of testicular cancer. SDO procedure showed a sensitivity of 92% (95%CI 87%- 95%) and a positive predictive value of 90% (95%CI 85%-93%). the SDO procedure can be considered an acceptable proxy for testis cancer incidence, thus allowing a wider spatiotemporal observation of the epidemiological trends.

  5. Etiological [corrected] agents of rickettsiosis and anaplasmosis in ticks collected in Emilia-Romagna region (Italy) during 2008 and 2009.

    PubMed

    Maioli, Giulia; Pistone, Dario; Bonilauri, Paolo; Pajoro, Massimo; Barbieri, Ilaria; Mulatto, Patrizia; Patrizia, Mulatto; Vicari, Nadia; Dottori, Michele

    2012-06-01

    Ticks are the main vectors of rickettsiae of the spotted fever group, as well as of a variety of other Rickettsiales, including bacteria of the genus Anaplasma, that might cause diseases in humans and animals. Here we present the result of a survey for ticks and for tick-associated Rickettsiales in the Emilia Romagna region (Northern Italy). The study was focused on ticks collected from wild-hunted animals. Out of 392 ticks collected from these animals, 282 (72%) were identified as Ixodes ricinus, 110 (28%) as Dermacentor marginatus. The former was found on four vertebrate species, whereas the latter appeared more specific for wild boar. The presence of rickettsiae was demonstrated in 22.5% of I. ricinus (57/253) and in 29% of D. marginatus (32/110). Five ticks of the species I. ricinus were also positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2%). In addition, we collected ticks by dragging in a natural park of the same region. All of the ticks captured by dragging were identified as I. ricinus. Thirty-six out of 200 analyzed ticks proved positive for Rickettsia monacensis and R. helvetica (16.5 and 1.5%, respectively). Our results highlight that that ticks present in wild areas, widely exploited for recreation and hunting in Emilia-Romagna, represent a risk for the transmission of spotted fevers and anaplasmosis to humans.

  6. [Tuberculosis among children and young adults in Emilia-Romagna Region (Northern Italy): surveillance system and integration with socioeconomic data].

    PubMed

    Morandi, Matteo; Di Girolamo, Chiara; Caranci, Nicola; Mattivi, Andrea; Marchi, Massimiliano; Borrini, Bianca Maria; Moro, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    to characterise the cases of tuberculosis (TB) aged 0-24 years reported in Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy) Region between 2001 and 2010 through an ecological approach and from a sociodemographic perspective. observational study on notified TB cases, with data integration and subsequent location through geocoding and ecological deprivation index. notification records of TB cases identified by the current surveillance system. Cases were geocoded where address details were available and, through spatial intersection with census block polygons, the related deprivation index (DI) was attributed to them. deprivation index distribution of the observed cases. in the considered decade, 686 cases of tuberculosis in the age group 0-24 years were reported, 14.5% of the overall number of cases in the Emilia-Romagna Region. The DI was attributed to the 90.4% of cases. Notified TB cases were more frequently located in the most deprived areas. as other TB international surveillance systems, this study shows that it is possible to locate TB cases, to link them with census data and, therefore, to characterise with socioeconomic information. Looking ahead, the extension of the analysis to all age classes, the updating of socioeconomic data and the use of qualitative methodologies can integrate surveillance system data to better describe the social disadvantage among TB cases.

  7. Seismic vulnerability of leaning masonry towers located in Emilia-Romagna region, Italy:FE analyses of four case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Gabriele; Shehu, Rafael; Valente, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Four inclined masonry towers are investigated in this paper in order to study the behavior under horizontal loads and the role of inclination on the seismic vulnerability. The towers are located in the North-East of Italy, a moderate seismicity region that was recently stricken by an earthquake with two major seismic events of magnitude 5.8 and 5.9. These towers date back to four to nine centuries ago and are well representative of the towers of the region. They present a meaningful inclination cumulated over years, which has a significant influence on the bearing capacity under lateral loads. Some retrofitting interventions were recently carried out by introducing tendons and hooping systems in order to ensure a box behavior and preclude the spreading of dangerous cracks due to the insufficient tensile strength of the masonry material. The structural behavior of the towers under horizontal loads is influenced by some geometrical issues, such as slenderness, walls thickness, perforations, irregularities, but the main aim of the paper is to provide an insight on the role played by inclination. The case studies are chosen to exhibit different values of slenderness in order to include a large range of geometrical cases for the assessment of the seismic vulnerability of the towers. Numerical analyses are carried out considering the effects of the retrofitting interventions too. As expected, pushover analyses show that inclination may increase the seismic vulnerability of the masonry towers comparing the results obtained for the inclined real case and the hypothetical vertical case.

  8. Outbreak of fatal nitrate toxicosis associated with consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare) in cattle farmed in Campania region (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Costagliola, Alessandro; Roperto, Franco; Benedetto, Domenico; Anastasio, Aniello; Marrone, Raffaele; Perillo, Antonella; Russo, Valeria; Papparella, Serenella; Paciello, Orlando

    2014-05-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are toxicants that have become increasingly significant environmental chemicals. Increase in environmental distribution of nitrogenous compounds, especially in surface and ground water, has been attributed to the intensive use of nitrate as agricultural fertilizers and to increasing amounts of nitrogenous wastes produced by municipalities, industries, and feedlots. The purpose of this study is to illustrate a fatal nitrate toxicosis in cattle associated with the consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare). Fifteen cows from the same farm suddenly developed weakness, muscular tremors, respiratory distress, and finally convulsions. The affected animals died within 24 to 48 h from the onset of the clinical signs. Five cows underwent a complete post-mortem examination. In all examined animals, gross lesions included presence of dark unclotted blood around the nostrils and the anal region, moderate inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and brown discoloration of the skeletal muscles and kidneys. The histological examination showed tubular degeneration and congestion of glomerular vessels in the kidney. Toxicological analysis detected nitrates at 4 672.2 ppm in the fennels used to feed the animals. The source of exposure to nitrates was identified in the fennels. The fennels were grown in a polluted area of the Campania region in southern Italy and distributed in a public market for human consumption. The waste from the sale of the fennels was fed to the cows. The accumulation of nitrates in some vegetables poses a risk not only for animal health but also for human and environmental safety.

  9. Experiences in regional landslide forecasting from Piemonte region (North-western Italy) and South-Eastern Norway between the 15th and the 23rd of May 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiranti, Davide; Boje, Søren; Cremonini, Roberto; Devoli, Graziella; Sund, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Although Italy and Norway belongs to different climates, they can be influenced by the same large low pressure systems. On May 2013, ARPA in Piemonte region and NVE in Norway issued warning for flood and landslides due to the arriving of a deep and large low pressure (known as Vb-tief). This type of weather is well known to produce the largest floods in Europe. Recent studies in Norway confirm that similar systems are also responsible of triggering landslide events. In this contribution we present how the existing forecasting systems in Piemonte region and in Norway react and we summarize our experiences. Regional early warning systems (EWS) are operational both in Piemonte region (Italy) and nationally in Norway to forecast shallow landslides, debris flows and debris avalanches. Both EWSs provides daily landslide hazard assessments based on quantitative thresholds and daily rainfall forecasts coupled with qualitative expert analysis. The ARPA Piemonte warning system has been operational since 1994 while the NVE one since 2013: daily bulletins are published respectively by http://www.arpa.piemonte.gov.it/rischinaturali and www.varsom.no. From 15th May to 19nd June 2013, ARPA Piemonte rain gauges recorded more that 200mm in Piemonte and 60-90cm fresh snow over the Alps above 2000m asl. Several rivers were flooded and diffuse landslides were occurred over all the region. In Norway the same weather type lasts a bit longer from 15th May to 2nd June 2013. South-Eastern Norway received a lot of rain distributed in 2 major events, the 15th - 16th of May and between the 22nd and 23rd of May. In addition, high temperatures produced intense snow melting over a large area. Snow depth was less than normal but the snow melted within two weeks while the frost in the area was deeper than normal. From 21st to 23rd May heavy rainfall, over 70 mm in a few hours, fell over the Glomma river basin, especially over Gudbrandsdalen, causing extensive flood along Glomma river and hundreds

  10. Subsidence monitoring update for Emilia-Romagna region (Italy) by integrated use of InSAR and GNSS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitelli, Gabriele; Bonsignore, Flavio; Del Conte, Sara; Novali, Fabrizio; Pellegrino, Immacolata; Vittuari, Luca

    2014-05-01

    The alluvial plain sector (Po Plain) of Emilia Romagna region (Northern Italy) is a subsiding sedimentary basin, due to both natural and human-induced subsidence phenomena. Different Institutions without a plan consistent at regional scale initially monitored subsidence. In 1999 ARPA (Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention) Emilia-Romagna, on behalf of the Emilia-Romagna Region and in collaboration with DICAM Department of the Bologna University, established a network composed by 2300 leveling benchmarks, connected to 60 GNSS points, covering the whole Po Plain sector of the region. In 2005-2006 a first radar interferometry (PSInSAR™) analysis was conducted, exploiting both ESA (ERS - Envisat) and Radarsat satellite data. ARPA, on behalf of the Emilia-Romagna Region, with advisory from DICAM and in collaboration with TRE Tele-Rilevamento Europa, has recently updated the regional subsidence map of the Po Plain sector, using a new integrated approach: in the last campaign, the measurement of the vertical displacement was in fact obtained by the combined use of permanent GNSS stations and advanced InSAR data. The integrated use of these complementary techniques allows to take advantage of the strengths offered by each approach, overcoming their weaknesses. A SqueeSAR™ analysis of Radarsat radar images, acquired between 2006 and 2011, was carried out over the whole regional plain territory (more than 13.000 km2), allowing to obtain a map of vertical displacement for more than 2.000.000 measurement points (MP), with an average point density of 200MP/km2. In parallel, the data from 17 permanent GNSS stations with a long acquisition period were processed with appropriate time series analysis in order to calibrate and validate the InSAR results. The final calibrated outcomes have permitted to obtain a complete and homogeneous map of the subsidence phenomena at regional scale, defining a both "absolute" and relative velocity datum with respect to the ITRF

  11. Serological survey on immunity status against polioviruses in children and adolescents living in a border region, Apulia (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Tafuri, Silvio; Prato, Rosa; Martinelli, Domenico; Calvario, Agata; Bozzi, Anna; Labianca, Michele; Patti, Annamaria; Lopalco, Pietro Luigi; Germinario, Cinzia

    2008-10-30

    In 1988 the World Health Assembly adopted the goal to eradicate poliomyelitis by routine immunization using Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV). On 21 June 2002 the WHO European Region was declared polio-free. In 2008 poliomyelitis is still endemic in 4 countries (Nigeria, India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan), where 1201 new cases were registered in 2007; 107 sporadic cases were also notified in countries where poliovirus is not endemic. The aim of this work was to verify the level of antipoliomyelitis immunity status in children and adolescents in the Apulia region (south of Italy), which may be considered a border region due to its position. 704 blood specimens from a convenience sample were collected in six laboratories. The age of subjects enrolled was 0-15 years. The immunity against poliomyelitis was evaluated by neutralizing antibody titration in tissue culture microplates. Seropositivity (neutralising antibodies titre > or = 8) for polioviruses 1, 2 and 3 was detected in 100%, 99.8% and 99.4% of collected sera. Antibody titres were not lower in subjects who received either four doses of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) or a sequential schedule consisting of two doses of IPV and two of oral polio vaccine than in subjects who received four doses of OPV. These results confirmed current data of vaccine coverage for poliomyelitis: during the last ten years in Apulia, the coverage in 24 months old children was more than 90%. The high level of immunization found confirms the effectiveness both of the sequential schedule IPV-OPV and of the schedule all-IPV. Apulia region has to face daily arrivals of refugees and remains subject to the risk of the importation of poliovirus from endemic areas. Surveys aimed at determining anti-polio immunity in subpopulations as well as in the general population should be carried out.

  12. Regional Body-Wave Attenuation Using a Coda Source Normalization Method: Application to MEDNET Records of Earthquakes in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W R; Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Scognamiglio, L

    2007-02-01

    We develop a new methodology to determine apparent attenuation for the regional seismic phases Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg using coda-derived source spectra. The local-to-regional coda methodology (Mayeda, 1993; Mayeda and Walter, 1996; Mayeda et al., 2003) is a very stable way to obtain source spectra from sparse networks using as few as one station, even if direct waves are clipped. We develop a two-step process to isolate the frequency-dependent Q. First, we correct the observed direct wave amplitudes for an assumed geometrical spreading. Next, an apparent Q, combining path and site attenuation, is determined from the difference between the spreading-corrected amplitude and the independently determined source spectra derived from the coda methodology. We apply the technique to 50 earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 4.0 in central Italy as recorded by MEDNET broadband stations around the Mediterranean at local-to-regional distances. This is an ideal test region due to its high attenuation, complex propagation, and availability of many moderate sized earthquakes. We find that a power law attenuation of the form Q(f) = Q{sub 0}f{sup Y} fit all the phases quite well over the 0.5 to 8 Hz band. At most stations, the measured apparent Q values are quite repeatable from event to event. Finding the attenuation function in this manner guarantees a close match between inferred source spectra from direct waves and coda techniques. This is important if coda and direct wave amplitudes are to produce consistent seismic results.

  13. Prevalence and risk factors for nosocomial infections in hospitals of the Veneto region, north-eastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Pellizzer, G; Mantoan, P; Timillero, L; Allegranzi, B; Fedeli, U; Schievano, E; Benedetti, P; Saia, M; Sax, H; Spolaore, P

    2008-03-01

    The study aimed to assess prevalence and risk factors for nosocomial infection (NI) in 21 hospitals of the Veneto Region (Italy). In May 2003, a one-week-period prevalence study of NI was carried out in 21 hospitals, representing 63% of all hospital beds for acute patients of the Veneto Region. Intensive care units represented 84% of all intensive care beds of the Region. Long term care, neonatal intensive care, burn, psychiatric and dermatology units were excluded. Overall, 6,352 patients were surveyed. The prevalence of NI was 7.6% (range 2.6%-17.7%), while 6.9% of patients (range 2.6%-15.5%) were affected by at least one NI. The prevalence of patients with NI in medical, surgical and intensive care areas was 6.6%, 5.0% and 25.8%, respectively. The sites most frequently affected were the following: urinary tract (28.4%), surgical site (20.3%), blood stream (19.3%), pulmonary and lower respiratory tract (17.6%). At multivariate analysis risk factors independently associated to NI were: Charlson index score >1, severity of underlying disease, exposure to antibiotics, surgical intervention, trauma at admission, presence of central venous catheter >24 h, urinary catheter, intubation, tracheostomy, and duration since admission >15 days. The study provided baseline data of NI in the Veneto Region hospitals. It showed that NI are frequent, and display a wide inter-hospital variability of rates. The highest prevalence has been reported in intensive care units. The unusual high frequency of blood stream infections and the relatively lower prevalence rate of surgical site infections highlighted the limits of prevalence studies.

  14. [Which tools should be used to identify educational objectives in the regional health service? The experience in Marche Region (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Bacchielli, Maria Paola

    2010-06-01

    Through a specific methological path, educational objectives of Regional interest have been identified with a punctual analysis of Health Planning documents. While organizing each educational acrivities, all SSR departments indicate the Regional educational objectives they are linked with, each connected to national educational objectives. Continuing Medical Education program in the Marche Region is strictly connected with the acts of health planning from 2006. Each SSR department report accompanying the balance sheets from 2006 to 2009 must contain a section specifically dedicated to ECM Program, indicating the annual budget for ECM Program. All training activities are systematically monitored through a single information tool, shared by all SSR Departments and linked to the SSR Health Operators registry office. Strenghts of the ECM Educational Program of the Marche Region can be summarized as follows: guidance of Educational Program linked in a structured way to the Health Planning goals; punctual indications of redaction modes for PFA and Educational Reports; analytical scanning of activities/costs of the whole Regional Health Service training system, allowing Executive monitorings and reports, i.e. data that General Management can (... should) use to redirect not only training but their Company management as well.

  15. Magnetic and ground penetrating radar surveys for the research of Medieval settlements in the inland of the Marche Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavusi, M.; Giocoli, A.; Balasco, M.; Favulli, G.; Moscatelli, U.; Minguzzi, S.; Gnesi, D.; Virgili, S.

    2009-04-01

    This work was carried out in the framework of the R.I.M.E.M. project (Research on Medieval settlements in the inland of the Marche Region, Italy.) leaded by the Universities of Macerata and Udine and having the aim to produce a significant contribution for the comprehension of the settlement process in the Central and Southern Italy during the Late Roman Period and Early Middle Ages. Then, an extensive gradiometric survey were carried out, by using a vapour caesium magnetometer, in the area included amongst the municipal districts of Caldarola, Cessapalombo and San Ginesio, sited in the area closed to Macerata between the valleys of Chienti and Fiastra rivers. Moreover, in the most interesting areas, a 400 MHz 3D ground penetrating radar (GPR)survey was carried out in order to get the precise overlapping with the magnetic method. The Magnetic method is now a standard practice in the archaeological research taken into great consideration for its non-destructivity and quickness and its capability of mapping wide areas in quite a short lapse of time (Bavusi et al., 2008). Moreover the method provides an information well correlable with remote sensing data (Gallo et al, 2008). The GPR method is extremely useful for archaeologists thanks to its non-destructivity and capability of giving real-time and high-resolution data (Basile et al., 2000). Today the effectiveness of this method was improved by powerful 3D visualisation methods as well as 3D space, time or depth slices and iso-amplitude surfaces, too (Nuzzo et al., 2002). The integrations of several geophysical methods are usual (Sambuelli et al.1999, De Domenico et al., 2001; Chianese et al., 2004) particularly when a simple comparison in cross section along the same profiles can be performed. In this work the overlapping between two kinds of data was complicated by different outputs coming from two methods: maps for the magnetic method and cross sections for the GPR one. The 3D survey design for the GPR survey and

  16. Real-Time Estimation of Earthquake Location, Magnitude and Rapid Shake map Computation for the Campania Region, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, A.; Convertito, V.; de Matteis, R.; Iannaccone, G.; Lancieri, M.; Lomax, A.; Satriano, C.

    2005-12-01

    A prototype system for earthquake early warning and rapid shake map evaluation is being developed and tested in southern Italy based on a dense, wide dynamic-range seismic network (accelerometers + seismometers) under installation in the Apenninic belt region (Irpinia Seismic Network). This system forms a regional Earthquake Early Warning System consisting of a seismic sensor network covering a portion of the expected epicentral area for large earrthquakes. Considering a warning window ranging from tens of seconds before to hundred of seconds after an earthquake, several public infrastructures and buildings of strategic relevance (hospitals, gas pipelines, railways, railroads, ...) of the Regione Campania are potential test-sites for testing innovative technologies for data acquisition, processing and transmission. A potential application of an early warning system in the Campania region based on the Irpinia network, should consider an expected time delay to the first energetic S wave train varying between 14-20 sec at 40-60 km distance to 26-30 sec at about 80-100 km, from a crustal earthquake occurring in the source region. The latter is the typical time window available for mitigating earthquake effects through early warning in the city of Naples (about 2 million of inhabitants including suburbs). We have developed a method for real time earthquake location following a probabilistic approach. The earthquake location is expressed as a probability density function for the hypocenter location in 3D space based on the concept of equal differential-time (EDT). It provides a location as the maximum of a stack over quasi-hyperbolic surfaces. On each surface the difference of calculated travel-times at a pair of stations is equal to the difference of observed arrival times at the same pair of stations. For an increasing number of P-wave readings, progressively acquired in the short time after the occurrence of an earthquake, the EDT method can be generalized by

  17. Plants used in artisanal fisheries on the Western Mediterranean coasts of Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Artisanal fisheries in the Mediterranean, especially in Italy, have been poorly investigated. There is a long history of fishing in this region, and it remains an important economic activity in many localities. Our research entails both a comprehensive review of the relevant literature and 58 field interviews with practitioners on plants used in fishing activities along the Western Mediterranean Italian coastal regions. The aims were to record traditional knowledge on plants used in fishery in these regions and to define selection criteria for plant species used in artisanal fisheries, considering ecology and intrinsic properties of plants, and to discuss the pattern of diffusion of shared uses in these areas. Methods Information was gathered both from a general review of ethnobotanical literature and from original data. A total of 58 semi-structured interviews were carried out in Liguria, Latium, Campania and Sicily (Italy). Information on plant uses related to fisheries were collected and analyzed through a chi-square residual analysis and the correspondence analysis in relation to habitat, life form and chorology. Results A total of 60 plants were discussed as being utilized in the fisheries of the Western Italian Mediterranean coastal regions, with 141 different uses mentioned. Of these 141 different uses, 32 are shared among different localities. A multivariate statistical analysis was performed on the entire dataset, resulting in details about specific selection criteria for the different usage categories (plants have different uses that can be classified into 11 main categories). In some uses, species are selected for their features (e.g., woody), or habitat (e.g., riverine), etc. The majority of uses were found to be obsolete (42%) and interviews show that traditional fishery knowledge is in decline. There are several reasons for this, such as climatic change, costs, reduction of fish stocks, etc. Conclusions Our research correlates functional

  18. Plants used in artisanal fisheries on the Western Mediterranean coasts of Italy.

    PubMed

    Savo, Valentina; La Rocca, Arianna; Caneva, Giulia; Rapallo, Fabio; Cornara, Laura

    2013-01-28

    Artisanal fisheries in the Mediterranean, especially in Italy, have been poorly investigated. There is a long history of fishing in this region, and it remains an important economic activity in many localities. Our research entails both a comprehensive review of the relevant literature and 58 field interviews with practitioners on plants used in fishing activities along the Western Mediterranean Italian coastal regions. The aims were to record traditional knowledge on plants used in fishery in these regions and to define selection criteria for plant species used in artisanal fisheries, considering ecology and intrinsic properties of plants, and to discuss the pattern of diffusion of shared uses in these areas. Information was gathered both from a general review of ethnobotanical literature and from original data. A total of 58 semi-structured interviews were carried out in Liguria, Latium, Campania and Sicily (Italy). Information on plant uses related to fisheries were collected and analyzed through a chi-square residual analysis and the correspondence analysis in relation to habitat, life form and chorology. A total of 60 plants were discussed as being utilized in the fisheries of the Western Italian Mediterranean coastal regions, with 141 different uses mentioned. Of these 141 different uses, 32 are shared among different localities. A multivariate statistical analysis was performed on the entire dataset, resulting in details about specific selection criteria for the different usage categories (plants have different uses that can be classified into 11 main categories). In some uses, species are selected for their features (e.g., woody), or habitat (e.g., riverine), etc. The majority of uses were found to be obsolete (42%) and interviews show that traditional fishery knowledge is in decline. There are several reasons for this, such as climatic change, costs, reduction of fish stocks, etc. Our research correlates functional characteristics of the plants used in

  19. An analysis of the regional differences in health care utilization in Italy.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Alfia

    2010-03-01

    This paper focuses on the differences in regional expenditure on health care in the attempt to verify how equitable is the pattern of health care supply across the Italian regions and whether disparities are related to the existing socioeconomic imbalances, especially in terms of the North-South divide. The analysis has been carried out according to an egalitarian view of equity. For several categories of health services simple concentration measures and an horizontal inequity index have been derived to quantify the degree of inequity due to the discrepancy between the actual regional expenditure and a "just" amount implied by need indicators. Findings are that richer areas spend more than the "fair" amount on hospital and residential care as well as on the overall health care system, whereas inequity favouring poorer areas occurs in the delivery of pharmacological and secondary care. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rockfall risk assessment for a road along the coastal rocky slope of Maratea (Basilicata Region, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicani, R.; Spilotro, G.; Colangelo, G.; Petraglia, A.; Pizzo, V.

    2012-04-01

    The rockfall risk has been evaluated for the Tirrena Inferiore State Road SS18 between 220+600 and 243+670 Kilometers in the coastal area of Maratea (Basilicata, Italy) through a specific multilayer technique. These results are particularly significant as validated in field through the occurrence of rockfall events after the study. The study part of "Tirrena Inferiore" SS18 road is often affected by rockfalls, which periodically (coinciding with abundant rainfalls, earthquakes and temperature lowering) cause large amount of damage and traffic interruptions. In order to assess the rockfall risk and define the countermeasure needed to mitigate the risk, an integrated index-based and physically-based approach was implemented. The roadway is subject to slopes with steep rocky vertical or sub-vertical faces affected by different systems of discontinuities, that show a widespread fracturing. The superficial parts of slopes are characterized by gaping fracturing, often karstified. Several historical rockfall events were recognized in the area and numerous geomechanical analyses, finalized to the stability analysis of rock walls, were carried out. The localization of the potentially unstable areas and the quantification of relative rockfall risk were evaluated through three successive phases of analysis. First, a map based on SMR (Slope Mass Rating) Index of Romana (1985) was produced, through a spatial analysis of both geomechanical parameters, such as the RMR Index of Bieniawski, and the distribution of the discontinuities. This approach therefore allowed the estimation of the potentially unstable zones and their classification on the basis of the resulting stability degree. Subsequently, an analysis of the rockfall trajectories in correspondence to the most unstable zones of slope was carried out by using ROTOMAP, a 3-dimensional rock-fall simulation software. The input data for computing the rockfall trajectories are the following: (1) digital terrain model (DTM), (2

  1. Using online database for landslide susceptibility assessment with an example from the Veneto Region (north-eastern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floris, Mario; Squarzoni, Cristina; Zorzi, Luca; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Iafelice, Maria

    2010-05-01

    Landslide susceptibility maps describe landslide-prone areas by the spatial correlation between landslides and related factors, derived from different kinds of datasets: geological, geotechnical and geomechanical maps, hydrogeological maps, landslides maps, vector and raster terrain data, real-time inclinometer and pore pressure data. In the last decade, thanks to the increasing use of web-based tools for management, sharing and communication of territorial information, many Web-based Geographical Information Systems (WebGIS) were created by local governments or nations, University and Research Centres. Nowadays there is a strong proliferation of geological WebGIS or GeoBrowser, allowing free download of spatial information. There are global Cartographical Portals that provide a free download of DTM and other vector data related to the whole planet (http://www.webgis.com). At major scale, there are WebGIS regarding entire nation (http://www.agiweb.org), or specific region of a country (http://www.mrt.tas.gov.au), or single municipality (http://sitn.ne.ch/). Moreover, portals managed by local government and academic government (http://turtle.ags.gov.ab.ca/Peace_River/Site/) or by a private agency (http://www.bbt-se.com) are noteworthy. In Italy, the first national projects for the creation of WebGIS and web-based databases begun during the 1980s, and evolved, through years, to the present number of different WebGIS, which have different territorial extensions: national (Italian National Cartographical Portal, http://www.pcn.minambiente.it; E-GEO Project, http://www.egeo.unisi.it), interregional (River Tiber Basin Authority, www.abtevere.it ), and regional (Veneto Region, www.regione.veneto.it). In this way we investigated most of the Italian WebGIS in order to verify their geographic range and the availability and quality of data useful for landslide hazard analyses. We noticed a large variability of the accessing information among the different browsers. In

  2. Surveillance of acute infectious gastroenteritis (1992-2009) and food-borne disease outbreaks (1996-2009) in Italy, with a focus on the Piedmont and Lombardy regions.

    PubMed

    Mughini-Gras, L; Graziani, C; Biorci, F; Pavan, A; Magliola, R; Ricci, A; Gilli, G; Carraro, E; Busani, L

    2012-02-23

    We describe trends in the occurrence of acute infectious gastroenteritis (1992 to 2009) and food-borne disease outbreaks (1996 to 2009) in Italy. In 2002, the Piedmont region implemented a surveillance system for early detection and control of food-borne disease outbreaks; in 2004, the Lombardy region implemented a system for surveillance of all notifiable human infectious diseases. Both systems are internet based. We compared the regional figures with the national mean using official notification data provided by the National Infectious Diseases Notification System (SIMI) and the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT), in order to provide additional information about the epidemiology of these diseases in Italy. When compared with the national mean, data from the two regional systems showed a significant increase in notification rates of non-typhoid salmonellosis and infectious diarrhea other than non-typhoid salmonellosis, but for foodborne disease outbreaks, the increase was not statistically significant. Although the two regional systems have different objectives and structures, they showed improved sensitivity regarding notification of cases of acute infectious gastroenteritis and, to a lesser extent, food-borne disease outbreaks, and thus provide a more complete picture of the epidemiology of these diseases in Italy.

  3. Surveillance of healthcare-associated infections in Piemonte, Italy: results from a second regional prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) was previously performed in the Piemonte region in 2000. In the decade following the survey, many studies were performed at both the regional and hospital levels, and training courses were developed to address issues highlighted by the survey. In 2010, a second regional prevalence study was performed. The aim of this paper is to present the results of the second prevalence study and discuss them within the context of the HAI prevention and control programmes that have been implemented in the decade since the original survey was conducted. Methods The study involved all public hospitals in the Piemonte region. Uni- and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the main risk factors associated with HAIs, including both overall and site-specific infections. Results A total of 7841 patients were enrolled: 6.8% were affected by at least one HAI. The highest prevalence of HAIs was found in intensive care units (18.0%, 95% CI 14.0-22.6), while UTIs presented the highest relative frequency (26.7%), followed by respiratory tract infections (21.9%). The age of the patient, hospital size and urinary and central venous catheter status were significantly associated with HAIs. Conclusions The study results showed an increase in HAI prevalence, despite prevention and control efforts, as well as training implemented after the first regional survey. Nevertheless, these data are consistent with the current literature. Furthermore, despite its limits, the prevalence approach remains an important means for involving healthcare workers, emphasising HAIs and revealing critical problems that need be addressed. PMID:24899239

  4. Sensing Slow Mobility and Interesting Locations for Lombardy Region (italy): a Case Study Using Pointwise Geolocated Open Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovelli, M. A.; Oxoli, D.; Zurbarán, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    During the past years Web 2.0 technologies have caused the emergence of platforms where users can share data related to their activities which in some cases are then publicly released with open licenses. Popular categories for this include community platforms where users can upload GPS tracks collected during slow travel activities (e.g. hiking, biking and horse riding) and platforms where users share their geolocated photos. However, due to the high heterogeneity of the information available on the Web, the sole use of these user-generated contents makes it an ambitious challenge to understand slow mobility flows as well as to detect the most visited locations in a region. Exploiting the available data on community sharing websites allows to collect near real-time open data streams and enables rigorous spatial-temporal analysis. This work presents an approach for collecting, unifying and analysing pointwise geolocated open data available from different sources with the aim of identifying the main locations and destinations of slow mobility activities. For this purpose, we collected pointwise open data from the Wikiloc platform, Twitter, Flickr and Foursquare. The analysis was confined to the data uploaded in Lombardy Region (Northern Italy) - corresponding to millions of pointwise data. Collected data was processed through the use of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) in order to organize them into a suitable database. This allowed to run statistical analyses on data distribution in both time and space by enabling the detection of users' slow mobility preferences as well as places of interest at a regional scale.

  5. [Impacts of geocoding quality in environmental epidemiology studies: two case-studies in Tuscany Region (Central Italy)].

    PubMed

    Nuvolone, Daniela; Santini, Marco; Pepe, Pasquale; Cipriani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are widely used in environmental epidemiology studies to locate study population by geocoding addresses and to evaluate exposures and relationship with health outcomes. Despite this, Italian environmental epidemiologists poorly discuss quality of address geocoding results. two case-studies have been carried out in Tuscany Region (Central Italy): one in the mountain area in the Municipality of Piancastagnaio (Siena Province) and one in the urban area around the airport of Florence. Three geocoding systems have been compared: the geographical database produced by Tuscany Region and two commercial systems (Google and Bing-Microsoft); 1,549 addresses in Piancastagnaio and 2,946 addresses in Florence have been tested. Tuscan geographical database showed better performance than the two commercial systems, with bigger differences in Piancastagnaio. In this area, mean difference between regional system and Google service is more than 300 mt, with peaks of 7-8 km. Bing- Microsoft system does not provide any information on addresses in Piancastagnaio: all input addresses were geocoded in the centroid of the municipality or in the centre of a few principal streets. Lowest differences among the three methods were observed in the urban area of Florence: mean difference between Tuscany and Goggle systems was 150 mt, with less than 2 km peaks; between Tuscany and Bing-Microsoft mean difference was 100 mt with 3 km peaks. In both case-studies, but especially in Piancastagnaio area, these differences gave rise to great misclassification in the evaluation of individual exposure and health outcome. the study highlighted the impacts of address geocoding process in exposure assessment in environmental health research and pointed out the need of specifically evaluate the quality of cartographic data.

  6. beta (+)-Thalassaemia in the Po river delta region (northern Italy): genotype and beta globin synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Del Senno, L; Pirastu, M; Barbieri, R; Bernardi, F; Buzzoni, D; Marchetti, G; Perrotta, C; Vullo, C; Kan, Y W; Conconi, F

    1985-01-01

    Six beta(+)-thalassaemic patients from the Po river delta region have been studied. Using synthetic oligonucleotides as specific hybridisation probes, the beta(+) IVS I mutation (G----A at position 108) was demonstrated. This lesion and the enzyme polymorphism pattern in the subjects examined are the same as have been described for other Mediterranean beta(+)-thalassaemias. Antenatal diagnosis through DNA analysis of beta(+)-thalassaemia is therefore possible. The production of beta globin in a beta(+), homozygote and in a beta (+), beta(0) 39 (nonsense mutation at codon 39) double heterozygote is approximately 20% and 10% respectively of total non-alpha globin synthesis. Despite some overlapping of the results, similar beta globin synthesis levels have been obtained in 43 beta(+)-thalassaemia patients. This suggests that in the Po river delta region the most common thalassaemic genes are beta(0) 39 and beta(+) IVS I. Images PMID:2580095

  7. Molecular characterization of hepatitis A outbreak in the province of Rome, Lazio region, Italy, January-July 2013.

    PubMed

    Capobianchi, Maria R; Garbuglia, Anna Rosa; Agrati, Chiara; Rianda, Alessia; Noto, Pasquale; Corpolongo, Angela; Cataldo, Maria Adriana; Rosati, Silvia; Zaccaro, Paola; Loffredo, Mariarosaria; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Girardi, Enrico; Scognamiglio, Paola; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    Reduced circulation of hepatitis A virus lead to an increase of susceptible individuals, and outbreaks occurred recently. In Northern Italy an outbreak is ongoing, attributed to a monophyletic genotype IA strain, with mixed frozen berries as probable source. From 01/01/2013 to 07/15/2013, 30 cases were diagnosed at National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Rome, Italy, representing about twice the number of cases in whole 2012. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that most, although not all, infections were attributable to the same monophyletic genotype IA strain identified in the contemporary Northern Italy outbreak. This strain is also very similar to previous isolates from Venezuela.

  8. Dog filariosis in the Lazio region (Central Italy): first report on the presence of Dirofilaria repens

    PubMed Central

    Scaramozzino, Paola; Gabrielli, Simona; Di Paolo, Michele; Sala, Marcello; Scholl, Francesco; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2005-01-01

    Background Epidemiological investigations were carried out in the Lazio Region to assess the status of canine filariosis and to evaluate the actual risk for veterinary and medical public health. Methods Since August 2001 to June 2003, a total of 972 canine blood samples, collected in public kennels and from private owners animals of the 5 Provinces of the Region, were tested. The presence of filarial parasites was evaluated by microscopy and bio-molecular techniques; the species identification was performed by means of the same diagnostic tools. Results A total of 17/972 (1.75%; 95%CI 1.06%–2.85%) blood samples were parasitized by D. repens,13 out them drawn by dogs resident in the Province of Roma, and 4 in the other provinces. Multivariate analysis was performed in order to evaluate the association between filariosis and risk factors. The origin from coastal territories seems to be a significant risk factor to acquire the infection. Conclusion This is the first report of canine filariosis in the Lazio Region, where D. repens was before reported only in foxes. The risk of human zoonotic infection is stressed, and the absence of other filarial species is discussed PMID:16185352

  9. Hospitalisation for rotavirus gastroenteritis in the paediatric population in the Veneto Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study evaluates the epidemiological impact of RVGE hospitalisation in the Veneto Region during the period spanning from 2000-2007 along with the associated costs. The analysis was conducted in an area where rotavirus vaccination is not included into immunization programmes and is an attempt to assess the potential benefits of such introduction. Methods To update the estimates of acute RVGE hospitalisation rates in children ≤5 years in the Veneto Region, we conducted an 8 year retrospective observational population-based analysis (2000-2007). Results Over the study period, a total of 4,119 admissions for RVGE were reported, with a mean hospital stay of 3.5 days. The population-based hospitalisation RVGE incidence rate was 195.8 per 100,000 children aged ≤5 years (lower than other European countries). Conclusions RVGE is an important cause of paediatric hospitalisation in the Veneto Region. The data reaffirm the substantial burden of rotavirus hospitalisations in children and the potential health benefits of the vaccination as well as the possibility of adding rotavirus vaccination to the current schedule. PMID:20969755

  10. Hospitalisation for rotavirus gastroenteritis in the paediatric population in the Veneto Region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Saia, Mario; Giliberti, Aurore; Callegaro, Giampietro; Baldovin, Tatjana; Busana, Marta Cecilia; Pietrobon, Francesco; Bertoncello, Chiara; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2010-10-22

    This study evaluates the epidemiological impact of RVGE hospitalisation in the Veneto Region during the period spanning from 2000-2007 along with the associated costs. The analysis was conducted in an area where rotavirus vaccination is not included into immunization programmes and is an attempt to assess the potential benefits of such introduction. To update the estimates of acute RVGE hospitalisation rates in children ≤5 years in the Veneto Region, we conducted an 8 year retrospective observational population-based analysis (2000-2007). Over the study period, a total of 4,119 admissions for RVGE were reported, with a mean hospital stay of 3.5 days. The population-based hospitalisation RVGE incidence rate was 195.8 per 100,000 children aged ≤5 years (lower than other European countries). RVGE is an important cause of paediatric hospitalisation in the Veneto Region. The data reaffirm the substantial burden of rotavirus hospitalisations in children and the potential health benefits of the vaccination as well as the possibility of adding rotavirus vaccination to the current schedule.

  11. Depth-to-the-bottom optimization for magnetic data inversion: Magnetic structure of the Latium volcanic region, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caratori Tontini, F.; Cocchi, L.; Carmisciano, C.

    2006-11-01

    We present an algorithm for the linear inversion of two-dimensional (2-D) surface magnetic data to obtain 3-D models of the susceptibility of the source. The forward model is discretized by a mesh of prismatic cells with constant magnetization that allows the recovery of a complete 3-D generating source. As the number of cells are normally greater than the amount of available data, we have to solve an underdetermined linear inverse problem. A Tikhonov regularization of the solution is introduced as a depth-weighting function adapted from Li and Oldenburg (1996) to close the source toward the bottom. The main novelty of this method is a first-stage optimization that gives information about the depth to the bottom of the generating source. This parameter permits both the evaluation of the appropriate vertical extension of the mesh and the definition of the shape of the regularizing depth-weighting distribution. After discussing the performance of this method by showing the results of various synthetic tests, we invert the magnetic anomalies of the volcanic edifices in the Latium region in central Italy to define their 3-D source distribution.

  12. Congruence of phytochemical and morphological profiles along an altitudinal gradient in Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare from Venetian Region (NE Italy).

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Claudia; Maggi, Filippo; Papa, Fabrizio; Maleci Bini, Laura

    2013-04-01

    Plants of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare from the Veneto region (NE Italy) were selected to study the variability of the essential-oil composition from leaves and inflorescences throughout an elevation gradient. We investigated also the morphology of non-glandular and glandular trichomes, their distribution on the vegetative and reproductive organs, as well as the histochemistry of the secreted products, with special focus on the terpenoidic fraction. Since glandular trichomes are prerequisite for the essential-oil synthesis, the second objective was to establish whether its production is related to glandular hair number, and density. Essential-oil contents decline with increasing altitude, and the micromorphological observations revealed a decrease in trichome density along the same direction. Moreover, GC/MS analysis together with principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the three investigated populations were significantly different in chemical composition. Therefore, an important interpopulation variability for low-, mid-, and high-altitude sites was established, suggesting the likely occurrence of different biotypes associated with altitudinal levels. Hence, the involvement of abiotic factors such as temperature and drought in the chemical polymorphism of O. vulgare associated with elevation is briefly discussed. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  13. Effects of selected soil properties on phytoremediation applicability for heavy-metal-contaminated soils in the Apulia region, Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Farrag, K; Senesi, N; Rovira, P Soler; Brunetti, G

    2012-11-01

    Phytoremediation is a well-known promising alternative to conventional approaches used for the remediation of diffused and moderated contaminated soils. The evaluation of the accumulation, availability, and interactions of heavy metals in soil is a priority objective for the possible use of phytoremediation techniques such as phytoextraction and phytostabilization. The soils used in this work were collected from a number of sites inside a protected area in the Apulia region (Southern Italy), which were contaminated by various heavy metals originated from the disposal of wastes of different sources of origin. Soils examined contained Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in amounts exceeding the critical limits imposed by EU and Italian laws. However, the alkaline conditions, high organic matter content, and silty to silty loamy texture of soils examined would suggest a reduced availability of heavy metals to plants. Due to the high total content but the low available fraction of heavy metals analyzed, especially Cr, phytoextraction appears not to be a promising remediation approach in the sites examined, whereas phytostabilization appears to be the best technique for metal decontamination in the studied areas.

  14. Bioclimatic requirements for olive flowering in two Mediterranean regions located at the same latitude (Andalucia, Spain and Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Orlandi, Fabio; Vazquez, Luis Manuel; Ruga, Luigia; Bonofiglio, Tommaso; Fornaciari, Marco; Garcia-Mozo, Herminia; Domínguez, Eugenio; Romano, Bruno; Galan, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    The Mediterranean Region is the major area devoted to olive tree crop, and therefore a study of olive flowering is of great interest for the European Community. On the other hand, olive pollen is one of the main causes of pollen allergy in the Mediterranean area. Olive flowering is affected by climatic factors such as temperature and photoperiod, which vary geographically in latitude and altitude. Temperature has been used to study those processes that lead to flowering in the olive tree. The aim of the present paper is firstly the comparison of the flowering full bloom dates in two Mediterranean areas, Sicily (Italy) and Cordoba (Spain), located in the same latitudinal band (37-38 degrees N) and to calculate the heat requirement until flowering by determination of different threshold temperatures and methods of heat accumulation. A delay of the full flowering dates in the Spanish compared with the Italian olive groves was observed. The most suitable threshold temperatures were carried out in a 7 degrees -15 degrees C range by considering the heat accumulation start on 1 January in each olive grove. In particular, some causes were indicated as responsible for the different threshold temperatures recorded in the 2 study areas: First, the different climatic conditions (continental and insular climate) secondly the different cultivars present in the olive groves.

  15. The views of experts and residents on social vulnerability to flash floods in an Alpine region of Italy.

    PubMed

    De Marchi, Bruna; Scolobig, Anna

    2012-04-01

    This paper reports on research work performed for Floodsite a European Community-funded project on the social aspects of vulnerability in the Adige/Sarca river basin of the Trentino-Alto Adige region, Italy. It identifies some limitations to the use of a fixed set of indicators, which fail to account for either local peculiarities or the intangible aspects that contribute to the shaping of social vulnerability. The authors employed a number of methods to investigate the opinions of professionals and residents on risk and safety, distinguishing between the individual and the institutional components of social vulnerability. Adopting a systemic perspective, they explored the interactions between these two elements, showing how they may give rise to unexpected phenomena. The 'safety paradox' and the 'efficiency paradox' are discussed, emerging when increased protection provided by structural devices and dedicated institutions translates into a lack of awareness and agency on the part of residents. © 2012 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.

  16. Contemporary burden of excess cardiovascular mortality on Monday. A retrospective study in the Veneto region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Capodaglio, Giulia; Gallerani, Massimo; Fedeli, Ugo; Manfredini, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    An increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events on Monday has been consistently reported in the literature. It remains to be assessed if a Monday peak in cardiovascular deaths can still be detected within the contemporary context of decreasing mortality rates from circulatory diseases in developed countries. Mortality records were extracted from January 2000 to December 2013 in the Veneto region (Italy). The Monday excess in mortality from cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases, and other circulatory diseases was investigated in subjects aged 35-74years by means of Poisson regression models adjusted by age, gender, time trend and seasonality. Among 41,024 deaths from circulatory diseases registered in the study population, mortality rates on Monday were increased by 13% (CI 9-17%) with respect to Sunday and by 6% (CI 4-9%) with respect to the overall daily mean. The Monday peak could be detected in both genders and in all the analyzed disease categories, and was more pronounced in younger age classes and in more recent years. The persistency of the Monday effect on cardiovascular mortality is confirmed by recent large population-based data. Further research is warranted to investigate causal mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of coastal vulnerability to flooding: comparison of two different methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perini, L.; Calabrese, L.; Salerno, G.; Ciavola, P.; Armaroli, C.

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims at presenting and comparing two methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna Region, northern Italy, to evaluate coastal vulnerability and to produce hazard and risk maps for coastal floods, in the framework of the EU Floods Directive. The first approach was adopted before the Directive had been issued. Three scenarios of damage were designed (1, 10, 100-year return periods), produced by the concurrent happening of a storm, high surge levels and high water spring tidal levels. Wave heights were used to calculate run-up values along 187 equally spaced profiles and these were added to the tidal and atmospheric water level contributions. The result is a list of ten vulnerability typologies. To satisfy the requests of the Directive, the Geological, Seismic and Soil Service (SGSS) recently implement a different methodology that considers three scenarios (10, 100 and > 100-year return periods) in terms of set-up (not including run-up) plus the contribution of surge levels as well as the High Water Springs. The flooded area extension is determined by a series of computations that are part of a model built into ArcGIS®. The model uses as input a high resolution Lidar DEM that is then processed using the Cost-Distance tool of ArcGIS®. Inundation maps are then overlapped to land use maps to produce risk maps. The qualitative validation and the comparison between the two methods are also presented, showing a positive agreement.

  18. Determination of estrogenic activity in the river Chienti (Marche Region, Italy) by using in vivo and in vitro bioassays.

    PubMed

    Cocci, Paolo; Palermo, Francesco Alessandro; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Miano, Antonino; Mosconi, Gilberto

    2016-05-01

    Environmental estrogen-like compounds (i.e. xenoestrogens) are a variety of pollutants, ranging from synthetic to natural occurring molecules, that are found in surface and waste waters over a wide range of concentrations. In aquatic environment, the overall estrogenic activity is often due to the presence of a mixture of chemicals and their degraded products which can induce synergistic effects. Current strategies for monitoring estrogen-like chemicals are based on the use of a battery of in vivo and in vitro ecotoxicological tests. In this regard, the aim of the present work was to carry out a bio-monitoring study for testing estrogenicity of the Chienti river (Marche Region, Italy) by using both an E-screen and a vitellogenin (Vtg) induction assay in juvenile goldfish. Three sites were used for analysis, localized at the mouth (sampling point 1), in the middle (sampling point 2) and at the origin (sampling point 3) of Chienti river. For most of the water samples (i.e. samples collected at sampling points 2 and 3), clear estrogenic activity was detected in the E-screen assay suggesting different proliferation activities in function of the collecting site. In contrast, the Vtg ELISA demonstrated that water samples collected from each sampling point were estrogenic. Overall, we showed for the first time that the estrogenic activities in water samples from the Chienti river were significant in both in vivo and in vitro; we also observed a different sensitivity between bioassays.

  19. Evaluation of coastal vulnerability to flooding: comparison of two different methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perini, L.; Calabrese, L.; Salerno, G.; Ciavola, P.; Armaroli, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting and comparing two methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy, to evaluate coastal vulnerability and to produce hazard and risk maps for coastal floods, in the framework of the EU Floods Directive. The first approach was adopted before the directive had been issued. Three scenarios of damage were designed (1-, 10-, 100-year return periods), produced by the concurrent occurrence of a storm, high surge levels and high-water spring tidal levels. Wave heights were used to calculate run-up values along 187 equally spaced profiles, and these were added to the tidal and atmospheric water level contributions. The result is a list of 10 vulnerability typologies. To satisfy the requirements of the directive, the Geological, Seismic and Soil Service (SGSS) recently implemented a different methodology that considers three scenarios (10-, 100- and > 100-year return periods) in terms of wave setup (not including run-up) plus the contribution of surge levels as well as the occurrence of high-water springs. The flooded area extension is determined by a series of computations that are part of a model built into ArcGIS®. The model uses as input a high-resolution lidar DEM that is then processed using a least-path cost analysis. Inundation maps are then overlapped with land use maps to produce risk maps. The qualitative validation and the comparison between the two methods are also presented, showing a positive agreement.

  20. Human and entomological surveillance of Toscana virus in the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy, 2010 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Calzolari, M; Angelini, P; Finarelli, A C; Cagarelli, R; Bellini, R; Albieri, A; Bonilauri, P; Cavrini, F; Tamba, M; Dottori, M; Gaibani, P; Natalini, S; Maioli, G; Pinna, M; Mattivi, A; Sambri, V; Pierro, A; Landini, M P; Rossini, G; Squintani, G; Cinotti, S; Varani, S; Vocale, C; Bedeschi, E

    2014-12-04

    Toscana virus (TOSV), transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies, is recognised as one of the most important causes of viral meningitis in summer in Mediterranean countries. A surveillance plan based on both human and entomological surveys was started in 2010 in the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy. Clinical samples from patients with neurological manifestations were collected during 2010 to 2012. The surveillance protocol was improved during these years, allowing the detection of 65 human infections. Most of these infections were recorded in hilly areas, where sandflies reach the highest density. Entomological sampling around the homes of the patients resulted in a low number of captured sandflies, while later sampling in a hilly area with high number of human cases (n=21) resulted in a larger number of captured sandflies. Using this approach, 25,653 sandflies were sampled, of which there were 21,157 females, which were sorted into 287 pools. TOSV RNA was detected by real-time PCR in 33 of the pools. The results highlighted the role of Phlebotomus perfiliewi as the main vector of TOSV and a potential link between vector density and virus circulation. This integrated system shows that an interdisciplinary approach improves the sensitiveness and effectiveness of health surveillance.

  1. Arsenic: Association of regional concentrations in drinking water with suicide and natural causes of death in Italy.

    PubMed

    Pompili, Maurizio; Vichi, Monica; Dinelli, Enrico; Erbuto, Denise; Pycha, Roger; Serafini, Gianluca; Giordano, Gloria; Valera, Paolo; Albanese, Stefano; Lima, Annamaria; De Vivo, Benedetto; Cicchella, Domenico; Rihmer, Zoltan; Fiorillo, Andrea; Amore, Mario; Girardi, Paolo; Baldessarini, Ross J

    2017-03-01

    Arsenic, as a toxin, may be associated with higher mortality rates, although its relationship to suicide is not clear. Given this uncertainty, we evaluated associations between local arsenic concentrations in tapwater and mortality in regions of Italy, to test the hypothesis that both natural-cause and suicide death rates would be higher with greater trace concentrations of arsenic. Arsenic concentrations in drinking-water samples from 145 sites were assayed by mass spectrometry, and correlated with local rates of mortality due to suicide and natural causes between 1980 and 2011, using weighted, least-squares univariate and multivariate regression modeling. Arsenic concentrations averaged 0.969 (CI: 0.543-1.396) µg/L, well below an accepted safe maximum of 10µg/L. Arsenic levels were negatively associated with corresponding suicide rates, consistently among both men and women in all three study-decades, whereas mortality from natural causes increased with arsenic levels. Contrary to an hypothesized greater risk of suicide with higher concentrations of arsenic, we found a negative association, suggesting a possible protective effect, whereas mortality from natural causes was increased, in accord with known toxic effects of arsenic. The unexpected inverse association between arsenic and suicide requires further study.

  2. Improvements of the Regional Seismic network of Northwestern Italy in the framework of ALCoTra program activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosco, Fabrizio

    2014-05-01

    Arpa Piemonte (Regional Agency for Environmental Protection), in partnership with University of Genoa, manages the regional seismic network, which is part of the Regional Seismic network of Northwestern Italy (RSNI). The network operates since the 80s and, over the years, it has developed in technological features, analysis procedures and geographical coverage. In particular in recent years the network has been further enhanced through the integration of Swiss and French stations installed in the cross-border area. The environmental context enables the installation of sensors in sites with good conditions as regards ambient noise and limited local amplification effects (as proved by PSD analysis, signal quality monitoring via PQLX, H/V analysis). The instrumental equipment consists of Broadband and Very Broadband sensors (Nanometrics Trillium 40" and 240") and different technological solutions for signals real-time transmission (cable, satellite, GPRS), according to the different local environment, with redundant connections and with experimental innovative systems. Digital transmission and acquisition systems operate through standard protocols (Nanometrics, SeedLink), with redundancy in data centers (Genoa, Turin, Rome). Both real-time automatic and manual operational procedures are in use for signals analysis (events detection, picking, focal parameters and ground shaking determination). In the framework of cross-border cooperation program ALCoTra (http://www.interreg-alcotra.org), approved by the European Commission, several projects have been developed to improve the performances of seismic monitoring systems used by partners (Arpa Piemonte, Aosta Valley Region, CNRS, Joseph Fourier University). The cross-border context points out first of all the importance of signals sharing (from 14 to 23 stations in narrow French-Italian border area, with an increase of over 50%) and of coordination during new stations planning and installation in the area. In the ongoing

  3. The experience of a nationwide Community of Practice to set up Regional Prevention Plans in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Angela; Perra, Alberto; Lombardo, Flavia

    2017-07-27

    In 2010, the Italian Ministry of Health decided to start the planning process to elaborate the National Plan of Prevention 2010-2012 jointly with the 21 Regions. The National Institute of Health was responsible for supporting regional planners (RPs) by an original participatory approach of a web-based Community of Practice (CoP) to set up their own Regional Plans of Prevention. In this paper, we summarise the theoretical framework adopted, the main phases characterising the lifecycle of the nationwide CoP, the evaluation approach adopted and its findings. Following the CoP theoretical framework from Wenger, an initial group of RPs were trained on Project Cycle Management as a planning method and thereafter they started interacting on a web-based Moodle platform for 8 months. The CoP evaluation mainly took into account aspects of 'immediate value', such as members interactions within the website, and several quantitative and qualitative tools were used to monitor changes over time. Data were retrieved from Moodle statistics or directly from the RPs by the means of a Knowledge, Attitude and Practice survey, a reaction survey, SWOT analysis and focus groups. The level of individual RPs knowledge increased after the initial course from 55.7% to 75%, attitudes and competence perception about the planning process method also showed an overall favourable change. During the CoP life span, the number of members increased from the original 98 RPs to include up to 600 new members on the basis of spontaneous demand. From April 2010 to January 2011, the 'vital signs' of the CoP were monitored, including RP logins (13,450 total logins and 3744 unique logins), views (27,522) and posts (1606) distributed in 326 forum discussion threads. Data and information retrieved from quantitative and qualitative evaluation approaches proved to be useful for the management and follow-up of the CoP. The CoP experience was successful as 19 out of 20 Regions submitted their Regional Preventive

  4. Sedimentary geochemistry depicts 2700 years of regional climate and land use change in the Rieti Basin, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, C.; Noble, P. J.; Mensing, S. A.; Tunno, I.; Sagnotti, L.; Florindo, F.; Cifnani, G.; Zimmerman, S. R. H.; Piovesan, G.

    2014-12-01

    A 14.4 m thick sedimentary sequence was recovered in multiple cores from Lago Lungo in the Rieti Basin, an intrapenninic extensional basin ~80 km north of Rome, Italy. This sequence provides a high-resolution record of environmental change related to climatic influence and anthropogenic landscape alteration. Pollen analyses, corroborated with historical records of land-use change, define the major shifts in forest composition and their historical context. An age model of the sequence was built using ties to regional cultigen datums and archaeomagnetic reference curves. Here we focus on sedimentologic and geochemical data (scanning XRF) from the Roman Period through the Little Ice Age (LIA). The base of the sequence (ca. 680 BCE- 1 CE) is marked by a steady increase in fine-grained detrital elements Ti, Rb, and K, and corresponding decrease in Ca, representing a transition from the unaltered system after the Romans constructed a channel that the basin. The Medieval Period (MP; 900-1350 CE) is lithologically distinct, composed of varicolored bands of alternating silt, clay, and calcareous concretions. Low counts of Ca, high detrital elements and frequent abrupt peaks in levels of the redox elements Fe and Mn indicate episodic clastic influx. Pollen data indicate that the greatest degree of deforestation and erosion occurred during the MP, supported by mean sedimentation rates of ca. 1cm/year, over twice the rate of the underlying interval. The Medieval climate was warmer and more stable, population increased, and elevations >1000 m were exploited for agriculture. The influence of the Velino River on the lake appears to increase during the MP through channel migration, increased flooding, or increased overland flow. The next transition (1350 CE) marks the start of the LIA and is coincident with the Black Plague. Historical records document a large earthquake in 1349 that severely struck Central Italy, with possible effects on the lake's depositional and hydrochemical

  5. Radiocaesium in Cortinarius spp. mushrooms in the regions of the Reggio Emilia in Italy and Pomerania in Poland.

    PubMed

    Zalewska, Tamara; Cocchi, Luigi; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2016-11-01

    Activity concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs have been determined in 23 species of mushrooms of the genus Cortinarius (59 individual samples) collected from the Reggio Emilia in Italy 1992-1999 and in 4 species (16 composite samples and 413 individuals) from the Pomerania region in Poland from 1996 to 2015. Across all the Cortinarius species from the Reggio Emilia, the activity concentrations were relatively high in Cortinarius alboviolaceus, Cortinarius duracinus, Cortinarius orellanus, Cortinarius rapaceus, and Cortinarius subannulatus, in which (137)Cs was at 10,000 ~ 100,000 Bq kg(-1) dry biomass (db) in 1994. Smaller activity concentrations were found in Cortinarius bivelus, Cortinarius bulliardii, Cortinarius cotoneus, Cortinarius largus, Cortinarius lividoviolaceus, Cortinarius purpureus, Cortinarius rufo-olivaceus, Cortinarius torvus, and Cortinarius venetus with levels at 1000 ~ 6000 Bq kg(-1) db from 1992 to 1994, and further in Cortinarius anserinus, Cortinarius auroturbinatus, C. largus, Cortinarius praestans, Cortinarius purpurascens, Cortinarius scaurus, Cortinarius sebaceous, Cortinarius talus, and Cortinarius variecolor with activity concentrations at 100 ~ 600 Bq kg(-1) db in 1994. All the data were calculated for dehydrated fungal material corrected back to the exact date samples of collection. The greatest activity concentrations of (137)Cs both in Italy (1992-1999) and Poland (1996-2010) were found in the popular Cortinarius caperatus, confirming its very high capacity of radiocaesium accumulation. Besides (137)Cs, the isotope (134)Cs was detected in some species from the Reggio Emilia. An average calculated ratio of activities of (134)Cs to (137)Cs referenced to 1986 was equal to 0.38 in mushrooms from the Reggio Emilia, and this value slightly differ from that specific for Chernobyl fallout, which was 0.54. It was calculated that (137)Cs originating from Chernobyl accident constituted about 68 % of the total activity

  6. Receiver Functions Analysis and Regional Tomography at StromboliVolcano (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musumeci, C.; Barberi, G.; Martinez-Arevalo, C.; Castellano, M.; Patane, D.

    2006-12-01

    This study focuses on constraining the crust and upper mantle discontinuities at Stromboli volcano by considering both receiver function (RF) analysis on teleseismic body waveforms and regional tomography. The RF technique utilizes the waveforms of Ps conversions from velocity discontinuities to model variations in Vs beneath a seismic station (e.g. Ammon et al., 1990). The method is sensitive to velocity discontinuities, but it can only detect the velocity-depth product, and not the absolute velocity. Therefore, we use the regional tomographic results as an independent constraint on absolute velocity. In order to improve the velocity model beneath the volcano we reviewed the most recent classical local earthquake tomographies available for the thyrrenian region. Here we show a new lithospheric seismic tomography performed in the northeastern Sicily and southern Calabria, including the Aeolian Archipelago and Stromboli volcano area. The dataset, consisting of P and S arrival times from a thousand of earthquakes located in the studied area between 1994-2003, was inverted by using the standard tomography SimulPS and the double-difference algorithm of TomoDD (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) for simultaneous computation of hypocenter parameters and Vp and Vs three dimensional distributions. For RF analysis the seismograms from about 100 teleseismic earthquakes (M greater than 6.0), recorded between 2004 and 2006 at 13 broad-band seismic stations deployed by the INGV, have been considered to compute the receiver function by the Multi-Taper Spectral Correlation (MTSC) technique (Park and Levin, 2000). One key advantage of this method is its resistance to noise, which recommends its use in environments such as ocean sea islands with high noise levels in the seismic bands.

  7. EQA pilot regional program for haematology in Emilia-Romagna, Italy.

    PubMed

    Carandina, G

    1995-01-01

    A pilot regional EQA scheme in haematology has been implemented in Emilia-Romagna. The distinctive features of this scheme are: a) inter-laboratory comparability of results on a local basis has been selected as main target of the whole scheme; b) fresh blood has been chosen as ideal control material; c) a fast and effective dispatching system of control material has been accomplished. This has been made possible by means of the hospital ambulances network and an express delivery service; d) the assessment of the analyzers calibration alignment in the whole region has been subdivided in two phases. The first one consists in aligning all analyzers of each province with the corresponding reference provincial center, the second one in aligning the analyzers of the eight reference centers in the region with each other; e) all laboratories taking part in the EQA scheme have been directly involved. Preparation of control material and comment sheet mailing to participants are carried out by eight provincial reference centers. Initial setting of the scheme targets, collegial survey of results and alteration of the scheme guidelines involve all participants in the scheme; f) a distinction between a short-term and a medium-term goal has been made. The short-term one is to improve the harmonization of results for comparability between different laboratories in the same area. The medium-term one is to set up educational programmes and consensus procedures for establishing operative protocols and for defining the allowable analytical errors, set on the basis of clinical requirements.

  8. Surveillance of meningococcal meningitis in the Latium region, Italy 1984-1985.

    PubMed

    Albertoni, F; Chierchini, P; Ippolito, G; Perucci, C; Occhionero, M; Mastrantonio Gianfrilli, P

    1987-01-01

    A surveillance system on meningococcal meningitis was set up in an Italian region in 1984, to monitor the trend and distribution of the disease, to acquire bacteriological data, to evaluate control measures. Results of the first two years show no overall increase in the incidence of the disease, on the other hand an increased incidence in the 15-24 age group, a high fatality rate, a prevalence of serogroup C and serotype 2a and widespread resistance to sulfonamides were observed. Features characteristic of an epidemic period are thus present in the context of an endemic setting.

  9. [Bioresorbable vascular scaffolds: clinical experience of the Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy].

    PubMed

    Menozzi, Alberto; Campo, Gianluca Calogero; Guiducci, Vincenzo; Dall'Ara, Gianni; Santarelli, Andrea; Sbarzaglia, Paolo; Balducelli, Marco; Magnavacchi, Paolo; Sgura, Fabio; Losi, Luciano; Vignali, Luigi; Casella, Gianni; Steffanon, Luigi; Tarantino, Fabio; Saia, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    The bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BRS) technology constitutes the new revolution of the coronary artery disease interventional treatment. Currently, three distinct types of BRSs are available but only one, the Absorb BVS, was on the market in 2013 when the Regional Commission for Medical Devices and the Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery Commission of the Emilia-Romagna Region drew up a technical and scientific essay to provide guidance for the introduction of BRS in public and affiliated health facilities. Five preferential indications were given for use: long coronary lesions (>28 mm), ostial lesions (left main stem excluded), complete revascularization in patients aged <50 years, diffuse disease (>40 mm) or involving the mid/distal left anterior descending (LAD) branch in patients <70 years, spontaneous coronary artery dissection. This survey analyzed data from all the catheterization laboratories in the Emilia-Romagna Region, merged in a unified database. In a 3-year study period, 546 BRS were implanted in 328 patients, corresponding to 1.5% of the drug-eluting stents (DES) used, with a trend towards a progressive increase over time. Initial indications were followed in 200/328 (61.0%) patients (about one third fitting more indications), mainly for treatment of long lesions in vessels >2.5 mm (67%), young patients (31.5%) and mid/distal LAD (28%). In 22.6% of cases the clinical scenario was a ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, in 39.3% a non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome. Intracoronary imaging was infrequently used (intravascular ultrasound in 24.7% of cases). In 85 patients (25.9%) a hybrid procedure (BVS/DES) was performed. BRS use has resulted lower than expected, with discrete variability among centers, but according to the initial indications of the Emilia-Romagna Region in the majority of cases. The underuse might have been due to operators' caution in their initial experience. However, the increasing trend may reveal a greater

  10. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria Chiara; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-08-14

    Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this 'no-kill policy' has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project "RandAgiamo" implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs' adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs' visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (P < 0.001). The RandAgiamo project could be beneficial for the dogs' welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities.

  11. Spatial, seasonal trends and transboundary transport of PM2.5 inorganic ions in the Veneto region (Northeastern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiol, Mauro; Benetello, Francesca; Harrison, Roy M.; Formenton, Gianni; De Gaspari, Francesco; Pavoni, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    The Veneto region lies in the eastern part of the Po Valley (Italy). This is one of the hotspots in Europe for air quality, where efforts to meet the European standard for PM2.5 according to current and future legislation have been generally unsuccessful. Recent data indicating that ammonium, nitrate and sulphate account for about one third of total PM2.5 mass show that secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) plays a key role in the exceedence of the standards. A sampling campaign for PM2.5 was carried out simultaneously in six major cities (2012-2013). The water soluble inorganic ions were quantified and data processed to: (1) investigate the seasonal trends and the spatial variations of the ionic component of aerosol; (2) identify chemical characteristics at the regional-scale and (3) assess the potential effects of long-range transport using back-trajectory cluster analysis and concentration-weighted trajectory (CWT) models. Results indicated that PM2.5 and SIA ions have an increasing gradient in concentrations from North (mountain) to South (lowland) and from East (coastal) to West (more continental), whereas K+ and Ca2+ levels are quite uniformly distributed. Similar seasonal trends in PM2.5 and ions are seen across the region. Simultaneous daily changes were observed and interpreted as a consequence of similar emission sources, secondary pollutant generation and accumulation/removal processes. Sulphate and nitrate were not directly related to the concentrations of their precursor gases and were generally largely, but not completely, neutralised by ammonium. The clustering of back-trajectories and CWT demonstrate that the long-range movement of the air masses has a major impact upon PM2.5 and ion concentrations: an area spreading from Eastern to Central Europe was identified as a main potential source for most ions. The valley sites are also heavily influenced by local emissions in slow moving northerly air masses. Finally, two episodes of high nitrate levels were

  12. The influence of climate variability on chemical composition of European wines: a regional scale study (Italy and Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbante, Carlo; Polo, Fabio; Cozzi, Giulio; Ogrinc, Nives; Turetta, Clara

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is having an increasing influence on vine phenology and grape composition, affecting vinifications, wine chemistry and the quality of productions. Wine grape cultivation provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Moreover, on a regional level and on a shorter time scale, the seasonal weather conditions modify the quality of yields determining the final properties of wine. In the present research, we studied wines from Italy and Slovenia with the purpose of differentiating them by the different vintages (from 2009 to 2012), which are supposed to be influenced by temperature and rain during each year's growing season. Specific chemical techniques were used, in particular mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and isotopic mass spectrometry (IRMS), both of which are usually employed to detect wine adulterations and to establish the geographical provenance of wines. In particular, we investigated the relationship between macro- and micro-elements, Rare Earth Elements and stable isotopes [δ13C, δ18O, (D/H)I, (D/H)II]. The datasets were examined via statistical techniques to show their relation to weather conditions as well as their mutual connection. Italian and Slovenian wines were distinguished, with the exception of few samples, by both TEs and REEs results. This separation, due to different elemental compositions, may be justified as being part of two distinct environmental and geographical belongings (terroir) but also to the processes of wine production, from the harvest to the bottling, which have certainly interfered and characterized the products. In the case of Italian wines the weather conditions were evidenced with an important separation of stable isotopes which they confirmed to be very sensitive Regarding Slovenian wines, the studied regions were characterized of

  13. Mass balance and life cycle assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system implemented in Lombardia Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, L; Falbo, A; Forte, F; Grosso, M; Rigamonti, L

    2015-08-15

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in Europe, whose content of hazardous substances as well as of valuable materials makes the study of the different management options particularly interesting. The present study investigates the WEEE management system in Lombardia Region (Italy) in the year 2011 by applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. An extensive collection of primary data was carried out to describe the main outputs and the energy consumptions of the treatment plants. Afterwards, the benefits and burdens associated with the treatment and recovery of each of the five categories in which WEEE is classified according to the Italian legislation (heaters and refrigerators - R1, large household appliances - R2, TV and monitors - R3, small household appliances - R4 and lighting equipment - R5) were evaluated. The mass balance of the treatment and recovery system of each of the five WEEE categories showed that steel and glass are the predominant streams of materials arising from the treatment; a non-negligible amount of plastic is also recovered, together with small amounts of precious metals. The LCA of the regional WEEE management system showed that the benefits associated with materials and energy recovery balance the burdens of the treatment processes, with the sole exception of two impact categories (human toxicity-cancer effects and freshwater ecotoxicity). The WEEE categories whose treatment and recovery resulted more beneficial for the environment and the human health are R3 and R5. The contribution analysis showed that overall the main benefits are associated with the recovery of metals, as well as of plastic and glass. Some suggestions for improving the performance of the system are given, as well as an indication for a more-in-depth analysis for the toxicity categories and a proposal for a new characterisation method for WEEE.

  14. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its relationship with clinically prevalent cardiovascular disease in the Veneto region, northeastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Novelletto, Bruno Franco; Guzzinati, Stefano; Avogaro, Angelo

    2012-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more frequent in adults with metabolic syndrome than in those without. We wished to assess the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and the role of its specific components on prevalent CVD in a large cohort of subjects from the general population. Seventy-eight general practitioners among 3,542 were identified and participated in this study. Personal, anthropometric, and lifestyle data were obtained as was data relevant to CVD [coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke or both]. A stratified random sample of 6,347 subjects taken from the population of the Veneto region in northeastern Italy was analyzed. The prevalence [and its 95% confidence limits (CL)] of metabolic syndrome by gender and age classes was higher in men than women (21.9% vs. 16.8) and it increased with age (29.8% in ages 60-69 vs. 8.0 in ages 30-39). The most frequent triad of metabolic syndrome was waist circumference (WC)-blood pressure (BP)-hyperglycemia (GLYC) (33%). Metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with CVD [odds ratio (OR)=1.53, 95% CL, 1.02-2.29] and gender (men have about six times the risk of women), and the risk of CVD increases with age (11% per additional year of age). High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is the only component of metabolic syndrome associated with CVD: The OR was 2.12 (95% CL, 1.32-3.43) and remains significant in sex-specific models only in men. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Veneto region among subjects ages 30-69 is high. There is a significant association between prevalent CVD and metabolic syndrome, but the biological basis of association is strongly influenced by gender.

  15. Estimated hospitalization rate for diseases attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae in the Veneto region of north-east Italy.

    PubMed

    Baldo, Vincenzo; Cocchio, Silvia; Lazzari, Roberta; Furlan, Patrizia; Bertoncello, Chiara; Russo, Francesca; Saia, Mario; Baldovin, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide in all age groups. Serious diseases often caused by pneumococci include pneumonia, meningitis and bacteremia. The aim of this work was to estimate the hospitalization rate for SP in the Veneto region by investigating pneumococcal-related discharges. This was a retrospective study based on hospital discharge data collected from 2008 to 2012 in the Veneto Region (north-east Italy). All hospitalizations for diseases potentially associated with SP were identified by searching the hospital discharge records, then the proportions of hospital admissions for pneumonia, meningitis and septicemia attributable to the infection were calculated. Comorbidities were also graded according to the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Data were analyzed using the chi square test and Student's t-test for unpaired data, as appropriate. Significant trends over the years considered were examined in terms of average annual percent changes (AAPC). A p value < 0.05 was considered significant. We identified 62,946 hospital discharge records concerning diseases potentially associated with SP. Among them, the proportion of SP-related hospital admissions (SP-HA) was estimated to be 23,089 (37.2%). The estimated incidence of SP-HA was 94.0/100,000 population (102.8/100,000 in males and 85.6/100,000 in females; p < 0.01): 89.0 for pneumonia, 0.9 for meningitis, and 4.1 for septicemia. The incidence of SP-HA was higher in children and the elderly, and the overall fatality rate was 11.0%. The overall economic burden of SP-HA during the period considered was around €14.8 million a year, with an average cost of €3120 per hospitalization. This study shows that hospitalization for SP-related disease has a considerable impact on the health services, especially as far as children and the elderly are concerned.

  16. Prevalence of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy in the adult population of Bologna and Modena, Emilia-Romagna region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Vignatelli, Luca; Bisulli, Francesca; Giovannini, Giada; Licchetta, Laura; Naldi, Ilaria; Mostacci, Barbara; Rubboli, Guido; Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo; Meletti, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) in the adults of two areas of the Emilia-Romagna region (northeast Italy) and to describe the clinical features from a population-based perspective. Population-based retrospective cohort study including adults with NFLE. Two areas of the Emilia-Romagna region: the city of Bologna (330,901 adult residents) and five districts of the province of Modena (424,007). Prevalence day: December 31, 2010. Patients with NFLE collected from multiple databases of neurologic hub centers of the districts involved. Diagnostic criteria: clinical history of sleep related bizarre motor attacks and videopolysomnographic recording confirming the typical features of NFLE. Inclusion criteria for prevalence calculation: residence in one of the two geographic areas on the prevalence day and an "active" or "in remission with treatment" form of NFLE. Six subjects from Bologna and eight from Modena were included. Crude prevalence (per 100,000 residents) was 1.8 (95% confidence interval 0.7-4.0) in Bologna and 1.9 (0.8-3.7) in Modena. Similarly, the main clinical features were consistent: onset during adolescence (median age 11-13 y), mainly hyperkinetic seizures, nonlesional form in more than two-thirds of cases, an active form of epilepsy in more than two-thirds of cases. A family history of epilepsy was reported only for two patients. This epidemiologic study establishes that NFLE is a rare epileptic condition, fulfilling the definition for rare disease. Because of methodological limitations of our case ascertainment, the estimates we disclose must be considered the minimum prevalence. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  17. Cholecystectomy in Emilia-Romagna region (Italy): A retrospective cohort study based on a large administrative database.

    PubMed

    Catena, Fausto; Melotti, Rita Maria; Louis, Daniel; Fortuna, Daniela; Ansaloni, Luca; Coccolini, Federico; Di Saverio, Salomone; Sartelli, Massimo; Tarasconi, Antonio; Baiocchi, Gianluca; Portolani, Nazario; Napoli, Josephine; De Simone, Belinda; Catena, Rodolfo; De Palma, Rossana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the variability and to identify a trend for the outcome of cholecystectomy surgery when used to treat cholelithiasis and acute cholecystitis. This was a large retrospective cohort study following patients up to 11 years post surgery, based on administrative data collected from 2002 to 2012 in the Emilia-Romagna Region (Northern Italy) and comparing the effectiveness and efficiency of surgical activity (laparoscopic (LC) and open cholecystectomy (OC)). Analyses included patient characteristics, length of hospital stay, type of admission and mortality risk. Outcomes considered were death from all causes (during the index hospital admission or thereafter), hospital readmissions with cholecystitis or cholelithiasis as principal diagnosis and time to surgery. A total of 84,628 cholecystomies were performed from 2002 to 2012 out of 123,061 admissions with primary diagnostic category of cholecystitis or cholelitiasis. Laparoscopic procedure was used in 69,842 patients. Over time there was a rising linear statistically significant trend in the use of LC. Mortality rate at 1 year of OC treated patients showed a statistically significant difference compared to LC treated patients (using a cohorts match with propensity score). Only a small number of patients with acute cholecystitis was operated according guidelines within 72 hours. The analysis of aggregate administrative data is a powerful tool to support regional health management, improve the quality of medical care, and assess the appropriateness of therapeutic or diagnostic approaches. It is important to stress a short hospital stay for laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients (50% less than open surgery): this shorter hospital stay leads to a significant economic advantage. Moreover, mortality is significantly higher in open surgery for acute cholecystitis. Interestingly, the same finding was confirmed after 30 days and 1 year, probably due to comorbidities that are more evident in

  18. Tuberculosis, Brucellosis and Leucosis in Cattle: A Cost Description of Eradication Programmes in the Region of Lazio, Italy.

    PubMed

    Caminiti, A; Pelone, F; Battisti, S; Gamberale, F; Colafrancesco, R; Sala, M; La Torre, G; Della Marta, U; Scaramozzino, P

    2017-10-01

    The eradication of tuberculosis, brucellosis and leucosis in cattle has not yet been achieved in the entire Italian territory. The region of Lazio, Central Italy, represents an interesting case study to evaluate the evolution of costs for these eradication programmes, as in some provinces the eradication has been officially achieved, in some others the prevalence has been close to zero for years, and in still others disease outbreaks have been continuously reported. The objectives of this study were i) to describe the costs for the eradication programmes for tuberculosis, brucellosis and leucosis in cattle carried out in Lazio between 2007 and 2011, ii) to calculate the ratio between the financial contribution of the European Union (EU) for the eradication programmes and the estimated total costs and iii) to estimate the potential savings that can be made when a province gains the certification of freedom from disease. For the i) and ii) objectives, data were collected from official sources and a costing procedure was applied from the perspective of the Regional Health Service. For the iii) objective, a Bayesian AR(1) regression was used to evaluate the average percentage reduction in costs for a province that gained the certification. The total cost for the eradication programmes adjusted for inflation to 1 January 2016 was estimated at 18 919 797 euro (5th and 95th percentiles of the distribution: 18 325 050-19 552 080 euro). When a province gained the certification of freedom from disease, costs decreased on average by (median of the posterior distribution) 47.5%, 54.5% and 54.9% for the eradication programmes of tuberculosis, brucellosis and leucosis, respectively. Information on possible savings from the reduction of control costs can help policy makers operating under budget constraints to justify the use of additional resources for the final phase of eradication. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Experience of vaccination against invasive bacterial diseases in Veneto region (north east Italy).

    PubMed

    Russo, F; Pozza, F; Napoletano, G; Zanella, F; Baldovin, T; Lazzari, R; Cocchio, S; Baldo, V

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this study was to describe and comment the experience of the Veneto Region in the bacterial invasive disease. Vaccination coverage was 93% against pneumococcus and 95% against haemophilus influenzae type B. Regard to meningococcus C the coverage rate was 90.1% In children, 81% at 6 years of age and 78.2% at 15 years. The preliminary data of an active surveillance of invasive bacterial diseases show that the Streptoccoccus pneumoniae was the main agent involved and that its consequences were particularly serious in elderly subjects. With regard to Neisseria meningitidis, we observed a substantial reduction in the number of cases due to serogroup C and a concomitant rise in the percentage of cases due to serogroup B. The suspension of mandatory vaccination should be maintained, the monitoring of vaccination coverage and the active surveillance proved to be a very good assessment tools.

  20. A model for the organization of a regional bank for musculoskeletal tissues in Italy.

    PubMed

    Brach del Prever, E M; Biondi, A M; Gino, G; Bistolfi, A; Radian Tehrani, M A; Pibiri, L; Albertini, U; Mellano, D; Piana, R

    2003-01-01

    The national and local need for human tissues to be used in transplants is a high one, and constantly growing. Human, scientific and financial resources involved in guaranteeing safe and high-quality tissues as defined by the national guidelines for musculoskeletal tissue banks are considerable. For this reason we need to find adequate solutions to the problem of guaranteeing sufficient availability of tissues with the lowest cost possible for supply. The Piedmont Region Musculoskeletal Tissue Bank, which is located in an Azienda Ospedaliera, has been organized to guarantee the quality of its tissues via biological validation and scientific-clinical coordination; it makes use of the collaboration of removal centers that send tissues taken from the central bank for certification and identifies several centers for preservation; it collaborates with a bank of national importance for tissue processing. The publication of regulations and tariffs based on cost analysis improves the procedures.

  1. Determinants of land take at the regional scale: a study concerning Sardinia (Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Zoppi, Corrado Lai, Sabrina

    2015-11-15

    In its “Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe” (Communication COM(2011) 571 of 20 September 2011), the European Commission (EC) established an ambitious goal for the European Union (EU), that of achieving no land take by 2050; towards this aim, a key milestone for the year 2020 was set, by stating that European policies in the programming period 2014–2020 ought to consider both their direct and their indirect impacts on land use in the EU. Within this framework, this paper builds upon the findings of a previous paper (Zoppi and Lai, 2014), in which we estimated the magnitude of land take over a short period of time (2003–2008) in Sardinia, an Italian NUTS2 region, and we assessed whether and how land take is related to a set of variables that are regarded as important determinants in the literature, such as parcel size, accessibility, and proximity to main cities and towns, to the coastline, or to protected areas. In this paper we study the land-taking process taking Sardinia as a case study, in two larger time periods, 1960–1990 and 1990–2008. We assess if, and to what extent, these factors reveal similar, or different, effects in the two periods, and try to identify consistencies concerning the determinants of land take. - Highlights: • Population density and parcel size significantly affect the magnitude of land take. • The presence of nature conservation areas hinders land taking processes. • Extensive urbanization might effectively preserve non-artificial land. • Balanced accessibility of settlements and nature conservation regional policies can effectively contrast land take. • Size of non-artificial land parcels that become artificial is negatively and significantly connected to land take.

  2. [Mortality for accident in Tuscany Region (Central Italy) in immigrants from countries at high migration rates].

    PubMed

    Indiani, Laura; Martini, Andrea; Chellini, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    to examine the characteristics and mortality trends for specific type of accident in immigrants resident in Tuscany and to compare them to those observed in Italians resident in the same region. descriptive study using the data of the Regional Mortality Registry of Tuscany. 1997-2008 deaths for accidents by citizenship ("Italians" and "Immigrants" from Countries with strong migratory pressure or PFPM) in residents in Tuscany. number of deaths, proportional mortality and standardized (standard: European population) mortality 15-64 truncated rates per 100,000 for each specific accidental cause of death, by gender and population (PFPM and Italians), in 1997-2008, and confidence intervals at 95% (95%CI); trends in mortality standardized truncated rates for specific accidental cause in immigrants and Italians in 2002-2008. in the period 1997-2008, 315 deaths for accidents have been registered in immigrants. The comparison between immigrants and Italians did not reveal any significant difference in mortality for road and at work accidents. Suicides are significantly higher in Italian males (rate in Italians 9.3; 95%CI 8.7-10.0 vs. rate in PFPM 4.3; 95%CI 2.4-6.2), while homicides are higher in male immigrants (rate in Italians 0.6; IC95% 0.4-0.8 vs. rate in PFPM 3.2 95%CI 1.7-4.7). Deaths from other injuries are more frequent in Italians in both genders. Trends in mortality rates indicate a reducing gap between immigrants and Italians. in Tuscany, mortality rates for some specific accidental causes are significantly different between immigrants and Italians, nevertheless trends of the last evaluated period seem to reveal a reducing gap suggesting a progressive integration of immigrants.

  3. [Solar ultraviolet radiation risk in outdoor workers: a specific project of Tuscany Region (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Miligi, Lucia; Benvenuti, Alessandra; Legittimo, Patrizia; Badiali, Anna Maria; Cacciarini, Valentina; Chiarugi, Alessandra; Crocetti, Emanuele; Alberghini Maltoni, Simona; Pinto, Iole; Zipoli, Gaetano; Grifoni, Daniele; Carnevale, Francesco; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Cherubini Di Simplicio, Francesca; Poggiali, Sara; Sartorelli, Pietro; Sirna, Riccardo; Amati, Rodolfo; Centi, Letizia; Festa, Gianluca; Fiumalbi, Carla; Fedi, Aldo; Giglioli, Senio; Mancini, Rossana; Panzone, Tina; Petrioli, Giuseppe; Trombetti, Alessandra; Volpi, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    The aims of Tuscany Regional project were: to study the sun protection attitude of outdoor workers; to measure solar ultraviolet (UV) exposure in work environment; to describe the frequency of photoaging, precancerous lesions, and skin cancers in outdoor workers; to collect information on solar ultraviolet radiation exposure from incident cases of Non-Melanoma Skin Cancer (NMSC) recruited from Tuscany Cancer Registry. Outdoor workers completed a questionnaire devoted to collect information on sun protection attitudes during a typical summer working week. Environmental and personal measurements were carried out. Expert dermatologists examined outdoor workers to assess the frequency of photoaging, precancerous lesions, and skin cancer. A structured questionnaire was mailed to incident cases of NMSC. Information were collected on personal habits and working history, focusing on solar ultraviolet radiation exposure. Agriculture, construction, quarrying and fishing activities were considered: 292 employees responded to questions about the type of clothing used in the morning and in the afternoon,while working outdoors; 637 outdoor workers underwent skin examination. We contacted 743 cases of NMSC occurred in 2004; 498 subjects accepted to participate in this study. The clothing worn by surveyed subjects was often inadequate compared to the high level of exposure to UV. The skin examination of 637 outdoor workers highlighted 2 melanomas, 7 epitheliomas and 35 actinic keratoses. Among the 498 cases of NMSC, 135 (27%) were diagnosed in outdoor workers. Most represented economic activity sectors were: agriculture, construction, transport, sports. The characterization of outside workers revealed unsatisfactory sun protection behaviours. Moreover, previously undetected skin cancers were diagnosed. The study on MNSC confirms the complexity of studying the exposure to UV radiation. The Tuscany Regional project provided useful information on the risk of solar ultraviolet

  4. Incidence of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in Italy: Results from a 3-years population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Iannazzo, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpes Zoster (HZ) and its main complication, post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), represent important public health issues because of their relevant burden among older adults. However, data on the epidemiology of HZ and PHN in Italy are very limited. A population-based study was performed by seeking for cases of HZ and PHN, occurred in the period 2013-2015, in the clinical charts of 56 General Practitioners working in 4 Italian Regions (Liguria, Puglia, Toscana and Veneto). The main objective of the study was to estimate the incidence of HZ and the proportion of PHN (at 1 and 3 mo from the onset of HZ; PHN1 and PHN3) among people aged ≥ 50 y. Overall, 598 cases of HZ were identified over 93,146 person-years of observation, thus corresponding to an overall incidence of 6.42 (IC95%: 5.93 – 6.95) HZ cases per 1,000 person-years. The incidence of HZ increased with age and was higher in female than in male. In total, 22.7%, 12.7%, and 2.4% of HZ cases suffered PHN at 1 and 3 mo and 1 y from the onset of acute episode. The proportions of these complications significantly increased with age, with the peak occurring in people aged ≥ 85 y. Four per cent of patients suffered ophthalmic zoster. The study provided an update of the epidemiological burden of HZ and PHN in Italy, confirming the relevant burden of the disease in the elderly population. The study was funded by the Italian Ministry of Health, Center for Disease Prevention and Control (CCM) in 2013. PMID:27925843

  5. Long term landscape evolution within central Apennines (Italy): Marsica and Peligna region morphotectonics and surface processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miccadei, E.; Piacentini, T.; Berti, C.

    2010-12-01

    The relief features of the Apennines have been developed in a complex geomorphological and geological setting from Neogene to Quaternary. Growth of topography has been driven by active tectonics (thrust-related crustal shortening and high-angle normal faulting related to crustal extension), regional rock uplift, and surface processes, starting from Late Miocene(?) - Early Pliocene. At present a high-relief landscape is dominated by morphostructures including high-standing, resistant Mesozoic and early Tertiary carbonates ridges (i.e. thrust ridges, faulted homocline ridges) and intervening, erodible Tertiary siliciclastics valleys (i.e. fault line valleys) and Quaternary continental deposits filled basins (i.e. tectonic valleys, tectonic basins). This study tries to identify paleo-uplands that may be linked to paleo-base levels and aims at the reconstruction of ancient landscapes since the incipient phases of morphogenesis. It analyzes the role of tectonics and morphogenic processes in the long term temporal scale landscape evolution (i.e. Mio?-Pliocene to Quaternary). It is focused on the marsicano-peligna region, located along the main drainage divide between Adriatic side and Tyrrhenian side of Central Apennines, one of the highest average elevation area of the whole chain. The work incorporates GIS-based geomorphologic field mapping of morphostructures and Quaternary continental deposits, and plano-altimetric analysis and morphometry (DEM-, map-based) of the drainage network (i.e. patterns, hypsometry, knick points, Ks). Field mapping give clues on the definition of paleo-landscapes related to different paleo-morpho-climatic environments (i.e. karst, glacial, slope, fluvial). Geomorphological evidence of tectonics and their cross-cutting relationships with morphostructures, continental deposits and faults, provide clues on the deciphering of the reciprocal relationship of antecedence of the paleo-landscapes and on the timing of morphotectonics. Morphotectonic

  6. Venice, Italy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-09-24

    Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast Italy. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading Italy at that time. This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03860

  7. A new regional RADAR network for nowcasting applications: the RESMAR achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonini, Andrea; Melani, Samantha; Mazza, Alessandro; Ortolani, Alberto; Gozzini, Bernardo; Corongiu, Manuela; Cristofori, Simone

    2013-04-01

    Monitoring weather phenomena from radar has an essential role in nowcasting applications. As one of the most useful sources of quantitative precipitation estimation, rainfall radar analysis can be a very useful research tool in supporting methods for rainfall forecasting. Its short-term prediction is often needed in various meteorological and hydrological applications where accurate prediction of rainfall is essential from national service and civil protection forecasting up to agriculture and urban issues. Very recently, Tuscany region (central Italy) is equipped with two X-band radars with a maximum range of 108 km, a beam width of 3° and a high spatial resolution (i.e., radial resolution up to 90m), located in Livorno and Cima del Monte (Elba island) sites. The first system is property of Livorno's port Authority, the second one of Consorzio LaMMA (Laboratory of Monitoring and Environmental Modelling for the sustainable development) who has installed it in the framework of "RESMAR - Environmental Resources in the MARitime Space" activities, a strategic project, financed in the framework of the European Cross-Border Cooperation Programme Italy-France "Maritime", coordinated by the Liguria Region Administration. Both systems are managed by LaMMA. The cross-border sharing of such relevant meteorological observation instruments and the integration of these data with existing tools and methodologies is intended to improve operational regional weather services in nowcasting activities and their impacts on the territory, as those related to LaMMA daily issues. This sharing is widely promoted within RESMAR project between the different partner regions (ARPA-Sardinia, Meteo-France and Liguria). The integration of these data with other complementary and ancillary measurements is also needed to increase the reliability and accuracy of radar measurements in view of both a better meteorological phenomena understanding and quantitative precipitation estimation. The use of

  8. Regional hydrogeochemical groundwater characterization and Natural Arsenic occurrence in Upper Valtellina Valley (Central Italian Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena Reyes, Fredy; Crosta, Giovanni B.; Frattini, Paolo; Basiricò, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the research is the characterization of the alpine Upper Valtellina Valley (central Italian Alps, 800 km2) aquifers by means of hydrogeological, hydrogeochemical, As speciation, isotopic and whole-rock analyses. In particular, the main focus of the study was the understanding of the processes responsible for As release and mobilization into the groundwater. Historical chemical data from springs, wells, lakes, rivers and public fountains were collected from the Lombardy Region Health Agency (ASL) and implemented into a geodatabase. The available groundwater chemistry analyses (3050) from five municipalities (Bormio, Livigno, Valdidentro, Valdisotto and Valfurva) cover a relatively long time span between 1996 and 2011. Moreover, samples across the entire study area and covering one full hydrologic year 2012-2013 were collected during four different campaigns (June 2012, October 2012, May 2013, and September 2013) and analyzed . During these campaigns, water samples have been collected from both cold springs and thermal springs. The hydrogeochemistry of aquifers and superficial waters through the hydrologic year, and the long-term regional As distribution and time variability were analyzed. Although the studied springs belong to different catchments with different hydrochemical and lithological conditions, they present some typical characteristics: (1) the water types are dominated by dissolution of the main ions Ca - Mg and SO4-HCO3; (2) the Cl concentration is always very low, and poorly correlated with other ions; (3) the circulation time obtained from isotopic data ranges between 5 and 10 years for thermal springs and it is lower than 2 years for cold springs; (4) the average yearly temperatures (about 12°C for cold springs, and between 18°C and 42° for thermal springs) are nearly constant through the year; (5) dominant oxidizing environments have been observed for most of the cold springs and also for the thermal springs; (6) anthropogenic

  9. Carbonaceous PM(2.5) and secondary organic aerosol across the Veneto region (NE Italy).

    PubMed

    Khan, Md Badiuzzaman; Masiol, Mauro; Formenton, Gianni; Di Gilio, Alessia; de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Agostinelli, Claudio; Pavoni, Bruno

    2016-01-15

    Organic and elemental carbon (OC-EC) were measured in 360 PM2.5 samples collected from April 2012 to February 2013 at six provinces in the Veneto region, to determine the factors affecting the carbonaceous aerosol variations. The 60 daily samples have been collected simultaneously in all sites during 10 consecutive days for 6 months (April, June, August, October, December and February). OC ranged from 0.98 to 22.34 μg/m(3), while the mean value was 5.5 μg/m(3), contributing 79% of total carbon. EC concentrations fluctuated from 0.19 to 11.90 μg/m(3) with an annual mean value of 1.31 μg/m(3) (19% of the total carbon). The monthly OC concentration gradually increased from April to December. The EC did not vary in accordance with OC. However the highest values for both parameters were recorded in the cold period. The mean OC/EC ratio is 4.54, which is higher than the values observed in most of the other European cities. The secondary organic carbon (SOC) contributed for 69% of the total OC and this was confirmed by both the approaches OC/EC minimum ratio and regression. The results show that OC, EC and SOC exhibited higher concentration during winter months in all measurement sites, suggesting that the stable atmosphere and lower mixing play important role for the accumulation of air pollutant and hasten the condensation or adsorption of volatile organic compounds over the Veneto region. Significant meteorological factors controlling OC and EC were investigated by fitting linear models and using a robust procedure based on weighted likelihood, suggesting that low wind speed and temperature favour accumulation of emissions from local sources. Conditional probability function and conditional bivariate probability function plots indicate that both biomass burning and vehicular traffic are probably the main local sources for carbonaceous particulate matter emissions in two selected cities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among forestry department agents in the Marche Region (italy)].

    PubMed

    Copertaro, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and associations among cardiovascular risk factors in an Italian cohort of forestry agents, born and living in the Marche Region, everybody in good health. The results of this research can be used for subsequent comparison with other working population. the sample arises from a beginning selection of the participants to the public competition for forestry agents, in order to assess their qualifying attitudes to hold that position. Health examination was conducted during the annual health check-up of forestry agents evaluating the maintenance of the beginning psycho-physical attitudes. During periodic medical controls, the metabolic and physical parameters related to cardiovascular risk factors have been analyzed. a total of 207 forestry agents (87% males and 13% females) have been submitted to health examination, including anthropometric and arterial blood pressure measurements and biochemical determinations, in order to evaluate the parameters competing to formulate a diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, using the criteria proposed by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). metabolic syndrome was defined by the clustering of three or more of the following abnormalities: waist circumference larger than 94 cm in men and 80 cm in women; serum triglycerides level of at least 150 mg/dL; highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol less than 40 mg/dL in men and 50 mg/dL in women; blood pressure higher than 130/85 mmHg; or fast plasma glucose higher than 100 mg/dL. Waist circumference has been measured following the indications of the European Health Risk Monitoring. compared to the general population of the Region, the agents of the CFS exhibit considerably lower values of cholesterol, triglycerides and fast plasma glucose. They show a lower presence in diseases such as diabetes and arterial hypertension. Cigarette smokers are very few. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is lower than general population: 6%, 11.5% and 22

  11. GIS thematic layers for assessing karst hazard in Murgia region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canora, Filomena; D'Angella, Annachiara; Fidelibus, Dolores; Lella, Angela; Pellicani, Roberta; Spilotro, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of karst hazard in a carbonate area may be somewhat complex for the multiplicity of involved factors (geological, hydrological, morphological, anthropogenic, etc.), their history and the slow rate of evolution of the processes. In coastal areas, moreover, the long term sea level variations and the short term oscillations generally influence the generation and evolution of the karst process. Another peculiarity of the karst hazard assessment consists in the difficulty for identifying the location of subsurface forms, which may develop over very large areas without any kind of surface signal. The karst processes and landforms often require specific methods of investigation and mitigation, due to the unique and highly variable characters of karst environments. In addition, the hidden character of the karst processes, often accelerated by human activity, is an issue with significant economic impact, affecting many regions of the world. The assessment of karst hazard in the Murgia plateau (in central-west of Apulia region) is the main goal of this research. For this aim, the typologies of karst phenomena, able to produce hazard in the study area, were individuated and collected in a specific database. The hazard was evaluated on the basis of the probability of occurrence of a phenomenon of instability, active (produced by human activities) or passive (natural evolution of karst process), in relation to the presence, evolution or generation of karst forms on surface or at critical distance from the surface. The critical distance from the surface is defined as the distance at which the local or general destructive evolution of a karst process can produce a variation of the usability of the area or of the value of elements involved in the instability. The thematic layers relative to the factors influencing karst processes and landforms (doline, sinkholes, polje, lame, gravine, caves) were elaborated and managed in a GIS system. The archives of the main karst

  12. The Irpinia Seismic Network: An Advanced Monitoring Infrastructure For Earthquake Early Warning in The Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannaccone, G.; Zollo, A.; Bobbio, A.; Cantore, L.; Convertito, V.; Elia, L.; Festa, G.; Lancieri, M.; Martino, C.; Romeo, A.; Satriano, C.; Vassallo, M.

    2007-12-01

    A new seismic network (ISNet, Irpinia Seismic Network) is now operating in the Southern Italy. It is conceived as the core infrastructure for an Earthquake Early Warning System (EEWS) under development in Southern Italy. It is primarily aimed at providing an alert for moderate to large earthquakes (M>4) to selected target sites in Campania Region and it also provides data for rapid computation of regional ground-shaking maps. ISNet is deployed over an area of about 100×70 km2 covering the Apenninic active seismic zone where most of large earthquakes occurred during the last centuries, including the Ms=6.9, 1980 Irpinia earthquake. ISNet is composed of 29 seismic stations equipped with three components accelerometers and velocimeters aggregated in six smaller sub-nets. The sub-net stations are connected with a real-time communications to a central data- collector site (LCC, Local Control Center). The different LCCs are linked among them and to a Network Control Center (NCC) located in the city of Naples 100 km away from the network center, with different type of transmission systems chosen according their transmission mode robustness and reliability. The network is designed to provide estimates of the location and size of a potential destructive earthquake within few seconds from the earthquake detection, through an evolutionary and fully probabilistic approach. For the real time location we developed a methodology which extends and generalizes the one Horiuchi et al. (2005) by a) starting the location procedure after only one station has triggered, b) using the Equal Differential Time (EDT) approach to incorporate the triggered arrivals and the not-yet-triggered stations, c) estimating the hypocenter probabilistically as a pdf instead of as a point, and d) applying a full, non-linearized, global-search for each update of the location estimate. Following an evolutionary approach, the method evaluates, at each time step, the EDT equations considering not only each

  13. Urinary chromium levels in subjects living in two north Italy regions.

    PubMed

    Minoia, C; Apostoli, P; Maranelli, G; Baldi, C; Pozzoli, L; Capodaglio, E

    1988-06-01

    The concentration of total urinary chromium (Cr-U) in two different groups of healthy occupationally non-exposed subjects living in the Italian regions of Lombardia and Veneto has been determined using an ETA-AAS direct method. The age, sex, residence and smoking habits were correlated with CrU excretion. The mean CrU value found in subjects living in Lombardia (n = 310, males 170 and females 140) was 0.59 + 0.26 microgram/l (range 0.08 - 2.10); in Veneto subjects (n = 238, males 187 and females 51) the mean value was 0.52 +/- 0.31 microgram/l (range 0.05 - 1.90). A significative difference between male and female values and a decrease of CrU levels with age increasing have been evidenced in both groups. Smoking habits seem to influence metal urinary levels while, on the other hand, no influence of living sites was observed. Some analytical problems of ETA-AAS Cr determination systems are discussed and "normal" CrU values measured in this study are compared with data reported in the literature.

  14. Analysis of damaging hydrogeological events: the case of the Calabria Region (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Petrucci, O; Polemio, M; Pasqua, A A

    2009-03-01

    A period of bad weather conditions due to prolonged intense rainfall and strong winds can trigger landslides, floods, secondary floods (accumulation of rain on surfaces with low permeability), and sea storms, causing damage to humans and infrastructure. As a whole, these periods of bad weather and triggered phenomena can be defined as damaging hydrogeological events (DHEs). We define a methodological approach based on seven simple indexes to analyze such events. The indexes describe the return period (T) and trend of rainfall, the extent of hit areas, and the level of damages; they can be considered attributes of georeferenced features and analyzed with GIS techniques. We tested our method in an Italian region frequently hit by DHEs. In a period of 10 years, 747 damaging phenomena (landslides, 43%; floods, 38%) and 94 DHEs have been classified. The road network and housing areas are the most frequently damaged elements, threatened by all types of damaging phenomena. T classes are almost in accordance with the level of damage. These results can be used to outline warning levels for civil protection purposes, to forecast the areas most likely to be hit and the potential ensuing damage, to disseminate information concerning vulnerable areas, and to increase people's awareness of risk.

  15. Using PS-InSAR data in landslide hazard management: the case of Veneto Region (NE Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floris, Mario; Viganò, Alessandro; Busnardo, Enrico; Arziliero, Luciano; Zanette, Doriano

    2013-04-01

    The Project Persistent Scatterers Interferometry, performed by the Italian Ministry of Environment and Territory of the Sea (METS) in the framework of the Extraordinary Plan of Environmental Remote Sensing, has made available a high quantity of data useful for local Authorities (Regions, Provinces, and Municipalities) in the management of the main geological hazards, such as landslides, subsidence, and sinkholes. The main output of the Project consists of ground displacements and velocities measured at target points over the entire Italian territory by using PS-InSAR processing technique applied to SAR data acquired by satellites ESA (European Space Agency) ERS-1 and ERS-2 (Earth Resources Satellite) and ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) in the period 1992-2010. Description and results of the Project are available for public browsing at the geoportal of the METS (http://www.pcn.minambiente.it). On the basis of PS-InSAR data, several studies have been recently performed for the identification and characterization of landslides both at small and large scale. These studies led to a more precise delimitation of instable areas and to a better evaluation of the state of activity of mass movements. But, as now well known, interferometry techniques can't be applied to the whole territory due to geometric distortions in SAR data acquisition and to ground conditions. In this work we analyze the potentiality of PS-InSAR data from the Project Persistent Scatterers Interferometry in landslide hazard management of the Veneto Region, located in the north-eastern part of Italy. A synthetic description on the main features of landslides affecting the Region is reported, then the percentage of instabilities where PS-InSAR data can be used, is calculated. At the scale of the entire Region we suggest to follow the method proposed in the scientific literature to evaluate the state of activity of landslides on the basis of the measured velocities at the ground surface, while at local

  16. Normal values for thyroid ultrasonography, goiter prevalence and urinary iodine concentration in schoolchildren of the Veneto Region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Busnardo, B; Nacamulli, D; Frigato, F; Vianello-Dri, A; De Vido, D; Mian, C; Candiani, F; Tomasella, G; Zambonin, L; Piccolo, M; Girelli, M E

    2003-10-01

    Goiter prevalence in school-age children and median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) are the main indicators of iodine deficiency in a population. In areas of mild iodine deficiency, where goiters are small, ultrasound is preferable to physical examination to estimate goiter prevalence. The World Health Organization (WHO) has adopted thyroid volume ultrasonography results from a survey of European schoolchildren as an international reference, but these values have recently been questioned. The aims of the study were: a) to determine regional normal echographic reference values of thyroid volume in children aged between 11 and 14 yr in the Veneto Region, in North-East Italy; b) to determine goiter prevalence by physical and ultrasonographic examination; c) to determine UIC in this section of the population. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 1730 schoolchildren, aged between 11 and 14, living in towns in low-lying areas, in the valleys of the pre-Alps and in the mountains between 600 and 1200 m. Thyroid volume was evaluated by inspection and palpation using the WHO criteria. In 560 children thyroid volume was determined by ultrasound. UIC was measured in 1368 children. On physical examination a grade I goiter was found in 7.5% of children. No goiter grade II or grade III was found. The regional thyroid volume reference values by ultrasonography were similar, or slightly lower (5-20%), to the corresponding WHO reference values. Mean UIC was 148 +/- 110 microg/l, with no difference between lowlands and uplands; UIC values less than 100 microg/l were found in about 30-35% of the children. UIC was higher in children using iodized salt than in non-users. No correlation was found between thyroid volume by ultrasonography and UIC. Thyroid volume was found to be bigger in upland children than in those in low-lying areas, probably because of low iodine intake in people living in the mountains in previous generations. This data show that Veneto is not a iodine

  17. Demographical, Viro-Immunological, Clinical and Therapeutical Characteristics of HIV-Infected Patients in an "Epidemiologically Unexplored" Region of Italy (Calabria Region): the CalabrHIV Cohort.

    PubMed

    Postorino, Maria Concetta; Luciani, Filippo; Mangano, Carmelo; Carpentieri, Maria Stella; Scerbo, Paolo; Priamo, Armando; Berardelli, Giuseppina; Marino, Roberto; Vallone, Alfredo; Serrao, Nicola; Pisani, Vincenzo; Costa, Chiara; Terremoto, Albano; Foti, Giuseppe; Cosco, Lucio; Calderazzo, Massimo; Corigliano, Domenico; Scordo, Preziosa; Strazzulla, Alessio; Torti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    HIV epidemics may differ among epidemiological contexts. We aimed at constructing an HIV clinical cohort whose main epidemiological, clinical and therapeutical characteristics are described (the CalabrHIV cohort, Calabria Region, Southern Italy). The CalabrHIV Cohort includes all HIV patients on active follow-up in all infectious disease centers in the Calabria Region as at October 2014. All information was recorded in a common electronic database. Not-infectious co-morbidities (such as cardiovascular diseases, bone fractures, diabetes, renal failure and hypertension) were also studied. 548 patients (68% males; 59% aged <50 years) were included in the CalabrHIV cohort. Major risk factors were: sexual transmission (49%) and intravenous drug use (34%). 39% patients had HCV and/or HBV co-infection. Amongst 404 patients who had a complete clinical history, 34% were AIDS presenters and 49.3% had CD4 count ≤350/mm(3) at HIV diagnosis. 83% patients on HAART had undetectable HIV-RNA. Hypertension was the most frequent co-morbidity (21.5%). Multimorbidity was more frequent in >50 years old patients than in <50 years old ones (30% vs. 6%; p<0.0001). Co-morbidity was more frequent in HCV and/or HBV co-infected than in HIV mono-infected patients (46.6% vs. 31.7%: p=0.0006). This cohort presentation study sheds light, for the first time, on HIV patients' characteristics in the Calabria Region. We showed that HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis were affected by concomitant not-infectious co-morbidities more than the HIV mono-infected individuals. New HCV treatments are therefore to be implemented in the co-infected population.

  18. Epidemiology and outcome of candidemia in internal medicine wards: A regional study in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Sara; Tumietto, Fabio; Giannella, Maddalena; Bartoletti, Michele; Cristini, Francesco; Cioni, Giorgio; Ambretti, Simone; Carretto, Edoardo; Sambri, Vittorio; Sarti, Mario; Viale, Pierluigi

    2016-10-01

    More than one-third of candidemia episodes occur in Internal Medicine Wards (IMWs) but only few studies have focused on this setting and specific data about epidemiology, clinical characteristics and risk factors for mortality are scant. To describe epidemiology and to assess risk factors for in-hospital mortality among patients with candidemia in IMWs. Multicenter retrospective cohort study on patients with candidemia cared for in IMWs of an Italian region (Emilia Romagna) from January 2012 to December 2013. Non survivors were compared with survivors; variables with p≤0.1 at univariate analysis were entered into a multivariate Cox regression model. 232 patients were included. Overall candidemia incidence was 2.2 cases/1000 admissions. Candida albicans accounted for 59% of cases. Antifungal treatment was started <24h, 24-72h, and >72h from blood cultures in 47%, 27% and 12% of patients, respectively; 13.8% of patients received no antifungal treatment. In-hospital mortality was 40%. At multivariate analysis, chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease (HR 2.72, 95%CI 1.66-4.45, p<0.001) and isolation of C. tropicalis (HR 2.18, 95%CI 1.19-3.99, p=0.01) were the independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality; central-venous-catheter removal (HR 0.59, 95%CI 0.36-0.96, p=0.03) and adequate and timely (within 72h from blood drawing) empirical therapy (HR 0.42, 95%CI 0.25-0.69, p=0.001) were protective factors. The present study conducted in a relatively large geographic area confirms high incidence and mortality of candidemia in IMWs, with a worrisome rate of inappropriateness in patient management. Specific interventions aimed to increase awareness of IMWs about candidemia are needed. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in fresh water fish from Campania Region, southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Pacini, N; Abate, V; Brambilla, G; De Felip, E; De Filippis, S P; De Luca, S; di Domenico, A; D'Orsi, A; Forte, T; Fulgenzi, A R; Iacovella, N; Luiselli, L; Miniero, R; Iamiceli, A L

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-eight fish muscle specimens from the main water bodies of the Campania Region were analyzed in our laboratory. On average, results showed a low contamination by PCDDs+PCDFs and a relatively more important presence of DL-PCBs. All specimens were compliant with EU regulatory maximum levels. Cumulative PCDD+PCDF+DL-PCB concentrations (TEQ(TOT)) were comprised in the range 0.223-11.4 pgWHO(97)-TEQ g(-1) fresh weight (fw). DL-PCB contribution to TEQ(TOT) was on average greater than 86% (range, 50.2-97.1%). The cumulative concentrations of 30 non-dioxin-like PCB congeners (Σ(30)(NDL-PCBs)) and of the six indicators (Σ(6)(NDL-PCBs)) were respectively in the ranges 3.30-515 and 1.30-195 ng g(-1) fw. The hybrid clustering approach adopted to analyze the sample-specific congener profiles indentified the main analytical patterns present in the database and, in particular, two main diverse exposure macro-areas that seem to exist north and south of the city of Naples. The distribution of PCDD and PCDF congeners among different species showed significant variations from chub (Leuciscus cephalus), characterized by a higher proportion of low-chlorinated congeners (e.g. 2,3,7,8-T(4)CDD), to eel (Anguilla anguilla), whose contamination consisted mainly of highly chlorinated congeners (e.g. O(8)CDD). To have a more complete perspective in relation to the contaminants present in the environment, the study suggestion is to use benthic as well as pelagic species to obtain an integrated characterization of fish tissue contamination.

  20. Gamma-spectrometric measurement of radioactivity in agricultural soils of the Lombardia region, northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Laura; Carini, Franca; Rossi, Riccardo; Gatti, Marina; Cenci, Roberto M; Beone, Gian Maria

    2015-04-01

    This work is part of a wider monitoring project of the agricultural soils in Lombardia, which aims to build a database of topsoil properties and the potentially toxic elements, organic pollutants and gamma emitting radionuclides that the topsoils contain. A total of 156 agricultural soils were sampled according to the LUCAS (Land Use/Cover Area frame statistical Survey) standard procedure. The aim was to provide a baseline to document the conditions present at the time of sampling. The results of the project concerning soil radioactivity are presented here. The aim was to assess the content of (238)U, (232)Th, (137)Cs and (40)K by measuring soil samples by gamma spectrometry. (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K activities range 24-231, 20-70, and 242-1434 Bq kg(-1) respectively. The geographic distribution of (238)U reflects the geophysical framework of the Lombardia region: the soils with high content of uranium are distributed for the most part in the South Alpine belt, where the presence of magmatic rocks is widespread. These soils show an higher activity of (238)U than of (232)Th. The (238)U activities become lower than (232)Th when soils are located in the plain, originating from basic sedimentary rocks. (137)Cs activity ranges 0.4-86.8 kBq m(-2). The lowest activity of (137)Cs is in the plain, whereas the highest is in the North on soils kept as lawn or pasture. The (137)Cs activity of some samples suggests the presence of accumulation processes that lead to (137)Cs enriched soils. This is the first survey of gamma emitting radionuclides in Lombardia that is based on the LUCAS standard sampling. The results from this monitoring campaign are important for the human radiation exposure and provide the zero point, which will be useful for assessing future effects due to external factors such as human activities.

  1. [Risk factors analysis for elective caesarean section in Campania region (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Giani, Umberto; Bruzzese, Dario; Pugliese, Aniello; Saporito, Maurizio; Triassi, Maria

    2011-01-01

    to assess both clinical and non clinical factors associated with elective caesarean section practice and to highlight those typologies of expectant mothers who underwent elective caesarean delivery even in the absence of clinical risk factors. Birth Certificates archive has been used as data source: 62888 available records of all the births that occurred in the Campania region in 2005 both in public and private hospitals. Only those births pertained to women without previous caesarean sections were analyzed. type of delivery, dichotomized as elective caesarean section and vaginal delivery. after adjusting the data for known risk factors, elective caesarean section practice emerged as much more prevalent in private hospitals than in public ones (53.1% vs 24.3%, p<0.001). A multivariate logistic regression model showed a significant association between primiparity and elective caesarean section. This association was stronger in private hospitals (OR for interaction between parity and hospital typology 1.81, CI 95% 1.62-2.04). Being older than 34 years, having recoursed to medically assisted procreation and a previous voluntary termination of pregnancy cause an increase in the odd of resorting to elective caesarean section (p<0.01). Being foreigner, high educational qualification and young age were protective factors for elective caesarean section (respectively, OR 0.36 CI 95% 0.31-0.42, OR 0.81 CI 95% 0.77-0.86 e OR 0.84 CI 95% 0.78 -0.90). Five different typologies of primiparous women were found by means of a hierarchical classification procedure. A high percentage of elective caesarean section was found in women assisted in private structure with no clinical risk. in Campania there is an excess of elective caesarean sections among primiparous women without manifest clinical risk factors; this excess is higher when the delivery occurs in Private Hospitals. Public health policy and actions aimed at reducing caesarean section rates should be addressed mainly to this

  2. Modelling study of the coastal processes induced by the new Port of Fiumicino (Lazio Region, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonamano, S.; Scanu, S.; Peviani, M.; Marcelli, M.

    2009-04-01

    The present study concerns the analysis of the hydrodynamic circulation and littoral sediment transport effects due to the construction of the new Port of Fiumicino. This physiography area of the study is considering the Lazial coast from Capo Linaro (North) to Capo d'Anzio (South) with a total length of about 150 km. On one hand, the hydrodynamic field was analysed using the ADCIRC numerical model that solves the two-dimensional shallow water equations. On the other hand, the sediment movement and morphology change has been analyzed with the CSM-M2D model, through transport rate formulations, the advection-diffusion equation, and the sediment continuity equation for updating change in the sea bottom. Wave forcing is included in CMS-M2D through coupling with a wave model. The hydrodynamic analysis carried out including medium and extreme intensities conditions for the following wind directions: Libeccio (SW), Scirocco (SE) and Maestrale (NW), together with the general current circulation of the Tyrrhenian sea. Furthermore, the water and sediment inflow from the rivers in the region were taken into account for the littoral transport analysis. The results of hydrodynamic model ADCIRC indicates that Maestrale and Scirocco wind conditions generates an increase of velocity currents near underwater terraces and in the surrounding of the Fiumara Grande river. On the other hand, the Libeccio wind condition generates anti cyclonic circulation in both the Northern and Southern areas of the new port structure. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the new Fiumicino Port zone has shown that the Scirocco and Libeccio scenarios create a shadow zone to the North; while the Maestrale scenario generates a little shadow zone to the South. In addition, the dominant sediment transport which is oriented from SE to NW generates an erosion process at the Northern zone of the new port.

  3. Hillslope degradation in small Mediterranean catchments along the Apennine chain in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandolini, Pierluigi; Capolongo, Domenico; Cappadonia, Chiara; Cevasco, Andrea; Conoscenti, Christian; Del Monte, Maurizio; Pepe, Giacomo; Piccarreta, Marco; Vergari, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    In this research, the results coming from the investigation of some small catchments located along the Apennines (Italy) affected by hillslope degradation are presented. Four key study areas, particularly sensitive to climatic and anthropic changes, have been selected in Liguria (Cinque Terre), Tuscany (Val d'Orcia), Basilicata (Fossa Bradanica)) and Sicily (Scillato) regions. These areas are characterized by different climatic and geological conditions, orographic and tectonic settings, land use evolution and land management practices. All of them recorded very severe landscape changes in the last few centuries, because of unsustainable anthropogenic modification together with their increasing proneness to fast erosion by mass movements and runoff on slopes. Hence, degradation processes are widespread in the selected areas leading to loss and depletion of soil, economic damage, risk conditions and environmental changes. Interestingly, despite the small extent, the selected basins can be considered representative of the land degradation issues that occurred at the wider regional scale. The obtained results show that the maximum denudation effects occur during occasional but extreme rainfall events that can mobilize, in a few hours or days, the total annual sediment yield estimated for a single catchment and for a single slope. Furthermore, the case studies revealed that land mismanagement has a crucial impact in increasing the erosion rates, especially when crop-land are abandoned and/or land maintenance practices are no longer carried out. Since hillslope degradation, together with the recent changes in the rainfall regime and in land use, can lead to an increasing in both geomorphological hazard and risk, our findings can contribute: (i) to define a proper land management; (ii) to support the decision-making; (iii) to schedule an effective strategy for landscape conservation and its enhancement.

  4. Healthcare-acquired infections in rehabilitation units of the Lombardy Region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Tinelli, M; Mannino, S; Lucchi, S; Piatti, A; Pagani, L; D'Angelo, R; Villa, M; Trezzi, L; Di Stefano, M G; Pavan, A; Macchi, L

    2011-08-01

    Little data are available on the frequency and risk factors for infection in patients in rehabilitation units. This was a 2-year retrospective cohort study conducted in 131 rehabilitation units (RUs) of the Lombardy Region, including those for patients requiring musculoskeletal, cardiac, respiratory, neurological and general geriatric rehabilitation. RUs were stratified into three groups by infection rate calculated from administrative data, and a random sample of RUs in each group was selected for analysis. Discharges from these RUs were randomly selected for chart review, and healthcare-acquired infection was confirmed using CDC/NHSN definitions. A logistic regression analysis explored the association among demographic variables of age, sex, type of rehabilitation unit, Charlson comorbidity score, and location prior to RU admission for selected infections. For the 3,028 discharges from 28 RUs, hospital administrative data had a sensitivity of 0.45 and a positive predictive value of 0.89 to identify infections in the chart review. At least one infection occurred in 14.9% of patient discharges, with 71% of infections being urinary, 8.0% respiratory, and 5% skin and soft tissue. Urinary infection was associated with female sex [odds ratio (OR) 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.93], age 75-85 years (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.12-4.34), Charlson comorbidity score of ≥3 (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.10-2.17), and the transfer from acute care (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.04-2.02). For respiratory infection, male sex (OR 3.06, 95% CI 1.51-6.18), comorbidity score of 1 or 2 (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.08-4.36), and transfer from a healthcare setting other than an acute care hospital were independent risks (OR 3.14, 95% CI 1.15-8.53). Infections are common in residents of these rehabilitation units, and risk factors may differ with type of infection. The proportion of infections which may be prevented and effective prevention strategies need to be determined.

  5. Human health risk assessment for potentially toxic metals (PTEs) in Acerra' s area (Campanian Region, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezza, Carmela; Sorvari, Jaana; Albanese, Stefano; Matar, Thiombane; Lima, Annamaria; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2017-04-01

    Acerra's territory is situated in the Agro Aversano area. It is characterized by considerable anthropogenic pollution, caused by the illegal dumping and burning of waste since the 1990s. This area has also become highly urbanized and it is undergoing continuous changes in land-use patterns. Altogether 60 % of the total area is dedicated to agriculture, cereals, potato, tobacco and vegetables being the main crops, while 20 % of the area is urban and peri-urban. The remaining part is devoted to industrial use. The waste treatment plant, which incinerates mixed municipal solid waste from most of the municipalities around the city of Naples since 2009, is a potential major source of industrial pollution in the area. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of environmental contamination in Acerra and assess the consequential health risks. 178 topsoil samples and 10 food samples (corn and Chicorium endive) were taken within the whole study area. All samples were analysed for 15 elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V and Zn) at Bureau Veritas Analytical Laboratories (Vancouver, Canada) by ICP-MS and ICP-ES after an aqua-regia digestion. We calculated enrichment factors and pollution indexes of the PTEs in soil and vegetables by comparing their concentrations with the regional background level and trigger and action values for residential/recreational and industrial/commercial land use set in the Italian Environmental Law (152/06). We also calculated the soil-to-plant bio-concentration factor for critical PTEs. In the human health risk assessment, we focused on Be, Cu, Pb, and Zn since they were identified as the most critical elements based on the pollution indexes. We drew up a conceptual model to describe the formation of human health risks in the study area and divided it into agricultural, urban and industrial subareas. Considering the land use and environmental conditions, the following exposure routes are relevant in the formation

  6. A Radar and Gauge hourly precipitation database for calibration and statistical purposes over Lombardy Region - Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcacci, P.; Bonelli, P.; Lacavalla, M.; Vaghi, L.; Molari, M.; Musolino, A. E.; La Rocca, L.; Bertolotti, E.

    2012-04-01

    The Lombardy territory is partly characterized by the Alps Chain and by flat terrain, belonging to the Po river basin. Precipitation amount is a crucial meteorological variable, needed in hydrology, agriculture and energy evaluations. On this territory different rain-gauge networks have been run in the last ten years with different degree of reliability and areal distribution. At the same time the Swiss C-band radar of Mount Lema (1624 m.), near the city of Locarno, managed by Meteo Swiss, has produced rainfall amount data with an high level of continuity and quality on almost the whole Lombardy territory. Although it is widely recognized that radar precipitation estimates are affected by errors in mountainous areas, mostly due to the shield effects, this source of data remains of great value for its high resolution property and real-time availability. Any effort to explain differences between radar and gauges estimations needs a tool able to manage a sufficient large data-set. In order to get such a tool on the Lombardy region, a data-base of ten years (2000-2009) of hourly precipitation amount from the Monte Lema radar and from the various gauge networks has been carried out. A radar-gauges calibration method has been tested and applied to the whole data-set. The calibration method is based on the relation between precipitation estimate error and the radar visibility. A subset of gauges have been selected in order to set up the method, a different subset has been used to test it. Hourly precipitation radar estimate has been re-computed taking into account the corrections obtained. The data-base, developed in a open source MySQL environment, contains both the original radar precipitation estimates and the corrected data, grid and gauges coordinates are also provided. Some query-procedures allow to compute areal precipitation amounts, statistical distribution, scatter plot diagram and correlation coefficients between gauge measurements and radar estimates. Examples

  7. Taking decisions on expenditure for high-cost drugs at the regional level: a model for evaluating the overall impact of Trastuzumab in the Veneto Region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Buja, Alessandra; Perissinotto, Egle; Compostella, Antonio; Tramarin, Andrea; Rebba, Vincenzo; Pastorelli, Davide; Grigoletto, Francesco; Gallo, Costantino; Rausa, Giuseppe; Gregori, Dario

    2011-04-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis provides a ratio that indicates the value created per unit of money by a given therapy but says nothing about the total expected costs or net health and social impact of this therapy in a particular population of interest. The main objective of this study is to define a methodology to calculate the effects of interventions from a local perspective. This will help determine parameters that provide information about resource planning and management to local decision makers. The described methodology calculates four indicators using local demographic and epidemiological data and a Markovian decision tree approach. The method was applied to evaluate the economic, health and social impact of introducing a new cancer drug, Trastuzumab, for the early treatment of breast cancer in the Veneto Region of Italy. The indicators described in this study allow public policy makers to clearly understand the benefits and costs of a particular health intervention in a local population and to compare it with other strategies. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Pb isotopic constrains and environmental risk assessment of the Domizio Flegreo and Agro Aversano area (Campania region, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezza, Carmela; Albanese, Stefano; Ayuso, Robert; Lima, Annamaria; Sorvari, Jaana; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive geochemical environmental study focused on topsoil, groundwater, vegetable (corn) and human hair samples has been carried out in the Domizio-Flegreo Littoral and Agro Aversano areas in Southern Italy, covering 1287 km2 and including 90 municipalities. Within the framework of thethis study a focus was also carried on some specific sites (Teverola, Trentola-Ducenta, Giugliano, Castelvolturno and Acerra), that may have been affected by different sources of pollution (industrial and agricultural) and by the large presence of illegal buried waste disposals. Among the industrial sites that are expected to contribute to the contamination of the region a car and a chemical factory producing polyester fibres could be taken into account together with an urban waste incineration plant that is in operation since 2009 within the Acerra municipality administrative area. The research is based on 1064 topsoil samples, 27 groundwater samples, 24 samples of human hair and 13 corn samples taken in across the whole study area. Although samples were analysed for 53 elements at ACME Analytical Laboratories (Vancouver, Canada) by means of ICP-MS and ICP-ES after an aqua regia digestion, we focused on 15 key elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V and Zn), for which the Italian Environmental Law 152/06 establishes trigger and action limits for both residential/recreational and industrial/commercial land use, based on the risks to human health. All the chemical data were statistically treated and dot and interpolated maps were produced by means of the GeoDAS software. Maps showing the distribution of contamination factors (1) (Hakanson,1980) for each key element were also created. In general, As, Pb, Cr, Cd and Hg resulted to be the most critical pollutants for the area. Furthermore, Pb isotopic analyses on soil, water, corn and hair were conducted in order to distinguish between possible sources of contamination and geogenic and/or anthropogenic

  9. The OSMATER project: promotion of stone materials from the Verbano-Cusio-Ossola region (Italy) and the Canton Ticino (Switzerland).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, Alessandro; Antonella Dino, Giovanna

    2013-04-01

    The OSMATER (sub-Alpine Observatory Materials Territory Restoration) project, funded by the Piedmont Region (Italy) and the European Community, involved four Italian scientific bodies (Polytechnic of Turin, University of Turin, University of Milan-Bicocca, University of Bologna) and Switzerland (SUPSI). The aim was to investigate the present and historical quarrying and processing activities in the cross-border area between the Ossola Valley (Italy) and the Canton Ticino (Switzerland), and the use of dimension stones in local and national architecture. These materials are in many ways a "unique case", for their abundance and lithological variety. In the past, their extraction, processing and application characterized in a decisive way the architectural and constructive culture, both in terms of prestigious architecture and civil buildings, establishing a relationship between "stones and culture", "territory and its resources". In recent years, many of these traditions are losing importance and interest: this results in a loss of knowledge and historical memory, due mainly to the drastic changes in the market. The loss of this knowledge is likely to become irreversible in the short term, with the disappearance of people and social groups depositary of tradition. We can deduce that the creation of an "observatory", like OSMATER, is desirable and essential indeed, if we want to preserve the historical memory of the stone industry of an entire production area. The OSMATER project aimed the knowledge, recovery and enhancement of the architectural and cultural heritage of the cross-border area, through the census and classification of rocks, quarries (both active and historical - since Roman age), monuments and construction techniques typical of the sub-Alpine region, in order to create a documentation centre through a dedicated website. The first phase of the project was devoted to the identification of architectural works built with stone materials, with particular

  10. Regional earthquakes followed by delayed ground uplifts at Campi Flegrei Caldera, Italy: Arguments for a causal link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupi, Matteo; Frehner, Marcel; Weis, Philipp; Skelton, Alasdair; Saenger, Erik H.; Tisato, Nicola; Geiger, Sebastian; Chiodini, Giovanni; Driesner, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Earthquake-triggered volcanic activity promoted by dynamic and static stresses are considered rare and difficult-to-capture geological processes. Calderas are ideal natural laboratories to investigate earthquake-volcano interactions due to their sensitivity to incoming seismic energy. The Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy, is one of the most monitored volcanic systems worldwide. We compare ground elevation time series at Campi Flegrei with earthquake catalogues showing that uplift events at Campi Flegrei are associated with large regional earthquakes. Such association is supported by (yet non-definitive) binomial tests. Over a 70-year time window we identify 14 uplift events, 12 of them were preceded by an earthquake, and for 8 of them the earthquake-to-uplift timespan ranges from immediate responses to 1.2 yr. Such variability in the response delay may be due to the preparedness of the system with faster responses probably occurring in periods during which the Campi Flegrei system was already in a critical state. To investigate the process that may be responsible for the proposed association we simulate the propagation of elastic waves and show that passing body waves impose high dynamic strains at the roof of the magmatic reservoir of the Campi Flegrei at about 7 km depth. This may promote a short-lived embrittlement of the magma reservoir's carapace otherwise marked by a ductile behaviour. Such failure allows magma and exsolved volatiles to be released from the magmatic reservoir. The fluids, namely exsolved volatiles and/or melts, ascend through a nominally plastic zone above the magmatic reservoir. This mechanism and the associated inherent uncertainties require further investigations but the new concept already implies that geological processes triggered by passing seismic waves may become apparent several months after passage of the seismic waves.

  11. Water quality assessment of carbonate aquifers in southern Latium region, Central Italy: a case study for irrigation and drinking purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sappa, Giuseppe; Ergul, Sibel; Ferranti, Flavia

    2014-06-01

    In southern Latium region, Central Italy, groundwater and spring water resources in the carbonate aquifers are the major contributors of drinking and irrigation water supply. The aim of this study was to review hydrochemical processes that control the groundwater chemistry and to determine the suitability of springs and groundwater for irrigation and drinking purposes on the basis of the water quality indices. Physical (pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids) and hydrochemical characteristics (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3 -, Cl-, and SO4 -) of springs and groundwater were determined. To assess the water quality, chemical parameters like sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), total hardness, Mg-hazard (MH), sodium percentage (Na %), salinity hazard, permeability index, and Kelly's ratio were calculated based on the analytical results. A Durov diagram plot revealed that the groundwater has been evolved from Ca to HCO3 recharge water, followed by mixing and reverse ion exchange processes, due to the respective dominance of Na-Cl and Ca-Cl water types. According to Gibbs's diagram plots, chemical weathering of rock forming minerals is the major driving force controlling water chemistry in this area. Groundwater and spring samples were grouped into six categories according to irrigation water quality assessment diagram of US Salinity Laboratory classification and most of the water samples distributed in category C2-S1 and C3-S1 highlighting medium to high salinity hazard and low sodium content class. The results of hydrochemical analyses and the calculated water quality parameters suggest that most of the water samples are suitable for irrigation and drinking purposes, except for the samples influenced by seawater and enhanced water-rock interaction. High values of salinity, Na %, SAR, and MH at certain sites, restrict the suitability for agricultural uses.

  12. [Investigation on the health effects of traffic-related air pollution from Mestre motorway (Veneto Region, Northern Italy)].

    PubMed

    Anello, Paola; Cestari, Laura; Canova, Cristina; Vianello, Luisa; Pistollato, Silvia; Lorenzet, Ketty; Sciarrone, Rocco; Selle, Vittorio; Simonato, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    to evaluate whether living near motorway A57 (Mestre motorway, Veneto Region, Northern Italy) might have affected the residents' health status. longitudinal cohort study. 148,673 residents on the mainland in the Municipality of Venice (Mestre) who never changed their residence during the follow- up period (2002-2009). the 2001 Italian census data were linked with the data sources of the epidemiological integrated system which includes: population registry, death certificates, hospital discharges, drug prescriptions, and tax exemption. Mortality and incidence for several subgroups of causes, incidence of acute myocardial infarction and stroke, and prevalence of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ischemic cardiopathy and diabetes were estimated. The ADMS-Urban model was adopted to define three different exposure areas based on PM10 emissions from the motorway: A (highly exposed), B (moderately exposed) used as a comparison for the analysis, C (unexposed). Hazard ratios (HR) for incidence and mortality were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for calendar period, age, gender, and instruction level. The relationship between the exposure area and prevalence was investigated by multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for the same covariates. compared with B area (23.25%of the population under study), people living in A area (3.16% of the population under study) had an increased incidence of acute myocardial infarction (HR: 1.43; 95%CI 1.03-1.97) in females, and prevalence of ischemic cardiopathy (odds ratio - OR: 1.12; 95%CI 1.01-1.26) in both genders. Results were borderline for COPD in males (OR: 1.17; 95%CI 0.97-1.41). Positive but nonsignificant associations were found with pneumonia and respiratory recoveries. this study showed that residents who live near Mestre motorway had an increased prevalence of some cardiorespiratory diseases, particularly ischemic cardiopathy.

  13. Out-of-hours primary care services: demands and patient referral patterns in a Veneto region (Italy) Local Health Authority.

    PubMed

    Buja, Alessandra; Toffanin, Roberto; Rigon, Stefano; Sandonà, Paolo; Carraro, Daniela; Damiani, Gianfranco; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients admitted to an out-of-hours (OOH) service and to analyze the related outputs. A retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted by analyzing an electronic database recording 23,980 OOH service contacts in 2011 at a Local Health Authority in the Veneto Region (North-East Italy). A multinomial logistic regression was used to compare the characteristics of contacts handled by the OOH physicians with cases referred to other services. OOH service contact rates were higher for the oldest and youngest age groups and for females rather than males. More than half of the contacts concerned patients who were seen by a OOH physician. More than one in three contacts related problems managed over the phone; only ≈10% of the patients were referred to other services. Many factors, including demographic variables, process-logistic variables and clinical characteristics of the contact, were associated with the decision to visit the patient's home (rather than provide telephone advice alone), or to refer patients to an ED or to a specialist. Our study demonstrated, even after adjusting, certain OOH physicians were more likely than their colleagues to refer a patient to an ED. Our study shows that OOH services meet composite and variously expressed demands. The determining factors associated with cases referred to other health care services should be considered when designing clinical pathways in order to ensure a continuity of care. The unwarranted variability in OOH physicians' performance needs to be addressed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ethnobotanical survey of wild food plants traditionally collected and consumed in the Middle Agri Valley (Basilicata region, southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Sansanelli, Sabrina; Ferri, Maura; Salinitro, Mirko; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2017-09-06

    This research was carried out in a scarcely populated area of the Middle Agri Valley (Basilicata region, southern Italy). The aim of the study was to record local knowledge on the traditional uses of wild food plants, as well as to collect information regarding the practices (gathering, processing and cooking) and the medicinal uses related to these plants. Fifty-eight people still possessing traditional local knowledge (TLK), 74% women and 26% men, were interviewed between May-August 2012 and January 2013, using open and semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews. For each described plant species, the botanical family, the Italian common and folk names, the plant parts used, the culinary preparation and, when present, the medicinal use, were recorded and the relative frequency of citation index (RFC) was determined. The 52 plant species mentioned by the respondents belong to 23 botanical families, with Asteraceae (12 plants) and Rosaceae (7 plants) being most frequently cited. The species with the highest RFC index is Cichorium intybus L. (0.95), followed by Sonchus spp. (S. oleraceus L., S. asper L. and S. arvensis L.) (0.76). The plant parts preferably used are leaves (22 plants), fruits (12) and stems (7). Only six wild plants were indicated as having both food use and therapeutic effect. The survey conducted on the traditional use of wild food plants in the Middle Agri Valley revealed that this cultural heritage is only partially retained by the population. Over the last few decades, this knowledge has been in fact quickly disappearing along with the people and, even in the rural context of the study area, is less and less handed down to younger generations. Nevertheless, data also revealed that the use of wild plants is recently being revaluated in a way closely related to local habits and traditions.

  15. Geochemistry and microbial diversity of cave waters in the gypsum karst aquifers of Emilia Romagna region, Italy.

    PubMed

    D'Angeli, Ilenia M; Serrazanetti, Diana I; Montanari, Chiara; Vannini, Lucia; Gardini, Fausto; De Waele, Jo

    2017-11-15

    Fifty-seven control points of waters (sinking streams, rivers in caves, and resurgences) hosted in gypsum karst areas in Emilia Romagna region (N-Italy) were sampled in the framework of a Project LIFE+08NAT/IT/000369 "Gypsum" in the period 2010-2014. The microbiology and chemistry of these waters have been analyzed to evaluate the impact of human activities or natural factors, in the gypsum karst systems. Waters have been analyzed for major chemistry (Ca, Mg, Na, K, SO4, HCO3, Cl, NO3) and some minor constituents (F, Br, NH4 and PO4), measuring pH, electric conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS) and temperature (T) in situ. The same samples have been analyzed with traditional microbiology techniques focused on total microbial count and on fecal microbiota, as index of human and/or animal contamination, and molecular biology techniques (sequencing of 16S rRNA segment and PCR-DGGE), focused on the characterization of microbial populations in the different sampling sites and determination of their variations and/or changes during the five years of the project. As expected, waters tend to be increasingly mineralized from sinking streams to resurgences, with only local and temporarily high contents in nitrates and ammonium, often related to the presence of bat colonies. PCR-DGGE revealed ecological changes, in terms of microbial populations present in the bulk water samples, in different sampling sites within the same cave. Although the impact of fecal microorganisms only rarely exceeded 2 log UFC/ml, the results evidenced fluctuations of these microorganisms mainly correlated to the season and to the biological activity of bats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact Of Landslides Along Road Network And Direct Cost Estimation: A Case Study In Marche Region, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvati, P.; Donnini, M.; Guzzetti, F.; Ardizzone, F.; Cardinali, M.; Bucci, F.; Fiorucci, F.; Alvioli, M.; Santangelo, M.

    2014-12-01

    In November and December 2013, the Marche region (Central Italy) was hit by three severe, but not rare, meteorological events. The maximum value of the three days cumulative rainfall (499 mm) was recorded at the rain gauge of Pintura di Bolognola. The intense rainfall caused floods along the rivers and triggered numerous landslides, mostly located in the hilly and mountainous terrain of the region. The territory is crossed by a large number of roads connecting small rural settlements. After the events, the Regional Civil Protection Office requested to the Research Institute for the geo-hydrological Protection (IRPI-CNR) a technical support to evaluate the hazard condition for different sites affected by landslides. For an area of approximately 200 km2, in the Municipalities of Acquasanta Terme and Roccafluvione, field surveys were carried out to identify the rainfall-induced landslides and to produce an event inventory map. More than 1,500 slope failures were mapped including earth flows, slide-earth flows, slides, rock-falls and complex slides. Field surveys were focused also to estimate qualitatively damages along the roads. Roads were classified in two classes: the main roads under the State responsibility and the secondary roads under the Municipality responsibility. The different types of damage were classified in three classes: i) aesthetic (minor), where the road functionality was not compromised; ii) functional (medium), where the functionality was compromised and iii) structural (severe) where roads are severely or completely damaged. Immediately after the event, the technicians of the Municipalities of Acquasanta Terme and Roccafluvione spent major efforts to partially restore the functionality of the secondary roads in order to guarantee the primary human needs. In the following ten days, they compiled a list of interventions, associated with the relative direct costs, aimed to the total restoration of the roads functionality. In collaboration with the

  17. Human and entomological surveillance of West Nile fever, dengue and chikungunya in Veneto Region, Italy, 2010-2012

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since 2010 Veneto region (North-Eastern Italy) planned a special integrated surveillance of summer fevers to promptly identify cases of West Nile Fever (WNF), dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV). The objectives of this study were (i) To increase the detection rate of imported CHIKV and DENV cases in travellers from endemic areas and promptly identify potential autochthonous cases.(ii) To detect autochthonous cases of WNF, besides those of West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease (WNND) that were already included in a national surveillance. Methods Human surveillance: a traveler who had returned within the previous 15 days from endemic countries, with fever >38°C, absence of leucocytosis (leukocyte count <10,000 μL), and absence of other obvious causes of fever, after ruling out malaria, was considered a possible case of CHIKV or DENV. A possible autochthonous case of WNF was defined as a patient with fever >38°C for <7 days, no recent travel history and absence of other obvious causes of fever. Entomologic surveillance: for West Nile (WNV) it was carried out from May through November placing CDC-CO2 traps in five provinces of Veneto Region, while for DENV and CHIKV it was also performed around residences of viremic cases. Results Human surveillance: between 2010 and 2012, 234 patients with fever after travelling were screened, of which 27 (11,5%) were found infected (24 with DENV and 3 with CHIKV). No autochthonous case of DENV or CHIKV was detected. Autochthonous patients screened for WNF were 408, and 24 (5,9%) were confirmed cases. Entomologic surveillance: the WNV was found in 10, 2 and 11 pools of Culex pipiens from 2010 to 2012 respectively, in sites of Rovigo, Verona, Venezia and Treviso provinces). No infected Aedes albopictus with DENV or CHIKV was found. Conclusions Veneto is the only Italian region reporting WNV human cases every year since 2008. WNV is likely to cause sporadic cases and unforeseeable outbreaks for decades. Including WNF in

  18. Human and entomological surveillance of West Nile fever, dengue and chikungunya in Veneto Region, Italy, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, Federico; Capelli, Gioia; Angheben, Andrea; Giobbia, Mario; Conforto, Mario; Franzetti, Marzia; Cattelan, Anna Maria; Raise, Enzo; Rovere, Pierangelo; Mulatti, Paolo; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Drago, Andrea; Barzon, Luisa; Napoletano, Giuseppina; Zanella, Francesca; Pozza, Francesca; Russo, Francesca; Rosi, Paolo; Palù, Giorgio; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2014-02-05

    Since 2010 Veneto region (North-Eastern Italy) planned a special integrated surveillance of summer fevers to promptly identify cases of West Nile Fever (WNF), dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV). The objectives of this study were (i) To increase the detection rate of imported CHIKV and DENV cases in travellers from endemic areas and promptly identify potential autochthonous cases.(ii) To detect autochthonous cases of WNF, besides those of West Nile Neuroinvasive Disease (WNND) that were already included in a national surveillance. Human surveillance: a traveler who had returned within the previous 15 days from endemic countries, with fever >38°C, absence of leucocytosis (leukocyte count <10,000 μL), and absence of other obvious causes of fever, after ruling out malaria, was considered a possible case of CHIKV or DENV. A possible autochthonous case of WNF was defined as a patient with fever >38°C for <7 days, no recent travel history and absence of other obvious causes of fever. Entomologic surveillance: for West Nile (WNV) it was carried out from May through November placing CDC-CO2 traps in five provinces of Veneto Region, while for DENV and CHIKV it was also performed around residences of viremic cases. Human surveillance: between 2010 and 2012, 234 patients with fever after travelling were screened, of which 27 (11,5%) were found infected (24 with DENV and 3 with CHIKV). No autochthonous case of DENV or CHIKV was detected. Autochthonous patients screened for WNF were 408, and 24 (5,9%) were confirmed cases. Entomologic surveillance: the WNV was found in 10, 2 and 11 pools of Culex pipiens from 2010 to 2012 respectively, in sites of Rovigo, Verona, Venezia and Treviso provinces). No infected Aedes albopictus with DENV or CHIKV was found. Veneto is the only Italian region reporting WNV human cases every year since 2008. WNV is likely to cause sporadic cases and unforeseeable outbreaks for decades. Including WNF in surveillance provides additional information

  19. Structure of the mitochondrial control region of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra; Carnivora, Mustelidae): patterns of genetic heterogeneity and implications for conservation of the species in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ketmaier, V; Bernardini, C

    2005-01-01

    In this study we determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra). We then compared these new sequences with orthologues of nine carnivores belonging to six families (Mustelidae, Mephitidae, Canidae, Hyaenidae, Ursidae, and Felidae). The comparative analyses identified all the conserved regions previously found in mammals. The Eurasian otter and seven other species have a single location with tandem repeats in the right domain, while the spotted hyena (Hyaenidae) and the tiger (Felidae) have repeated sequences in both the right and left domains. To assess the degree of genetic heterogeneity of the Eurasian otter in Italy we sequenced two fragments of the gene and analyzed length polymorphisms of repeated sequences and heteroplasmy in 32 specimens. The study includes 23 museum specimens collected in northern, central, and southern Italy; most of these specimens are from extinct populations, while the southern Italian samples belong to the sole extant Italian population of the Eurasian otter. The study also includes all the captive-reared animals living in the colony "Centro Lontra, Caramanico Terme" (Pescara, central Italy). The colony is maintained for reintroduction of the species. We found a low level of genetic polymorphism; a single haplotype is dominant, but our data indicate the presence in central and southern Italy of two slightly divergent haplotypes. One haplotype belongs to an extinct population, the other is present in the single extant Italian population. Analyses of length polymorphisms and heteroplasmy indicate that the autochthonous Italian samples are characterized by a distinct array of repeated sequences from captive-reared animals.

  20. A physics-based earthquake simulator and its application to seismic hazard assessment in Calabria (Southern Italy) region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Console, Rodolfo; Nardi, Anna; Carluccio, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The characteristic earthquake hypothesis is not strongly supported by observational data because of the relatively short duration of historical and even paleoseismological records. For instance, for the Calabria (Southern Italy) region, historical information on strong earthquakes exist for at least two thousand years, but they can be considered complete for M > 6.0 only for the latest few centuries. As a consequence, characteristic earthquakes are seldom reported for individual fault segments, and hazard assessment is not reliably estimated by means of only minor seismicity reported in the historical catalogs. Even if they cannot substitute the information contained in a good historical catalog, physics-based earthquake simulators have become popular in the recent literature, and their application has been justified by a number of reasons. In particular, earthquake simulators can provide interesting information on which renewal models can better describe the recurrence statistics, and how this is affected by features as local fault geometry and kinematics. The use of a newly developed earthquake simulator has allowed the production of catalogs lasting 100,000 years and containing more than 100,000 events of magnitudes ≥ 4.5. The algorithm on which this simulator is based is constrained by several physical elements, as an average slip rate due to tectonic loading for every single segment in the investigated fault system, the process of rupture growth and termination, and interaction between earthquake sources, including small magnitude events. Events nucleated in one segment are allowed to expand into neighboring segments, if they are separated by a given maximum range of distance. The application of our simulation algorithm to Calabria region provides typical features in time, space and magnitude behaviour of the seismicity, which can be compared with those of the real observations. These features include long-term periodicity of strong earthquakes, short

  1. Estimated hospitalization rate for diseases attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae in the Veneto region of north-east Italy

    PubMed Central

    Baldo, Vincenzo; Cocchio, Silvia; Lazzari, Roberta; Furlan, Patrizia; Bertoncello, Chiara; Russo, Francesca; Saia, Mario; Baldovin, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide in all age groups. Serious diseases often caused by pneumococci include pneumonia, meningitis and bacteremia. Objective The aim of this work was to estimate the hospitalization rate for SP in the Veneto region by investigating pneumococcal-related discharges. Material and methods This was a retrospective study based on hospital discharge data collected from 2008 to 2012 in the Veneto Region (north-east Italy). All hospitalizations for diseases potentially associated with SP were identified by searching the hospital discharge records, then the proportions of hospital admissions for pneumonia, meningitis and septicemia attributable to the infection were calculated. Comorbidities were also graded according to the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Data were analyzed using the chi square test and Student's t-test for unpaired data, as appropriate. Significant trends over the years considered were examined in terms of average annual percent changes (AAPC). A p value < 0.05 was considered significant. Results We identified 62,946 hospital discharge records concerning diseases potentially associated with SP. Among them, the proportion of SP-related hospital admissions (SP-HA) was estimated to be 23,089 (37.2%). The estimated incidence of SP-HA was 94.0/100,000 population (102.8/100,000 in males and 85.6/100,000 in females; p < 0.01): 89.0 for pneumonia, 0.9 for meningitis, and 4.1 for septicemia. The incidence of SP-HA was higher in children and the elderly, and the overall fatality rate was 11.0%. The overall economic burden of SP-HA during the period considered was around €14.8 million a year, with an average cost of €3120 per hospitalization. Conclusion This study shows that hospitalization for SP-related disease has a considerable impact on the health services, especially as far as children and the elderly are concerned. PMID:27114894

  2. Industrial wastes from the boat-building sector in the Marche Region (Italy): a parametric and chemical-physical characterization.

    PubMed

    Carchesio, M; Tatàno, F; Tosi, G; Trivellone, C H

    2013-01-01

    Using the renowned leisure boat-building sector in the Marche Region (Italy) as a case-study, this paper addresses the characterization of (1) the industrial waste generation from the building of composite material-based boats and (2) some chemical-physical properties of representative types of boat-building residues (plastic foam, hardened resin, fibre-reinforced composite residues, and sanding dust). A parametric evaluation based on the number of employees gave a representative unit generation rate per employee (UGRpE) of 1.47 tons(waste) employee(-1) year(-1) for the entire Marche regional boatbuilding district, whereas evaluations carried out separately for three case-study companies provided values of 1.56, 3.07, and 1.12 tons(waste) employee(-1) year(-1) as representative for a mass-produced motor boat builder (case-study company '1'), a customized sailing boat builder (case-study company '2'), and a mould and structural component builder (case-study company '3'), respectively. The original proposal and evaluation of two additional generation rates based on physical characteristics intrinsic to the manufactured product, i.e. the unit generation rate per boat area (UGRpA) and per boat weight (UGRpW), confirmed the higher waste generation for the sailing boat builder(representative UGRpA and UGRpW values of 0.35 tons(waste) m(-2)(boat) year(-1) and 2. 71 tons(waste) tons(-1)(boat) year(-1), respectively) compared with the motor boat builder (representative UGRpA and UGRpW values of 0.06 tons(waste) m(-2)(boat) year(-1) and 0.49 tons(waste) tons(-1)(boat) year(-1), respectively). The chemical-physical property characterization of the selected residues revealed the following aspects: a general condition of low moisture contents; significant ash contents in the glass- and carbon-fibre composite residues and the correlated sanding dust; and relatively high energy content values in the overall range 14,144-32,479 kJ kg(-1), expressed as the lower heating value.

  3. 11-14 November 2012 Umbria Region (Central Italy) flood event: from prediction to management for civil protection purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berni, Nicola; Pandolfo, Claudia; Stelluti, Marco; Zauri, Renato; Ponziani, Francesco; Francioni, Marco; Governatori Leonardi, Federico; Formica, Alessandro; Natazzi, Loredana; Costantini, Sandro

    2013-04-01

    Following laws and regulations concerning extreme natural events management, the Italian national hydrometeorological early warning system is composed by 21 regional offices (Functional Centres - CF). Umbria Region CF is located in Central Italy and provides early warning, monitoring and decision support systems (DSS) when significant flood/landslide events occur. The alert system is based on hydrometric and rainfall thresholds with detailed procedures for the management of critical events in which different roles of authorities and institutions involved are defined. For the real time flood forecasting system, at the CF several operational hydrological and hydraulic models were developed and implemented for a "dynamic" hazard/risk scenario assessment for Civil Protection DSS, useful also for the development of Flood Risk Management Plans according to the European "Floods Directive" 2007/60. In the period 11th-14th November 2012, a significant flood event occurred in Umbria (as well as Tuscany and northern Lazio). The territory was interested by intense and persistent rainfall; the hydro-meteorological monitoring network recorded locally rainfall depth over 300 mm in 72 hours and, generally, values greater than the seasonal averages all over the region. In the most affected area the recorded rainfall depths correspond to centenarian return period: one-third of the annual mean precipitation occurred in 2-3 days. Almost all rivers in Umbria have been involved, exceeding hydrometric thresholds, and several ones overflowed. Furthermore, in some cases, so high water levels have never been recorded by the hydrometric network. As in the major flood events occurred in the last years, dams (Montedoglio and Corbara dams along Tiber River and Casanuova dam along Chiascio River) and other hydraulic works for flood defense (e.g. along Chiani stream) played a very important mitigation role, storing high water volumes and avoiding the overlap of peak discharges downstream. During

  4. Back to the origin of HCV 2c subtype and spreading to the Calabria region (Southern Italy) over the last two centuries: a phylogenetic study.

    PubMed

    Marascio, Nadia; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Equestre, Michele; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Costantino, Angela; Cella, Eleonora; Bruni, Roberto; Liberto, Maria Carla; Pisani, Giulio; Zicca, Emilia; Barreca, Giorgio Settimo; Torti, Carlo; Focà, Alfredo; Ciccaglione, Anna Rita

    2014-08-01

    Circulation of HCV genotype 2 has been described in European Countries where numerous subtypes and unclassified HCV 2 lineages have been reported. In Italy, subtype 1b is the most prevalent, followed by genotype 2. In the present study, phylogeny of HCV 2c was investigated. The phylogeny of HCV 2c isolated from 54 Italian patients in the Calabria region (Southern Italy) was investigated by analyzing a fragment of the NS5B gene. Patients came from 5 metropolitan areas and a small village (Sersale). These areas were geographically dispersed throughout the entire region. A Bayesian coalescent-based framework was used to estimate origin and spreading of HCV 2c in this region. Phylogenetic analysis showed that 28 Italian sequences were intermixed with foreign HCV 2c reference sequences and grouped into 3 major clades: A, B, and C. Nineteen inter-clade sequences were associated uniquely with surgery as risk factor for HCV acquisition. By contrast, a sub-cluster within clade B was associated with blood transfusion. Moreover, sequences from Sersale village grouped in the Italian sub-cluster and were intermixed with 10 sequences from metropolitan areas. The three isolates with the longest branch came from Sersale and belonged to patients who had glass syringes as risk factor. HCV 2c isolates from the Calabria region shared a common ancestor whose origin was traced back to 1889. Our results suggest that, after its introduction - possibly as a result of population movements between Italy and African Countries during Italian colonialism - HCV 2c spread through multiple risk factors, not including intravenous drug use. So, transmission chains followed a pathway different from other European Countries. Although HCV incidence is decreasing, these ways are still ongoing, possibly justifying stability in the relative prevalence of HCV 2c. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Uncertainty in drought monitoring by the Standardized Precipitation Index: the case study of the Abruzzo region (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergni, L.; Di Lena, B.; Todisco, F.; Mannocchi, F.

    2017-04-01

    As shown by several authors, drought monitoring by the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) presents some uncertainties, mainly dependent on the choice of the probability distribution used to describe the cumulative precipitation and on the characteristics (e.g., length and variability) of the dataset. In this paper, the uncertainty related to SPI estimates has been quantified and analyzed with regards to the case study of the Abruzzo region (Central Italy), by using monthly precipitation recorded at 75 stations during the period 1951-2009. First, a set of distributions suitable to describe the cumulative precipitation at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month time scales was identified by using L-moments ratio diagrams. The goodness-of-fit was evaluated by applying the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and the Normality test on the derived SPI series. Then the confidence intervals of SPI have been calculated by applying a bootstrap procedure. The size of the confidence intervals has been considered as a measure of uncertainty, and its dependence on several factors such as the distribution type, the time scale, the record length, and the season has been examined. Results show that the distributions Pearson type III (PE3), Weibull (WEI), Generalized Normal (GNO), Generalized Extreme Value (GEV), and Gamma (GA2) are all suitable to describe the cumulative precipitation, with a slightly better performance of the PE3 and GNO distributions. As expected, the uncertainty increases as the record length and time scale decrease. The leading source of uncertainty is the record length while the effects due to seasonality and time scale are negligible. Two-parameter distributions make it possible to obtain confidence intervals of SPI (particularly for extreme values) narrower than those obtained by three-parameter distributions. Nevertheless, due to a poorer goodness of fit, two-parameter distributions can provide less reliable estimates of the precipitation probability. In any event, independently

  6. Assessment of carbon pools in two soils from the Campania region (Southwest, Italy) under different forest types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez-Romero, Marta; Papa, Stefania; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; González-Pérez, José A.; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Coppola, Elio

    2014-05-01

    Soil is the largest carbon reservoir of terrestrial ecosystems, this reservoir is not inert, but it is constantly in a dynamic phase of accumulation an depletion. After the addition, in the soil, of organic residues of different origin and nature, two processes can occur in charge of SOM (Soil Organic Matter) during the pedogenesis: mineralization and humification. The accumulation of SOM in soil is controlled by the balance between carbon inputs and losses through mineralization and/or leaching. In particular the humification process leads to the formation of organic compounds (in some cases even complex organo-mineral) chemically stable able to distribute itself in the soil second rules of site-specific pedogenesis. The transport process along the profile can take very different forms which may extend in the formation of Bh horizons of accumulation in depth also strongly cemented (so-called ortstein). The transport process along the profile occurs for the occurrence of certain conditions such as deposition of high amounts of organic residues on the top of the profile, high porosity of the soil for the presence of coarse solid fractions (coarse sands or skeleton) that determinate a strong infiltrating capacity of the circulating waters, extreme temperatures can slow or stop the process of mineralization and/or humification in one intermediate step of the degradation process releasing organic metabolites with high or medium solubility and high loads of percolating water related to intense rainfall. The nature of the forest cover influence the quantity and quality of the organic materials deposited with marked differences between coniferous and deciduous especially in relation to resistance to degradation and production of intermediate metabolites. Two soils from Campania region located in Monte Santa Croce (Caserta, Italy) with andic properties, different forest cover (pine and chestnut) and that meets the requirements of the place and pedological formation

  7. Baseline trace metals in Patella caerulea in a central Tyrrhenian ecosystem (Pontine Islands archipelago and Lazio region coastal sites, Italy).

    PubMed

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Mele, Giustino; Finoia, Maria Grazia

    2017-02-18

    In this study, we tested the aptitude of the gastropod mollusk Patella caerulea as biomonitor of elemental pollution in seawater of a central Tyrrhenian ecosystem (Pontine Islands archipelago and Lazio region coastal sites, Italy). Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were measured in 120 individuals collected in six strategic locations in two sampling campaigns during 2011 and 2012. Samples of surrounding seawater were also collected in the same sites and tested for the same metals in order to obtain the respective concentration factors (CFs). Then, we analyzed the evolution of contamination in the selected sites and compared our results with the baseline levels (control charts) previously established for Tyrrhenian seas (Conti et al. Environ Sci Pollut R 22:3640-3651,2015). With this purpose, we defined six new variables (one for each metal) and then we applied multivariate statistics, i.e., cluster analysis and discriminant analysis on the principal component analysis factors in order to obtain more reliable results. Patella resulted to be a strong bioaccumulator of Cd (CFs = 8990) and a good accumulator of Cr, Pb, and Zn. The levels of the majority of metals (i.e., Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in Patella decreased in the range from -13.06% of Zn to -42.51% of Ni in Fiumicino harbor, Anzio beach, and Ponza Harbor from 2011 to 2012. In general, the metal levels in these marine areas are low and within the previously established baseline ranges for Tyrrhenian Sea (control charts). Here, we found a not univocal trend of metal bioaccumulation patterns between the two sampling campaigns (2011-2012) in the selected sites. No one site resulted to be clearly more contaminated than another (i.e., harbor sites as expected). For instance, for Cd, we detected a relevant increase of its levels (+118%) in the harbors and Anzio beach sites from 2011 to 2012; however, they remained at lower levels of the lower limit (Q 2.5) of the control chart. Higher Pb levels with

  8. [Risk management: the opinions of nursing staff and coordinators in a local health district in the Piemonte region (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, A; Gallo, N; Brambilla, R; Panella, M

    2008-01-01

    Clinical risk management includes a set of clinical and administrative activities performed to identify, evaluate and reduce risks for patients, staff and visitors as well as the organization itself. The first fundamental step in risk management is to evaluate risk factors; it is impossible to implement corrective actions and modify and eliminate risk factors if these are not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree to which selected sentinel events were perceived by nursing staff as being severe and whether the degree of perceived severity of an event was associated with specific variables such as nursing work area (medical, surgical, intensive care), years of experience, degree and position. The study also aimed to evaluate the level of knowledge of clinical risk management, identify the main categories of errors within the organization, and evaluate nursing staff opinions on the use of an anonymous system to report errors. A sample of 98 nurses (91 female, 7 male), working in three hospitals in a local health district in the Piemonte region (Italy) participated in the study. The mean age of participants was 37 years (range 22-61). Participants were interviewed between 30 October and 6 November 2006, by using a structured questionnaire. Most participants (93%) were aware of the definition of risk management but over 60% did not use any tool for identifying clinical errors. Nurses perceived infections to be the most serious error, followed by medication errors and surgery and post-operative complications. Almost all participants (99%) considered it right to report errors and 59% admitted to having made errors, most frequently medication errors. Over 90% of participants agreed that an anonymous report form should be used for reporting. Healthcare professionals' willingness to cooperate and their ability to not play down the importance of sentinel events but rather voluntarily bring these to light are essential to the success of risk management in an

  9. Regional scale analysis and prediction of shallow landslides induced by rain, occurred in the Emilian Apennines, northern Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montrasio, L.; Valentino, R.; Terrone, A.

    2012-04-01

    Rainfall-induced shallow landslides are widespread over the Italian territory, and they occur after heavy rainfalls or prolonged rainfalls of average intensity. This research study concerns the prediction and analysis at a regional scale of shallow landslides occurred in the Emilian Apennines, northern Italy, between 2007 and 2009. As regards the predisposing factors, the problem of rainwater infiltration and the triggering mechanism this kind of slope instability has been widely described in the past. The physically-based model called SLIP (Shallow Landslide Instability Prediction), which has been recently introduced, has been applied on regional scale. The SLIP model is based on the limit equilibrium method and takes into account even previous rainfall. Analysis of the contribution of rainfalls occurred before the landslide triggering instant show that only the 30 days prior the triggering instant affect the safety factor. On the basis of selected case histories and starting from measured rainfalls, the grid method is used to define rainfall maps. Among the model input GIS data, seasonally constant values of the degree of saturation of the soil are used. For the implementation of the model at a regional scale an overview of the study area is given by the warning areas. Time-varying warning areas' safety factor maps, corresponding to different 12-hour steps prior the triggering instant, are produced. From these maps it is possible to observe how the SLIP model works well with respect to the time variable, forecasting instability at the instant in which landslides really occurred. Using the basic parameters of the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis, sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy of model results can be calculated and a qualitative assessment of the spatial prediction ability of the model can be obtained. In the majority of the analyzed events, the accuracy of the model results good or sufficient. The main reasons that prevent the model

  10. Geodiversity, geoheritage and cultural landscape: an example from the Messinian geosites of the Piemonte region (NW-Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Enrico; Natalicchio, Marcello; Ghiraldi, Luca; Lozar, Francesca; Dela Pierre, Francesco; Giardino, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The Piemonte region (NW-Italy) contains a remarkable diversity of landscapes, some of them included in and protected by the World Heritage list, as well as some recently proposed geosites which testify the dramatic paleoevironmental, paleobiological and paleoclimatic event that occurred in the Mediterranean area around 6 Ma ago during the so-called Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). However the link between landform, geodiversity, geoheritage, and cultural landscape has not yet fully explored. The aims of this study, promoted by the multidisciplinary research project 'PROGEO-Piemonte' (PROactive management of GEOlogical heritage in the Piemonte region), are: 1) to analyse the link between geosites and recent landscape modification, 2) to reconstruct the landscape evolution and, through geotourism, 3) to promote geological knowledge in an area with great potential for tourism. The study area is located in the SE part of the Cuneo plain, at the foot of the Langhe hills, where heterogeneous landforms, mainly related to the Tanaro river piracy, are observed. The sediments recording the MSC event, mostly consisting of thick gypsum layers, have been recently studied by a multidisciplinary approach and the results allowed the detailed reconstruction of the MSC evolution in this region. Two maps have been produced to disseminate the geodiversity knowledge (the geological - landscape map) and to promote geotourism fruition (the geotouristic map). The geological - landscape map deals with different geological and geomorphologic issues thanks to illustrations of the main features of the Messinian deposits, their depositional environments and the exposed landforms. To underline the high geodiversity of the area, it has been divided into several geomorphologic sectors based of their characteristic landforms and evolution. In each of these sectors, geosites have been identified to clarify the comprehension of the related topics at the widest public: particularly, the geosites help

  11. SEISMIC SITE RESPONSE ESTIMATION IN THE NEAR SOURCE REGION OF THE 2009 L’AQUILA, ITALY, EARTHQUAKE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, E.; Azzara, R.; Bergamashi, F.; Bordoni, P.; Cara, F.; Cogliano, R.; Cultrera, G.; di Giulio, G.; Duval, A.; Fodarella, A.; Milana, G.; Pucillo, S.; Régnier, J.; Riccio, G.; Salichon, J.

    2009-12-01

    The 6th of April 2009, at 3:32 local time, a Mw 6.3 earthquake hit the Abruzzo region (central Italy) causing more than 300 casualties. The epicenter of the earthquake was 95km NE of Rome and 10km from the center of the city of L’Aquila, the administrative capital of the Abruzzo region. This city has a population of about 70,000 and was severely damaged by the earthquake, the total cost of the buildings damage being estimated around 3 Bn €. Historical masonry buildings particularly suffered from the seismic shaking, but some reinforced concrete structures from more modern construction were also heavily damaged. To better estimate the seismic solicitation of these structures during the earthquake, we deployed temporary arrays in the near source region. Downtown L’Aquila, as well as a rural quarter composed of ancient dwelling-centers located western L’Aquila (Roio area), have been instrumented. The array set up downtown consisted of nearly 25 stations including velocimetric and accelerometric sensors. In the Roio area, 6 stations operated for almost one month. The data has been processed in order to study the spectral ratios of the horizontal component of ground motion at the soil site and at a reference site, as well as the spectral ratio of the horizontal and the vertical movement at a single recording site. Downtown L’Aquila is set on a Quaternary fluvial terrace (breccias with limestone boulders and clasts in a marly matrix), which forms the left bank of the Aterno River and slopes down in the southwest direction towards the Aterno River. The alluvial are lying on lacustrine sediments reaching their maximum thickness (about 250m) in the center of L’Aquila. After De Luca et al. (2005), these quaternary deposits seem to lead in an important amplification factor in the low frequency range (0.5-0.6 Hz). However, the level of amplification varies strongly from one point to the other in the center of the city. This new experimentation allows new and more

  12. [Health status and access to health services by the population of L'Aquila (Abruzzo Region, Italy) six years after the earthquake].

    PubMed

    Altobelli, Emma; Vittorini, Pierpaolo; Leuter, Cinzia; Bianchini, Valeria; Angelone, Anna Maria; Aloisio, Federica; Cofini, Vincenza; Zazzara, Francesca; Di Orio, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters, such as the earthquake that occurred in the province of L'Aquila in central Italy, in 2009, generally increase the demand for healthcare. A survey was conducted to assess perception of health status an d use of health services in a sample of L'Aquila's resident population, five years after the event, and in a comparison population consisting of a sample of the resident population of Avezzano, a town in the same region, not affected by the earthquake. No differences were found in perception of health status between the two populations. Both groups reported difficulties in accessing specialized healthcare and rehabilitation services.

  13. Recreational Boating in Ligurian Marine Protected Areas (Italy): A Quantitative Evaluation for a Sustainable Management.

    PubMed

    Venturini, S; Massa, F; Castellano, M; Costa, S; Lavarello, I; Olivari, E; Povero, P

    2016-01-01

    Recreational boating is an important economic activity that can also represent a powerful source of interference for biological communities. The monitoring of the recreational boating in all Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) within the Liguria region was conducted in the 2010 summer season and it allowed to obtain information not provided by any official institution. The collaboration of geographically different MPAs in Liguria has led to the implementation of a monitoring framework of recreational boating, and this has made it possible to develop uniform management strategies for all the Ligurian marine parks. This study identifies the optimal number of boats for each MPAs, the number of boats that can anchor in the various parks without creating any impact on the biocenosis of merit, providing a first characterization of recreational boating in Liguria during the high touristic season and providing management recommendation to each MPAs. Generally, the Ligurian MPAs do not present critical situations, the number of boats in each MPA being below the optimal number, with the exception of Portofino MPA, where in the 12.5 % of monitored days more than 220 boats were counted and the mean density for weekend is 1.19 no boats/ha (4 times higher than weekday). The results confirm the dependence of the boats peaking from the holidays and the months of the summer, but also it highlights other factors that can contribute in the choice of the boaters.

  14. Recreational Boating in Ligurian Marine Protected Areas (Italy): A Quantitative Evaluation for a Sustainable Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturini, S.; Massa, F.; Castellano, M.; Costa, S.; Lavarello, I.; Olivari, E.; Povero, P.

    2016-01-01

    Recreational boating is an important economic activity that can also represent a powerful source of interference for biological communities. The monitoring of the recreational boating in all Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) within the Liguria region was conducted in the 2010 summer season and it allowed to obtain information not provided by any official institution. The collaboration of geographically different MPAs in Liguria has led to the implementation of a monitoring framework of recreational boating, and this has made it possible to develop uniform management strategies for all the Ligurian marine parks. This study identifies the optimal number of boats for each MPAs, the number of boats that can anchor in the various parks without creating any impact on the biocenosis of merit, providing a first characterization of recreational boating in Liguria during the high touristic season and providing management recommendation to each MPAs. Generally, the Ligurian MPAs do not present critical situations, the number of boats in each MPA being below the optimal number, with the exception of Portofino MPA, where in the 12.5 % of monitored days more than 220 boats were counted and the mean density for weekend is 1.19 no boats/ha (4 times higher than weekday). The results confirm the dependence of the boats peaking from the holidays and the months of the summer, but also it highlights other factors that can contribute in the choice of the boaters.

  15. A contribution to the seismic hazard of the Apulia Region (Southern Italy): environmental effects triggered by historical earthquakes in last centuries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfido, Sabina; Alessio, Giuliana; Nappi, Rosa; De Lucia, Maddalena; Gaudiosi, Germana

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is a critical revision of the historical and recent seismicity of the Apulia and surrounding seismogenetic areas, for re-evaluating the macroseismic effects in MCS scale and ground effects in natural environment according to the ESI 2007 scale (Michetti et al., 2007) as a contribution to the seismic hazard of the region. The most important environmental effect due to historical earthquakes in the Apulia was the tsunami occurrence, followed by landslides, liquefaction phenomena, hydrological changes and ground cracks. The Apulia (Southern Italy) has been hit by several low energy and a few high energy earthquakes in the last centuries. In particular, the July 30, 1627 earthquake (I=X MCS, Rovida et al., 2011) and the May 5, 1646 event (I=X MCS), the strongest earthquakes of the Gargano promontory have been reviewed, together with the March 20, 1731 earthquake (I=IX MCS, Mw=6.5, Rovida et al., 2011), the most relevant of the Foggia province, and the February 20, 1743 earthquake (I=IX MCS, Mw= 7.1, Rovida et al., 2011, I ESI=X, Nappi et al, 2015), the strongest of the Salento area,. The whole Apulia region has also been struck by strong earthquakes of neighboring seismogenetic areas located in the Southern Apennines, Adriatic and Ionian Sea, Albania and Greece, well propagated throughout the Italian peninsula, and in particular in the southern regions, where the intensity degrees are higher, sometimes exceeding the limit of damage. Some well documented examples of Greek earthquakes strongly felt in the whole Apulia region were: the August 27, 1886 earthquake (Peloponnesus, Greece); the May 28, 1897 earthquake (Creta-Cypro); the June 26, 1926 earthquake (Creta and Cipro, Imax=X MCS), felt all over the Southern Italy; the August 28, 1962 earthquake (epicenter in Peloponnesus area). It is noteworthy that earthquakes located in the Southern Apennines were powerfully felt in the whole Apulia region; among the strongest historical events of the

  16. Seasonal variation in occurrence of pulmonary embolism: analysis of the database of the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Gallerani, Massimo; Boari, Benedetta; Smolensky, Michael H; Salmi, Raffaella; Fabbri, Davide; Contato, Edgardo; Manfredini, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal variation in the occurrence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, including pulmonary embolism (PE), has been reported; however, recent large-scale, population-based studies conducted in the United States did not confirm such seasonality. The aim of this large-scale population study was to determine whether a temporal pattern in the occurrence of PE exists. The analysis considered all consecutive cases of PE in the database of all hospital admissions of the Emilia Romagna region in Italy at the Center for Health Statistics between January 1998 and December 2005. PE cases were first grouped according to season of occurrence, and the data were analyzed by the chi(2) test for goodness of fit. Then, inferential chronobiologic (cosinor and partial Fourier) analysis was applied to monthly data, and the best-fitting curve for the annual variation was derived. The total sample consisted of 19,245 patients (8,143 male, mean age 71.6+/-14.1 yrs; 11,102 female, mean age 76.1+/-13.7 yrs). Of these, 2,484 were <65 yrs, 5,443 were between 65 and 74, and 11,318 were > or = 75 yrs. There were 4,486 (23.3%) fatal-case outcomes. PE occurred least frequently in spring (n=4,442 or 23.1%) and most frequent in winter (n=5,236 or 27.2%, goodness of fit chi(2)=75.75, p<0.001). Similar results were obtained for subgroups formed by gender, age, fatal/non-fatal outcome, presence/absence of major underlying co-morbid conditions, and specific risk factors. Inferential chronobiological analysis identified a significant annual pattern in PE, with the peak between November and December for the total sample of cases (p<0.001), males (p<0.001), females (p=0.002), fatal and non-fatal cases (p<0.001 for both), and subgroups formed by age (<65 yrs, p=0.012; 65-74 yrs, p<0.001; > or = 75 yrs, p=0.012). This pattern was independent of the presence/absence of hypertension (p=0.003 and p<0.001, respectively), pulmonary disease (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively), stroke (p<0.001 and p=0

  17. Evaluation of coastal vulnerability: comparison of two different methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armaroli, Clara; Perini, Luisa; Calabrese, Lorenzo; Ciavola, Paolo; Salerno, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    In the last years a large number of catastrophic events have occurred along worldwide coastlines (e.g.: 2012 Super-storm Sandy, US East Coast). European countries have to face similar calamities such as those caused by the recent Xaver cyclone (December 2013). The Emilia-Romagna coastline, Italy, along the North Adriatic Sea, is affected by storms that cause extensive damages. The coast has low elevations, is highly urbanised and there is a massive presence of defence structures. The area is micro-tidal (neap/spring tide ranges = 0.4/0.8 m), low energetic (65% Hs<=1 m) but subjected to significant surge levels (1 year return period = 0.85 m). Therefore an evaluation of the vulnerability of the coastal area is an urgent matter. The Regional Geological Survey has completed an analysis of three scenarios of damage produced by the concurrent happening of a marine storm and high surge levels (1-in-1, 10, 100 year return period) and high spring tidal levels (+0.45 m MSL). Wave heights were used to calculate run-up values along the whole coastline (on 187 equally spaced profiles extracted from LIDAR datasets). The result is a list of ten typology of different levels of damage obtained through the comparison between the computed water levels, for each scenario and along each profile, and the topography/human occupation of the coast. The assessment reveals that 60% of the coastline is vulnerable to the 1-in-1 year return period scenario, thus even modal meteorological conditions can generate significant losses. A comparison was made between the produced typologies and the actual damage caused by a recent storm and the correspondence is almost identical, underlining that the method is reliable. Because the above-mentioned methodology is only punctual, the Geological Survey has started a different evaluation of the areal extension of inundations. The methodology considers the concurrent happening of the same return period storms but in terms of wave set-up only (not including

  18. Venice, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast Italy. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading Italy at that time.

    This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne

  19. Venice, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast Italy. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading Italy at that time.

    This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne

  20. Modeling Study of the Marano and Grado Lagoon (Italy) to Support the Regional Water Protection Plan) TO SUPPORT THE REGIONAL WATER PROTECTION PLAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scroccaro, Isabella; Mattassi, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    The Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC (WFD) contemplates the classification of water bodies and establishes the quality objectives of water bodies to achieve a good status within 2015. Further, the Italian law which takes in the WFD with Decree n. 152/2006, allows to identify some water bodies as heavily modified (HMWB). The Regional Administration, involved in the setting up of the Water Protection Plan, according with the above mentioned decree and directive, has to establish specific programs to maintain or conform water quality to the requested quality objectives, also for heavily modified water bodies that have to reach the ecological potential. In the north-eastern part of Italy, in the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region, the Marano and Grado Lagoon is the most complex transitional ecosystem in which four water bodies have been temporarily classified as heavily modified. They are identified as FM1, FM2, FM3 and FM4. In particular, FM2 - "Paludo della Carogna" and FM3 - "Barbana" water bodies seem to be characterized by some confinement since they are delimited by a bridge, called "Ponte Belvedere". The preliminary evaluation of the quality status of FM2 and FM3 water bodies is conditioned by the value of one of the quality criteria: the macrophytes. In fact, macrophytes are represented by very few species in these two water bodies. In a preliminary way the overall judgement of FM2 and FM3 water bodies has been indicated by the experts as scarse. This means that a specific programme of measures has to be proposed to improve the quality status of these water bodies in order to reach the ecological potential. In this context modeling may be used as a scientific and technical tool to support the evaluation on FM2 and FM3 water bodies and the effectiveness of specific measures for the achievement of the quality objectives. Numerical simulations of the Marano and Grado lagoon were performed for hydrodynamic circulation, temperature and salinity behavior with the

  1. [New Technologies in coronary interventional cardiology: results from the first inter-regional survey promoted by SICI-GISE in four regions of northern Italy ("the GISE TOLOVE" area: Tuscany, Lombardy, Veneto, Emilia-Romagna)].

    PubMed

    Mojoli, Marco; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Tarantini, Giuseppe; Limbruno, Ugo; Tarantino, Fabio; Lettieri, Corrado; Napodano, Massimo; Fineschi, Massimo; Menozzi, Alberto; Pavei, Andrea; Parodi, Guido; Santarelli, Andrea; Trabattoni, Daniela; Marchese, Alfredo; Piccaluga, Emanuela; Danzi, Gian Battista; Varbella, Ferdinando; Bedogni, Francesco; Sardella, Gennaro; Berti, Sergio

    2015-02-01

    The implementation of the latest medical innovations can vary widely within the same geographic area. This study aimed to describe the current status of recent innovations in the field of coronary interventional cardiology in 4 regions of Northern Italy. From April to May 2014, 4 regional delegations of the Italian Society of Invasive Cardiology (SICI-GISE) have promoted a multicenter survey. By means of a web-based methodology, a focused questionnaire was administered to head physicians of 97 cath-labs in 4 Italian regions within the "GISE TOLOVE" area (Lombardy, Veneto, Tuscany, Emilia-Romagna). Pharmacological and technological innovations in coronary interventional cardiology appear to be widely used in the area covered by this survey, with uniformity in application and availability of therapeutic devices and drugs within the 4 regions involved. The main limiting factors to the adoption of new technologies and drugs were economic factors or lack of scientific evidence for some specific devices or drugs. This survey showed widespread and consistent application of the main latest innovations in coronary interventional cardiology across 4 Italian regions of Northern Italy.

  2. Tick-borne diseases of livestock in Italy: general review and results of recent studies carried out in the Apulia region.

    PubMed

    Ceci, L; Carelli, G

    1999-09-01

    This paper reviews basic information on the knowledge of tick-borne diseases, babesiosis, anaplasmosis and theileriosis, in horses, cattle, sheep and goats in Italy with particular reference to the southern part of the country. It is stressed that there is limited knowledge about the parasite species present, their vectors, distribution, prevalence and impact on livestock production and there is the need to assess their epidemiology. A study carried out in the Apulia region to assess the prevalence of Anaplasma marginale infection in 1,648 cattle showed a seroprevalence of 17% using the Card Agglutination Test. In another study in the same region a microscopic prevalence of 78% for Theileria spp. was found in 60 cows. Afterwards using the IFAT test the Theileria sp. was identified as Theileria buffeli/orientalis.

  3. Assessment and source identification of pollution risk for touristic ports: Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of 4 marinas of the Apulia region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Mali, Matilda; Dell'Anna, Maria Michela; Mastrorilli, Piero; Damiani, Leonardo; Piccinni, Alberto Ferruccio

    2017-01-30

    The Apulia region in Italy has the longest Adriatic coastline; thus, maritime tourism is the driving force for its economic development. Pollution risk for four representative touristic ports of the region was assessed by determining the concentrations of 10 metals, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) congeners, and the main nutrients. The cumulative mean Effects Range-Median quotient (mERMq) was used to assess the hazard degree, while the distribution patterns and content ratios of different PAH sediment concentrations were investigated to identify the pollution sources. Principal component analyses indicated an anomalous pollution trend for one of the small touristic ports assessed; this trend emerged from contamination by heavy metals and PAHs to a larger extent than expected, considering the main activity in this port, especially in its inner basin. The reason of this anomaly is thought to be the hydrodynamic and/or other stress factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Usutu Virus, Italy, 1996

    PubMed Central

    Bakonyi, Tamás; Rossi, Giacomo; Mani, Paolo; Nowotny, Norbert

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective analysis of archived tissue samples from bird deaths in the Tuscany region of Italy in 1996 identified Usutu virus. Partial sequencing confirmed identity with the 2001 Vienna strain and provided evidence for a much earlier introduction of this virus into Europe than previously assumed. PMID:23347844

  5. Seroprevalence and risk factors of infections with Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in hunting dogs from Campania region, southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Machacova, Tereza; Bartova, Eva; Sedlak, Kamil; Slezakova, Radka; Budikova, Marie; Piantedosi, Diego; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2016-04-06

    Hunting dogs have probably a higher level of exposure to Neospora caninum Dubey, Carpenter, Speer, Topper et Uggla, 1988 and Toxoplasma gondii Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908 than other canine populations for their different lifestyle. The aim of our survey was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii in hunting dogs from southern Italy and assess risk factors related to these protozoan infections. Blood samples were collected from 398 hunting dogs (19 different breeds, aged from 5 month to 14 years). The sera were screened by indirect fluorescence antibody test; a titre ≥ 50 was considered positive. Antibodies to N. caninum and T. gondii were detected in 59 (15%) dogs with titres from 50 to 3 200 and in 94 (24%) dogs with titres from 50 to 1 600, respectively, with co-infection in 25 (6%) dogs. Statistical difference (p ≤ 0.05) was found only for infection with T. gondii between two age groups: ≥ 2-4 years (16%) and ≥ 4-7 years (33%); other observed characteristics were without statistical significance. Our results suggest that the hunting dogs could play an important role in the transmission cycle of N. caninum between wild animals and livestock. This is the first detection of antibodies to T. gondii in hunting dogs in Italy.

  6. Seismic moment tensors and regional stress in the area of the December 2013-January 2014, Matese earthquake sequence (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Sebastiano; Cammarata, Laura; Cangemi, Marianna; Cavallaro, Danilo; Di Martino, Roberto Maria; Firetto Carlino, Marco

    2014-12-01

    The main goal of this study is to provide moment tensor solutions for small and moderate earthquakes of the Matese seismic sequence in southern Italy for the period of December 2013-January 2014. We estimate the focal mechanisms of 31 earthquakes with local magnitudes related to the Matese earthquake seismic sequence (December 2013-January 2014) in Southern-Central Italy which are recorded by the broadband stations of the Italian National Seismic Network and the Mediterranean Very Broadband Seismographic Network (MedNet) run by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV). The solutions show that normal faulting is the prevailing style of seismic deformation in agreement with the local faults mapped out in the area. Comparisons with already published solutions and with seismological and geological information available allowed us to properly interpret the moment tensor solutions in the frame of the seismic sequence evolution and also to furnish additional information about less energetic seismic phases. Focal data were inverted to obtain the seismogenic stress in the study area. The results are compatible with the major tectonic domain of the area.

  7. Daily estimates of fire danger using multitemporal satellite MODIS data: the experience of FIRE-SAT in the Basilicata Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanorte, R.; Lasaponara, R.; De Santis, F.; Aromando, A.; Nole, G.

    2012-04-01

    Daily estimates of fire danger using multitemporal satellite MODIS data: the experience of FIRE-SAT in the Basilicata Region (Italy) A. Lanorte, F. De Santis , A. Aromando, G. Nolè, R. Lasaponara, CNR-IMAA, Potenza, Italy In the recent years the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy) has been characterized by an increasing incidence of fire disturbance which also tends to affect protected (Regional and national parks) and natural vegetated areas. FIRE_SAT project has been funded by the Civil Protection of the Basilicata Region in order to set up a low cost methodology for fire danger/risk monitoring based on satellite Earth Observation techniques. To this aim, NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data were used. The spectral capability and daily availability makes MODIS products especially suitable for estimating the variations of fuel characteristics. This work presents new significant results obtained in the context of FIRE-SAT project. In order to obtain a dynamical indicator of fire susceptibility based on multitemporal MODIS satellite data, up-datable in short-time periods (daily), we used the spatial/temporal variations of following parameters: (1) Relative Greenness Index (2) Live and dead fuel moisture content (3) Temperature In particular, the dead fuel moisture content is a key factor in fire ignition. Dead fuel moisture dynamics are significantly faster than those observed for live fuel. Dead fine vegetation exhibits moisture and density values dependent on rapid atmospheric changes and strictly linked to local meteorological conditions. For this reason, commonly, the estimation of dead fuel moisture content is based on meteorological variables. In this study we propose to use MODIS data to estimate meteorological data (specifically Relative Humidity) at an adequate spatial and temporal resolution. The assessment of dead fuel moisture content plays a decisive role in determining a fire dynamic danger index in combination with other

  8. The impact of regional co-payment and national reimbursement criteria on statins use in Italy: an interrupted time-series analysis.

    PubMed

    Damiani, Gianfranco; Federico, Bruno; Anselmi, Angela; Bianchi, Caterina Bianca Neve Aurora; Silvestrini, Giulia; Iodice, Lanfranco; Navarra, Pierluigi; Da Cas, Roberto; Raschetti, Roberto; Ricciardi, Walter

    2014-01-06

    Statins are among the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and their effectiveness is largely acknowledged. The consumption of statins increased four-fold during the 2000-2010 decade in Italy and national and regional control policies were developed. Restrictions to reimbursement were fixed at the national level, whereas co-payment was introduced in some, but not all, regions. The aim of the present study is to assess the impact of such policies on the consumption of statins in Italy between 2001-2007 among outpatients. The statin use was measured in terms of defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DDD/1000 inh. day) from May 2001 to December 2007. The study was conducted in 17 out of 21 regions, nine of which had implemented a co-payment policy. Time trends in consumption before and after the introduction of co-payment policies and reimbursement criteria were examined using segmented regression analysis of interrupted time-series, adjusting for seasonal components. The consumption of statins increased by 22.9 DDD/1000 inh. day in May 2001 to 54.7 DDD/1000 inh. day in December 2007. On average, there was a 1.7% increase in statin use each month before the national guideline changed while the increase was about 0.5% afterwards. The revision of the reimbursement criteria was associated with a significant decrease in level (coefficient = -2.80, 95% CI -3.70 to -1.90 p-value <0.001) and trend (coefficient = -0.33, 95% CI -0.37 to -0.29 p-value <0.001). The introduction of co-payment was associated with a significant change in trend of consumption so that the overall use of the drug increased by 0.04 (95% CI 0.02 to 0.07, p-value < 0.001) DDD/1000 inh. day per month in the post-intervention period, but there was no evidence of a change in level of consumption (p-value = 0.163). Consumption of statins in Italy increased almost three-fold during the study period. The restriction to reimbursement Interventions was

  9. Hydrogeochemistry of regional aquifer systems from Tuscany (central Italy): the state of the art before the definition of a geochemical baseline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisi, Barbara; Battaglini, Raffaele; Raco, Brunella

    2013-04-01

    European Community Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its derivative regulations have recognized the urgent need to adopt specific measures against the contamination of water bodies by individual pollutants that may significantly affect the quality of water itself. Italian regulation takes into account the EU Directives, and charges the regional authorities to create monitoring networks and produce assessment reports on the contamination of groundwater. The knowledge of "natural baseline" for various dissolved elements in groundwaters on a regional scale becomes of primary importance to distinguish natural sources and anthropogenic inputs. The studied area includes the whole Tuscan regional district (central Italy) and covers an area of about 23,000 km2. From a geolithological point of view, Tuscan territory consists of several complexes outcropping regionally, the most typical features being the Mesozoic and Cenozoic carbonate and evaporitic formations, overlain by flysch sequences, as well as granite intrusions and volcanic rocks. Moreover, two geothermal areas (Larderello and Mt. Amiata), a large number of thermal springs and CO2-rich gas vents are mostly present in the central-southern part of Tuscany. Finally in southern Tuscany (e.g. Campiglia M.Ma, Mt. Amiata, Elba Island), mining districts, predominantly characterized by polimetallic sulphides ore deposits, were exploited since the Etruscan time. In this work statistical distribution models are used to develop summary statistics and estimate probabilities of exceeding water-quality standards according to the National Legislative Decree 152/06. Descriptive statistics on solute concentrations are based on geochemical data from the main Tuscan aquifers and investigated by the CNR-IGG (Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources of Pisa, Italy) and Department of Earth Sciences (University of Florence, Italy). The data processing was carried out on 4,767 water samples collected from 1997 to 2009. According to

  10. Rice Cultivation in Northwest Italy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-06-08

    The lowlands of Lombardy and Piedmont in northwest Italy are some of the most highly developed irrigation areas in the world. These views of the region were acquired on May 8, 2005, by NASA Terra spacecraft.

  11. Description of two measles outbreaks in the Lazio Region, Italy (2006-2007). Importance of pockets of low vaccine coverage in sustaining the infection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite the launch of the national plan for measles elimination, in Italy, immunization coverage remains suboptimal and outbreaks continue to occur. Two measles outbreaks, occurred in Lazio region during 2006-2007, were investigated to identify sources of infection, transmission routes, and assess operational implications for elimination of the disease. Methods Data were obtained from several sources, the routine infectious diseases surveillance system, field epidemiological investigations, and molecular genotyping of virus by the national reference laboratory. Results Overall 449 cases were reported, sustained by two different stereotypes overlapping for few months. Serotype D4 was likely imported from Romania by a Roma/Sinti family and subsequently spread to the rest of the population. Serotype B3 was responsible for the second outbreak which started in a secondary school. Pockets of low vaccine coverage individuals (Roma/Sinti communities, high school students) facilitated the reintroduction of serotypes not endemic in Italy and facilitated the measles infection to spread. Conclusions Communities with low vaccine coverage represent a more serious public health threat than do sporadic susceptible individuals. The successful elimination of measles will require additional efforts to immunize low vaccine coverage population groups, including hard-to-reach individuals, adolescents, and young adults. An enhanced surveillance systems, which includes viral genotyping to document chains of transmission, is an essential tool for evaluating strategy to control and eliminate measles PMID:20219143

  12. Environmental monitoring and analysis of faecal contamination in an urban setting in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy): health and hygiene implications.

    PubMed

    Tarsitano, Elvira; Greco, Grazia; Decaro, Nicola; Nicassio, Francesco; Lucente, Maria Stella; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2010-11-01

    Few studies have been conducted in Italy to quantify the potential risk associated with dynamics and distribution of pathogens in urban settings. The aim of this study was to acquire data on the environmental faecal contamination in urban ecosystems, by assessing the presence of pathogens in public areas in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy). To determine the degree of environmental contamination, samples of dog faeces and bird guano were collected from different areas in the city of Bari (park green areas, playgrounds, public housing areas, parkways, and a school). A total of 152 canine faecal samples, in 54 pools, and two samples of pigeon guano from 66 monitored sites were examined. No samples were found in 12 areas spread over nine sites. Chlamydophila psittaci was detected in seven canine and two pigeon guano samples. Salmonella species were not found. On the other hand, four of 54 canine faecal samples were positive for reovirus. Thirteen canine faecal samples were positive for parasite eggs: 8/54 samples contained Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina eggs and 5/54 samples contained Ancylostoma caninum eggs. Our study showed that public areas are often contaminated by potentially zoonotic pathogens.

  13. Environmental Monitoring and Analysis of Faecal Contamination in an Urban Setting in the City of Bari (Apulia Region, Italy): Health and Hygiene Implications

    PubMed Central

    Tarsitano, Elvira; Greco, Grazia; Decaro, Nicola; Nicassio, Francesco; Lucente, Maria Stella; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted in Italy to quantify the potential risk associated with dynamics and distribution of pathogens in urban settings. The aim of this study was to acquire data on the environmental faecal contamination in urban ecosystems, by assessing the presence of pathogens in public areas in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy). To determine the degree of environmental contamination, samples of dog faeces and bird guano were collected from different areas in the city of Bari (park green areas, playgrounds, public housing areas, parkways, and a school). A total of 152 canine faecal samples, in 54 pools, and two samples of pigeon guano from 66 monitored sites were examined. No samples were found in 12 areas spread over nine sites. Chlamydophila psittaci was detected in seven canine and two pigeon guano samples. Salmonella species were not found. On the other hand, four of 54 canine faecal samples were positive for reovirus. Thirteen canine faecal samples were positive for parasite eggs: 8/54 samples contained Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina eggs and 5/54 samples contained Ancylostoma caninum eggs. Our study showed that public areas are often contaminated by potentially zoonotic pathogens. PMID:21139871

  14. Wide recognition of Culex pipiens and lack of detection of Culex torrentium through biomolecular differentiation of mosquitoes in the Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Calzolari, M; Bonilauri, P; Bellini, R; Becker, S; Dottori, M

    2016-12-01

    The Culex pipiens complex includes species with reported differences in vector competence for arthropod-borne viruses, many of which are of significant importance to human health such as the West Nile virus and the Sindbis virus. This group of mosquitoes is difficult to distinguish morphologically; particularly as adult females. In Europe, the two species of the complex, Culex pipiens Linnaeus 1758 and Culex torrentium Martini 1925, are often found sympatrically. With the aim to characterize the presence and spread of both species in the Emilia-Romagna region, Northern Italy, mosquitoes of the complex - collected during the West Nile virus surveillance plans - were tested by multiplex real-time PCR for the detection of the two species Cx. pipiens and Cx. torrentium. A total of 24 165 mosquitoes, collected between 2012 and 2014 from 105 sites, and sorted in 204 pools, were tested. All tested pools were found to be composed of Cx. pipiens, whereas Cx. torrentium was not detected. These results indicate a likely absence of Cx. torrentium mosquitoes within the surveyed territory, whereas Cx. pipiens is widely distributed in the area mentioned. This is in line with previous reports, which describe a pre-alpine distribution of Cx. torrentium in Italy. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  15. The geofingerprint of Pyroclastic Rocks/Typic Herorthents/Piedirosso chain surveyed in the Roccamonfina terroir, northwest Campania region, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercurio, M.; Grilli, E.; Morra, V.; Prohaska, T.; Buondonno, A.; Langella, A.

    2012-04-01

    KEYWORDS: geofingerprint, strontium isotope ratio, Campanian Ignimbrite, Typic Xerorthents, Roccamonfina Investigations were carried out to evaluate the geofingerprint of Piedirosso wine produced in the volcanic areas of Campania region (Southern Italy). The research was focused on the terroir located in the southern area of the Roccamonfina volcanic complex according to a procedure developed by the Authors. The protocol accounts for a careful sampling of the soil and the grapes (branches, leaves) within the vineyards of "Masseria Felicia" farm, located in Carano di Sessa Aurunca (Caserta), followed by a Piedirosso wine production (monocultivar) on a pilot plant scale (grape harvest 2009). Samples were digested by using strong acids (HF, HClO4) and suitably selected digestion programs. Only soil samples were analysed after treatments with NH4NO3 in order to simulate the labile fraction of metals in soil useful to estimate the 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio. ICP-MC-MS analyses allowed to determine the 87Sr/86Sr isotopic composition whereas ICP-QMS were carried out to measure Li, Be, B, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, U and Rare Earth Elements. Finally, XRPD analyses provided qualitative and semi-quantitative evaluations of the mineral phases occurring in soil samples. Suitable agronomic analyses allowed a careful soil classification. The soil profile exhibits an Ap1-Ap2-Ap3-C1-2C2-3C3-4C4 horizonation. The color varies from dark brown in Ap horizons to light yellowish brown in C horizons. Rock fragments distribution varies irregularly along soil profile. Texture is loam in all horizons, except Ap1, C1 and 3C3 that show a sandy loam texture. Mottles are evident in all horizons except in 3C3 with a contrasting colors as reddish yellow or strong brown. Redoximorphic features occur in poorly (C1) and very poorly (2C2, 4C4) drained horizons as coatings of iron and manganese oxides. Their color ranges between very dark gray and reddish

  16. In-hospital mortality in patients with renal dysfunction admitted for myocardial infarction: the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy database of hospital admissions.

    PubMed

    Fabbian, Fabio; Pala, Marco; De Giorgi, Alfredo; Manfredini, Fabio; Mallozzi Menegatti, Alessandra; Salmi, Raffaella; Portaluppi, Francesco; Gallerani, Massimo; Manfredini, Roberto

    2013-06-01

    In-hospital mortality of patients with myocardial infarction (MI) in different European populations and renal dysfunction is variable. We aimed to evaluate in-hospital mortality for MI in chronic kidney disease (CKD), in end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and in subjects admitted for MI without renal dysfunction living in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. We considered all cases of MI (first event) recorded in the database of hospital admissions of the region Emilia-Romagna of Italy, from January 1999 to December 2009. The criterion for inclusion was the presence, as a first discharge diagnosis, of acute MI (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification). The Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), with the exclusion of CKD, was calculated. The outcome variable was in-hospital mortality for MI, and its association with comorbidities, CKD and ESRD, was analyzed. During the considered period, 88,014 cases of first MI were recorded. The percentage of patients admitted with MI and died during hospitalization were higher in patients with ESRD (38.3 %) and CKD (16.5 %) than in those without renal dysfunction (14 %) (p < 0.01). In CKD and ESRD patients, data of in-hospital mortality for MI exhibited a twofold increase in the analyzed period. In-hospital mortality for MI was independently associated with age (OR 1.077, 95 % CI 1.075-1.080, p < 0.001), CCI excluding CKD (OR 1.101, 95 % CI 1.069-1.134, p < 0.001), cerebrovascular disease (OR 1.450, 95 % CI 1.349-1.557, p < 0.001), malignancy (OR 1.234, 95 % CI 1.153-1.320, p < 0.001), and ESRD (OR 4.137, 95 % CI 3.511-4.875, p < 0.001). As for the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy, in-hospital mortality for MI is increasing over the last years, and mortality seems to be related with patients' comorbidities and presence of advanced stages of CKD.

  17. Plastic litter in aquatic environments of Maremma Regional Park (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy): Contribution by the Ombrone river and levels in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Guerranti, Cristiana; Cannas, Susanna; Scopetani, Costanza; Fastelli, Paolo; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Renzi, Monia

    2017-04-15

    During two surveys in 2015 and 2016, sediments samples were collected along the Ombrone river (Maremma Regional Park, province of Grosseto, Italy), in particular at its mouth and in the marine area in front of it, in order to quantify, identify and categorize plastic items (macro, meso and micro-plastics and colour, material etc.) and evaluate their potential sources. The Albegna and Osa rivers were identified as external areas of comparison. The results of the analysis showed different situations, especially as regards fluvial inputs, in addition to evidencing local provisions of plastic material derived from agricultural activities. The microplastics values per kg of sediment and the prevailing type of items found largely varied between the investigated sites (45-1069items/kg dry sample).

  18. Biochemical Characterization and Antimicrobial and Antifungal Activity of Two Endemic Varieties of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) of the Campania Region, Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Fratianni, Florinda; Riccardi, Riccardo; Spigno, Patrizia; Ombra, Maria Neve; Cozzolino, Autilia; Tremonte, Patrizio; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2016-07-01

    Extracts of the bulbs of the two endemic varieties "Rosato" and "Caposele" of Allium sativum of the Campania region, Southern Italy, were analyzed. The phenolic content, ascorbic acid, allicin content, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activity were determined. Ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector performed polyphenol profile. The polyphenolic extracts showed antioxidant activity (EC50) lower than 120 mg. The amount of ascorbic acid and allicin in the two extracts was similar. Polyphenol extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and (only by the extract of Rosato) against Bacillus cereus. The extract of Caposele was more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillum citrinum. On the other hand, the extract of Rosato was effective against Penicillium expansum.

  19. [Polycyclic aromatic hidrocarbons deposition in the Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily Region, Southern Italy) high-risk area following an oil refinery fire].

    PubMed

    Grechi, Daniele; Biggeri, Annibale

    2016-01-01

    On September 2014, a fire began within an oil refinery involving a storage tank containing several hundreds of thousands cubic meters of virgin naphtha. Mayors of neighbouring municipalities asked the Epidemiology and Prevention Society "Giulio A. Maccacaro" to carry out an environmental survey in order to evaluate what was the nature and how dangerous was suspended dust deposited by the fumes. In the following days, after fire had been extinguished we conducted a sample survey on the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and metals in particulate deposited on the soil on a radius of five kilometres from the refinery and we engaged the exposed population. The Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily Region, Southern Italy) high-risk area includes several industrial plants; among them, an oil refinery and a fuel powered energy plant. As reference area we selected the Sarroch municipality (Sardinia Region, Southern Italy), in the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea, which is geographically comparable, where a large oil refinery is located and where an environmental campaign with measurement of PAH and metals in particulate matter was ongoing. Qualitatively, metal composition of particulate matter resulted similar in the Sarroch and Milazzo samples. Instead, a large excess of PAH was documented in the Milazzo samples as compared to the Sarroch ones. In conclusion, the results of the analysis of the samples of particulate matter deposited in the Milazzo area in the days immediately following the oil refinery fire showed a high quantity of PAH, carcinogenic substances which pose major hazard to population health. The greater fall-out was registered in the proximity of the burnt storage tank and the West neighbourhood, and at lesser extent in the Southern neighbourhood. As a consequence, there was a population exposure to carcinogenic substances which could have reached the food chain.

  20. Policy and planning of prevention in Italy: Results from an appraisal of prevention plans developed by Regions for the period 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Annalisa; Marzuillo, Carolina; Massimi, Azzurra; De Vito, Corrado; de Belvis, Anton Giulio; La Torre, Giuseppe; Federici, Antonio; Ricciardi, Walter; Villari, Paolo

    2015-06-01

    Health policies on disease prevention differ widely between countries. Studies suggest that different countries have much to learn from each other and that significant health gains could be achieved if all countries followed best practice. This paper describes the policy development and planning process relating to prevention activities in Italy, through a critical appraisal of Regional Prevention Plans (RPPs) drafted for the period 2010-2012. The analysis was performed using a specific evaluation tool developed by a Scientific Committee appointed by the Italian Ministry of Health. We appraised nineteen RPPs, comprising a total of 702 projects, most of them in the areas of universal prevention (62.9%) and prevention in high risk groups (27.0%). Italian Regions established prevention activities using an innovative combination of population and high-risk individuals approaches. However, some issues, such as the need to reduce health inequalities, were poorly addressed. The technical drafting of RPPs required some improvement; e.g. the evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the health interventions proposed was seldom reported. There were significant geographical differences across the Regions in the appraisal of RPPs. Our research suggests that continuous assessment of the planning process of prevention may become a very useful tool for monitoring, and ultimately strengthening, public health capacity in the field of prevention. Further research is needed to analyze determinants of regional variation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. 78 FR 24670 - Notice of a Determination Regarding the Swine Vesicular Disease Status of Certain Regions in Italy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... Italian Regions of Lombardia, Emilia-Romagna, Veneto, and Piemonte and the autonomous provinces of Trento... evaluation of the SVD status of the Italian Regions of Lombardia, Emilia-Romagna, Veneto, and Piemonte and... and recognition of the SVD status of the Italian Regions of Lombardia, Emilia-Romagna, Veneto, and...

  2. A Founder Effect for the HGD G360R Mutation in Italy: Implications for a Regional Screening of Alkaptonuria.

    PubMed

    Porfirio, Berardino; Sestini, Roberta; Gorelli, Greta; Cordovana, Miriam; Mannoni, Alessandro; Usher, Jeanette L; Introne, Wendy J; Gahl, William A; Vilboux, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    We sought to establish rapid and specific genotyping methods for G360R mutation and for seven tightly linked markers in the homogentisate dioxygenase gene to address the question of whether G360R is a mutational hot spot or the result of a founder effect, as it has been repeatedly found in alkaptonuric patients from a geographic isolate in Italy.For G360R and single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping, high-resolution melting analysis was performed. Microsatellites were analysed by multiplex PCR and capillary electrophoresis. To investigate the natural history of the G360R mutation, we genotyped markers in 52 controls and in 8 unrelated patients from the UK and USA, who also segregated the G360R mutation, and calculated its age using DMLE+2.3 software.A distinct G360R-bearing haplotype was identified in all patients of Caucasian descent. Estimated mutation age was 545 generations (95% credible set, 402-854), suggesting that G360R arose in an ancestor who lived 8,000-10,000 years BC. Archaeological, historical and demographic data support that a G360R carrier has settled the remote valley where present-day population might have a heterozygote frequency of at least 6%.Given the late health-threatening complications of alkaptonuria and a cure within reach, inhabitants of this isolate would benefit from screening and genetic counselling.

  3. Biodiversity and safety aspects of yeast strains characterized from vineyards and spontaneous fermentations in the Apulia Region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Tristezza, Mariana; Vetrano, Cosimo; Bleve, Gianluca; Spano, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vittorio; Logrieco, Antonio; Mita, Giovanni; Grieco, Francesco

    2013-12-01

    This work is the first large-scale study on vineyard-associated yeast strains from Apulia (Southern Italy). Yeasts were identified by Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) ribotyping and bioinformatic analysis. The polymorphism of interdelta elements was used to differentiate Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Twenty different species belonging to 9 genera were identified. Predominant on the grape surface were Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Aureobasidium pullulans, whereas M. pulcherrima and H. uvarum were dominant in the early fermentation stage. A total of 692 S. cerevisiae isolates were identified and a number of S. cerevisiae strains, ranging from 26 to 55, was detected in each of the eight fermentations. The strains were tested for biogenic amines (BAs) production, either in synthetic media or grape must. Two Pichia manshurica, an Issatchenkia terricola and a M. pulcherrima strains were able to produce histamine and cadaverine, during must fermentation. The production of BAs in wine must was different than that observed in the synthetic medium. This feature indicate the importance of an "in grape must" assessment of BAs producing yeast. Overall, our results suggest the importance of microbiological control during wine-making to reduce the potential health risk for consumer represented by these spoilage yeasts.

  4. The history of derogations from chemical parametric values set by the European Drinking Water Directive (Council Directive 98/83/EC), in Italy and the Piedmont region.

    PubMed

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Marro, Silvia; Soardo, Vincenzo; Berruti, Renza; Maggi, Claudio; Cerrato, Elena; Ferrari, Romina; Gulino, Margherita

    2014-01-01

    Italian legislation (Article 13 of Legislative Decree 31/2001) provides for the possibility of establishing derogations from chemical parametric values for drinking water set by EU legislation (Council Directive 98/83/EC), if the supply of drinking water cannot be maintained by any other reasonable means. A derogation is possible only after obtaining a specific authorization and must be limited to the shortest time possible. This paper presents the history of derogations granted in Italy and the case of arsenic and nickel in Piedmont. From 2003 to 2009, 13 regions requested a derogation (Campania, Emilia Romagna, Latium, Lombardy, Marche, Piedmont, Apulia, Sardinia, Sicily, Tuscany, Trentino Alto Adige, Umbria, Venetia) at different times and for a total of 13 parameters. In 2012, tap water provided to almost one million Italians in 112 municipalities of three regions (Latium, Tuscany and Campania), did not comply with the legal limits for the following parameters: arsenic, boron and fluorides. Currently, in the Piedmont region there are no derogations from the maximum permitted concentrations of contaminants in drinking water. In the past derogations have been applied for the nickel parameter (years 2006-2007) and from the arsenic parameter (years 2006-2008).

  5. Quality control and data validation procedure in large-scale quantitative monitoring of mosquito density: the case of Aedes albopictus in Emilia-Romagna region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Carrieri, Marco; Albieri, Alessandro; Urbanelli, Sandra; Angelini, Paola; Venturelli, Claudio; Matrangolo, Carmela; Bellini, Romeo

    2017-03-01

    The risk of local transmission of chikungunya, dengue, and Zika viruses from viremic travelers arriving from affected areas is a real possibility in southern Europe, due to the large presence of the vector Aedes albopictus. The first chikungunya outbreak in Europe occurred in the Emilia-Romagna region, Italy, in 2007, prompting the regional public health department to implement an Ae. albopictus monitoring and control plan. This paper presents the procedure developed for the quality control of the data collected by the regional ovitrap monitoring network. The quality control procedure consists of four successive steps; the first step is data acquisition and the second is an automatic data processing step, while skilled technicians according to specific procedures perform the third and fourth steps by checking the exact position of the ovitraps and by conducting human landing collections, respectively. The paper also presents the results of this quality control procedure applied to the data collected through the large-scale Ae. albopictus monitoring operation performed in Emilia-Romagna in 2015.

  6. The 24-26 November, 2002 Floods affecting Northern Italy: A Numerical Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripoli, G. J.; Pinori, S.; Dietrich, S.; Mugnai, A.; Panegrossi, G.; Smith, E.

    2003-04-01

    In November'02 an episode of intense precipitation impacted portions of Northern Italy, Switzerland, and the southern part of France causing the rise of lake and river levels and in some areas hazardous flooding. Rains began on 24 November in the western part of the Alps, over the Liguria (Genoa) and Lombardia (Milan) regions. Warm and humid air originating from the Mediterranean was driven northward towards the Alps where it met cold and dry air originating in the Atlantic eastern. An intense Sirocco wind was present throughout the Italian peninsula, raising surface temperatures up to 25^oC in northwest Sardinia (Alghero). On 25 November, the storm system moved towards the eastern area of the Alps, spawning intense thunderstorms, and in some cases hail, over Lombardia and Friuli. Heavy rains continued into 26 November when the precipitation terminated in response to subsidence from a high pressure system centered over eastern Europe. Observations suggest that the event featured extensive cold air damming against the Alps that enhanced the lifting over Milan. Since the 0C isotherm was only 2000 m above sea level, strong snowfall occurred over the Alps with accumulations between 250 and 400 cm. At Genoa, ˜17 cm of rain was recorded on 24 November, and 29 cm on 26 November contributing to a 3-day total of some 46 cm. At Milan, ˜24 cm of rain was observed for the 3-day period. A cloud resolving simulation of the event using the University of Wisconsin Nonhydrostatic Modeling System (UW-NMS) will be presented. The simulation is being performed as an entry to a Cloud Radiation Data Base (CRDB) used for satellite microwave precipitation retrieval. The CRDB is a collection of precipitating storm simulations from which the associated microphysics, thermodynamics, and dynamics are used as the physical underpinnings for rain retrieval algorithms. The robustness of this data base for Mediterranean regions applications will be discussed. Comparisons and contrasts of this

  7. Prevalence and severity of dental caries in 5- and 12-year old children in the Veneto Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ferro, R; Besostri, A; Meneghetti, B; Stellini, E

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of dental caries among 5- and 12-year-old children in Northeastern Italy and to compare dental status between immigrants and native-born children. A cross-sectional survey of 260 5-year-olds and 862 12-year-olds was carried out between October 2003 and May 2004. Dental caries were diagnosed at the caries into dentine (D3) threshold. Differences in dental health status were compared between immigrant and native-born children for both age groups. Among 5-year-old children, mean dmft was 1.45 (SD=2.69), SiC=4.31, 65.8% had no caries. Immigrant 5-year-olds (6.2%) scored more poorly than their Italian counterparts: mean dmft was 5.12 (vs. 1.21; p<0.001) and only 25.0% were caries free (vs. 68.4%; p<0.001). Among 12-year-olds, mean DMFT was 1.44 (SD=2.00), SiC=3.88, 55.1% had DMFT=0: 5.6% also had poorer dental status: mean DMFT was 3.23 (vs. 1.33; p<0.001), SiC=6.69 (vs. 3.66), and only 17.1% had DMFT 0 (vs. 56.8%). The prevalence of dental caries and care obtained for both age groups are similar to those of other industrialised countries. When our results for 12-year-olds were compared with those of two previous surveys (1984 and 1994), a major decline in the prevalence of dental caries was observed. Being immigrant was a strong determinant in caries occurrence.

  8. Nutritional Quality of Preparations Based on Döner Kebab Sold in Two Towns of Veneto Region, Italy: Preliminary Results.

    PubMed

    Panozzo, Monica; Magro, Luciano; Erle, Ilario; Ferrarini, Stefano; Murari, Riccardo; Novelli, Enrico; Masaro, Simone

    2015-05-28

    The sampling activity for this study was performed between September and October 2012. It involved seven shops in Verona, eleven in Vicenza and two in its province (Bassano del Grappa), northern Italy. The scope was to measure the values of energy and nutritional components and to identify the profile of fatty acids in a serving of ready to eat Döner Kebab. The samples were collected according to the usual proportions of this preparation, keeping all the components (bread, meat, vegetables and sauces) separated in different bags. In the laboratory, each component was weighed and, after pooling, processed for the analytical determination of humidity, crude protein, lipid content and fatty acid profile, ashes, sodium (salt), carbohydrate, collagen (measured only in meat) and fibre. The results showed a highly standardized recipe, while the comparison between the two towns showed a significant difference in carbohydrate concentration (mainly due to the quantity of bread used). By observing data on the serving sizes sampled (274 to 618 g) and the nutritional values obtained, Döner Kebab can be seen as a ready to eat dish providing much energy: on average a serving size covers 45 and 36% of the recommended daily intake of energy, 95.7 and 82.1% of protein, 42.5 and 33.4% of saturated fatty acids for females and males, respectively, and 85.5% of salt regardless of gender. Döner Kebab can be considered as an occasional substitute to one of the two main meals of the day.

  9. Nutritional Quality of Preparations Based on Döner Kebab Sold in Two Towns of Veneto Region, Italy: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Panozzo, Monica; Magro, Luciano; Erle, Ilario; Ferrarini, Stefano; Murari, Riccardo; Masaro, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The sampling activity for this study was performed between September and October 2012. It involved seven shops in Verona, eleven in Vicenza and two in its province (Bassano del Grappa), northern Italy. The scope was to measure the values of energy and nutritional components and to identify the profile of fatty acids in a serving of ready to eat Döner Kebab. The samples were collected according to the usual proportions of this preparation, keeping all the components (bread, meat, vegetables and sauces) separated in different bags. In the laboratory, each component was weighed and, after pooling, processed for the analytical determination of humidity, crude protein, lipid content and fatty acid profile, ashes, sodium (salt), carbohydrate, collagen (measured only in meat) and fibre. The results showed a highly standardized recipe, while the comparison between the two towns showed a significant difference in carbohydrate concentration (mainly due to the quantity of bread used). By observing data on the serving sizes sampled (274 to 618 g) and the nutritional values obtained, Döner Kebab can be seen as a ready to eat dish providing much energy: on average a serving size covers 45 and 36% of the recommended daily intake of energy, 95.7 and 82.1% of protein, 42.5 and 33.4% of saturated fatty acids for females and males, respectively, and 85.5% of salt regardless of gender. Döner Kebab can be considered as an occasional substitute to one of the two main meals of the day. PMID:27800390

  10. Soil microbial diversity and activity as terroir elements of Sangiovese vineyards in the Chianti Classico region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabiani, Arturo; Mocali, Stefano; Priori, Simone; Valboa, Giuseppe; Vignozzi, Nadia; Pellegrini, Sergio; Storchi, Paolo; Perria, Rita; Costantini, Edoardo

    2016-04-01

    Linking the uniqueness and quality of grapes and wine to the environment they are produced, based on the terroir concept, have recently become popular in many parts of world. The natural components of terroir are actually a set of processes, which together create a delicate equilibrium and regulation of its effect on products in both space and time. Climate, geology, geomorphology and soil are therefore the main environmental factors which make up the terroir effect on different scales. However, information on the impact of soil microbial communities on soil functions, grapevine plants and wine quality is still lacking. Thus, four of the most suitable areas (so called "cru") for the production of Sangiovese wine were chosen within the Barone Ricasoli farm of Brolio, the largest winery in the Chianti Classico area in central Italy: Fattoio, Miniera, Ceni and Colli-Agresto. Based on previous pedological and sensing technologies surveys, each area was further divided into two distinct homogeneous areas of about 1.5 ha called Basic Terroir Unit (UTB), which were monitored over 3 years (2012-2014) for the soil the chemical-physical variability (moisture, organic matter, nitrogen, potassium), the vineyard physiological status (water stress, grape production, characteristics of the grapes and wine) and the structure and activity of soil microbial communities (determined through DGGE, soil respiration and microbial biomass, respectively). The aim of the work was to assess the relationships among soil parameters and vine quality at intra- and inter- UTB level and, in particular, the potential impact of microbial composition and/or function on the terroir concept. The overall results highlighted a microbial community structure specific for each cru area and, in particular, associated to each UTB. Furthermore, microbial activity in Miniera and Ceni appeared to be positively related to Sangiovese quality, as determined through the Sangiovese Performance Index. However, except

  11. Southern Italy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-05-359 (22 June 1973) --- This rare cloud free view of southern Italy (41.0N, 16.0E) shows almost all of the famous `boot' configuration of the peninsula up to just north of Naples and Mount Vesuvius. The land mass of this historic peninsula contrasts sharply with the sparkling blue waters of the Mediterranean Sea. Photo credit: NASA

  12. Professional Acquisition of M. bovis in Calabria Region (Southern Italy): A Challenging Case of Osteomyelitis in a Migrant Patient from Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Quirino, Angela; Torti, Carlo; Strazzulla, Alessio; Nisticò, Salvatore; Galati, Luisa; Barreca, Giorgio Settimo; Lamberti, Angelo Giuseppe; Berardelli, Giuseppina; Pacciarini, Maria; Gasparini, Giorgio; Pisani, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Antonio; Liberto, Maria Carla; Focà, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    We report herein the first case of a coinfection with Brucella spp., M. bovis, and Enterobacter cloacae in a butcher who moved from Bulgaria to Italy. Molecular typing suggested professional acquisition of M. bovis in Italy. So, surveillance and preventive measures need to be implemented.

  13. Professional Acquisition of M. bovis in Calabria Region (Southern Italy): A Challenging Case of Osteomyelitis in a Migrant Patient from Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Quirino, Angela; Torti, Carlo; Strazzulla, Alessio; Nisticò, Salvatore; Galati, Luisa; Barreca, Giorgio Settimo; Lamberti, Angelo Giuseppe; Berardelli, Giuseppina; Pacciarini, Maria; Gasparini, Giorgio; Pisani, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Antonio; Liberto, Maria Carla; Focà, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    We report herein the first case of a coinfection with Brucella spp., M. bovis, and Enterobacter cloacae in a butcher who moved from Bulgaria to Italy. Molecular typing suggested professional acquisition of M. bovis in Italy. So, surveillance and preventive measures need to be implemented. PMID:26257970

  14. The alerting system for hydrogeological hazard in Lombardy Region, northern Italy: rainfall thresholds triggering debris-flows and "equivalent rainfall" method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchi, A.; Valsecchi, I. Q.; Alberti, M.; Fassi, P.; Molari, M.; Mannucci, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Functional Centre (CFMR) of the Civil Protection of the Lombardy Region, North Italy, has the main task of monitoring and alerting, particularly with respect to natural hazards. The procedure of early warning for hydrogeological hazard is based on a comparison of two quantities: thresholds and rainfall, both referred to a defined area and an exact time interval. The CFMR studied 52 landslide events (1987-2003) in Medium-Low Valtellina and derived a model of the critical detachment rainfall, in function of the local slope and the Curve Number CN (an empirical parameter related with the land cover and the hydrological conditions of the soil): it's physically consistent and allows a geographically targeted alerting. Moreover, rainfall thresholds were associated with a typical probability of exceedance. The processing of rainfall data is carried out through the "equivalent rainfall" method, that allows to take into account the antecedent moisture condition of the soil: in fact the hazard is substantially greater when the soil is near to saturation. The method was developed from the CN method and considers the local CN and the observed rainfall of the previous 5 days. The obtained value for the local equivalent rainfall, that combines rainfall (observed and forecasted) and local soil characteristics, is a better parameter for the evaluation of the hydrogeological hazard. The comparison between equivalent rainfall and thresholds allows to estimate the local hydrogeological hazard, displayed through hazard maps, and consequently to provide a reliable alerting activity (even localized to limited portions of the region).

  15. The management of multiple sclerosis by reference centers in south of Italy: a 2011 survey on health demands and needs in Campania region.

    PubMed

    de Waure, Chiara; Di Nardo, Francesco; Mazzucco, Walter; Nedovic, Darko; Battaglia, Mario Alberto; Busillo, Vincenzo; Di Iorio, Walter; Gallo, Antonio; Lanzillo, Roberta; Lombardi, Emilio; Maniscalco, Giorgia Teresa; Orefice, Giuseppe; Petracca, Maria; Romano, Felice; Sinisi, Leonardo; Spadera, Anna Pia; Spitaleri, Daniele; Vivo, Pasquale; Ricciardi, Walter

    2016-02-01

    This cross-sectional study has investigated the diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients suffering from multiple sclerosis (MS) in the Campania Region (Italy). A survey involving all the reference centers for MS in Campania Region was conducted from March to August 2011. Centers responded to a web-administered questionnaire on management and clinical characteristics of MS patients. In the study period, 3263 patients (mean age 37 years, 66 % females) accessed the centers. Patients received a first diagnosis of MS in 161 cases (4.9 %). About 37 % of the subjects without a previous diagnosis came to the centers on their own initiative. All patients underwent a complete neurological examination and expanded disability status scale. The other most common investigations were magnetic resonance imaging (44.0 %) and evoked potentials (22.1 %). The number of treated patients was 2797 (87.1 %). The most used drugs were interferon β and glatiramer acetate. The time between diagnosis and initiation of therapy exceeded 6 months in 32 % of cases. Second-line drugs were under-used: 16 % of patients who might benefit from them show high clinical and radiological disease activity despite treatment with immunomodulant drugs. The MS care management of the surveyed centers showed consistent margins for improvement in 2011. Even though these data do not represent the current situation, they can be used to monitor improvements in MS care.

  16. Evidence of Simultaneous Circulation of West Nile and Usutu Viruses in Mosquitoes Sampled in Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy) in 2009

    PubMed Central

    Calzolari, Mattia; Bonilauri, Paolo; Bellini, Romeo; Albieri, Alessandro; Defilippo, Francesco; Maioli, Giulia; Galletti, Giorgio; Gelati, Antoni; Barbieri, Ilaria; Tamba, Marco; Lelli, Davide; Carra, Elena; Cordioli, Paolo; Angelini, Paola; Dottori, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Background In recent years human diseases due to mosquito-borne viruses were increasingly reported in Emilia-Romagna region (Italy), from the chikungunya virus in 2007 to the West Nile virus (WNV) in 2008. An extensive entomological survey was performed in 2009 to establish the presence and distribution of mosquito arboviruses in this region, with particular reference to flaviviruses. Methodology/Principal Findings From May 6 to October 31, a total of 190,516 mosquitoes were sampled in georeferenced stations, grouped in 1,789 pools according date of collection, location, and species, and analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect the presence of RNA belong to Flavivirus genus. WNV was detected in 27 mosquito pools, producing sequences similar to those of birds and human strains obtained in 2008 outbreak, pointed out the probable virus overwintering. Isolation of WNV was achieved from one of these pools. Moreover 56 pools of mosquitoes tested positive for Usutu virus (USUV). Most PCR positive pools consisted of Culex pipiens, which also was the most analyzed mosquito species (81.4% of specimens); interestingly, USUV RNA was also found in two Aedes albopictus mosquito pools. Simultaneous circulation of WNV and USUV in the survey area was highlighted by occurrence of 8 mosquito WNV- and USUV-positive pools and by the overlaying of the viruses “hot spots”, obtained by kernel density estimation (KDE) analysis. Land use of sampled stations pointed out a higher proportion of WNV-positive Cx. pipiens pool in rural environments respect the provenience of total sampled pool, while the USUV-positive pools were uniformly captured in the different environments. Conclusions/Significance Obtained data highlighting the possible role of Cx. pipiens mosquito as the main vector for WNV and USUV in Northern Italy, and the possible involvement of Ae. albopictus mosquito in USUV cycle. The described mosquito-based surveillance could constitute the

  17. Selective mineral composition, functional test morphology and paleoecology of the agglutinated foraminiferal genus Colominella Popescu, 1998 in the Mediterranean Pliocene (Liguria, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoletta, Mancin; Elena, Basso; Camilla, Pirini; Michael A., Kaminski

    2012-12-01

    Specimens of Colominella (agglutinated Foraminifera) from a Pliocene Mediterranean succession were analysed through a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) to document their test microstructure. Colominella develops a complex large test with a mostly biserial chamber arrangement, but with the internal chamber lumens partitioned by vertical and horizontal plates that form a labyrinthine structure of alcoves. This internal partition occurs from the first chambers but is completely masked from the outside by the thick wall. The test-wall microstructure is characterized by canaliculi (parapores) that are externally covered by a pavement of agglutinated grains. The mineralogical characterization of the agglutinated grains and the secreted cement shows that the grains are strongly selected as regards to size, arrangement and composition, with the coarse grains placed close to the outer wall. Moreover, these coarse grains, forming a pavement, are made of monocrystalline quartz, whereas the inner part of the skeleton is mostly composed of dolomite. The carbonate cement is less abundant and appears as cloudy light grey areas among the detrital grains. These shell features can be interpreted as functional adaptations to perform kleptoplastidy and/or to house functional photosymbionts, probably induced by stable environmental conditions as in warm shallow waters characterized by low nutrient flux.

  18. Seasonal trends and spatial variations of PM10-bounded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Veneto Region, Northeast Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiol, Mauro; Formenton, Gianni; Pasqualetto, Alberto; Pavoni, Bruno

    2013-11-01

    The Veneto Region extends for ˜18.4·103 km2 in the northeastern part of the Po Valley and includes mountains, hills, plain and coastal environments with very different and discontinuous anthropogenic pressures. Although many efforts have been made to mitigate air pollution, the European air quality standards for atmospheric pollutants are frequently breached. This study investigates the levels of eight PM10-bound PAHs collected in 21 stations categorized as rural background, urban and suburban backgrounds, traffic and industrial hot-spots during one year (2011). Data were statistically processed to detect the PAH seasonal trends, their relationship with other air pollutants and micro-meteorological parameters and the space variations at a regional scale. Results show that PAHs levels are relatively high in the largest part of the region, with 10 sites exceeding the levels of BaP targeted by the European legislation. Two sites exhibited anomalously high PAHs concentrations and this anomaly became even more evident when considering the population density as a surrogate for the potential anthropogenic pressure. The PAHs levels were found directly proportional to other gaseous pollutants (CO, NO, NOx, SO2) suggesting common polluting sources. The analysis of time trends of PAH concentrations reveals significant coincidences throughout the region, i.e. simultaneous changes are observed in most sites as a consequence of similar emission sources and accumulation/removal processes. In this scenario, the control strategies currently imposed at local level (e.g. traffic limitations) have proven scarcely effective in mitigating air pollution and a real coordination at regional or even interregional level cannot be further postponed. Peculiar features of the PAHs pollution in the Veneto were also identified and some measures for protecting the human health were suggested.

  19. Estimate of the size and demographic structure of the owned dog and cat population living in Veneto region (north-eastern Italy).

    PubMed

    Capello, Katia; Bortolotti, Laura; Lanari, Manuela; Baioni, Elisa; Mutinelli, Franco; Vascellari, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of the size and demographic structure of animal populations is a necessary prerequisite for any population-based epidemiological study, especially to ascertain and interpret prevalence data, to implement surveillance plans in controlling zoonotic diseases and, moreover, to provide accurate estimates of tumours incidence data obtained by population-based registries. The main purpose of this study was to provide an accurate estimate of the size and structure of the canine population in Veneto region (north-eastern Italy), using the Lincoln-Petersen version of the capture-recapture methodology. The Regional Canine Demographic Registry (BAC) and a sample survey of households of Veneto Region were the capture and recapture sources, respectively. The secondary purpose was to estimate the size and structure of the feline population in the same region, using the same survey applied for dog population. A sample of 2465 randomly selected households was drawn and submitted to a questionnaire using the CATI technique, in order to obtain information about the ownership of dogs and cats. If the dog was declared to be identified, owner's information was used to recapture the dog in the BAC. The study was conducted in Veneto Region during 2011, when the dog population recorded in the BAC was 605,537. Overall, 616 households declared to possess at least one dog (25%), with a total of 805 dogs and an average per household of 1.3. The capture-recapture analysis showed that 574 dogs (71.3%, 95% CI: 68.04-74.40%) had been recaptured in both sources, providing a dog population estimate of 849,229 (95% CI: 814,747-889,394), 40% higher than that registered in the BAC. Concerning cats, 455 of 2465 (18%, 95% CI: 17-20%) households declared to possess at least one cat at the time of the telephone interview, with a total of 816 cats. The mean number of cats per household was equal to 1.8, providing an estimate of the cat population in Veneto region equal to 663,433 (95% CI: 626

  20. A SOA-Based Solution to Monitor Vaccination Coverage Among HIV-Infected Patients in Liguria.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Barbara; Gazzarata, Roberta; Sticchi, Laura; Giacomini, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination in HIV-infected patients constitutes an essential tool in the prevention of the most common infectious diseases. The Ligurian Vaccination in HIV Program is a proposed vaccination schedule specifically dedicated to this risk group. Selective strategies are proposed within this program, employing ICT (Information and Communication) tools to identify this susceptible target group, to monitor immunization coverage over time and to manage failures and defaulting. The proposal is to connect an immunization registry system to an existing regional platform that allows clinical data re-use among several medical structures, to completely manage the vaccination process. This architecture will adopt a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach and standard HSSP (Health Services Specification Program) interfaces to support interoperability. According to the presented solution, vaccination administration information retrieved from the immunization registry will be structured according to the specifications within the immunization section of the HL7 (Health Level 7) CCD (Continuity of Care Document) document. Immunization coverage will be evaluated through the continuous monitoring of serology and antibody titers gathered from the hospital LIS (Laboratory Information System) structured into a HL7 Version 3 (v3) Clinical Document Architecture Release 2 (CDA R2).

  1. 2015-2018 Regional Prevention Plan of Lombardy (Northern Italy) and sedentary prevention: a cross-sectional strategy to develop evidence-based programmes.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Liliana; Ripamonti, Ennio; Cereda, Danilo; Gelmi, Giusi; Pirrone, Lucia; Rebecchi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sector, life-course, and setting approaches are identified in the 2015-2018 Regional Prevention Plan (PRP) of Lombardy Region (Northern Italy) as valuable strategies to ensure the efficacy and sustainable prevention of the non-communicable disease (NCDs). The involvement of non-health sectors in health promotion activities represents a suitable strategy to affect on social, economic, and political determinants and to change environmental factors that could cause NCDs. A dialogue among communities, urban planning, and prevention know-how is a prerequisite to develop a system of policies suitable to promote healthy lifestyle in general and, specifically, active lifestyles. The 2015-2018 Lombardy PRP pursues its aims of health promotion and behavioural risk factors for NCDs prevention through programmes that implement their own setting networks (Health Promoting Schools - SPS; Workplace Health Promotion - WHP) and develop new networks. Sedentary lifestyle prevention and active lifestyle promotion are performed through the approach promoted by the Healthy Cities Programme (WHO), encouraging two main processes: 1. creating integrated capacity-building among health and social prevention services, academic research, and local stakeholders on different urban planning and design issues; 2. promoting community empowerment through active citizens participation. Through this process, Lombardy Region aims to orient its services developing evidence-based programmes and enhancing advocacy and mediating capacity skills in order to create a profitable partnership with non-health sectors. This paper reports the main impact data: 26,000 children that reach school by foot thanks to walking buses, 57% of 145 companies joining WHP are involved in promoting physical activity, 18,891 citizens who attend local walking groups.

  2. Estimation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis load in raw bulk tank milk in Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy) by qPCR.

    PubMed

    Ricchi, Matteo; Savi, Roberto; Bolzoni, Luca; Pongolini, Stefano; Grant, Irene R; De Cicco, Caterina; Cerutti, Giulia; Cammi, Giuliana; Garbarino, Chiara A; Arrigoni, Norma

    2016-08-01

    Consumption of milk and dairy products is considered one of the main routes of human exposure to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Quantitative data on MAP load in raw cows' milk are essential starting point for exposure assessment. Our study provides this information on a regional scale, estimating the load of MAP in bulk tank milk (BTM) produced in Emilia-Romagna region (Italy). The survey was carried out on 2934 BTM samples (88.6% of the farms herein present) using two different target sequences for qPCR (f57 and IS900). Data about the performances of both qPCRs are also reported, highlighting the superior sensitivity of IS900-qPCR. Seven hundred and eighty-nine samples tested MAP-positive (apparent prevalence 26.9%) by IS900 qPCR. However, only 90 of these samples were quantifiable by qPCR. The quantifiable samples contained a median load of 32.4 MAP cells mL(-1) (and maximum load of 1424 MAP cells mL(-1) ). This study has shown that a small proportion (3.1%) of BTM samples from Emilia-Romagna region contained MAP in excess of the limit of detection (1.5 × 10(1) MAP cells mL(-1) ), indicating low potential exposure for consumers if the milk subsequently undergoes pasteurization or if it is destined to typical hard cheese production. © 2016 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [Spatial representativeness of monitoring stations for air quality in Florence (Tuscany Region, Central Italy) according to ARPAT e LaMMA. Critical observations].

    PubMed

    Grechi, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    On March 2015, the Environmental Protection Agency of Tuscany Region (Central Italy) and the Laboratory of monitoring and environmental modelling published a Report on spatial representativeness of monitoring stations for Tuscan air quality, where they supported the decommissioning of modelling stations located in the Florentine Plain. The stations of Signa, Scandicci, and Firenze-Bassi, located in a further South area, were considered representative Believing that air quality of the Plain could be evaluated by these stations is a stretch. In this text the author show the inconsistency of the conclusion of the Report through correlation graphs comparing daily means of PM10 detected in the disposed stations and in the active ones, showing relevant differences between the reported values and the days when the limits are exceeded. The discrepancy is due to the fact that uncertainty of theoretical estimates is greater than the differences recorded by the stations considered as a reference and the areas they may represent. The area of the Plain has a population of 150,000 individuals and it is subject to a heavy environmental pression, which will change for the urban works planned for the coming years. The population's legitimate request for the analytical monitoring of air pollution could be met through the organization of participated monitoring based on the use of low-cost innovative tools.

  4. Time to market and patient access to new oncology products in Italy: a multistep pathway from European context to regional health care providers.

    PubMed

    Russo, P; Mennini, F S; Siviero, P D; Rasi, G

    2010-10-01

    The main purpose of this study was to identify each sequential phase followed by an oncology product, from European assessment until to patient access in each Italian region (IR). A panel of oncology products approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in the period 2006-2008 was considered. The explored sequential phases included the times to market for: the EMA; pharmaceutical companies; the Italian Medicines Agency (Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco, AIFA); and IRs as final providers of health care. The IR's time to market was also analyzed by a Cox regression model. The overall mean time required before patients access was 2.3 years. EMA accounted for the greater proportion of time (31.8%), followed by AIFA (28.2%). However, the duration for both pharmaceutical companies and IRs was associated with the highest variability. An oncology product authorized with a risk-sharing agreement showed an early access in the IRs. On the contrary, the introduction in IRs having a compulsory formulary was delayed. Both a high forecast of economic impact and a high oncology product price can also delay the patient access. The process before patient access to an oncology product is time and cost consuming. This study identifies the main predictors that affect the missing overlap between market and patient access in Italy.

  5. Soil properties, strontium isotopic signatures and multi-element profiles to authenticate the origin of vegetables from small-scale regions: illustration with early potatoes from southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Zampella, Mariavittoria; Quétel, Christophe R; Paredes, Eduardo; Goitom Asfaha, Daniel; Vingiani, Simona; Adamo, Paola

    2011-10-15

    We propose a method for the authentication of the origin of vegetables grown under similar weather conditions, in sites less than 10 km distance from the sea and distributed over a rather small scale area (58651 km(2)). We studied how the strontium (Sr) isotopic signature and selected elemental concentrations ([Mn], [Cu], [Zn], [Rb], [Sr] and [Cd]) in early potatoes from three neighbouring administrative regions in the south of Italy were related to the geological substrate (alluvial sediments, volcanic substrates and carbonate rocks) and to selected soil chemical properties influencing the bioavailability of elements in soils (pH, cation exchange capacity and total carbonate content). Through multiple-step multivariate statistics (PLS-DA) we could assign 26 potatoes (including two already commercialised samples) to their respective eight sites of production, corresponding to the first two types of geological substrates. The other 12 potatoes from four sites of production had similar characteristics in terms of the geological substrate (third type) and these soil properties could be grouped together. In this case, more discriminative parameters would be required to allow the differentiation between sites. The validation of our models included external prediction tests with data of potatoes harvested the year before and a study on the robustness of the uncertainties of the measurement results. Annual variations between multi-elemental and Sr isotopic fingerprints were observed in potatoes harvested from soils overlying carbonate rocks, stressing the importance of testing long term variations in authentication studies.

  6. GIS and Remote Sensing based zonation map for volcaniclastic debris flow susceptibility: a case study from area surrounding the Vesuvius (Campania Region, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisson, Marina; Spinetti, Claudia; Sulpizio, Roberto

    2013-04-01

    The volcanic areas affected by pyroclastic deposits and significant hillslopes can be considered zone with high proneness for triggering volcaniclastic debris flows. In fact, in presence of heavy and/or persistent rainfall, loose pyroclastic covers can be remobilized and generate volcaniclastic flows causing disastrous effects. The most important volcanoclastic debris flow in the Campania Region (Italy) has been the Sarno-Quindici event occurred on May 5-6, 1998 that caused the death of more than 150 people and relevant damages to villages at the foot of the Apennine Mountains in the circumvesuvian area. In order to improve the volcaniclastic flow hazard zonation in the area surrounding the Vesuvius volcano, we propose a methodological approach based on remote sensing analyses combined with morphometric study derived from a Digital Elevation Model having a spatial resolution of 10 meters to identify the drainage basins potentially more prone to generate volcaniclastic flows. The satellite high-medium resolution data will be used to derive the land cover mapping. The elaborations will be performed in the GIS environment and the combination of identified drainage basins with the land cover classes will provide the map classifying the areas according to different degree of susceptibility for triggering debris flows.

  7. Temporal patterns of hospital admissions for transient ischemic attack: a retrospective population-based study in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Manfredini, Roberto; Manfredini, Fabio; Boari, Benedetta; Malagoni, Anna Maria; Gamberini, Susanna; Salmi, Raffaella; Gallerani, Massimo

    2010-04-01

    Acute cerebrovascular events are not randomly distributed over time but show specific temporal patterns of occurrence. However, most studies focused stroke and little is known about transient ischemic attack. This study aimed to explore the existence of a temporal pattern of transient ischemic attack and the possible influence by the most common risk factors. The analysis included all hospital admissions with the ICD9-CM code for TIA, recorded in the database of the Emilia Romagna region of Italy (1998-2006; n = 43642, mean age 76.8 +/- 11.5 years, 45.5% males). Transient ischemic attack was most frequent in autumn and winter and less common in spring and summer (P < 0.0001), with the highest number of cases in October and the lowest in February, and also most frequent on Monday (P < 0.0001). This study shows a seasonal and weekly pattern in occurrence of transient ischemic attack, independent of sex and the presence of the most common risk factors.

  8. Interplay between regional uplift and glacio-eustasy in the Crotone Basin (Calabria, southern Italy) since 0.45 Ma: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zecchin, Massimo; Caffau, Mauro; Ceramicola, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    During the last 0.45 Ma, the Crotone Basin, a forearc basin located on the Ionian side of Calabria, southern Italy, experienced a phase of uplift that persists today. The transition from subsidence to uplift occurred close to the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 (ca. 0.4 Ma). The subsequent progressive emergence of the area was punctuated by several marine transgressions linked to high-frequency, high-magnitude glacio-eustatic changes, which are recorded as coastal terraces. These high-frequency sequences show a variable stacking pattern due to the interplay between glacio-eustasy, uplift and local physiography. In particular, a progressive SE-ward migration of the shoreline is documented in the study area since MIS 11. This trend was enhanced during the MIS 5.5 to MIS 2 time interval, due to the combined effect of uplift and lowering glacio-eustatic sea level until the Last Glacial Maximum. Moreover, the regional uplift also led to a physiographic change from relatively low-gradient to high-gradient settings between MIS 7.1 and MIS 5.5. A comparison between the late Quaternary geological record of the Crotone Basin and that of other basins is crucial to improve the present knowledge on past sea levels related to MISs. This ultimately will help to better understand the Holocene sea-level history and the human contribution to sea-level change, in order to predict future scenarios.

  9. Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and of methicillin-resistant S. aureus clonal complexes in bulk tank milk from dairy cattle herds in Lombardy Region (Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Cortimiglia, C; Luini, M; Bianchini, V; Marzagalli, L; Vezzoli, F; Avisani, D; Bertoletti, M; Ianzano, A; Franco, A; Battisti, A

    2016-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most important causative agent of subclinical mastitis in cattle resulting in reduced milk production and quality. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains has a clear zoonotic relevance, especially in the case of occupational exposure. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in bulk tank milk (BTM) from dairy cattle herds in the Lombardy Region (Northern Italy) and to identify the main MRSA circulating genotypes. MRSA strains were characterized by susceptibility testing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing and SCCmec typing. A total 844 BTM samples were analysed and S. aureus and MRSA were detected in 47·2% and 3·8% of dairy herds, respectively. MLST showed that the majority (28/32) of isolates belonged to the typical livestock-associated lineages: ST398, ST97 and ST1. Interestingly, in this study we report for the first time the new ST3211, a single locus variant of ST(CC)22, with the newly described 462 aroE allele. Our study indicates high diffusion of S. aureus mastitis and low, but not negligible, prevalence of MRSA in the considered area, suggesting the need for planning specific control programmes for bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus, especially when MRSA is implicated.

  10. Simultaneous detection and identification of STI pathogens by multiplex Real-Time PCR in genital tract specimens in a selected area of Apulia, a region of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Del Prete, Raffaele; Ronga, Luigi; Lestingi, Mirella; Addati, Grazia; Angelotti, Umberto Filippo; Di Carlo, Domenico; Miragliotta, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    Genital tract infections are globally a major cause of morbidity in sexually active individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and associations of co-infections of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Ureaplasma parvum (UP) in specimens collected from female (SF) and male (SM) patients. 1575 samples from 1575 individuals from the geographical area around Bari, Apulia region in Southern Italy, were collected and analyzed by a multiplex Real-Time PCR (mRT-PCR) (Anyplex(TM) II STI-7, Seegene, Inc., Seoul, Korea) assay. 455/1575 (28.89%) samples resulted positive for at least one of the targets named above. Statistically significant differences in prevalence of the pathogens between SF and SM were not detected except for UP (24.92% in SF vs 8.91% in SM). Prevalence of co-infections was 6.84 and 3.96% in SF and SM, respectively. Moreover, MH presence in SF, but not in SM, was associated with UU and UP. Our data suggest different patterns of infections between females and male and the importance of an increased vigilance of sexually transmitted pathogens to reduce the burden on general population and the sequelae or the complications on reproductive organs.

  11. Analysis of cystic fibrosis gene mutations in children with cystic fibrosis and in 964 infertile couples within the region of Basilicata, Italy: a research study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cystic fibrosis is the most common autosomal recessive genetic disease in the Caucasian population. Extending knowledge about the molecular pathology on the one hand allows better delineation of the mutations in the CFTR gene and the other to dramatically increase the predictive power of molecular testing. Methods This study reports the results of a molecular screening of cystic fibrosis using DNA samples of patients enrolled from January 2009 to December 2013. Patients were referred to our laboratory for cystic fibrosis screening for infertile couples. In addition, we identified the gene mutations present in 76 patients affected by cystic fibrosis in the pediatric population of Basilicata. Results In the 964 infertile couples examined, 132 subjects (69 women and 63 men) resulted heterozygous for one of the CFTR mutations, with a recurrence of carriers of 6.85%. The recurrence of carriers in infertile couples is significantly higher from the hypothetical value of the general population (4%). Conclusions This study shows that in the Basilicata region of Italy the CFTR phenotype is caused by a small number of mutations. Our aim is to develop a kit able to detect not less than 96% of CTFR gene mutations so that the relative risk for screened couples is superimposable with respect to the general population. PMID:25304080

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the soils of a densely populated region and associated human health risks: the Campania Plain (Southern Italy) case study.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Stefano; Fontaine, Barbara; Chen, Wei; Lima, Annamaria; Cannatelli, Claudia; Piccolo, Alessandro; Qi, Shihua; Wang, Menghan; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2015-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a major class of environmental pollutants mainly arising from anthropogenic activities. In this paper, the behavior and the distribution patterns of sixteen PAHs, listed as priority pollutants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, were evaluated in 119 soil samples collected in different areas of Campania region in the southern Italy. The observation of the geochemical distribution patterns showed that both high and low molecular weight PAHs are mostly concentrated within the metropolitan area of Naples, the Agro Aversano area, and, partly, the Sarno River basin. In accordance with the Italian environmental law (D. Lgs. 152/2006), these areas should be considered potentially contaminated and not suitable for a residential use unless an environmental risk analysis does not demonstrate their safety. As a consequence, a preliminary quantitative risk assessment enhanced by the use of GIS was run revealing the existence of an incremental lifetime cancer risk higher than 1 × 10(-5) for the city of Naples and for some other populous areas.

  13. A procedure for the sensory evaluation of Salama da sugo, a typical fermented sausage produced in the Emilia Romagna Region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Coloretti, Fabio; Grazia, Luigi; Gardini, Fausto; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Montanari, Chiara; Tabanelli, Giulia; Chiavari, Cristiana

    2015-03-30

    Salama da sugo is a fermented sausage from the Ferrara tradition (Italy, Emilia-Romagna region), subjected to a long ripening period (4-6 months) and characterised by a high content of wine and spices in the mixture. It can be consumed after cooking and it is served with its sugo, i.e. the liquid extracted by cooking process. The aim of this work was to set up a method for the sensory profile of Salama da sugo as a request for Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) has been made to the European Commission. A system of sample preparation that provides for the precooking in an autoclave and cooking in boiling water was set up. A specific sheet for sensory evaluation of Salama da sugo has been created and reports 23 descriptors identified during the lexicon development. The differences in sensory profile of four samples were evaluated and principal component analysis highlighted the more discriminant parameters, i.e. odour intensity, wine odour, spicy aroma, fat/lean connection, sweet, bitter, juiciness, chewiness and pricking. The proposed method allows the standardisation of sensory profiling of Salama da sugo, and is also to verify compliance with the specification PGI. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Phytomorphological and essential-oil characterization in situ and ex situ of wild biotypes of oregano collected in the Campania region (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    De Falco, Enrica; Roscigno, Graziana; Iodice, Carmela; Senatore, Felice

    2013-11-01

    Oregano is an aromatic species of great interest, which spreads spontaneously over the Mediterranean area, but its genetic resources are not yet adequately developed. Moreover, the results of studies of wild strains of different origin - although quite numerous - are not always comparable, and, therefore, the influence of the environment and genotype on the variability cannot be distinguished. Hence, the plant morphology and the essential-oil composition of three wild, white-flowering biotypes of oregano collected in the Campania region (southern Italy) were characterized, and the effects of genotype and environment were assessed by comparison in situ and ex situ. This allowed deducing that the biotypes belonged to two different subspecies, i.e., Origanum vulgare ssp. virens and O. vulgare ssp. viridulum. The essential-oil yield was higher for the biotype belonging to ssp. virens, and it was significantly correlated with the glandular and stomatal density. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was found to be influenced by the genotype and the conditions of plant growth.

  15. Trace elements in free-range hen eggs in the Campania region (Italy) analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Esposito, Mauro; Cavallo, Stefania; Chiaravalle, Eugenio; Miedico, Oto; Pellicanò, Roberta; Rosato, Guido; Sarnelli, Paolo; Baldi, Loredana

    2016-06-01

    Eggs from hens raised on rural or domestic farms are a good indicator of environmental contamination, as the hens are in close contact with the ground and the air and can therefore accumulate heavy metals and other toxic contaminants from the environment as well as from the diet. In this paper, we report the results of the determination of 19 trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Tl, U, V, Zn) in 39 hen egg samples collected from domestic poultry farms in the territory dubbed the "Land of fires" in the Campania region (Italy). This area is characterized by environmental problems caused by the illegal dumping of industrial or domestic waste in fields or by roadsides. In some cases, these wastes have been burned, thereby spreading persistent contaminants into the atmosphere. The content of trace elements in whole egg samples was determined by mass spectrometer after a microwave-assisted digestion procedure. Because European legislation does not indicate maximum values of these elements in this foodstuff, the results were compared with the content of trace elements reported in literature for eggs, in particular home-produced eggs, in various countries. In some cases (Cd, Cu, Ni, Mn), the content determined in this study was in line with those reported elsewhere, in other cases (Pb, Cr), lower values were found.

  16. How walkable is the city? Application of the Walking Suitability Index of the Territory (T-WSI) to the city of Rieti (Lazio Region, Central Italy).

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Daniela; Appolloni, Letizia; Capasso, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    A method to evaluate the walkability of an urban neighbourhood based on direct observation has been applied. This tool, called the Walking Suitability Index of the Territory (T-WSI), measures the walkability of every street of an environmental area. It includes 12 weighted indicators, each divided into 4 categories: practicability, safety, urbanity, and pleasantness. Each indicator can obtain one of the following values: excellent (100), good (75), poor (35), bad (0). T-WSI is applied to 12/15 urban neighbourhoods of Rieti, a small city (47,912 inhabitants) located in Lazio Region (Central Italy). The average of T-WSI scores range from 24.2 to 61.2 among urban neighbourhoods. On average, safety and urbanity are the categories which reach very low scores. The T-WSI allows to underline several street criticalities that could hinder walkability and could be a good basis to support public decision-makers about health policy and local development aimed at encouraging physical activity.

  17. Fate of the microbial population and the physico-chemical parameters of "Sanganel" a typical blood sausages of the Friuli, a north-east region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Iacumin, Lucilla; Manzano, Marisa; Stella, Simone; Comi, Giuseppe

    2017-05-01

    In Friuli, a Northeastern region of Italy, a blood sausage called Sanganel is produced by farmers, butchers, shops, and factories. This sausage is made with pork meat, boiled blood, lard, spices, and salt. It is stored at 4 ± 2 °C and usually eaten fresh or boiled within 14 days of its manufacture. Little is known about its microbial populations and safety for consumption. The aim of this study is to characterise the microbial populations and the physico-chemical parameters of Sanganel to establish its quality and the safety of consuming it. The microbial population of Sanganel is typical of meat products, and psychrotrophic enterobacteria and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) grow while it is stored. Enterobacteria produce total basic volatile nitrogen (TVB-N) and biogenic amines that, despite the presence of LAB, increase the pH of the sausage to approximately 6.9. Considering the concentrations of Enterobacteriaceae and TVB-N in the sausage, a shelf-life of 14 days is suggested. However, at 30 days the sausage is safe to eat and presents normal odours and flavours. In addition, boiling the sausage for 30 min before consumption eliminates the asporogenous microbial population.

  18. A population based cohort study to assess the safety of pandemic influenza vaccine Focetria in Emilia-Romagna region, Italy - part two.

    PubMed

    Moro, Maria Luisa; Nobilio, Lucia; Voci, Claudio; Di Mario, Simona; Candela, Silvia; Magrini, Nicola

    2013-02-27

    A two phases post authorization safety and effectiveness study of individuals vaccinated with the MF59-adjuvanted A/H1N1 influenza vaccine, Focetria (Novartis Vaccines & Diagnostics, Siena, Italy), was conducted in Emilia-Romagna region, Italy during the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic. The second phase study aim was to detect short- and long-term adverse events of special interest (AESIs) following vaccination, and to measure vaccine effectiveness in term of hospital admissions. A population-based cohort study using record linkage of automated healthcare databases is described. Focetria was administered to 127,522 subjects between October 2009 and February 2010. Vaccinated subjects were generally less healthy than unvaccinated ones. Propensity to be vaccinated was calculated for each subject, and vaccinated and unvaccinated subjects were matched accordingly (103,642 subjects in each group). AESIs were validated against clinical records. In the overall (pre-matching) cohort, a total of 504 short-term incident AESIs (28 in 127,522 vaccinated and 476 in 3,967,917 unvaccinated subjects) were registered (unadjusted OR: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2, 2.7). No fatalities were recorded. In the matched cohort, a total of 26 short-term incident AESIs (11 in the vaccinated and 15 in the unvaccinated group) were registered, with no differences between groups (OR: 0.7; 95% CI: 0.3, 1.6). Most frequent short-term incident AESIs were convulsions (4 out of 11), and demyelinating diseases (3 out of 11). In the long-term a total of 121 incident AESIs (60 in the vaccinated and 61 in the unvaccinated group) were registered, with no differences between groups (OR: 1.0; 95% CI: 0.7, 1.4). Most common long-term incident AESIs were demyelinating diseases (21 out of 60), and vasculitis (13 out of 60). Vaccine effectiveness was not assessed as the majority of subjects were vaccinated at the end of the pandemic peak and few cases (<0.1%) had laboratory confirmation. This population-based cohort study

  19. High Resolution Vp and Vp/Vs Local Earthquake Tomography of the Val d'Agri Region (Southern Apennines, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Improta, L.; Bagh, S.; De Gori, P.; Pastori, M.; Piccinini, D.; Valoroso, L.; Anselmi, M.; Buttinelli, M.; Chiarabba, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Val d'Agri (VA) Quaternary basin in the southern Apennines extensional belt hosts the largest oilfield in onshore Europe and normal-fault systems with high (up to M7) seismogenic potential. Frequent small-magnitude swarms related to both active crustal extension and anthropogenic activity have occurred in the region. Causal factors for induced seismicity are a water impoundment with severe seasonal oscillations and a high-rate wastewater injection well. We analyzed around 1200 earthquakes (ML<3.3) occurred in the VA and surrounding regions between 2001-2014. We integrated waveforms recorded at 46 seismic stations belonging to 3 different networks: a dense temporary network installed by INGV in 2005-2006, the permanent national network of INGV, and the trigger-mode monitoring network managed by the local operator ENI petroleum company. We used local earthquake tomography to investigate static and transient features of the crustal velocity structure and to accurately locate earthquakes. Vp and Vp/Vs models are parameterized by a 3x3x2 km spacing and well resolved down to about 12 km depth. The complex Vp model illuminates broad antiformal structures corresponding to wide ramp-anticlines involving Mesozoic carbonates of the Apulia hydrocarbon reservoir, and NW-SE trending low Vp regions related to thrust-sheet-top clastic basins. The VA basin corresponds to shallow low-Vp region. Focal mechanisms show normal faulting kinematics with minor strike slip solutions in agreement with the local extensional regime. Earthquake locations and focal solutions depict shallow (< 5 km depth) E-dipping extensional structures beneath the artificial lake located in the southern sector of the basin, and along the western margin of the VA. A few swarms define relatively deep transfer structures accommodating the differential extension between main normal faults. The spatio-temporal distribution of around 220 events correlates with wastewater disposal activity, illuminating a NE

  20. Assessing climate change over the Marche Region (central Italy) from 1951 to 2050: toward an integrated strategy for climate impacts reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangelantoni, Lorenzo; Russo, Aniello; Marincioni, Fausto; Appiotti, Federica

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates consequences and future impacts of climate change on the social and natural systems of the Marche Region (one of the 20 administrative divisions of Italy). This Region, is located in central part of the peninsula and borders the Adriatic Sea on the East and the Apennine mountains on the West. The Region extends for about 60 km E-W, and has a NW-SE coastline of about 170 km, covering a total area of 9366 km2. Multimodel projections over the Marche Regions, on daily, monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation parameters, have been extracted from the outputs of a set of Regional Climate Models (RCMs) over Europe run by several research institutes participating to the EU ENSEMBLE project. These climate simulations refer to the boundary conditions of the IPCC A1B emission scenario, and have a horizontal resolution of 25km × 25km covering a time period from 1951 to 2050. Results detail a significant increase of daily, monthly and seasonal mean temperatures, especially in summer, with anomaly values reaching +3°C after the year 2025, referring to the model CliNo 1981-2010. Mountain areas show higher values of temperature anomalies than coastal ones of approximately 0.5 °C. Concurrently, a widespread decrease of seasonal precipitation appears to affect all seasons, except for autumn. Rainfall decrease and temperature increase could reduce the Region's aquifer recharge and overall availability of hydro resources. These alterations could affect human health, agricultural productivity, forest fires, coastal erosion, algal blooms and water quality. Ongoing analysis of extreme climatological indices (e.g. frequency of maximum daily temperature exceeding comfort thresholds) are expected to quantify such impacts. A first analysis, linking climate change to the hydrologic cycle, studied through the computation of the hydro-climatic intensity index (as defined by Giorgi et al., 2012), suggests for the Marche Region an increase of the intensity of

  1. Heat accumulation period in the Mediterranean region: phenological response of the olive in different climate areas (Spain, Italy and Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Fátima; Ruiz, Luis; Fornaciari, Marco; Romano, Bruno; Galán, Carmen; Oteros, Jose; Ben Dhiab, Ali; Msallem, Monji; Orlandi, Fabio

    2014-07-01

    The main characteristics of the heat accumulation period and the possible existence of different types of biological response to the environment in different populations of olive through the Mediterranean region have been evaluated. Chilling curves to determine the start date of the heat accumulation period were constructed and evaluated. The results allow us to conclude that the northern olive populations have the greatest heat requirements for the development of their floral buds, and they need a period of time longer than olives in others areas to completely satisfy their biothermic requirements. The olive trees located in the warmest winter areas have a faster transition from endogenous to exogenous inhibition once the peak of chilling is met, and they show more rapid floral development. The lower heat requirements are due to better adaptation to warmer regions. Both the threshold temperature and the peak of flowering date are closely related to latitude. Different types of biological responses of olives to the environment were found. The adaptive capacity shown by the olive tree should be considered as a useful tool with which to study the effects of global climatic change on agro-ecosystems.

  2. An improved 1-D seismic velocity model for seismological studies in the Campania-Lucania region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrullo, Emanuela; De Matteis, Raffaella; Satriano, Claudio; Amoroso, Ortensia; Zollo, Aldo

    2013-10-01

    We present a 1-D velocity model of the Earth's crust in Campania-Lucania region obtained by solving the coupled hypocentre-velocity inverse problem for 1312 local earthquakes recorded at a dense regional