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Sample records for liguria region italy

  1. Habitat and occurrence of ixodid ticks in the Liguria region, northwest Italy.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Leonardo A; Pintore, Maria D; Tomassone, Laura; Pautasso, Alessandra; Bisanzio, Donal; Mignone, Walter; Casalone, Cristina; Mannelli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Questing ticks were collected during monthly dragging sessions (March-August 2011) in three provinces of the Liguria region, north-western Italy, to evaluate the species occurrence, spatial distribution and relative abundance. A total of 1,464 specimens were collected in 94 dragging sites. Ixodes ricinus was the most abundant species (81.3 % of collected ticks), followed by Haemaphysalis punctata (10.9 %), Dermacentor marginatus (5.5 %), Ixodes frontalis (1.3 %), and Rhipicephalus spp. (0.9 %). Ixodes frontalis is reported for the first time in Liguria. An aggregation of I. ricinus positive sites was observed in inland areas characterized by dense forests dominated by deciduous trees (Castanetum and Fagetum phytoclimatic zones), especially in the west of the region where the differences in the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were higher between inland and coastal sites. Random-effect logistic regression was used to model the associations of NDVI and season with the probability of finding host-seeking I. ricinus nymphs [corrected]. The NDVI was a good predictor of I. ricinus nymphs abundance, and confirmed its utility in discriminating habitat suitability for this vector in north-western coastal Italy, where dry habitat conditions may limit the distribution of this species.

  2. Incidence of pleural mesothelioma in Liguria Region, Italy (1996-2002).

    PubMed

    Gennaro, V; Ugolini, D; Viarengo, P; Benfatto, L; Bianchelli, M; Lazzarotto, A; Montanaro, F; Puntoni, R

    2005-11-01

    In this study, incidence of pleural malignant mesothelioma (PMM) in the Liguria Region (Italy) (approximately 1.6 million inhabitants), in the presence of asbestos exposure was investigated. New PMM cases recorded by the Mesothelioma Registry of Liguria, from 1996 to 2002 and interviews reported on a standardised questionnaire were analysed according to demographical and etiological characteristics. Nine hundred and forty five PMM cases were recorded (757 males and 188 females); the age standardised (European population) incidence rates per 100,000 were 8.51 and 1.43, respectively. The rates among the four provinces ranged between 1.18 and 13.7 for males and 0.68 and 1.44 for females. The questionnaire was evaluated for 786 PMM cases (or next-of-kin). Higher incidence rates were reported in the provinces with larger industrial and harbour areas, including shipyards (construction and repair), dockyards, building activities, chemical and heavy industrial activities. Asbestos exposure was unlikely or unknown for 57.5% females and 15% males. A major role of environmental asbestos exposure in the etiology of PMM is hypothesised for females and for a minor proportion of males.

  3. The response of the Liguria Region (Italy) to the pandemic influenza virus A/H1N1sv.

    PubMed

    Amicizia, D; Cremonesi, I; Carloni, R; Schiaffino, S

    2011-09-01

    Influenza is a cause of acute respiratory disease. It has a typical epidemic nature during the winter season, but may also assume a pandemic pattern when a completely new virus spreads among humans. Influenza places a heavy economic and healthcare burden on both the National Health Service and society. During the 2009/2010 influenza pandemic season, the Liguria Region drew upon the specific skills of the various sectors of the Department of Health and Social Services. In collaboration with the Department of Health Sciences of the University of Genova, the Regional Health Agency (RHA) and other public organizations, steps were taken to address the issues of technical and scientific updating and the coordination of all the departments of Local Healthcare Units in Liguria. The main activities conducted at the regional level provided an adequate response to the influenza pandemic. These activities focused on Local and National Influenza Surveillance Systems, the regional Pandemic Plan, vaccination strategies for seasonal and pandemic influenza, and the communication of data from monitoring programs (sentinel physicians--syndromic surveillance). The prevention of influenza transmission and containment of epidemics and pandemics require effective communication strategies that should target the whole population.

  4. Surveillance of hospital-acquired infections in Liguria, Italy: results from a regional prevalence study in adult and paediatric acute-care hospitals.

    PubMed

    Durando, P; Icardi, G; Ansaldi, F; Crimi, P; Sticchi, C; Compagnino, F; Fabbri, P; Baldelli, I; Bellina, D; Sacco, R; Assensi, M; Cenderello, N; Orengo, G; Oreste, P; Nannini, M; Olivari, C; Campora, O; Vizio, M

    2009-01-01

    A multi-hospital prevalence study of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) was carried out between 19 March and 6 April 2007 in Liguria, Italy, being the first to be performed in this region. Of the 29 existing public acute hospitals, 25 took part in the investigation (86.2%). In total, 3176 patients were enrolled in the study, representing a regional average bed-occupancy rate of nearly 70%. Three-hundred and ten HAIs were diagnosed from 283 patients, with an overall prevalence of infections and cases of 9.8% and 8.9%, respectively. Prevalence varied considerably between hospitals, ranging from 0 to 24.4% [95% confidence interval (CI): 15.53-33.27]. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) (30.0%) and respiratory tract infections (RTIs) (26.1%) presented the highest relative frequency, followed by bloodstream infections (BSIs) (14.8%), surgical site infections (11.6%) and gastrointestinal infections (6.5%). Intensive care units (ICUs) and haemato-oncological units showed the highest specific prevalence of HAI, respectively 42.5% (95% CI: 34.48-50.52) and 13.3% (6.28-20.32), with RTI and BSI as the predominant infections. Spinal units (33.3%; 13.14-53.46) and functional-rehabilitation units (18.9%; 17.75-24.06) demonstrated a high rate of urinary tract infections. Uni- and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the main risk factors and conditions associated with HAI, both overall and by site. Our study provides an overall picture of the epidemiology of HAI in Liguria, which may be usefully employed as a starting point to plan and organise future surveillance and control programmes.

  5. Epidemiological and molecular approaches for management of a measles outbreak in Liguria, Italy.

    PubMed

    Orsi, A; Alicino, C; Patria, A G; Parodi, V; Carloni, R; Turello, V; Comaschi, M; Moscatelli, P; Orengo, G; Martini, M; De Florentiis, D

    2010-06-01

    Since March 2010 a measles outbreak has been occurred in Genoa, Liguria, an administrative Region in Northern Italy. Epidemiological and molecular data on the outbreak, obtained from the passive mandatory notification system, the laboratory surveillance and an innovative syndrome surveillance system, were investigated. Overall 39 cases were reported in the urban area. Information about demography, vaccination status, hospitalization and geographic distribution of measles cases are available. 19 cases (48.7%) were laboratory-confirmed and were characterized by sequence analysis: 18 strains belonged to genotype D8, so identifying a new measles variant within the Liguria population. Adopted control measures seem to have limited viral circulation. The outbreak allowed to test the efficacy of the 3 surveillance systems active in Liguria, highlighting their advantages and some important limitations. More efforts are needed to collect and integrate any epidemiological and virological available data in order to better describe the local measles transmission dynamics.

  6. Efficacy of safety catheter devices in the prevention of occupational needlestick injuries: applied research in the Liguria Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Sossai, D; Di Guardo, M; Foscoli, R; Pezzi, R; Polimeni, A; Ruzza, L; Miele, M; Ottaggio, L; Fontana, V; Copello, F; Dellacà, P; Doria, M; Onesti, A; Montecucco, G; Risso, F; Nelli, M; Benvenuti, I; Santacroce, M; Giribaldi, L; Picelli, G; Simonini, S; Venturini, P

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare workers who use or may be exposed to needles are at risk of needlestick injuries, which can lead to serious infections by bloodborne pathogens. These injuries can be avoided by eliminating the unnecessary use of needles and using safety devices. The present study was aimed at evaluating the impact of a safety-engineered device, with passive fully automatic needlestick protection, on the rate of needlestick injuries among healthcare workers. The setting of the study was a network of five public healthcare institutions situated in a Northern Italian Region. Data on the type of device, the number of employees and the number of catheter devices used per year were collected through regular meetings with healthcare workers over a period of five years. The most notable result of this study was the huge risk reduction associated with safety devices. Indeed, the risk of needlestick injuries due to conventional devices was found to be 25-fold higher than that observed for safety devices. However, it is noteworthy that a considerable part of this excess can be explained by the different background number of devices used. Moreover, descriptive analysis suggested that individuals with a poor/moderate training level had a lower risk than those with good/high training, though the difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, there is convincing evidence of a causal connection between the introduction of safety devices and the reduction in needlestick injuries. This consideration should prompt the introduction of safety devices into daily clinical practice. PMID:27582628

  7. The occurrence of taeniids of wolves in Liguria (northern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Francesca; Armua-Fernandez, Maria Teresa; Milanesi, Pietro; Serafini, Matteo; Magi, Marta; Deplazes, Peter; Macchioni, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Canids are definitive hosts of Taenia and Echinococcus species, which infect a variety of mammals as intermediate or accidental hosts including humans. Parasite transmission is based on domestic, semi-domestic and wildlife cycles; however, little is known of the epidemiological significance of wild large definitive hosts such as the wolf. In this study, 179 scats of wolves (Canis lupus italicus) collected throughout the Italian region of Liguria were analyzed for the detection of taeniid infection. Taeniid egg isolation was performed using a sieving/flotation technique, and the species level was identified by PCR (gene target: 12S rRNA and nad 1) followed by sequence analyses. Based on sequence homologies of ≥99%, Taenia hydatigena was identified in 19.6%, Taenia krabbei in 4.5%, Taenia ovis in 2.2%, Taenia crassiceps in 0.6%, Hydatigera taeniaeformis in 0.6% and Echinococcus granulosus in 5.6% of the samples. According to these results, Canis lupus italicus can be considered as involved in the wild (including cervids and rodents) and semi-domestic cycles (including sheep and goats) of taeniids in this area. PMID:26042204

  8. Analysis of climate and topographic effect on wildfire regime in Liguria, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorucci, Paolo; Biondi, Guido; Campo, Lorenzo; D'Andrea, Mirko; Degli Esposti, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    Wildfire risk is particularly significant in Italy, both in summer and winter season due to the high topographic and vegetation heterogeneity of the territory. Liguria is one of the few regions in Italy affected by wildfires both in summer and winter. Most of the fires in Italy occur in summer season and the burned area is largely greater than in winter season. In Liguria, the number of wildfires and the burned area is higher in winter than in summer. Winter fire regime is mainly due to frequent extremely dry winds from the north in condition of curing for most of the herbaceous species. Southern and central regions and the large islands are characterized by a severe summer fire regime, because of the higher temperatures and prolonged lack of precipitation. The threat of wildfires in Italy is not confined to wooded areas as they extend to agricultural areas and urban-forest interface areas. In view of the limited availability of fire risk management resources, most of which are used in the management of national and regional air services, it is necessary to precisely identify the areas most vulnerable to fire risk. The few resources available can thus be used on a yearly basis to mitigate problems in the areas at highest risk by defining a program of forest management interventions. The availability of a mapping of fire perimeters spans almost 20 years (1996-2013), and this, combined with a detailed knowledge of topography, climate and land cover allowed to understand which are the main features involved in forest fire occurrences and their behavior. The seasonality of the fire regime was also considered, partitioning the analysis in two macro season (November-April and May- October). Total precipitation and average air temperature obtained from the interpolation of 30 years-long time series from 164 raingauges and 127 thermometers series were considered. The analysis was based on a recursive-quantiles subdivision of the territory in classes based on the different

  9. [Mesothelioma registry of the Liguria region. Incidence and occupational etiology in a high risk area].

    PubMed

    Gennaro, V; Montanaro, F; Lazzarotto, A; Bianchelli, M; Celesia, M V; Canessa, P A

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the epidemiological analyses based on the first 5 years of activity of the Mesothelioma Registry of Liguria (REM). REM is a population-based cancer registry specialized in the study of both the incidence and etiology of primary pleural and peritoneal mesothelioma in Liguria (Italy). The REM completes normal clinical information with occupational and environmental anamnestic data in order to identify working and living areas at risk for asbestos-related pathologies. The REM started its activity in 1994 describing the incidence of pleural mesothelioma (PM) exclusively in the population resident in the city of Genoa (660,000 inhabitants); since 1996 the REM has studied the entire Liguria Region (1,640,000 inhabitants), where nearly 120 new cases of PM are diagnosed annually (20% are women). In the city of Genoa, between 1986-1987 and 1997-1998, PM crude incidence rate rose from 13.8 to 26.7 per 100,000 males over 40 years old. From 1994 to 1998 the REM registered 495 new patients with histologically (62%) and cytologically (9%) confirmed diagnosis of PM. 54% of them were immunocytohistochemically evaluated. Occupational information has been gathered for 248 subjects, i.e., 61% of cases with sure or probable diagnosis of PM. For 126 patients, occupational asbestos exposure (direct, indirect or only presence in the workplace) was identified on average 40 years before diagnosis. In particular, asbestos exposure was documented in shipyards, docks and cargo handling settings, building trades, iron and steel industries. Interestingly, during the same period (1955-1960), a large fraction of subjects without proved or declared direct asbestos exposure claimed to have worked in the same occupational settings. This suggests a possible unconscious indirect exposure to asbestos fibers in the workplace.

  10. The role of the sea on the flash floods events over Liguria (northwestern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassola, F.; Ferrari, F.; Mazzino, A.; Miglietta, M. M.

    2016-04-01

    The sensitivity to sea surface temperature (SST) of small-scale, flood-causing convective systems in Mediterranean coastal areas is analyzed by means of mesoscale numerical simulations. Two different SST initializations are considered: a coarse field provided by a global atmospheric model and a high-resolution multisatellite analysis. Quantitative precipitation forecasts are evaluated for a number of recent severe rainfall episodes in Liguria (northwestern Italy). In several cases, using a higher-resolution SST leads to more realistic precipitation estimates in the forecasting range 36-48 h. In the shorter range, the satellite SST has a limited, or even negative, impact, due to the relatively slow adjustment of initial atmospheric fields. In one case, the satellite SST is beneficial for the only run forced with accurate large-scale initial conditions. The results of this work suggest that a potentially significant improvement in severe precipitation forecasting in the Mediterranean could be achieved using realistic small-scale SST fields.

  11. Human-induced landscape changes and geo-hydrological risk: the Rupinaro catchment, Liguria, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giostrella, Paola; Faccini, Francesco; Maggi, Roberto; Cesare Mondini, Alessandro; Tarolli, Paolo; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    Small and steep watersheds are typical of Liguria, northern Italy. In these small watersheds, geo-hydrological hazards, including flash floods and shallow landslides, caused by high intensity rainfall are frequent and abundant. In the coastal valleys of Liguria, narrow flood plains have hosted human settlements and communication lines since the protohistoric period. Since then, a variety of human activities have modified the natural landscape significantly, and chiefly through land-use changes first in the flood-plains, and next along the slopes. We have studied the 11-square km Rupinaro catchment, west of Chiavari, which has been inhabited since the 8th century BC. Progressive human actions have modified the main river and its tributaries, which have become narrower and canalized, and locally they were covered completely. Human actions have also contributed to the increase in the runoff coefficients, and to the progradation of the main river into the Ligurian Sea. Demographic growth, socio-economic development and urbanization are the main drivers for the land use changes occurred in the Rupinaro catchment. Through a combined analysis of archaeological and palynologycal data, and the multi-temporal analysis of historical maps, aerial photographs and satellite imagery of different vintages, we have reconstructed phases of modifications of the river and the tributaries. We determined the land use changes calculating the loss of soil, analyzing statistics of buildings and demography for the last 150 years, and interpreting historical maps and aerial and satellite imagery. We found that land reclamations, the construction of embankments, and the rectification of rivers are the main human actions performed to obtain building areas along the main river course. Expansion of urban settlements in flood prone areas, and even in the main riverbed, have reached a critical limit has shown by the destructive flood event that has affected the Rupinaro catchment, and chiefly the

  12. The influence of the maintenance of terraced areas on slope stability during the November 2014 flood event in Liguria (northwestern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordan, Daniele; Poggi, Flavio; Baldo, Marco; Cignetti, Martina

    2016-04-01

    Terraced environments are a widespread feature of the coastal settlement of eastern Liguria (northwestern Italy) and they constitute a well-known favorable role in slope stability. In this region, starting from the twentieth century, the progressive abandonment of agriculture determines a progressively increasing lack of maintenance of the terraces, consequently raising the level of slope instability. Moreover, it should be taken into account not only the level of terraces maintenance, but also their interaction with several factors as i) geological and geomorphological conditions, ii) soil properties, iii) hydrological and hydrogeological conditions, and iv) land use, causing an increase in landslides occurrence. The definition of managed terraces effects on slope stability and their response to external stress like a flood event is rather complicated; a possible approach is a statistical analysis of the effects of a flood event over a large terraced area, distinguishing the maintained sectors from the abandoned ones. After the November 2014 flood event, which affected several sectors of the Liguria region, where a high number of shallow landslides were triggered, an airborne LiDAR survey of the damaged area was carried out. In particular, a high resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM) resampled to a lower density (1 square meter grid spacing) and a photogrammetric coverage of the area was performed, in order to create a landslide map of the flood event. The surveyed area covered more than 380 square kilometers, and over 1600 shallow landslides triggered by the flood event were identified and inventoried. The high resolution DTM allowed the identification of terraced areas also in wooded sectors and a sharp mapping of the extension of terraced slopes in this portion of Liguria region. By considering: i) the terraced areas recognized through DTM analysis, ii) the mapped landslides, and iii) the land use classification, a correlation between the presence of terraces

  13. What if the 25 October 2011 event that struck Cinque Terre (Liguria) had happened in Genoa, Italy? Flooding scenarios, hazard mapping and damage estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestro, Francesco; Rebora, Nicola; Rossi, Lauro; Dolia, Daniele; Gabellani, Simone; Pignone, Flavio; Trasforini, Eva; Rudari, Roberto; De Angeli, Silvia; Masciulli, Cristiano

    2016-08-01

    During the autumn of 2011 two catastrophic, very intense rainfall events affected two different parts of the Liguria Region of Italy causing various flash floods. The first occurred in October and the second at the beginning of November. Both the events were characterized by very high rainfall intensities (> 100 mm h-1) that persisted on a small portion of territory causing local huge rainfall accumulations (> 400 mm 6 h-1). Two main considerations were made in order to set up this work. The first consideration is that various studies demonstrated that the two events had a similar genesis and similar triggering elements. The second very evident and coarse concern is that two main elements are needed to have a flash flood: a very intense and localized rainfall event and a catchment (or a group of catchments) to be affected. Starting from these assumptions we did the exercise of mixing the two flash flood ingredients by putting the rainfall field of the first event on the main catchment struck by the second event, which has its mouth in the biggest city of the Liguria Region: Genoa. A complete framework was set up to quantitatively carry out a "what if" experiment with the aim of evaluating the possible damages associated with this event. A probabilistic rainfall downscaling model was used to generate possible rainfall scenarios maintaining the main characteristics of the observed rainfall fields while a hydrological model transformed these rainfall scenarios in streamflow scenarios. A subset of streamflow scenarios is then used as input to a 2-D hydraulic model to estimate the hazard maps, and finally a proper methodology is applied for damage estimation. This leads to the estimation of the potential economic losses and of the risk level for the people that stay in the affected area. The results are interesting, surprising and in a way worrying: a rare but not impossible event (it occurred about 50 km away from Genoa) would have caused huge damages estimated between

  14. First results of Liguria-Trento transplant network project: a model for a macroregional network and real-time registry in Italy.

    PubMed

    Valente, R; Cambiaso, F; Santori, G; Ghirelli, R; Gianelli, A; Valente, U

    2004-04-01

    In Italy, health-care telematic is funded and supported at the level of national government or regional institutions. In 1999, the Italian Ministry of Health started to fund the Liguria-Trento Transplant Network (LTTN) project, a health research project with the aim to build an informative system for donor management and transplantation activity in a macroregional area. At the time of LTTN project proposal, no published Transplant Network Informative System fulfilled Italian rules on telematic management of electronic documentation concerning transplantation activity. Partnership of LTTN project were two Regional Transplant Coordinating Centres, Nord Italia Transplant Interregional Coordinating Centre and the Italian Institute of Health/National Transplant Coordinating Centre. Project Total Quality Management methods were adopted. Technological and case analysis followed ANSI-HL7, CEN-TC251, and Object-Oriented Software Engineering standards. A low-tech prototype powered by a web access relational database is running on a transplant network including web-based clients located in 17 intensive care units, in Nord Italia Transplant Interregional Coordinating Centre, and at the Italian Institute of Health/National Transplant Coordinating Centre. LTTN registry includes pretransplant, surgical, and posttransplant phases regarding liver, kidney, pancreas, and kidney-pancreas transplantation in adult and pediatric recipients. Clinical specifications were prioritized in agreement with the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method. Further implementation will include formal rules for data access and output release, fault tolerance, and a continuous registry evolution plan.

  15. Crop changes from the XVI century to the present in a hill/mountain area of eastern Liguria (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Gentili, Rodolfo; Gentili, Elio; Sgorbati, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Background Chronological information on the composition and structure of agrocenoses and detailed features of land cover referring to specific areas are uncommon in ethnobotanical studies, especially for periods before the XIX century. The aim of this study was to analyse the type of crop or the characteristics of soil cover from the XVI century to the present. Methods This diachronic analysis was accomplished through archival research on the inventories of the Parish of St. Mary and those of the Municipality of Pignone and from recent surveys conducted in an area of eastern Liguria (Italy). Results Archival data revealed that in study area the primary means of subsistence during the last five centuries, until the first half of the XX century, was chestnuts. In the XVIII and XIX centuries, crop diversification strongly increased in comparison with previous and subsequent periods. In more recent times, the abandonment of agricultural practices has favoured the re-colonisation of mixed woodland or cluster-pine woodland. Conclusion Ancient documents in the ecclesiastic or municipal inventories can be a very useful tool for enhancing the knowledge of agricultural practice, as well as of subsistence methods favoured by local populations during a particular time and for reconstructing land use change over time. PMID:19361339

  16. Landslide hazard assessment : LIFE+IMAGINE project methodology and Liguria region use case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spizzichino, Daniele; Campo, Valentina; Congi, Maria Pia; Cipolloni, Carlo; Delmonaco, Giuseppe; Guerrieri, Luca; Iadanza, Carla; Leoni, Gabriele; Trigila, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Scope of the work is to present a methodology developed for analysis of potential impacts in areas prone to landslide hazard in the framework of the EC project LIFE+IMAGINE. The project aims to implement a web services-based infrastructure addressed to environmental analysis, that integrates, in its own architecture, specifications and results from INSPIRE, SEIS and GMES. Existing web services has been customized to provide functionalities for supporting environmental integrated management. The implemented infrastructure has been applied to landslide risk scenarios, developed in selected pilot areas, aiming at: i) application of standard procedures to implement a landslide risk analysis; ii) definition of a procedure for assessment of potential environmental impacts, based on a set of indicators to estimate the different exposed elements with their specific vulnerability in the pilot area. The landslide pilot and related scenario are focused at providing a simplified Landslide Risk Assessment (LRA) through: 1) a landslide inventory derived from available historical and recent databases and maps; 2) landslide susceptibility and hazard maps; 3) assessment of exposure and vulnerability on selected typologies of elements at risk; 4) implementation of a landslide risk scenario for different sets of exposed elements 5) development of a use case; 6) definition of guidelines, best practices and production of thematic maps. The LRA has been implemented in Liguria region, Italy, in two different catchment areas located in the Cinque Terre National Park, characterized by a high landslide susceptibility and low resilience. The landslide risk impact analysis has been calibrated taking into account the socio-economic damage caused by landslides triggered by the October 2011 meteorological event. During this event, over 600 landslides were triggered in the selected pilot area. Most of landslides affected the diffuse system of anthropogenic terraces and caused the direct

  17. Maintenance and recovery of agricultural terraces to reduce geo-hydrological hazards: the Santa Giulia in Centaura (Liguria, Italy) and Valstagna (Veneto, Italy) case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giostrella, Paola; Ferrarese, Francesco; Faccini, Francesco; Brandolini, Pierluigi; Lazzeri, Riccardo; Melillo, Massimo; Mozzi, Paolo; Varotto, Mauro; Tarolli, Paolo; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    Throughout the World, men have built terraced landscapes to gain ground suitable for cultivation in steep terrain. Beyond the historical and cultural importance of terraced slopes, terraces have played an important role for soil conservation and water management. In many areas, their abandonment has led to more frequent and/or abundant geo-hydrological hazards. We analyse two terraced areas in northern Italy, including (i) the Valstagna prealpine terraces (Veneto) where the Republic of Venice initiated the cultivation of tobacco in 1600, and (ii) the coastal terraces of Santa Giulia di Centaura (Liguria) where terraces host vineyards and olive groves since 2000 years. Using a combination of direct and indirect mapping methods and tools, including LiDAR topographic surveys, the visual interpretation of aerial photographs and the analysis of historical maps, we performed a systematic mapping of the terraces. Using the available maps, we determined statistics for the width, height and extent of stonewalls and we evaluated the historical evolution of the terraces for the past 50 years, considering changes in land use, the expansion of forest, and the changes in the precipitation regime. Finally, through a preliminary cost-benefit analysis, we propose good practices to help the recovery of the terraces in the two study areas.

  18. Geohydrological hazards and urban development in the Mediterranean area: an example from Genoa (Liguria, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccini, F.; Luino, F.; Sacchini, A.; Turconi, L.; De Graff, J. V.

    2015-12-01

    The metropolitan area and the city of Genoa has become a national and international case study for geohydrological risk, mainly due to the frequency of floods. In 2014, there were landslides again, as well as flash floods that have particularly caused casualties and economic damage. The weather features of the Gulf of Genoa and the geomorphological-environmental setting of the Ligurian coastal land are the predisposing factors that determine heavy rains and their resulting effects on the ground. This study analysed the characteristics of the main meteorological disasters that have hit Genoa since the start of the 20th century; changes in the rainfall regime are evaluated and the main stages of urbanization of the area are detailed, with the resulting changes to the drainage network, in order to identify the main causes of this high geohydrological risk. To this end, scientists have used climate data recorded at the station of Genoa University, in operation since 1833, and at Ponte Carrega station, located in the middle reach of the Bisagno stream, a well-known watercourse because of its frequent floods. Urban sprawl was evaluated through a multi-temporal mapping comparison, using maps available from the beginning of the 19th century up to the current regional technical maps. The average air temperature in Genoa shows a statistically significant increase, while the number of rainy days displays an equally clear decrease over time. The total annual rain value does not seem to indicate rather noticeable changes. The intensity of rain in Genoa expressed as rainfall rate, i.e.~the ratio of annual rainfall and number of rainy days, shows statistically significant growth. The geohydrological vulnerability in Genoa has increased over time due to urban development which has established modifications in land use, from agricultural to urban, especially in the valley floor. Waterways have been confined and reduced to artificial channels, often covered in their final stretch

  19. Sensitivity analysis of seismic hazard for Western Liguria (North Western Italy): A first attempt towards the understanding and quantification of hazard uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barani, Simone; Spallarossa, Daniele; Bazzurro, Paolo; Eva, Claudio

    2007-05-01

    The use of logic trees in probabilistic seismic hazard analyses often involves a large number of branches that reflect the uncertainty in the selection of different models and in the selection of the parameter values of each model. The sensitivity analysis, as proposed by Rabinowitz and Steinberg [Rabinowitz, N., Steinberg, D.M., 1991. Seismic hazard sensitivity analysis: a multi-parameter approach. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 81, 796-817], is an efficient tool that allows the construction of logic trees focusing attention on the parameters that have greater impact on the hazard. In this paper the sensitivity analysis is performed in order to identify the parameters that have the largest influence on the Western Liguria (North Western Italy) seismic hazard. The analysis is conducted for six strategic sites following the multi-parameter approach developed by Rabinowitz and Steinberg [Rabinowitz, N., Steinberg, D.M., 1991. Seismic hazard sensitivity analysis: a multi-parameter approach. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 81, 796-817] and accounts for both mean hazard values and hazard values corresponding to different percentiles (e.g., 16%-ile and 84%-ile). The results are assessed in terms of the expected PGA with a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years for rock conditions and account for both the contribution from specific source zones using the Cornell approach [Cornell, C.A., 1968. Engineering seismic risk analysis. Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 58, 1583-1606] and the spatially smoothed seismicity [Frankel, A., 1995. Mapping seismic hazard in the Central and Eastern United States. Seismol. Res. Lett. 66, 8-21]. The influence of different procedures for calculating seismic hazard, seismic catalogues (epicentral parameters), source zone models, frequency-magnitude parameters, maximum earthquake magnitude values and attenuation relationships is considered. As a result, the sensitivity analysis allows us to identify the parameters with higher influence on the hazard. Only these

  20. The Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Dynamics of Influenza B Virus in Two Italian Regions during 2010-2015: The Experience of Sicily and Liguria.

    PubMed

    Tramuto, Fabio; Orsi, Andrea; Maida, Carmelo Massimo; Costantino, Claudio; Trucchi, Cecilia; Alicino, Cristiano; Vitale, Francesco; Ansaldi, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology of influenza B virus remained poorly studied in Italy, despite representing a major contributor to seasonal epidemics. This study aimed to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity of the hemagglutinin gene sequences of 197 influenza B strains circulating in both Southern (Sicily) and Northern (Liguria) Italy between 2010 and 2015. Upper respiratory tract specimens of patients displaying symptoms of influenza-like illness were screened by real-time RT-PCR assay for the presence of influenza B virus. PCR-positive influenza B samples were further analyzed by sequencing. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees were constructed and the amino-acid alignments were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed clusters in B/Victoria clade 1A/1B (n = 29, 14.7%), and B/Yamagata clades 2 (n = 112, 56.8%) and 3 (n = 56, 28.4%). Both influenza B lineages were found to co-circulate during the study period, although a lineage swap from B/Victoria to B/Yamagata occurred in Italy between January 2011 and January 2013. The most represented amino-acid substitutions were N116K in the 120-loop (83.9% of B/Yamagata clade 3 strains) and I146V in the 150-loop (89.6% of B/Victoria clade 1 strains). D197N in 190-helix was found in almost all viruses collected. Our findings provide further evidence to support the adoption of quadrivalent influenza vaccines in our country.

  1. The Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Dynamics of Influenza B Virus in Two Italian Regions during 2010-2015: The Experience of Sicily and Liguria.

    PubMed

    Tramuto, Fabio; Orsi, Andrea; Maida, Carmelo Massimo; Costantino, Claudio; Trucchi, Cecilia; Alicino, Cristiano; Vitale, Francesco; Ansaldi, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology of influenza B virus remained poorly studied in Italy, despite representing a major contributor to seasonal epidemics. This study aimed to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity of the hemagglutinin gene sequences of 197 influenza B strains circulating in both Southern (Sicily) and Northern (Liguria) Italy between 2010 and 2015. Upper respiratory tract specimens of patients displaying symptoms of influenza-like illness were screened by real-time RT-PCR assay for the presence of influenza B virus. PCR-positive influenza B samples were further analyzed by sequencing. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees were constructed and the amino-acid alignments were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed clusters in B/Victoria clade 1A/1B (n = 29, 14.7%), and B/Yamagata clades 2 (n = 112, 56.8%) and 3 (n = 56, 28.4%). Both influenza B lineages were found to co-circulate during the study period, although a lineage swap from B/Victoria to B/Yamagata occurred in Italy between January 2011 and January 2013. The most represented amino-acid substitutions were N116K in the 120-loop (83.9% of B/Yamagata clade 3 strains) and I146V in the 150-loop (89.6% of B/Victoria clade 1 strains). D197N in 190-helix was found in almost all viruses collected. Our findings provide further evidence to support the adoption of quadrivalent influenza vaccines in our country. PMID:27089319

  2. The Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Dynamics of Influenza B Virus in Two Italian Regions during 2010–2015: The Experience of Sicily and Liguria

    PubMed Central

    Tramuto, Fabio; Orsi, Andrea; Maida, Carmelo Massimo; Costantino, Claudio; Trucchi, Cecilia; Alicino, Cristiano; Vitale, Francesco; Ansaldi, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Molecular epidemiology of influenza B virus remained poorly studied in Italy, despite representing a major contributor to seasonal epidemics. This study aimed to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity of the hemagglutinin gene sequences of 197 influenza B strains circulating in both Southern (Sicily) and Northern (Liguria) Italy between 2010 and 2015. Upper respiratory tract specimens of patients displaying symptoms of influenza-like illness were screened by real-time RT-PCR assay for the presence of influenza B virus. PCR-positive influenza B samples were further analyzed by sequencing. Neighbor-joining phylogenetic trees were constructed and the amino-acid alignments were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed clusters in B/Victoria clade 1A/1B (n = 29, 14.7%), and B/Yamagata clades 2 (n = 112, 56.8%) and 3 (n = 56, 28.4%). Both influenza B lineages were found to co-circulate during the study period, although a lineage swap from B/Victoria to B/Yamagata occurred in Italy between January 2011 and January 2013. The most represented amino-acid substitutions were N116K in the 120-loop (83.9% of B/Yamagata clade 3 strains) and I146V in the 150-loop (89.6% of B/Victoria clade 1 strains). D197N in 190-helix was found in almost all viruses collected. Our findings provide further evidence to support the adoption of quadrivalent influenza vaccines in our country. PMID:27089319

  3. 9 CFR 94.13 - Restrictions on importation of pork or pork products from specified regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...: For Federal Register citations affecting § 94.13, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears...), Yugoslavia, and the Regions in Italy of Friuli, Liguria, Marche, and Valle d'Aosta are declared free of...

  4. Active Ageing and Active Citizenship in Liguria: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Liguria has the oldest age structure in Europe because of a low birth rate and long lifespans and therefore is a very interesting laboratory region in which to experiment with active ageing policies. The generations that are now approaching retirement hold a high level of personal and professional resources; so the "new" elderly people…

  5. Effect of temperature on the release and remobilization of ecotoxic elements in AMD colloidal precipitates: the example of the Libiola copper mine, Liguria, (Italy).

    PubMed

    Consani, S; Carbone, C; Salviulo, G; Zorzi, F; Dinelli, E; Botter, R; Nodari, L; Badocco, D; Lucchetti, G

    2016-07-01

    Due to their characteristics, colloidal particles are able to control the dispersion of many organic and inorganic pollutants in soils and streams. Colloidal precipitates generated by acid mine drainage (AMD) process are usually amorphous or nanocrystalline materials, and their stability plays a crucial role in controlling the fate of metals released by sulphide oxydation. This paper describes a study of elements release (Fe, Al, Mn, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, S, Zn) due to desorption or destabilization of three different colloidal precipitates, two ochreous and a greenish-blue precipitate, sampled at the Libiola mine site (northwest Italy). The samples were heated at high temperature in order to verify this treatment as inertization process. At room temperature, the most easily extracted element was S (with released percentages from 8.39 to 29.17 %), but considerable amounts of Cu, Zn and Mn (up to 16.6, 610.6 and 595.6 mg/kg, respectively) were also observed in the leachates for greenish-blue precipitates. The highest release of elements (S > Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd > Co, Ni > Al, Fe, Cr), with minor differences depending on the mineralogical composition of the samples, was observed for heat-treated samples obtained through moderate heating and mainly formed by anhydrous phases. Samples treated at high temperature had the lowest release, with only Cu showing a significant concentration in the leachate of greenish-blue precipitates. The results showed that dissolution/desorption is limited from ochreous natural colloidal precipitates occurring at the Libiola mine site but also that high amounts of some metals can be remobilized from greenish-blue precipitates. The destabilization of all percipitates through dehydratation-dehydroxylation can further remobilize important amounts of ecotoxic elements. Heat treatment at high temperature could be a definitive, although expensive, way to fix heavy metals in the solid fraction, preventing their dispersion in the surrounding

  6. Effect of temperature on the release and remobilization of ecotoxic elements in AMD colloidal precipitates: the example of the Libiola copper mine, Liguria, (Italy).

    PubMed

    Consani, S; Carbone, C; Salviulo, G; Zorzi, F; Dinelli, E; Botter, R; Nodari, L; Badocco, D; Lucchetti, G

    2016-07-01

    Due to their characteristics, colloidal particles are able to control the dispersion of many organic and inorganic pollutants in soils and streams. Colloidal precipitates generated by acid mine drainage (AMD) process are usually amorphous or nanocrystalline materials, and their stability plays a crucial role in controlling the fate of metals released by sulphide oxydation. This paper describes a study of elements release (Fe, Al, Mn, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, S, Zn) due to desorption or destabilization of three different colloidal precipitates, two ochreous and a greenish-blue precipitate, sampled at the Libiola mine site (northwest Italy). The samples were heated at high temperature in order to verify this treatment as inertization process. At room temperature, the most easily extracted element was S (with released percentages from 8.39 to 29.17 %), but considerable amounts of Cu, Zn and Mn (up to 16.6, 610.6 and 595.6 mg/kg, respectively) were also observed in the leachates for greenish-blue precipitates. The highest release of elements (S > Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd > Co, Ni > Al, Fe, Cr), with minor differences depending on the mineralogical composition of the samples, was observed for heat-treated samples obtained through moderate heating and mainly formed by anhydrous phases. Samples treated at high temperature had the lowest release, with only Cu showing a significant concentration in the leachate of greenish-blue precipitates. The results showed that dissolution/desorption is limited from ochreous natural colloidal precipitates occurring at the Libiola mine site but also that high amounts of some metals can be remobilized from greenish-blue precipitates. The destabilization of all percipitates through dehydratation-dehydroxylation can further remobilize important amounts of ecotoxic elements. Heat treatment at high temperature could be a definitive, although expensive, way to fix heavy metals in the solid fraction, preventing their dispersion in the surrounding

  7. Primary care psychiatry in Italy.

    PubMed

    Berardi, Domenico; Ferrannini, Luigi; Menchetti, Marco; Vaggi, Marco

    2014-06-01

    In Italy, the importance of integrating primary care and mental health has only recently been grasped. Several reasons may explain this delay: a) until 2005, primary care physicians worked individually instead of in group practices, without any functional network or structured contacts with colleagues; b) community mental health centers with multiprofessional teams were well structured and widespread in several regions but focused on people with severe and persistent mental disorders; and c) specific national government health policies were lacking. Only two regions have implemented explicit policies on this issue. The "G. Leggieri" program started by the Emilia-Romagna region health government in 1999 aims to coordinate unsolicited bottom-up cooperation initiatives developing since the 1980s. In Liguria, a regional work group was established in 2010 to boost the strategic role of collaborative programs between primary care and mental health services. This article describes the most innovative experiences relating to primary care psychiatry in Italy.

  8. High-resolution analysis of 1 day extreme precipitation in a wet area centred over eastern Liguria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolini, Andrea; Brunetti, Michele; Maugeri, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    The north of Tuscany and eastern Liguria have experienced several exceptional precipitation episodes and floods during the last century, with serious damage to human life and the environment. In recent years, the damage related to these extreme events appears to increase. In this context, we perform a detailed investigation of observed 1-day precipitation extremes and their frequency distribution, based on a dense data set of high-quality, homogenized station records in 1951-2010. Our dataset is composed of about 800 precipitation series coming from the databases of various regional agencies of central and northern Italy (ARPA Emilia Romagna, ARPA Liguria, SIR Toscana and ARPA Piemonte). As well as for any other meteorological measure, physical signals in raw precipitation data series are often hidden behind measuring errors and non-climatic noise caused mainly by station relocation and changes in instruments, in the environment around the station or in the observing conventions. Therefore, we developed specific codes to control the possible outliers, identify periods of failure and malfunction of the weather station, and to control of the values recorded after periods of missing data (suspected cumulative values). Finally, we have subjected the longer series to the Craddock homogeneity test to verify the relative homogeneity of the records and, if necessary, we have homogenized them, to remove all signals of non-climatic origin. After this process of control and homogenization of the data, we have about 400 validated precipitation series available for the study area centred on the eastern Liguria (8.25°E - 43.50 °N to 11.00°E - 45.00 °N, of about 30.000 km2) that we use to estimate very high quantiles (return levels) corresponding to 10-, 50- and 100-year return periods, as predicted by a generalized extreme value distribution. Return level estimates are produced on a regular high-resolution grid (30 arcsec) using a variant of regional frequency analysis

  9. [The position of nephrology in regional health programs in Italy].

    PubMed

    Susi, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    Regional health policies are acquiring remarkable importance in the allocation of healthcare resources, both human and financial. The importance of playing a prominent role in national and regional policy-making for healthcare professionals derives from the need to render the interventions of health policy more suitable to different territories. A review of all official regional healthcare plans approved in Italy until February 2009 has been carried out with the aim of recording the level of inclusion of nephrology in regional healthcare programming. The attention to kidney diseases has been delineated according to six levels of relevance: (i) the mere inclusion of nephrology in the plan, (ii) the level of priority of nephrology among other areas of intervention, (iii) the presence of new dedicated programs, (iv) the reinforcement of ongoing programs, (v) the allocation of specific resources, and (vi) the existence of nephrology networks. Nephrology does not turn out to be one of the priorities of intervention within the regional frameworks, with the exception of some regions which were found to be particularly sensitive to issues of outpatient care. Ad hoc measures for (i) the allocation of resources, (ii) the activation and (iii) the reinforcement of specific networks or programs were documented in a few cases. Nephrology is still too scarcely included in regional programming, considering the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in Italy. It is necessary that regional representatives of the discipline participate in healthcare planning to guarantee essential qualitative levels of healthcare for chronic kidney disease.

  10. Italy

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Rice Cultivation in Northwest Italy     View Larger Image The lowlands of Lombardy and Piedmont in northwest Italy are some of the most highly developed irrigation areas in the world. ...

  11. Estimating temporal changes in extreme rainfall in Sicily Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, Brunella; Aronica, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    An intensification of extreme rainfall events have characterized several areas of peninsular and insular Italy since the early 2000s, suggesting an upward ongoing trend likely driven by climate change. In the present study temporal changes in 1-, 3-, 6-, 12- and 24-hour annual maxima rainfall series from more than 200 sites in Sicily region (Italy) are examined. A regional study is performed in order to reduce the uncertainty in change detection related to the limited length of the available records of extreme rainfall series. More specifically, annual maxima series are treated according to a regional flood index - type approach to frequency analysis, by assuming stationarity on a decadal time scale. First a cluster analysis using at-site characteristics is used to determine homogeneous rainfall regions. Then, potential changes in regional L-moment ratios are analyzed using a 10-year moving window. Furthermore, the shapes of regional growth curves, derived by splitting the records into separate decades, are compared. In addition, a jackknife procedure is used to assess uncertainty in the fitted growth curves and to identify significant trends in quantile estimates. Results reveal that, despite L-moment ratios show a general decreasing trend and that growth curves corresponding to the last decade (2000-2009) are usually less steep than the ones of the previous periods, rainfall quantile estimates have increased during the 2000s due to a large increase in regional average median, mainly in Western Sicily.

  12. Regional Development and Vocational Training. Development of Human Resources in Regions of Economic Reconversion Benefiting from Community Financial Support. Regional Monographs (Lorraine, Northern England, Province of Limburg, South-West of Ireland, Liguria, Andalusia). First Edition. CEDEFOP Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (West Germany).

    This publication contains monographs on vocational training and regional development for six regions of the European Communities. The monograph on Lorraine (France) by Gerard Calais describes basic training structures, redeployment policies, requalification of job seekers, and coordination of training efforts. Profiles of development technicians…

  13. Pollen-related allergy in Italy.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Dal Bo, S; Bonini, S

    1992-05-01

    Pollen-related allergies are very common in Italy and pollinosis is the commonest allergic disease. The type of allergenic plants and the prevalence of hay fever varies among regions. In the Mediterranean area there are characteristic climatic conditions (mildness of winter, summer dryness) that facilitate the growth of a typical vegetation with its associated various types of allergenic pollen grains, some of them very different from those of central and northern Europe. Italy has a central position in the Mediterranean basin, but because of its geographic characteristics, there are different climatic aspects with different vegetation between northern, central, and southern areas. Gramineae are the most common allergenic plants in northern and central Italy, where more than 60% of patients with pollinosis are grass-pollen sensitive. Parietaria is the most important pollinating plant in southern Italy and Liguria. Olea europaea, the olive tree with cultivation widespread in the whole Mediterranean basin, is responsible for frequently severe pollinosis, particularly in some regions of the southern Italy.

  14. Regional frequency analysis of extreme precipitation for Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forestieri, Angelo; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Fowler, Hayley; Lo Conti, Francesco; Noto, Leonardo

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of extreme precipitation has always been included among most relevant hydrological applications because of the several important activities linked to the availability of tools for the estimation of extreme rainfall quantiles. These activities include the design of hydraulic civil structures and the evaluation and management of hydraulic and hydrological risk. In this study a frequency analysis of annual maxima precipitation measurements has been carried out for the area of Sicily (Italy). A typical hierarchical regional approach has been adopted for the parameter estimation procedure based on the L-moments method. The identification of homogeneous regions within the procedure has been pursued with a data driven procedure constituted by a principal component analysis of an ensemble of selected auxiliary variables, and a K-means cluster analysis algorithm. Auxiliary variables comprise meteo-climatic information and a representation of the average seasonal distribution of intense events. Results have been evaluated by means of a Monte Carlo experiment based on the comparison between at-site and regional fitted frequency distributions. Moreover, results have been compared with previous analyses performed for the same area. The study provides an updated tool for the modelling of extreme precipitation for the area of Sicily (Italy), with different features respect to previous tools both in terms of definition of homogeneous zones and in terms of parameters of the frequency distribution. Meteo-climatic information and the seasonality of extreme events retrieved from the dataset has been proficuously exploited in the analysis.

  15. Improving regional universal newborn hearing screening programmes in Italy.

    PubMed

    Molini, E; Cristi, M C; Lapenna, R; Calzolaro, L; Muzzi, E; Ciciriello, E; Della Volpe, A; Orzan, E; Ricci, G

    2016-02-01

    The Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) programme aims at achieving early detection of hearing impairment. Subsequent diagnosis and intervention should follow promptly. Within the framework of the Ministry of Health project CCM 2013 "Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children", the limitations and strengths of current UNHS programs in Italy have been analysed by a group of professionals working in tertiary centres involved in regional UNHS programmes, using SWOT analysis and a subsequent TOWS matrix. Coverage and lost-to-follow up rates are issues related to UNHS programmes. Recommendations to improve the effectiveness of the UNHS programme have been identified. The need for homogeneous policies, high-quality information and dissemination of knowledge for operators and families of hearing-impaired children emerged from the discussion. PMID:27054385

  16. Improving regional universal newborn hearing screening programmes in Italy.

    PubMed

    Molini, E; Cristi, M C; Lapenna, R; Calzolaro, L; Muzzi, E; Ciciriello, E; Della Volpe, A; Orzan, E; Ricci, G

    2016-02-01

    The Universal Newborn Hearing Screening (UNHS) programme aims at achieving early detection of hearing impairment. Subsequent diagnosis and intervention should follow promptly. Within the framework of the Ministry of Health project CCM 2013 "Preventing Communication Disorders: a Regional Program for early Identification, Intervention and Care of Hearing Impaired Children", the limitations and strengths of current UNHS programs in Italy have been analysed by a group of professionals working in tertiary centres involved in regional UNHS programmes, using SWOT analysis and a subsequent TOWS matrix. Coverage and lost-to-follow up rates are issues related to UNHS programmes. Recommendations to improve the effectiveness of the UNHS programme have been identified. The need for homogeneous policies, high-quality information and dissemination of knowledge for operators and families of hearing-impaired children emerged from the discussion.

  17. [Malaria and memory in the Veneto region of Italy].

    PubMed

    Pegoraro, Manuela; Crotti, Daniele

    2009-09-01

    Malaria and emigration are two terms deeply embedded in Veneto history, related to images far back in the past, unknown to younger generations. Losing one's own collective historical memory is a source of personal and cultural impoverishment and inevitably compromises one's awareness of the present, possibly leading to superficial judgements and hastily formed opinions. Such a situation is all the more serious in a geographical area, north-eastern Italy, where immigration is so abundant. In this paper the authors seek to retrieve, at least in part, this memory, especially in terms of history (to what extent malaria afflicted residents in Veneto and migrants from the region) and biology (how much imprinting from malaria has remained in the native population's genetic make-up). PMID:19838093

  18. Italy.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    For "Background Notes" on Italy, the U.S. State Department, Bureau of Public Affairs, covers geography, people, history, government, politics, economy, defense and foreign relations. Italy had 57.3 million persons in 1986, with a growth rate of 2.3%. The life expectancy is 73 years; the infant mortality rate is 14.3/1000 live births. 98% of the people are literate. The current constitutional republic has existed since 1948. Mean per capita income is $6,447. The people work mainly in services (60%), industry (30%) and agriculture (10%). Most of the country is mountainous, without significant food, energy or natural resources, so Italy's central position in the Mediterranean has influenced economic development since ancient times. The nation is highly homogeneous, as the government is centralized. Although there are several influential political parties, the diverse structure of the Christian Democrats has given them power since the war. The current prime minister, Bettino Craxi, is a member of the centralist Italian Socialist Party. The Italian Communist Party is the largest such party in the free world, polling 30% of the vote in 1983. Italy is a member of NATO.

  19. Organ donation quality control in Abruzzo region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Parzanese, I; Maccarone, D; Caniglia, L; Pisani, F; Laurenzi, C; Famulari, A

    2006-05-01

    Abruzzo is a region in central Italy with a population of 1,262,392. Within this region there are 13 hospitals with intensive care units, four of which have neurosurgical units. The Regional Centre for Transplants in L'Aquila is notified of encephalic deaths in hospitals in Abruzzo and Molise and coordinates organ retrieval and transplantation. Organ donation is a process that involves a whole series of professionals who, operating in a sequential manner in each hospital, make possible the use of a cadaveric organ to give life to a person or improve the quality of life of a patient on a waiting list. Quality control procedures were introduced in 2001 and involve all of the hospitals in the region with intensive care units. The system for quality control was computerized in 2004 and is used in the four hospitals with neurosurgical units (type A hospitals) and in the 13 hospitals without (type B hospitals); the different types of deaths (cause of death, age, etc) are also analyzed with this system. One of the aims of this system is to discover the theoretical donation capacity, taking as benchmark values those resulting from the regional average and those published in international literature, and noting any shortcomings. It has emerged that donor identification is well organized and efficient and this is thanks to a concerted effort that has been made to overcome technical and organizational problems connected to donor detection and donor maintenance during the 6 hours of legal observation. The high percentage of opposition to organ removal, despite the fall registered in the first half of this year (2005), is still above the national average and still remains a critical point in the organ donation process.

  20. Block modeling of Crustal Velocity in Italy and Surrounding Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpelloni, E.; Battaglia, M.; Murray, M. H.; Burgmann, R.

    2004-12-01

    We use GPS measurements and block modeling to investigate the present-day deformation of the Italian peninsula and surrounding regions. The central Mediterranean displays an assemblage of lithospheric blocks with different structural and kinematics features and a variety of geodynamic processes, including subduction, back-arc spreading, rifting, thrusting, normal and strike-slip faulting, trapped between the relatively rigid African and Eurasian plates, for which global plate motion models predict a NW-SE convergence at about 7 mm/yr. The block model incorporates secular velocity and fault geometry estimates, as well as elastic strain accumulation. With this model we can assess whether different hypotheses are compatible with geodetic data, estimates of fault slip rates and locking depths, areas of rigid block rotation, and regions of anomalous strain accumulation. We present a geodetic velocity solution for Italy and surrounding areas, obtained from the analysis of continuous and survey-mode Global Positioning System observations collected between 1991 and 2002. The velocities are relative to a stable Eurasian frame. The block model shows extension in the Apennines, shortening in the central Alps, Dinarides and Ionian Island (Epiro coast), and right-lateral slip along the Kefallinia fault zone. The predicted faults slip rates are in good agreement with geodetic and geologic observations. The deformation pattern observed in the Adriatic domain suggests that the Adriatic is a microplate (Adria) and that the southern boundary with the Nubia plate and the Aegean domain may be located along the Apulia Escarpment and the Kefallinia fault.

  1. Nowcasting and assessing thunderstorm risk on the Lombardy region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonelli, P.; Marcacci, P.; Bertolotti, E.; Collino, E.; Stella, G.

    2011-06-01

    The problem of severe thunderstorm risk in the Lombardy region (Italy) is serious. In fact during the warm season many thunderstorms (TS) occur in high density populated area located between the river Po and the Alps. In the year 2003, about 90 TS caused damage to people, houses, cars, agriculture and electrical lines. About 30 municipalities undergo damage by tornadoes. The 2003 summer was not particularly anomalous with respect to others for TS activity. In this region storms are well detected by some C-band radars and the Meteosat satellites, but the study of the correlation between these variables and the TS severity needs the collection of many met-data at the ground. Unfortunately the lack of a fine mesh met-station network forces the use of local press news or subjective reports to identify the impact of TS. Since 2006 ERSE has been collaborating with the Lombardy Region - Civil Protection Service/Office - in developing and testing a system to detect and nowcast severe thunderstorms, STAF (Storm Track Alert and Forecast). STAF is a nowcasting tool based on Radar and MSG (Meteosat Second Generation) data that selects only severe TS, tracks them and produces alert messages to users. In order to evaluate the severity of a TS, a crucial issue for STAF is the correlation between variables detected by the remote-sensing instruments and the effects at the ground. The paper describes a method to classify the severity of a TS by computing an index named "probability of damage" (PD). The index has been carried out by means of a storm archive, where radar and satellite data are stored together with damages reports from newspapers, all collected in 2003 summer. The index has been verified during the 2009 summer, when STAF was applied in a field test involving a group of Civil Protection observers and users. The results of this test are reported in the paper. The test has been also an occasion for verifying the effectiveness of information provided by STAF to selected

  2. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in coastal areas: lessons learned from applications in Liguria, NW Mediterranean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovere, A.; Casella, E.; Pedroncini, A.; Mucerino, L.; Casella, M.; Cusati, L. A.; Vacchi, M.; Ferrari, M.; Firpo, M.

    2014-12-01

    In 2013 we started to apply small UAVs to the study of coastal areas in Liguria, NW Mediterranean Sea. In this region monitoring coastal evolution and the impact of sea storms is a primary administrative need, as a large part of the economic income derives from summer tourism. In two years, we accumulated almost 200 hours of flight with two different UAVs, a professional-grade Mikrokopter Okto and a consumer-grade Phantom DJI. We used photogrammetric and orthorectification techniques to obtain Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and orthophotos of different beaches in the region. Data from UAVs allowed us to answer several questions. What is the accuracy of DEMs obtained from UAVs in low-relief areas such as beaches? What are the problems encountered in the photogrammetric procedure near the shoreline? Are the results obtained with consumer-grade UAVs comparable to those obtained with professional-grade ones? Aside from these technical questions, we used the data obtained from UAVs for different local studies aimed at giving management tools to the local administrations. We used the cloudpoint obtained from DEMs and the orthophotos to set up a runup modelling chain, to detect short-term changes in the coastal zone, and to give a first estimate of the debris deposited on the beach after a major storm. As stated by Watts et al., 2012 (Remote Sensing 4, 1671-1692) the application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and photogrammetry techniques in earth sciences is flourishing, and has the potential to revolutionize the study of geomorphology. Surely, UAVs opened new research perspectives for our group, which has been actively working on coastal changes in Liguria for almost 25 years.

  3. Promoting ICT Entrepreneurship in the Campania Region of Italy: A Network of Academic Incubators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corti, Eugenio; Torello, Rita Ilenia

    2004-01-01

    The government of the Campania region in southern Italy has established a technology transfer centre for the information and communications technology (ICT) sector. The Regional Centre for ICT Competencies (RCICT) promotes the transfer of ICT to local small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and encourages the creation of new knowledge-based…

  4. Albanian: The Albanian Language in Education in Italy. Regional Dossiers Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belluscio, Giovanni, Comp.

    2010-01-01

    This regional dossier aims to provide concise, descriptive information and basic educational statistics about minority language education in a specific region of Europe--"Arberishtja" of Italy. Aspects that are addressed include features of the education system, recent educational policies, main actors, legal arrangements, and support structures,…

  5. Adolescents in southern regions of Italy adhere to the Mediterranean diet more than those in the northern regions.

    PubMed

    Noale, Marianna; Nardi, Mariateresa; Limongi, Federica; Siviero, Paola; Caregaro, Lorenza; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Maggi, Stefania

    2014-09-01

    There is a large amount of literature regarding the benefits of the Mediterranean diet in the adult population; however, there is growing curiosity about the individuals who naturally adhere to those principles early in life. The "Evaluation of Dietary Habits in Adolescents," carried out by the National Research Council of Italy in 2009, is a survey that aimed to assess the dietary habits and lifestyles of Italian adolescents and their adherence to the Mediterranean diet. We hypothesized that there would be differences across regions, with a higher adherence in Southern Italy compared with Northern Italy based on geography. The survey was conducted in 3 different geographic locations in Italy and included a convenience sample of adolescents who attended either a middle or high school. The participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning demographic data, lifestyle factors, and eating patterns, and scores were assigned according to adherence to the Mediterranean diet, as calculated using Trichopoulou's Mediterranean diet scale. The final sample included 565 adolescents, between 12 and 19 years old, who attended school in the northeastern, northwestern, or southern regions of Italy in 2009. According to the findings, 38.6% of the respondents had scores indicating a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet, whereas only 14% had scores showing a high adherence. Teenagers from the Southern region showed the highest adherence. Those with a high adherence to the Mediterranean diet consumed higher quantities of fiber, iron, vitamin B6, vitamin C, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin D, and monounsaturated fats.

  6. Regional differences of vitamin D deficiency in rheumatoid arthritis patients in Italy.

    PubMed

    Rossini, M; D'Avola, G; Muratore, M; Malavolta, N; Silveri, F; Bianchi, G; Frediani, B; Minisola, G; Sorgi, M L; Varenna, M; Foti, R; Tartarelli, G; Orsolini, G; Adami, S

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is very common in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among the different Italian regions and whether these variations are associated with different severity of the disease. The study includes 581 consecutive RA patients (464 women), not taking vitamin D supplements, from 22 Italian rheumatology centres uniformly distributed across Italy. Together with parameters of disease activity (disease activity score 28), functional impairment (activities of daily living and health assessment questionnaire disability index) and mean sun exposure time, all patients had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) measured in a centralized laboratory. Vitamin D deficiency (25OHD level <20 ng/mL) was very frequent among RA patients; its prevalence was 60%, 52% and 38% in southern, central and northern Italy, respectively. Mean disease activity and disability scores were worse in southern regions of Italy. These scores were inversely related to 25OHD levels and this correlation remained statistically significant after adjusting for both body mass index (BMI) and sun exposure time. However, disease severity remained significantly higher in southern regions versus central-northern Italy after adjustment also for serum 25OHD levels, age and BMI. In RA Italian patients there are significant regional differences in the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency explained by different BMI, and sun exposure time, and inversely associated with disease activity and disability scores. PMID:23884026

  7. Institutional Innovation and Public Extension Services Provision: The Marche Regional Administration Reform in Central Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascucci, Stefano; De Magistris, Tiziana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes how Marche Regional Administration (MRA) introduced an innovative institutional reform of an Agricultural Knowledge and Information System (AKIS) in central Italy. In order to study the main features of the MRA reform we used a methodological approach based on three steps: (i) first we applied a desk analysis to sketch the…

  8. Regional differences of vitamin D deficiency in rheumatoid arthritis patients in Italy.

    PubMed

    Rossini, M; D'Avola, G; Muratore, M; Malavolta, N; Silveri, F; Bianchi, G; Frediani, B; Minisola, G; Sorgi, M L; Varenna, M; Foti, R; Tartarelli, G; Orsolini, G; Adami, S

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is very common in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among the different Italian regions and whether these variations are associated with different severity of the disease. The study includes 581 consecutive RA patients (464 women), not taking vitamin D supplements, from 22 Italian rheumatology centres uniformly distributed across Italy. Together with parameters of disease activity (disease activity score 28), functional impairment (activities of daily living and health assessment questionnaire disability index) and mean sun exposure time, all patients had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) measured in a centralized laboratory. Vitamin D deficiency (25OHD level <20 ng/mL) was very frequent among RA patients; its prevalence was 60%, 52% and 38% in southern, central and northern Italy, respectively. Mean disease activity and disability scores were worse in southern regions of Italy. These scores were inversely related to 25OHD levels and this correlation remained statistically significant after adjusting for both body mass index (BMI) and sun exposure time. However, disease severity remained significantly higher in southern regions versus central-northern Italy after adjustment also for serum 25OHD levels, age and BMI. In RA Italian patients there are significant regional differences in the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency explained by different BMI, and sun exposure time, and inversely associated with disease activity and disability scores.

  9. Surveillance for West Nile, dengue, and chikungunya virus infections, Veneto Region, Italy, 2010.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, Federico; Barzon, Luisa; Capelli, Gioia; Angheben, Andrea; Pacenti, Monia; Napoletano, Giuseppina; Piovesan, Cinzia; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Martini, Simone; Rigoli, Roberto; Cattelan, Anna M; Rinaldi, Roberto; Conforto, Mario; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2012-04-01

    In 2010, in Veneto Region, Italy, surveillance of summer fevers was conducted to promptly identify autochthonous cases of West Nile fever and increase detection of imported dengue and chikungunya in travelers. Surveillance highlighted the need to modify case definitions, train physicians, and when a case is identified, implement vector control measures.

  10. The Marine Technology Liguria District, an opportunity for Collaboration and Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmisciano, C.; Tivegna, P.; Sgherri, R. G.; Gambetta, M.; Caratori Tontini, F.; Stefanelli, P.; Cocchi, L.

    2008-05-01

    This work focus on the newly born DLTM, namely the Distretto Ligure delle Tecnologie Marine, based in La Spezia, Liguria Region (IT). The main involved partners are: Ministries, Regione Liguria Council, Spedia SpA Company, Industries, SMEs (SMBs), Universities and National Research Institutes. The DLTM has been created as an answer to the local versus global needs of marine products innovation, technology and science. In order to provide, both the local and international community, effective solutions the DLTM aims to: - promote Innovation and pre-competitiveness of activities related to industrial research; - enhance the value and visibility of excellence areas existing in the Ligurian region (in the big enterprises as well as in SMEs) concerning marine technology; - enhance the value of academic activities focusing their R&D on industrial products/processes, assuring, evaluating and preventing environmental sustainability also in case of extreme events; - harmonize/make sustainable the economy and the society promoting scientific innovation and technological development, by means of Universities, Public and Private Research Institutes (at regional, national and EU level); - help the exchange of ideas and realization of projects aimed at developing the District objectives; - increase the dissemination and valorisation of District results and achievements, build capacity in the sectors of interest to the District. The DLTM is characterized by two main macro-themes. The first concerns infrastructures, materials and processes, while the second is committed to eco-compatible solutions for harbours, ships and coastal scenarios, security and control management of human activities, risky operations and extreme natural events. The former macro-theme is expected to provide the community with innovative solutions, technologies, materials, processes applied to marine sectors, shipyard and related subsystems and components, in a wide sense such as leisure, commercial, navy

  11. Alien insects in Italy: comparing patterns from the regional to European level.

    PubMed

    Inghilesi, Alberto F; Mazza, Giuseppe; Cervo, Rita; Gherardi, Francesca; Sposimo, Paolo; Tricarico, Elena; Zapparoli, Marzio

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of species outside their native range contributes to the loss of biodiversity, alters the structure and functioning of ecosystems, and damages economy and human health. Insects are one of the taxa with the highest frequency of introduction due to their high diversity, biological properties, and close association with human activities. Here, the allodiversity of Italian entomofauna was analyzed, with a focus on Tuscany (Central Italy). A list of alien insects in Tuscany is included. The status of the alien entomofauna in Italy was updated. The number of alien insects amounts to 122 in Tuscany and 923 in Italy. An introduction rate of 98 species per decade was estimated in Italy. In Tuscany, alien insects belong to 10 orders, mostly Coleoptera (38%), Hemiptera (Sternorrhyncha and Auchenorrhyncha) (23%), and Hymenoptera (13%). They have been most often introduced through vegetable items (ornamental plants or crops). Most species come from the Nearctic region (26%) and are both phytophagous (63%) and amphigonic (80%). Differences and similarities in introduction patterns and in insect abundances across orders among regional, national, and European scales, also considering worldwide abundances, are discussed. Finally, a paucity of information regarding the negative impacts of many species, except for economic pests, phytosanitary threats, and vectors of disease, is underlined. A deeper understanding of the alien insects' ecological impact might help designate policies aimed at preventing further introductions and control the invasive populations of already established species.

  12. Alien Insects in Italy: Comparing Patterns from the Regional to European Level

    PubMed Central

    Inghilesi, Alberto F.; Mazza, Giuseppe; Cervo, Rita; Gherardi, Francesca; Sposimo, Paolo; Tricarico, Elena; Zapparoli, Marzio

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of species outside their native range contributes to the loss of biodiversity, alters the structure and functioning of ecosystems, and damages economy and human health. Insects are one of the taxa with the highest frequency of introduction due to their high diversity, biological properties, and close association with human activities. Here, the allodiversity of Italian entomofauna was analyzed, with a focus on Tuscany (Central Italy). A list of alien insects in Tuscany is included. The status of the alien entomofauna in Italy was updated. The number of alien insects amounts to 122 in Tuscany and 923 in Italy. An introduction rate of 98 species per decade was estimated in Italy. In Tuscany, alien insects belong to 10 orders, mostly Coleoptera (38%), Hemiptera (Sternorrhyncha and Auchenorrhyncha) (23%), and Hymenoptera (13%). They have been most often introduced through vegetable items (ornamental plants or crops). Most species come from the Nearctic region (26%) and are both phytophagous (63%) and amphigonic (80%). Differences and similarities in introduction patterns and in insect abundances across orders among regional, national, and European scales, also considering worldwide abundances, are discussed. Finally, a paucity of information regarding the negative impacts of many species, except for economic pests, phytosanitary threats, and vectors of disease, is underlined. A deeper understanding of the alien insects' ecological impact might help designate policies aimed at preventing further introductions and control the invasive populations of already established species. PMID:24219427

  13. Measurement of the concentration of radon gas in the Toirano's caves (Liguria).

    PubMed

    Bruzzone, Diego; Bussallino, Massimo; Castello, Gianrico; Maggiolo, Stefano; Rossi, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    The radioactive gas radon, intermediate term of the decay series of uranium and thorium, is the main contamination source of underground places and may be a risk for high concentration and long exposure time. European and Italian law requires radon concentration to be measured in workplaces and, if the "action level" of 500 Bq/m3 is reached, proper actions must be made in order to decrease the dose commitment. Considering natural showcaves or artificial cavities open to public, the exposition of the visitors is frequently small, due to the short residence time, but accompanying people, remaining underground for long time, may be subject to appreciable dose and the radon concentration should therefore be monitored. The high humidity in natural caves may impair the use of some measuring devices. Therefore, different detection methods were compared (ZnS scintillation counters, E-PERM electret ionisation chambers, cellulose nitrate alpha-track dosimeters) to select the best procedure for long-term investigation. The LR-115 (Kodak) alpha-track dosimeters were insensitive to humidity and permitted to monitor a great number of places at the same time. Measurements have been carried out in the speleological and archaeological site of the Toirano's Caves (Savona, Liguria, Italy) and several points were monitored for two years. Radon concentration strongly depends on the site and changes during the year, due to the difference between internal and external temperature. The maximum dose commitment during the visitors tour, considering the average yearly value of radon concentration, was found to be between 1.5 and 4 microSv. It was found that no risk exists for visitors, but the evaluation of the dose absorbed by the guides and their classification according to the radiation protection law requires a complete monitoring of the average yearly concentration of radon and of the total time spent by each worker into the cave. PMID:17172204

  14. West Nile Virus Surveillance in the Lombardy Region, Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Chiari, M; Prosperi, A; Faccin, F; Avisani, D; Cerioli, M; Zanoni, M; Bertoletti, M; Moreno, A M; Bruno, R; Monaco, F; Farioli, M; Lelli, D; Lavazza, A

    2015-08-01

    In 2013, the circulation of West Nile virus (WNV) was detected in the Lombardy region and the following year a surveillance programme was activated with the aim of early identification of the viral distribution in mosquitoes and wild birds. A total of 50 959 Culex spp. mosquitoes grouped in six hundred and forty-seven pools as well as 1400 birds were screened by RT-PCR for the presence of West Nile virus leading to the identification of the viral genome in 32 mosquito pools and 13 wild birds. The surveillance was able to detect the WNV circulation on an average of 42 days (CI 95% 29.98-53.86; Student's t-distribution) before the occurrence of human West Nile disease (WND) cases in the same area. These results demonstrate the presence of WNV in the Lombardy region and confirm entomological and wild birds surveillance as an effective measure for the early identification of WNV circulation in infected areas, thus providing a useful and cost-effective tool for the public health authorities in the application of measures to prevent human infection.

  15. West Nile virus outbreak in the Lombardy region, northern Italy, summer 2013.

    PubMed

    Rovida, Francesca; Sarasini, Antonella; Campanini, Giulia; Percivalle, Elena; Gorini, Giovanna; Mariani, Bianca; Pan, Angelo; Cuzzoli, Antonio; Possenti, Stefano; Manzini, Lisa; Castelli, Francesco; Bossini, Nicola; Grossi, Paolo Antonio; Castilletti, Concetta; Calzolari, Mattia; Lelli, Davide; Piatti, Alessandra; Baldanti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    In the summer of 2013, an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) infection occurred in the Lombardy, a region of northern Italy to the west of districts affected by WNV in previous years. Eighteen cases of human WNV infection were diagnosed--10 cases of acute WNV neuroinvasive disease and eight of WNV fever. In the same period, WNV was detected in birds (one crow) in horses (11 cases) and from mosquitoes (six pools).

  16. Essential and toxic elements in honeys from a region of central Italy.

    PubMed

    Meli, M A; Desideri, D; Roselli, C; Benedetti, C; Feduzi, L

    2015-01-01

    Levels of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in several types of honey produced in a region of Central Italy were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The degree of humidity, sugar content, pH, free acidity, combined acidity (lactones), and total acidity were also measured. These elements were found to be present in honey in various proportions depending upon (1) the area foraged by bees, (2) flower type visited for collection of nectar, and (3) quality of water in the vicinity of the hive. Strong positive correlations occurred between Pb and Hg, Pb and Cd, Pb and Fe, Pb and Cr, Hg and Cd, and Hg and Fe. The honey products synthesized in Central Italy were of good quality, but not completely free of heavy metal contamination. Compared with established recommended daily intakes, heavy metals or trace element intoxication following honey consumption in Italy was found not to be a concern for human health. PMID:26039679

  17. Non-susceptible landslide areas in Italy and in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesini, I.; Ardizzone, F.; Alvioli, M.; Rossi, M.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-08-01

    We used landslide information for 13 study areas in Italy and morphometric information obtained from the 3-arcseconds shuttle radar topography mission digital elevation model (SRTM DEM) to determine areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible in Italy and in the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. The morphometric information consisted of the local terrain slope which was computed in a square 3 × 3-cell moving window, and in the regional relative relief computed in a circular 15 × 15-cell moving window. We tested three different models to classify the "non-susceptible" landslide areas, including a linear model (LNR), a quantile linear model (QLR), and a quantile, non-linear model (QNL). We tested the performance of the three models using independent landslide information presented by the Italian Landslide Inventory (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia - IFFI). Best results were obtained using the QNL model. The corresponding zonation of non-susceptible landslide areas was intersected in a geographic information system (GIS) with geographical census data for Italy. The result determined that 57.5% of the population of Italy (in 2001) was located in areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible. We applied the QNL model to the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, and we tested the synoptic non-susceptibility zonation using independent landslide information for three study areas in Spain. Results showed that the QNL model was capable of determining where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible in the validation areas in Spain. We expect our results to be applicable in similar study areas, facilitating the identification of non-susceptible landslide areas, at the synoptic scale.

  18. Non-susceptible landslide areas in Italy and in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesini, I.; Ardizzone, F.; Alvioli, M.; Rossi, M.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-04-01

    We used landslide information for 13 study areas in Italy and morphometric information obtained from the 3 arc-second SRTM DEM to determine areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be null or negligible in Italy, and in the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. The morphometric information consisted in the local terrain slope computed in a square 3 × 3 cell moving window, and in the regional relative relief computed in a circular 15 × 15 cell moving window. We tested three different models to determine the non-susceptible landslide areas, including a linear model (LR), a quantile linear model (QLR), and a quantile non-linear model (QNL). We tested the performance of the three models using independent landslide information represented by the Italian Landslide Inventory (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia - IFFI). Best results were obtained using the QNL model. The corresponding zonation of non-susceptible landslide areas was intersected in a GIS with geographical census data for Italy. The result allowed determining that 57.5% of the population of Italy (in 2001) was located in areas where landslide susceptibility is expected to be null or negligible, and that the remaining 42.5% was located in areas where some landslide susceptibility is expected. We applied the QNL model to the landmasses surrounding the Mediterranean Sea, and we tested the synoptic non-susceptibility zonation using independent landslide information for three study areas in Spain. Results proved that the QNL model was capable of determining where landslide susceptibility is expected to be negligible in the Mediterranean area. We expect our results to be applicable in similar study areas, facilitating the identification of non-susceptible and susceptible landslide areas, at the synoptic scale.

  19. Subsidence mapping at regional scale using persistent scatters interferometry (PSI): The case of Tuscany region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosi, Ascanio; Tofani, Veronica; Agostini, Andrea; Tanteri, Luca; Tacconi Stefanelli, Carlo; Catani, Filippo; Casagli, Nicola

    2016-10-01

    In this paper the mapping of subsidences in Tuscany (Italy) is presented. To achieve our goal satellite SAR data processed with persistent scatters interferometry (PSI) technique have been used. Several subsiding areas have been identified and three of them have been analyzed in detail and subsequently compared with literature work both to validate the results and to analyze the evolution of the identified subsidences. In general, this comparison confirmed the quality of the analyses and, furthermore, lead to the identification of an important ground uplift close to Prato city, an area that was historically affected by subsidence.

  20. Secular trend on congenital infections: insights from Campania region register for perinatal infection, southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Buffolano, Wilma; Agnese, Maura; Pizzuti, Renato

    2011-10-01

    There is increasing pressure for prevention of vertically transmitted congenital infection and prenatal screening is recommended for main locally prevalent infections. Furthermore, systematic monitoring of their impact and effectiveness of practices is quite rare at National level. As a consequence of favorable conditions on Campania region of Southern Italy a monitoring system based on post- delivery surveillance on congenital infection has been longtime piloted and seems ready to be exported at national level. Temporal trend analysis is showing change on focus and impact of prevalent congenital infection such as toxoplasmosis, rubella, syphilis and HIV. Moreover, the effect of recent massive immigration from Eastern EU and Africa requires further focus. PMID:21942602

  1. Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from different regions of Italy and Pakistan.

    PubMed Central

    Sechi, L A; Zanetti, S; Delogu, G; Montinaro, B; Sanna, A; Fadda, G

    1996-01-01

    The use of the (GTG)5 oligonucleotide, a repetitive marker in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis chromosome, as a primer in association with an IS6110 outlooking primer has been successfully applied to a PCR-based fingerprinting method. This method classified 62 strains of M. tuberculosis, isolated from human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive and -seronegative patients in different regions of Italy and Pakistan, as having 53 different patterns. The results were compared with traditional IS6110 fingerprinting, by which 47 distinct patterns were observed. PMID:8784602

  2. Orbital Cyclicities Above and Below the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary, Umbria-Marche Region, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, D. T., Jr.; Petruny, L. W.; Rampino, M. R.; Prokoph, A.; Pope, K.; Fischer, A. G.; Montanari, A.; Ocampo, A. C.

    2000-01-01

    In the Umbria-Marche region of central Italy, the deep basinal carbonate Scaglia Rossa Formation contains an important sequence of Cretaceous-Tertiary strata including a detailed paleomagnetic record and the distal impactoclastic Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary clay layer. In addition to this significant paleomagnetic and impactoclastic record, the Scaglia Rossa also contains potentially important stratigraphic evidence of relatively long-term oceanic and atmospheric consequences of the Cretaceous-Tertiary bolide catastrophe, which we will describe for the first time herein. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. Pneumococcus and the Elderly in Italy: A Summary of Available Evidence Regarding Carriage, Clinical Burden of Lower Respiratory Tract Infections and On-Field Effectiveness of PCV13 Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Orsi, Andrea; Ansaldi, Filippo; Trucchi, Cecilia; Rosselli, Roberto; Icardi, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is currently the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in adults, elderly and high-risk subjects worldwide. The clear benefits of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in childhood have been accompanied by a decrease of vaccine-serotype invasive diseases among adults in several countries, mainly due to the herd effect mediated by the reduction of vaccine-serotype nasopharyngeal colonization in both age groups, but this reduction in the incidence of pneumonia has not been observed. The “Community Acquired Pneumonia Immunization Trial in Adults” (CAPITA) study provided conclusive evidence about 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) efficacy in preventing CAP in adults and led Western countries to issue new recommendations for pneumococcal immunization targeting subjects >50 years and high-risk groups, with marked differences with respect to age and/or risk groups immunized, eligibility for reimbursement and national, regional or local implementation. Several Italian regions implemented PCV13 immunization programs in adults and interesting data have been come available in the last years, especially from Liguria, a Northern region with a high and long-lasting pneumococcal vaccine immunological pressure in infants. In this review, currently available evidence from Italy and Liguria regarding pneumococcal carriage, burden of CAP and LRTI, and on-field effectiveness of PCV13 immunization in adults and elderly will be summarized. PMID:27428964

  4. Application of a regional approach for hazard mapping at an avalanche site in northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocchiola, D.; Rosso, R.

    2008-04-01

    The currently adopted approach to avalanche hazard mapping in northern Italy includes avalanche dynamic modelling, coupled with statistical analysis of snow depth at avalanche start. The 30-years and 300-years return period avalanches at a given site are modelled and their run out zone and pressure are evaluated. The snow depth in the avalanche release zone is assumed to coincide with the three days snow fall depth H72 featuring a return period of 30 years and 300 years, respectively. In the Italian alps only short series of observed snow depth are available, covering a period of 20 years or so, thus requiring a regional approach, or index value approach for the purpose of high return period quantile estimation. Based of former studies, here we apply the index value approach developed for the Lombardia region, in northern Italy, for hazard mapping in a particular avalanche site. A dynamic avalanche model is tuned using the runout data for two major observed avalanche events. Then, the 30-years and 300-years runout zone and dynamic pressure are calculated. It is then shown that the obtained hazard maps are more accurate than those obtained using the evaluation of H72 as deduced from distribution fitting in a single site.

  5. Radon radioactivity in groundwater from the Calabria region, south of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, F.; D'Agostino, M.; Belvedere, A.; Marguccio, S.; Belmusto, G.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study the radon radioactivity in selected groundwater (boreholes and wells) from the Calabria region, south of Italy, was investigated. Water samples were analyzed by gamma spectrometry and by RAD7 + RAD H2O setup to determine the 222Rn activity concentration. Obtained values were used with the ingested dose conversion factor for 222Rn to estimate the annual effective dose for adult members of public due to consumption of the groundwater. The estimated average value was (88±5) μ Sv/y. It was compared with the estimated average annual effective dose due to ingestion of groundwater by the WHO (100 μ Sv/y) and that due to ingestion of food and water (290 μ Sv/y) by the UNSCEAR (2000). Results show that the presence of radon may not pose any radiological health hazard to the public due to the consumption of groundwater in the investigated region.

  6. Non-life insurance consumption in Italy: a sub-regional panel data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millo, Giovanni; Carmeci, Gaetano

    2011-09-01

    We analyze the consumption of non-life insurance across 103 Italian provinces in 1998-2002 in order to assess its determinants, in the light of the empirical literature. Using sub-regional data, we overcome an important limitation of cross-country analyses, i.e. the systemic heterogeneity due to country-specific characteristics. Individual heterogeneity is accounted for through panel data techniques. However, considering spatial units within a single market raises issues of cross-sectional or spatial dependence, either due to common nationwide and/or regional factors or to spatial proximity. We carefully assess spatial dependence, employing recent diagnostic tests, finding out that the regressors included in our specification successfully account for spatial dependence. Insurance turns out to depend on income, wealth and some demographics, as already established, but also on trust, judicial efficiency and borrowing conditions. These findings help in explaining the gap between Central-Northern Italy and the south of the country.

  7. Presence of Legionella spp. in thermal springs of the Campania region of south Italy.

    PubMed

    Sommese, L; Scarfogliero, P; Vitiello, M; Catalanotti, P; Galdiero, E

    1996-10-01

    Water samples from 66 thermal springs in the Campania region of South Italy were cultured for Legionella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and indicators of faecal pollution. The temperature of the sources ranged from 21 degrees C to 59.5 degrees C. Legionella pneumophila, serogroup 7-10, was isolated from two out of 60 sources on the Island of Ischia and Legionella dumoffii from one mainland source. The temperatures of these sources were 35.2 degrees C, 48.2 degrees C, and 52.0 degrees C respectively. Twelve sources were positive for P. aeruginosa and 6 for Escherichia coli. Our results found that Legionella spp. were present in only three thermal springs, indicating that in the hydrothermal area of the Campania region the presence of this microbial species is very scarce.

  8. Preliminary analysis of the Intensive Observation Period events occurred in Italy during the HyMeX campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferretti, Rossella

    2013-04-01

    HyMeX (Hydrological cycle in the Mediterranean eXperiment) is a project aimed at a better understanding and quantification of the hydrological cycle and related processes in the Mediterranean. As a part of HyMeX, Special Observation Periods (SOPs) are dedicated to provide detailed and specific observations to study key processes leading to orographic precipitation (ORP), heavy precipitation events (HPEs), and flash flood events (FFEs) in certain Target Areas (TAs). Informed by numerical weather forecasts and standard observations, Intensive Operation Periods (IOPs) are declared during the SOPs. Specific observations in the TAs are provided by operational measurements (ground meteorological networks, soundings, and remote-sensing instruments), coupled with specific measurements during IOPs from several instruments, such as disdrometers, sodars, lidars, research radars, extra soundings, etc. In this paper an overview is presented of the HyMeX IOPs in Italy during SOP1 (5 September - 6 November, 2012). The Hydro-Meteorological sites of interest were: Liguria-Tuscany (LT), northeastern Italy (NEI) and central Italy (CI). Typical situations encountered for HPEs in LT involved upper-level southwesterly flow with low-level moist southerly or southeasterly flow over the Tyrrhenian and the Ligurian Sea. Highlights include a measurement of 300 mm/24h of rain at the border between Liguria and Emilia on Sept. 26, 2012 during IOP7b. For NEI region, HPEs mainly occurred with upper level southwesterly flow ahead of advancing troughs with low-level moist southerly or southeasterly flow over the Adriatic Sea. Highlights include 120 mm/24h of rain in Friuli Venezia Giulia on Sept. 12, 2012 during IOP2. For CI region, HPEs and FFEs, a slowly propagating cut-off low centered over southern Italy was observed; the associated easterly flow on the north side of the cut-off low would frequently bring moisture into east central Italy from the Adriatic Sea. Highlights include an event with

  9. Serological evidence for Parapoxvirus infection in chamois from the Tyrol regions of Austria and Italy.

    PubMed

    Huemer, Hartwig P; Zobl, Alexandra; Windisch, Andrea; Glawischnig, Walter; Büttner, Mathias; Kitchen, Maria; Trevisiol, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Orf-virus (ORFV) is a parapoxvirus that infects small ruminants worldwide causing sporadic zoonotic infections, mainly transmitted by direct contact with sheep and goats. Following an ORFV case in a hunter of Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), who did not report previous contact to domestic animals, a serological survey in Western Austria was conducted to assess the seroprevalence of ORFV in this species. In addition, this study also tested blood/tissue samples of chamois from different areas of the adjacent province of Bolzano/Northern Italy for antibodies against ORFV using immunofluorescence and ELISA. The observed seropositivity rates in the chamois tested on the Austrian and Italian side of the Alps were 23.5% and 9.5%, respectively, with a combined 95% confidence interval ranging from 0.0678 to 0.238. Although the prevalence was significantly lower than the one observed in Austrian sheep flocks, this study provided the first evidence that parapoxviruses have spilled over into chamois populations to a significant degree in the Tyrol regions of Austria and Italy.

  10. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria Chiara; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary In Italy, dog shelters are overcrowded because the rate of dog adoption is lower than that of abandonment. A project called “RandAgiamo” was implemented in a rescue shelter in central Italy. RandAgiamo provides training, socialization and advertising of adult shelter dogs. Official data of the Umbria regional health authorities from the year 2014 showed a higher rate of adoption in shelters involved in the project. RandAgiamo dogs had triple odds of being adopted compared to others housed in shelters of the same province. The increase in adoption rate can be beneficial for both dog welfare and shelter management. Abstract Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this “no-kill policy” has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project “RandAgiamo” implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs’ adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs’ visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (p < 0.001). The RandAgiamo project could be beneficial for the dogs’ welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities. PMID:26479385

  11. Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucchese, Fernando; Medori, Simone

    2008-01-01

    Background In the years 2003–2005 research was carried out concerning ethno-medicine in the high Molise (central- southern Italy), a region that has been the object of very little investigation from the ethnobotanical point of view. Upper Molise is a continuation of the mountain profiles of the Abruzzi Appenines: a series of hills, steep slopes and deep fluvial valleys making communications difficult. Primordial traditions (e.g. harvest feasts) are typical of the region. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews in the field. These were conducted on both an individual and group level, fresh plants gathered from surrounding areas being displayed. In other cases, individual interviews were conducted by accompanying the person involved to the places where they perform their activities (for example, in the woods with woodcutters, kitchen gardens and fields with housewives, pastures with shepherds, etc.). In total 54 individuals were interviewed. Results Data of 70 taxa belonging to 39 families were gathered. Among the species, 64 are used in human therapy, 5 as insect repellents, 11 in veterinary medicine, 1 to keep eggs and cheeses and 4 for magic purposes. The most important findings in ethno-medicine relate to the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. (wounds) and to some vascular plant species: Asplenium trichomanes L. and Ceterach officinarum Willd. (to regularize menstruation), Cyclamen hederifolium (chilblains), Centaurium erythraea Rafn. and Pulmonaria apennina Cristof. & Puppi (bruises), while in the ethno-veterinary field, we have Valeriana officinalis L. (wounds sustained by mules). Also worthy of note, given the isolation of the area, is the number of plants used to protect foodstuffs from parasites, among which Allium sativum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. Conclusion The research revealed a deep-rooted and widespread habit of husbanding the family's resources. Whilst isolation and snowfalls contributed to the widespread knowledge of means

  12. Unravelling the competing influence of regional uplift and active normal faulting in SW Calabria, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Alex; Roda Boluda, Duna; Boulton, Sarah; Erhardt, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The Neogene geological and geomorphological evolution of Southern Italy is complex and is fundamentally controlled by the subduction of the Ionian slab along the Apennine belt from the Calabrian Arc, and back-arc extension driven by trench rollback. In the area of Calabria and the Straits of Messina the presence of (i) uplifted, deformed and dissected basin sediments and marine terraces, ranging in age from the early to mid-Pleistocene and (ii) seismicity associated with NE-SW normal faults that have well-developed footwall topography and triangular facets have led workers to suggest that both significant regional uplift and extensional faulting in SW Calabria have played a role in generating relief in the area since the mid Pleistocene. However, there is considerable uncertainty in the rates of total surface uplift relative to sea level in both time and space, and the relative partitioning of this uplift between a mantle-driven regional signal, potentially related to a slab tear, and the active extensional structures. Additionally, despite the widespread recognition of normal faults in Calabria to which historical earthquakes are often linked, there is much less agreement on (i) which ones are active and for what length of time; (ii) how the faults interact; and (iii) what their throw and throw rates are. In particular, the ability to resolve both regional uplift and normal faulting in SW Calabria is essential in order to fully understand the tectonic history of the region, while an understanding of location and slip rate of active faults, in an area where the population numbers more than two million people, is essential to assess regional seismic hazards. Here we address these important questions using a combination of tectonic geomorphology and structural geology. We critically examine existing constraints on the rates and distribution of active normal faulting and regional uplift in the area, and we derive new constraints on the along-strike variation in throw

  13. Environmental radioactivity in four national parks of the Abruzzo region (central Italy).

    PubMed

    Barbizzi, S; Calvarese, S; Fico, R; Belli, M; Sansone, U

    2004-01-01

    Since 1998, the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell'Abruzzo e Molise 'G. Caporale' in Teramo is conducting radioecological surveys in the Abruzzo region (Central Italy), to acquire knowledge on the geochemical and biological mobility of radionuclides derived from the Chernobyl accident. To this end, samples of grasses, fungi, mosses and soils were collected in four national parks (Sirente-Velino, Abruzzo Lazio and Molise, the Gran Sasso and the park of Monti della Laga and Maiella). The results show that the Chernobyl fallout is still detectable in the samples collected in the four parks but the (137)Cs concentrations are present in the semi-natural environments in quantities that do not create concerns from a radiological point of view.

  14. Radon Exposure Assessment and Relative Effective Dose Estimation to Inhabitants of Puglia Region, South Italy

    PubMed Central

    Quarto, Maria; Pugliese, Mariagabriella; La Verde, Giuseppe; Loffredo, Filomena; Roca, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations were measured in dwellings of the Puglia region in Southern Italy using LR-115 passive detectors. The results show that the radon concentrations varied from 15 ± 2 to 2166 ± 133 Bq/m3 with a geometric mean of 114 Bq/m3 and a geometric standard deviation of 2.3. An analysis on the factors affecting radon concentration such as age of the dwellings, floors, and stories, was performed. The mean effective dose to inhabitants has been calculated and found to be 8.2 mSv/y. Finally, for estimation of cancer risks, the lifetime risk and lung cancer cases per years per million have been calculated. PMID:26610543

  15. Radon Exposure Assessment and Relative Effective Dose Estimation to Inhabitants of Puglia Region, South Italy.

    PubMed

    Quarto, Maria; Pugliese, Mariagabriella; La Verde, Giuseppe; Loffredo, Filomena; Roca, Vincenzo

    2015-11-23

    Indoor radon concentrations were measured in dwellings of the Puglia region in Southern Italy using LR-115 passive detectors. The results show that the radon concentrations varied from 15 ± 2 to 2166 ± 133 Bq/m³ with a geometric mean of 114 Bq/m³ and a geometric standard deviation of 2.3. An analysis on the factors affecting radon concentration such as age of the dwellings, floors, and stories, was performed. The mean effective dose to inhabitants has been calculated and found to be 8.2 mSv/y. Finally, for estimation of cancer risks, the lifetime risk and lung cancer cases per years per million have been calculated.

  16. Radon Exposure Assessment and Relative Effective Dose Estimation to Inhabitants of Puglia Region, South Italy.

    PubMed

    Quarto, Maria; Pugliese, Mariagabriella; La Verde, Giuseppe; Loffredo, Filomena; Roca, Vincenzo

    2015-11-01

    Indoor radon concentrations were measured in dwellings of the Puglia region in Southern Italy using LR-115 passive detectors. The results show that the radon concentrations varied from 15 ± 2 to 2166 ± 133 Bq/m³ with a geometric mean of 114 Bq/m³ and a geometric standard deviation of 2.3. An analysis on the factors affecting radon concentration such as age of the dwellings, floors, and stories, was performed. The mean effective dose to inhabitants has been calculated and found to be 8.2 mSv/y. Finally, for estimation of cancer risks, the lifetime risk and lung cancer cases per years per million have been calculated. PMID:26610543

  17. Seismogenic stress field estimation in the Calabrian Arc region (south Italy) from a Bayesian approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totaro, C.; Orecchio, B.; Presti, D.; Scolaro, S.; Neri, G.

    2016-09-01

    A new high-quality waveform inversion focal mechanism database of the Calabrian Arc region has been compiled by integrating 292 mechanisms selected from literature and catalogs with 146 newly computed solutions. The new database has then been used for computation of posterior density distributions of stress tensor components by a Bayesian method never applied in south Italy before the present study. The application of this method to the enhanced database has allowed us to provide a detailed picture of seismotectonic stress regimes in this very complex area where lithospheric unit configuration and geodynamic engines are still strongly debated. Our results well constrain the extensional domain of Calabrian Arc and the compressional one of the southernmost Tyrrhenian Sea. In addition, previously undetected transcurrent regimes have been identified in the Ionian offshore. The new information released here will furnish useful tools and constraints for future geodynamic investigations.

  18. A statistical approach to evaluate flood risk at the regional level: an application to Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Mauro; Marchesini, Ivan; Salvati, Paola; Donnini, Marco; Guzzetti, Fausto; Sterlacchini, Simone; Zazzeri, Marco; Bonazzi, Alessandro; Carlesi, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Floods are frequent and widespread in Italy, causing every year multiple fatalities and extensive damages to public and private structures. A pre-requisite for the development of mitigation schemes, including financial instruments such as insurance, is the ability to quantify their costs starting from the estimation of the underlying flood hazard. However, comprehensive and coherent information on flood prone areas, and estimates on the frequency and intensity of flood events, are not often available at scales appropriate for risk pooling and diversification. In Italy, River Basins Hydrogeological Plans (PAI), prepared by basin administrations, are the basic descriptive, regulatory, technical and operational tools for environmental planning in flood prone areas. Nevertheless, such plans do not cover the entire Italian territory, having significant gaps along the minor hydrographic network and in ungauged basins. Several process-based modelling approaches have been used by different basin administrations for the flood hazard assessment, resulting in an inhomogeneous hazard zonation of the territory. As a result, flood hazard assessments expected and damage estimations across the different Italian basin administrations are not always coherent. To overcome these limitations, we propose a simplified multivariate statistical approach for the regional flood hazard zonation coupled with a flood impact model. This modelling approach has been applied in different Italian basin administrations, allowing a preliminary but coherent and comparable estimation of the flood hazard and the relative impact. Model performances are evaluated comparing the predicted flood prone areas with the corresponding PAI zonation. The proposed approach will provide standardized information (following the EU Floods Directive specifications) on flood risk at a regional level which can in turn be more readily applied to assess flood economic impacts. Furthermore, in the assumption of an appropriate

  19. Is variation management included in regional healthcare governance systems? Some proposals from Italy.

    PubMed

    Nuti, Sabina; Seghieri, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    The Italian National Health System, which follows a Beveridge model, provides universal healthcare coverage through general taxation. Universal coverage provides uniform healthcare access to citizens and is the characteristic usually considered the added value of a welfare system financed by tax revenues. Nonetheless, wide differences in practice patterns, health outcomes and regional usages of resources that cannot be justified by differences in patient needs have been demonstrated to exist. Beginning with the experience of the health care system of the Tuscany region (Italy), this study describes the first steps of a long-term approach to proactively address the issue of geographic variation in healthcare. In particular, the study highlights how the unwarranted variation management has been addressed in a region with a high degree of managerial control over the delivery of health care and a consolidated performance evaluation system, by first, considering it a high priority objective and then by actively integrating it into the regional planning and control mechanism. The implications of this study can be useful to policy makers, professionals and managers, and will contribute to the understanding of how the management of variation can be implemented with performance measurements and financial incentives. PMID:24050981

  20. Geomorphic hazards and intense rainfall: the case study of the Recco Stream catchment (Eastern Liguria, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccini, F.; Robbiano, A.; Sacchini, A.

    2012-04-01

    A critical pluviometric event occurred in the central-eastern Ligurian Riviera, 15 km from Genoa, on 1 June 2007. This event caused landslides and hydraulic problems between Sori and Camogli and in the inland area of the Recco Valley. An analysis of the heavy rainfall was conducted. Hourly precipitation data revealed a critical event between 04:00 a.m. and 07:00 a.m. local time, with more than 220 mm of precipitation over three hours. Slope movements were mainly debris flows that detached from the lateral valleys of the Recco Stream catchment and from well-maintained, wooded slopes that were also characterised by cultivated terraces. Numerous slide planes corresponded to the interface between the surface cover and the underlying bedrock, which presents an unfavourable geologic structure in terms of stability assessment. In most cases, the displaced material had a limited thickness. Debris cover was rapidly channelled along small valleys, which controlled the critical hydraulic conditions in the secondary drainage network. Man-made drainage systems were partially or totally blocked in a very short time and, like the natural watercourses, accumulated thick and extensive alluvial fans. Most of the instability phenomena occurred in areas that had been designated medium or low-risk areas during land planning, and in sectors that were defined as stable, because they lacked geomorphic indicators connected to landslide risks. The above considerations highlight some gaps of the Recco Stream Master Plan. Therefore, to update this land planning tool, it is necessary to extensively investigate local geomorphological characteristics and to adopt a different method for assigning weights to the geohazard maps.

  1. Burden of rotavirus infections in Liguria, Northern Italy: hospitalisations and potential savings by vaccination.

    PubMed

    Panatto, D; Amicizia, D; Giacchino, R; Tacchella, A; Natalizia, A R; Melioli, G; Bandettini, R; Di Pietro, P; Diana, M C; Gasparini, R

    2011-08-01

    We evaluated the rates of gastroenteritis admissions to the emergency department and of rotavirus-related hospitalisations in children ≤5 years of age in 2006 at an Italian paediatric hospital. We calculated the number of rotavirus cases avoidable through the universal vaccination of children. Epidemiological data were extracted from the Data Elaboration Centre. To calculate the hospitalisation rate due to rotavirus, the virus was sought in the faeces of children hospitalised for acute gastroenteritis by means of rapid immunochromatographic assay. Emergency department admissions due to gastroenteritis numbered 2,396 (11.58% of the total admissions). Of these, 276 children (11.52%) were examined and then sent home, 1,286 (53.67%) were kept in short observation and 776 (32.38%) were hospitalised. In 27.83% of hospitalised cases, the rotavirus test proved positive. The rotavirus hospitalisation rate was 55 per 10,000 children ≤5 years of age in Genoa in 2006. In 85.6% of hospitalised patients with community-acquired rotavirus infection, the disease was severe. The number of avoidable cases confirmed that the vaccination of children ≤1 year of age could reduce the burden of rotavirus infection, especially with regard to hospitalisation (45 per 10,000 children ≤5 years of age) and admissions to short observation (85 per 10,000), generating benefits for the Italian healthcare system.

  2. Regional flood frequency analysis in Triveneto (Italy): climate and scale controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persiano, Simone; Castellarin, Attilio; Domeneghetti, Alessio; Brath, Armando

    2016-04-01

    The growing concern about the possible effects of climate change on flood frequency regime is leading Authorities to review previously proposed procedures for design-flood estimation, such as national regionalization approaches. Our study focuses on the Triveneto region, a broad geographical area in North-eastern Italy consisting of the administrative regions of Trentino-Alto Adige, Veneto and Friuli-Venezia Giulia. A reference procedure for design flood estimation in Triveneto is available from the Italian NCR research project "VA.PI.", which developed a regional model using annual maximum series (AMS) of peak discharges that were collected up to the 80s by the former Italian Hydrometeorological Service. We consider a very detailed AMS database that we recently compiled for ~80 catchments located in Triveneto. Our dataset includes the historical data mentioned above, together with more recent data obtained from Regional Services and annual maximum peak streamflows extracted from inflow series to artificial reservoirs and provided by dam managers. All ~80 study catchments are characterized in terms of several geomorphologic and climatic descriptors. The main objectives of our study are: (1) to check whether climatic and scale controls on flood frequency regime in Triveneto are similar to the controls that were recently found in Europe; (2) to verify the possible presence of trends as well as abrupt changes in the intensity and frequency of flood extremes by looking at changes in time of regional L-moments of annual maximum floods; (3) to assess the reliability and representativeness of the reference procedure for design flood estimation relative to flood data that were not included in the VA.PI. dataset (i.e. more recent data collected after the 80s and historical data provided by dam managers); (4) to develop an updated reference procedure for design flood estimation in Triveneto by using a focused-pooling approach (i.e. Region of Influence, RoI).

  3. Modeling regional initiation of rainfall-induced shallow landslides in the eastern Umbria Region of central Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Salciarini, D.; Godt, J.W.; Savage, W.Z.; Conversini, P.; Baum, R.L.; Michael, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    We model the rainfall-induced initiation of shallow landslides over a broad region using a deterministic approach, the Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-based Slope-stability (TRIGRS) model that couples an infinite-slope stability analysis with a one-dimensional analytical solution for transient pore pressure response to rainfall infiltration. This model permits the evaluation of regional shallow landslide susceptibility in a Geographic Information System framework, and we use it to analyze susceptibility to shallow landslides in an area in the eastern Umbria Region of central Italy. As shown on a landslide inventory map produced by the Italian National Research Council, the area has been affected in the past by shallow landslides, many of which have transformed into debris flows. Input data for the TRIGRS model include time-varying rainfall, topographic slope, colluvial thickness, initial water table depth, and material strength and hydraulic properties. Because of a paucity of input data, we focus on parametric analyses to calibrate and test the model and show the effect of variation in material properties and initial water table conditions on the distribution of simulated instability in the study area in response to realistic rainfall. Comparing the results with the shallow landslide inventory map, we find more than 80% agreement between predicted shallow landslide susceptibility and the inventory, despite the paucity of input data.

  4. Analysis of drought in the region of Abruzzo (Central Italy) by the Standardized Precipitation Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lena, B.; Vergni, L.; Antenucci, F.; Todisco, F.; Mannocchi, F.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a comprehensive analysis of drought phenomena in the Region of Abruzzo (Central Italy) using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) computed at different time scales (3, 6, 12, 24 months). The study is based on monthly precipitation data collected from 1951 to 2009 at 69 climatic stations uniformly distributed over the region. According to the trend analysis, most stations are characterized by increments in both drought severity and variability, particularly at the longer time scales. A principal component analysis applied to SPI time series enabled to identify two main patterns: the first more correlated to the coastal areas, the second more correlated to the inland, mountainous areas. However, the spatial patterns become less defined as the time scale increases, making more uncertain the definition of homogenous areas to be used in drought management plans. In most cases, the identified drought patterns have similar negative overall tendencies, but different trend directions in some sub-periods. In particular, the first drought pattern is clearly characterized by a trend reversal (from decreasing to increasing) during the last decade. This temporal evolution, consistent with that observed by large-scale analyses in the corresponding (or near) grid points, was not detected for the second pattern, which is probably influenced by local topographic and/or orographic factors. The results confirm the complexity of drought phenomenon in a typical Mediterranean region and the necessity of high-resolution datasets to capture its temporal and spatial variability.

  5. Qc, Qβ, Qi and Qs attenuation parameters in the Umbria-Marche (Italy) region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lorenzo, Salvatore; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Bianco, Francesca

    2013-05-01

    The attenuation of coda and S waves has been inferred for the Umbria-Marche region (central Italy) using seismic waveforms collected during the 1997 seismic crisis. The selected dataset is composed of 343 small magnitude (1.4 < ML < 4.2) earthquakes recorded at a temporary array composed of 23 seismic stations. The Sato (1977) method, based on the assumption of single isotropic scattering has been used to infer Qc, considering three different lapse times (20, 30 and 40 s). The coda normalization method (Aki, 1980) has been used to infer Qβ. Both Qc and Qβ show a clear frequency dependence with a different frequency dependent parameter. The frequency dependence of Qc is comparable with that previously found in the same area and around it. Using the method of Wennerberg (1993), intrinsic and scattering attenuation have been separated. Intrinsic attenuation is found to be close to coda attenuation and dominates over scattering dissipation. Coda Q increases with increasing lapse time but at a rate smaller than that observed in other areas of the Earth. Coda and intrinsic attenuation in the Umbria-Marche region are very high compared to other seismic active regions of the Earth. The retrieved high values of intrinsic attenuation may be explained in terms of the previously hypothesized fluid-pressurized regime of the crust in the central Apennines (Miller et al., 2004).

  6. Verification of a probabilistic flood forecasting system for an Alpine Region of northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laiolo, P.; Gabellani, S.; Rebora, N.; Rudari, R.; Ferraris, L.; Ratto, S.; Stevenin, H.

    2012-04-01

    Probabilistic hydrometeorological forecasting chains are increasingly becoming an operational tool used by civil protection centres for issuing flood alerts. One of the most important requests of decision makers is to have reliable systems, for this reason an accurate verification of their predictive performances become essential. The aim of this work is to validate a probabilistic flood forecasting system: Flood-PROOFS. The system works in real time, since 2008, in an alpine Region of northern Italy, Valle d'Aosta. It is used by the Civil Protection regional service to issue warnings and by the local water company to protect its facilities. Flood-PROOFS uses as input Quantitative Precipitation Forecast (QPF) derived from the Italian limited area model meteorological forecast (COSMO-I7) and forecasts issued by regional expert meteorologists. Furthermore the system manages and uses both real time meteorological and satellite data and real time data on the maneuvers performed by the water company on dams and river devices. The main outputs produced by the computational chain are deterministic and probabilistic discharge forecasts in different cross sections of the considered river network. The validation of the flood prediction system has been conducted on a 25 months period considering different statistical methods such as Brier score, Rank histograms and verification scores. The results highlight good performances of the system as support system for emitting warnings but there is a lack of statistics especially for huge discharge events.

  7. Using online databases for landslide susceptibility assessment: an example from the Veneto Region (northeastern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floris, M.; Iafelice, M.; Squarzoni, C.; Zorzi, L.; de Agostini, A.; Genevois, R.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, spatial data available in the Italian portals was used to evaluate the landslide susceptibility of the Euganean Hills Regional Park, located SW of Padua (northeastern Italy). Quality, applicability and possible analysis scales of the online data were investigated. After a brief overview on the WebGIS portals around the world, their contents and tools for natural risk analyses, a susceptibility analysis of the study area was carried out using a simple probabilistic approach that compared landslide distribution and influencing factors. The input factors used in the analysis depended on available data and included landslides, morphometric data (elevation, slope, curvature, profile and plan Curvature) and non-morphometric data (land use, distance to roads and distance to rivers). Great attention was paid to the pre-processing step, in particular the re-classification of continuous data that was performed following objective, geologic and geomorphologic criteria. The results of the study show that the simple probabilistic approach used for the susceptibility evaluation showed quite good accuracy and precision (repeatability). However, heuristic, statistical or deterministic methods could be applied to the online data to improve the prediction. The data available online for the Italian territory allows susceptibility assessment at medium and large scales. Morphometric factors, such as elevation and slope angle, are important because they implicitly include information that is not available, such as lithologic and structural data. The main drawback of the Italian online databases is the lack of information on the frequency of landslides; thus, a complete hazard analysis is not possible. Despite the good results achieved to date, collection and sharing of data on natural risks must be improved in Italy and around the world. The creation of spatial data infrastructure and more WebGIS portals is desirable.

  8. Content of Cadmium and Lead in Vegetables and Fruits Grown in the Campania Region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Mauro; Picazio, Giuseppe; Serpe, Paola; Lambiase, Sara; Cerino, Pellegrino

    2015-09-01

    Illegal practices of waste combustion and their burial in some land devoted to agricultural crops caused a severe economic crisis of the agriculture and food sector in the Campania region of Italy. To assess the levels of contamination by lead and cadmium, the only metals subject to European Union legislation, a system of monitoring of plant foods in the whole territory of the region has been promoted, with the goal of certifying productions and consumer protection. In fact, products that comply with European Union standards are assigned a Quick Response Code, which guarantees the traceability of the product (manufacturer and location). The code also ensures the safety of the product, as it allows the consumer to see the results of the analysis performed on the specific chain of production. The content of lead and cadmium was determined in 750 vegetable samples by using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry after microwave mineralization. These levels were below the maximum limits in all but three samples; two samples of tomatoes exceeded the maximum level of cadmium, and one sample of valerian contained an excess of lead.

  9. Content of Cadmium and Lead in Vegetables and Fruits Grown in the Campania Region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Mauro; Picazio, Giuseppe; Serpe, Paola; Lambiase, Sara; Cerino, Pellegrino

    2015-09-01

    Illegal practices of waste combustion and their burial in some land devoted to agricultural crops caused a severe economic crisis of the agriculture and food sector in the Campania region of Italy. To assess the levels of contamination by lead and cadmium, the only metals subject to European Union legislation, a system of monitoring of plant foods in the whole territory of the region has been promoted, with the goal of certifying productions and consumer protection. In fact, products that comply with European Union standards are assigned a Quick Response Code, which guarantees the traceability of the product (manufacturer and location). The code also ensures the safety of the product, as it allows the consumer to see the results of the analysis performed on the specific chain of production. The content of lead and cadmium was determined in 750 vegetable samples by using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry after microwave mineralization. These levels were below the maximum limits in all but three samples; two samples of tomatoes exceeded the maximum level of cadmium, and one sample of valerian contained an excess of lead. PMID:26319733

  10. Occurrence of hypogenic caves in a karst region: Examples from central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galdenzi, S.; Menichetti, M.

    1995-07-01

    The caves of the Umbria and Marche regions in central Italy are made up of three-dimensional maze systems that display different general morphologies due to the various geological and structural contexts. At the same time, the internal morphologies of the passages, galleries, and shafts present some similarity, with solutional galleries characterized by cupolas and blind pits, anastamotic passages, roof pendants, and phreatic passages situated at different levels. Some of these caves are still active, as is the case for Frassassi Gorge, Parrano Gorge, and Acquasanta Terme, with galleries that reach the phreatic zone, where there is a rising of highly mineralized water, rich in hydrosulfydric acid, and with erosion of limestone walls and the formation of gypsum. Elsewhere there are fossil caves, such as Monte Cucco and Pozzi della Piana, where large speleothems of gypsum are present 500 m or more above the regional water table. In all of these important karst systems it is possible to recognize basal input points through fracture and intergranular porosity networks at the base of the oxidizing zone in the core of the anticline, where mineralized water rises up from the Triassic evaporitic layers in small hydrogeological circuits. Different underground morphologies can derive from the presence of a water table related to an external stream or from the confined setting of the carbonate rocks, underlying low permeable sedimentary cover, where artesian conditions can occur.

  11. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and spring discharges in the Campania region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vita, P.; Allocca, V.; Manna, F.; Fabbrocino, S.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change is one of the issues most debated by the scientific community with a special focus to the combined effects of anthropogenic modifications of the atmosphere and the natural climatic cycles. Various scenarios have been formulated in order to forecast the global atmospheric circulation and consequently the variability of the global distribution of air temperature and rainfall. The effects of climate change have been analysed with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods, remaining mainly limited to the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle. Consequently the impact of the climate change on the recharge of regional aquifers and on the groundwater circulation is still a challenging topic especially in those areas whose aqueduct systems depend basically on springs or wells, such as the Campania region (Southern Italy). In order to analyse the long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater circulation, we analysed decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (Southern Italy), coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, in the period from 1921 to 2010, choosing 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations among those with the most continuous functioning as well as arranged in a homogeneous spatial distribution. Moreover, for the same period, we gathered the time series of the winter NAO index (December to March mean) and of the discharges of the Sanità spring, belonging to an extended carbonate aquifer (Cervialto Mount) located in the central-eastern area of the Campania region, as well as of two other shorter time series of spring discharges. The hydrogeological features of this aquifer, its relevance due to the feeding of an important regional aqueduct system, as well as the unique availability of a long-lasting time series of spring discharges, allowed us to

  12. Scale-Invariance in the Spatial Development of Landslides in the Umbria Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liucci, Luisa; Melelli, Laura; Suteanu, Cristian

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the spatial distribution of mass movements is a major issue in the management and forecasting of landslide risk. In this context, the present study examines the most widespread types of landslide in the Umbria region (central Italy), that is, slides and flows, in order to establish if it is possible to identify a well-defined structure in their spatial pattern. By using the landslide inventory map available for the area and by resorting to the principles of fractal theory, the scaling properties of the landslide sample were investigated. The application of the box-counting algorithm to the maps of landslide triggering points and landslide areas allowed for the identification of a clear scale-invariant structure. Two distinct types of fractal behaviour were recognized, separated by a scale value of 1 km and characterized by capacity dimensions of 1.35 and 1.76, in the ranges of 25 m-1 km and 1-16 km, respectively. The comparison between the scaling exponents obtained from a map of points and one of areas, and the elaboration of the cumulative frequency distributions of landslide areas supported the interpretation of this result: the higher capacity dimension describes the spatial distribution of landslides in the Umbria region, while the lower contains additional information about their geometries, suggesting that the latter also possess scaling properties. Based on the finding of two different types of behaviour of landslides in space, the hypothesis is discussed that the contribution of each causal factor (i.e., predisposing and triggering factors) to the occurrence of landslide events and to their spatial development could be different in the two scale ranges identified, depending on its spatial variability at local and regional scale. According to this hypothesis, factors with high local variability (i.e., topographic attributes) would mainly affect the assortment of landslide geometries, while those with high regional variability (e.g., rainfalls

  13. Regional earthquake loss estimation in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huttenlau, Matthias; Winter, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Beside storm events geophysical events cause a majority of natural hazard losses on a global scale. However, in alpine regions with a moderate earthquake risk potential like in the study area and thereupon connected consequences on the collective memory this source of risk is often neglected in contrast to gravitational and hydrological hazards processes. In this context, the comparative analysis of potential disasters and emergencies on a national level in Switzerland (Katarisk study) has shown that earthquakes are the most serious source of risk in general. In order to estimate the potential losses of earthquake events for different return periods and loss dimensions of extreme events the following study was conducted in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol (Italy). The applied methodology follows the generally accepted risk concept based on the risk components hazard, elements at risk and vulnerability, whereby risk is not defined holistically (direct, indirect, tangible and intangible) but with the risk category losses on buildings and inventory as a general risk proxy. The hazard analysis is based on a regional macroseismic scenario approach. Thereby, the settlement centre of each community (116 communities) is defined as potential epicentre. For each epicentre four different epicentral scenarios (return periods of 98, 475, 975 and 2475 years) are calculated based on the simple but approved and generally accepted attenuation law according to Sponheuer (1960). The relevant input parameters to calculate the epicentral scenarios are (i) the macroseismic intensity and (ii) the focal depth. The considered macroseismic intensities are based on a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) of the Italian earthquake catalogue on a community level (Dipartimento della Protezione Civile). The relevant focal depth are considered as a mean within a defined buffer of the focal depths of the harmonized earthquake catalogues of Italy and Switzerland as well as

  14. Extending the temporal context of ethnobotanical databases: the case study of the Campania region (southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    De Natale, Antonino; Pezzatti, Gianni Boris; Pollio, Antonino

    2009-01-01

    Background Ethnobotanical studies generally describe the traditional knowledge of a territory according to a "hic et nunc" principle. The need of approaching this field also embedding historical data has been frequently acknowledged. With their long history of civilization some regions of the Mediterranean basin seem to be particularly suited for an historical approach to be adopted. Campania, a region of southern Italy, has been selected for a database implementation containing present and past information on plant uses. Methods A relational database has been built on the basis of information gathered from different historical sources, including diaries, travel accounts, and treatises on medicinal plants, written by explorers, botanists, physicians, who travelled in Campania during the last three centuries. Moreover, ethnobotanical uses described in historical herbal collections and in Ancient and Medieval texts from the Mediterranean Region have been included in the database. Results 1672 different uses, ranging from medicinal, to alimentary, ceremonial, veterinary, have been recorded for 474 species listed in the data base. Information is not uniformly spread over the Campanian territory; Sannio being the most studied geographical area and Cilento the least one. About 50 plants have been continuously used in the last three centuries in the cure of the same affections. A comparison with the uses reported for the same species in Ancient treatises shows that the origin of present ethnomedicine from old learned medical doctrines needs a case-by-case confirmation. Conclusion The database is flexible enough to represent a useful tool for researchers who need to store and compare present and previous ethnobotanical uses from Mediterranean Countries. PMID:19228384

  15. MOMENT TENSOR SOLUTIONS OF RECENT EARTHQUAKES IN THE CALABRIAN REGION (SOUTH ITALY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orecchio, B.; D'Amico, S.; Gervasi, A.; Guerra, I.; Presti, D.; Zhu, L.; Herrmann, R. B.; Neri, G.

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study is to provide moment tensor solutions for recent events occurred in the Calabrian region (South Italy), an area struck by several destructive earthquakes in the last centuries. The seismicity of the area under investigation is actually characterized by low to moderate magnitude earthquakes (up to 4.5) not properly represented in the Italian national catalogues of focal mechanisms like RCMT (Regional Centroid Moment Tensor, Pondrelli et al., PEPI, 2006) and TDMT (Time Domain Moment Tensors, Dreger and Helmerger, BSSA, 1993). Also, the solutions estimated from P-onset polarities are often poorly constrained due to network geometry in the study area. We computed the moment tensor solutions using the “Cut And Paste” method originally proposed by Zhao and Helmerger (BSSA, 1994) and later modified by Zhu and Helmerger (BSSA, 1996). Each waveform is broken into the Pnl and surface wave segments and the source depth and focal mechanisms are determined using a grid search technique. The technique allows time shifts between synthetics and observed data in order to reduce dependence of the solution on the assumed velocity model and earthquake locations. This method has shown to provide good-quality solutions for earthquakes of magnitude as small as 2.5. The data set of the present study consists of waveforms from more than 100 earthquakes that were recorded by the permanent seismic network run by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) and about 40 stations of the NSF CAT/SCAN project. The results concur to check and better detail the regional geodynamic model assuming subduction of the Ionian lithosphere beneath the Tyrrhenian one and related response of the shallow structures in terms of normal and strike-slip faulting seismicity.

  16. Microbiological quality of Burrata cheese produced in Puglia region: southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Dambrosio, Angela; Quaglia, Nicoletta Cristiana; Saracino, Mara; Malcangi, Maria; Montagna, Cosimo; Quinto, Marcello; Lorusso, Vanessa; Normanno, Giovanni

    2013-11-01

    Burrata cheese is a popular typical Italian food product, produced in Puglia (an administrative region of southern Italy), and this study investigated the microbiological quality of 404 samples of this cheese. The samples were analyzed in order to quantify Escherichia coli and to detect the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes. No sample exceeded the values of E. coli set by EC Regulation 1441/07 for some dairy products, while 15 (3.7%) samples tested coagulase-positive staphylococci positive, with values greater than 10(3) CFU/g. One strain of S. aureus was identified and characterized from each of these positive samples, and of these strains, 7 (46.6%) produced staphylococcal enterotoxin A, 5 (33.3%) produced staphylococcal enterotoxin C, 2 (13.3%) produced staphylococcal enterotoxin D, and 1 (6.6%) produced both staphylococcal enterotoxins A and D. All strains were mecA negative. The 15 S. aureus isolates were tested for their antimicrobial resistance patterns, and all analyzed strains showed antimicrobial resistance properties for at least one of the tested antibiotics. Testing for the other pathogens mentioned above gave negative results. The results of our study mean that the microbiological quality of Burrata cheese can be assumed to be good, although care must be taken with raw materials and good hygiene during processing in order to guarantee greater food safety. PMID:24215706

  17. Definition of radon prone areas in Friuli Venezia Giulia region, Italy, using geostatistical tools.

    PubMed

    Cafaro, C; Bossew, P; Giovani, C; Garavaglia, M

    2014-12-01

    Studying the geographical distribution of indoor radon concentration, using geostatistical interpolation methods, has become common for predicting and estimating the risk to the population. Here we analyse the case of Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG), the north easternmost region of Italy. Mean value and standard deviation are, respectively, 153 Bq/m(3) and 183 Bq/m(3). The geometric mean value is 100 Bq/m(3). Spatial datasets of indoor radon concentrations are usually affected by clustering and apparent non-stationarity issues, which can eventually yield arguable results. The clustering of the present dataset seems to be non preferential. Therefore the areal estimations are not expected to be affected. Conversely, nothing can be said on the non stationarity issues and its effects. After discussing the correlation of geology with indoor radon concentration It appears they are created by the same geologic features influencing the mean and median values, and can't be eliminated via a map-based approach. To tackle these problems, in this work we deal with multiple definitions of RPA, but only in quaternary areas of FVG, using extensive simulation techniques. PMID:25261867

  18. Definition of radon prone areas in Friuli Venezia Giulia region, Italy, using geostatistical tools.

    PubMed

    Cafaro, C; Bossew, P; Giovani, C; Garavaglia, M

    2014-12-01

    Studying the geographical distribution of indoor radon concentration, using geostatistical interpolation methods, has become common for predicting and estimating the risk to the population. Here we analyse the case of Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG), the north easternmost region of Italy. Mean value and standard deviation are, respectively, 153 Bq/m(3) and 183 Bq/m(3). The geometric mean value is 100 Bq/m(3). Spatial datasets of indoor radon concentrations are usually affected by clustering and apparent non-stationarity issues, which can eventually yield arguable results. The clustering of the present dataset seems to be non preferential. Therefore the areal estimations are not expected to be affected. Conversely, nothing can be said on the non stationarity issues and its effects. After discussing the correlation of geology with indoor radon concentration It appears they are created by the same geologic features influencing the mean and median values, and can't be eliminated via a map-based approach. To tackle these problems, in this work we deal with multiple definitions of RPA, but only in quaternary areas of FVG, using extensive simulation techniques.

  19. Biomonitoring with honeybees of heavy metals and pesticides in nature reserves of the Marche Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ruschioni, Sara; Riolo, Paola; Minuz, Roxana Luisa; Stefano, Mariassunta; Cannella, Maddalena; Porrini, Claudio; Isidoro, Nunzio

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to carry out biomonitoring with honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) to assess the presence of pesticides and heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead) in all of the ten nature reserves of the Marche Region (central–eastern Italy). The study was carried out during the spring and summer seasons when the honeybees were active, over 3 years (2008–2010). Twenty-two colonies of honeybees bred in hives were used. Samples of live and dead honeybees and of honey were collected from 11 sampling stations from May to October in each year. No pesticide pollution was found. Significant differences in heavy metal concentrations were found among years, months and sites, and in particular situations. The analysis reveals that high heavy-metal concentrations occurred exclusively in live honeybees. For the seasonal averages, the most detected heavy metal was chromium, which exceeded the threshold more often than for the other elements, followed by cadmium and lead; nickel never exceeded the threshold. The data are discussed with an evaluation of the natural and anthropic sources taken from the literature and from local situations that were likely to involve heavy metal pollution.

  20. First evidences of the occurrence of polycyclic synthetic musk fragrances in surface water systems in Italy: spatial and temporal trends in the Molgora River (Lombardia Region, Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Villa, Sara; Assi, Laura; Ippolito, Alessio; Bonfanti, Patrizia; Finizio, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    The polycyclic synthetic musks (PCMs) such as galaxolide (HHCB), tonalide (AHTN) and celestolide (ABDI) are important ingredients in fragrances for consumer products because of their typical musky scent. In EU, PCMs are classified as HPVC (High Production Volume Chemicals). Furthermore, it has been recognized that these substances are only partially degraded in domestic sewers. For both reasons these chemicals are considered ubiquitous contaminants of aquatic systems. Monitoring data are available for the Northern region of the EU, but it is not known whether they are also representative for the Southern EU countries. The lack of data upon the environmental exposure in Southern EU can be significant, since use patterns and volumes differ from country to country. This is particularly true for Italy that has the largest detergent consumption per capita in EU. Due to this, the objective of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of selected PCMs in the Molgora River (Lombardia region, Italy). To our knowledge it represents the first overview of PCM occurrence in the Italian water bodies. Water samples were collected seasonally in seven sampling stations located before and after the 3 sewage treatment plants present along the river, which serve about 300,000 inhabitants. The spatial and temporal profiles of contamination are described. A comparison of the results with existing monitoring data of other European regions indicated a significant higher level of PCM pollution of the Molgora River and the need to extend the monitoring campaigns to other Italian water bodies, in order to achieve a better knowledge of the levels of PCM contamination in this country.

  1. Preliminary notes about Heritage Stone Resources from Apulia region South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeone, Vincenzo; Doglioni, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Apulia region in south Italy is characterized by a calcareous basement of cretaceous limestone outcropping in the large Murgia highland in central Apulia and by the presence of Miocenic and Pleistocenic calcareous sandstone that historically the have been used for many buildings and architectural purpose and can be considered as part of heritage stone resources that still today are used for several building purpose. Here is presented a preliminary overview of the main kind of stone that can be properly included in the global stone resources. The main limestone stones are the Bari cretaceous limestone that have been used to build up many Apulia Romanic cathedrals as Trani Cathedral, and also many mediaeval castle as the famous Castel del Monte built by Fredric II. The most famous variety is Trani stone dug in large open quarry in the area at north of Bari. A second important stone resource is the Lecce sandstone. It is a quite homogeneous and compact Miocenic sandstone, made up by fragments of limestone and fossil carbonate with calcites cement and the presence of other substances included dispersion of clay minerals. It has a light-colored or pale yellow with tiny pink veins. It is dug in large quarries throughout the Salento peninsula in southern Apulia. It is a rock relatively soft and easily workable also due to the presence of small quantities of clay. Improves its characteristics of resistance as a result of drying. Even if it was largely used for architecture and decorative purpose it is easily degradable for effect of weathering effects. It was the base of famous monuments and decoration of Lecce Baroque in the XVIII century, including the palace of Celestine and the adjacent Santa Croce Church, the Church of Santa Chiara and the Cathedral. A third relevant heritage stone is the Gravina calcareous sandstone (Upper Pleistocene) largely outcropping along the border of Murge calcareous horst. It has been used for several historical ancient building (XVII

  2. Priority persistent contaminants in people dwelling in critical areas of Campania Region, Italy (SEBIOREC biomonitoring study).

    PubMed

    De Felip, Elena; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Bove, Crescenzo; Cori, Liliana; D'Argenzio, Angelo; D'Orsi, Giancarlo; Fusco, Mario; Miniero, Roberto; Ortolani, Rosanna; Palombino, Raffaele; Parlato, Antonino; Pelliccia, Maria Grazia; Peluso, Filomena; Piscopo, Giovanni; Pizzuti, Renato; Porpora, Maria Grazia; Protano, Domenico; Senofonte, Oreste; Spena, Silvana Russo; Simonetti, Andrea; di Domenico, Alessandro

    2014-07-15

    To investigate if protracted living in degraded environments of the Caserta and Naples provinces (Campania Region, Italy) had an impact on exposure of local people, highly toxic persistent contaminants were measured in blood, blood serum, and human milk of a large number of healthy donors. Sampling was carried out from 2008 to 2009. Blood was collected from over 850 20-64-year old donors; by pooling, 84 blood and 84 serum samples were obtained. Milk was donated by 52 mothers: specimens were pooled into six samples. Polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs, dioxin-like (DL) and non-dioxin-like (Σ6PCBs)), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) were measured in serum (organic biomarkers) and blood (metals); these chemicals and polybromobiphenyl ethers (Σ9PBDEs) were analyzed in milk. PCDD+PCDF, DL-PCB, TEQTOT, and Σ6PCB concentration ranges (medians) in serum were 6.26-23.1 (12.4), 3.42-31.7 (11.5), 10.0-52.8 (23.9) pgTEQ97/g fat, and 55.5-647 (219) ng/g fat, respectively, while in milk concentration ranges were 5.99-8.77, 4.02-6.15, 10.0-14.2 pgTEQ97/g fat, and 48.7-74.2 ng/g fat. Likewise, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb findings in blood spanned 2.34-13.4 (5.83), 0.180-0.930 (0.475), 1.09-7.60 (2.60), 10.2-55.9 (28.8) μg/L, respectively; only Pb could be measured in milk (2.78-5.99 μg/L). Σ9PBDE levels in milk samples were 0.965-6.05 ng/g fat. Biomarkers' concentrations were found to be compatible with their current values in European countries and in Italy, and consistent with an exposure primarily determined by consumption of commercial food from the large distribution system. Based on relatively higher biomarker values within the hematic biomonitoring database, the following municipalities were flagged as possibly deserving attention for health-oriented interventions: Brusciano and Caivano (As), Giugliano (Hg), Pianura (PCDDs+PCDFs), and Qualiano-Villaricca (As, Hg). The analysis of samples

  3. Evolution of the techniques for subsidence monitoring at regional scale: the case of Emilia-Romagna region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitelli, G.; Bonsignore, F.; Pellegrino, I.; Vittuari, L.

    2015-11-01

    The recent decades have seen a significant evolution of the methodologies and techniques for the monitoring of subsidence on a regional scale: from the traditional levelling technique to GNSS and finally to SAR interferometry. The case study of Emilia-Romagna, Italy, is a prime example of this evolution. As known, the Emilia-Romagna plain is subject to a phenomenon of subsidence with a natural and an anthropogenic component, both of varying amounts depending on the area. The first contributes a few mm/year; the second, particularly evident in the last 60 years, is mainly correlated to excessive withdrawal of fluids from underground and reaches higher values (in the past, subsidence rates of several cm per year were observed in the Po delta and near Bologna). The geodetic monitoring of subsidence started in the 1950s by different entities, establishing and measuring levelling networks of varying size and with various characteristics, mainly located where the phenomenon was most clearly manifest. These local initiatives were not able to provide a consistent understanding of the phenomenon throughout the entire Emilia-Romagna plain. The first regional-scale monitoring of the Emilia-Romagna plain was initiated in 1999, with a large levelling network (about 3000 km) and a coupled network of 60 GNSS points. In subsequent years, the monitoring approach has mainly focused on the most modern remote sensing techniques integrated with each other, with the adoption of the method DInSAR calibrated to a GNSS Continuous Operating Reference Stations (CORS) database. The application of DInSAR methods resulted in subsidence maps with a greater level of detail. The paper analyzes the methodology choices made during 1999-2012, through three successive campaigns that adopted and integrated the different techniques.

  4. Exploiting teleconnection indices for probabilistic forecasting of drought class transitions in Sicily region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorso, Brunella; Cancelliere, Antonino

    2015-04-01

    In the present study two probabilistic models for short-medium term drought forecasting able to include information provided by teleconnection indices are proposed and applied to Sicily region (Italy). Drought conditions are expressed in terms of the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) at different aggregation time scales. More specifically, a multivariate approach based on normal distribution is developed in order to estimate: 1) on the one hand transition probabilities to future SPEI drought classes and 2) on the other hand, SPEI forecasts at a generic time horizon M, as functions of past values of SPEI and the selected teleconnection index. To this end, SPEI series at 3, 4 and 6 aggregation time scales for Sicily region are extracted from the Global SPEI database, SPEIbase , available at Web repository of the Spanish National Research Council (http://sac.csic.es/spei/database.html), and averaged over the study area. In particular, SPEIbase v2.3 with spatial resolution of 0.5° lat/lon and temporal coverage between January 1901 and December 2013 is used. A preliminary correlation analysis is carried out to investigate the link between the drought index and different teleconnection patterns, namely: the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Scandinavian (SCA) and the East Atlantic-West Russia (EA-WR) patterns. Results of such analysis indicate a strongest influence of NAO on drought conditions in Sicily with respect to other teleconnection indices. Then, the proposed forecasting methodology is applied and the skill in forecasting of the proposed models is quantitatively assessed through the application of a simple score approach and of performance indices. Results indicate that inclusion of NAO index generally enhance model performance thus confirming the suitability of the models for short- medium term forecast of drought conditions.

  5. Homogeneous regions in Italy: an analysis of the mean and extreme climate characteristics and their impact on agriculture.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, M.; Coccimiglio, P.

    2009-09-01

    Adverse environmental conditions, lasting for several days in a row, can cause stress over ecosystems, humans and animals with a negative impact on crop yield, human health, and on animal production and reproduction, to name few aspects, and therefore leading to severe economic losses. Namely, in the last decades, the enhanced frequency and intensity of summer heat waves in Italy have increased the importance of assessing the damages they cause. Another example is the occurrence of late spring frost causing damages not only to subsistence crops, but moreover for the so-called cash-crops. An example is the kiwifruit production in Italy specifically grown to fulfil the global demand, more than the national market, being the Italian production out of phase with the other major producers, such as New Zealand and South America. Using a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) applied to daily maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation and then a hierarchical cluster analysis, based on Ward's method, on a set of 100 stations covering the period 1971-2006, we divided the 100 sites into 8 homogeneous classes. For each cluster the climate characteristics have been analyzed, in order to have a description of the mean climate of the cluster. In addition, we analyzed the occurrence of the extreme events in each cluster, their duration and intensity, and their trend over the last decades. Focusing on the kiwifruit production regions in Italy a first attempt is presented to compare actual/suitable production regions in Italy and similar regions in New Zealand from the point of view of their respective climate trends and variability. Long term trends in agroclimatic indices and results of comparison analysis will be discussed for regions in the two Countries. The study has been partly supported by the Short term mobility programme of the Italian National Research Council, under the sponsorship of the CNR-Agrofood Department.

  6. A radiometric and petrographic approach to risk assessment at Alte Madonie Mounts region (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lanzo, G; Rizzo, S; Tomarchio, E

    2014-03-01

    The main goal of this work was to assess the radiological hazard at Alte Madonie Mounts region (north-central Sicily, Italy) in response to rumours of an increase in the incidence of cancer in this area. A correlation between the natural radionuclide contents and the petrographic features of the soil and rock samples was also evaluated. A total of 41 samples of selected soils and rocks were collected, powdered, dried and sealed in 'Marinelli' beakers for 20 d prior to measurement to ensure that a radioactive equilibrium between (226)Ra and (214)Bi had been reached. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to quantify the radioactivity concentrations. To determine (238)U and (232)Th activities, the 609.3-keV line from (214)Bi in secular equilibrium with (226)Ra and the 911-keV line from (228)Ac, with which (232)Th can be assumed to be in equilibrium, were used, respectively. The gamma transition of 1461 keV was used to determine (40)K activity. The average values of the concentrations of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K were 30, 17 and 227 Bq kg(-1), respectively, whereas the greatest values were 134, 59 and 748 Bq kg(-1), respectively. A linear relationship was found between the activity values of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K. An exception was found for a group of samples in which the (214)Bi activities were much higher than expected. The chemical compositions and mineralogical features of the samples permitted the justification of these anomalies. The results of the primordial radionuclide contents are reassuring from a radiation protection point of view because the activities of the uranium and thorium series products and of the (40)K do not present a significant radiological hazard.

  7. Digital photogrammetric analysis and electrical resistivity tomography for investigating the Picerno landslide (Basilicata region, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bari, Claudia; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Perrone, Angela; Puglisi, Claudio; Sdao, Francesco

    2011-10-01

    Digital photogrammetric analysis and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) techniques were applied to evaluate the volume of material involved in a complex roto-translational slide occurred in the territory of Picerno (Basilicata region, southern Italy). Analytical and digital photogrammetric techniques facilitated a multi-temporal analysis of aerial photos for the years 1997, 2004 and 2006. In order to identify different geomorphologic features (scarps, terraces and trenches) of the landslide and their development, the analytical and digital photo interpretation was performed at the maximum scale of 1:5000. Geological and geomorphological surveys were carried out to verify photo-interpretation results. Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) for 1997, 2004 and 2006 were produced by applying the Grid Adaptive method. The differential DEMs (2006-1997; 2006-2004; 2004-1997) for the most dangerous part of the landslide allowed us to recognize the areas affected either by deposition or erosion and also estimate any altitudinal changes in each geomorphologic unit. To detect the sliding surface and estimate the thickness of the sliding material, several transversal and longitudinal ERT profiles were obtained. The electrical images of subsurface supported by stratigraphical data from boreholes were integrated with the information from the DEMs. The altitudinal changes and the sizes of the source and accumulation areas allowed us to estimate the volume of material involved in the mass movement. The fusion of data from different sensors allows us to gather indications on the surface and subsurface characteristics of the landslide providing useful information for landslide mitigation activities. Such an approach can help both to improve our knowledge and overcome the drawbacks of each methodology.

  8. Modelling nitrogen leaching from sewage sludge application to arable land in the Lombardy region (northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Mattia; Perego, Alessia; Acutis, Marco

    2013-09-01

    Sewage sludge can be used as fertiliser, offering the possibility of safely recycling this waste product as a resource in agricultural applications. As the environmental concerns related to waste recycling in agricultural applications are well-known, restrictions on the use of sewage sludge have been implemented by the EU and local authorities. This work aimed to evaluate the nitrogen leaching associated with the application of sludge and the effectiveness of the temporal restrictions on its application implemented to safeguard the environment in the Lombardy region of northern Italy (120 days in Nitrate Vulnerable Zones and 90 days elsewhere) using the CropSyst model which was first validated. The effects of fertilisation using four different sludge types on N leaching were simulated at five sites under cultivation with maize and rice crops; six different timing schemes for sludge application were tested, three of which involved dates that were in agreement (AT) with the regulation, while the other three were not in agreement (NAT). We detected a significant effect of the sludge type and application timing, whereas the effect of their interaction was never significant. The mean annual leaching was 22 to 154 kg N ha(-1). The higher the ammonium N content in the sludge was, the greater the potential for N leaching was found to be. For the maize crop, the distribution of sludge in the late fall period resulted in significantly greater N leaching (61 kg N ha(-1)) and led to lower yields (9 t DM ha(-1)) compared to late winter fertilisation (49 kg N ha(-1); 10 t DM ha(-1)), whereas no differences in N leaching or yield were detected between AT and NAT, which was also observed for the rice crop. Therefore, the applied temporal constraints did not always appear to be advantageous for protecting the environment from leaching. PMID:23751334

  9. A radiometric and petrographic approach to risk assessment at Alte Madonie Mounts region (Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Lanzo, G; Rizzo, S; Tomarchio, E

    2014-03-01

    The main goal of this work was to assess the radiological hazard at Alte Madonie Mounts region (north-central Sicily, Italy) in response to rumours of an increase in the incidence of cancer in this area. A correlation between the natural radionuclide contents and the petrographic features of the soil and rock samples was also evaluated. A total of 41 samples of selected soils and rocks were collected, powdered, dried and sealed in 'Marinelli' beakers for 20 d prior to measurement to ensure that a radioactive equilibrium between (226)Ra and (214)Bi had been reached. A gamma-ray spectrometer was used to quantify the radioactivity concentrations. To determine (238)U and (232)Th activities, the 609.3-keV line from (214)Bi in secular equilibrium with (226)Ra and the 911-keV line from (228)Ac, with which (232)Th can be assumed to be in equilibrium, were used, respectively. The gamma transition of 1461 keV was used to determine (40)K activity. The average values of the concentrations of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K were 30, 17 and 227 Bq kg(-1), respectively, whereas the greatest values were 134, 59 and 748 Bq kg(-1), respectively. A linear relationship was found between the activity values of (214)Bi, (228)Ac and (40)K. An exception was found for a group of samples in which the (214)Bi activities were much higher than expected. The chemical compositions and mineralogical features of the samples permitted the justification of these anomalies. The results of the primordial radionuclide contents are reassuring from a radiation protection point of view because the activities of the uranium and thorium series products and of the (40)K do not present a significant radiological hazard. PMID:24106332

  10. Hospitalization for diseases attributable to human papillomavirus in the Veneto Region (North-East Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually-transmitted pathogens. A number of studies in the literature have estimated the burden of HPV-related diseases by collecting data at primary care level, while a comprehensive assessment of the global burden of HPV-related diseases on hospital resources is still lacking. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study based on hospital discharge data collected from 2000 to 2010 in the Veneto Region (north-east Italy). All hospitalizations for diseases potentially associated with HPV were identified by searching the hospital discharge records, then the proportion of these hospitalizations relating to diseases attributable to the HPV infection was calculated. Results Overall, the annual hospitalization rate for HPV-related diseases was 21.3 per 100,000 individuals in the general population, 15.8 per 100,000 males, and 27.6 per 100,000 females. Hospitalizations were due mainly to genital warts, and peak among 15- to 44-year-olds in both genders. Taking both sexes together, the hospitalizations attributable to HPV dropped from 24.5/100,000 in 2000 to 17.5/100,000 in 2011, showing a significant decline during this period, with an average annual percent change (AAPC) of −1.9% (CI 95%: -2.8, -0.9;). On the other hand, the hospitalization rate for genital warts tended to increase significantly (AAPC 3.0% [CI 95%: 1.4;4.7]), whilst there was a significantly declining trend in the hospitalization rate for anal cancer (AAPC - 5.0% [CI 95%: -7.7;-2.2]), genital cancer (AAPC −6.2% [CI 95%: -7.8;-4.6]) and oropharyngeal cancer (AAPC −4.3% [CI 95%: -4.8;-3,8]). Conclusion Data derived from the hospital records indicate that HPV-related diseases are an important public health issue. PMID:24094080

  11. Geodiversity of the Umbria region (central Italy): a GIS-based quantitative index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melelli, Laura; Pica, Alessia; Del Monte, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    The measure of natural range related to geological bedrock, landforms and geomorphological processes is the necessary starting point to geodiversity evaluation. Geodiversity plays a strategic role in landscape management. Whereas geotourism and geosites are identified as a driving power for the scientific and economic promotion of an area, the geodiversity knowledge is required for a complete and accurate research. For example, high values of this abiotic parameter identify and support the foundation of geoparks. According to this perspective, the geodiversity is the unifying factor for these areas of interest. While a subjective and qualitative approach may be adequate for geosites definition, identification and cultural promotion, the geodiversity concept needs a different evaluation method. A quantitative procedure allows achieving an objective and repeatable process exportable in different geographic units. Geographical Information Systems and spatial analysis techniques are the base to quantitative evaluation involving topographic, geological and geomorphological data. Therefore, the assessment of a numerical index derived from the overlay of spatial parameters can be conveniently computed in GIS environment. In this study, a geodiversity index is proposed where geological, geomorphological and landcover factors deriving mainly from maps and field survey; topographic ones are employed from DEM and remote sensed data. Each abiotic parameter is modelled in a grid format; focal functions do provide neighbourhood analysis and computing variety statistics. A particular extent is dedicated to topographic information and terrain roughness, that are strictly related to efficiency of geomorphological processes and generally corresponding to the abiotic components variability. The study area is located in central Italy and is characterized by a well known natural heritage. Thirty-seven geosites are detected in the Umbria region, where seven regional and one natural

  12. Potentiality of SENTINEL-1 for landslide detection: first results in the Molise Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barra, Anna; Monserrat, Oriol; Mazzanti, Paolo; Esposito, Carlo; Crosetto, Michele; Scarascia Mugnozza, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    A detailed inventory map, including information on landslide activity, is one of the most important input to landslide susceptibility and hazard analyses. The contribution of satellite SAR Interferometry in landslide risk mitigation is well-known within the scientific community. In fact, many encouraging results have been obtained, principally, in areas characterized by high coherence of the images (e.g. due to rock lithology or urban environment setting). In terms of coherence, the expected increased capabilities of Sentinel-1 for landslide mapping and monitoring are connected to both wavelength (55.5 mm) and short temporal baseline (12 days). The latter one is expected to be a key feature for increasing coherence and for defining monitoring and updating plans. With the aim of assessing these potentialities, we processed a set of 14 Sentinel-1 SLC images, acquired during a temporal span of 7 months, over the Molise region (Southern Italy), a critical area geologically susceptible to landslides. Even though Molise is mostly covered by crops and forested areas (63% and 35% respectively), that means a non-optimal coherence condition for SAR interferometry, promising results have been obtained. This has been achieved by integrating differential interferometric SAR techniques (12-days interferograms and time series) with GIS multilayer analysis (optical, geological, geomorphological, etc.). Specifically, analyzing a single burst of a Sentinel-1 frame (approximately 1875 km2), 62 landslides have been detected, thus allowing to improve the pre-existing inventory maps both in terms of landslide boundaries and state of activity. The results of our ongoing research show that Sentinel-1 can give a significant improvement in terms of exploitation of SAR data for landslide mapping and monitoring. As a matter of fact, by analyzing longer periods, it is expected to achieve a better understanding of landslide behavior and its relationship with triggering factors. This will be key

  13. The characteristics and activities of child and adolescent mental health services in Italy: a regional survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To date, no studies have assessed in detail the characteristics, organisation, and functioning of Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). This information gap represents a major limitation for researchers and clinicians because most mental disorders have their onset in childhood or adolescence, and effective interventions can therefore represent a major factor in avoiding chronicity. Interventions and mental health care are delivered by and through services, and not by individual, private clinicians, and drawbacks or limitations of services generally translate in inappropriateness and ineffectiveness of treatments and interventions: therefore information about services is essential to improve the quality of care and ultimately the course and outcome of mental disorders in childhood and adolescence. The present paper reports the results of the first study aimed at providing detailed, updated and comprehensive data on CAMHS of a densely populated Italian region (over 4 million inhabitants) with a target population of 633,725 subjects aged 0-17 years. Methods Unit Chiefs of all the CAMHS filled in a structured 'Facility Form', with activity data referring to 2008 (data for inpatient facilities referred to 2009), which were then analysed in detail. Results Eleven CAMHS were operative, including 110 outpatient units, with a ratio of approximately 20 child psychiatrists and 23 psychologists per 100,000 inhabitants aged 0-17 years. All outpatient units were well equipped and organized and all granted free service access. In 2008, approximately 6% of the target population was in contact with outpatient CAMHS, showing substantial homogeneity across the eleven areas thereby. Most patients in contact in 2008 received a language disorder- or learning disability diagnosis (41%). First-ever contacts accounted for 30% of annual visits across all units. Hospital bed availability was 5 per 100,000 inhabitants aged 0-17 years. Conclusion The percentage of

  14. [Infantile visceral leishmaniasis in the Campania region, Italy: experience from a Paediatric Referral Centre].

    PubMed

    di Martino, L; Gramiccia, M; Occorsio, P; Di Muccio, T; Scalone, A; Gradoni, L

    2004-06-01

    In the first half of the 20th century, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was a common infantile syndrome in coastal territories of the Campania region of Italy. After World War II, the incidence dropped to a few cases/year for three decades; in late 1980s the disease reemerged among both children and adults. To face the VL recrudescence, a Paediatric Reference Centre was established at the Santobono-Pausilipon hospital in Naples, for the clinical diagnosis, care and drug treatment of all infantile VL cases occurred in the Campania region. Rapid laboratory diagnosis was secured by a Diagnostic Reference Centre established at the Istituto Superiore di Sanità. Here, we report on the epidemiological and parasitological features of all cases referred to the Centre in the past 15 years. From 1990 to March 2004, a total of 255 cases were diagnosed and treated at the Centre. The Figure shows the yearly trend of patients (min. 3 cases in 1990 and 1991, max. 30 cases in 2000). There were 135 males (52.9%); the age ranged 4 months-14 years, but 189 patients (74.1%) were < or = 3 years old. The majority of the patients (189, 74.1%) were from the Naples province, with a cluster of 102 cases (40% of total patients) from the towns and districts surrounding Vesuvius. Twenty-seven cases (10.6%) were from the town of Maddaloni, Caserta province, whereas 15 cases (5.9%) were from coastal villages of the Salerno province. Only 1 and 2 cases were from Benevento and Avellino provinces, respectively. All patients but seven, who have been treated with antimonial drugs in the 1990-1993 period, were successfully treated with a liposomal amphotericin B regimen. From bone-marrow aspirate samples, 138 Leishmania cultures were obtained in EMTM and Sloppy Evans' media, of which 134 have been typed by the electrophoretic analysis of 13 isoenzymes. Two zymodemes (Z) of L. infantum were routinely identified over the study period, ZMON-1 (the commonest zymodeme in the Mediterranean area) and ZMON-72

  15. Definition of a Sinkhole hazard methodology in the Pontina Plain (Latium Region, Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teoli, Pamela; Mazza, Roberto; Capelli, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    The work presented here is the continuation of " Sinkhole Project of Latium Region" (2002), carried out by Researchers of the Laboratory of Applied Geology and Hydrogeology of the Department of Geological Sciences of the University "Roma Tre", Rome (Italy), through which were found, in different plain of the whole Region, Sinkhole prone areas, using a methodology based on the superimposition of thematic layers corresponding to geological and anthropogenic breaking factors. In the last years several specific investigations have been conducted by Researchers of the Laboratory in the Pontina Plain, that is located in the south west of the Latium Region, concerning the geological-stratigraphic setting, the sketch of flow in the aquifers located in the Pontine depression, the chemiphysical groundwater characheteristics, the density of wells, the amount of well pumping and piezometric changes. This required the implementation of several piezometric and chemiphysical surveys, the collection and validation of a large number of stratigraphic and geophysical data. All data in the archive have been computerized and the maps vectorized. This makes it possible today to address the analysis with Geographical Information Systems and to start numerical flow simulations, regarding both the heavily drained deep confined aquifer, and the areas subject to the presence of an important water exchange between the recharge area in the Lepini Mountains (carbonatic ridge) and terrigenous aquifers of the plain. Among the main causes that trigger the catastrophic collapses there are, in fact, all the phenomena that cause the mass density reduction through erosion, leaching, dissolution. All these agents are associated with water circulation: flow, velocity, CO2 saturation rate, carbonates saturation rate. The spread in the Pontina plain of deep and high pumping wells, wrongly built without the correct way of progress, and without the realization of cemented portions properly located, can lead

  16. Flow-type landslides magnitude evaluation: the case study of the Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santo, Antonio; De Falco, Melania; Di Crescenzo, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    In the last years studies concerning the triggering and the run-out susceptibility for different kind of landslides have become more and more precise. In the most of the cases the methodological approach involve the production of detailed thematic maps (at least 1:5000 scale) which represent a very useful tool for territorial planning, especially in urbanized areas. More recently these researches were accompanied by the growth of other studies dealing with landslide magnitude evaluation (especially in terms of volume and velocity estimate). In this paper the results of a flow-type landslides magnitude evaluation are presented. The study area is located in Southern Italy and is very wide (1,500 square kilometres) including all the Campania region. In this context flow type landslides represent the most frequent instabilities as shown by the large number of victims and the huge economic damage caused in the last few centuries. These shallow landslides involve thin cohesionless, unsaturated pyroclastic soils found over steep slopes around Somma-Vesuvio and Phlegrean district, affecting a wide area where over 100 towns are located. Since the potential volume of flow-type landslides is a measure of event magnitude we propose to estimate the potential volume at the scale of slope or basin for about 90 municipalities affecting 850 hierarchized drainage basins and 900 regular slopes. An empirical approach recently proposed in literature (De Falco et al., 2012), allows to estimate the volume of the pyroclastic cover that can be displaced along the slope. The method derives from the interpretation of numerous geological and geomorphological data gathered from a vast amount of case histories on landslides in volcanic and carbonatic contexts and it is based on determining the thickness of the pyroclastic cover and the width of the detachment and erosion-transport zone. Thickness can be evaluated with a good degree of approximation since, in these landslides, the failure

  17. Crustal structure, seismicity and seismotectonics of the Trentino region (Southern Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viganò, Alfio; Scafidi, Davide; Martin, Silvana; Spallarossa, Daniele; Froner, Luca; Groaz, Oscar

    2013-04-01

    The Trentino region is located at the junction between the central and eastern Southern Alps (Italy), at the intersection between the Giudicarie, Schio-Vicenza and Valsugana fault systems. This area is characterized by relevant lithological and structural lateral heterogeneities, both at the crustal and lithospheric scales. A low-to-moderate seismicity is located in the upper crust, where faults are seismically active under a dominant compressive with variable strike-slip component regime. Here we study the crustal structure of this portion of the Southern Alps (Adria plate) from interpretation of local earthquake tomography images, in relation with distribution of relocated seismicity and regional tectonic patterns. Local earthquake tomography derives from a set of 476 selected earthquakes in the period 1994-2007, with local magnitudes comprised between 0.8 and 5.3. Hypocenter distribution, and number and quality of manually-repicked phases (6322 P and 5483 S) ensure optimal seismic ray coverage. Original recordings are principally from the Provincia Autonoma di Trento (PAT), that manages the Trentino seismic network since 1981, and from other networks (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale - INOGS; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - INGV; others available via the European Integrated Data Archive). The code HYPOELLIPSE is used to perform initial earthquake relocations. The code VELEST is then used to calculate a new minimum 1-D velocity model, as input for tomography. The 3-D tomographic inversion (V P and V P-V S ratio) is obtained via the code SIMULPS, with the implementation of an accurate shooting ray-tracer. The crustal volume is discretized in order to have a regular grid with a homogenous horizontal spatial resolution of 7.5 km. The resolution in depth varies according to the obtained minimum 1-D velocity model. Reliability and accuracy of results are estimated by analyzing the Resolution Diagonal Elements of the

  18. Inferences on active faults at the Southern Alps-Liguria basin junction from accurate analysis of low energy seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turino, Chiara; Scafidi, Davide; Eva, Elena; Solarino, Stefano

    2009-10-01

    Seismotectonic studies concern themselves with understanding the distribution of earthquakes in space, time, size and style. Therefore, the better these parameters are known, the most correct the association of any seismic event with the faulting structure that caused it will result. The use of accurate location methods is especially required when dealing with very complex areas, where several faulting systems or relatively small seismogenic structures exist. In fact, even though routinely determined epicentres are capable of revealing the rough picture of the seismicity, they are not suitable for studies of the fine structure of the causative fault, as their location uncertainties are often larger than the source dimension itself. In this work the probabilistic approach of the "Non Linear Localization" has been used to compute precise locations for earthquakes occurred in the last twenty years nearby the Saorge-Taggia line, a complex fault system situated in Western Liguria, close to the border between Italy and France. Together with the Breil-Sospel-Monaco and the Peille-Laghet faults, this line is responsible for the seismic activity of the area. The seismotectonic study is completed through a local tomographic study and the analysis of the focal mechanisms computed for an enlarged area. The results show that the seismicity associated with this fault system is confined within the first 10 km depth. Many clusters of seismic events are identified along the Saorge-Taggia line. The existence of a not previously mapped branch perpendicular to the Saorge-Taggia line is also recognized. Although its position may suggest it to be the continuation of the Breil-Sospel-Monaco fault system towards NE, our finding would rather suggest no association with the fault. The overall results confirm the complexity of the area; in particular the hypothesis that the Saorge-Taggia system may represent the eastward limit of a subalpine crustal block comprised within the Nice Arc, the

  19. A Late Variscan Sn province: the Arburese region (SW Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naitza, Stefano; Secchi, Francesco; Oggiano, Giacomo; Cuccuru, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Late Variscan Sn - rich European provinces (e. g. Erzgebirge, Cornwall) are of particular relevance as they offer key insights into crustal evolution, intrusive processes and ore genesis. In Sardinia (Italy), small Sn deposits are only known in the Arburese historical mining region (SW Sardinia), hosted in low-grade metamorphics close to the contacts with intrusives. This region is characterised by two late variscan intrusions, which differ in age and composition: the Arbus and the Monte Linas pluton, aging 304 ± 1 Ma, and 289 ± 1 Ma respectively. They emplaced at shallow crustal levels and crosscut the basal thrust between the alloctonous prism and the foreland of the Variscan belt of Sardinia. The Arbus Pluton (AP) is a composite intrusion of piroxene- and amphibole- granodiorites hosting minor amounts of monzogabbroic rocks and cordierite-bearing granites with a wide core of leuco-monzogranites. Tourmaline greisens and pegmatites garnish the contact between the border facies and the host metamorphic rocks. The Monte Linas Pluton (MLP) has biotite monzogranite composition. The pluton is internally zoned, from medium grained monzogranite in the core to hololeucocratic fine-grained rock-types at the top, where often F-greisen, fayalite-pegmatite pods and sill are common. In both plutons the igneous associations are high-K ilmenite series, suggesting derivation from low- fO2 magmas possibly linked to a common crustal contribution; however, in the Linas Pluton magnetite in the fine-grained facies may indicate an increase in oxygen fugacity. The AP-related Sn ores consist of high-temperature As-Sn quartz veins. They are vertically zoned, from quartz-chlorite-cassiterite to large quartz-arsenopyrite veins. Ore microscopy and SEM-EDS analyses evidenced a vein texture made of thick idiomorphic and frequently twinned cassiterite crystals, alternated with several generations of banded/geodic quartz. Chlinoclore aggregates are included into the quartz. The arsenopyrite

  20. Development of an experimental geographic information system for bee-keeping in the Marche region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Cordoni, Guido; Spagnuolo, Loreta Maria

    2007-01-01

    Bee-keeping in the Marche region of Italy is an ancient tradition. Besides the production of honey and other products of the apiary (wax, propolis, royal jelly, bee bread and venom), bees also play a fundamental role in the pollination of cultivated and natural plants. For these reasons, and to update information on the status of apiculture in the Territorial Zone 7 (TZ 7) of the Marche Region of Italy, a survey was conducted in 2005 using geographic information system (GIS) technology. A CD-Rom was developed in html; this tool enables the visualisation of data using any operating system and browser. We collected information on the health status of 57 apiaries out of 169 for a total of 1 570 hives. Samples of honey were tested for the presence of antibiotics and pesticides. The data collected on American foulbrood showed that this disease is endemic in the area and the extent of spread appears to be largely under-estimated. No antibiotics were detected in any of the honey samples tested using the bacterial growth inhibition method. Similarly, high performance liquid chromatography did not detect any pesticide residues. Further research will be conducted by geo-referencing all apiaries in the same area and in apiaries located in other territorial zones of the Marche region. PMID:20422519

  1. Non-Susceptible Landslide Areas in Italy and in the Mediterranean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvioli, Massimiliano; Ardizzone, Francesca; Guzzetti, Fausto; Marchesini, Ivan; Rossi, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    Landslide susceptibility is the likelihood of a landslide occurring in a given area. Over the past three decades, researchers, and planning and environmental organisations have worked to assess landslide susceptibility at different geographical scales, and to produce maps portraying landslide susceptibility zonation. Little effort was made to determine where landslides are not expected, where susceptibility is null, or negligible. This is surprising because planners and decision makers are also interesting in knowing where landslides are not foreseen, or cannot occur in an area. We propose a method for the definition of non-susceptible landslide areas, at the synoptic scale. We applied the method in Italy and to the territory surrounding the Mediterranean Sea and we produced two synoptic-scale maps showing areas where landslides are not expected in Italy and in the Mediterranean area. To construct the method we used digital terrain elevation and landslide information. The digital terrain consisted in the 3-arc-second SRTM DEM, the landslide information was obtained for 13 areas in Italy where landslide inventory maps were available to us. We tested three different models to determine the non-susceptible landslide areas, including a linear model (LR), a quantile linear model (QLR), and a quantile non-linear model (QNL). Model performances have been evaluated using independent landslide information represented by the Italian Landslide Inventory (Inventario Fenomeni Franosi in Italia - IFFI). Best results were obtained using the QNL model. The corresponding zonation of non- susceptible landslide areas was intersected in a GIS with geographical census data for Italy. The results show that the 57.5% of the population of Italy (in 2001) was located in areas where landslide susceptibility was expected to be null or negligible, while the remaining 42.5% in areas where some landslide susceptibility was significant or not negligible. We applied the QNL model to the

  2. Local Earthquakes Tomography in the Southern Tyrrhenian Region (Italy): Geophysical and Petrological Inferences on Subducting Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calo, M.; Dorbath, C.; Luzio, D.; Rotolo, S. G.; D'Anna, G.

    2007-12-01

    The Calabrian Arc, Southern Italy, is characterised by the subduction of the Ionian lithosphere -since Middle Miocene- beneath the Tyrrhenian basin. The related Benioff zone is seismically active to a depth > 500 km. The tomoDD code [Zhang and Thurber, 2003] was adopted to perform the tomography, using a set of 2463 earthquakes located in the window 14°30' E - 17°E and 37°N - 41°N, and recorded by seismic networks of the INGV in the period 1981-2005. Several inversions were performed using different selections of absolute and differential data obtained varying the maximum RMS and the threshold of the inter-event distance. Various synthetic and experimental tests were executed to evaluate the resolution and stability of the tomographic inversion. The inversions carried out for the synthetic and the restoration-resolution test [Zhao et al., 1992] were repeated several times with the same procedure used in the inversion of experimental data. The lack of bias in the models, related to the different grid- node positions, was tested performing inversions rotating, translating and deforming the original grid. To evaluate the dependence on the initial model, several inversions were also done using different 1D and 3D models simulating slab features. Finally, 35 models resulting from the inversions were synthesized in an average model obtained by interpolating each velocity model into a fixed grid. Each velocity value interpolated was weighted with a corresponding DWS (Derivative Weight Sum) resulting thus a Weighted Average Velocity model. The highly resolved sections through the average Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs models allowed us to image several relevant features of the structure of the subducting Ionian slab and of the Southern Tyrrhenian mantle: -the hypocenters are localized in the NW dipping fast area (Vp>8.2 km/s), 50-60 km thick, most likely composed litospheric mantle. Just below, an aseismic low Vp zone (6.6 - 7.7 km/s) 20-25 km thick, is assigned to the partially

  3. Ground motion prediction and earthquake scenarios in the volcanic region of Mt. Etna (Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Horst; Tusa, Giuseppina; Luciano, Scarfi; Azzaro, Raffaela

    2013-04-01

    One of the principal issues in the assessment of seismic hazard is the prediction of relevant ground motion parameters, e. g., peak ground acceleration, radiated seismic energy, response spectra, at some distance from the source. Here we first present ground motion prediction equations (GMPE) for horizontal components for the area of Mt. Etna and adjacent zones. Our analysis is based on 4878 three component seismograms related to 129 seismic events with local magnitudes ranging from 3.0 to 4.8, hypocentral distances up to 200 km, and focal depth shallower than 30 km. Accounting for the specific seismotectonic and geological conditions of the considered area we have divided our data set into three sub-groups: (i) Shallow Mt. Etna Events (SEE), i.e., typically volcano-tectonic events in the area of Mt. Etna having a focal depth less than 5 km; (ii) Deep Mt. Etna Events (DEE), i.e., events in the volcanic region, but with a depth greater than 5 km; (iii) Extra Mt. Etna Events (EEE), i.e., purely tectonic events falling outside the area of Mt. Etna. The predicted PGAs for the SEE are lower than those predicted for the DEE and the EEE, reflecting their lower high-frequency energy content. We explain this observation as due to the lower stress drops. The attenuation relationships are compared to the ones most commonly used, such as by Sabetta and Pugliese (1987)for Italy, or Ambraseys et al. (1996) for Europe. Whereas our GMPEs are based on small earthquakes, the magnitudes covered by the two above mentioned attenuation relationships regard moderate to large magnitudes (up to 6.8 and 7.9, respectively). We show that the extrapolation of our GMPEs to magnitues beyond the range covered by the data is misleading; at the same time also the afore mentioned relationships fail to predict ground motion parameters for our data set. Despite of these discrepancies, we can exploit our data for setting up scenarios for strong earthquakes for which no instrumental recordings are

  4. Notes about the uses of plants by one of the last healers in the Basilicata Region (South Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The paper refers to the knowledge and uses of plants and to the linked ritual practices as referred by Matteo (It.‘Zì Matteo’, En. ‘Uncle Matthew’), one of the last elder healers in the Basilicata Region (South Italy). Particular attention is also paid to the uses of ‘Vruca’ (Tamarix gallica L.) as a medicinal and magical plant used to heal common warts on various parts of the body. Methods After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through an open interview about the uses of the plants and on the associated ritual practices. For each species, data were collected that included the vernacular names, preparation, plant parts utilized and their method of use. Results The uses of 52 taxa are described. Among these, 43 are or were employed medicinally, eight as culinary foodstuffs, and 4 for domestic, handicraft or ethnoveterinary uses. Among the major findings: the ritual and magical use of Tamarix gallica L. to heal warts is described in detail; so far, no records of similar use were found in any Italian ethnobotanical studies conducted in southern Italy. Conclusion Phytotherapy in the Basilicata region is practiced by elderly people who resort to medicinal plants for mild illnesses; we interviewed one of those traditional healers who is very experienced in the field, and possesses rich ethno-pharmacological knowledge. PMID:22546322

  5. Seasonal monitoring and estimation of regional aerosol distribution over Po valley, northern Italy, using a high-resolution MAIAC product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvani, Barbara; Pierce, R. Bradley; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Ghermandi, Grazia; Teggi, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the new 1 km-resolved Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm is employed to characterize seasonal PM10 - AOD correlations over northern Italy. The accuracy of the new dataset is assessed compared to the widely used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 5.1 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data, retrieved at 0.55 μm with spatial resolution of 10 km (MYD04_L2). We focused on evaluating the ability of these two products to characterize both temporal and spatial distributions of aerosols within urban and suburban areas. Ground PM10 measurements were obtained from 73 of the Italian Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA) monitoring stations, spread across northern Italy, during a three-year period from 2010 to 2012. The Po Valley area (northern Italy) was chosen as the study domain because of its severe urban air pollution, resulting from it having the highest population and industrial manufacturing density in the country, being located in a valley where two surrounding mountain chains favor the stagnation of pollutants. We found that the global correlations between the bin-averaged PM10 and AOD are R2 = 0.83 and R2 = 0.44 for MYD04_L2 and for MAIAC, respectively, suggesting a greater sensitivity of the high-resolution product to small-scale deviations. However, the introduction of Relative Humidity (RH) and Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) depth corrections allowed for a significant improvement to the bin-averaged PM - AOD correlation, which led to a similar performance: R2 = 0.96 for MODIS and R2 = 0.95 for MAIAC. Furthermore, the introduction of the PBL information in the corrected AOD values was found to be crucial in order to capture the clear seasonal cycle shown by measured PM10 values. The study allowed us to define four seasonal linear correlations that estimate PM10 concentrations satisfactorily from the remotely sensed MAIAC AOD retrieval. Overall, the results show that

  6. Seasonal monitoring and estimation of regional aerosol distribution over Po valley, northern Italy, using a high-resolution MAIAC product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvani, Barbara; Pierce, R. Bradley; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Ghermandi, Grazia; Teggi, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the new 1 km-resolved Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm is employed to characterize seasonal PM10 - AOD correlations over northern Italy. The accuracy of the new dataset is assessed compared to the widely used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 5.1 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data, retrieved at 0.55 μm with spatial resolution of 10 km (MYD04_L2). We focused on evaluating the ability of these two products to characterize both temporal and spatial distributions of aerosols within urban and suburban areas. Ground PM10 measurements were obtained from 73 of the Italian Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA) monitoring stations, spread across northern Italy, during a three-year period from 2010 to 2012. The Po Valley area (northern Italy) was chosen as the study domain because of its severe urban air pollution, resulting from it having the highest population and industrial manufacturing density in the country, being located in a valley where two surrounding mountain chains favor the stagnation of pollutants. We found that the global correlations between the bin-averaged PM10 and AOD are R2 = 0.83 and R2 = 0.44 for MYD04_L2 and for MAIAC, respectively, suggesting a greater sensitivity of the high-resolution product to small-scale deviations. However, the introduction of Relative Humidity (RH) and Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) depth corrections allowed for a significant improvement to the bin-averaged PM - AOD correlation, which led to a similar performance: R2 = 0.96 for MODIS and R2 = 0.95 for MAIAC. Furthermore, the introduction of the PBL information in the corrected AOD values was found to be crucial in order to capture the clear seasonal cycle shown by measured PM10 values. The study allowed us to define four seasonal linear correlations that estimate PM10 concentrations satisfactorily from the remotely sensed MAIAC AOD retrieval. Overall, the results show that the high

  7. Ala(0)-actagardine, a new lantibiotic from cultures of Actinoplanes liguriae ATCC 31048.

    PubMed

    Vértesy, L; Aretz, W; Bonnefoy, A; Ehlers, E; Kurz, M; Markus, A; Schiell, M; Vogel, M; Wink, J; Kogler, H

    1999-08-01

    The actagardine-producing strain Actinoplanes liguriae ATCC 31048, forms an additional lantibiotic when it is cultured on mannitol and soya meal. The new compound, Ala(0)-actagardine (1), has been isolated by solid-phase extraction followed by a two-step chromatographic separation. The molecular formula of 1 is C84H129N21O25S4. Its chemical structure was determined by 2D-NMR analysis and was further confirmed by an amino acid analysis, Edman degradation, and partial synthesis from actagardine. 1 exhibits a slightly higher biological activity than the parent compound actagardine. The synthetic analogs Lys(0)-actagardine (2) and Ile(0)-actagardine (3) demonstrate also antibacterial activities and emphasize the importance of the N-terminus for further derivatization. PMID:10580386

  8. Spatial and temporal trend of groundwater contamination from terbuthylazine and desethyl-terbuthylazine in the Lombardy Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Bozzo, Silvia; Azimonti, Giovanna; Villa, Sara; Di Guardo, Andrea; Finizio, Antonio

    2013-02-01

    In the last few years, several monitoring programs were established as an effect of the EU Directives which included requirements for monitoring the quality of water resources (drinking water, groundwater and surface water). Plant Protection Products (PPPs) are an obvious target for monitoring activities, since they are directly released into the environment. In Italy, the National Environmental Protection Agency (ISPRA) has recently published several reports containing the results of the National Plans for Control of Environmental Effects of PPPs. These documents contain the collection of monitoring data related to the presence of PPP residues in surface and groundwater systems. In this paper, these results (monitoring campaigns from 2005 to 2009) were analysed. Particularly, the attention was focused on the concentration levels of terbuthylazine (TBZ) and its metabolite desethyl-terbuthylazine (DTZ) detected in the groundwater systems of the Lombardia Region (Northern Italy). The analysis allowed us to identify the spatial and temporal trends of contamination of both substances. Furthermore the DTZ/TBZ ratio was calculated in order to recognize point and non-point sources of contamination.

  9. Interaction between regional and local tectonic forcing along a complex Quaternary extensional basin: Upper Tiber Valley, Northern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucci, S.; Mirabella, F.; Pazzaglia, F.; Barchi, M. R.; Melelli, L.; Tuccimei, P.; Soligo, M.; Saccucci, L.

    2014-10-01

    In extending areas undergoing regional tectonic uplift, the persistence of subsidence at a normal-fault hanging-wall depends on the competition between regional and local tectonic effects. When regional uplift exceeds the subsidence of the hanging-wall block, denudation prevails at both the hanging-wall and the foot-wall. When local tectonic subsidence exceeds regional uplift, sedimentation occurs over the hanging-wall block, supplied by foot-wall erosion. We analyzed a Pliocene-Quaternary continental basin, currently crossed by the Tiber River in Italy. The tectono-sedimentary evolution of the basin developed at the hanging-wall of a regional low-angle extensional detachment, the Alto Tiberina Fault, in the axial region of the Northern Apennines of Italy. This area is affected by regional uplift on the order of 0.5-1.0 mm/yr. The present-day activity of the fault is revealed by both microseismicity and geodetic (GPS) data. We investigated the mid- (10-100 ka) and long-term (0.5-3.0 Ma) evolution of the three depocenters by studying the continental Pleistocene succession infilling the basin as well as fluvial terraces and higher paleosurfaces carved into the Pleistocene deposits. By using surficial geologic data and an interpretation of a set of seismic reflection profiles, we show that the three depocenters experienced a fairly similar evolution during the Pliocene-Early Pleistocene, when a 1000-m-thick continental succession was deposited. On the contrary, geomorphological observations indicate that, at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, a switch occurred in the evolution of the three depocenters. In the northernmost Sansepolcro sub-basin, bounding normal faults are active and hanging-wall subsidence outpaces regional uplift. Concurrently, in the Umbertide and Ponte Pattoli sub-basins uplift dominates over the hanging-wall subsidence, promoting river incision and exhumation of the Pleistocene deposits. For these two depocenters, by means of terrace

  10. Spatio-temporal patterns of distribution of West Nile virus vectors in eastern Piedmont Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background West Nile Virus (WNV) transmission in Italy was first reported in 1998 as an equine outbreak near the swamps of Padule di Fucecchio, Tuscany. No other cases were identified during the following decade until 2008, when horse and human outbreaks were reported in Emilia Romagna, North Italy. Since then, WNV outbreaks have occurred annually, spreading from their initial northern foci throughout the country. Following the outbreak in 1998 the Italian public health authority defined a surveillance plan to detect WNV circulation in birds, horses and mosquitoes. By applying spatial statistical analysis (spatial point pattern analysis) and models (Bayesian GLMM models) to a longitudinal dataset on the abundance of the three putative WNV vectors [Ochlerotatus caspius (Pallas 1771), Culex pipiens (Linnaeus 1758) and Culex modestus (Ficalbi 1890)] in eastern Piedmont, we quantified their abundance and distribution in space and time and generated prediction maps outlining the areas with the highest vector productivity and potential for WNV introduction and amplification. Results The highest abundance and significant spatial clusters of Oc. caspius and Cx. modestus were in proximity to rice fields, and for Cx. pipiens, in proximity to highly populated urban areas. The GLMM model showed the importance of weather conditions and environmental factors in predicting mosquito abundance. Distance from the preferential breeding sites and elevation were negatively associated with the number of collected mosquitoes. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was positively correlated with mosquito abundance in rice fields (Oc. caspius and Cx. modestus). Based on the best models, we developed prediction maps for the year 2010 outlining the areas where high abundance of vectors could favour the introduction and amplification of WNV. Conclusions Our findings provide useful information for surveillance activities aiming to identify locations where the potential for WNV

  11. [An example of the evaluation of risks of repeated movements in pottery plants located in western Liguria].

    PubMed

    Clerici, P; Gallanelli, R; Magnante, D; Meinero, G; Mattarelli, M; Sarto, D; Zecchi, C

    2005-01-01

    Pottery manufacturing is typical in western Liguria and it represents one of the most important economical resources of this area. The major part of manufacturers are handicrafts, although some bigger firms have developed industrialized production cycles. Both types of productions, however, require hand work at almost all levels of processing. Most workers are women and a significant part of these are affected by Carpal Tunnel Syndrome. INAIL (Direzione Regionale Liguria) carries on a dedicated program for employers' insurance and Health & Safety implementation but--in order to do so--INAIL needs to achieve more knowledge about risk factors in this field. The aim of this study was to assess CTD risk in two pottery industries located in Albisola: in particular, two productions Cycles equipped with assembly lines have been investigated. The method used for risk assessment was OCRA Index (OCcupational Repetitive Actions), adapted to be applied to pottery industries.

  12. Revision of Errhomeninae and Aphrodinae (Hemiptera, Cicadomorpha) in Italy with remarks on their variability and distribution in adjacent regions and description of three new taxa.

    PubMed

    Guglielmino, Adalgisa; Bückle, Christoph

    2015-01-15

    A revision of the subfamilies Errhomeninae and Aphrodinae in Italy is presented. Two new species, Anoscopus gorloppus and Anoscopus carlebippus, and one new subspecies Anoscopus albifrons mappus are described. Anoscopus dubius Gębicki & Bednarzyk is established as subspecies of Anoscopus flavostriatus (Donovan) (stat. nov.), Aphrodes siracusae (Matsumura) is transferred to the genus Anoscopus (comb. nov.). Anoscopus samuricus Tshmir is recorded in Italy for the first time. Information concerning ecology and regional distribution is given for all taxa present in Italy. Genital morphology and variability of colouration are figured for many taxa. A morphometric analysis based on measurements of aedeagus and body is conducted for the taxa of the Aphrodes bicincta group. Keys for the Italian species of Aphrodes and Anoscopus are given. Distribution and specific characters of Anoscopus assimilis (Signoret) and Anoscopus alpinus (Wagner) are presented. Differences between Italian populations and conspecific ones in other European regions, and reasons for the particularly high variability in the Alpine areas of Italy are discussed. A list of 19 species and two subspecies, presently recorded from Italy is given. 

  13. Land Contamination and Soil-Plant Interactions in the Imperina Valley Mine (Belluno, Venetian Region, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Fontana, Silvia; Zilioli, Diana

    2010-05-01

    In Italy, ore exploitation, particularly that of mixed sulphides, has been abandoned since the final thirty years of the last century, and a quantity of mine dumps has been discharged in wide areas of the land, provoking evident environmental damages to landscape, soil and vegetation, with potential risk for human health. The present study concerns the distribution and mobility of heavy metals (Ni, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe and Mn) in the soils of a mine site and their transfer to wild flora. Soils and wild plants were sampled from mixed sulphides mine dumps in Imperina valley (Belluno, Italy), and the concentrations of heavy metals were determined. Chemical analyses carried out on 10 soil profiles (mostly entisols) of the mineralised area revealed metal concentrations generally above the international target levels (Cu up to 3160 mg kg-1 , Pb up to 23600 mg kg-1, Zn up to 1588 mg kg-1, Fe up to 52,30 %). The concentrations of Ni, Cr and Mn, instead, are below the reference limits. Moreover, a highly significant correlation was observed between the concentrations of metals in soils (Fe, Pb, Zn and Cu). Metal concentration in selected wild plants of the mineralized area is moderately high, in particolar Cu, Pb, Zn in the roots of Plantago major, Pb and Zn in the leaves of Taraxacum officinale, Zn and Pb in Salix spp. The translocation coefficient (BAC) from soil to plant (hypogean portion), and within the plant (epigean portion) vary from 0,37 in Plantago major to 2,97 in Silene dioica, two known accumulator plants. Salix spp present high translocation coefficients from soil to plant, and from roots to leaves. In particular, essential metals present a translocation coefficient ≥1 (with the order Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe), while toxic metals have coefficients <1 (Pb

  14. Analysis of Information on Food Chain in Europe and Piedmont Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Pattono, Daniele; Bertolina, Barbara; Chiesa, Francesco; Civera, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Food chain information (FCI) is an innovation of the new European regulation. Its purpose is to enhance the concept of food security. FCI includes specifications such as: health status, information on treatments and diseases, analytical reports on control plans, zoonoses or environmental contaminants, production performance, etc. The aim of this article is to compare the different European guidelines and analyse the situation in Piedmont in order to assess potential problems and propose solutions. European guidelines are similar one another, but they have been tailored to the epidemiological situations of each state. Except for Spain and Germany, FCI models are different for each species and the poultry sector is the most detailed. Unfortunately, Italy has not provided guidelines yet, and this has generated considerable differences. Overall, the number of FCI models with incomplete information is the largest group compared to the models not completed for each entry. The main deficiencies are related to pharmacological treatments. The health status of the farm is listed consistently regarding the compulsory eradication plans, but other national voluntary or accreditation plans are rarely mentioned. The situation is similar in other European countries. In conclusion, FCI is an effective tool if applied with consistency and reason. Only in this way the collection of data will be effective and representative of the food chain. PMID:27800357

  15. Natural radioactivity and metal contamination of river sediments in the Calabria region, south of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, F.; Marguccio, S.; D'Agostino, M.; Belvedere, A.; Belmusto, G.

    2016-05-01

    River sediments from eight different sites of the coast of Calabria, south of Italy, were sampled to determine natural radioactivity and metal concentrations, in order to assess any possible radiological hazard, the level of contamination and the possible anthropogenic impact in the area. Gamma and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry were employed and results of this study show that the mean activity concentrations of radium (in secular equilibrium with uranium) ranged from 15.1Bq/kg to 26.7Bq/kg, that of thorium from 21.8Bq/kg to 48.3Bq/kg and that of potassium from 541.3Bq/kg to 1452.2Bq/kg. In terms of mean mass concentrations, XRF analysis revealed that uranium was lower than 1.5ppm (minimum detectable value), thorium ranged from 6.1ppm to 10.3ppm while potassium ranged from 2.5% to 4.4%. The degree of sediment contaminations were computed using an enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index ( I geo for some potential hazardous elements. Results suggested that enrichment factor and geoaccumulation values of Pb and Mn were greatest among the studied metals. The study revealed that on the basis of computed indexes, the eight investigated rivers can be classified as no polluted ones.

  16. Assessment of desertification risk in semi-arid Mediterranean environments: the case study of Apulia region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladisa, Gaetano; Todorovic, Mladen; Trisorio Liuzzi, Giuliana

    2010-05-01

    This work focuses on the risk assessment of the areas threatened with desertification in the semi-arid Mediterranean environments. The presented approach uses as a reference the ESAs model (Environmental Sensitive Areas to Desertification; Kosmas et al., 1999) which is modified through a set of new indicators which take into account the region-specific environmental characteristics as well as identifiable parameters relevant for planning control measures. These supplementary indicators, comprehending socio-economic and environmental factors, are integrated in the ESAs model and, by using a GIS, applied to Apulia region (Southern Italy). This area represents a typical Mediterranean landscape affected by land degradation and desertification risks. The analyses include the elaboration of the whole set of indices on both the regional and the administrative scales which constitute the principal territorial units for the management of natural resources. The results have demonstrated that the introduction of the new indices has improved substantially the overall evaluation of the desertification risk in the Apulia region. The proposed approach permits not only the identification and refinement of different degrees of sensibility of an area to land degradation, but also the analyses of the factors affecting desertification and their evaluation in terms of spatial and temporal distribution. Moreover, the presented method is conceptually very simple and easy to implement from local to regional and national scale, and can be proposed as a methodology for the definition of priorities in adoption of strategies to mitigate desertification in the semi-arid Mediterranean environments. Key words: desertification risk, sensitivity areas, Apulia region, Mediterranean environment.

  17. Contribution to the knowledge of the veterinary science and of the ethnobotany in Calabria region (Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Passalacqua, Nicodemo G; De Fine, Giuseppe; Guarrera, Paolo Maria

    2006-01-01

    Background A series of preliminary research projects on plants used in Calabria (Southern Italy) in veterinary science and in other ethno-botanical fields (minor nourishment, domestic and handicraft sector) was carried out in the last twenty years. From the ethno-botanical point of view, Calabria is one of the most interesting region, since in the ancient times it was subject to the dominant cultures of several people (Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Normans etc.). Until some decades ago the road network was poorly developed and villages were isolated, so that the culture of the "subsistence" and some archaic customs were kept. Methods Data were collected by means of "open" interviews to farmers, shepherds and housewives in the last twenty years. More than 100 informants were interviewed, mostly over 50 years old. Plants were identified by local informants through gathering in the area or through examination of the fresh plants collected by the researchers. The collected data were compared with pharmacobotanical papers mainly of southern Italy and with other studies, in order to highlight novelties or concordances of uses. Results The use of 62 taxa distributed into 34 families are described. Among these, 8 are or were employed in veterinary science, 8 as anti-parasitic agents, 19 in minor nourishment, 5 as seasoning, 38 for other uses. Some toxic species for cattle are also mentioned. Conclusion Among the major findings: the use of Helleborus bocconei for bronchitis of bovines and of Scrophularia canina for lameness in veterinary science; Nerium oleander and Urginea maritima as anti-parasitic agents; Epilobium angustifolium, Centaurea napifolia L. and C. sphaerocephala L. in minor nourishment. PMID:17156472

  18. Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Wolf (Canis lupus) Breeding Areas in a Mountainous Region of Central Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, Elena; Willis, Stephen G.; Passilongo, Daniela; Mattioli, Luca; Apollonio, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Wolves (Canis lupus) in Italy represent a relict west European population. They are classified as vulnerable by IUCN, though have increased in number and expanded their range in recent decades. Here we use 17 years of monitoring data (from 1993 to 2010) collected in a mountainous region of central Italy (Arezzo, Tuscany) in an ecological niche-based model (MaxEnt) to characterize breeding sites (i.e. the areas where pups were raised) within home ranges, as detected from play-back responses. From a suite of variables related to topography, habitat and human disturbance we found that elevation and distance to protected areas were most important in explaining the locality of wolf responses. Rendezvous sites (family play-back response sites) typically occurred between 800 and 1200 m a.s.l., inside protected areas, and were usually located along mountain chains distant from human settlements and roads. In these areas human disturbance is low and the densities of ungulates are typically high. Over recent years, rendezvous sites have occurred closer to urban areas as the wolf population has continued to expand, despite the consequent human disturbance. This suggests that undisturbed landscapes may be reaching their carrying capacity for wolves. This, in turn, may lead to the potential for increased human-wolf interactions in future. Applying our model, both within and beyond the species’ current range, we identify sites both within the current range and also further afield, that the species could occupy in future. Our work underlines the importance of the present protected areas network in facilitating the recolonisation by wolves. Our projections of suitability of sites for future establishment as the population continues to expand could inform planning to minimize future wolf-human conflicts. PMID:26035174

  19. Antimicrobial use and microbiological testing in district general hospital ICUs of the Veneto region of north-east Italy.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, P; Sefton, A M; Menegozzo, M; Guerriero, C; Bordignon, G; Da Rin, G; Romualdi, C; Pellizzer, G; Livermore, D M

    2016-10-01

    International - predominantly American - studies undertaken in the ICUs of teaching centres show that inadequate antibiotic therapy increases mortality and length of stay. We sought to ascertain whether this also pertains to smaller ICUs in the Veneto region of north-east Italy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such survey in the Veneto area or in Italy as a whole. A retrospective, observational study was performed across five general-hospital ICUs to examine appropriateness of microbiological sampling, empirical antibiotic adequacy, and outcomes. Among 911 patients (mean age, 65.8 years ± 16.2 SD; median ICU stay, 17.0 days [IQR, 8.0-29.0]), 757 (83.1 %) were given empirical antibiotics. Treatment adequacy could be fully assessed in only 212 patients (28.0 %), who received empirical treatment and who had a relevant clinical sample collected at the initiation of this antibiotic (T0). Many other patients only had delayed microbiological investigation of their infections between day 1 and day 10 of therapy. Mortality was significantly higher among the 34.9 % of patients receiving inadequate treatment (48.6 % vs 18.80 %; p < 0.001). Only 32.5 % of combination regimens comprised a broad-spectrum Gram-negative β-lactam plus an anti-MRSA agent, and many combinations were irrational. Inadequate treatment was frequent and was strongly associated with mortality; moreover, there was delayed microbiological investigation of many infections, precluding appropriate treatment modification and de-escalation. Improvements in these aspects and in antibiotic stewardship are being sought.

  20. Asymptomatic Leishmania infantum Infection in an Area of Northwestern Italy (Piedmont Region) Where Such Infections Are Traditionally Nonendemic▿

    PubMed Central

    Biglino, Alberto; Bolla, Cesare; Concialdi, Erika; Trisciuoglio, Anna; Romano, Angelo; Ferroglio, Ezio

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of Leishmania infantum-specific antibodies and asymptomatic infection was assessed in a randomized sample of 526 healthy adults from a continental area of Northwestern Italy where L. infantum is not endemic and where autochthonous cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) were recently reported. L. infantum-specific antibodies were detected by Western blotting (WB) in 39 subjects (7.41%), while L. infantum kinetoplast DNA was amplified from buffy coat in 21 out of 39 WB-positive subjects, confirming asymptomatic infection in 53.8% of seropositives. Risk factors significantly associated with WB positivity were uninterrupted residence since childhood in a local rural environment (odds ratio [OR], 3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7 to 7.3), daily contact with animals though not exclusively with dogs (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.3 to 10.7), older age (OR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.2 to 4.5), and agricultural/other outdoor activities (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 0.99 to 3.7.) Logistic regression analysis showed that uninterrupted residence in a local rural environment and an age of >65 years were the only independent predictors of seropositivity assessed by WB. Follow-up at 24 months did not show evidence of VL in either seropositive or PCR-positive subjects. The detection of a high seroprevalence rate, confirmed as asymptomatic infection by PCR in more than half of the cases, among healthy residents in a continental area of northwestern Italy makes local L. infantum transmission very likely. In a region where VL is considered nonendemic, these findings warrant further epidemiological investigations as well as interventions with respect to both the canine reservoir and vectors, given the possible risks for immunosuppressed patients. PMID:19923480

  1. Agricultural terraces montoring and modeling: a field survey in Chianti region, Firenze, Italy – Second part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preti, Federico; Caruso, Marco; Dani, Andrea; Cassiani, Giorgio; Romano, Nunzio; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The two abstracts present the design and set-up of an experimental campaign which aims at sup-porting the modeling (conceptual and numerical) of water circulation in a terraced slope, and its in-fluence on stability of retaining dry stone walls. The case study is located at "Fattoria di Lamole" (Greve in Chianti, Firenze, Italy). At Lamole site both ancient and recently restored or rebuilt (with different techniques) dry stone walls are present. Furthermore the intense vineyards cultivation makes it very representative in terms of range of external stresses that affect both hillslopes and wall. The survey is developed within the bigger framework of landscape preservation as a way to prevent hydrogeological instabilities and landslide risks. Second Part A second effort is devoted to couple hydrological, hydraulic and geotechnical modeling: - Flow directions and the drainage area have been derived from DTM (high-resolution digital terrain model obtained by a terrestrial laser scanner.), and served for the RPII index calcula-tion (Tarolli et al., 2013), that is coherent with the critical spots observed in situ and marked with GPS. - Direct shear test on undisturbed and reconstituted soil samples will offer an estimation of the Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope parameters (friction angle and cohesion). - Retention curves related with different depths have been derived. - Geoelectric analysis in order to locate the bedrock and to determine the subterranean water flows originated from controlled infitration tests (1 l/s discharge). - A simple dry-wall stability model has been carried out; this model analyses the wall stability with finite elements method, evaluating pressures derived from uphill water infiltration, stone friction and buoyancy in retaining wall layers: simulated deformation are suitable with the observed ones. Acknowledgements Italian Research Project of Relevant Interest (PRIN2010-2011), prot. 20104ALME4, National network for monitoring, modeling, and

  2. Agricultural terraces montoring and modeling: a field survey in Chianti region, Firenze, Italy - First part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preti, Federico; Caruso, Marco; Dani, Andrea; Errico, Alessandro; Guastini, Enrico; Trucchi, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The two abstracts present the design and set-up of an experimental field plant whose aim is the study and modeling of water circulation in a terraced slope together with its influence on the stability of the retaining dry stone walls. The pilot plant is located at "Fattoria di Lamole" (Greve in Chianti, Firenze, Italy) where both ancient and recently restored or rebuilt dry stone retaining walls are present. The intense vineyards cultivation makes it very representative in terms of range of external stresses that affect both hillslopes and walls. The research is developed within a bigger framework of landscape preservation as a way to prevent hydrogeological instabilities and landslide risks. First Part A first/preliminary field survey was carried out in order to estimate the hydraulic and mechanical soil characteristics. Field saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements with the Simplified Falling Head (SFH) method on a terrace along an alignment were performed. Infiltrometer tests with a double ring device and soil texture determinations with both fine particle-size and skeleton fraction distributions were also performed. The Direct shear test on undisturbed and reconstituted soil samples will offer an estimation of the Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope parameters (friction angle and cohesion). A reference portion of a dry stone wall will be also monitored. Lateral earth pressure at backfill-retaining wall interface (compared to temperature and air pressure measured values), backfill volumetric water content (both in saturated and unsaturated states) and ground-water level are measured. Acknowledgements Italian Research Project of Relevant Interest (PRIN2010-2011), prot. 20104ALME4, National network for monitoring, modeling, and sustainable management of erosion processes in agricultural land and hilly-mountainous area

  3. Seismic anisotropy of the shallow crust in the Umbria-Marche (Italy) region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lorenzo, Salvatore; Trabace, Maria

    2011-11-01

    Small magnitude earthquake data, recorded during the 1997 Umbria-Marche (Italy) seismic crisis, have been used to study the shear wave splitting in the central Apennine. Using the method of diagonalization of the covariance matrix, a set of 1234 S waves impinging the Earth at an angle less than the critical angle has been selected. The cross-correlation method was used to estimate the splitting time between the two horizontal S components and the direction of the symmetry axis of the anisotropic structure. A further analysis, based on visual inspection of corrected traces, allowed us to estimate the anisotropic parameters for 884 S waves. An average splitting time <τ>=32.3∓4ms has been estimated. Splitting times do not generally show a clear pattern with distance, which is an indication of possible spatial variations of seismic anisotropy. A minimum 2 km depth of the anisotropic layer is estimated. The trend of normalized splitting time vs. depth roughly indicates a maximum 4-5 km depth of the anisotropic layer. The distribution of the fast symmetry axis indicates a main symmetry axis oriented along the direction of the maximum compressive stress in the area and a secondary symmetry axis almost orthogonal to the first one. The stereographic plots of fast axis direction seem exclude a depth dependence of anisotropic parameters. A clear spatial correlation between the directions of the fast symmetry axes at the considered stations and the orientations of the nearest fault systems and thrust fronts is found, which confirms the spatial variability in the anisotropic properties of the area, as inferred by the analysis of splitting times. Based also on previous studies, results are interpreted in terms of the extensive dilatancy anisotropy (EDA) model. The estimated crack density is always smaller than the critical coalescence value, enforcing the hypothesis that fluid-filled separated crack systems control the polarization of S waves.

  4. Friulian: The Friulian Language in Education in Italy. Regional Dossiers Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petris, Cinzia, Comp.

    2014-01-01

    This regional dossier aims to provide a concise, description and basic statistics about minority language education in a specific region of Europe. Aspects that are addressed include features of the education system, recent educational policies, main actors, legal arrangements, and support structures, as well as quantitative aspects, such as the…

  5. Impact of climate Change on Groundwater Recharge in the Tiber River Basin (Central Italy) Using Regional Climate model Outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muluneh, F. B.; Setegn, S. G.; Melesse, A. M.; Fiori, A.

    2011-12-01

    Quantification of the various components of hydrological processes in a watershed remains a challenging topic as the hydrological system is altered by many internal and external drivers. Changes in climate variables can affect the quantity and quality of various components of hydrological cycle. Among others, the local effects of climate change on groundwater resources were not fully studied in different part of the world as compared to the surface water. Moreover, understanding the potential impact of climate change on groundwater is more complex than surface water. The main objective of this study is to analyze the potential impact of climate change on Groundwater recharge in the Tiber River Basin using outputs from Regional Climate model. In this study, a physically-based watershed model called Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to estimate recharge characteristics and its response to climate change in Tiber River Basin (central Italy). The SWAT model was successfully calibrated and validated using observed weather and flow data for the period of 1963-1970 and 1971-1978 respectively. During calibration, the model was highly sensitivity to groundwater flow parameters. Dynamically downscaled rainfall and temperature datasets from ten Regional Climate Models (RCM) archived in 'Prediction of Regional scenarios and Uncertainties for Defining EuropeaN Climate change risks and Effects (PRUDENCE)' were used to force the model to assess the climate change impact on the study area. A quantile-mapping statistical correction procedure was applied to the RCM dataset to correct the inherent systematic biases. The climate change analysis indicated that by the end of 2080s the rainfall was found to decrease nearly up to 40% in dry period and there was an increase in temperature that could reach as high as 3 to 5 oC. By the end of 2080s the ground water recharge shows a decreasing trend as a response to changes in rainfall. However as the timing of both precipitation and

  6. The Landslides Hazard Assessment Using Gis Techniques In The Province of Macerata (marches Region, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farabollini, P.; Pambianchi, G.

    The present work illustrates the results of research aimed at identifying and assessing geological and geomorphological characteristics at preventing and/or mitigating hydrogeological hazard in an area subject to high anthropic impact. The study area is the Province of Macerata (ca 2700km2), which from the standpoint of geological, geomorphologic, hydrogeologic, and anthropic characteristics can be considered representative of the Adriatic side of central Italy. Particular attention was addressed to the surveying of active morphogenetic processes due to the gravity, above all those affecting structures and infrastructures; for each of the latter technical worksheets were prepared. The field surveys and monitoring carried out over several years allowed it to be shown how deep-seated processes, are in continuous evolution, which prompted the use of GIS-type information science instruments for setting up a databank that could be updated and easy to use in the various stages of planning the works. The analysis carried out showed that ca 10% of the study territory, and particularly the high hilly areas characterized by Mio-Pliocene terrigenous deposits, is subject to processes linked to the action of gravity. In particular ca 1700 landslides have been recognized (for each 870 landslides affected various structures or infrastructures) of which 1100 are active and 600 quiescent. If the really accident-prone areas are added to those potentially at risk, determined by means of semi-quantitative evaluation, the hydrogeological accident can be said to affect more than 35% of the study area. Moreover if the area subject to surface erosion processes (solifluction, soil creep), mostly connected with the high level of anthropic impact not supported by an adequate safeguarding of the environment, is added to that percentage, a value of ca 50% is reached for the whole study territory. The study, based on statistically significant data, confirm the scientific literature regarding

  7. Application of the Flood-IMPAT procedure in the Valle d'Aosta Region, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minucci, Guido; Mendoza, Marina Tamara; Molinari, Daniela; Atun, Funda; Menoni, Scira; Ballio, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Flood Risk Management Plans (FRMPs) established by European "Floods" Directive (Directive 2007/60/EU) to Member States in order to address all aspects of flood risk management, taking into account costs and benefits of proposed mitigation tools must be reviewed by the same law every six years. This is aimed at continuously increasing the effectiveness of risk management, on the bases of the most advanced knowledge of flood risk and most (economically) feasible solutions, also taking into consideration achievements of the previous management cycle. Within this context, the Flood-IMPAT (i.e. Integrated Meso-scale Procedure to Assess Territorial flood risk) procedure has been developed aiming at overcoming limits of risk maps produced by the Po River Basin Authority and adopted for the first version of the Po River FRMP. The procedure allows the estimation of flood risk at the meso-scale and it is characterized by three main peculiarities. First is its feasibility for the entire Italian territory. Second is the possibility to express risk in monetary terms (i.e. expected damage), at least for those categories of damage for which suitable models are available. Finally, independent modules compose the procedure: each module allows the estimation of a certain type of damage (i.e. direct, indirect, intangibles) on a certain sector (e.g. residential, industrial, agriculture, environment, etc.) separately, guaranteeing flexibility in the implementation. This paper shows the application of the Flood-IMPAT procedure and the recent advancements in the procedure, aiming at increasing its reliability and usability. Through a further implementation of the procedure in the Dora Baltea River Basin (North of Italy), it was possible to test the sensitivity of risk estimates supplied by Flood-IMPAT with respect to different damage models and different approaches for the estimation of assets at risk. Risk estimates were also compared with observed damage data in the investigated areas

  8. [Microbiological quality of haemodialysis water in various hospitals and private clinics in the Lazio region (Italy): 2000-2004].

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Patrizia; Spitaleri, Giuliana; Damiani, Francesco; Panà, Augusto

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of dialysis water used in dialysis units of various hospitals and private clinics in Rome and the Lazio region (Italy). The study was performed between January 2000 and December 2004. A total of 507 samples were analysed, 205 of which obtained from public hospitals and 302 from privately-owned medical facilities. Microbiological analysis was performed as specified by the 1995 Decree of the Lazio Region n degrees 1650, which also sets threshold values for bacterial contamination and minimum frequency of inspections. The decree also specifies the modalities and frequency of disinfection of dialysis water treatment and distribution systems. The findings show a superior microbiological quality of dialysis water in privately-owned dialysis units. This may be due to several factors but especially to a more regular maintenance and disinfection of the water treatment systems. Overall, over half of the samples analysed, in both types of facilities, showed bacterial loads well below the set limits. In our view, however, bacterial limits for dialysis water are too high especially considering the fact that they are the same limits set by previous regulations for drinkable water. Haemodialysis patients are exposed to large volumes of water used for the production of dialysis fluids during a treatment session. It is therefore clearly important that more stringent limits for bacterial contamination be introduced. PMID:17401447

  9. Outbreak of fatal nitrate toxicosis associated with consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare) in cattle farmed in Campania region (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Costagliola, Alessandro; Roperto, Franco; Benedetto, Domenico; Anastasio, Aniello; Marrone, Raffaele; Perillo, Antonella; Russo, Valeria; Papparella, Serenella; Paciello, Orlando

    2014-05-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are toxicants that have become increasingly significant environmental chemicals. Increase in environmental distribution of nitrogenous compounds, especially in surface and ground water, has been attributed to the intensive use of nitrate as agricultural fertilizers and to increasing amounts of nitrogenous wastes produced by municipalities, industries, and feedlots. The purpose of this study is to illustrate a fatal nitrate toxicosis in cattle associated with the consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare). Fifteen cows from the same farm suddenly developed weakness, muscular tremors, respiratory distress, and finally convulsions. The affected animals died within 24 to 48 h from the onset of the clinical signs. Five cows underwent a complete post-mortem examination. In all examined animals, gross lesions included presence of dark unclotted blood around the nostrils and the anal region, moderate inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and brown discoloration of the skeletal muscles and kidneys. The histological examination showed tubular degeneration and congestion of glomerular vessels in the kidney. Toxicological analysis detected nitrates at 4 672.2 ppm in the fennels used to feed the animals. The source of exposure to nitrates was identified in the fennels. The fennels were grown in a polluted area of the Campania region in southern Italy and distributed in a public market for human consumption. The waste from the sale of the fennels was fed to the cows. The accumulation of nitrates in some vegetables poses a risk not only for animal health but also for human and environmental safety.

  10. Outbreak of fatal nitrate toxicosis associated with consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare) in cattle farmed in Campania region (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Costagliola, Alessandro; Roperto, Franco; Benedetto, Domenico; Anastasio, Aniello; Marrone, Raffaele; Perillo, Antonella; Russo, Valeria; Papparella, Serenella; Paciello, Orlando

    2014-05-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are toxicants that have become increasingly significant environmental chemicals. Increase in environmental distribution of nitrogenous compounds, especially in surface and ground water, has been attributed to the intensive use of nitrate as agricultural fertilizers and to increasing amounts of nitrogenous wastes produced by municipalities, industries, and feedlots. The purpose of this study is to illustrate a fatal nitrate toxicosis in cattle associated with the consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare). Fifteen cows from the same farm suddenly developed weakness, muscular tremors, respiratory distress, and finally convulsions. The affected animals died within 24 to 48 h from the onset of the clinical signs. Five cows underwent a complete post-mortem examination. In all examined animals, gross lesions included presence of dark unclotted blood around the nostrils and the anal region, moderate inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and brown discoloration of the skeletal muscles and kidneys. The histological examination showed tubular degeneration and congestion of glomerular vessels in the kidney. Toxicological analysis detected nitrates at 4 672.2 ppm in the fennels used to feed the animals. The source of exposure to nitrates was identified in the fennels. The fennels were grown in a polluted area of the Campania region in southern Italy and distributed in a public market for human consumption. The waste from the sale of the fennels was fed to the cows. The accumulation of nitrates in some vegetables poses a risk not only for animal health but also for human and environmental safety. PMID:24453016

  11. Is there room for containing healthcare costs? An analysis of regional spending differentials in Italy.

    PubMed

    Francese, Maura; Romanelli, Marzia

    2014-03-01

    This work aims at identifying the determinants of health spending differentials among Italian regions and at highlighting potential margins for savings. The analysis exploits a data set for the 21 Italian regions and autonomous provinces starting in the early 1990s and ending in 2006. After controlling for standard healthcare demand indicators, remaining spending differentials are found to be significant, and they appear to be associated with differences in the degree of appropriateness of treatments, health sector supply structure and social capital indicators. In general, higher regional expenditure does not appear to be associated with better reported or perceived quality in health services. In the regions that display poorer performances, inefficiencies appear not to be uniformly distributed among expenditure items. Overall, results suggest that savings could be achieved without reducing the amount of services provided to citizens. This seems particularly important given the expected rise in spending associated with the forecasted demographic developments.

  12. Subsidence monitoring update for Emilia-Romagna region (Italy) by integrated use of InSAR and GNSS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitelli, Gabriele; Bonsignore, Flavio; Del Conte, Sara; Novali, Fabrizio; Pellegrino, Immacolata; Vittuari, Luca

    2014-05-01

    The alluvial plain sector (Po Plain) of Emilia Romagna region (Northern Italy) is a subsiding sedimentary basin, due to both natural and human-induced subsidence phenomena. Different Institutions without a plan consistent at regional scale initially monitored subsidence. In 1999 ARPA (Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention) Emilia-Romagna, on behalf of the Emilia-Romagna Region and in collaboration with DICAM Department of the Bologna University, established a network composed by 2300 leveling benchmarks, connected to 60 GNSS points, covering the whole Po Plain sector of the region. In 2005-2006 a first radar interferometry (PSInSAR™) analysis was conducted, exploiting both ESA (ERS - Envisat) and Radarsat satellite data. ARPA, on behalf of the Emilia-Romagna Region, with advisory from DICAM and in collaboration with TRE Tele-Rilevamento Europa, has recently updated the regional subsidence map of the Po Plain sector, using a new integrated approach: in the last campaign, the measurement of the vertical displacement was in fact obtained by the combined use of permanent GNSS stations and advanced InSAR data. The integrated use of these complementary techniques allows to take advantage of the strengths offered by each approach, overcoming their weaknesses. A SqueeSAR™ analysis of Radarsat radar images, acquired between 2006 and 2011, was carried out over the whole regional plain territory (more than 13.000 km2), allowing to obtain a map of vertical displacement for more than 2.000.000 measurement points (MP), with an average point density of 200MP/km2. In parallel, the data from 17 permanent GNSS stations with a long acquisition period were processed with appropriate time series analysis in order to calibrate and validate the InSAR results. The final calibrated outcomes have permitted to obtain a complete and homogeneous map of the subsidence phenomena at regional scale, defining a both "absolute" and relative velocity datum with respect to the ITRF

  13. Serological survey on immunity status against polioviruses in children and adolescents living in a border region, Apulia (Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Tafuri, Silvio; Prato, Rosa; Martinelli, Domenico; Calvario, Agata; Bozzi, Anna; Labianca, Michele; Patti, Annamaria; Lopalco, Pietro Luigi; Germinario, Cinzia

    2008-01-01

    Background In 1988 the World Health Assembly adopted the goal to eradicate poliomyelitis by routine immunization using Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV). On 21 June 2002 the WHO European Region was declared polio-free. In 2008 poliomyelitis is still endemic in 4 countries (Nigeria, India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan), where 1201 new cases were registered in 2007; 107 sporadic cases were also notified in countries where poliovirus is not endemic. The aim of this work was to verify the level of antipoliomyelitis immunity status in children and adolescents in the Apulia region (south of Italy), which may be considered a border region due to its position. Methods 704 blood specimens from a convenience sample were collected in six laboratories. The age of subjects enrolled was 0–15 years. The immunity against poliomyelitis was evaluated by neutralizing antibody titration in tissue culture microplates. Results Seropositivity (neutralising antibodies titre ≥ 8) for polioviruses 1, 2 and 3 was detected in 100%, 99.8% and 99.4% of collected sera. Antibody titres were not lower in subjects who received either four doses of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) or a sequential schedule consisting of two doses of IPV and two of oral polio vaccine than in subjects who received four doses of OPV. Conclusion These results confirmed current data of vaccine coverage for poliomyelitis: during the last ten years in Apulia, the coverage in 24 months old children was more than 90%. The high level of immunization found confirms the effectiveness both of the sequential schedule IPV-OPV and of the schedule all-IPV. Apulia region has to face daily arrivals of refugees and remains subject to the risk of the importation of poliovirus from endemic areas. Surveys aimed at determining anti-polio immunity in subpopulations as well as in the general population should be carried out. PMID:18973678

  14. Regional Body-Wave Attenuation Using a Coda Source Normalization Method: Application to MEDNET Records of Earthquakes in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, W R; Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Scognamiglio, L

    2007-02-01

    We develop a new methodology to determine apparent attenuation for the regional seismic phases Pn, Pg, Sn, and Lg using coda-derived source spectra. The local-to-regional coda methodology (Mayeda, 1993; Mayeda and Walter, 1996; Mayeda et al., 2003) is a very stable way to obtain source spectra from sparse networks using as few as one station, even if direct waves are clipped. We develop a two-step process to isolate the frequency-dependent Q. First, we correct the observed direct wave amplitudes for an assumed geometrical spreading. Next, an apparent Q, combining path and site attenuation, is determined from the difference between the spreading-corrected amplitude and the independently determined source spectra derived from the coda methodology. We apply the technique to 50 earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 4.0 in central Italy as recorded by MEDNET broadband stations around the Mediterranean at local-to-regional distances. This is an ideal test region due to its high attenuation, complex propagation, and availability of many moderate sized earthquakes. We find that a power law attenuation of the form Q(f) = Q{sub 0}f{sup Y} fit all the phases quite well over the 0.5 to 8 Hz band. At most stations, the measured apparent Q values are quite repeatable from event to event. Finding the attenuation function in this manner guarantees a close match between inferred source spectra from direct waves and coda techniques. This is important if coda and direct wave amplitudes are to produce consistent seismic results.

  15. [Which tools should be used to identify educational objectives in the regional health service? The experience in Marche Region (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Bacchielli, Maria Paola

    2010-06-01

    Through a specific methological path, educational objectives of Regional interest have been identified with a punctual analysis of Health Planning documents. While organizing each educational acrivities, all SSR departments indicate the Regional educational objectives they are linked with, each connected to national educational objectives. Continuing Medical Education program in the Marche Region is strictly connected with the acts of health planning from 2006. Each SSR department report accompanying the balance sheets from 2006 to 2009 must contain a section specifically dedicated to ECM Program, indicating the annual budget for ECM Program. All training activities are systematically monitored through a single information tool, shared by all SSR Departments and linked to the SSR Health Operators registry office. Strenghts of the ECM Educational Program of the Marche Region can be summarized as follows: guidance of Educational Program linked in a structured way to the Health Planning goals; punctual indications of redaction modes for PFA and Educational Reports; analytical scanning of activities/costs of the whole Regional Health Service training system, allowing Executive monitorings and reports, i.e. data that General Management can (... should) use to redirect not only training but their Company management as well.

  16. Plants used in artisanal fisheries on the Western Mediterranean coasts of Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Artisanal fisheries in the Mediterranean, especially in Italy, have been poorly investigated. There is a long history of fishing in this region, and it remains an important economic activity in many localities. Our research entails both a comprehensive review of the relevant literature and 58 field interviews with practitioners on plants used in fishing activities along the Western Mediterranean Italian coastal regions. The aims were to record traditional knowledge on plants used in fishery in these regions and to define selection criteria for plant species used in artisanal fisheries, considering ecology and intrinsic properties of plants, and to discuss the pattern of diffusion of shared uses in these areas. Methods Information was gathered both from a general review of ethnobotanical literature and from original data. A total of 58 semi-structured interviews were carried out in Liguria, Latium, Campania and Sicily (Italy). Information on plant uses related to fisheries were collected and analyzed through a chi-square residual analysis and the correspondence analysis in relation to habitat, life form and chorology. Results A total of 60 plants were discussed as being utilized in the fisheries of the Western Italian Mediterranean coastal regions, with 141 different uses mentioned. Of these 141 different uses, 32 are shared among different localities. A multivariate statistical analysis was performed on the entire dataset, resulting in details about specific selection criteria for the different usage categories (plants have different uses that can be classified into 11 main categories). In some uses, species are selected for their features (e.g., woody), or habitat (e.g., riverine), etc. The majority of uses were found to be obsolete (42%) and interviews show that traditional fishery knowledge is in decline. There are several reasons for this, such as climatic change, costs, reduction of fish stocks, etc. Conclusions Our research correlates functional

  17. Diatom diversity and response in metal-polluted river environment: preliminary reports from Gromolo Torrent (Liguria, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capello, Marco; Tolotti, Raffaella; Bernabè, Dimitri; Carbone, Cristina; Consani, Sirio; Vagge, Greta; Cutroneo, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Mineral content and physico-chemical properties of the freshwaters are the main factors affecting both algal assemblages and distributions, while presence of dissolved silicon, low water conductivity, and rocky-mountain habitats host benthic diatom assemblages of high species richness. It is shown that diatoms are sensible to the freshwater acidification (used as pH indicators in acid waters), environmental and climate changes, river organic load, and heavy metal water pollution. For this characteristic, diatoms are among the major biological markers for a variety of environmental and stratigraphic applications. In particular, qualitative and quantitative analyses (assemblage analyses) together with biotic indices as well as morphological and ultrastructure parameterisation provide tools for detailed environmental control and paleo-environmental reconstructions. Severe environmental problems are typically caused by "abandoned mine" and are consequences of the cessation of the mining activity with a lack in infrastructure maintenance. The mine waters which flow into the Gromolo Torrent are almost acidic (pH varying from 2.4 to 5) and enriched in heavy metals and SO42-. This pollution is caused by Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) processes that interest the Libiola mining area, known as a typical example of active AMD processes. The aim of this work is: 1) to characterise the local benthic diatom assemblages along the acidic mine effluents that discharge from Libiola mine, the entire Gromolo torrent course, and in the marine area off the torrent mouth; 2) to identify the main diatom biomarker taxa; 3) to highlight striking situations of equilibrium-disequilibrium in the algal communities, and 4) to point out types and frequency of some teratologies affecting specific diatom taxa as a response to environmental stressors (such as metal-metalloid enrichment). A total of 17 diatom samples was collected and examined, including some marine samples. Diatoms were collected in the riverbed from the hard surface of selected cobblestone by scraping. In laboratory all the samples were washed (by digestion with hydrogen peroxide) and mounted according to the protocol used by the DISTAV Laboratories (University of Genoa). Identification and enumeration of diatom valves was performed using an LM Reichert Jung-Polyvar microscope with 1000x oil-immersion lens. Moreover, a representative subsample of each preparation was observed using SEM images providing an interesting iconographic dataset. Preliminary results show that diatom assemblages are characteristic (in both quality and quantity) in the three different environmental conditions highlighted: a) in AMD environment diatoms are quantitatively scarcely, represented by both typically pioneer and highly tolerant species; b) in the Gromolo torrent diatoms are well represented with fairly well-structured communities, but present specific types and different frequencies in teratological frustula, whereas c) in marine environment they are very poorly represented.

  18. Geo-hydrological risk management for civil protection purposes in the urban area of Genoa (Liguria, NW Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandolini, P.; Cevasco, A.; Firpo, M.; Robbiano, A.; Sacchini, A.

    2012-04-01

    Over the past century the municipal area of Genoa has been affected by recurring flood events and several landslides that have caused severe damage to urbanized areas on both the coastal-fluvial plains and surrounding slopes, sometimes involving human casualties. The analysis of past events' annual distribution indicates that these phenomena have occurred with rising frequency in the last seventy years, following the main land use change due to the development of harbour, industrial, and residential areas, which has strongly impacted geomorphological processes. Consequently, in Genoa, civil protection activities are taking on an increasing importance for geo-hydrological risk mitigation. The current legislative framework assigns a key role in disaster prevention to municipalities, emergency plan development, as well as response action coordination in disaster situations. In view of the geomorphological and environmental complexity of the study area and referring to environmental laws, geo-hydrological risk mitigation strategies adopted by local administrators for civil protection purposes are presented as examples of current land/urban management related to geo-hydrological hazards. Adopted measures have proven to be effective on several levels (planning, management, structure, understanding, and publication) in different cases. Nevertheless, the last flooding event (4 November 2011) has shown that communication and public information concerning the perception of geo-hydrological hazard can be improved.

  19. Magnetic and ground penetrating radar surveys for the research of Medieval settlements in the inland of the Marche Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavusi, M.; Giocoli, A.; Balasco, M.; Favulli, G.; Moscatelli, U.; Minguzzi, S.; Gnesi, D.; Virgili, S.

    2009-04-01

    This work was carried out in the framework of the R.I.M.E.M. project (Research on Medieval settlements in the inland of the Marche Region, Italy.) leaded by the Universities of Macerata and Udine and having the aim to produce a significant contribution for the comprehension of the settlement process in the Central and Southern Italy during the Late Roman Period and Early Middle Ages. Then, an extensive gradiometric survey were carried out, by using a vapour caesium magnetometer, in the area included amongst the municipal districts of Caldarola, Cessapalombo and San Ginesio, sited in the area closed to Macerata between the valleys of Chienti and Fiastra rivers. Moreover, in the most interesting areas, a 400 MHz 3D ground penetrating radar (GPR)survey was carried out in order to get the precise overlapping with the magnetic method. The Magnetic method is now a standard practice in the archaeological research taken into great consideration for its non-destructivity and quickness and its capability of mapping wide areas in quite a short lapse of time (Bavusi et al., 2008). Moreover the method provides an information well correlable with remote sensing data (Gallo et al, 2008). The GPR method is extremely useful for archaeologists thanks to its non-destructivity and capability of giving real-time and high-resolution data (Basile et al., 2000). Today the effectiveness of this method was improved by powerful 3D visualisation methods as well as 3D space, time or depth slices and iso-amplitude surfaces, too (Nuzzo et al., 2002). The integrations of several geophysical methods are usual (Sambuelli et al.1999, De Domenico et al., 2001; Chianese et al., 2004) particularly when a simple comparison in cross section along the same profiles can be performed. In this work the overlapping between two kinds of data was complicated by different outputs coming from two methods: maps for the magnetic method and cross sections for the GPR one. The 3D survey design for the GPR survey and

  20. Real-Time Estimation of Earthquake Location, Magnitude and Rapid Shake map Computation for the Campania Region, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zollo, A.; Convertito, V.; de Matteis, R.; Iannaccone, G.; Lancieri, M.; Lomax, A.; Satriano, C.

    2005-12-01

    A prototype system for earthquake early warning and rapid shake map evaluation is being developed and tested in southern Italy based on a dense, wide dynamic-range seismic network (accelerometers + seismometers) under installation in the Apenninic belt region (Irpinia Seismic Network). This system forms a regional Earthquake Early Warning System consisting of a seismic sensor network covering a portion of the expected epicentral area for large earrthquakes. Considering a warning window ranging from tens of seconds before to hundred of seconds after an earthquake, several public infrastructures and buildings of strategic relevance (hospitals, gas pipelines, railways, railroads, ...) of the Regione Campania are potential test-sites for testing innovative technologies for data acquisition, processing and transmission. A potential application of an early warning system in the Campania region based on the Irpinia network, should consider an expected time delay to the first energetic S wave train varying between 14-20 sec at 40-60 km distance to 26-30 sec at about 80-100 km, from a crustal earthquake occurring in the source region. The latter is the typical time window available for mitigating earthquake effects through early warning in the city of Naples (about 2 million of inhabitants including suburbs). We have developed a method for real time earthquake location following a probabilistic approach. The earthquake location is expressed as a probability density function for the hypocenter location in 3D space based on the concept of equal differential-time (EDT). It provides a location as the maximum of a stack over quasi-hyperbolic surfaces. On each surface the difference of calculated travel-times at a pair of stations is equal to the difference of observed arrival times at the same pair of stations. For an increasing number of P-wave readings, progressively acquired in the short time after the occurrence of an earthquake, the EDT method can be generalized by

  1. Rockfall risk assessment for a road along the coastal rocky slope of Maratea (Basilicata Region, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicani, R.; Spilotro, G.; Colangelo, G.; Petraglia, A.; Pizzo, V.

    2012-04-01

    The rockfall risk has been evaluated for the Tirrena Inferiore State Road SS18 between 220+600 and 243+670 Kilometers in the coastal area of Maratea (Basilicata, Italy) through a specific multilayer technique. These results are particularly significant as validated in field through the occurrence of rockfall events after the study. The study part of "Tirrena Inferiore" SS18 road is often affected by rockfalls, which periodically (coinciding with abundant rainfalls, earthquakes and temperature lowering) cause large amount of damage and traffic interruptions. In order to assess the rockfall risk and define the countermeasure needed to mitigate the risk, an integrated index-based and physically-based approach was implemented. The roadway is subject to slopes with steep rocky vertical or sub-vertical faces affected by different systems of discontinuities, that show a widespread fracturing. The superficial parts of slopes are characterized by gaping fracturing, often karstified. Several historical rockfall events were recognized in the area and numerous geomechanical analyses, finalized to the stability analysis of rock walls, were carried out. The localization of the potentially unstable areas and the quantification of relative rockfall risk were evaluated through three successive phases of analysis. First, a map based on SMR (Slope Mass Rating) Index of Romana (1985) was produced, through a spatial analysis of both geomechanical parameters, such as the RMR Index of Bieniawski, and the distribution of the discontinuities. This approach therefore allowed the estimation of the potentially unstable zones and their classification on the basis of the resulting stability degree. Subsequently, an analysis of the rockfall trajectories in correspondence to the most unstable zones of slope was carried out by using ROTOMAP, a 3-dimensional rock-fall simulation software. The input data for computing the rockfall trajectories are the following: (1) digital terrain model (DTM), (2

  2. Surveillance of healthcare-associated infections in Piemonte, Italy: results from a second regional prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) was previously performed in the Piemonte region in 2000. In the decade following the survey, many studies were performed at both the regional and hospital levels, and training courses were developed to address issues highlighted by the survey. In 2010, a second regional prevalence study was performed. The aim of this paper is to present the results of the second prevalence study and discuss them within the context of the HAI prevention and control programmes that have been implemented in the decade since the original survey was conducted. Methods The study involved all public hospitals in the Piemonte region. Uni- and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the main risk factors associated with HAIs, including both overall and site-specific infections. Results A total of 7841 patients were enrolled: 6.8% were affected by at least one HAI. The highest prevalence of HAIs was found in intensive care units (18.0%, 95% CI 14.0-22.6), while UTIs presented the highest relative frequency (26.7%), followed by respiratory tract infections (21.9%). The age of the patient, hospital size and urinary and central venous catheter status were significantly associated with HAIs. Conclusions The study results showed an increase in HAI prevalence, despite prevention and control efforts, as well as training implemented after the first regional survey. Nevertheless, these data are consistent with the current literature. Furthermore, despite its limits, the prevalence approach remains an important means for involving healthcare workers, emphasising HAIs and revealing critical problems that need be addressed. PMID:24899239

  3. Assessing the Potential of Farming Regions to Fulfill Agro-Environmental Functions: A Case Study in Tuscany (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marraccini, Elisa; Rapey, Hélène; Galli, Mariassunta; Lardon, Sylvie; Bonari, Enrico

    2013-03-01

    The increasing interest in agro-environmental management entails having tools to assess, monitor and map agro-environmental functions (AEFs) in different regional contexts. In Europe, decision-making in agro-environmental policies generally targets single functions instead of multiple ones and rarely considers the regional variability of agricultural or geo-physical conditions that may influence the fulfillment of functions. We propose and test a method to assess the potential of farming regions to fulfill a set of AEFs. The method was applied in the "Collina interna grossetana" farming region (Italy) and concerned three functions: protection of surface water from nitrates, protection of soil from erosion, and conservation of landscape diversity. These functions were qualified and mapped using various geo-physical and land cover descriptors from common geographical datasets. All of the descriptors were combined using geographical cluster analysis to identify their contribution to the three functions, and thus to assess the potential of the farming region to fulfill these functions. Three levels of potential were calculated, according to the more or less favorable fulfillment of soil and water functions. No totally favorable contribution to the functions was identified in the studied area. Moreover, we mapped the spatial patterns obtained for the different levels of potential. The landscape diversity function was found to be the least variable in the study area, while different patterns were identified for the other functions. In fact, the northern and central sections of the study region were organized more in the form of large core areas of different levels of potential, whereas the southern section presented more boundary areas, small core areas and isolated pixels. The method may help to establish local priorities in agro-environmental management pointing out where the set of functions is completely or partially fulfilled, as well as where and how it is more or

  4. Analysis of coastal sea-level station records and implications for tsunami monitoring in the Adriatic Apulia region, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, Lidia; Tinti, Stefano; Tallarico, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The region of Apulia, southern Italy, was theater of one of the largest tsunami disaster in Italian history (the 30 July 1627 event) and is considered to be exposed to tsunami hazard coming from local Italian sources as well as from sources on the eastern side of the Adriatic and from the Ionian sea, including the Hellenic Arc earthquakes. Scientific interest for tsunami studies and monitoring in the region is only recent and this theme was specifically addressed by the international project OTRIONS, coordinated by the University of Bari. In the frame of this project the University of Bologna contributed to the analysis of the tsunami hazard and to the evaluation of the regional tide-gauge network with the scope of assessing its adequacy for tsunami monitoring. This latter is the main topic of the present work. In eastern Apulia, facing the Adriatic sea, the sea-level data network is sufficiently dense being formed of stations of the Italian tide-gauge network (Rete Mareografica Nazionale, RMN), of four additional stations operated by the Apulia Port Authority (in Brindisi, Ischitella, Manfredonia and Porto Cesareo) and of two more stations that were installed in the harbours of Barletta and Monopoli in the frame of the project OTRIONS with real-time data transmission and 1-sec sampling period. Pre-processing of the sea-level data of these stations included quality check and spectral analysis. Where the sampling rate was adequate, the records were also examined by means of the specific tools provided by the TEDA package. This is a Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm, developed by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna, that allows one to characterize the sea-level background signal in the typical tsunami frequency window (from 1 to several minutes) and consequently to optimize TEDA parameters for an efficient tsunami detection. The results of the analysis show stability of the spectral content and seasonal variations.

  5. Sensing Slow Mobility and Interesting Locations for Lombardy Region (italy): a Case Study Using Pointwise Geolocated Open Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovelli, M. A.; Oxoli, D.; Zurbarán, M. A.

    2016-06-01

    During the past years Web 2.0 technologies have caused the emergence of platforms where users can share data related to their activities which in some cases are then publicly released with open licenses. Popular categories for this include community platforms where users can upload GPS tracks collected during slow travel activities (e.g. hiking, biking and horse riding) and platforms where users share their geolocated photos. However, due to the high heterogeneity of the information available on the Web, the sole use of these user-generated contents makes it an ambitious challenge to understand slow mobility flows as well as to detect the most visited locations in a region. Exploiting the available data on community sharing websites allows to collect near real-time open data streams and enables rigorous spatial-temporal analysis. This work presents an approach for collecting, unifying and analysing pointwise geolocated open data available from different sources with the aim of identifying the main locations and destinations of slow mobility activities. For this purpose, we collected pointwise open data from the Wikiloc platform, Twitter, Flickr and Foursquare. The analysis was confined to the data uploaded in Lombardy Region (Northern Italy) - corresponding to millions of pointwise data. Collected data was processed through the use of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) in order to organize them into a suitable database. This allowed to run statistical analyses on data distribution in both time and space by enabling the detection of users' slow mobility preferences as well as places of interest at a regional scale.

  6. Molecular characterization of hepatitis A outbreak in the province of Rome, Lazio region, Italy, January-July 2013.

    PubMed

    Capobianchi, Maria R; Garbuglia, Anna Rosa; Agrati, Chiara; Rianda, Alessia; Noto, Pasquale; Corpolongo, Angela; Cataldo, Maria Adriana; Rosati, Silvia; Zaccaro, Paola; Loffredo, Mariarosaria; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Girardi, Enrico; Scognamiglio, Paola; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    Reduced circulation of hepatitis A virus lead to an increase of susceptible individuals, and outbreaks occurred recently. In Northern Italy an outbreak is ongoing, attributed to a monophyletic genotype IA strain, with mixed frozen berries as probable source. From 01/01/2013 to 07/15/2013, 30 cases were diagnosed at National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Rome, Italy, representing about twice the number of cases in whole 2012. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that most, although not all, infections were attributable to the same monophyletic genotype IA strain identified in the contemporary Northern Italy outbreak. This strain is also very similar to previous isolates from Venezuela.

  7. The combined Fog Monitoring System of ARPAV over the Veneto Region, Po Valley - Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domenichini, F.; Rossa, A.; Zardini, F.; Monai, M.; Calza, M.; Della Valle, A.; Gaspari, V.

    2010-07-01

    The presence of fog is a frequent problem in the Po Valley. The consequent reduction in visibility has a strong impact on the road, air, ship and railway traffic. Both, fog monitoring and forecasting, constitute significant challenges, not least due to the high spatial and temporal variability of the phenomenon. ARPAV (Regional Agency for Environmental Prevention and Protection of Veneto) is the regional meteorological service of the north-eastern Italian region Veneto and, as such, is responsible for meteorological support to institutional and private users. Real-time visibility information over an extended area would represent an interesting product for road and transport safety. In the framework of the FP7 project Roadidea, (14 partners from 8 different countries, Dec 2007 - Aug 2010) on road safety and traffic control ARPAV developed pilot system for the fog monitoring. The main idea of this fog monitoring methodology is to merge information derived from different observation platforms, i.e. satellite low stratus cloud classification, direct visibility monitoring, statistical estimation of low visibility from meteorological parameters at the ground. This information is translated into probability maps of fog occurrence and information weight on a common grid (4x4 km) covering the flat portion of the region Veneto. These weights are used to combine the three data sources into the final fog probability map. A probabilistic verification applied to the fog monitoring product yields encouraging results, and is systematically more skillfull than the fog probabilities derived from the individual data sources. First real-time products are now available on the ARPAV Fog Pilot website for a group of specific users (motorway head office, road police, national railways and others) and are under testing.

  8. Dog filariosis in the Lazio region (Central Italy): first report on the presence of Dirofilaria repens

    PubMed Central

    Scaramozzino, Paola; Gabrielli, Simona; Di Paolo, Michele; Sala, Marcello; Scholl, Francesco; Cancrini, Gabriella

    2005-01-01

    Background Epidemiological investigations were carried out in the Lazio Region to assess the status of canine filariosis and to evaluate the actual risk for veterinary and medical public health. Methods Since August 2001 to June 2003, a total of 972 canine blood samples, collected in public kennels and from private owners animals of the 5 Provinces of the Region, were tested. The presence of filarial parasites was evaluated by microscopy and bio-molecular techniques; the species identification was performed by means of the same diagnostic tools. Results A total of 17/972 (1.75%; 95%CI 1.06%–2.85%) blood samples were parasitized by D. repens,13 out them drawn by dogs resident in the Province of Roma, and 4 in the other provinces. Multivariate analysis was performed in order to evaluate the association between filariosis and risk factors. The origin from coastal territories seems to be a significant risk factor to acquire the infection. Conclusion This is the first report of canine filariosis in the Lazio Region, where D. repens was before reported only in foxes. The risk of human zoonotic infection is stressed, and the absence of other filarial species is discussed PMID:16185352

  9. Four year longitudinal study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in a region of North-Eastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Fallico, Loredana; Couvin, David; Peracchi, Marta; Pascarella, Michela; Franchin, Elisa; Lavezzo, Enrico; Rassu, Mario; Manganelli, Riccardo; Rastogi, Nalin; Palù, Giorgio

    2014-08-01

    Recent reports have suggested a change of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex genetic diversity in Western Europe due to an increasing proportion of imported cases of tuberculosis (TB). This study analyzed a total of 705 M. tuberculosis strains isolated from 2006 to 2009 in Veneto, a North-Eastern Italian region, to see the impact of foreign-born cases vs. Italian patients on prevailing TB epidemiology. Strains were genotyped using spoligotyping followed by comparison with international genotyping database SITVIT2. Six spoligotyping clusters with suspected phylogeographical specificity for imported cases, were typed by 15-loci MIRUs for a finer characterization. Overall, 410 (58.16%) strains were isolated from foreign-born patients, while 295 (41.84%) were isolated from Italian patients. Older patients (>70 years, i.e., 46.4% of cases) predominated among Italians while younger age groups prevailed among foreign-born patients. Our results suggest that despite a high proportion of reactivation of latent TB infection in elderly Italian-born patients, active TB transmission between foreign-born and Italian patients may be ongoing, and argue in favor of an increased TB surveillance among immigrants to combat TB epidemic in Italy.

  10. Bioclimatic requirements for olive flowering in two Mediterranean regions located at the same latitude (Andalucia, Spain and Sicily, Italy).

    PubMed

    Orlandi, Fabio; Vazquez, Luis Manuel; Ruga, Luigia; Bonofiglio, Tommaso; Fornaciari, Marco; Garcia-Mozo, Herminia; Domínguez, Eugenio; Romano, Bruno; Galan, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    The Mediterranean Region is the major area devoted to olive tree crop, and therefore a study of olive flowering is of great interest for the European Community. On the other hand, olive pollen is one of the main causes of pollen allergy in the Mediterranean area. Olive flowering is affected by climatic factors such as temperature and photoperiod, which vary geographically in latitude and altitude. Temperature has been used to study those processes that lead to flowering in the olive tree. The aim of the present paper is firstly the comparison of the flowering full bloom dates in two Mediterranean areas, Sicily (Italy) and Cordoba (Spain), located in the same latitudinal band (37-38 degrees N) and to calculate the heat requirement until flowering by determination of different threshold temperatures and methods of heat accumulation. A delay of the full flowering dates in the Spanish compared with the Italian olive groves was observed. The most suitable threshold temperatures were carried out in a 7 degrees -15 degrees C range by considering the heat accumulation start on 1 January in each olive grove. In particular, some causes were indicated as responsible for the different threshold temperatures recorded in the 2 study areas: First, the different climatic conditions (continental and insular climate) secondly the different cultivars present in the olive groves.

  11. Evaluation of coastal vulnerability to flooding: comparison of two different methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perini, L.; Calabrese, L.; Salerno, G.; Ciavola, P.; Armaroli, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting and comparing two methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy, to evaluate coastal vulnerability and to produce hazard and risk maps for coastal floods, in the framework of the EU Floods Directive. The first approach was adopted before the directive had been issued. Three scenarios of damage were designed (1-, 10-, 100-year return periods), produced by the concurrent occurrence of a storm, high surge levels and high-water spring tidal levels. Wave heights were used to calculate run-up values along 187 equally spaced profiles, and these were added to the tidal and atmospheric water level contributions. The result is a list of 10 vulnerability typologies. To satisfy the requirements of the directive, the Geological, Seismic and Soil Service (SGSS) recently implemented a different methodology that considers three scenarios (10-, 100- and > 100-year return periods) in terms of wave setup (not including run-up) plus the contribution of surge levels as well as the occurrence of high-water springs. The flooded area extension is determined by a series of computations that are part of a model built into ArcGIS®. The model uses as input a high-resolution lidar DEM that is then processed using a least-path cost analysis. Inundation maps are then overlapped with land use maps to produce risk maps. The qualitative validation and the comparison between the two methods are also presented, showing a positive agreement.

  12. The cry wolf issue in seismic early warning applications: a feasibility study for the Campanian Region (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iervolino, I.; Convertito, V.; Manfredi, G.; Zollo, A.; Giorgio, M.; Pulcini, G.

    2005-12-01

    Seismic risk management consists of mitigation strategies, planning and emergency preparedness. Early warning systems (EWS), based on real-time analysis of ground motion proxy measures, may play a role in reducing vulnerability of built environment and lifelines. EWS applications may not be cost free and their effectiveness is related to missed and false alarm probabilities (PMA and PFA respectively). The Campanian region in southern Italy is developing a seismic early warning systems for the active area where the Irpinia 1980 earthquake was generated. The work herein discussed represents a feasibility study on the cry wolf issue in seismic early warning applications. The false and missed alarm events are formulated in terms of structural response parameters and ground motion intensity measures. PMA and PFA are computed simulating the EWS prediction of ground motion by use of simulated ground motion; the site where the structure is supposed to be located is assumed to be at 100 km from the EW network. The I and II type risk are evaluated for the decisional rule adopted and operating characteristic curves are developed.

  13. Determination of estrogenic activity in the river Chienti (Marche Region, Italy) by using in vivo and in vitro bioassays.

    PubMed

    Cocci, Paolo; Palermo, Francesco Alessandro; Quassinti, Luana; Bramucci, Massimo; Miano, Antonino; Mosconi, Gilberto

    2016-05-01

    Environmental estrogen-like compounds (i.e. xenoestrogens) are a variety of pollutants, ranging from synthetic to natural occurring molecules, that are found in surface and waste waters over a wide range of concentrations. In aquatic environment, the overall estrogenic activity is often due to the presence of a mixture of chemicals and their degraded products which can induce synergistic effects. Current strategies for monitoring estrogen-like chemicals are based on the use of a battery of in vivo and in vitro ecotoxicological tests. In this regard, the aim of the present work was to carry out a bio-monitoring study for testing estrogenicity of the Chienti river (Marche Region, Italy) by using both an E-screen and a vitellogenin (Vtg) induction assay in juvenile goldfish. Three sites were used for analysis, localized at the mouth (sampling point 1), in the middle (sampling point 2) and at the origin (sampling point 3) of Chienti river. For most of the water samples (i.e. samples collected at sampling points 2 and 3), clear estrogenic activity was detected in the E-screen assay suggesting different proliferation activities in function of the collecting site. In contrast, the Vtg ELISA demonstrated that water samples collected from each sampling point were estrogenic. Overall, we showed for the first time that the estrogenic activities in water samples from the Chienti river were significant in both in vivo and in vitro; we also observed a different sensitivity between bioassays. PMID:27155408

  14. Pneumonia of lambs in the Abruzzo region of Italy: anatomopathological and histopathological studies and localisation of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Ettorre, Chiara; Sacchini, Flavio; Scacchia, Massimo; Della Salda, Leonardo

    2007-01-01

    The most common forms of inflammation of the lower respiratory tract in lambs are acute enzootic pneumonia, caused mainly by Mannheimia haemolytica, chronic enzootic pneumonia (defined as 'atypical' in lambs), the aetiological of which is Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and viral inflammation principally caused by parainfluenza virus type 3. The authors conducted anatomopathological and histopathological studies of the most commonly encountered spontaneous lung inflammations in lambs slaughtered in the Abruzzo region of Italy, with special attention to 'atypical pneumonia'. Microbiological isolations and a histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis were performed to reveal any possible correlations between causal agents and lesion patterns. Positive results for M. ovipneumoniae were compared to those for Mycoplasma isolation to evaluate the sensitivity of the two techniques. Of a total of 156 samples, 31 (19.8%) demonstrated involvement of M. ovipneumoniae, 15 (9.6%) were positive on microbiological isolation confirmed by typing with biomolecular methods and, finally, histological lesions (atypical pneumonia) were observed in the remaining 16 cases (10.2%). Of these 31 samples, 23 (14.7% of the total) demonstrated postive antigen in alveolar macrophages and giant cells on immunohistochemical testing. These data revealed the presence of chronic enzootic pneumonia in the Abruzzo area and the importance of immunohistochemistry (in combination with isolation and anatomopathological and histopathological examination) for the diagnosis of pneumonia caused by M. ovipneumoniae, as well as the high sensitivity shown by antigen marker expression, even in samples where bacterial load was limited.

  15. Prevalence and Molecular Characterisation of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia Coli in Raw Milk Cheeses from Lazio Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    De Santis, Paola; Lovari, Sarah; Condoleo, Roberto; Bilei, Stefano; Marcianò, Rita; Mezher, Ziad

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the incidence of foodborne diseases caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) has increased globally. For this reason, within the specific regional control plan for the detection of STEC in food products in Italy, the presence of STEC in unpasteurised milk cheeses was investigated. In total, 203 samples obtained from March 2011 to December 2013 were analysed, with two standard methods (ISO 16654:2001 and ISO 13136:2012). Two strains of E. coli O157 were isolated (2/161, 1.2%) but did not carry any virulence-associated genes and 22 stx-positive samples (22/146, 15.1%) were detected in enrichment cultures, mostly from ovine cheeses. Only two strains isolated from different ovine cheeses carried stx gene and none of these was eae-positive. This study confirms the presence of stx-positive E. coli and suggests that this type of food cannot be excluded as a potential vehicle of STEC. PMID:27800426

  16. Evaluation of coastal vulnerability to flooding: comparison of two different methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perini, L.; Calabrese, L.; Salerno, G.; Ciavola, P.; Armaroli, C.

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims at presenting and comparing two methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna Region, northern Italy, to evaluate coastal vulnerability and to produce hazard and risk maps for coastal floods, in the framework of the EU Floods Directive. The first approach was adopted before the Directive had been issued. Three scenarios of damage were designed (1, 10, 100-year return periods), produced by the concurrent happening of a storm, high surge levels and high water spring tidal levels. Wave heights were used to calculate run-up values along 187 equally spaced profiles and these were added to the tidal and atmospheric water level contributions. The result is a list of ten vulnerability typologies. To satisfy the requests of the Directive, the Geological, Seismic and Soil Service (SGSS) recently implement a different methodology that considers three scenarios (10, 100 and > 100-year return periods) in terms of set-up (not including run-up) plus the contribution of surge levels as well as the High Water Springs. The flooded area extension is determined by a series of computations that are part of a model built into ArcGIS®. The model uses as input a high resolution Lidar DEM that is then processed using the Cost-Distance tool of ArcGIS®. Inundation maps are then overlapped to land use maps to produce risk maps. The qualitative validation and the comparison between the two methods are also presented, showing a positive agreement.

  17. Molecular typing of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium isolated in Abruzzo region (Italy) from 2008 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Alessiani, Alessandra; Sacchini, Lorena; Pontieri, Eugenio; Gavini, Jacopo; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 47 antibiotic-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) were characterised, including 15 monophasic variants 1, 4, [5], 12:i:-, (STm) isolated from different matrices. They were all selected from 389 Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica strains isolated during 2008-2010 in Abruzzo region (Italy). Thirty-seven strains showed to be resistant to more than 1 antibiotic. Among 47 isolates, phage type U311 and DT104 were identified. The ASSuT resistance pattern was predominant in mST strains and ACSSuT in ST DT104 and U302. A multiplex Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method was used to investigate 4 genes: fluorfenicol (floSt), virulence (spvC), invasine (invA) and integrase (int). All ST the strain were positive for invA gene and 28,32% of strains were positive for spvC gene. PFGE analysis revealed a large number of small clonal populations, however not ascrivable to outbreaks.

  18. Improvements of the Regional Seismic network of Northwestern Italy in the framework of ALCoTra program activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosco, Fabrizio

    2014-05-01

    Arpa Piemonte (Regional Agency for Environmental Protection), in partnership with University of Genoa, manages the regional seismic network, which is part of the Regional Seismic network of Northwestern Italy (RSNI). The network operates since the 80s and, over the years, it has developed in technological features, analysis procedures and geographical coverage. In particular in recent years the network has been further enhanced through the integration of Swiss and French stations installed in the cross-border area. The environmental context enables the installation of sensors in sites with good conditions as regards ambient noise and limited local amplification effects (as proved by PSD analysis, signal quality monitoring via PQLX, H/V analysis). The instrumental equipment consists of Broadband and Very Broadband sensors (Nanometrics Trillium 40" and 240") and different technological solutions for signals real-time transmission (cable, satellite, GPRS), according to the different local environment, with redundant connections and with experimental innovative systems. Digital transmission and acquisition systems operate through standard protocols (Nanometrics, SeedLink), with redundancy in data centers (Genoa, Turin, Rome). Both real-time automatic and manual operational procedures are in use for signals analysis (events detection, picking, focal parameters and ground shaking determination). In the framework of cross-border cooperation program ALCoTra (http://www.interreg-alcotra.org), approved by the European Commission, several projects have been developed to improve the performances of seismic monitoring systems used by partners (Arpa Piemonte, Aosta Valley Region, CNRS, Joseph Fourier University). The cross-border context points out first of all the importance of signals sharing (from 14 to 23 stations in narrow French-Italian border area, with an increase of over 50%) and of coordination during new stations planning and installation in the area. In the ongoing

  19. RandAgiamo™, a Pilot Project Increasing Adoptability of Shelter Dogs in the Umbria Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Menchetti, Laura; Mancini, Stefania; Catalani, Maria Chiara; Boccini, Beatrice; Diverio, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Current Italian legislation does not permit euthanasia of dogs, unless they are ill or dangerous. Despite good intentions and ethical benefits, this 'no-kill policy' has caused a progressive overpopulation of dogs in shelters, due to abandonment rates being higher than adoption rates. Shelter overcrowding has negative implications for dog welfare and increases public costs. The aim of this paper is to describe the pilot project "RandAgiamo" implemented in a rescue shelter in the Umbria Region and to evaluate its effectiveness on the rate of dog adoption using official data. RandAgiamo aimed to increase adult shelter dogs' adoptability by a standard training and socialization programme. It also promoted dogs' visibility by publicizing them through social media and participation in events. We analysed the official data of the Umbria regional health authorities regarding dog shelters of the Perugia province of the year 2014. In the RandAgiamo shelter, the dog adoption rate was 27.5% higher than that of dogs housed in other shelters located in the same geographical area (P < 0.001). The RandAgiamo project could be beneficial for the dogs' welfare, owner satisfaction, shelter management, and public perception of shelter dogs. However, staff were required to provide dog training and related activities. PMID:26479385

  20. The influence of climate variability on chemical composition of European wines: a regional scale study (Italy and Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbante, Carlo; Polo, Fabio; Cozzi, Giulio; Ogrinc, Nives; Turetta, Clara

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is having an increasing influence on vine phenology and grape composition, affecting vinifications, wine chemistry and the quality of productions. Wine grape cultivation provides a good test case for measuring indirect impacts mediated by changes in agriculture, because viticulture is sensitive to climate and is concentrated in Mediterranean climate regions that are global biodiversity hotspots. Moreover, on a regional level and on a shorter time scale, the seasonal weather conditions modify the quality of yields determining the final properties of wine. In the present research, we studied wines from Italy and Slovenia with the purpose of differentiating them by the different vintages (from 2009 to 2012), which are supposed to be influenced by temperature and rain during each year's growing season. Specific chemical techniques were used, in particular mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and isotopic mass spectrometry (IRMS), both of which are usually employed to detect wine adulterations and to establish the geographical provenance of wines. In particular, we investigated the relationship between macro- and micro-elements, Rare Earth Elements and stable isotopes [δ13C, δ18O, (D/H)I, (D/H)II]. The datasets were examined via statistical techniques to show their relation to weather conditions as well as their mutual connection. Italian and Slovenian wines were distinguished, with the exception of few samples, by both TEs and REEs results. This separation, due to different elemental compositions, may be justified as being part of two distinct environmental and geographical belongings (terroir) but also to the processes of wine production, from the harvest to the bottling, which have certainly interfered and characterized the products. In the case of Italian wines the weather conditions were evidenced with an important separation of stable isotopes which they confirmed to be very sensitive Regarding Slovenian wines, the studied regions were characterized of

  1. Spatial, seasonal trends and transboundary transport of PM2.5 inorganic ions in the Veneto region (Northeastern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiol, Mauro; Benetello, Francesca; Harrison, Roy M.; Formenton, Gianni; De Gaspari, Francesco; Pavoni, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    The Veneto region lies in the eastern part of the Po Valley (Italy). This is one of the hotspots in Europe for air quality, where efforts to meet the European standard for PM2.5 according to current and future legislation have been generally unsuccessful. Recent data indicating that ammonium, nitrate and sulphate account for about one third of total PM2.5 mass show that secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) plays a key role in the exceedence of the standards. A sampling campaign for PM2.5 was carried out simultaneously in six major cities (2012-2013). The water soluble inorganic ions were quantified and data processed to: (1) investigate the seasonal trends and the spatial variations of the ionic component of aerosol; (2) identify chemical characteristics at the regional-scale and (3) assess the potential effects of long-range transport using back-trajectory cluster analysis and concentration-weighted trajectory (CWT) models. Results indicated that PM2.5 and SIA ions have an increasing gradient in concentrations from North (mountain) to South (lowland) and from East (coastal) to West (more continental), whereas K+ and Ca2+ levels are quite uniformly distributed. Similar seasonal trends in PM2.5 and ions are seen across the region. Simultaneous daily changes were observed and interpreted as a consequence of similar emission sources, secondary pollutant generation and accumulation/removal processes. Sulphate and nitrate were not directly related to the concentrations of their precursor gases and were generally largely, but not completely, neutralised by ammonium. The clustering of back-trajectories and CWT demonstrate that the long-range movement of the air masses has a major impact upon PM2.5 and ion concentrations: an area spreading from Eastern to Central Europe was identified as a main potential source for most ions. The valley sites are also heavily influenced by local emissions in slow moving northerly air masses. Finally, two episodes of high nitrate levels were

  2. Mass balance and life cycle assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system implemented in Lombardia Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, L; Falbo, A; Forte, F; Grosso, M; Rigamonti, L

    2015-08-15

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in Europe, whose content of hazardous substances as well as of valuable materials makes the study of the different management options particularly interesting. The present study investigates the WEEE management system in Lombardia Region (Italy) in the year 2011 by applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. An extensive collection of primary data was carried out to describe the main outputs and the energy consumptions of the treatment plants. Afterwards, the benefits and burdens associated with the treatment and recovery of each of the five categories in which WEEE is classified according to the Italian legislation (heaters and refrigerators - R1, large household appliances - R2, TV and monitors - R3, small household appliances - R4 and lighting equipment - R5) were evaluated. The mass balance of the treatment and recovery system of each of the five WEEE categories showed that steel and glass are the predominant streams of materials arising from the treatment; a non-negligible amount of plastic is also recovered, together with small amounts of precious metals. The LCA of the regional WEEE management system showed that the benefits associated with materials and energy recovery balance the burdens of the treatment processes, with the sole exception of two impact categories (human toxicity-cancer effects and freshwater ecotoxicity). The WEEE categories whose treatment and recovery resulted more beneficial for the environment and the human health are R3 and R5. The contribution analysis showed that overall the main benefits are associated with the recovery of metals, as well as of plastic and glass. Some suggestions for improving the performance of the system are given, as well as an indication for a more-in-depth analysis for the toxicity categories and a proposal for a new characterisation method for WEEE.

  3. Mass balance and life cycle assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management system implemented in Lombardia Region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, L; Falbo, A; Forte, F; Grosso, M; Rigamonti, L

    2015-08-15

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the fastest growing waste streams in Europe, whose content of hazardous substances as well as of valuable materials makes the study of the different management options particularly interesting. The present study investigates the WEEE management system in Lombardia Region (Italy) in the year 2011 by applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. An extensive collection of primary data was carried out to describe the main outputs and the energy consumptions of the treatment plants. Afterwards, the benefits and burdens associated with the treatment and recovery of each of the five categories in which WEEE is classified according to the Italian legislation (heaters and refrigerators - R1, large household appliances - R2, TV and monitors - R3, small household appliances - R4 and lighting equipment - R5) were evaluated. The mass balance of the treatment and recovery system of each of the five WEEE categories showed that steel and glass are the predominant streams of materials arising from the treatment; a non-negligible amount of plastic is also recovered, together with small amounts of precious metals. The LCA of the regional WEEE management system showed that the benefits associated with materials and energy recovery balance the burdens of the treatment processes, with the sole exception of two impact categories (human toxicity-cancer effects and freshwater ecotoxicity). The WEEE categories whose treatment and recovery resulted more beneficial for the environment and the human health are R3 and R5. The contribution analysis showed that overall the main benefits are associated with the recovery of metals, as well as of plastic and glass. Some suggestions for improving the performance of the system are given, as well as an indication for a more-in-depth analysis for the toxicity categories and a proposal for a new characterisation method for WEEE. PMID:25913003

  4. Determinants of land take at the regional scale: a study concerning Sardinia (Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Zoppi, Corrado Lai, Sabrina

    2015-11-15

    In its “Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe” (Communication COM(2011) 571 of 20 September 2011), the European Commission (EC) established an ambitious goal for the European Union (EU), that of achieving no land take by 2050; towards this aim, a key milestone for the year 2020 was set, by stating that European policies in the programming period 2014–2020 ought to consider both their direct and their indirect impacts on land use in the EU. Within this framework, this paper builds upon the findings of a previous paper (Zoppi and Lai, 2014), in which we estimated the magnitude of land take over a short period of time (2003–2008) in Sardinia, an Italian NUTS2 region, and we assessed whether and how land take is related to a set of variables that are regarded as important determinants in the literature, such as parcel size, accessibility, and proximity to main cities and towns, to the coastline, or to protected areas. In this paper we study the land-taking process taking Sardinia as a case study, in two larger time periods, 1960–1990 and 1990–2008. We assess if, and to what extent, these factors reveal similar, or different, effects in the two periods, and try to identify consistencies concerning the determinants of land take. - Highlights: • Population density and parcel size significantly affect the magnitude of land take. • The presence of nature conservation areas hinders land taking processes. • Extensive urbanization might effectively preserve non-artificial land. • Balanced accessibility of settlements and nature conservation regional policies can effectively contrast land take. • Size of non-artificial land parcels that become artificial is negatively and significantly connected to land take.

  5. A new regional RADAR network for nowcasting applications: the RESMAR achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonini, Andrea; Melani, Samantha; Mazza, Alessandro; Ortolani, Alberto; Gozzini, Bernardo; Corongiu, Manuela; Cristofori, Simone

    2013-04-01

    Monitoring weather phenomena from radar has an essential role in nowcasting applications. As one of the most useful sources of quantitative precipitation estimation, rainfall radar analysis can be a very useful research tool in supporting methods for rainfall forecasting. Its short-term prediction is often needed in various meteorological and hydrological applications where accurate prediction of rainfall is essential from national service and civil protection forecasting up to agriculture and urban issues. Very recently, Tuscany region (central Italy) is equipped with two X-band radars with a maximum range of 108 km, a beam width of 3° and a high spatial resolution (i.e., radial resolution up to 90m), located in Livorno and Cima del Monte (Elba island) sites. The first system is property of Livorno's port Authority, the second one of Consorzio LaMMA (Laboratory of Monitoring and Environmental Modelling for the sustainable development) who has installed it in the framework of "RESMAR - Environmental Resources in the MARitime Space" activities, a strategic project, financed in the framework of the European Cross-Border Cooperation Programme Italy-France "Maritime", coordinated by the Liguria Region Administration. Both systems are managed by LaMMA. The cross-border sharing of such relevant meteorological observation instruments and the integration of these data with existing tools and methodologies is intended to improve operational regional weather services in nowcasting activities and their impacts on the territory, as those related to LaMMA daily issues. This sharing is widely promoted within RESMAR project between the different partner regions (ARPA-Sardinia, Meteo-France and Liguria). The integration of these data with other complementary and ancillary measurements is also needed to increase the reliability and accuracy of radar measurements in view of both a better meteorological phenomena understanding and quantitative precipitation estimation. The use of

  6. GIS thematic layers for assessing karst hazard in Murgia region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canora, Filomena; D'Angella, Annachiara; Fidelibus, Dolores; Lella, Angela; Pellicani, Roberta; Spilotro, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    The assessment of karst hazard in a carbonate area may be somewhat complex for the multiplicity of involved factors (geological, hydrological, morphological, anthropogenic, etc.), their history and the slow rate of evolution of the processes. In coastal areas, moreover, the long term sea level variations and the short term oscillations generally influence the generation and evolution of the karst process. Another peculiarity of the karst hazard assessment consists in the difficulty for identifying the location of subsurface forms, which may develop over very large areas without any kind of surface signal. The karst processes and landforms often require specific methods of investigation and mitigation, due to the unique and highly variable characters of karst environments. In addition, the hidden character of the karst processes, often accelerated by human activity, is an issue with significant economic impact, affecting many regions of the world. The assessment of karst hazard in the Murgia plateau (in central-west of Apulia region) is the main goal of this research. For this aim, the typologies of karst phenomena, able to produce hazard in the study area, were individuated and collected in a specific database. The hazard was evaluated on the basis of the probability of occurrence of a phenomenon of instability, active (produced by human activities) or passive (natural evolution of karst process), in relation to the presence, evolution or generation of karst forms on surface or at critical distance from the surface. The critical distance from the surface is defined as the distance at which the local or general destructive evolution of a karst process can produce a variation of the usability of the area or of the value of elements involved in the instability. The thematic layers relative to the factors influencing karst processes and landforms (doline, sinkholes, polje, lame, gravine, caves) were elaborated and managed in a GIS system. The archives of the main karst

  7. Perception of forest values in the alpine community of trentino region (Italy).

    PubMed

    Paletto, Alessandro; Maino, Federica; De Meo, Isabella; Ferretti, Fabrizio

    2013-02-01

    Values are generally defined as social facts that orientate individual and collective actions, and consequently influence political, economic and social systems. The evaluation of natural resource values is considered an important instrument to support decision making in environmental policy. The forest is an important renewable resource that provides a mix of social, economic and environmental values for society. The paper presents a survey method to collect and analyse individual preferences relating to three macro-categories of forest values. The survey method was tested in the Trentino region (north-east of the Italian Alps) and will soon be extended to other areas. The results of the questionnaires provided evidence that the forest economic value is perceived as least important, while the environmental values were appreciated the most. Regarding the principle social variables, males tended to give higher scores to all three macro-categories compared to females. Moreover, people with a low education also gave higher scores to all three categories in comparison to the more educated individuals. PMID:23135392

  8. Local versus regional active stress field in 5900m San Gregorio Magno 1 well (southern Apennines, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierdominici, S.; Montone, P.; Mariucci, M. T.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this work is to characterize the local stress field in a peculiar sector of the southern Apennines by analyzing borehole breakouts, fractures and logging data along the San Gregorio Magno 1 deep well, and to compare the achieved stress field with the regional one. The study area is characterized by diffuse low-Magnitude seismicity, although in historical times it has been repeatedly struck by moderate to large earthquakes. We have analyzed in detail the 5900m San Gregorio Magno 1 well drilled in 1996-97 by ENI S.p.A. and located very close (1.3 km away) to the Irpinia Fault. This fault was responsible of the strongest earthquake happened in this area, the 23rd November 1980 M6.9 earthquake that produced the first unequivocal historical surface faulting ever documented in Italy. The mainshock enucleated on a fault 38 km-long with a strike of 308° and 60-70° northeast-dipping, consistent with a NE-SW T-axis and a normal faulting tectonic regime. Borehole breakouts, active faults and focal mechanism solutions have allowed to define the present-day stress along and around the San Gregorio Magno 1 well and other analysis (logging data) to discriminate the presence of fracture zones and/or faults at depth. We have considered data from 1200m to the bottom of San Gregorio Magno 1 well. Our analysis of stress-induced wellbore breakouts shows an inhomogeneous direction of minimum horizontal stress (N359+-31°) orientation along the well. This direction is moderately consistent with the Shmin-trend determined from breakouts in other wells in this region and also with the regional active stress field inferred from active faults and earthquake focal plane solutions (N44 Shmin oriented). For this reason we have computed for each breakout zone the difference between the local trend and the regional one; comparing these breakout rotations with the spikes or changing trend of logs we have identified possible fractures or faults at different depths. We have correlated

  9. Gamma-spectrometric measurement of radioactivity in agricultural soils of the Lombardia region, northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Laura; Carini, Franca; Rossi, Riccardo; Gatti, Marina; Cenci, Roberto M; Beone, Gian Maria

    2015-04-01

    This work is part of a wider monitoring project of the agricultural soils in Lombardia, which aims to build a database of topsoil properties and the potentially toxic elements, organic pollutants and gamma emitting radionuclides that the topsoils contain. A total of 156 agricultural soils were sampled according to the LUCAS (Land Use/Cover Area frame statistical Survey) standard procedure. The aim was to provide a baseline to document the conditions present at the time of sampling. The results of the project concerning soil radioactivity are presented here. The aim was to assess the content of (238)U, (232)Th, (137)Cs and (40)K by measuring soil samples by gamma spectrometry. (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K activities range 24-231, 20-70, and 242-1434 Bq kg(-1) respectively. The geographic distribution of (238)U reflects the geophysical framework of the Lombardia region: the soils with high content of uranium are distributed for the most part in the South Alpine belt, where the presence of magmatic rocks is widespread. These soils show an higher activity of (238)U than of (232)Th. The (238)U activities become lower than (232)Th when soils are located in the plain, originating from basic sedimentary rocks. (137)Cs activity ranges 0.4-86.8 kBq m(-2). The lowest activity of (137)Cs is in the plain, whereas the highest is in the North on soils kept as lawn or pasture. The (137)Cs activity of some samples suggests the presence of accumulation processes that lead to (137)Cs enriched soils. This is the first survey of gamma emitting radionuclides in Lombardia that is based on the LUCAS standard sampling. The results from this monitoring campaign are important for the human radiation exposure and provide the zero point, which will be useful for assessing future effects due to external factors such as human activities. PMID:25636137

  10. Gamma-spectrometric measurement of radioactivity in agricultural soils of the Lombardia region, northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Laura; Carini, Franca; Rossi, Riccardo; Gatti, Marina; Cenci, Roberto M; Beone, Gian Maria

    2015-04-01

    This work is part of a wider monitoring project of the agricultural soils in Lombardia, which aims to build a database of topsoil properties and the potentially toxic elements, organic pollutants and gamma emitting radionuclides that the topsoils contain. A total of 156 agricultural soils were sampled according to the LUCAS (Land Use/Cover Area frame statistical Survey) standard procedure. The aim was to provide a baseline to document the conditions present at the time of sampling. The results of the project concerning soil radioactivity are presented here. The aim was to assess the content of (238)U, (232)Th, (137)Cs and (40)K by measuring soil samples by gamma spectrometry. (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K activities range 24-231, 20-70, and 242-1434 Bq kg(-1) respectively. The geographic distribution of (238)U reflects the geophysical framework of the Lombardia region: the soils with high content of uranium are distributed for the most part in the South Alpine belt, where the presence of magmatic rocks is widespread. These soils show an higher activity of (238)U than of (232)Th. The (238)U activities become lower than (232)Th when soils are located in the plain, originating from basic sedimentary rocks. (137)Cs activity ranges 0.4-86.8 kBq m(-2). The lowest activity of (137)Cs is in the plain, whereas the highest is in the North on soils kept as lawn or pasture. The (137)Cs activity of some samples suggests the presence of accumulation processes that lead to (137)Cs enriched soils. This is the first survey of gamma emitting radionuclides in Lombardia that is based on the LUCAS standard sampling. The results from this monitoring campaign are important for the human radiation exposure and provide the zero point, which will be useful for assessing future effects due to external factors such as human activities.

  11. Use of Remote Sensing data, terrain analysis and stochastic modeling to predict current and future flood risk in a small Mediterranean catchment (T. Teiro, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scopesi, Claudia; Maerker, Michael; Bachofer, Felix; Rellini, Ivano; Firpo, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Mediterranean catchments are particularly sensitive to temperature oscillations, rainfall intensity and human activities. Especially intensive precipitation events, changing land-use and thin soil layer trigger surface runoff generation and hence, soil erosion, sediment transport, flooding and related damages. In this study, we illustrate the use of Remote Sensing techniques to derive spatially distributed input data to assess surface runoff and river discharges in a small Mediterranean watershed in Liguria region. (NW of Italy). Particularly we focus on the triggering land-cover and soil information that can be derived with multispectral remote sensing techniques together with terrain analysis and stochastic modelling. To study the hydrological dynamics of the Teiro catchment we applied the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number method for different precipitation events related to return periods. The discharges obtained show reasonable values that have been validated with mapped flooded areas of the 04.10.2011 flood event. This event corresponds roughly to a 10 years return period. However, it is striking that a 50 years return period event yield the double amount of discharge and thus is a major threat for the local population.

  12. Pb isotopic constrains and environmental risk assessment of the Domizio Flegreo and Agro Aversano area (Campania region, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezza, Carmela; Albanese, Stefano; Ayuso, Robert; Lima, Annamaria; Sorvari, Jaana; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive geochemical environmental study focused on topsoil, groundwater, vegetable (corn) and human hair samples has been carried out in the Domizio-Flegreo Littoral and Agro Aversano areas in Southern Italy, covering 1287 km2 and including 90 municipalities. Within the framework of thethis study a focus was also carried on some specific sites (Teverola, Trentola-Ducenta, Giugliano, Castelvolturno and Acerra), that may have been affected by different sources of pollution (industrial and agricultural) and by the large presence of illegal buried waste disposals. Among the industrial sites that are expected to contribute to the contamination of the region a car and a chemical factory producing polyester fibres could be taken into account together with an urban waste incineration plant that is in operation since 2009 within the Acerra municipality administrative area. The research is based on 1064 topsoil samples, 27 groundwater samples, 24 samples of human hair and 13 corn samples taken in across the whole study area. Although samples were analysed for 53 elements at ACME Analytical Laboratories (Vancouver, Canada) by means of ICP-MS and ICP-ES after an aqua regia digestion, we focused on 15 key elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V and Zn), for which the Italian Environmental Law 152/06 establishes trigger and action limits for both residential/recreational and industrial/commercial land use, based on the risks to human health. All the chemical data were statistically treated and dot and interpolated maps were produced by means of the GeoDAS software. Maps showing the distribution of contamination factors (1) (Hakanson,1980) for each key element were also created. In general, As, Pb, Cr, Cd and Hg resulted to be the most critical pollutants for the area. Furthermore, Pb isotopic analyses on soil, water, corn and hair were conducted in order to distinguish between possible sources of contamination and geogenic and/or anthropogenic

  13. The OSMATER project: promotion of stone materials from the Verbano-Cusio-Ossola region (Italy) and the Canton Ticino (Switzerland).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, Alessandro; Antonella Dino, Giovanna

    2013-04-01

    The OSMATER (sub-Alpine Observatory Materials Territory Restoration) project, funded by the Piedmont Region (Italy) and the European Community, involved four Italian scientific bodies (Polytechnic of Turin, University of Turin, University of Milan-Bicocca, University of Bologna) and Switzerland (SUPSI). The aim was to investigate the present and historical quarrying and processing activities in the cross-border area between the Ossola Valley (Italy) and the Canton Ticino (Switzerland), and the use of dimension stones in local and national architecture. These materials are in many ways a "unique case", for their abundance and lithological variety. In the past, their extraction, processing and application characterized in a decisive way the architectural and constructive culture, both in terms of prestigious architecture and civil buildings, establishing a relationship between "stones and culture", "territory and its resources". In recent years, many of these traditions are losing importance and interest: this results in a loss of knowledge and historical memory, due mainly to the drastic changes in the market. The loss of this knowledge is likely to become irreversible in the short term, with the disappearance of people and social groups depositary of tradition. We can deduce that the creation of an "observatory", like OSMATER, is desirable and essential indeed, if we want to preserve the historical memory of the stone industry of an entire production area. The OSMATER project aimed the knowledge, recovery and enhancement of the architectural and cultural heritage of the cross-border area, through the census and classification of rocks, quarries (both active and historical - since Roman age), monuments and construction techniques typical of the sub-Alpine region, in order to create a documentation centre through a dedicated website. The first phase of the project was devoted to the identification of architectural works built with stone materials, with particular

  14. Indicators of breast cancer severity and appropriateness of surgery based on hospital administrative data in the Lazio Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Schifano, Patrizia; Papini, Paolo; Agabiti, Nera; Scarinci, Marina; Borgia, Piero; Perucci, Carlo A

    2006-01-01

    Background Administrative data can serve as an easily available source for epidemiological and evaluation studies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of hospital administrative data to determine breast cancer severity and the appropriateness of surgical treatment. Methods the study population consisted of 398 patients randomly selected from a cohort of women hospitalized for first-time breast cancer surgery in the Lazio Region, Italy. Tumor severity was defined in three different ways: 1) tumor size; 2) clinical stage (TNM); 3) severity indicator based on HIS data (SI). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) of the severity indicator in evaluating appropriateness of surgery were calculated. The accuracy of HIS data was measured using Kappa statistic. Results Most of 387 cases were classified as T1 and T2 (tumor size), more than 70% were in stage I or II and the SI classified 60% of cases in medium-low category. Variation from guidelines indications identified under and over treatments. The accuracy of the SI to predict under-treatment was relatively good (58% of all procedures classified as under-treatment using pT where also classified as such using SI), and even greater predicting over-treatment (88.2% of all procedures classified as over treatment using pT where also classified as such using SI). Agreement between clinical chart and hospital discharge reports was K = 0.35. Conclusion Our findings suggest that administrative data need to be used with caution when evaluating surgical appropriateness, mainly because of the limited ability of SI to predict tumor size and the questionable quality of HIS data as observed in other studies. PMID:16464258

  15. Time-lapse 2D electrical resistivity tomographies for investigating the Picerno landslide (Basilicata Region, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luongo, Raffaele; de Bari, Claudia; Calamita, Giuseppe; Loperte, Antonio; Perrone, Angela; Satriani, Antonio; Votta, Mario; Lapenna, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    The rainwater infiltration into the soil and the increase of pore water pressure in the vadose zone can be considered the main causes of shallow landslides triggering. The standard techniques used to measure the water content of the soil and the piezometric levels in areas of potential instability are the TDR method and the piezometric measurements, respectively. These techniques, while allowing to obtain direct information of the considered parameter, provide a punctual information about the specific hydrological characteristics of the investigated soil. Recently, the literature reports many examples of applications of indirect methods for the study and the estimate of water content in the first layers of the subsoil. In particular, the 2D electrical resistivity tomography has been applied for obtaining information about the temporal and spatial patterns of water infiltration processes. This paper reports the results obtained in the area affected by the Picerno landslide (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy), which represents one of the test sites of Morfeo project (Monitoraggio e Rischio da Frana mediante dati EO) funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The studied slope has been frequently involved in reactivation phenomena the most recent of which occurred on March 2006. In the area, we have installed a prototype system for time-dependent analysis of electrical resistivity images and TDR measurements. The geophysical results are opportunely integrated with the piezometric data. The system is composed of a 48-channel cable connected to the georesistivimeter Syscal Pro Switch 48, the electrodes are placed at a distance of 1 m. Two holes used to measure the piezometric level and another four equipped with TDR probes are located along the acquisition profile. The electrical resistivity tomographies and the water content measurements are performed with time intervals selected by considering the rainfall intensity and frequency. The first preliminary result of this

  16. Water quality assessment of carbonate aquifers in southern Latium region, Central Italy: a case study for irrigation and drinking purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sappa, Giuseppe; Ergul, Sibel; Ferranti, Flavia

    2014-06-01

    In southern Latium region, Central Italy, groundwater and spring water resources in the carbonate aquifers are the major contributors of drinking and irrigation water supply. The aim of this study was to review hydrochemical processes that control the groundwater chemistry and to determine the suitability of springs and groundwater for irrigation and drinking purposes on the basis of the water quality indices. Physical (pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids) and hydrochemical characteristics (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3 -, Cl-, and SO4 -) of springs and groundwater were determined. To assess the water quality, chemical parameters like sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), total hardness, Mg-hazard (MH), sodium percentage (Na %), salinity hazard, permeability index, and Kelly's ratio were calculated based on the analytical results. A Durov diagram plot revealed that the groundwater has been evolved from Ca to HCO3 recharge water, followed by mixing and reverse ion exchange processes, due to the respective dominance of Na-Cl and Ca-Cl water types. According to Gibbs's diagram plots, chemical weathering of rock forming minerals is the major driving force controlling water chemistry in this area. Groundwater and spring samples were grouped into six categories according to irrigation water quality assessment diagram of US Salinity Laboratory classification and most of the water samples distributed in category C2-S1 and C3-S1 highlighting medium to high salinity hazard and low sodium content class. The results of hydrochemical analyses and the calculated water quality parameters suggest that most of the water samples are suitable for irrigation and drinking purposes, except for the samples influenced by seawater and enhanced water-rock interaction. High values of salinity, Na %, SAR, and MH at certain sites, restrict the suitability for agricultural uses.

  17. Impact Of Landslides Along Road Network And Direct Cost Estimation: A Case Study In Marche Region, Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvati, P.; Donnini, M.; Guzzetti, F.; Ardizzone, F.; Cardinali, M.; Bucci, F.; Fiorucci, F.; Alvioli, M.; Santangelo, M.

    2014-12-01

    In November and December 2013, the Marche region (Central Italy) was hit by three severe, but not rare, meteorological events. The maximum value of the three days cumulative rainfall (499 mm) was recorded at the rain gauge of Pintura di Bolognola. The intense rainfall caused floods along the rivers and triggered numerous landslides, mostly located in the hilly and mountainous terrain of the region. The territory is crossed by a large number of roads connecting small rural settlements. After the events, the Regional Civil Protection Office requested to the Research Institute for the geo-hydrological Protection (IRPI-CNR) a technical support to evaluate the hazard condition for different sites affected by landslides. For an area of approximately 200 km2, in the Municipalities of Acquasanta Terme and Roccafluvione, field surveys were carried out to identify the rainfall-induced landslides and to produce an event inventory map. More than 1,500 slope failures were mapped including earth flows, slide-earth flows, slides, rock-falls and complex slides. Field surveys were focused also to estimate qualitatively damages along the roads. Roads were classified in two classes: the main roads under the State responsibility and the secondary roads under the Municipality responsibility. The different types of damage were classified in three classes: i) aesthetic (minor), where the road functionality was not compromised; ii) functional (medium), where the functionality was compromised and iii) structural (severe) where roads are severely or completely damaged. Immediately after the event, the technicians of the Municipalities of Acquasanta Terme and Roccafluvione spent major efforts to partially restore the functionality of the secondary roads in order to guarantee the primary human needs. In the following ten days, they compiled a list of interventions, associated with the relative direct costs, aimed to the total restoration of the roads functionality. In collaboration with the

  18. Industrial wastes from the boat-building sector in the Marche Region (Italy): a parametric and chemical-physical characterization.

    PubMed

    Carchesio, M; Tatàno, F; Tosi, G; Trivellone, C H

    2013-01-01

    Using the renowned leisure boat-building sector in the Marche Region (Italy) as a case-study, this paper addresses the characterization of (1) the industrial waste generation from the building of composite material-based boats and (2) some chemical-physical properties of representative types of boat-building residues (plastic foam, hardened resin, fibre-reinforced composite residues, and sanding dust). A parametric evaluation based on the number of employees gave a representative unit generation rate per employee (UGRpE) of 1.47 tons(waste) employee(-1) year(-1) for the entire Marche regional boatbuilding district, whereas evaluations carried out separately for three case-study companies provided values of 1.56, 3.07, and 1.12 tons(waste) employee(-1) year(-1) as representative for a mass-produced motor boat builder (case-study company '1'), a customized sailing boat builder (case-study company '2'), and a mould and structural component builder (case-study company '3'), respectively. The original proposal and evaluation of two additional generation rates based on physical characteristics intrinsic to the manufactured product, i.e. the unit generation rate per boat area (UGRpA) and per boat weight (UGRpW), confirmed the higher waste generation for the sailing boat builder(representative UGRpA and UGRpW values of 0.35 tons(waste) m(-2)(boat) year(-1) and 2. 71 tons(waste) tons(-1)(boat) year(-1), respectively) compared with the motor boat builder (representative UGRpA and UGRpW values of 0.06 tons(waste) m(-2)(boat) year(-1) and 0.49 tons(waste) tons(-1)(boat) year(-1), respectively). The chemical-physical property characterization of the selected residues revealed the following aspects: a general condition of low moisture contents; significant ash contents in the glass- and carbon-fibre composite residues and the correlated sanding dust; and relatively high energy content values in the overall range 14,144-32,479 kJ kg(-1), expressed as the lower heating value.

  19. A physics-based earthquake simulator and its application to seismic hazard assessment in Calabria (Southern Italy) region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Console, Rodolfo; Nardi, Anna; Carluccio, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    The characteristic earthquake hypothesis is not strongly supported by observational data because of the relatively short duration of historical and even paleoseismological records. For instance, for the Calabria (Southern Italy) region, historical information on strong earthquakes exist for at least two thousand years, but they can be considered complete for M > 6.0 only for the latest few centuries. As a consequence, characteristic earthquakes are seldom reported for individual fault segments, and hazard assessment is not reliably estimated by means of only minor seismicity reported in the historical catalogs. Even if they cannot substitute the information contained in a good historical catalog, physics-based earthquake simulators have become popular in the recent literature, and their application has been justified by a number of reasons. In particular, earthquake simulators can provide interesting information on which renewal models can better describe the recurrence statistics, and how this is affected by features as local fault geometry and kinematics. The use of a newly developed earthquake simulator has allowed the production of catalogs lasting 100,000 years and containing more than 100,000 events of magnitudes ≥ 4.5. The algorithm on which this simulator is based is constrained by several physical elements, as an average slip rate due to tectonic loading for every single segment in the investigated fault system, the process of rupture growth and termination, and interaction between earthquake sources, including small magnitude events. Events nucleated in one segment are allowed to expand into neighboring segments, if they are separated by a given maximum range of distance. The application of our simulation algorithm to Calabria region provides typical features in time, space and magnitude behaviour of the seismicity, which can be compared with those of the real observations. These features include long-term periodicity of strong earthquakes, short

  20. 11-14 November 2012 Umbria Region (Central Italy) flood event: from prediction to management for civil protection purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berni, Nicola; Pandolfo, Claudia; Stelluti, Marco; Zauri, Renato; Ponziani, Francesco; Francioni, Marco; Governatori Leonardi, Federico; Formica, Alessandro; Natazzi, Loredana; Costantini, Sandro

    2013-04-01

    Following laws and regulations concerning extreme natural events management, the Italian national hydrometeorological early warning system is composed by 21 regional offices (Functional Centres - CF). Umbria Region CF is located in Central Italy and provides early warning, monitoring and decision support systems (DSS) when significant flood/landslide events occur. The alert system is based on hydrometric and rainfall thresholds with detailed procedures for the management of critical events in which different roles of authorities and institutions involved are defined. For the real time flood forecasting system, at the CF several operational hydrological and hydraulic models were developed and implemented for a "dynamic" hazard/risk scenario assessment for Civil Protection DSS, useful also for the development of Flood Risk Management Plans according to the European "Floods Directive" 2007/60. In the period 11th-14th November 2012, a significant flood event occurred in Umbria (as well as Tuscany and northern Lazio). The territory was interested by intense and persistent rainfall; the hydro-meteorological monitoring network recorded locally rainfall depth over 300 mm in 72 hours and, generally, values greater than the seasonal averages all over the region. In the most affected area the recorded rainfall depths correspond to centenarian return period: one-third of the annual mean precipitation occurred in 2-3 days. Almost all rivers in Umbria have been involved, exceeding hydrometric thresholds, and several ones overflowed. Furthermore, in some cases, so high water levels have never been recorded by the hydrometric network. As in the major flood events occurred in the last years, dams (Montedoglio and Corbara dams along Tiber River and Casanuova dam along Chiascio River) and other hydraulic works for flood defense (e.g. along Chiani stream) played a very important mitigation role, storing high water volumes and avoiding the overlap of peak discharges downstream. During

  1. Uncertainty in drought monitoring by the Standardized Precipitation Index: the case study of the Abruzzo region (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergni, L.; Di Lena, B.; Todisco, F.; Mannocchi, F.

    2015-12-01

    As shown by several authors, drought monitoring by the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) presents some uncertainties, mainly dependent on the choice of the probability distribution used to describe the cumulative precipitation and on the characteristics (e.g., length and variability) of the dataset. In this paper, the uncertainty related to SPI estimates has been quantified and analyzed with regards to the case study of the Abruzzo region (Central Italy), by using monthly precipitation recorded at 75 stations during the period 1951-2009. First, a set of distributions suitable to describe the cumulative precipitation at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month time scales was identified by using L-moments ratio diagrams. The goodness-of-fit was evaluated by applying the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and the Normality test on the derived SPI series. Then the confidence intervals of SPI have been calculated by applying a bootstrap procedure. The size of the confidence intervals has been considered as a measure of uncertainty, and its dependence on several factors such as the distribution type, the time scale, the record length, and the season has been examined. Results show that the distributions Pearson type III (PE3), Weibull (WEI), Generalized Normal (GNO), Generalized Extreme Value (GEV), and Gamma (GA2) are all suitable to describe the cumulative precipitation, with a slightly better performance of the PE3 and GNO distributions. As expected, the uncertainty increases as the record length and time scale decrease. The leading source of uncertainty is the record length while the effects due to seasonality and time scale are negligible. Two-parameter distributions make it possible to obtain confidence intervals of SPI (particularly for extreme values) narrower than those obtained by three-parameter distributions. Nevertheless, due to a poorer goodness of fit, two-parameter distributions can provide less reliable estimates of the precipitation probability. In any event, independently

  2. Assessment of carbon pools in two soils from the Campania region (Southwest, Italy) under different forest types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez-Romero, Marta; Papa, Stefania; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; González-Pérez, José A.; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; González-Vila, Francisco J.; Coppola, Elio

    2014-05-01

    Soil is the largest carbon reservoir of terrestrial ecosystems, this reservoir is not inert, but it is constantly in a dynamic phase of accumulation an depletion. After the addition, in the soil, of organic residues of different origin and nature, two processes can occur in charge of SOM (Soil Organic Matter) during the pedogenesis: mineralization and humification. The accumulation of SOM in soil is controlled by the balance between carbon inputs and losses through mineralization and/or leaching. In particular the humification process leads to the formation of organic compounds (in some cases even complex organo-mineral) chemically stable able to distribute itself in the soil second rules of site-specific pedogenesis. The transport process along the profile can take very different forms which may extend in the formation of Bh horizons of accumulation in depth also strongly cemented (so-called ortstein). The transport process along the profile occurs for the occurrence of certain conditions such as deposition of high amounts of organic residues on the top of the profile, high porosity of the soil for the presence of coarse solid fractions (coarse sands or skeleton) that determinate a strong infiltrating capacity of the circulating waters, extreme temperatures can slow or stop the process of mineralization and/or humification in one intermediate step of the degradation process releasing organic metabolites with high or medium solubility and high loads of percolating water related to intense rainfall. The nature of the forest cover influence the quantity and quality of the organic materials deposited with marked differences between coniferous and deciduous especially in relation to resistance to degradation and production of intermediate metabolites. Two soils from Campania region located in Monte Santa Croce (Caserta, Italy) with andic properties, different forest cover (pine and chestnut) and that meets the requirements of the place and pedological formation

  3. Statistical characterisation of winter precipitation in the Abruzzo region (Italy) in relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergni, Lorenzo; Di Lena, Bruno; Chiaudani, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and winter precipitation at 75 stations in the Abruzzo region (Central Italy) during the period 1951-2009. The analysis was carried out for individual months (December, January, February, March) as well as for 3-month accumulation periods, December to February (DJF) and January to March (JFM). A composite analysis, based on the positive and negative values of the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI) was used to compare the characteristics of precipitation associated with NAOI positive (NAO+) and negative (NAO-) conditions. Firstly, the NAO+ and NAO- precipitation subsets were compared by using the Brown-Forsythe and Mann-Whitney tests to assess the presence of significant differences in the variance and mean, respectively. Then the L-moment ratio diagrams were used to identify, for each period and NAO phase, the best-fitting two-parameter distribution. The NAO+ and NAO- conditions were also compared on the basis of the first (D1) and ninth (D9) precipitation deciles. The results show that the NAO mainly affects the mean precipitation amounts that are in most cases lower (higher) during the NAO+ (NAO-) phase, particularly for JFM. This influence is characterised by a relevant spatial variability that can be attributed to local factors (orography and distance from the sea). No significant differences were found in the precipitation variance, but this means that NAO+ precipitation, due to lower mean values, is relatively more variable than NAO- precipitation. The L-moment ratio diagrams reveal that the Weibull distribution always provides the best overall fitting for NAO- conditions (with the exception of DJF for which the log-normal is the best). For NAO+ conditions the best-fitting distributions become the generalized Pareto (January and February), the Weibull (DJF) and the Gamma (JFM), while no change in the distribution type is observed in December and March. In most cases, both D

  4. Geodiversity, geoheritage and cultural landscape: an example from the Messinian geosites of the Piemonte region (NW-Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Enrico; Natalicchio, Marcello; Ghiraldi, Luca; Lozar, Francesca; Dela Pierre, Francesco; Giardino, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The Piemonte region (NW-Italy) contains a remarkable diversity of landscapes, some of them included in and protected by the World Heritage list, as well as some recently proposed geosites which testify the dramatic paleoevironmental, paleobiological and paleoclimatic event that occurred in the Mediterranean area around 6 Ma ago during the so-called Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). However the link between landform, geodiversity, geoheritage, and cultural landscape has not yet fully explored. The aims of this study, promoted by the multidisciplinary research project 'PROGEO-Piemonte' (PROactive management of GEOlogical heritage in the Piemonte region), are: 1) to analyse the link between geosites and recent landscape modification, 2) to reconstruct the landscape evolution and, through geotourism, 3) to promote geological knowledge in an area with great potential for tourism. The study area is located in the SE part of the Cuneo plain, at the foot of the Langhe hills, where heterogeneous landforms, mainly related to the Tanaro river piracy, are observed. The sediments recording the MSC event, mostly consisting of thick gypsum layers, have been recently studied by a multidisciplinary approach and the results allowed the detailed reconstruction of the MSC evolution in this region. Two maps have been produced to disseminate the geodiversity knowledge (the geological - landscape map) and to promote geotourism fruition (the geotouristic map). The geological - landscape map deals with different geological and geomorphologic issues thanks to illustrations of the main features of the Messinian deposits, their depositional environments and the exposed landforms. To underline the high geodiversity of the area, it has been divided into several geomorphologic sectors based of their characteristic landforms and evolution. In each of these sectors, geosites have been identified to clarify the comprehension of the related topics at the widest public: particularly, the geosites help

  5. A multidisciplinary geomatics approach to morphometric and morphotectonic analysis of the Cannobino Basin (Piemonte Region, NW-Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacenetti, Marco; Ghiraldi, Luca; Giardino, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The paper presents an integrated multidisciplinary approach to the morphometric and morphotectonic characterization of the Cannobino Basin (Piemonte Region, NW-Italy). The basin is drained by the Cannobino river; in its first 8 km, it flows SE to NW along a wide valley characterized by glacial landforms; thereafter it suddenly turns South assuming a W to E direction, by flowing in a deeply entrenched valley to the intermontane basin of the Maggiore Lake. This area belongs to the Lepontine Alps, which from the geological point of view belong to the Southern Alps. His Hercynian basement is divided in two units: Ivrea-Verbano Zone (IVZ) and Serie dei Laghi (SDL). The IVZ outcrops in the northern sector of the basin, while the SDL outcrops in the southern and central sector. They separated by the Cossato-Mergozzo-Brissago (CMB) and Pogallo lines (PL). These major discontinuities and the neoctonic activity of their shear zones possibly control Quaternary evolution of the alpine relief. Detailed studies of the area are needed for understanding possible interactions of neotectonic activity, fluvial/glacial erosional/depositional processes and slope dynamics. Our focus is on drainage basin characteristics and its evolutionary stages in response to local and regional base level changes and to differential rock uplift. GIS methodologies combined with DEMs analyses are among the most common geomatics approaches to geomorphology. Based on this framework, an evaluation of the geomorphometric characteristic of the Cannobino Basin has been carried out by using an aerial LIDAR DEM (5x5 meters, Regione Piemonte, 2009). The workflow followed for calculating the geomorphic indexes can be summarized in different steps: i) drainage network extraction and hierarchization; ii) lineament features digitalization and interpretation; iii) azimuthal distribution of drainage pattern; iv) DEM analysis and evaluation of linear, areal indexes and SWAT profile. The multidisciplinary and innovative

  6. Burden of varicella in Italy, 2001-2010: analysis of data from multiple sources and assessment of universal vaccination impact in three pilot regions.

    PubMed

    Trucchi, Cecilia; Gabutti, Giovanni; Rota, Maria Cristina; Bella, Antonino

    2015-11-01

    Varicella represents the most widespread vaccine-preventable childhood infectious disease in Italy. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the burden of varicella in Italy and in three regions that first implemented universal varicella vaccination. Four data sources were analysed: statutory notification data, the National Hospital Discharge Database, mortality data, and the vaccination coverage reached in Sicilia, Veneto and Apulia. The incidence rates per 100,000 population were calculated using the Italian resident population provided by the Italian Institute of Statistics in 2001-2010. In 2001-2010, the mean annual incidence of notifications of varicella was 150.7 cases per 100,000 population, reaching 948.6 cases per 100,000 population in the paediatric age group. The annual incidence declined to 102.6 per 100,000 population in 2010. During the period considered, 20,295 hospitalizations for varicella were observed. The mean annual incidence was 3.4 per 100,000 population, reaching a minimum of 2.5 per 100,000 in 2009 and 2010. Of the hospitalizations, 68.4% occurred in the paediatric age group. The median length of hospital stay was 4 days. During 2001-2003 and 2006-2010, 33 deaths were reported. In the three regions considered, vaccination coverage increased steadily, reaching 81.5% in Sicily, 79.4% in Veneto and 75.6% in Apulia in 2010. During the same period, hospitalization and notification rates decreased significantly. This study demonstrated that varicella continues to represent a relevant health problem in Italy, especially in the paediatric age group. Data obtained from the three Italian regions that first introduced universal vaccination demonstrated that vaccination reduces the incidence of varicella and hospitalization rates.

  7. [Health status and access to health services by the population of L'Aquila (Abruzzo Region, Italy) six years after the earthquake].

    PubMed

    Altobelli, Emma; Vittorini, Pierpaolo; Leuter, Cinzia; Bianchini, Valeria; Angelone, Anna Maria; Aloisio, Federica; Cofini, Vincenza; Zazzara, Francesca; Di Orio, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters, such as the earthquake that occurred in the province of L'Aquila in central Italy, in 2009, generally increase the demand for healthcare. A survey was conducted to assess perception of health status an d use of health services in a sample of L'Aquila's resident population, five years after the event, and in a comparison population consisting of a sample of the resident population of Avezzano, a town in the same region, not affected by the earthquake. No differences were found in perception of health status between the two populations. Both groups reported difficulties in accessing specialized healthcare and rehabilitation services.

  8. [Health status and access to health services by the population of L'Aquila (Abruzzo Region, Italy) six years after the earthquake].

    PubMed

    Altobelli, Emma; Vittorini, Pierpaolo; Leuter, Cinzia; Bianchini, Valeria; Angelone, Anna Maria; Aloisio, Federica; Cofini, Vincenza; Zazzara, Francesca; Di Orio, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters, such as the earthquake that occurred in the province of L'Aquila in central Italy, in 2009, generally increase the demand for healthcare. A survey was conducted to assess perception of health status an d use of health services in a sample of L'Aquila's resident population, five years after the event, and in a comparison population consisting of a sample of the resident population of Avezzano, a town in the same region, not affected by the earthquake. No differences were found in perception of health status between the two populations. Both groups reported difficulties in accessing specialized healthcare and rehabilitation services. PMID:27077558

  9. Characterization of medium enthalpy geothermal system in the Campania region (southern Italy): from geological data to resource modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montegrossi, G.; Inversi, B.; Scrocca, D.; Livani, M.; Petracchini, L.

    2012-04-01

    Within the framework of the VIGOR project, a characterization of medium enthalpy geothermal resources have been carried out in the Campania region (southern Italy), with a focus on the "Guardia dei Lombardi" area (province of Avellino). The VIGOR project began on the basis of an agreement between the Ministry of Economic Development and the Italian National Research Council, and it deal with the exploitation of innovative uses of geothermal energy in the so-called "regions of convergence"(Campania, Calabria, Puglia and Sicilia). Thanks to the intense hydrocarbon exploration, carried out particularly during the 1956-1996 period, an extensive data set made up by deep wells and seismic reflection profiles exist in the study area. The previous exploration demonstrated the presence of a fractured carbonate reservoir, mainly belonging to the Cretaceous section of the Apulian shallow water carbonate platform (e.g. Scrocca 2010 and references therein), which is deformed to shape a buried antiformal stack. The culmination of the uppermost thrust unit reaches a depth of about 200 m SSL (i.e., about 1100 m below the ground level). The reservoir fluids are made up by a CO2 gas cap, which rests above an accumulation of fresh water in the central and upper part of the culmination of the deep carbonatic acquifer (e.g., Monte Forcuso 1 and 2 wells), and a saline water along the flank of the buried anticline (e.g., Bonito 1 Dir, Ciccone 1 wells). Medium enthalpy geothermal resources with a reservoir fluid temperature up to 100°C have been estimated in previous assessments at depth of 2000 m below ground level (ENEL 1987; 1994). However, the presence of thermal springs (e.g. Terme di S. Teodoro) in the area suggests the presence of an active hydraulic circuit and provide further constraints about the geochemical characteristics of the reservoir waters, and the geothermometers investigation (Duchi et al. 1995) give a possible reservoir fluid temperature up to about 124 °C. In this

  10. Integrating soil map delineations properties and land use into soil carbon density assessment at regional scale (Emilia Romagna, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungaro, F.; Calzolari, C.

    2009-04-01

    Accurate estimates of soil organic carbon (SOC) at regional scale are important to estimate the potential of soils as C reservoir. Different approaches can be used resulting in different degree of uncertainty associated to the estimates (Ungaro et al, 2005). Among the major source of uncertainty, land use, soil variability and bulk density for the reference depth are those with the greater influence on the final SOC stock estimation (Meersman, 2007). In order to reconstruct the spatial patterns of SOC at the landscape scale and to reduce the uncertainty associated to SOC stock estimates, an hybrid approach has been developed, combining the properties of the delineations of the regional 1:50.000 soil map with a geostatistical procedure (sequential Gaussian simulation). In the alluvial plain area of Emilia Romagna (10,734 km2) in Northern Italy, the available spatially explicit soil data (17,652 horizons from 3,302 profiles,), from 237 soil typological units, have been referred to 13 soil functional groups, divided in 42 subgroups. Based on the main geomorphic and pedogenetic processes, the soil functional groups and subgroups are defined in terms of top-soil textural classes (texture family), drainage class, slope, presence of organic materials (O horizons), flooding occurrence, origin of the parent material and presence of limestone. In order to take into account the influence of land use, the observations within each functional group have been further divided according to the different agricultural districts of the plain, characterized by different dominant land uses. The SOC density (Mg ha-1) of the 100 cm reference depth has been calculated as a weighed sum of the values calculated for each horizon., using a set of locally calibrated pedotransfer functions (Ungaro, 2007) whose inputs beside organic C are the sand, silt, and clay textural fractions The average values of each soil functional (sub)group of each district were used to assign a SOC density (Mg ha-1

  11. Recreational Boating in Ligurian Marine Protected Areas (Italy): A Quantitative Evaluation for a Sustainable Management.

    PubMed

    Venturini, S; Massa, F; Castellano, M; Costa, S; Lavarello, I; Olivari, E; Povero, P

    2016-01-01

    Recreational boating is an important economic activity that can also represent a powerful source of interference for biological communities. The monitoring of the recreational boating in all Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) within the Liguria region was conducted in the 2010 summer season and it allowed to obtain information not provided by any official institution. The collaboration of geographically different MPAs in Liguria has led to the implementation of a monitoring framework of recreational boating, and this has made it possible to develop uniform management strategies for all the Ligurian marine parks. This study identifies the optimal number of boats for each MPAs, the number of boats that can anchor in the various parks without creating any impact on the biocenosis of merit, providing a first characterization of recreational boating in Liguria during the high touristic season and providing management recommendation to each MPAs. Generally, the Ligurian MPAs do not present critical situations, the number of boats in each MPA being below the optimal number, with the exception of Portofino MPA, where in the 12.5 % of monitored days more than 220 boats were counted and the mean density for weekend is 1.19 no boats/ha (4 times higher than weekday). The results confirm the dependence of the boats peaking from the holidays and the months of the summer, but also it highlights other factors that can contribute in the choice of the boaters.

  12. Recreational Boating in Ligurian Marine Protected Areas (Italy): A Quantitative Evaluation for a Sustainable Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturini, S.; Massa, F.; Castellano, M.; Costa, S.; Lavarello, I.; Olivari, E.; Povero, P.

    2016-01-01

    Recreational boating is an important economic activity that can also represent a powerful source of interference for biological communities. The monitoring of the recreational boating in all Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) within the Liguria region was conducted in the 2010 summer season and it allowed to obtain information not provided by any official institution. The collaboration of geographically different MPAs in Liguria has led to the implementation of a monitoring framework of recreational boating, and this has made it possible to develop uniform management strategies for all the Ligurian marine parks. This study identifies the optimal number of boats for each MPAs, the number of boats that can anchor in the various parks without creating any impact on the biocenosis of merit, providing a first characterization of recreational boating in Liguria during the high touristic season and providing management recommendation to each MPAs. Generally, the Ligurian MPAs do not present critical situations, the number of boats in each MPA being below the optimal number, with the exception of Portofino MPA, where in the 12.5 % of monitored days more than 220 boats were counted and the mean density for weekend is 1.19 no boats/ha (4 times higher than weekday). The results confirm the dependence of the boats peaking from the holidays and the months of the summer, but also it highlights other factors that can contribute in the choice of the boaters.

  13. Recreational Boating in Ligurian Marine Protected Areas (Italy): A Quantitative Evaluation for a Sustainable Management.

    PubMed

    Venturini, S; Massa, F; Castellano, M; Costa, S; Lavarello, I; Olivari, E; Povero, P

    2016-01-01

    Recreational boating is an important economic activity that can also represent a powerful source of interference for biological communities. The monitoring of the recreational boating in all Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) within the Liguria region was conducted in the 2010 summer season and it allowed to obtain information not provided by any official institution. The collaboration of geographically different MPAs in Liguria has led to the implementation of a monitoring framework of recreational boating, and this has made it possible to develop uniform management strategies for all the Ligurian marine parks. This study identifies the optimal number of boats for each MPAs, the number of boats that can anchor in the various parks without creating any impact on the biocenosis of merit, providing a first characterization of recreational boating in Liguria during the high touristic season and providing management recommendation to each MPAs. Generally, the Ligurian MPAs do not present critical situations, the number of boats in each MPA being below the optimal number, with the exception of Portofino MPA, where in the 12.5 % of monitored days more than 220 boats were counted and the mean density for weekend is 1.19 no boats/ha (4 times higher than weekday). The results confirm the dependence of the boats peaking from the holidays and the months of the summer, but also it highlights other factors that can contribute in the choice of the boaters. PMID:26289349

  14. A contribution to the seismic hazard of the Apulia Region (Southern Italy): environmental effects triggered by historical earthquakes in last centuries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porfido, Sabina; Alessio, Giuliana; Nappi, Rosa; De Lucia, Maddalena; Gaudiosi, Germana

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is a critical revision of the historical and recent seismicity of the Apulia and surrounding seismogenetic areas, for re-evaluating the macroseismic effects in MCS scale and ground effects in natural environment according to the ESI 2007 scale (Michetti et al., 2007) as a contribution to the seismic hazard of the region. The most important environmental effect due to historical earthquakes in the Apulia was the tsunami occurrence, followed by landslides, liquefaction phenomena, hydrological changes and ground cracks. The Apulia (Southern Italy) has been hit by several low energy and a few high energy earthquakes in the last centuries. In particular, the July 30, 1627 earthquake (I=X MCS, Rovida et al., 2011) and the May 5, 1646 event (I=X MCS), the strongest earthquakes of the Gargano promontory have been reviewed, together with the March 20, 1731 earthquake (I=IX MCS, Mw=6.5, Rovida et al., 2011), the most relevant of the Foggia province, and the February 20, 1743 earthquake (I=IX MCS, Mw= 7.1, Rovida et al., 2011, I ESI=X, Nappi et al, 2015), the strongest of the Salento area,. The whole Apulia region has also been struck by strong earthquakes of neighboring seismogenetic areas located in the Southern Apennines, Adriatic and Ionian Sea, Albania and Greece, well propagated throughout the Italian peninsula, and in particular in the southern regions, where the intensity degrees are higher, sometimes exceeding the limit of damage. Some well documented examples of Greek earthquakes strongly felt in the whole Apulia region were: the August 27, 1886 earthquake (Peloponnesus, Greece); the May 28, 1897 earthquake (Creta-Cypro); the June 26, 1926 earthquake (Creta and Cipro, Imax=X MCS), felt all over the Southern Italy; the August 28, 1962 earthquake (epicenter in Peloponnesus area). It is noteworthy that earthquakes located in the Southern Apennines were powerfully felt in the whole Apulia region; among the strongest historical events of the

  15. Evaluation of coastal vulnerability: comparison of two different methodologies adopted by the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armaroli, Clara; Perini, Luisa; Calabrese, Lorenzo; Ciavola, Paolo; Salerno, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    In the last years a large number of catastrophic events have occurred along worldwide coastlines (e.g.: 2012 Super-storm Sandy, US East Coast). European countries have to face similar calamities such as those caused by the recent Xaver cyclone (December 2013). The Emilia-Romagna coastline, Italy, along the North Adriatic Sea, is affected by storms that cause extensive damages. The coast has low elevations, is highly urbanised and there is a massive presence of defence structures. The area is micro-tidal (neap/spring tide ranges = 0.4/0.8 m), low energetic (65% Hs<=1 m) but subjected to significant surge levels (1 year return period = 0.85 m). Therefore an evaluation of the vulnerability of the coastal area is an urgent matter. The Regional Geological Survey has completed an analysis of three scenarios of damage produced by the concurrent happening of a marine storm and high surge levels (1-in-1, 10, 100 year return period) and high spring tidal levels (+0.45 m MSL). Wave heights were used to calculate run-up values along the whole coastline (on 187 equally spaced profiles extracted from LIDAR datasets). The result is a list of ten typology of different levels of damage obtained through the comparison between the computed water levels, for each scenario and along each profile, and the topography/human occupation of the coast. The assessment reveals that 60% of the coastline is vulnerable to the 1-in-1 year return period scenario, thus even modal meteorological conditions can generate significant losses. A comparison was made between the produced typologies and the actual damage caused by a recent storm and the correspondence is almost identical, underlining that the method is reliable. Because the above-mentioned methodology is only punctual, the Geological Survey has started a different evaluation of the areal extension of inundations. The methodology considers the concurrent happening of the same return period storms but in terms of wave set-up only (not including

  16. Venice, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast Italy. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading Italy at that time.

    This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne

  17. Rupture directivity of the major shocks in the 1997 Umbria-Marche (central Italy) sequence from regional broadband waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandro Pino, Nicola; Mazza, Salvatore; Boschi, Enzo

    1999-07-01

    We derive the relative moment rate function for the main shocks in the Fall 1997 Central Italy seismic sequence (Mw=5.7; 6.0; 5.6) by applying an empirical Green function method. By using three conveniently placed broad-band MedNet stations we obtain clear source time functions indicating directivity effects for all of the three earthquakes, with southeastward rupture propagation for the two southernmost events and an opposite direction for the other and largest one. Taking a simple source model, forward modeling is utilized for determining fault parameters such as length, rupture propagation velocity and direction and slip distribution.

  18. Modeling Study of the Marano and Grado Lagoon (Italy) to Support the Regional Water Protection Plan) TO SUPPORT THE REGIONAL WATER PROTECTION PLAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scroccaro, Isabella; Mattassi, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    The Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC (WFD) contemplates the classification of water bodies and establishes the quality objectives of water bodies to achieve a good status within 2015. Further, the Italian law which takes in the WFD with Decree n. 152/2006, allows to identify some water bodies as heavily modified (HMWB). The Regional Administration, involved in the setting up of the Water Protection Plan, according with the above mentioned decree and directive, has to establish specific programs to maintain or conform water quality to the requested quality objectives, also for heavily modified water bodies that have to reach the ecological potential. In the north-eastern part of Italy, in the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region, the Marano and Grado Lagoon is the most complex transitional ecosystem in which four water bodies have been temporarily classified as heavily modified. They are identified as FM1, FM2, FM3 and FM4. In particular, FM2 - "Paludo della Carogna" and FM3 - "Barbana" water bodies seem to be characterized by some confinement since they are delimited by a bridge, called "Ponte Belvedere". The preliminary evaluation of the quality status of FM2 and FM3 water bodies is conditioned by the value of one of the quality criteria: the macrophytes. In fact, macrophytes are represented by very few species in these two water bodies. In a preliminary way the overall judgement of FM2 and FM3 water bodies has been indicated by the experts as scarse. This means that a specific programme of measures has to be proposed to improve the quality status of these water bodies in order to reach the ecological potential. In this context modeling may be used as a scientific and technical tool to support the evaluation on FM2 and FM3 water bodies and the effectiveness of specific measures for the achievement of the quality objectives. Numerical simulations of the Marano and Grado lagoon were performed for hydrodynamic circulation, temperature and salinity behavior with the

  19. Seroprevalence and risk factors of infections with Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in hunting dogs from Campania region, southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Machacova, Tereza; Bartova, Eva; Sedlak, Kamil; Slezakova, Radka; Budikova, Marie; Piantedosi, Diego; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Hunting dogs have probably a higher level of exposure to Neospora caninum Dubey, Carpenter, Speer, Topper et Uggla, 1988 and Toxoplasma gondii Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908 than other canine populations for their different lifestyle. The aim of our survey was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum and T. gondii in hunting dogs from southern Italy and assess risk factors related to these protozoan infections. Blood samples were collected from 398 hunting dogs (19 different breeds, aged from 5 month to 14 years). The sera were screened by indirect fluorescence antibody test; a titre ≥ 50 was considered positive. Antibodies to N. caninum and T. gondii were detected in 59 (15%) dogs with titres from 50 to 3 200 and in 94 (24%) dogs with titres from 50 to 1 600, respectively, with co-infection in 25 (6%) dogs. Statistical difference (p ≤ 0.05) was found only for infection with T. gondii between two age groups: ≥ 2-4 years (16%) and ≥ 4-7 years (33%); other observed characteristics were without statistical significance. Our results suggest that the hunting dogs could play an important role in the transmission cycle of N. caninum between wild animals and livestock. This is the first detection of antibodies to T. gondii in hunting dogs in Italy. PMID:27189127

  20. Hydrogeochemistry of regional aquifer systems from Tuscany (central Italy): the state of the art before the definition of a geochemical baseline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisi, Barbara; Battaglini, Raffaele; Raco, Brunella

    2013-04-01

    European Community Water Framework Directive (WFD) and its derivative regulations have recognized the urgent need to adopt specific measures against the contamination of water bodies by individual pollutants that may significantly affect the quality of water itself. Italian regulation takes into account the EU Directives, and charges the regional authorities to create monitoring networks and produce assessment reports on the contamination of groundwater. The knowledge of "natural baseline" for various dissolved elements in groundwaters on a regional scale becomes of primary importance to distinguish natural sources and anthropogenic inputs. The studied area includes the whole Tuscan regional district (central Italy) and covers an area of about 23,000 km2. From a geolithological point of view, Tuscan territory consists of several complexes outcropping regionally, the most typical features being the Mesozoic and Cenozoic carbonate and evaporitic formations, overlain by flysch sequences, as well as granite intrusions and volcanic rocks. Moreover, two geothermal areas (Larderello and Mt. Amiata), a large number of thermal springs and CO2-rich gas vents are mostly present in the central-southern part of Tuscany. Finally in southern Tuscany (e.g. Campiglia M.Ma, Mt. Amiata, Elba Island), mining districts, predominantly characterized by polimetallic sulphides ore deposits, were exploited since the Etruscan time. In this work statistical distribution models are used to develop summary statistics and estimate probabilities of exceeding water-quality standards according to the National Legislative Decree 152/06. Descriptive statistics on solute concentrations are based on geochemical data from the main Tuscan aquifers and investigated by the CNR-IGG (Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources of Pisa, Italy) and Department of Earth Sciences (University of Florence, Italy). The data processing was carried out on 4,767 water samples collected from 1997 to 2009. According to

  1. Daily estimates of fire danger using multitemporal satellite MODIS data: the experience of FIRE-SAT in the Basilicata Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanorte, R.; Lasaponara, R.; De Santis, F.; Aromando, A.; Nole, G.

    2012-04-01

    Daily estimates of fire danger using multitemporal satellite MODIS data: the experience of FIRE-SAT in the Basilicata Region (Italy) A. Lanorte, F. De Santis , A. Aromando, G. Nolè, R. Lasaponara, CNR-IMAA, Potenza, Italy In the recent years the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy) has been characterized by an increasing incidence of fire disturbance which also tends to affect protected (Regional and national parks) and natural vegetated areas. FIRE_SAT project has been funded by the Civil Protection of the Basilicata Region in order to set up a low cost methodology for fire danger/risk monitoring based on satellite Earth Observation techniques. To this aim, NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data were used. The spectral capability and daily availability makes MODIS products especially suitable for estimating the variations of fuel characteristics. This work presents new significant results obtained in the context of FIRE-SAT project. In order to obtain a dynamical indicator of fire susceptibility based on multitemporal MODIS satellite data, up-datable in short-time periods (daily), we used the spatial/temporal variations of following parameters: (1) Relative Greenness Index (2) Live and dead fuel moisture content (3) Temperature In particular, the dead fuel moisture content is a key factor in fire ignition. Dead fuel moisture dynamics are significantly faster than those observed for live fuel. Dead fine vegetation exhibits moisture and density values dependent on rapid atmospheric changes and strictly linked to local meteorological conditions. For this reason, commonly, the estimation of dead fuel moisture content is based on meteorological variables. In this study we propose to use MODIS data to estimate meteorological data (specifically Relative Humidity) at an adequate spatial and temporal resolution. The assessment of dead fuel moisture content plays a decisive role in determining a fire dynamic danger index in combination with other

  2. Environmental Monitoring and Analysis of Faecal Contamination in an Urban Setting in the City of Bari (Apulia Region, Italy): Health and Hygiene Implications

    PubMed Central

    Tarsitano, Elvira; Greco, Grazia; Decaro, Nicola; Nicassio, Francesco; Lucente, Maria Stella; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted in Italy to quantify the potential risk associated with dynamics and distribution of pathogens in urban settings. The aim of this study was to acquire data on the environmental faecal contamination in urban ecosystems, by assessing the presence of pathogens in public areas in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy). To determine the degree of environmental contamination, samples of dog faeces and bird guano were collected from different areas in the city of Bari (park green areas, playgrounds, public housing areas, parkways, and a school). A total of 152 canine faecal samples, in 54 pools, and two samples of pigeon guano from 66 monitored sites were examined. No samples were found in 12 areas spread over nine sites. Chlamydophila psittaci was detected in seven canine and two pigeon guano samples. Salmonella species were not found. On the other hand, four of 54 canine faecal samples were positive for reovirus. Thirteen canine faecal samples were positive for parasite eggs: 8/54 samples contained Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina eggs and 5/54 samples contained Ancylostoma caninum eggs. Our study showed that public areas are often contaminated by potentially zoonotic pathogens. PMID:21139871

  3. Environmental monitoring and analysis of faecal contamination in an urban setting in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy): health and hygiene implications.

    PubMed

    Tarsitano, Elvira; Greco, Grazia; Decaro, Nicola; Nicassio, Francesco; Lucente, Maria Stella; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2010-11-01

    Few studies have been conducted in Italy to quantify the potential risk associated with dynamics and distribution of pathogens in urban settings. The aim of this study was to acquire data on the environmental faecal contamination in urban ecosystems, by assessing the presence of pathogens in public areas in the city of Bari (Apulia region, Italy). To determine the degree of environmental contamination, samples of dog faeces and bird guano were collected from different areas in the city of Bari (park green areas, playgrounds, public housing areas, parkways, and a school). A total of 152 canine faecal samples, in 54 pools, and two samples of pigeon guano from 66 monitored sites were examined. No samples were found in 12 areas spread over nine sites. Chlamydophila psittaci was detected in seven canine and two pigeon guano samples. Salmonella species were not found. On the other hand, four of 54 canine faecal samples were positive for reovirus. Thirteen canine faecal samples were positive for parasite eggs: 8/54 samples contained Toxocara canis and Toxascaris leonina eggs and 5/54 samples contained Ancylostoma caninum eggs. Our study showed that public areas are often contaminated by potentially zoonotic pathogens. PMID:21139871

  4. The geofingerprint of Pyroclastic Rocks/Typic Herorthents/Piedirosso chain surveyed in the Roccamonfina terroir, northwest Campania region, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercurio, M.; Grilli, E.; Morra, V.; Prohaska, T.; Buondonno, A.; Langella, A.

    2012-04-01

    KEYWORDS: geofingerprint, strontium isotope ratio, Campanian Ignimbrite, Typic Xerorthents, Roccamonfina Investigations were carried out to evaluate the geofingerprint of Piedirosso wine produced in the volcanic areas of Campania region (Southern Italy). The research was focused on the terroir located in the southern area of the Roccamonfina volcanic complex according to a procedure developed by the Authors. The protocol accounts for a careful sampling of the soil and the grapes (branches, leaves) within the vineyards of "Masseria Felicia" farm, located in Carano di Sessa Aurunca (Caserta), followed by a Piedirosso wine production (monocultivar) on a pilot plant scale (grape harvest 2009). Samples were digested by using strong acids (HF, HClO4) and suitably selected digestion programs. Only soil samples were analysed after treatments with NH4NO3 in order to simulate the labile fraction of metals in soil useful to estimate the 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio. ICP-MC-MS analyses allowed to determine the 87Sr/86Sr isotopic composition whereas ICP-QMS were carried out to measure Li, Be, B, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, U and Rare Earth Elements. Finally, XRPD analyses provided qualitative and semi-quantitative evaluations of the mineral phases occurring in soil samples. Suitable agronomic analyses allowed a careful soil classification. The soil profile exhibits an Ap1-Ap2-Ap3-C1-2C2-3C3-4C4 horizonation. The color varies from dark brown in Ap horizons to light yellowish brown in C horizons. Rock fragments distribution varies irregularly along soil profile. Texture is loam in all horizons, except Ap1, C1 and 3C3 that show a sandy loam texture. Mottles are evident in all horizons except in 3C3 with a contrasting colors as reddish yellow or strong brown. Redoximorphic features occur in poorly (C1) and very poorly (2C2, 4C4) drained horizons as coatings of iron and manganese oxides. Their color ranges between very dark gray and reddish

  5. The geofingerprint of Pyroclastic Rocks/Typic Herorthents/Piedirosso chain surveyed in the Roccamonfina terroir, northwest Campania region, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercurio, M.; Grilli, E.; Morra, V.; Prohaska, T.; Buondonno, A.; Langella, A.

    2012-04-01

    KEYWORDS: geofingerprint, strontium isotope ratio, Campanian Ignimbrite, Typic Xerorthents, Roccamonfina Investigations were carried out to evaluate the geofingerprint of Piedirosso wine produced in the volcanic areas of Campania region (Southern Italy). The research was focused on the terroir located in the southern area of the Roccamonfina volcanic complex according to a procedure developed by the Authors. The protocol accounts for a careful sampling of the soil and the grapes (branches, leaves) within the vineyards of "Masseria Felicia" farm, located in Carano di Sessa Aurunca (Caserta), followed by a Piedirosso wine production (monocultivar) on a pilot plant scale (grape harvest 2009). Samples were digested by using strong acids (HF, HClO4) and suitably selected digestion programs. Only soil samples were analysed after treatments with NH4NO3 in order to simulate the labile fraction of metals in soil useful to estimate the 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratio. ICP-MC-MS analyses allowed to determine the 87Sr/86Sr isotopic composition whereas ICP-QMS were carried out to measure Li, Be, B, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, U and Rare Earth Elements. Finally, XRPD analyses provided qualitative and semi-quantitative evaluations of the mineral phases occurring in soil samples. Suitable agronomic analyses allowed a careful soil classification. The soil profile exhibits an Ap1-Ap2-Ap3-C1-2C2-3C3-4C4 horizonation. The color varies from dark brown in Ap horizons to light yellowish brown in C horizons. Rock fragments distribution varies irregularly along soil profile. Texture is loam in all horizons, except Ap1, C1 and 3C3 that show a sandy loam texture. Mottles are evident in all horizons except in 3C3 with a contrasting colors as reddish yellow or strong brown. Redoximorphic features occur in poorly (C1) and very poorly (2C2, 4C4) drained horizons as coatings of iron and manganese oxides. Their color ranges between very dark gray and reddish

  6. Diminishing high-frequency directivity due to a source effect: Empirical evidence from small earthquakes in the Abruzzo region, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacor, F.; Gallovič, F.; Puglia, R.; Luzi, L.; D'Amico, M.

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the directivity effects of ~250 aftershocks (magnitudes 3-5.5) of the Mw 6.1 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (central Italy). To this end, we estimate the apparent source spectra at each station removing path and site effects inferred by standard Generalized Inversion Technique. Then, we evaluate the residuals between the apparent source spectra and the event mean source spectrum at selected frequencies. We investigate azimuthal and frequency dependence of the residuals for 40 events with the best station coverage. For most of events with the strongest directivity effect (Mw 3.4-4.0), we observe a remarkable decrease of the directivity amplification at high frequencies, which has not yet been documented for such relatively small-magnitude events. Since there is negligible distance dependence, we ascribe this observation to a source phenomenon such as significant small-scale rupture propagation complexity.

  7. Biochemical Characterization and Antimicrobial and Antifungal Activity of Two Endemic Varieties of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) of the Campania Region, Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Fratianni, Florinda; Riccardi, Riccardo; Spigno, Patrizia; Ombra, Maria Neve; Cozzolino, Autilia; Tremonte, Patrizio; Coppola, Raffaele; Nazzaro, Filomena

    2016-07-01

    Extracts of the bulbs of the two endemic varieties "Rosato" and "Caposele" of Allium sativum of the Campania region, Southern Italy, were analyzed. The phenolic content, ascorbic acid, allicin content, and in vitro antimicrobial and antifungal activity were determined. Ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector performed polyphenol profile. The polyphenolic extracts showed antioxidant activity (EC50) lower than 120 mg. The amount of ascorbic acid and allicin in the two extracts was similar. Polyphenol extract exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and (only by the extract of Rosato) against Bacillus cereus. The extract of Caposele was more effective in inhibiting the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillum citrinum. On the other hand, the extract of Rosato was effective against Penicillium expansum. PMID:27259073

  8. [Polycyclic aromatic hidrocarbons deposition in the Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily Region, Southern Italy) high-risk area following an oil refinery fire].

    PubMed

    Grechi, Daniele; Biggeri, Annibale

    2016-01-01

    On September 2014, a fire began within an oil refinery involving a storage tank containing several hundreds of thousands cubic meters of virgin naphtha. Mayors of neighbouring municipalities asked the Epidemiology and Prevention Society "Giulio A. Maccacaro" to carry out an environmental survey in order to evaluate what was the nature and how dangerous was suspended dust deposited by the fumes. In the following days, after fire had been extinguished we conducted a sample survey on the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and metals in particulate deposited on the soil on a radius of five kilometres from the refinery and we engaged the exposed population. The Milazzo-Valle del Mela (Sicily Region, Southern Italy) high-risk area includes several industrial plants; among them, an oil refinery and a fuel powered energy plant. As reference area we selected the Sarroch municipality (Sardinia Region, Southern Italy), in the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea, which is geographically comparable, where a large oil refinery is located and where an environmental campaign with measurement of PAH and metals in particulate matter was ongoing. Qualitatively, metal composition of particulate matter resulted similar in the Sarroch and Milazzo samples. Instead, a large excess of PAH was documented in the Milazzo samples as compared to the Sarroch ones. In conclusion, the results of the analysis of the samples of particulate matter deposited in the Milazzo area in the days immediately following the oil refinery fire showed a high quantity of PAH, carcinogenic substances which pose major hazard to population health. The greater fall-out was registered in the proximity of the burnt storage tank and the West neighbourhood, and at lesser extent in the Southern neighbourhood. As a consequence, there was a population exposure to carcinogenic substances which could have reached the food chain. PMID:26951697

  9. Policy and planning of prevention in Italy: Results from an appraisal of prevention plans developed by Regions for the period 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Annalisa; Marzuillo, Carolina; Massimi, Azzurra; De Vito, Corrado; de Belvis, Anton Giulio; La Torre, Giuseppe; Federici, Antonio; Ricciardi, Walter; Villari, Paolo

    2015-06-01

    Health policies on disease prevention differ widely between countries. Studies suggest that different countries have much to learn from each other and that significant health gains could be achieved if all countries followed best practice. This paper describes the policy development and planning process relating to prevention activities in Italy, through a critical appraisal of Regional Prevention Plans (RPPs) drafted for the period 2010-2012. The analysis was performed using a specific evaluation tool developed by a Scientific Committee appointed by the Italian Ministry of Health. We appraised nineteen RPPs, comprising a total of 702 projects, most of them in the areas of universal prevention (62.9%) and prevention in high risk groups (27.0%). Italian Regions established prevention activities using an innovative combination of population and high-risk individuals approaches. However, some issues, such as the need to reduce health inequalities, were poorly addressed. The technical drafting of RPPs required some improvement; e.g. the evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the health interventions proposed was seldom reported. There were significant geographical differences across the Regions in the appraisal of RPPs. Our research suggests that continuous assessment of the planning process of prevention may become a very useful tool for monitoring, and ultimately strengthening, public health capacity in the field of prevention. Further research is needed to analyze determinants of regional variation. PMID:25887486

  10. Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes among Children and Adolescents in Italy between 2009 and 2013: The Role of a Regional Childhood Diabetes Registry

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, F.; Cappelli, M. G.; Vece, M. M.; Caputi, G.; Delvecchio, M.; Prato, R.; Martinelli, D.; Workgroup, Apulian Childhood-Onset Diabetes Registry

    2016-01-01

    Background. Surveillance represents a key strategy to control type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). In Italy, national data are missing. This study aimed at evaluating the incidence of T1DM in subjects <18 year olds in Apulia (a large southeastern region, about 4,000,000 inhabitants) and assessing the sensitivity of the regional Registry of Childhood-Onset Diabetes (RCOD) in the 2009–2013 period. Methods. We performed a retrospective study matching records from regional Hospital Discharge Registry (HDR), User Fee Exempt Registry (UFER), and Drugs Prescription Registry (DPR) and calculated T1DM incidence; completeness of each data source was also estimated. In order to assess the RCOD sensitivity we compared cases from the registry to those extracted from HDR-UFER-DPR matching. Results. During 2009–2013, a total of 917 cases (about 184/year) in at least one of the three sources and an annual incidence of 25.2 per 100,000 were recorded, lower in infant, increasing with age and peaked in 5- to 9-year-olds. The completeness of DPR was 78.7%, higher than that of UFER (64.3%) and of HDR (59.6%). The RCOD's sensitivity was 39.05% (360/922; 95% CI: 34.01%–44.09%). Conclusions. Apulia appeared as a high-incidence region. A full, active involvement of physicians working in paediatric diabetes clinics would be desirable to improve the RCOD performance. PMID:27092312

  11. Immunization coverage among splenectomized patients: Results of an ad hoc survey in Puglia Region (South of Italy).

    PubMed

    Martino, Carmen; Gallone, Maria Serena; Quarto, Michele; Germinario, Cinzia; Tafuri, Silvio

    2016-05-01

    Patients with anatomic or functional asplenia have a 10-50 times higher risk than general population to develop Overwhelming Post-Splenectomy Infection. Evidences are unanimous in recommending splenectomised patients to receive meningococcal, antipneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccinations according to a specific timing. In Italy there are no current data on the immunisation coverage in these patients. This study aims to investigate immunisation coverage in patients undergoing elective or urgent splenectomy for 2012-2013 in the 3 Apulian hospitals. The patients discharged with the code ICD-9-CM 41.5 - "Total splenectomy" were enrolled. The administration of vaccines was verified through consultation of medical records, archives of general practitioners and vaccination offices. In the study period, 166 subjects underwent splenectomy and none of them received vaccinations during hospitalization. 25 splenectomised patients (15.1%) received at least one of the recommended vaccinations. 21 patients (12.6%) received vaccine against Streptococcus pneumonia, 13 (7.8%) meningococcal vaccine, 10 patients (6%) Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine. The low vaccination coverage could be due both to poor perception of the risk of infection and to a lack of knowledge on vaccinations by surgeons. For this reason it is necessary to draw up and share operational protocols that establish the administration of vaccines. PMID:26890256

  12. Immunization coverage among splenectomized patients: Results of an ad hoc survey in Puglia Region (South of Italy).

    PubMed

    Martino, Carmen; Gallone, Maria Serena; Quarto, Michele; Germinario, Cinzia; Tafuri, Silvio

    2016-05-01

    Patients with anatomic or functional asplenia have a 10-50 times higher risk than general population to develop Overwhelming Post-Splenectomy Infection. Evidences are unanimous in recommending splenectomised patients to receive meningococcal, antipneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccinations according to a specific timing. In Italy there are no current data on the immunisation coverage in these patients. This study aims to investigate immunisation coverage in patients undergoing elective or urgent splenectomy for 2012-2013 in the 3 Apulian hospitals. The patients discharged with the code ICD-9-CM 41.5 - "Total splenectomy" were enrolled. The administration of vaccines was verified through consultation of medical records, archives of general practitioners and vaccination offices. In the study period, 166 subjects underwent splenectomy and none of them received vaccinations during hospitalization. 25 splenectomised patients (15.1%) received at least one of the recommended vaccinations. 21 patients (12.6%) received vaccine against Streptococcus pneumonia, 13 (7.8%) meningococcal vaccine, 10 patients (6%) Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine. The low vaccination coverage could be due both to poor perception of the risk of infection and to a lack of knowledge on vaccinations by surgeons. For this reason it is necessary to draw up and share operational protocols that establish the administration of vaccines.

  13. Biodiversity and safety aspects of yeast strains characterized from vineyards and spontaneous fermentations in the Apulia Region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Tristezza, Mariana; Vetrano, Cosimo; Bleve, Gianluca; Spano, Giuseppe; Capozzi, Vittorio; Logrieco, Antonio; Mita, Giovanni; Grieco, Francesco

    2013-12-01

    This work is the first large-scale study on vineyard-associated yeast strains from Apulia (Southern Italy). Yeasts were identified by Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) ribotyping and bioinformatic analysis. The polymorphism of interdelta elements was used to differentiate Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. Twenty different species belonging to 9 genera were identified. Predominant on the grape surface were Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Aureobasidium pullulans, whereas M. pulcherrima and H. uvarum were dominant in the early fermentation stage. A total of 692 S. cerevisiae isolates were identified and a number of S. cerevisiae strains, ranging from 26 to 55, was detected in each of the eight fermentations. The strains were tested for biogenic amines (BAs) production, either in synthetic media or grape must. Two Pichia manshurica, an Issatchenkia terricola and a M. pulcherrima strains were able to produce histamine and cadaverine, during must fermentation. The production of BAs in wine must was different than that observed in the synthetic medium. This feature indicate the importance of an "in grape must" assessment of BAs producing yeast. Overall, our results suggest the importance of microbiological control during wine-making to reduce the potential health risk for consumer represented by these spoilage yeasts.

  14. Estimation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis load in raw bulk tank milk in Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy) by qPCR.

    PubMed

    Ricchi, Matteo; Savi, Roberto; Bolzoni, Luca; Pongolini, Stefano; Grant, Irene R; De Cicco, Caterina; Cerutti, Giulia; Cammi, Giuliana; Garbarino, Chiara A; Arrigoni, Norma

    2016-08-01

    Consumption of milk and dairy products is considered one of the main routes of human exposure to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Quantitative data on MAP load in raw cows' milk are essential starting point for exposure assessment. Our study provides this information on a regional scale, estimating the load of MAP in bulk tank milk (BTM) produced in Emilia-Romagna region (Italy). The survey was carried out on 2934 BTM samples (88.6% of the farms herein present) using two different target sequences for qPCR (f57 and IS900). Data about the performances of both qPCRs are also reported, highlighting the superior sensitivity of IS900-qPCR. Seven hundred and eighty-nine samples tested MAP-positive (apparent prevalence 26.9%) by IS900 qPCR. However, only 90 of these samples were quantifiable by qPCR. The quantifiable samples contained a median load of 32.4 MAP cells mL(-1) (and maximum load of 1424 MAP cells mL(-1) ). This study has shown that a small proportion (3.1%) of BTM samples from Emilia-Romagna region contained MAP in excess of the limit of detection (1.5 × 10(1) MAP cells mL(-1) ), indicating low potential exposure for consumers if the milk subsequently undergoes pasteurization or if it is destined to typical hard cheese production.

  15. Chemical characterization and spatial distribution of PAHs and heavy hydrocarbons in rural sites of Campania Region, South Italy.

    PubMed

    Monaco, D; Riccio, A; Chianese, E; Adamo, P; Di Rosa, S; Fagnano, M

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the behaviour and distribution patterns of heavy hydrocarbons and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) priority pollutants, as listed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, were evaluated in 891 soil samples. The samples were collected in three expected polluted rural sites in Campania (southern Italy) as part of the LIFE11 ECOREMED project, funded by the European Commission, to test innovative agriculture-based soil restoration techniques. These sites have been selected because they have been used for the temporary storage of urban and building waste (Teverola), subject to illicit dumping of unknown material (Trentola-Ducenta), or suspected to be polluted by metals due to agricultural practices (Giugliano). Chemical analysis of soil samples allowed the baseline pollution levels to be determined prior to any intervention. It was found that these areas can be considered contaminated for residential use, in accordance with Italian environmental law (Law Decree 152/2006). Statistical analysis applied to the data proved that average mean concentrations of heavy hydrocarbons could be as high as 140 mg/kg of dry soil with peaks of 700 mg/kg of dry soil, for the Trentola-Ducenta site; the median concentration of analytical results for hydrocarbon (HC) concentration for the Trentola-Ducenta and Giugliano sites was 63 and 73.4 mg/kg dry soil, respectively; for Teverola, the median level was 35 mg/kg dry soil. Some PAHs (usually benzo(a)pyrene) also exceeded the maximum allowed level in all sites. From the principal component analysis applied to PAH concentrations, it emerged that pollutants can be supposed to derive from a single source for the three sites. Diagnostic ratios calculated to determine possible PAH sources suggest petroleum combustion or disposal practice. Our sampling protocol also showed large dishomogeneity in soil pollutant spatial distribution, even at a scale as small as 3.3 m, indicating that variability could emerge at very

  16. Nutritional Quality of Preparations Based on Döner Kebab Sold in Two Towns of Veneto Region, Italy: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Panozzo, Monica; Magro, Luciano; Erle, Ilario; Ferrarini, Stefano; Murari, Riccardo; Masaro, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The sampling activity for this study was performed between September and October 2012. It involved seven shops in Verona, eleven in Vicenza and two in its province (Bassano del Grappa), northern Italy. The scope was to measure the values of energy and nutritional components and to identify the profile of fatty acids in a serving of ready to eat Döner Kebab. The samples were collected according to the usual proportions of this preparation, keeping all the components (bread, meat, vegetables and sauces) separated in different bags. In the laboratory, each component was weighed and, after pooling, processed for the analytical determination of humidity, crude protein, lipid content and fatty acid profile, ashes, sodium (salt), carbohydrate, collagen (measured only in meat) and fibre. The results showed a highly standardized recipe, while the comparison between the two towns showed a significant difference in carbohydrate concentration (mainly due to the quantity of bread used). By observing data on the serving sizes sampled (274 to 618 g) and the nutritional values obtained, Döner Kebab can be seen as a ready to eat dish providing much energy: on average a serving size covers 45 and 36% of the recommended daily intake of energy, 95.7 and 82.1% of protein, 42.5 and 33.4% of saturated fatty acids for females and males, respectively, and 85.5% of salt regardless of gender. Döner Kebab can be considered as an occasional substitute to one of the two main meals of the day. PMID:27800390

  17. Soil microbial diversity and activity as terroir elements of Sangiovese vineyards in the Chianti Classico region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabiani, Arturo; Mocali, Stefano; Priori, Simone; Valboa, Giuseppe; Vignozzi, Nadia; Pellegrini, Sergio; Storchi, Paolo; Perria, Rita; Costantini, Edoardo

    2016-04-01

    Linking the uniqueness and quality of grapes and wine to the environment they are produced, based on the terroir concept, have recently become popular in many parts of world. The natural components of terroir are actually a set of processes, which together create a delicate equilibrium and regulation of its effect on products in both space and time. Climate, geology, geomorphology and soil are therefore the main environmental factors which make up the terroir effect on different scales. However, information on the impact of soil microbial communities on soil functions, grapevine plants and wine quality is still lacking. Thus, four of the most suitable areas (so called "cru") for the production of Sangiovese wine were chosen within the Barone Ricasoli farm of Brolio, the largest winery in the Chianti Classico area in central Italy: Fattoio, Miniera, Ceni and Colli-Agresto. Based on previous pedological and sensing technologies surveys, each area was further divided into two distinct homogeneous areas of about 1.5 ha called Basic Terroir Unit (UTB), which were monitored over 3 years (2012-2014) for the soil the chemical-physical variability (moisture, organic matter, nitrogen, potassium), the vineyard physiological status (water stress, grape production, characteristics of the grapes and wine) and the structure and activity of soil microbial communities (determined through DGGE, soil respiration and microbial biomass, respectively). The aim of the work was to assess the relationships among soil parameters and vine quality at intra- and inter- UTB level and, in particular, the potential impact of microbial composition and/or function on the terroir concept. The overall results highlighted a microbial community structure specific for each cru area and, in particular, associated to each UTB. Furthermore, microbial activity in Miniera and Ceni appeared to be positively related to Sangiovese quality, as determined through the Sangiovese Performance Index. However, except

  18. Trachyandesite scoria-flow and associated trachyte pyroclastic flow and surge at Roccamonfina Volcano (Roman Region, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannetti, Bernardino; Luongo, Giuseppe

    1994-02-01

    The pyroclastic deposits (6-7 km 2 in area) of Garofali (Roccamonfina Volcano, Italy) consist of the 239 ± 8 ka Grey Trachyandesite Scoriae of Riella (RTS) conformably capped by the Trachyte Tuff of Garofali (GTT), the latter consisting of pyroclastic flows, surges and overlying lapilli tuff. Locally, the uppermost part of the RTS consists of finely bedded surge deposits. Both RTS and GTT contain RTS-derived debris flows. Grain-size features suggest that the RTS can be interpreted as proximal scoria and lithic flow deposits. The flow origin is suggested by absence of bedding, emplacement of scoria clasts in a still plastic state, attitude to excavating channels in underlying pyroclastics, and grain size features. A surge origin for the transitional RTS is suggested by fine layering, presence of dune, pinch-and-swell structures and accretionary lapilli, and grain size. These characteristics become dominant in the surge component of the GTT, where they are associated with chute-and-pool structures. Grain size distributions show that the GTT deposits — both pyroclastic flows and surges — have a sorting similar to the RTS but a smaller median diameter. Gas-escape structures occur largely in the upper and lower levels of RTS and GTT, respectively. They result from strong gas-fluidification of the RTS during deposition of GTT. Isopach and isograde maps locate the source vent of the RTS between Tuorisichi and S. Lorenzo, but indicate that three source vents were active during eruption of the GTT. Measurements of dunes gave good directional vectors for the GTT. Absence of a depositional break between RTS and GTT deposits suggest that these represent two different episodes of the eruption of a compositionally zoned magma source, through one (RTS) and several (GTT) conduits. The eruption of the RTS was driven essentially by magmatic volatiles partially affected by preeruptive involvement of water. Eruption of the transitional RTS-GTT and mainly of GTT deposits developed

  19. Professional Acquisition of M. bovis in Calabria Region (Southern Italy): A Challenging Case of Osteomyelitis in a Migrant Patient from Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Quirino, Angela; Torti, Carlo; Strazzulla, Alessio; Nisticò, Salvatore; Galati, Luisa; Barreca, Giorgio Settimo; Lamberti, Angelo Giuseppe; Berardelli, Giuseppina; Pacciarini, Maria; Gasparini, Giorgio; Pisani, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Antonio; Liberto, Maria Carla; Focà, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    We report herein the first case of a coinfection with Brucella spp., M. bovis, and Enterobacter cloacae in a butcher who moved from Bulgaria to Italy. Molecular typing suggested professional acquisition of M. bovis in Italy. So, surveillance and preventive measures need to be implemented. PMID:26257970

  20. The alerting system for hydrogeological hazard in Lombardy Region, northern Italy: rainfall thresholds triggering debris-flows and "equivalent rainfall" method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchi, A.; Valsecchi, I. Q.; Alberti, M.; Fassi, P.; Molari, M.; Mannucci, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Functional Centre (CFMR) of the Civil Protection of the Lombardy Region, North Italy, has the main task of monitoring and alerting, particularly with respect to natural hazards. The procedure of early warning for hydrogeological hazard is based on a comparison of two quantities: thresholds and rainfall, both referred to a defined area and an exact time interval. The CFMR studied 52 landslide events (1987-2003) in Medium-Low Valtellina and derived a model of the critical detachment rainfall, in function of the local slope and the Curve Number CN (an empirical parameter related with the land cover and the hydrological conditions of the soil): it's physically consistent and allows a geographically targeted alerting. Moreover, rainfall thresholds were associated with a typical probability of exceedance. The processing of rainfall data is carried out through the "equivalent rainfall" method, that allows to take into account the antecedent moisture condition of the soil: in fact the hazard is substantially greater when the soil is near to saturation. The method was developed from the CN method and considers the local CN and the observed rainfall of the previous 5 days. The obtained value for the local equivalent rainfall, that combines rainfall (observed and forecasted) and local soil characteristics, is a better parameter for the evaluation of the hydrogeological hazard. The comparison between equivalent rainfall and thresholds allows to estimate the local hydrogeological hazard, displayed through hazard maps, and consequently to provide a reliable alerting activity (even localized to limited portions of the region).

  1. Evidence of Simultaneous Circulation of West Nile and Usutu Viruses in Mosquitoes Sampled in Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy) in 2009

    PubMed Central

    Calzolari, Mattia; Bonilauri, Paolo; Bellini, Romeo; Albieri, Alessandro; Defilippo, Francesco; Maioli, Giulia; Galletti, Giorgio; Gelati, Antoni; Barbieri, Ilaria; Tamba, Marco; Lelli, Davide; Carra, Elena; Cordioli, Paolo; Angelini, Paola; Dottori, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Background In recent years human diseases due to mosquito-borne viruses were increasingly reported in Emilia-Romagna region (Italy), from the chikungunya virus in 2007 to the West Nile virus (WNV) in 2008. An extensive entomological survey was performed in 2009 to establish the presence and distribution of mosquito arboviruses in this region, with particular reference to flaviviruses. Methodology/Principal Findings From May 6 to October 31, a total of 190,516 mosquitoes were sampled in georeferenced stations, grouped in 1,789 pools according date of collection, location, and species, and analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect the presence of RNA belong to Flavivirus genus. WNV was detected in 27 mosquito pools, producing sequences similar to those of birds and human strains obtained in 2008 outbreak, pointed out the probable virus overwintering. Isolation of WNV was achieved from one of these pools. Moreover 56 pools of mosquitoes tested positive for Usutu virus (USUV). Most PCR positive pools consisted of Culex pipiens, which also was the most analyzed mosquito species (81.4% of specimens); interestingly, USUV RNA was also found in two Aedes albopictus mosquito pools. Simultaneous circulation of WNV and USUV in the survey area was highlighted by occurrence of 8 mosquito WNV- and USUV-positive pools and by the overlaying of the viruses “hot spots”, obtained by kernel density estimation (KDE) analysis. Land use of sampled stations pointed out a higher proportion of WNV-positive Cx. pipiens pool in rural environments respect the provenience of total sampled pool, while the USUV-positive pools were uniformly captured in the different environments. Conclusions/Significance Obtained data highlighting the possible role of Cx. pipiens mosquito as the main vector for WNV and USUV in Northern Italy, and the possible involvement of Ae. albopictus mosquito in USUV cycle. The described mosquito-based surveillance could constitute the

  2. Seasonal trends and spatial variations of PM10-bounded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Veneto Region, Northeast Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiol, Mauro; Formenton, Gianni; Pasqualetto, Alberto; Pavoni, Bruno

    2013-11-01

    The Veneto Region extends for ˜18.4·103 km2 in the northeastern part of the Po Valley and includes mountains, hills, plain and coastal environments with very different and discontinuous anthropogenic pressures. Although many efforts have been made to mitigate air pollution, the European air quality standards for atmospheric pollutants are frequently breached. This study investigates the levels of eight PM10-bound PAHs collected in 21 stations categorized as rural background, urban and suburban backgrounds, traffic and industrial hot-spots during one year (2011). Data were statistically processed to detect the PAH seasonal trends, their relationship with other air pollutants and micro-meteorological parameters and the space variations at a regional scale. Results show that PAHs levels are relatively high in the largest part of the region, with 10 sites exceeding the levels of BaP targeted by the European legislation. Two sites exhibited anomalously high PAHs concentrations and this anomaly became even more evident when considering the population density as a surrogate for the potential anthropogenic pressure. The PAHs levels were found directly proportional to other gaseous pollutants (CO, NO, NOx, SO2) suggesting common polluting sources. The analysis of time trends of PAH concentrations reveals significant coincidences throughout the region, i.e. simultaneous changes are observed in most sites as a consequence of similar emission sources and accumulation/removal processes. In this scenario, the control strategies currently imposed at local level (e.g. traffic limitations) have proven scarcely effective in mitigating air pollution and a real coordination at regional or even interregional level cannot be further postponed. Peculiar features of the PAHs pollution in the Veneto were also identified and some measures for protecting the human health were suggested.

  3. Estimate of the size and demographic structure of the owned dog and cat population living in Veneto region (north-eastern Italy).

    PubMed

    Capello, Katia; Bortolotti, Laura; Lanari, Manuela; Baioni, Elisa; Mutinelli, Franco; Vascellari, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of the size and demographic structure of animal populations is a necessary prerequisite for any population-based epidemiological study, especially to ascertain and interpret prevalence data, to implement surveillance plans in controlling zoonotic diseases and, moreover, to provide accurate estimates of tumours incidence data obtained by population-based registries. The main purpose of this study was to provide an accurate estimate of the size and structure of the canine population in Veneto region (north-eastern Italy), using the Lincoln-Petersen version of the capture-recapture methodology. The Regional Canine Demographic Registry (BAC) and a sample survey of households of Veneto Region were the capture and recapture sources, respectively. The secondary purpose was to estimate the size and structure of the feline population in the same region, using the same survey applied for dog population. A sample of 2465 randomly selected households was drawn and submitted to a questionnaire using the CATI technique, in order to obtain information about the ownership of dogs and cats. If the dog was declared to be identified, owner's information was used to recapture the dog in the BAC. The study was conducted in Veneto Region during 2011, when the dog population recorded in the BAC was 605,537. Overall, 616 households declared to possess at least one dog (25%), with a total of 805 dogs and an average per household of 1.3. The capture-recapture analysis showed that 574 dogs (71.3%, 95% CI: 68.04-74.40%) had been recaptured in both sources, providing a dog population estimate of 849,229 (95% CI: 814,747-889,394), 40% higher than that registered in the BAC. Concerning cats, 455 of 2465 (18%, 95% CI: 17-20%) households declared to possess at least one cat at the time of the telephone interview, with a total of 816 cats. The mean number of cats per household was equal to 1.8, providing an estimate of the cat population in Veneto region equal to 663,433 (95% CI: 626

  4. 2015-2018 Regional Prevention Plan of Lombardy (Northern Italy) and sedentary prevention: a cross-sectional strategy to develop evidence-based programmes.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Liliana; Ripamonti, Ennio; Cereda, Danilo; Gelmi, Giusi; Pirrone, Lucia; Rebecchi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sector, life-course, and setting approaches are identified in the 2015-2018 Regional Prevention Plan (PRP) of Lombardy Region (Northern Italy) as valuable strategies to ensure the efficacy and sustainable prevention of the non-communicable disease (NCDs). The involvement of non-health sectors in health promotion activities represents a suitable strategy to affect on social, economic, and political determinants and to change environmental factors that could cause NCDs. A dialogue among communities, urban planning, and prevention know-how is a prerequisite to develop a system of policies suitable to promote healthy lifestyle in general and, specifically, active lifestyles. The 2015-2018 Lombardy PRP pursues its aims of health promotion and behavioural risk factors for NCDs prevention through programmes that implement their own setting networks (Health Promoting Schools - SPS; Workplace Health Promotion - WHP) and develop new networks. Sedentary lifestyle prevention and active lifestyle promotion are performed through the approach promoted by the Healthy Cities Programme (WHO), encouraging two main processes: 1. creating integrated capacity-building among health and social prevention services, academic research, and local stakeholders on different urban planning and design issues; 2. promoting community empowerment through active citizens participation. Through this process, Lombardy Region aims to orient its services developing evidence-based programmes and enhancing advocacy and mediating capacity skills in order to create a profitable partnership with non-health sectors. This paper reports the main impact data: 26,000 children that reach school by foot thanks to walking buses, 57% of 145 companies joining WHP are involved in promoting physical activity, 18,891 citizens who attend local walking groups. PMID:27436259

  5. 2015-2018 Regional Prevention Plan of Lombardy (Northern Italy) and sedentary prevention: a cross-sectional strategy to develop evidence-based programmes.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Liliana; Ripamonti, Ennio; Cereda, Danilo; Gelmi, Giusi; Pirrone, Lucia; Rebecchi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sector, life-course, and setting approaches are identified in the 2015-2018 Regional Prevention Plan (PRP) of Lombardy Region (Northern Italy) as valuable strategies to ensure the efficacy and sustainable prevention of the non-communicable disease (NCDs). The involvement of non-health sectors in health promotion activities represents a suitable strategy to affect on social, economic, and political determinants and to change environmental factors that could cause NCDs. A dialogue among communities, urban planning, and prevention know-how is a prerequisite to develop a system of policies suitable to promote healthy lifestyle in general and, specifically, active lifestyles. The 2015-2018 Lombardy PRP pursues its aims of health promotion and behavioural risk factors for NCDs prevention through programmes that implement their own setting networks (Health Promoting Schools - SPS; Workplace Health Promotion - WHP) and develop new networks. Sedentary lifestyle prevention and active lifestyle promotion are performed through the approach promoted by the Healthy Cities Programme (WHO), encouraging two main processes: 1. creating integrated capacity-building among health and social prevention services, academic research, and local stakeholders on different urban planning and design issues; 2. promoting community empowerment through active citizens participation. Through this process, Lombardy Region aims to orient its services developing evidence-based programmes and enhancing advocacy and mediating capacity skills in order to create a profitable partnership with non-health sectors. This paper reports the main impact data: 26,000 children that reach school by foot thanks to walking buses, 57% of 145 companies joining WHP are involved in promoting physical activity, 18,891 citizens who attend local walking groups.

  6. Analysis of cystic fibrosis gene mutations in children with cystic fibrosis and in 964 infertile couples within the region of Basilicata, Italy: a research study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cystic fibrosis is the most common autosomal recessive genetic disease in the Caucasian population. Extending knowledge about the molecular pathology on the one hand allows better delineation of the mutations in the CFTR gene and the other to dramatically increase the predictive power of molecular testing. Methods This study reports the results of a molecular screening of cystic fibrosis using DNA samples of patients enrolled from January 2009 to December 2013. Patients were referred to our laboratory for cystic fibrosis screening for infertile couples. In addition, we identified the gene mutations present in 76 patients affected by cystic fibrosis in the pediatric population of Basilicata. Results In the 964 infertile couples examined, 132 subjects (69 women and 63 men) resulted heterozygous for one of the CFTR mutations, with a recurrence of carriers of 6.85%. The recurrence of carriers in infertile couples is significantly higher from the hypothetical value of the general population (4%). Conclusions This study shows that in the Basilicata region of Italy the CFTR phenotype is caused by a small number of mutations. Our aim is to develop a kit able to detect not less than 96% of CTFR gene mutations so that the relative risk for screened couples is superimposable with respect to the general population. PMID:25304080

  7. Interplay between regional uplift and glacio-eustasy in the Crotone Basin (Calabria, southern Italy) since 0.45 Ma: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zecchin, Massimo; Caffau, Mauro; Ceramicola, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    During the last 0.45 Ma, the Crotone Basin, a forearc basin located on the Ionian side of Calabria, southern Italy, experienced a phase of uplift that persists today. The transition from subsidence to uplift occurred close to the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11 (ca. 0.4 Ma). The subsequent progressive emergence of the area was punctuated by several marine transgressions linked to high-frequency, high-magnitude glacio-eustatic changes, which are recorded as coastal terraces. These high-frequency sequences show a variable stacking pattern due to the interplay between glacio-eustasy, uplift and local physiography. In particular, a progressive SE-ward migration of the shoreline is documented in the study area since MIS 11. This trend was enhanced during the MIS 5.5 to MIS 2 time interval, due to the combined effect of uplift and lowering glacio-eustatic sea level until the Last Glacial Maximum. Moreover, the regional uplift also led to a physiographic change from relatively low-gradient to high-gradient settings between MIS 7.1 and MIS 5.5. A comparison between the late Quaternary geological record of the Crotone Basin and that of other basins is crucial to improve the present knowledge on past sea levels related to MISs. This ultimately will help to better understand the Holocene sea-level history and the human contribution to sea-level change, in order to predict future scenarios.

  8. Trace elements in free-range hen eggs in the Campania region (Italy) analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Esposito, Mauro; Cavallo, Stefania; Chiaravalle, Eugenio; Miedico, Oto; Pellicanò, Roberta; Rosato, Guido; Sarnelli, Paolo; Baldi, Loredana

    2016-06-01

    Eggs from hens raised on rural or domestic farms are a good indicator of environmental contamination, as the hens are in close contact with the ground and the air and can therefore accumulate heavy metals and other toxic contaminants from the environment as well as from the diet. In this paper, we report the results of the determination of 19 trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Tl, U, V, Zn) in 39 hen egg samples collected from domestic poultry farms in the territory dubbed the "Land of fires" in the Campania region (Italy). This area is characterized by environmental problems caused by the illegal dumping of industrial or domestic waste in fields or by roadsides. In some cases, these wastes have been burned, thereby spreading persistent contaminants into the atmosphere. The content of trace elements in whole egg samples was determined by mass spectrometer after a microwave-assisted digestion procedure. Because European legislation does not indicate maximum values of these elements in this foodstuff, the results were compared with the content of trace elements reported in literature for eggs, in particular home-produced eggs, in various countries. In some cases (Cd, Cu, Ni, Mn), the content determined in this study was in line with those reported elsewhere, in other cases (Pb, Cr), lower values were found.

  9. Trace elements in free-range hen eggs in the Campania region (Italy) analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Esposito, Mauro; Cavallo, Stefania; Chiaravalle, Eugenio; Miedico, Oto; Pellicanò, Roberta; Rosato, Guido; Sarnelli, Paolo; Baldi, Loredana

    2016-06-01

    Eggs from hens raised on rural or domestic farms are a good indicator of environmental contamination, as the hens are in close contact with the ground and the air and can therefore accumulate heavy metals and other toxic contaminants from the environment as well as from the diet. In this paper, we report the results of the determination of 19 trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Tl, U, V, Zn) in 39 hen egg samples collected from domestic poultry farms in the territory dubbed the "Land of fires" in the Campania region (Italy). This area is characterized by environmental problems caused by the illegal dumping of industrial or domestic waste in fields or by roadsides. In some cases, these wastes have been burned, thereby spreading persistent contaminants into the atmosphere. The content of trace elements in whole egg samples was determined by mass spectrometer after a microwave-assisted digestion procedure. Because European legislation does not indicate maximum values of these elements in this foodstuff, the results were compared with the content of trace elements reported in literature for eggs, in particular home-produced eggs, in various countries. In some cases (Cd, Cu, Ni, Mn), the content determined in this study was in line with those reported elsewhere, in other cases (Pb, Cr), lower values were found. PMID:27147239

  10. [An example of a hub and spoke network system in Plastic Surgery: the Regional reference center for non-healing wounds in Ancona (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Scalise, Alessandro; Pierangeli, Marina; Calamita, Roberto; Tartaglione, Caterina; Bolletta, Elisa; Grassetti, Luca; Di Benedetto, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Chronic wounds cause morbidity due to local infections, sepsis, osteomyelitis, but also increase mortality in the most severe cases and in patients with multiple comorbidities. Their increasing prevalence, associated disabilities and relevant health costs make chronic wounds a real social disease. At a time in which we hear more and more about spending reviews and reduction of health care costs, the natural evolution of Medicine and Health Care is increasingly directed towards the achievement of high quality standards while at the same time, reducing costs. It is in this framework that a hub and spoke model was used for organizing Plastic Surgery services in Ancona (Italy). In order to ensure appropriate clinical and organizational management of services, the activities of reference centres need to be widely integrated, by functional interconnections with activities of peripheral hospitals and local centres. Through a careful analysis of the Regional Reference Center for non - healing wounds in Ancona, the authors make some considerations regarding appropriate diagnostic-therapeutic-healthcare pathways and the correct use of human, material and technological resources in the area of wound healing.

  11. [Spatial representativeness of monitoring stations for air quality in Florence (Tuscany Region, Central Italy) according to ARPAT e LaMMA. Critical observations].

    PubMed

    Grechi, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    On March 2015, the Environmental Protection Agency of Tuscany Region (Central Italy) and the Laboratory of monitoring and environmental modelling published a Report on spatial representativeness of monitoring stations for Tuscan air quality, where they supported the decommissioning of modelling stations located in the Florentine Plain. The stations of Signa, Scandicci, and Firenze-Bassi, located in a further South area, were considered representative Believing that air quality of the Plain could be evaluated by these stations is a stretch. In this text the author show the inconsistency of the conclusion of the Report through correlation graphs comparing daily means of PM10 detected in the disposed stations and in the active ones, showing relevant differences between the reported values and the days when the limits are exceeded. The discrepancy is due to the fact that uncertainty of theoretical estimates is greater than the differences recorded by the stations considered as a reference and the areas they may represent. The area of the Plain has a population of 150,000 individuals and it is subject to a heavy environmental pression, which will change for the urban works planned for the coming years. The population's legitimate request for the analytical monitoring of air pollution could be met through the organization of participated monitoring based on the use of low-cost innovative tools.

  12. Phytomorphological and essential-oil characterization in situ and ex situ of wild biotypes of oregano collected in the Campania region (Southern Italy).

    PubMed

    De Falco, Enrica; Roscigno, Graziana; Iodice, Carmela; Senatore, Felice

    2013-11-01

    Oregano is an aromatic species of great interest, which spreads spontaneously over the Mediterranean area, but its genetic resources are not yet adequately developed. Moreover, the results of studies of wild strains of different origin - although quite numerous - are not always comparable, and, therefore, the influence of the environment and genotype on the variability cannot be distinguished. Hence, the plant morphology and the essential-oil composition of three wild, white-flowering biotypes of oregano collected in the Campania region (southern Italy) were characterized, and the effects of genotype and environment were assessed by comparison in situ and ex situ. This allowed deducing that the biotypes belonged to two different subspecies, i.e., Origanum vulgare ssp. virens and O. vulgare ssp. viridulum. The essential-oil yield was higher for the biotype belonging to ssp. virens, and it was significantly correlated with the glandular and stomatal density. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was found to be influenced by the genotype and the conditions of plant growth.

  13. A Survey on Aflatoxin M1 Content in Sheep and Goat Milk Produced in Sardinia Region, Italy (2005-2013)

    PubMed Central

    Virdis, Salvatore; Scarano, Christian; Spanu, Vincenzo; Murittu, Gavino; Ibba, Ignazio; De Santis, Enrico Pietro Luigi

    2014-01-01

    In the present work the results of a survey conducted in Sardinia Region on Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contamination in milk of small ruminants from 2005 to 2013 are reported. A total of 517 sheep and 88 goat milk samples from bulk tank, tank trucks and silo tank milk were collected. Analyses were performed by the Regional Farmers Association laboratory using high-performance liquid chromatography following the ISO 14501:1998 standard. None of the sheep milk samples analysed during 2005-2012 showed AFM1 contamination. In sheep milk samples collected in 2013, 8 out of 172 (4.6%) were contaminated by AFM1 with a concentration (mean±SD) of 12.59±14.05 ng/L. In one bulk tank milk sample 58.82 ng/L AFM1 was detected, exceeding the EU limit. In none of goat milk samples analysed from 2010 to 2012 AFM1 was detected. In 2013, 9 out of 66 goat milk samples (13.6%) showed an AFM1 concentration of 47.21±19.58 ng/L. Two of these samples exceeded the EU limit, with concentrations of 62.09 and 138.6 ng/L. Higher contamination frequency and concentration rates were detected in bulk tank milk samples collected at farm than in bulk milk truck or silo samples, showing a dilution effect on AFM1 milk content along small ruminants supply chain. The rate and levels of AFM1 contamination in sheep and goat milk samples were lower than other countries. However, the small number of milk samples analysed for AFM1 in Sardinia Region in 2005-2013 give evidence that food business operators check programmes should be improved to ensure an adequate monitoring of AFM1 contamination in small ruminant dairy chain. PMID:27800368

  14. High Resolution Vp and Vp/Vs Local Earthquake Tomography of the Val d'Agri Region (Southern Apennines, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Improta, L.; Bagh, S.; De Gori, P.; Pastori, M.; Piccinini, D.; Valoroso, L.; Anselmi, M.; Buttinelli, M.; Chiarabba, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Val d'Agri (VA) Quaternary basin in the southern Apennines extensional belt hosts the largest oilfield in onshore Europe and normal-fault systems with high (up to M7) seismogenic potential. Frequent small-magnitude swarms related to both active crustal extension and anthropogenic activity have occurred in the region. Causal factors for induced seismicity are a water impoundment with severe seasonal oscillations and a high-rate wastewater injection well. We analyzed around 1200 earthquakes (ML<3.3) occurred in the VA and surrounding regions between 2001-2014. We integrated waveforms recorded at 46 seismic stations belonging to 3 different networks: a dense temporary network installed by INGV in 2005-2006, the permanent national network of INGV, and the trigger-mode monitoring network managed by the local operator ENI petroleum company. We used local earthquake tomography to investigate static and transient features of the crustal velocity structure and to accurately locate earthquakes. Vp and Vp/Vs models are parameterized by a 3x3x2 km spacing and well resolved down to about 12 km depth. The complex Vp model illuminates broad antiformal structures corresponding to wide ramp-anticlines involving Mesozoic carbonates of the Apulia hydrocarbon reservoir, and NW-SE trending low Vp regions related to thrust-sheet-top clastic basins. The VA basin corresponds to shallow low-Vp region. Focal mechanisms show normal faulting kinematics with minor strike slip solutions in agreement with the local extensional regime. Earthquake locations and focal solutions depict shallow (< 5 km depth) E-dipping extensional structures beneath the artificial lake located in the southern sector of the basin, and along the western margin of the VA. A few swarms define relatively deep transfer structures accommodating the differential extension between main normal faults. The spatio-temporal distribution of around 220 events correlates with wastewater disposal activity, illuminating a NE

  15. Assessing climate change over the Marche Region (central Italy) from 1951 to 2050: toward an integrated strategy for climate impacts reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangelantoni, Lorenzo; Russo, Aniello; Marincioni, Fausto; Appiotti, Federica

    2013-04-01

    This study investigates consequences and future impacts of climate change on the social and natural systems of the Marche Region (one of the 20 administrative divisions of Italy). This Region, is located in central part of the peninsula and borders the Adriatic Sea on the East and the Apennine mountains on the West. The Region extends for about 60 km E-W, and has a NW-SE coastline of about 170 km, covering a total area of 9366 km2. Multimodel projections over the Marche Regions, on daily, monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation parameters, have been extracted from the outputs of a set of Regional Climate Models (RCMs) over Europe run by several research institutes participating to the EU ENSEMBLE project. These climate simulations refer to the boundary conditions of the IPCC A1B emission scenario, and have a horizontal resolution of 25km × 25km covering a time period from 1951 to 2050. Results detail a significant increase of daily, monthly and seasonal mean temperatures, especially in summer, with anomaly values reaching +3°C after the year 2025, referring to the model CliNo 1981-2010. Mountain areas show higher values of temperature anomalies than coastal ones of approximately 0.5 °C. Concurrently, a widespread decrease of seasonal precipitation appears to affect all seasons, except for autumn. Rainfall decrease and temperature increase could reduce the Region's aquifer recharge and overall availability of hydro resources. These alterations could affect human health, agricultural productivity, forest fires, coastal erosion, algal blooms and water quality. Ongoing analysis of extreme climatological indices (e.g. frequency of maximum daily temperature exceeding comfort thresholds) are expected to quantify such impacts. A first analysis, linking climate change to the hydrologic cycle, studied through the computation of the hydro-climatic intensity index (as defined by Giorgi et al., 2012), suggests for the Marche Region an increase of the intensity of

  16. An improved 1-D seismic velocity model for seismological studies in the Campania-Lucania region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrullo, Emanuela; De Matteis, Raffaella; Satriano, Claudio; Amoroso, Ortensia; Zollo, Aldo

    2013-10-01

    We present a 1-D velocity model of the Earth's crust in Campania-Lucania region obtained by solving the coupled hypocentre-velocity inverse problem for 1312 local earthquakes recorded at a dense regional network. The model is constructed using the VELEST program, which calculates 1-D `minimum' velocity model from body wave traveltimes, together with station corrections, which account for deviations from the simple 1-D structure. The spatial distribution of station corrections correlates with the P-wave velocity variations of a preliminary 3-D crustal velocity model that has been obtained from the tomographic inversion of the same data set of P traveltimes. We found that station corrections reflect not only inhomogeneous near-surface structures, but also larger-scale geological features associated to the transition between carbonate platform outcrops at Southwest and Miocene sedimentary basins at Northeast. We observe a significant trade-off between epicentral locations and station corrections, related to the existence of a thick low-velocity layer to the NE. This effect is taken into account and minimized by re-computing station corrections, fixing the position of a subset of well-determined hypocentres, located in the 3-D tomographic model.

  17. Heat accumulation period in the Mediterranean region: phenological response of the olive in different climate areas (Spain, Italy and Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Fátima; Ruiz, Luis; Fornaciari, Marco; Romano, Bruno; Galán, Carmen; Oteros, Jose; Ben Dhiab, Ali; Msallem, Monji; Orlandi, Fabio

    2014-07-01

    The main characteristics of the heat accumulation period and the possible existence of different types of biological response to the environment in different populations of olive through the Mediterranean region have been evaluated. Chilling curves to determine the start date of the heat accumulation period were constructed and evaluated. The results allow us to conclude that the northern olive populations have the greatest heat requirements for the development of their floral buds, and they need a period of time longer than olives in others areas to completely satisfy their biothermic requirements. The olive trees located in the warmest winter areas have a faster transition from endogenous to exogenous inhibition once the peak of chilling is met, and they show more rapid floral development. The lower heat requirements are due to better adaptation to warmer regions. Both the threshold temperature and the peak of flowering date are closely related to latitude. Different types of biological responses of olives to the environment were found. The adaptive capacity shown by the olive tree should be considered as a useful tool with which to study the effects of global climatic change on agro-ecosystems.

  18. Heat accumulation period in the Mediterranean region: phenological response of the olive in different climate areas (Spain, Italy and Tunisia).

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Fátima; Ruiz, Luis; Fornaciari, Marco; Romano, Bruno; Galán, Carmen; Oteros, Jose; Ben Dhiab, Ali; Msallem, Monji; Orlandi, Fabio

    2014-07-01

    The main characteristics of the heat accumulation period and the possible existence of different types of biological response to the environment in different populations of olive through the Mediterranean region have been evaluated. Chilling curves to determine the start date of the heat accumulation period were constructed and evaluated. The results allow us to conclude that the northern olive populations have the greatest heat requirements for the development of their floral buds, and they need a period of time longer than olives in others areas to completely satisfy their biothermic requirements. The olive trees located in the warmest winter areas have a faster transition from endogenous to exogenous inhibition once the peak of chilling is met, and they show more rapid floral development. The lower heat requirements are due to better adaptation to warmer regions. Both the threshold temperature and the peak of flowering date are closely related to latitude. Different types of biological responses of olives to the environment were found. The adaptive capacity shown by the olive tree should be considered as a useful tool with which to study the effects of global climatic change on agro-ecosystems. PMID:23591696

  19. Finite element modelling of stress field perturbations and interseismic crustal deformation in the Val d'Agri region, southern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candela, Stefania; Mazzoli, Stefano; Megna, Antonella; Santini, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    The Val d'Agri area provides the opportunity to analyse active structures in a seismic region for which a large amount of subsurface data is available. This area, which was struck in 1857 by one of the most destructive earthquakes in Italy (MW = 7.03), represents a unique natural laboratory to gain new insights into geometry, modes and rates of faulting controlling crustal deformation in an actively extending orogen. In this study, a crustal geological section through the southern Apennines is discretized into a finite element model (FEM). We present a 2D elastoplastic FEM that reproduces stress perturbations and strain field around the Val d'Agri active fault system. The influence of fault strand activity on interseismic crustal deformation is tested by a series of computer models, whose predictions are compared with the horizontal velocity components of continuous GPS sites in the region and with stress directions and geological data. The best fit with available geological and geophysical constraints is obtained with a 300 km long, 29 km deep model formed by a multilayer including three components having different rheological characteristics and including several shallow, locked fault segments, which branch into a freely slipping major basement fault at depth. Finite element modelling provides new insights into the controversial and widely debated active tectonic setting of the study area, pointing out the fundamental role played by a structural reactivation process involving inherited, long-lived, mature fault systems at depth. Our FEM, reconciling apparently contrasting geological and geophysical constraints from the study area, points to maximum stress build up and strain accumulation at a depth of 15 ± 5 km. Such a depth range is suggested as the most likely one for the nucleation of large events such as the 1857 Val d'Agri earthquake.

  20. sup 40 Ar- sup 39 Ar and K-Ar dating of K-rich rocks from the Roccamonfina volcano, Roman Comagmatic Region, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Di Brozolo, F.R.; Di Girolamo, P.; Turi, B.; Oddone, M. )

    1988-06-01

    Roccamonfina is the northernmost Volcano of the Campanian area of the K-rich Roman comagmatic Region of Italy. It erupted a huge amount of pyroclastics and lavas belonging to both the Leucite-Basanite and Leucitite Series (LBLS) and the Shoshonite Series (SS), spread over an area of about 300 km{sup 2}. The above series correspond to the High-K Series (HKS) and Low-K Series (LKS) of Appleton (1971), respectively. {sup 40}Ar-{sup 39}Ar and K-Ar dating of samples from both series gave ages ranging from 0.656 to 0.096 Ma for the SS and from 1.03( ) to 0.053 Ma for the LBLS. These results indicate that the products of the two series were outpoured together at least between 0.7 and 0.1 Ma age, i.e. during both the so-called pre-caldera phase and the post-caldera phase of activity. The latest products of the volcanism at Roccamonfina were erupted just before the deposition of the Grey Campanian Ignimbrite, which erupted from vents located about 50 km to the south in the Phlegrean Fields near Naples and has an age of about 33,000 years. Taking into account all the available all the available radiometric data the authors conclude that Roccamonfina was active between 1.5 and 0.05 Ma ago, in excellent agreement with the stratigraphic evidence. In this same time span is concentrated the activity of all the centers of the Roman Region north of Naples.

  1. 40Ar- 39Ar and K-Ar dating of K-rich rocks from the Roccamonfina Volcano, Roman comagmatic Region, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radicati di Brozolo, Filippo; Di Girolamo, Pio; Turi, Bruno; Oddone, Massimo

    1988-06-01

    Roccamonfina is the northernmost Volcano of the Campanian area of the K-rich Roman comagmatic Region of Italy. It erupted a huge amount of pyroclastics and lavas belonging to both the Leucite-Basanite and Leucitite Series (LBLS) and the Shoshonite Series (SS), spread over an area of about 300 km 2. The above series correspond to the High-K. Series (HKS) and Low-K Series (LKS) of APPLETON (1972), respectively. 40Ar- 39Ar and K-Ar dating of samples from both series gave ages ranging from 0.656 to 0.096 Ma for the SS and from 1.03(?) to 0.053 Ma for the LBLS. These results indicate that the products of the two series were outpoured together at least between 0.7 and 0.1 Ma ago, i.e. during both the so-called pre-caldera phase and the post-caldera phase of activity. The latest products of the volcanism at Roccamonfina were erupted just before the deposition of the Grey Campanian Ignimbrite, which erupted from vents located about 50 km to the south in the Phlegrean Fields near Naples and has an age of about 33,000 years. Taking into account all the available radiometric data, we conclude that Roccamonfina was active between 1.5 and 0.05 Ma ago, in excellent agreement with the stratigraphie evidence. In this same time span is concentrated the activity of all the centers of the Roman Region north of Naples.

  2. [Evidence-based planning: the case of mass screening for colorectal cancer in the Lazio region of Italy].

    PubMed

    Federici, A; Borgia, P; Guasticchi, G

    2005-01-01

    Several population-based trials have shown the efficacy of colorectal cancer mass-screening based on guaiac faecal blood testing in a generic risk population. SCCR represents a very complex and resource-demanding public health intervention and, for this reason, its planning requires actual efficacy as a main goal. Since evidence of efficacy demonstrated by population-based trials may not actually generate effectiveness, the Regional Government of Latium Region decided to implement some experimental studies before introducing a screening programme, in order to define an evidence-based organisational model of SCCR and a feasibility evaluation of the real needs for screening. The aims of the pilot studies were to define an evidence-based organisational model, to evaluate the necessary resources and the actual quality standard of clinical examination, treatment and surgery. The aim of the feasibility study is to test the organisational model for SCCR for about 300,000 citizens residing in the Latium region. The present article illustrates the scheduling path set out, which is based on the involvement of experts, GP representatives and specialists from scientific societies and it is planned by the following actions: Definition of evidence-based recommendations; identification of further investigations; realization of experimental studies; definition of an evidence-based organisational model. The main research areas have been dealt with using randomised trials, in order to evaluate the efficacy of the involvement of GPs and the kind of test for RSOF Our work has produced evidences which were sometimes in contrast with information in the literature, demonstrating that guaiac RSOF testing is less reproducible and determines lower uptake than immunochemical testing. Our work also shows that the involvement of GPs should be based on their personal skills rather than on their role. Such evidences are fundamental to the definition of the organisational model and confirm the

  3. Volatile organic compounds in truffle (Tuber magnatum Pico): comparison of samples from different regions of Italy and from different seasons

    PubMed Central

    Federico, Vita; Cosimo, Taiti; Antonio, Pompeiano; Nadia, Bazihizina; Valentina, Lucarotti; Stefano, Mancuso; Amedeo, Alpi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from Tuber magnatum fruiting bodies were analyzed using a PTR-TOF-MS instrument. The aim was to characterize the VOC's profile of the fruiting bodies and identify if any VOCs were specific to a season and geographical areas. Multiple factorial analysis (MFA) was carried out on the signals obtained by MS. Experiments using ITS region sequencing proved that the T. magnatum life cycle includes the formation of fruiting bodies at two different times of the year. The VOCs profiles diverge when different seasonal and geographical productions are considered. Using PTR-TOF-MS, compounds present at levels as low pptv were detected. This made it possible to determine both the origin of fruiting bodies (Alba and San Miniato) and the two biological phases of fruiting bodies formation in San Miniato truffles. PMID:26224388

  4. Volatile organic compounds in truffle (Tuber magnatum Pico): comparison of samples from different regions of Italy and from different seasons.

    PubMed

    Federico, Vita; Cosimo, Taiti; Antonio, Pompeiano; Nadia, Bazihizina; Valentina, Lucarotti; Stefano, Mancuso; Amedeo, Alpi

    2015-07-30

    In this paper volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from Tuber magnatum fruiting bodies were analyzed using a PTR-TOF-MS instrument. The aim was to characterize the VOC's profile of the fruiting bodies and identify if any VOCs were specific to a season and geographical areas. Multiple factorial analysis (MFA) was carried out on the signals obtained by MS. Experiments using ITS region sequencing proved that the T. magnatum life cycle includes the formation of fruiting bodies at two different times of the year. The VOCs profiles diverge when different seasonal and geographical productions are considered. Using PTR-TOF-MS, compounds present at levels as low pptv were detected. This made it possible to determine both the origin of fruiting bodies (Alba and San Miniato) and the two biological phases of fruiting bodies formation in San Miniato truffles.

  5. The promotion of geotourism in protected areas: a proposal of itinerary through the Matese Massif (Campania and Molise regions, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosskopf, Carmen Maria; Filocamo, Francesca; Amato, Vincenzo; Cesarano, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    The Matese Massif is a ca. 1000 km2 wide and NW-SE elongated carbonate relief, located in the inner sector of the Southern Apennine chain. It has a tabular setting with steep structural slopes bordering the central high mountain sector including its major peaks and is crossed from approximately west to east by the border between Campania and Molise regions. The Matese Mountains represent a key area for the comprehension of the geological and tectonic evolution of the Southern Apennines since Mesozoic times. Its long-term geomorphological evolution has been controlled by Quaternary tectonics and climate variations that have allowed the temporary or permanent establishment of various environments and morphodynamics. Deposits and landforms originated by glacial, periglacial, karst and fluvial processes, along with a rich assemblage of tectonic-structural features and landforms of complex origin have given origin to a geological heritage of exceptional value. The geosites actually censured within the Campanian sector of Matese are reported in the Geosites Map of Campania, available at the website of Campania Region and partly included in the Italian Geosites Inventory of ISPRA. The geosites of the Molise sector have been recently assessed within the geosite inventory carried out by Molise University. They are reported in the Geosites Map of Molise, available at the website of Molise Region, and partly included in the ISPRA's National Inventory of Geosites. The Matese area is largely included in protected areas: the Campania portion falls within the Matese Regional Park, established in 2002, while most of the Molise sector falls in the extensive ZPS/SIC IT72222287. To better protect and exploit the unique natural and geological heritage of the Matese Massif, numerous initiatives aimed at the establishment of the National Park of Matese have continued for several years and very recent attempts to promote the Matese Geopark have been made, but unfortunately without any

  6. [Congenital and perinatal infections in the Marche region (Italy): an epidemiological study and differences between ethnic groups].

    PubMed

    Ruffini, Ermanno; Compagnoni, Luigina; Tubaldi, Lucia; Infriccioli, Giovanna; Vianelli, Patrizia; Genga, Roberto; Bonifazi, Vitaliana; Dieni, Alessandra; Guerrini, Domenico; Basili, Gabriella; Salvatori, Patrizia; DeColli, Rosa; Leone, Luciano; Gesuita, Rosaria

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological data regarding congenital and perinatal infections in the Marche region to verify the existence of differences in relation to maternal country of origin. This prospective study was conducted from May 2001 to April 2012, and it involved all the maternity units of the Marche region. A total of 10232 pregnant women were included, 25.1% of whom were of foreign nationality while the number of births totalled 10371. Estimated uptake of antenatal screening was 80.5% for CMV infection, 98.6% for HBV infection, 97.5% for HCV infection, 97.4% for HIV infection, 93.1% for syphilis and 98.5% for toxoplasmosis. For group B streptococcus vaginal and perianal swabs were performed in 81.2% of all women (78.4% in immigrant and 90.4% in Italian women; the difference was statistically significant [p 0.001]) and 13.6% were positive. The overall prevalence for CMV infection was 72.3% (91.9% in immigrant women) while for toxoplasmosis it was 27.5% (28.8% in immigrant women). The rate of seroconversion in pregnant women investigated for CMV infection was 0.28%, while that for toxoplasmosis was 0.09%. The overall prevalence for HBV infection was 0.79% (4.3% in immigrant and 0.4% in Italian pregnant women; the difference was statistically significant [p 0.001]), 0.4% for HCV infection (1% in immigrant and 0.48% in Italian pregnant women; the difference was not statistically significant [p 0.413]), 0.22% for syphilis (0.8% in immigrant and 0.08% in Italian pregnant women; the difference was not statistically significant [p 0.062]), 0.09% for HIV infection, and 0.03% for tuberculosis. The prevalence of congenital CMV infection was 0.04% and that of congenital toxoplasmosis 0.01%. The prevalence of early-onset infection from Group B streptococcus was 0.029%. No cases were observed of congenital syphilis, congenital tuberculosis or maternal and neonatal HSV infections. The study proves that in the Marche region there is a high

  7. Damage caused by hydrological extremes in a region of southern Italy: comparison between the period 2002-2012 and the past century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, Olga; Pasqua, A. Aurora

    2013-04-01

    The concept of extreme hydrological event should be seen in a relative way, depending on the region for which it is defined, the parameters and the type of data utilized to assess it, and mainly taking into account the length of the period basing on which it is assessed. Measured data concerning rainfall and river flow, which allow statistical analysis of numerical values and assessment of events frequency, can be available for different periods, according to both the study area and the country; nevertheless, the length of the measurement series rarely exceeds 100 years. Thus, the extrapolation to the future of events trend, frequency, seasonality are based on a relatively short and recent period and even the "magnitude" and the classification of "extreme events" can be biased by the length of the observation period. Thus these characteristics may substantially change if their assessment is based on a wider temporal window. Especially in un-gauged basins and concerning severest events, historical data cannot provide systematically measured parameters but they can supply proxy data which allow enlarging the observation period, permitting a better weighing of both recent and old events. The present research is based on the use of a wide historical database concerning phenomena as floods, flash floods and landslides triggered by extreme meteorological events in Calabria (Southern Italy) since 19th century. This database is made of approximately 11,000 records and it includes data coming from different sources as newspapers, archives of national and regional agencies, scientific and technical reports, on-site surveys reports and information collected by interviewing both people involved and local administrators. The recent uploading of data concerning the effects caused in Calabria by these phenomena during the decade 2002-2012 allowed us to analyse a long and updated historical series of events. The aim is to compare -both in terms triggering rainfall and their

  8. Mineralogical and geochemical characterisation of open-air tailing and waste-rock dumps from the Libiola Fe-Cu sulphide mine (Eastern Liguria, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marescotti, P.; Carbone, C.; de Capitani, L.; Grieco, G.; Lucchetti, G.; Servida, D.

    2008-02-01

    Active acid mine drainage (AMD) processes at the Libiola Fe-Cu sulphides mine are mainly triggered by water rock interaction occurring within open-air tailing and waste-rock dumps. These processes are mainly controlled by exposure to weathering agents, the grain size of the dumped materials, and by the quantity of sulphides, the sulphide types, and their mode of occurrence. Due to these factors, several paragenetic stages of evolution have been recognised at different depths at different sites and within the same site. The dump samples were investigated with mineralogical (reflected- and transmitted-light optical microscopy, XRPD, and SEM-EDS) and geochemical (ICP-AES, Leco) techniques. The AMD evaluation of the tailing and waste-rock samples was performed by calculating the Maximum Potential Acidity, the Acid Neutralising Capacity, (and the Net Acid Producing Potential. The results allowed us to demonstrate that the open-air tailings had already superseded their AMD apex and are now practically inert material composed mainly of stable goethite ± lepidocrocite ± hematite assemblages. On the contrary, the sulphide-rich waste rocks still have a strong potential to produce long term AMD, causing the acidification of circulating waters and the release of several hazardous elements.

  9. Selective mineral composition, functional test morphology and paleoecology of the agglutinated foraminiferal genus Colominella Popescu, 1998 in the Mediterranean Pliocene (Liguria, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicoletta, Mancin; Elena, Basso; Camilla, Pirini; Michael A., Kaminski

    2012-12-01

    Specimens of Colominella (agglutinated Foraminifera) from a Pliocene Mediterranean succession were analysed through a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) to document their test microstructure. Colominella develops a complex large test with a mostly biserial chamber arrangement, but with the internal chamber lumens partitioned by vertical and horizontal plates that form a labyrinthine structure of alcoves. This internal partition occurs from the first chambers but is completely masked from the outside by the thick wall. The test-wall microstructure is characterized by canaliculi (parapores) that are externally covered by a pavement of agglutinated grains. The mineralogical characterization of the agglutinated grains and the secreted cement shows that the grains are strongly selected as regards to size, arrangement and composition, with the coarse grains placed close to the outer wall. Moreover, these coarse grains, forming a pavement, are made of monocrystalline quartz, whereas the inner part of the skeleton is mostly composed of dolomite. The carbonate cement is less abundant and appears as cloudy light grey areas among the detrital grains. These shell features can be interpreted as functional adaptations to perform kleptoplastidy and/or to house functional photosymbionts, probably induced by stable environmental conditions as in warm shallow waters characterized by low nutrient flux.

  10. The Irpinia Seismic Network (ISN): a new Monitoring Infrastructure for Seismic Alert Management in Campania Region, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannaccone, G.; Satriano, C.; Weber, E.; Cantore, L.; Corciulo, M.; Romano, L.; Martino, C.; Dicrosta, M.; Zollo, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Irpinia Seismic Network is an high dynamics, high density seismographic network under development in the Southern Apenninic chain. It is deployed in the area stroken by several destructive earthquakes during last centuries. In its final configuration the network will consist of more than fourty high dynamic seismic stations subdivided in physical subnetworks inter-connected by a robust data transmission system. The system is being designed with two primary targets: -Monitoring and analysis of background seismic activity produced by the active fault system which is the cause for large earthquakes in the past, included the 1980, Irpinia earthquake (Ms=6.9) - Development and experimentation of a prototype system for seismic early and post-event warning to be used for protecting public infrastructures and buildings of strategic relevance of the Regione Campania The seismic network will be completed in two stages: 1 - Deployment of 30 seismic stations along the Campania-Lucania Apenninic chain (to date almost completed) 2 - Setting up radio communication system for data transmission. Installation of 12 additional seismic stations (end of year 2006) To ensure an high dynamic recording range each site is equipped with two type of sensors: 30 force-balance accelerometer (model Guralp CMG5-T) and a velocimeter. In particular, 25 sites with short period three components instrument (model Geotech S13-J) and 5 with broad-band sensor (Nanometrics Trillium, with frequency response in the 0.033-50 Hz band). The used data logger is the Osiris-6 model produced by Agecodagis whose main features are: six channels, O/N 24 bit A/D converter, ARM processor with embedded Linux and open source software, two PCMCIA slots (used for two 5GB microdrive or one disk and wi-fi card), Ethernet, wi-fi and serial communication, low power cosumption (~1 W). Power is ensured by two 120 W solar panels and two 130 Ah gel batteries. Each recording site is equipped with a control/alarm system through

  11. Assessing Adverse Events of Postprostatectomy Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Evaluation of Outcomes in the Regione Emilia-Romagna, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Timothy N.; Hegarty, Sarah E.; Rabinowitz, Carol; Maio, Vittorio; Hyslop, Terry; Dicker, Adam P.; Louis, Daniel Z.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Although the likelihood of radiation-related adverse events influences treatment decisions regarding radiation therapy after prostatectomy for eligible patients, the data available to inform decisions are limited. This study was designed to evaluate the genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and sexual adverse events associated with postprostatectomy radiation therapy and to assess the influence of radiation timing on the risk of adverse events. Methods: The Regione Emilia-Romagna Italian Longitudinal Health Care Utilization Database was queried to identify a cohort of men who received radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer during 2003 to 2009, including patients who received postprostatectomy radiation therapy. Patients with prior radiation therapy were excluded. Outcome measures were genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and sexual adverse events after prostatectomy. Rates of adverse events were compared between the cohorts who did and did not receive postoperative radiation therapy. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were developed for each class of adverse events, including models with radiation therapy as a time-varying covariate. Results: A total of 9876 men were included in the analyses: 2176 (22%) who received radiation therapy and 7700 (78%) treated with prostatectomy alone. In multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, the additional exposure to radiation therapy after prostatectomy was associated with increased rates of gastrointestinal (rate ratio [RR] 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-2.27; P<.001) and urinary nonincontinence events (RR 1.83; 95% CI 1.83-2.80; P<.001) but not urinary incontinence events or erectile dysfunction. The addition of the time from prostatectomy to radiation therapy interaction term was not significant for any of the adverse event outcomes (P>.1 for all outcomes). Conclusion: Radiation therapy after prostatectomy is associated with an increase in gastrointestinal and genitourinary adverse events. However

  12. Mosquito, Bird and Human Surveillance of West Nile and Usutu Viruses in Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy) in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Calzolari, Mattia; Gaibani, Paolo; Bellini, Romeo; Defilippo, Francesco; Pierro, Anna; Albieri, Alessandro; Maioli, Giulia; Luppi, Andrea; Rossini, Giada; Balzani, Agnese; Tamba, Marco; Galletti, Giorgio; Gelati, Antonio; Carrieri, Marco; Poglayen, Giovanni; Cavrini, Francesca; Natalini, Silvano; Dottori, Michele; Sambri, Vittorio; Angelini, Paola; Bonilauri, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2008, after the first West Nile virus (WNV) detection in the Emilia-Romagna region, a surveillance system, including mosquito- and bird-based surveillance, was established to evaluate the virus presence. Surveillance was improved in following years by extending the monitoring to larger areas and increasing the numbers of mosquitoes and birds tested. Methodology/Principal Findings A network of mosquito traps, evenly distributed and regularly activated, was set up within the surveyed area. A total of 438,558 mosquitoes, grouped in 3,111 pools and 1,276 birds (1,130 actively sampled and 146 from passive surveillance), were tested by biomolecular analysis. The survey detected WNV in 3 Culex pipiens pools while Usutu virus (USUV) was found in 89 Cx. pipiens pools and in 2 Aedes albopictus pools. Two birds were WNV-positive and 12 were USUV-positive. Furthermore, 30 human cases of acute meningoencephalitis, possibly caused by WNV or USUV, were evaluated for both viruses and 1,053 blood bags were tested for WNV, without any positive result. Conclusions/Significance Despite not finding symptomatic human WNV infections during 2010, the persistence of the virus, probably due to overwintering, was confirmed through viral circulation in mosquitoes and birds, as well as for USUV. In 2010, circulation of the two viruses was lower and more delayed than in 2009, but this decrease was not explained by the relative abundance of Cx. pipiens mosquito, which was greater in 2010. The USUV detection in mosquito species confirms the role of Cx. pipiens as the main vector and the possible involvement of Ae. albopictus in the virus cycle. The effects of meteorological conditions on the presence of USUV-positive mosquito pools were considered finding an association with drought conditions and a wide temperature range. The output produced by the surveillance system demonstrated its usefulness and reliability in terms of planning public health policies. PMID:22666446

  13. Usutu Virus Persistence and West Nile Virus Inactivity in the Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy) in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Calzolari, Mattia; Bonilauri, Paolo; Bellini, Romeo; Albieri, Alessandro; Defilippo, Francesco; Tamba, Marco; Tassinari, Massimo; Gelati, Antonio; Cordioli, Paolo; Angelini, Paola; Dottori, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Background The circulation of West Nile virus and Usutu virus was detected in the Emilia-Romagna region in 2008 and 2009. To evaluate the extent of circulation of both viruses, environmental surveillance, based on bird and mosquito testing, was conducted in 2008 and gradually improved over the years. Methods In February–March 2009–2011, 5,993 hibernating mosquitoes were manually sampled, out of which 80.1% were Culex pipiens; none tested positive for the viruses. From 2008 to 2011, 946,213 mosquitoes, sampled between May and October, were tested; 86.5% were Cx. pipiens. West Nile virus was detected in 32 Cx. pipiens pools, and Usutu virus was detected in 229 mosquito pools (217 Cx. pipiens, 10 Aedes albopictus, one Anopheles maculipennis s.l., and one Aedes caspius). From 2009 to 2011, of 4,546 birds collected, 42 tested positive for West Nile virus and 48 for Usutu virus. West Nile virus and Usutu virus showed different patterns of activity during the 2008–2011 surveillance period. West Nile virus was detected in 2008, 2009, and 2010, but not in 2011. Usutu virus, however, was continuously active throughout 2009, 2010, and 2011. Conclusions The data strongly suggest that both viruses overwinter in the surveyed area rather than being continually reintroduced every season. The lack of hibernating mosquitoes testing positive for the viruses and the presence of positive birds sampled early in the season support the hypothesis that the viruses overwinter in birds rather than in mosquitoes. Herd immunity in key bird species could explain the decline of West Nile virus observed in 2011, while the persistence of Usutu virus may be explained by not yet identified reservoirs. Reported results are comparable with a peri-Mediterranean circulation of the West Nile virus lineage 1 related strain, which became undetectable in the environment after two to three years of obvious circulation. PMID:23667694

  14. A revision of the species of the pseudoscorpion subgenus Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) (Arachnida, Pseudoscorpiones, Chthoniidae) from Italy and neighbouring areas.

    PubMed

    Gardini, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    A taxonomic revision and a key to the species of the subgenus Chthonius (Ephippiochthonius) Beier, 1930 from Italy, Corsica and the Swiss Canton of Ticino are provided. The species are arranged in two species-groups (tetrachelatus group and fuscimanus group) on the basis of the shape of pedipalpal hand and of the type of dentition of the fixed and movable chelal fingers. The following new species are described: i) in the tetrachelatus group: Chthonius (E.) altamurae n. sp. (♀, loc. typ.: Apulia, Bari Prov., Altamura, Grotta Lamalunga 1295 Pu/BA), C. (E.) elymus n. sp. (♂, loc. typ.: Sicily, Trapani Prov., Custonaci, Abisso del Purgatorio 8064 Si/TP), Chthonius (E.) messapicus n. sp. (♂, loc. typ.: Apulia, Brindisi Prov., San Pietro Vernotico, Cerano); ii) in the fuscimanus group: C. (E.) aeneae n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Liguria, Genoa Prov., Sestri Levante, Punta Manara), C. (E.) etruscus n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Tuscany, Grosseto Prov., Semproniano, Grotta di Montecchio 254 To/GR), C. (E.) gallii n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Liguria, Savona Prov., Bergeggi), C. (E.) intemelius n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Liguria, Imperia Prov., Apricale, Mt Cianela), C. (E.) latellai n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Latium, Latina Prov., Bassiano, Grotta di Fiume Coperto 1361 La/LT), C. (E.) ligur n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Liguria, Imperia Prov., near Baiardo), C. (E.) magrinii n. sp. (♂, loc. typ.: Latium, Frosinone Prov., San Giovanni Incarico, Grotta sulla strada per il Santuario della Madonna della Guardia n. c. La/FR), C. (E.) monguzzii n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Lombardia, Brescia Prov., Sulzano, Oricina de la Pofa del Giardì 438 Lo/BS), C. (E.) sulphureus n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Marche, Ancona Prov., Genga, Grotta di Frasassi 1 Ma/AN), C. (E.) tyrrhenicus n. sp. (♂♀, loc. typ.: Liguria, Genoa Prov., Genoa, Quinto al Mare, Mt Moro). The following new synonymies are proposed: Chthonius (E.) bauneensis Callaini, 1983 is a junior subjective synonym of C. (E

  15. Active faulting Vs other surface displacing complex geomorphic phenomena. Case studies from a tectonically active area, Abruzzi Region, central Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Sardo, Lorenzo; Gori, Stefano; Falcucci, Emanuela; Saroli, Michele; Moro, Marco; Galadini, Fabrizio; Lancia, Michele; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Pezzo, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    ., Jolivet, L. & Speranza, F., (1998). The role of pre-existing thrust faults and topography on the styles of extension in the Gran Sasso range (central Italy). Tectonophysics 292, 229-254. Falcucci, E., Gori, S., Moro, M., Fubelli, G., Saroli, M., Chiarabba, C., & Galadini, F. (2015). Deep reaching versus vertically restricted Quaternary normal faults: Implications on seismic potential assessment in tectonically active regions: Lessons from the middle Aterno valley fault system, central Italy. Tectonophysics, 651, 186-198. Galadini, F. & Giuliani R. (1993), Role of the structural geology analysis in the recent tectonics studies: an example from an area located SW of the Gran Sasso (Central Italy). Ann. Geof., 36 (1), 287-292.

  16. [Impact and state of the art of regional healthcare planning and management guidelines in a local health authority of the Lazio region (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Priori, Maria Rosaria; Barbato, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of health care planning and management guidelines, elaborated by the Lazio regional healthcare authority, on the organizational structure and operational processes of local health authorities and, more specifically, of the Roma C local health authority. The guidelines are made up of three volumes and mainly describe an operational model, rather than being a set of standard references aimed at standardizing the quality of information low systems in local healthcare authorities. The guidelines are essentially a didactic text, and were elaborated by a consulting firm, Engineering Management Consulting, on behalf of the Lazio regional authority. In the first section, the main concepts are defined, while in subsequent sections, detailed models regarding the specific subject matter are described. Although the guidelines represent a useful tool in the process of converting local health authorities of the Lazio region into "business" organizations, so far they have been of use only in the first phase of assessment of different organizational models for healthcare planning and management. There is still a long way ahead towards defining standard procedures and references for describing activities and costs. This is what should hopefully be achieved briefly and which will necessarily require the introduction of a data warehouse and business intelligence software that will allow monitoring of activities and making short term predictions through the use balanced scorecards and data mining. PMID:18084348

  17. Repeated pseudotachylytes generation events along regional scale faults: the Orobic and Porcile thrusts (Southern Alps, N Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchetta, Stefano; D'Adda, Paolo; Barberini, Valentina; Villa, Igor Maria; Zanchi, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    many cases re-melting phenomena of pre-existing pseudotachylytes were observed at the micro-scale. Old pseudotachylyte fragments with evident resorption features are present within new veins, and "intrusive" contact were locally observed between different vein generations. Different melt pulses along the same vein are differentiated on the base of clast/matrix ratios and chemical composition of both matrix and crystallites. Brittle deformation producing brecciation of old pseudotachylytes seems to be contemporaneous with new melt injection and flow, resulting in the coexistence, within the same vein, of old fractured pseudotachylyte layers and new, undeformed, ones. Structural data relative to fault veins point out that both old and young pseudotachylytes formed along reverse fault planes with similar geometric features. This suggest that no significant changes occurred in the main stress axes orientations and resulting deformation structures correlated to the Late Cretaceous and the Eocene compressive deformation events along the Orobic and Porcile fault zones. Field data, 40Ar/39Ar ages, microstructural and mineralogical data on pseudotachylytes along the Orobic and Porcile thrusts reveal that repeated coseismic friction-induced melting occurred along same faults with a time interval in excess of 15 Ma. This implies that the seismic history of regional scale faults could be very complex and polyphasic, with successive long time range re-activations that can be individuated exploring the geological record associated to fault zones.

  18. Characterization of atmospheric aerosols in the Po valley during the supersito campaigns - Part 3: Contribution of wood combustion to wintertime atmospheric aerosols in Emilia Romagna region (Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrogrande, Maria Chiara; Bacco, Dimitri; Ferrari, Silvia; Kaipainen, Jussi; Ricciardelli, Isabella; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa; Trentini, Arianna; Visentin, Marco

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the influence of wood combustion on PM in fall/winter that are the most favorable seasonal periods with presumed intense biomass burning for residential heating due to low temperatures. As a part of the Supersito project, nearly 650 PM2.5 samples were daily collected at urban and rural sites in Emilia Romagna (Northern Italy) in five intensive experimental campaigns throughout the years from 2011 to 2014. From specific compounds related to wood combustion a set of 58 organic compounds was determined, such as anhydrosugars, primary biological sugars, low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids, methoxylated phenols, PAHs and carbonaceous components (EC/OC). Levoglucosan was by far the most dominant anhydrosugar, both on a relative and an absolute basis (35-1043 ng m-3), followed by mannosan (7-121 ng m-3) and galactosan (4-52 ng m-3), indicating that wood burning for domestic heating is a diffuse regional source during the seasons studied. Different diagnostic ratios between anhydrosugars and methoxylated phenols were computed to discriminate the prevalent contribution of hardwood as combustion fuel. The investigated 19 high molecular weight PAHs were more abundant at the urban than at the rural site, with mean total value of 4.3 and 3.2 ng m-3 at MS and SP, respectively. The strong contribution of wood combustion to atmospheric PAHs was indicated by the positive correlation between levoglucosan and the most abundant PAHs (R2 = 0.71÷0.79) and individually with benzo(a)pyrene (R2 = 0.79). By using this correlation, it was estimated that wood burning contributed nearly 77% to BaP concentration in the winter months. Based on the ratio between levoglucosan and OC data, it could be concluded that the wood burning contributed about 35% to OC during the cold November-February periods and the contribution was similar at both sampling sites.

  19. Self-limiting outbreak of crayfish plague in an Austropotamobius pallipes population of a river basin in the Abruzzi region (central Italy).

    PubMed

    Caprioli, Riccardo; Cargini, Daniele; Marcacci, Maurilia; Cammà, Cesare; Giansante, Carla; Ferri, Nicola

    2013-03-26

    Crayfish plague, caused by the oomycete Aphanomyces astaci, is a serious disease of European freshwater crayfish and has eliminated entire populations in several European countries. In September 2011, mortality was observed among the Austropotamobius pallipes population of a river basin in the Abruzzi region (central Italy), and A. astaci DNA was detected by PCR in dead crayfish. A systematic survey was carried out to evaluate the spread and the effects of the plague in the river basin. The source of the outbreak remained unknown since North American crayfish species, which frequently act as subclinical carriers of the infection, were not detected in the area. The A. pallipes population disappeared from a river stretch of ~1 km, where A. astaci infection was detected in dead crayfish. However, apparently unaffected crayfish were still present upstream of that area as well as in a tributary that joined the brook in the apparently depopulated stretch. A. astaci infection was not detected in dead individuals collected in the upstream area and tributary. A follow-up visit conducted in the following season showed the presence of A. pallipes in the river stretch hit by the plague. In this outbreak, the spread of the infection could have been limited by a low density of the crayfish population and by the geographic conformation of the river basin, which includes a dense network of small tributaries, characterized by high flow velocity and low water temperature. In this particular setting, crayfish plague outbreaks can remain undetected. This underlines the importance of active monitoring programs aimed at the prompt recognition of both episodes of mortality and the presence of non-indigenous crayfish species.

  20. Remote sensing for mapping soil moisture and drainage potential in semi-arid regions: Applications to the Campidano plain of Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Filion, Rébecca; Bernier, Monique; Paniconi, Claudio; Chokmani, Karem; Melis, Massimo; Soddu, Antonino; Talazac, Manon; Lafortune, Francois-Xavier

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of radar (ENVISAT ASAR and RADARSAT-2) and LANDSAT data to generate reliable soil moisture maps to support water management and agricultural practice in Mediterranean regions, particularly during dry seasons. The study is based on extensive field surveys conducted from 2005 to 2009 in the Campidano plain of Sardinia, Italy. A total of 12 small bare soil fields were sampled for moisture, surface roughness, and texture values. From field scale analysis with ENVISAT ASAR (C-band, VV polarized, descending mode, incidence angle from 15.0° to 31.4°), an empirical model for estimating bare soil moisture was established, with a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.85. LANDSAT TM5 images were also used for soil moisture estimation using the TVX slope (temperature/vegetation index), and in this case the best linear relationship had an R(2) of 0.81. A cross-validation on the two empirical models demonstrated the potential of C-band SAR data for estimation of surface moisture, with and R(2) of 0.76 (bias +0.3% and RMSE 7%) for ENVISAT ASAR and 0.54 (bias +1.3% and RMSE 5%) for LANDSAT TM5. The two models developed at plot level were then applied over the Campidano plain and assessed via multitemporal and spatial analyses, in the latter case against soil permeability data from a pedological map of Sardinia. Encouraging estimated soil moisture (ESM) maps were obtained for the SAR-based model, whereas the LANDSAT-based model would require a better field data set for validation, including ground data collected on vegetated fields. ESM maps showed sensitivity to soil drainage qualities or drainage potential, which could be useful in irrigation management and other agricultural applications.

  1. Prevalence and characteristics of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from pigs and pork products in Umbria and Marche regions of Italy.

    PubMed

    Ercoli, Laura; Farneti, Silvana; Zicavo, Alessia; Mencaroni, Guerriero; Blasi, Giuliana; Striano, Gianluca; Scuota, Stefania

    2016-09-01

    In total 1095 samples from 675 pork products, 210 swine colon contents, and 210 swine carcass sponge swabs were collected in Umbria and Marche regions of Italy and examined for the presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), also known as Verotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC). After an enrichment step, each sample was analysed by real-time PCR to detect the stx1, stx2, and eae genes. stx-Positive samples were further tested for the "top five" serogroup markers (O157, O26, O103, O111, O145) and cultured onto selective media. The isolates were assigned to stx subtypes and tested for the presence of aaiC and aggR genes. Out of 420 swine samples, 38.6% faecal samples and 13.8% carcass sponge swabs were stx-positive. In total, 33 E. coli STEC isolates were obtained from 30 samples (4 carcasses and 26 colon contents) indicating a culture-positive rate of 7.1%. A higher culture-positive rate was observed in faecal samples (12.4%) than in carcass sponge swabs (1.9%). Out of 675 pork samples, 19 (2.8%) were stx-positive. No STEC strains were isolated from stx-positive pork products. We concluded that STEC isolation from foodstuffs remains difficult, despite the application of ISO/TS 13136:2012. Furthermore, in accordance with the results of studies conducted in other countries, we observed that most of swine STEC strains carried stx2e gene and lacked of virulence genes, such as eae, aaiC and aggR, indicative of potential pathogenic characteristics for humans. Although the majority of STEC isolates did not express virulence factors correlating with severe human diseases, the association between swine STEC strains and human illness requires further investigations. PMID:27236076

  2. Remote sensing for mapping soil moisture and drainage potential in semi-arid regions: Applications to the Campidano plain of Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Filion, Rébecca; Bernier, Monique; Paniconi, Claudio; Chokmani, Karem; Melis, Massimo; Soddu, Antonino; Talazac, Manon; Lafortune, Francois-Xavier

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of radar (ENVISAT ASAR and RADARSAT-2) and LANDSAT data to generate reliable soil moisture maps to support water management and agricultural practice in Mediterranean regions, particularly during dry seasons. The study is based on extensive field surveys conducted from 2005 to 2009 in the Campidano plain of Sardinia, Italy. A total of 12 small bare soil fields were sampled for moisture, surface roughness, and texture values. From field scale analysis with ENVISAT ASAR (C-band, VV polarized, descending mode, incidence angle from 15.0° to 31.4°), an empirical model for estimating bare soil moisture was established, with a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.85. LANDSAT TM5 images were also used for soil moisture estimation using the TVX slope (temperature/vegetation index), and in this case the best linear relationship had an R(2) of 0.81. A cross-validation on the two empirical models demonstrated the potential of C-band SAR data for estimation of surface moisture, with and R(2) of 0.76 (bias +0.3% and RMSE 7%) for ENVISAT ASAR and 0.54 (bias +1.3% and RMSE 5%) for LANDSAT TM5. The two models developed at plot level were then applied over the Campidano plain and assessed via multitemporal and spatial analyses, in the latter case against soil permeability data from a pedological map of Sardinia. Encouraging estimated soil moisture (ESM) maps were obtained for the SAR-based model, whereas the LANDSAT-based model would require a better field data set for validation, including ground data collected on vegetated fields. ESM maps showed sensitivity to soil drainage qualities or drainage potential, which could be useful in irrigation management and other agricultural applications. PMID:26254021

  3. Geodiversity and geohazards of the Susa Valley (W-Alps, Italy): combining scientific research and new technologies for enhanced knowledge and proactive management of geoheritage in mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardino, Marco; Bacenetti, Marco; Perotti, Luigi; Giordano, Enrico; Ghiraldi, Luca; Palomba, Mauro

    2013-04-01

    Mountain regions have a range of geological and geomorphological features that make them very attractive for tourism activities. As a consequence, increased human "pressure" causes impacts on geoheritage sites and higher geomorphological risks. These effects are magnified by active geomorphic processes characterizing mountains areas, highly sensitive to climate change. In term of "human sensitivity", several sociological surveys have shown that "perceived risk", not "real risk", influences people's behavior towards natural hazards. The same approach can be applied to geodiversity and geoheritage. Based on these assumptions, we considered the possible strategic roles played by diffusion of scientific research and application of new technologies: 1) to enhance awareness, either of geodiversity or environmental dynamics and 2) to improve knowledge, both on geoheritage management and natural risk reduction. Within the activities of the "ProGEO-Piemonte Project" (Progetti d'Ateneo 2011, cofunded by Universita? degli Studi di Torino and Compagnia di San Paolo Bank Foundation), we performed a systematic review of geodiversity and natural hazards information in the Piemonte Region (NW-Italy). Then we focused our attention on the Susa Valley, an area of the Western Alps where the geoheritage is affected by very active morphodynamics, as well as by a growing tourism, after the 2006 winter Olympics. The Susa Valley became one of the 9 strategic geothematic areas have been selected to represent the geodiversity of the Piemonte region, each characterized by high potential for enhancement of public understanding of science, and recreation activities supported by local communities. Then we contributed to the awareness-raising communication strategy of the "RiskNat project" (Interreg Alcotra 2007-2013, Action A.4.3) by synthesizing geoscience knowledge on the Susa Valley and information on slope instabilities and models/prevention measures/warning systems. Visual representations

  4. Regional and local risk assessments of alluvial fans by combination of historical and geomorphological data on debris flows, the most damaging natural hazard in the Aosta Valley Region (NW-Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardino, Marco; Ratto, Sara; Alberto, Walter; Armand, Marco; Cignetti, Martina; Palomba, Mauro; Navillod, Evelyne

    2010-05-01

    The Aosta Valley (NW-Italy) is a small alpine Region (area = 3262 km2) where alluvial fans occupy large sectors of the main valley bottom and also of the tributary valleys; most towns and villages lie in these sectors which are frequently affected by different geomorphological processes, including debris flows. For a best environmental hazard assessment and management of alluvial fans, a research project has been carried out with a particular attention to debris flows, responsible for causing major damages to human activities and infrastructures. A debris flows inventory on a regional scale has been created, combining historical data (1900 to present), technical maps and geomorphological analysis on the alluvial fans areas. A complex methodology for data collection and analysis has been organized in two different stages. As a first step, aerial photointerpretation and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) analysis were conducted over the Aosta Valley Region to obtain a complete fans inventory and to identify the most affected sectors by debris flows. As a second step, data on debris flow events occurred in the Region has been collected from different sources, such as bibliographic and historical data, municipality hazard maps for land planning restriction and drainage basin technical studies. For each inventored debris flow, aerial photointerpretations have been performed to validate geomorphological and historical data, mostly collected during major regional flood events. Finally, the selected debris flow events has been formally organized in a GIS to perform spatial and statistical analysis. Application of the methodology to the complete Aosta Valley Region dataset involved the overcoming of some difficulties, such as: 1) correct identification of repeated events from different sources, 2) exact recognition of small phenomena by photointerpretation and 3) problems related to the rapid landforms obliteration. The preliminary results of the research activity are outlined

  5. A SOA-Based Solution to Monitor Vaccination Coverage Among HIV-Infected Patients in Liguria.

    PubMed

    Giannini, Barbara; Gazzarata, Roberta; Sticchi, Laura; Giacomini, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination in HIV-infected patients constitutes an essential tool in the prevention of the most common infectious diseases. The Ligurian Vaccination in HIV Program is a proposed vaccination schedule specifically dedicated to this risk group. Selective strategies are proposed within this program, employing ICT (Information and Communication) tools to identify this susceptible target group, to monitor immunization coverage over time and to manage failures and defaulting. The proposal is to connect an immunization registry system to an existing regional platform that allows clinical data re-use among several medical structures, to completely manage the vaccination process. This architecture will adopt a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach and standard HSSP (Health Services Specification Program) interfaces to support interoperability. According to the presented solution, vaccination administration information retrieved from the immunization registry will be structured according to the specifications within the immunization section of the HL7 (Health Level 7) CCD (Continuity of Care Document) document. Immunization coverage will be evaluated through the continuous monitoring of serology and antibody titers gathered from the hospital LIS (Laboratory Information System) structured into a HL7 Version 3 (v3) Clinical Document Architecture Release 2 (CDA R2). PMID:27577397

  6. Deep seated tectonic-gravitive failure and large landslide in the area from Scilla to Punta Pezzo (Calabria region South Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerricchio, A.; Doglioni, A.; Simeone, V.

    2012-04-01

    A critical analysis of the morphological characters of the Southern Calabria region in the area from Scilla (RC province- Southern Italy) to Messina Strait show some geomorphological anomalies due to deep tectonic-gravitational failures and landslides induced by the uplift of the same area. The above mentioned phenomena involve, in fact the whole structure of the ridge included between the coastline and Fiumara di Catona (Catona Torrent), starting from Melia Highland (Pian della Melia) towards the promontory of Punta Pezzo on Messina Strait; and have a severe influence on the morphological forms of the territory, on the surface and coastal erosion phenomena and probably, also on the effect of seismic shocks on large engineering works, as the-to-be built Messina Strait bridge, which is very close to Scilla and Punta Pezzo area. The evidence of these failure can be recognized in the arched morphological steps breaking down the crystalline rock masses, but specially in the hydrographic stream network that is so deep and irregular in crystalline rocks that cannot be imputed only to surficial erosion. In fact at the end of the main streams or torrents as Santa Trara or San Gregorio torrents (fiumare) there are not relevant alluvial fan deposits. These tectonic-gravitative failure have been favored by the presence of biotitic schists underlying gneiss and granite rock masses. The first ones has a stiffness lower than the seconds, so they are more deformable. It is also possible that schist rock masses overlie the more deformable phyllite rocks, not outcropping in the area, as it happen in other zones of Calabria region (Guerricchio e Al., 2007). Tectonic-gravitative failures have broken and disarticulated also the terraces of Late Pleistocene deposits lying over the crystalline basement multiplied by these failures, so that may seem terraces of different order. The coastal slope between Gioia Tauro and Scilla is quite high and in a sudden way changes its form just in the

  7. Raised Marine Terraces in the Sibari Plain (Calabria, Southern Italy): the Geological Record of Fast Regional Uplift and Local Fault Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucci, L.

    2002-12-01

    Raised Upper Pleistocene marine terraces testifying rapid regional uplift are a prominent characteristic of the coastal landscape of Calabria (southern Italy). In particular, in the Sibari Plain, located at the boundary between the southern Apennines and the Calabrian Arc, the combination of Pleistocene sea-level fluctuations and uplift caused the progressive filling of a wide embayment of the Ionian Sea and originated a spectacular flight of marine terraces. Aerial photo interpretation, field observations and morphological correlation of inner edge fragments and wavecut platforms led to the identification of six marine terraces at elevations ranging from 60 m to ~650 m. Some characteristic geomorphic properties of the emerged cliff-platform systems such as the platform-cliff ratio and the dissection percentage were used to better correlate remote terrace remnants and to discriminate between the identified strandlines. Two comparable lower age boundaries for the marine terraces in the area can be inferred by geological observations: 1) in some areas, the terraces are cut into and therefore postdate 1.0 Ma Gilbert-type fan deltas; 2) marine deposits of the terraces at the northern end of the study area contain magnetite derived from the Vulture volcano (located about 150 km NW), which started activity around 0.73 Ma. Merging ad hoc aminostratigraphy datings with datings coming from literature permitted to correlate each terrace in the sequence with a highstand of the paleosea-level, thus reconstructing the evolution of this section of the Ionian coast. Typical average uplift rates of 1.0-1.1 millimeters per year affect the area since Middle Pleistocene, with a presumable time of inception of 0.6-0.7 million years ago; the uplift is still active during the Holocene, possibly at a similar rate. The flight of terraces shows a long wavelength increase of the rate of uplift moving southward along the coast, due to large-scale geodynamic processes. At a more local scale

  8. Survey on gynecological cancer treatment by Piedmont, Liguria, and Valle d'Aosta group of AIRO (Italian Association of Radiation Oncology)

    PubMed Central

    Cattari, Gabriella; Delmastro, Elena; Bresciani, Sara; Gribaudo, Sergio; Melano, Antonella; Giannelli, Flavio; Tessa, Maria; Chiarlone, Renato; Scolaro, Tindaro; Krengli, Marco; Urgesi, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We focused the attention on radiation therapy practices about the gynecological malignancies in Piedmont, Liguria, and Valle d'Aosta to know the current treatment practice and to improve the quality of care. Material and methods We proposed a cognitive survey to evaluate the standard practice patterns for gynecological cancer management, adopted from 2012 to 2014 by radiotherapy (RT) centers with a large amount of gynecological cancer cases. There were three topics: 1. Taking care and multidisciplinary approach, 2. Radiotherapy treatment and brachytherapy, 3. Follow-up. Results Nineteen centers treated gynecological malignancies and 12 of these had a multidisciplinary dedicated team. Radiotherapy option has been used in all clinical setting: definitive, adjuvant, and palliative. In general, 1978 patients were treated. There were 834 brachytherapy (BRT) treatments. The fusion between diagnostic imaging (magnetic resonance imaging – MRI, positron emission tomography – PET) and computed tomography (CT) simulation was used for contouring in all centers. Conformal RT and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were the most frequent techniques. The image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) was used in 10/19 centers. There were 8 active BRT centers. Brachytherapy was performed both with radical intent and as boost, mostly by HDR (6/8 centers). The doses for exclusive BRT were between 20 to 30 Gy. The doses for BRT boost were between 10 and 20 Gy. Four centers used CT-MRI compatible applicators but only one used MRI for planning. The BRT plans on vaginal cuff were still performed on traditional radiographies in 2 centers. The plan sum was evaluated in only 1 center. Only 1 center performed in vivo dosimetry. Conclusions In the last three years, multidisciplinary approach, contouring, treatment techniques, doses, and control systems were similar in Liguria-Piedmont and Valle d'Aosta. However, the technology implementation didn't translate in a real treatment

  9. A System Dynamic Analysis approach to deal with complexity in water resources management: the case of groundwater protection in the Apulia region (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Raffaele; Pluchinotta, Irene; Brugnach, Marcela; Pagano, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    The increasing complexity and uncertainty of water resources management is claiming changes in the role of tools and methods aiming to support decision makers. Complexity due to the densely interconnected networks in which decision-actors operate. Uncertainty arises because of the fact that whatever action other decision agents involved in the network are going to do is largely unknown. In these complex and uncertain environments, it is very difficult to determine how effective a policy will be. Part of the difficulty resides in the fact that any action choice will influence and be influenced by the actions choices of the other actors. While these interactions among a diversity of actors may contribute to the development of beneficial adaptive behaviours, they can also result in dysfunctional dynamics, often leading to policy resistance. Action choices are not neutral, but commensurate with the problem frames held by the actors making the decisions. Our research hypothesis is that neglecting differences in problem framings leads decision makers to oversimplify the complexity of the interactions within the system to be managed, and to act as if the system is as simple as the decision makers presume it to be. Therefore, decision tools and methodologies should support the decision makers to become aware of the complexity of the interaction space, to disclose and analyse the existing interconnections, and to govern those interactions. In these circumstances, decision makers could take advantage from the interactional nature of the knowledge creation process. In order to demonstrate the research hypothesis, a methodology based on System Dynamic Modelling (SDM) was implemented in the Apulia Region (Southern Italy) to support the implementation of the groundwater (GW) protection policy. Due to the increasing of GW withdrawal for irrigation purposes, several phenomena are drastically reducing the quality of the GW resources. In order to protect the quality of GW, the

  10. Studies on damage of D. suzukii on grapes cultivated in Apulia Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broutou, Oussama; Baser, Nuray; Porcelli, Francesco; Verrastro, Vincenzo; Lamaj, Flutura

    2014-05-01

    Studies on damage of D. suzukii on grapes cultivated in Apulia Region Oussama Broutou1, Nuray Baser1, Francesco Porcelli2, Vincenzo Verrastro1, Flutura Lamaj1 1International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies (CIHEAM)- Institute of Bari (IAMB), Italy 2Dept. of Soil, Plant and Food Science (Di.S.S.P.A.), University of Bari, Bari, Italy D. suzukii (Diptera Drosophilidae family, sub-genus Sophophora); is a vinegar fly, known as Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) in USA. This insect gained an increasing attention for its heavy infestations on strawberry, blueberry and raspberry in the U.S.A, occurred in 2008 and 2009. D. suzukii has been reported also in Europe, (Spain October 2008), and later on in Italy and France. The first captures occurred in Italy, in Trento province, in 2009. By 2010-2012, other captures were done in Italy, involving other regions, such as: Piemonte, Val d'Aosta, Lombardia, Liguria, Marche Campania and Sicilia. D. suzukii has been indicated by EPPO, as a possible threat for Mediterranean fruit production. An advanced study was carried out in order to find out the potential phytosanitary risk for Mediterranean grapes producing areas, considering that there are only few reports for damages on this crop. By the way Italy is at the third place in the world for grapes production (2011) and at the first place for grapes economical value (2011). The first identification of D. suzukii in Apulia was made in October 2012 and reported to the regional plant protection service in January 2013 by the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari (IAMB) and by Bari University (UNIBA). The aim of this study is to estimate the susceptibility of different grapes varieties to such a pest. Ten varieties of table grapes from nine different localities of Bari and Taranto province were used in this study. We tested 23 samples cultivated with organic agriculture method and 16 samples cultivated by conventional agriculture. Thirty berries were collected from

  11. Spectral models for ground motion prediction in the L'Aquila region (central Italy): evidence for stress-drop dependence on magnitude and depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacor, F.; Spallarossa, D.; Oth, A.; Luzi, L.; Puglia, R.; Cantore, L.; Mercuri, A.; D'Amico, M.; Bindi, D.

    2016-02-01

    In this study we derive a spectral model describing the source, propagation and site characteristics of S waves recorded in central Italy. To this end, we compile and analyse a high-quality data set composed of more than 9000 acceleration and velocity waveforms in the local magnitude (Ml) range 3.0-5.8 recorded at epicentral distances smaller than 120 km. The data set spans the time period from 2008 January 1 to 2013 May 31, and includes also the 2009 L'Aquila (moment magnitude Mw 6.1, Ml = 5.8) sequence. This data set is suitable for the application of data-driven approaches to derive the empirical functions for source, attenuation and site terms. Therefore, we apply a non-parametric inversion scheme to the acceleration Fourier spectra of the S waves of 261 earthquakes recorded at 129 stations. In a second step, with the aim of defining spectral models suitable for the implementation in numerical simulation codes, we represent the obtained non-parametric source and propagation terms by fitting standard parametric models. The frequency-dependent attenuation with distance r shows a complex trend that we parametrize in terms of geometrical spreading, anelastic attenuation and high-frequency decay parameter k. The geometrical spreading term is described by a piecewise linear model with crossover distances at 10 and 70 km: in the first segment, the spectral ordinates decay as < tex - mathid = "IM0001" > r- 1.01 while in the second as < tex - mathid = "IM0002" > r- 1.68. Beyond 70 km, the attenuation decreases and the spectral amplitude attenuate as < tex - mathid = "IM0003" > r- 0.64. The quality factor Q(f ) and the high-frequency attenuation parameter k, are < tex - mathid = "IM0004" > Q(f) = 290f0.16 and k = 0.012 s, respectively, the latter being applied only for frequencies higher than 10 Hz. The source spectra are well described by ω2 models, from which seismic moment and stress drops of 231 earthquakes are estimated. We calibrate a new regional relationship

  12. Extraintestinal nematodes of the red fox Vulpes vulpes in north-west Italy.

    PubMed

    Magi, M; Guardone, L; Prati, M C; Mignone, W; Macchioni, F

    2015-07-01

    Extraintestinal nematodes of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) are a wide group of parasites that infect wild and domestic carnivores and occasionally humans. Nematodes in the cardiopulmonary system, stomach, urinary apparatus and muscle tissue of 165 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from north-west Italy (Liguria and Piedmont) were investigated between 2009 and 2012. Of the cardiopulmonary nematodes, a high prevalence of Angiostrongylus vasorum and Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila) was found, 78.2% and 41.8% respectively; Crenosoma vulpis (15.8%) and Filaroides spp. (4.8%) were also found. Spirocerca lupi (23.5%), Aonchotheca putorii (syn. Capillaria putorii) (8.6%) and Physaloptera spp. (2.5%) were detected in the stomach and Pearsonema plica (syn. Capillaria plica) (56.8%) in the bladder. Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) was also detected in the nasal cavities of one of the two foxes examined. A coprological examination revealed eggs of E. aerophilus, A. putorii, S. lupi, Physaloptera spp. and eggs of intestinal parasites. Filarial worms were absent in all the 165 animals examined, nor was there evidence of Trichinella spp. in any of the foxes. The foxes were found to host a high prevalence of many species of extraintestinal nematodes. The prevalence of A. vasorum in foxes found in the present study is among the highest in Europe. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, E. boehmi and Filaroides spp. have never been reported before in this host in Italy.

  13. Monitoring landslide-induced deformation with TerraSAR-X Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI): Gimigliano case study in Calabria Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchini, S.; Cigna, F.; Del Ventisette, C.; Moretti, S.; Casagli, N.

    2012-04-01

    Landslide phenomena represent a major geological hazard worldwide, threatening human lives and settlements, especially in urban areas where the potential socio-economic losses and damages are stronger because of the higher value of the element at risk exposure and vulnerability. The impact of these natural disasters in highly populated and vulnerable areas can be reduced or prevented by performing a proper detection of such ground movements, in order to support an appropriate urban planning. Mapping and monitoring of active landslides and vulnerable slopes can greatly benefit from radar satellite data analysis, due to the great cost-benefits ratio, non-invasiveness and high precision of remote sensing techniques. This work illustrates the potential of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) using X-band SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data for a detailed detection and characterization of landslide ground displacements at local scale. PSI analysis is a powerful tool for mapping and monitoring slow surface displacements, just particularly in built-up and urbanized areas where many radar benchmarks (the PS, Persistent Scatterers) are retrieved. We exploit X-band radar data acquired from the German satellite TerraSAR-X on Gimigliano site located in Calabria Region (Italy). The use of TerraSAR-X imagery significantly improves the level of detail of the analysis and extends the applicability of space-borne SAR interferometry to faster ground movements, due to higher spatial resolutions (up to 1 m), higher PS targets density and shorter repeat cycles (11 days) of X-band satellites with respect to the medium resolution SAR sensors, such as ERS1/2, ENVISAT and RADARSAT1/2. 27 SAR scenes were acquired over a 116.9 Km2 extended area from the satellite TerraSAR-X in Spotlight mode, along descending orbits, with a look angle of 34°, from November 2010 to October 2011. The images were processed by e-GEOS with the Persistent Scatterers Pairs (PSP) technique, providing the

  14. Counseling in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remley, Theodore P.; Bacchini, Eugenio; Krieg, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The counseling profession in Italy is in an early stage of development. No university preparation programs exist, and counselors are not employed in schools. Counselors maintain private practices, work in agencies, and are employed by the government. Counselors receive their preparation in Italy from professional associations in programs that…

  15. Italy: Mt. Etna

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... shook the eastern edge of Sicily and parts of mainland Italy during September and October. The eruption of Etna sent a thick blanket ... date:  Oct 27, 2002 Images:  Italy: Mt. Etna location:  Europe thumbnail:  ...

  16. Italy: Mt. Etna

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... the eastern coast of Sicily, to the southwest of mainland Italy. Major eruptions have been issuing from both summit and flank vents. Fine ... volcanism. For more information on Etna, refer to  Italy's Volcanoes  and to the  Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism ...

  17. Burden of the 1999-2008 seasonal influenza epidemics in Italy: comparison with the H1N1v (A/California/07/09) pandemic.

    PubMed

    Lai, Piero Luigi; Panatto, Donatella; Ansaldi, Filippo; Canepa, Paola; Amicizia, Daniela; Patria, Antonio Giuseppe; Gasparini, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Despite preventive efforts, seasonal influenza epidemics are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality every year worldwide, including developed countries. The A/H1N1v pandemic imposed a considerable healthcare and economic burden. In order to obtain an accurate estimate of the economic burden of influenza, and hence to guide policymakers effectively, systematic studies are necessary. To this end, data from epidemiological surveillance are essential. To estimate the impact of the 1999-2008 seasonal influenza epidemics and the H1N1v pandemic, we analyzed data from the Italian Influenza Surveillance System (CIRI NET). In the period 1999-2008, the Italian surveillance network consisted of sentinel general practitioners and pediatricians, who reported cases of Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) and Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI ) observed during their clinical practice from mid-October to late April each year; reports were sent to the Center for Research on Influenza and other Viral Infections (CIRI -IV). CIRI -IV receives data from 9 of the 20 Italian regions: Liguria, Abruzzo, Calabria, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Lombardy, Puglia, Sicily, Tuscany and Umbria. Previous estimates of influenza case costs were used in economic evaluations. Clinical-epidemiological and virological surveillance of the seasonal epidemics from 1999-2008 showed that the highest epidemic period was 2004-2005, when a new variant of the H3N2 influenza virus subtype emerged (A/California/07/04). Indeed, the highest peak of morbidity in the decade occurred in February 2005 (12.6 per 1,000 inhabitants). In 1999-2008, H1N1 subtype strains circulated and co-circulated with strains belonging to the H3N2 subtype and B type. Regarding B viruses in 2001-02, viruses belonged to the B/Victoria/02/07 lineage re-emerged, and in subsequent years co-circulated with viruses belonging to the B/Yamagata/lineage. The estimated costs of seasonal epidemics from 1999-2008 in Italy ranged from €15 to €20

  18. Robotic surgery in Italy national survey (2011).

    PubMed

    Santoro, Eugenio; Pansadoro, Vito

    2013-03-01

    Robotic surgery in Italy has become a clinical reality that is gaining increasing acceptance. As of 2011 after the United States, Italy together with Germany is the country with the largest number of active Robotic centers, 46, and da Vinci Robots installed, with at least 116 operators already trained. The number of interventions performed in Italy in 2011 exceeded 6,000 and in 2010 were 4,784, with prevalence for urology, general surgery and gynecology, however these interventions have also begun to be applied in other fields such as cervicofacial, cardiothoracic and pediatric surgery. In Italy Robotic centers are mostly located in Northern Italy, while in the South there are only a few centers, and four regions are lacking altogether. Of the 46 centers which were started in 1999, the vast majority is still operational and almost half handle over 200 cases a year. The quality of the work is also especially high with large diffusion of radical prostatectomy in urology and liver resection and colic in general surgery. The method is very well accepted among operators, over 80 %, and among patients, over 95 %. From the analysis of world literature and a survey carried out in Italy, Robotic surgery, which at the moment could be better defined as telesurgery, represents a significant advantage for operators and a consistent gain for the patient. However, it still has important limits such as high cost and non-structured training of operators.

  19. A new species-complex within the trapdoor spider genus Nemesia Audouin 1826 distributed in northern and central Italy, with descriptions of three new species (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Nemesiidae).

    PubMed

    Decae, Arthur; Pantini, Paolo; Isaia, Marco

    2015-12-23

    Three new Nemesia Audouin 1826 species from northern and central Italy are named. They share a combination of sexual characters, not found in other described species. A new species-complex within Nemesia is here referred to as the apenninica group. Within the apenninica group, N. apenninica n. sp., N. hastensis n. sp., and N. pedemontana n. sp. differ in the morphology of the male palpal organ and the female spermathecae. The three species have different kinds of geographical distributions. While N. apenninica and N. hastensis have locally restricted and geographically separated distributions, the distribution of N. pedemontana overlaps with that of both of these species and extends widely in northern and central Italy. In its periphery, the distribution of N. pedemontana overlaps with that of species other than the apenninica group, e.g., N. meridionalis (Costa, 1835) in southern Italy and N. manderstjernae (L. Koch, 1871) and N. carminans (Latreille, 1818) in Liguria. Information on burrow structure, phenology and habitat are provided for all three new species. Some aspects of the behavior and feeding are discussed for N. pedemontana and N. hastensis.

  20. Late Miocene remagnetization within the internal sector of the Northern Apennines, Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiello, I.W.; Hagstrum, J.T.; Principi, G.

    2004-01-01

    Paleomagnetic and geologic evidence indicates that Upper Jurassic radiolarian cherts of both the Tuscan Cherts Formation (continental margin, Tuscan Units) and the Monte Alpe Cherts Formation (oceanic crust, Ligurian Units) were remagnetized during Miocene orogenesis of the Northern Apennines of Italy. Characteristic overprint magnetizations with reversed polarities have been found over a large area within the internal sector of the Northern Apennines, including eastern Liguria, Elba Island and the Thyrrenian margin, and west of the Middle Tuscan Ridge. The reversed-polarity overprint (average direction: D=177??, I=-52??, ??95=15??) was most likely acquired during Late Miocene uplift and denudation of the orogenic chain, and thermochemical remagnetization was a probable consequence of increased circulation of orogenic fluids. Similarly, mostly reversed-polarity directions of magnetization have been found by other workers in overlying post-orogenic Messinian sediments (D=177??, I=-57??, ??95=3??), which show little counterclockwise (CCW) vertical-axis rotation with respect to stable Europe (-8??5??). The Monte Alpe Cherts sampled at sites in the external sector of the Northern Apennines, close to major tectonic features, have normal- polarity overprint directions with in situ W-SW declinations. Since the overlying post-orogenic Messinian sediments have not been substantially rotated about vertical axes, the evidence points to an earlier,pre-Late Miocene remagnetization in the external parts of the orogenic chain. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Characteristics and major sources of carbonaceous aerosols in PM2.5 in Emilia Romagna Region (Northern Italy) from four-year observations.

    PubMed

    Pietrogrande, Maria Chiara; Bacco, Dimitri; Ferrari, Silvia; Ricciardelli, Isabella; Scotto, Fabiana; Trentini, Arianna; Visentin, Marco

    2016-05-15

    The concentrations of organic and elemental carbon in PM2.5 aerosol samples were measured in two sites of Emilia Romagna (Po Valley, Northern Italy) in eight campaigns during different seasons from 2011 to 2014. Strong seasonality was observed with the highest OC concentrations during the cold periods (≈ 5.5 μg m(-3)) and the lowest in the warm months (≈ 2.7 μg m(-3)) as well as with higher EC levels in fall/winter (≈ 1.4 μg m(-3)) in comparison with spring/summer (≈ 0.6 μg m(-3)). Concerning spatial variability, there were no statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between OC concentrations at the two sampling sites in each campaign, while the EC values were nearly twofold higher levels at the urban site than those at the rural one. Specific molecular markers were investigated to attempt the basic apportionment of OC by discriminating between the main emission sources of primary OC, such as fossil fuels burning - including traffic vehicle emission - residential wood burning, and bio-aerosol released from plants and microorganisms, and the atmospheric photo-oxidation processes generating OCsec. The investigated markers were low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids - to describe the contribution of secondary organic aerosol - anhydrosugars - to quantify primary emissions from biomass burning - bio-sugars - to qualitatively estimate biogenic sources - and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - to differentiate among different combustion emissions. Using the levoglucosan tracer method, contribution of wood smoke to atmospheric OC concentration was computed. Wood burning accounts for 33% of OC in fall/winter and for 3% in spring/summer. A clear seasonal trend is also observed for the impact of secondary processes with higher contribution in the warm seasons (≈ 63%) in comparison with that in colder months (≈ 33%), that is consistent with enhanced solar radiation in spring/summer. PMID:26925729

  2. The role of regional tectonics, magma pressure and gravitational spreading in earthquakes of the eastern sector of Mt. Etna volcano (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patanè, G.; Montalto, A.; Imposa, S.; Menza, S.

    1994-07-01

    Data concerning M ⩾ 3.3 earthquakes that occurred in the eastern sector of Mt. Etna volcano (Sicily, Italy) in the period 1984-1989 are here presented and discussed. Only events with reliable focal mechanisms and detailed macroseismic investigations have been considered. Instrumental information come from local seismic networks, both permanent and temporary, run by the University of Catania (UCT), the Seismological Observatory of Acireale (SOACR), the CNRS (Grenoble, France) and the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPG, France). Observations regarding the macroseismic effects have been collected by means of field recognitions mainly carried out by the authors. All available data are analyzed in light of the more recent interpretations on the kinematic behaviour of the shallowest structures of Etna, with particular reference to its eastern flank which, according to Borgia et al. (1992), is likely affected by a seaward gravitational migration, driven by the sliding of this sector of the volcanic apparatus over its clay-rich substratum. The results obtained support the hypothesis that the shallow seismicity of the eastern flank of Mt. Etna is related to a complex stress field due to the combined effects of: (a) the tectonics associated with the interaction between the African and Eurasian plates; (b) the rise of magma into the crust; and (c) the gravitative seaward sliding of the eastern sector of the volcano. In particular, we hypothesize that: (1) tectonic forces caused the end of the 1984 eruption, by means of a "locking mechanism"; (2) the increment of magma pressure at depth is periodically responsible for local re-orientation of the stress field acting on the volcano, which also produces earthquakes of high intensity; (3) shallow earthquakes ( z < = 5 km), showing eastward compression mechanism, could be related to the gravitational sliding of unbuttressed sectors of the volcanic body accompanying the emplacement of intrusive dykes.

  3. Paleoceanographic Changes in the Lagonegro Basin (Southern Italy) during the Late Triassic Linked to Oceanic Rifting in the Western Tethyan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casacci, M.; Algeo, T. J.; Bertinelli, A.; Rigo, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Lagonegro Basin was part of the southwestern branch of the western Tethys, an actively spreading young ocean during the Late Triassic (Ciarapica and Passeri, 2002, 2005). The sedimentary environment was a deepening-upward basin, bordered to the north by the Apenninic and Apulian carbonate platforms. Paleoseismic activity is evidenced by frequent debris flows on the basin margins (Passeri et al., 2005). The Lagonegro succession is characterized by Permian to Miocene formations deposited in shallow to deep basinal environments. The Upper Triassic is comprised of deep-marine sediments belonging to the Calcari con Selce ("Cherty Limestone") Formation of late Ladinian to late Norian-early Rhaetian age and the Scisti Silicei ("Siliceous Shale") Formation of late Norian-early Rhaetian to Late Jurassic age. The "Transitional Interval" between these two formations is gradational over a 20- to 40-m interval (Miconnet, 1983). The Transitional Interval was investigated in three sections (Pignola-Abriola, Monte Volturino, and Madonna del Sirino) in the Southern Apennines (southern Italy), representing a proximal-to-distal transect across the Lagonegro Basin. The transition from mainly calcareous to mainly siliceous sedimentation may have been influenced by rapid, post-rift subsidence of the Lagonegro Basin. It also coincided with a shift to warmer or more humid conditions around the Norian/Rhaetian boundary, as reflected in a pronounced increase in the chemical index of alteration (CIA), a weathering proxy (Young and Nesbitt, 1998). Redox proxies indicate mainly oxic conditions in the deep basin, although organic-rich shale beds are present at multiple levels in the otherwise organic-poor succession. The abruptness of the transitions between organic-poor and -rich sediment layers suggests major changes in paleoceanographic conditions, possibly related to switches from lagoonal circulation (linked to a net negative water balance) to estuarine circulation (linked to a net

  4. Italy seeks a strategy.

    PubMed

    Owen, M

    1988-01-01

    Italy now ranks 8th in the list of countries worst hit by AIDS. The relatively low figures for homosexual AIDS cases give no cause for complacency. It is not known yet if the message about 'safe sex' has got across to homosexuals, or if there has been underreporting and the numbers with AIDS will start soon to show the same rising curve as that for drug users. The Vatican, as was always expected, has said 'no' to the use of condoms to combat the spread of HIV, even though its use would not be to avoid conception but to prevent disease. Many doctors working in the field resent the lack of consultation and communication between Rome and the regions. But Italian health services are decentralized; the 21 regional health authorities are autonomous bodies. They have never looked to central government for specific directions, but they do desperately need extra funding. Their literature has been important as means of countering 'disinformation' from the press, often prone to sensationalism. Discrimination against children of parents infected with HIV has occured in schools and frequently seropositive employees have been fired. Local authorities are now making great efforts to impart the correct information. The Italian family planning association, UNICEMP, plays a supportive role in the education and information campaign. Many voluntary organizations provide counseling. The government national commission on AIDS set up a free telephone service where experts are available to answer questions from the public. But although 18,000 calls were made in the 1st 6 weeks of opening, hardly any inqueries at all came from those most at risk--the drug users. PMID:12281142

  5. Determinants of adherence to seasonal influenza vaccination among healthcare workers from an Italian region: results from a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Durando, P; Dini, G; Barberis, I; Bagnasco, A M; Iudici, R; Zanini, M; Martini, M; Toletone, A; Paganino, C; Massa, E; Sasso, L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Notwithstanding decades of efforts to increase the uptake of seasonal influenza (flu) vaccination among European healthcare workers (HCWs), the immunisation rates are still unsatisfactory. In order to understand the reasons for the low adherence to flu vaccination, a study was carried out among HCWs of two healthcare organisations in Liguria, a region in northwest Italy. Methods A cross-sectional study based on anonymous self-administered web questionnaires was carried out between October 2013 and February 2014. Through univariate and multivariate regression analysis, the study investigated the association between demographic and professional characteristics, knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of the study participants and (i) the seasonal flu vaccination uptake in the 2013/2014 season and (ii) the self-reported number of flu vaccination uptakes in the six consecutive seasons from 2008/2009 to 2013/2014. Results A total of 830 HCWs completed the survey. Factors statistically associated with flu vaccination uptake in the 2013/2014 season were: being a medical doctor and agreeing with the statements ‘flu vaccine is safe’, ‘HCWs have a higher risk of getting flu’ and ‘HCWs should receive flu vaccination every year’. A barrier to vaccination was the belief that pharmaceutical companies influence decisions about vaccination strategies. Discussion All the above-mentioned factors, except the last one, were (significantly) associated with the number of flu vaccination uptakes self-reported by the respondents between season 2008/2009 and season 2013/2014. Other significantly associated factors appeared to be level of education, being affected by at least one chronic disease, and agreeing with mandatory flu vaccination in healthcare settings. Conclusions This survey allows us to better understand the determinants of adherence to vaccination as a fundamental preventive strategy against flu among Italian HCWs. These findings should be used to improve and

  6. Study on the reduction of atmospheric mercury emissions from mine waste enriched soils through native grass cover in the Mt. Amiata region of Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Fantozzi, L.; Dini, F.; Tamburello, L.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.

    2013-08-15

    Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine-waste enriched soils were measured in order to compare the mercury fluxes of bare soils with those from other soils covered by native grasses. Our research was conducted near Mt. Amiata in central Italy, an area that was one of the largest and most productive mining centers in Europe up into the 1980s. To determine in situ mercury emissions, we used a Plexiglas flux chamber connected to a portable mercury analyzer (Lumex RA-915+). This allowed us to detect, in real time, the mercury vapor in the air, and to correlate this with the meteorological parameters that we examined (solar radiation, soil temperature, and humidity). The highest mercury flux values (8000 ng m{sup −2} h{sup −1}) were observed on bare soils during the hours of maximum insulation, while lower values (250 ng m{sup −2} h{sup −1}) were observed on soils covered by native grasses. Our results indicate that two main environmental variables affect mercury emission: solar radiation intensity and soil temperature. The presence of native vegetation, which can shield soil surfaces from incident light, reduced mercury emissions, a result that we attribute to a drop in the efficiency of mercury photoreduction processes rather than to decreases in soil temperature. This finding is consistent with decreases in mercury flux values down to 3500 ng m{sup −2} h{sup −1}, which occurred under cloudy conditions despite high soil temperatures. Moreover, when the soil temperature was 28 °C and the vegetation was removed from the experimental site, mercury emissions increased almost four-fold. This increase occurred almost immediately after the grasses were cut, and was approximately eight-fold after 20 h. Thus, this study demonstrates that enhancing wild vegetation cover could be an inexpensive and effective approach in fostering a natural, self-renewing reduction of mercury emissions from mercury-contaminated soils. -- Highlights: ► Mercury air/surface exchange

  7. Binary Logistic Regression Versus Boosted Regression Trees in Assessing Landslide Susceptibility for Multiple-Occurring Regional Landslide Events: Application to the 2009 Storm Event in Messina (Sicily, southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, L.; Cama, M.; Maerker, M.; Parisi, L.; Rotigliano, E.

    2014-12-01

    This study aims at comparing the performances of Binary Logistic Regression (BLR) and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) methods in assessing landslide susceptibility for multiple-occurrence regional landslide events within the Mediterranean region. A test area was selected in the north-eastern sector of Sicily (southern Italy), corresponding to the catchments of the Briga and the Giampilieri streams both stretching for few kilometres from the Peloritan ridge (eastern Sicily, Italy) to the Ionian sea. This area was struck on the 1st October 2009 by an extreme climatic event resulting in thousands of rapid shallow landslides, mainly of debris flows and debris avalanches types involving the weathered layer of a low to high grade metamorphic bedrock. Exploiting the same set of predictors and the 2009 landslide archive, BLR- and BRT-based susceptibility models were obtained for the two catchments separately, adopting a random partition (RP) technique for validation; besides, the models trained in one of the two catchments (Briga) were tested in predicting the landslide distribution in the other (Giampilieri), adopting a spatial partition (SP) based validation procedure. All the validation procedures were based on multi-folds tests so to evaluate and compare the reliability of the fitting, the prediction skill, the coherence in the predictor selection and the precision of the susceptibility estimates. All the obtained models for the two methods produced very high predictive performances, with a general congruence between BLR and BRT in the predictor importance. In particular, the research highlighted that BRT-models reached a higher prediction performance with respect to BLR-models, for RP based modelling, whilst for the SP-based models the difference in predictive skills between the two methods dropped drastically, converging to an analogous excellent performance. However, when looking at the precision of the probability estimates, BLR demonstrated to produce more robust

  8. Societal landslide and flood risk in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvati, P.; Bianchi, C.; Rossi, M.; Guzzetti, F.

    2010-03-01

    We assessed societal landslide and flood risk to the population of Italy. The assessment was conducted at the national (synoptic) and at the regional scales. For the assessment, we used an improved version of the catalogue of historical landslide and flood events that have resulted in loss of life, missing persons, injuries and homelessness in Italy, from 1850 to 2008. This is the recent portion of a larger catalogue spanning the 1941-year period from 68 to 2008. We started by discussing uncertainty and completeness in the historical catalogue, and we performed an analysis of the temporal and geographical pattern of harmful landslide and flood events, in Italy. We found that sites affected by harmful landslides or floods are not distributed evenly in Italy, and we attributed the differences to different physiographical settings. To determine societal risk, we investigated the distribution of the number of landslide and flood casualties (deaths, missing persons, and injured people) in Italy, and in the 20 Italian Regions. Using order statistics, we found that the intensity of a landslide or flood event - measured by the total number of casualties in the event - follows a general negative power law trend. Next, we modelled the empirical distributions of the frequency of landslide and flood events with casualties in Italy and in each Region using a Zipf distribution. We used the scaling exponent s of the probability mass function (PMF) of the intensity of the events, which controls the proportion of small, medium, and large events, to compare societal risk levels in different geographical areas and for different periods. Lastly, to consider the frequency of the events with casualties, we scaled the PMF obtained for the individual Regions to the total number of events in each Region, in the period 1950-2008, and we used the results to rank societal landslide and flood risk in Italy. We found that in the considered period societal landslide risk is largest in Trentino

  9. Time dependent structural architecture of subsidiary fracturing and stress pattern in the tip region of an extensional growth fault system, Tarquinia basin, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsamo, F.; Storti, F.; Piovano, B.; Salvini, F.; Cifelli, F.; Lima, C.

    2008-06-01

    Fault tip regions, relay ramps and accommodation zones in between major segments of extensional fault systems provide zones of additional structural and stratigraphic complexities and also significantly affect their hydraulic behaviour. The great interest for both academic and industrial purposes encouraged specific studies of fault tip regions that, in some cases, produced controversial results. We approached the study of fault tip regions by integrating structural, AMS and stratigraphic analyses of the tip of an extensional growth fault system in the Tarquinia basin, on the Tyrrhenian side of the Northern Apennines. Detailed structural mapping indicates the occurrence of systematic relationships between the orientation of the main subsidiary fault zones, the orientation and position of the two main joint sets developed in the fault damage zones, and the overprinting relationships between the two main joint sets themselves. Microstructural analysis of fault core rocks indicates a progression of deformation from soft-sediment to brittle conditions. The AMS study supports the evolution of deformation under a constantly oriented stress field. By combining this multidisciplinary information we propose an evolutionary model for the tip of the extensional growth fault system that accounts for the progressively changing sediment rheological properties, and for the time dependent subsidiary deformation pattern by invoking the interplay between the regional stress field and the local, kinematically-derived one by fault activity. We also speculate on the overall implications for fluid flow of the proposed evolutionary model.

  10. Offshore Oligo-Miocene volcanic fields within the Corsica-Liguria Basin: Magmatic diversity and slab evolution in the western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Réhault, J.-P.; Honthaas, C.; Guennoc, P.; Bellon, H.; Ruffet, G.; Cotten, J.; Sosson, M.; Maury, R. C.

    2012-07-01

    The European and Corsica-Sardinia margins of the Ligurian Sea (western Mediterranean) have been affected by a geochemically diverse igneous activity, offshore and onshore, since the Eocene. This magmatism occurred in a global subduction-related framework. On the European side, the oldest Tertiary magmatism dated at ca. 35 Ma was mainly calc-alkaline. It included the emplacement of plutonic bodies of adakitic affinity, such as the quartz microdiorite laccolith locally referred to as "esterellite". Younger magmatic events on-land within the whole Ligurian domain were mostly medium-K or K-rich calc-alkaline. Miocene volcanic activity was important in Sardinia, where andesites and ignimbrites were erupted during several magmatic cycles. In Corsica, it was minor although it emplaced lamprophyres near Sisco at 15 Ma. Dredging and diving cruises conducted in the Ligurian Sea during the last thirty years allowed us to collect a number of submarine samples. We discuss here their geochemistry (major and trace elements) and their whole-rock K-Ar ages and mineral 40Ar-39Ar plateau ages. Around 15 Ma, minor amounts of adakitic lavas were emplaced off southwestern Corsica, in the deepest part of the Liguria-Corsica Basin. They rested over the thinnest southwestern Corsica Hercynian continental crust. Closer to the coast, contemporaneous calc-alkaline rocks erupted on a less thinned crust. The adakitic events could be indicative of either the final stages of active subduction, or alternatively of a slab tearing linked to the southeastern retreat and steepening of the slab. The latter event could be connected with the end of the Corsica-Sardinia block drifting and its correlative eastern collision. Younger volcanic effusions, dated at 14-6 Ma, occurred mostly northwest and north of Corsica. K-rich calc-alkaline basalts, shoshonites and K-rich trachytes were emplaced during this period, and alkali basalts erupted as early as 12 Ma in Sardinia. In the Toulon area, alkali basalts

  11. New Time-independent and Time-dependent Seismic Source Models for the Calabria Region (Italy) for the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinci, Aybige; Burrato, Pierfrancesco; Falcone, Giuseppe; Mariucci, Maria Teresa; Murru, Maura; Tiberti, Mara Monica; Vannoli, Paola

    2015-04-01

    The present study is carried out in the framework of the S2-2014 COBAS Project "Constraining Observations into Seismic Hazard" co-funded by the Civil Protection Department of the Presidency of Council of Ministers (DPC) within the general agreement DPC-INGV for the period 2012-2021. The two areas identified as priority areas in the first phase of the activities by the 2012- 2021 Agreement DPC-INGV, namely the Po Plain and the Southern Apennines from Molise-Lazio to Basilicata-Calabria borders, require different strategies for calculating "the best seismic hazard". In this study we develop new time-independent and time-dependent seismic source models for the Calabria region starting from the new version of the DISS (Database of Individual Seismogenic Sources). This version of the Database DISS contains remarkable and notable new data and information on the seismogenic sources and their parameterizations in the Calabria region. The probability of the earthquake occurrences is calculated by developing models of seismicity-derived hazard sources, and models of earthquakes on faults/seismogenic sources. Mainly the four different classes of earthquake source models are developed to be included into the PSHA maps: (1) shallow crustal background seismicity (2) special zone that account for deep background seismicity (many earthquakes deeper than 30 kilometers occur beneath the Calabrian Arc and may have caused considerable damage in the Calabria region; these earthquakes have different ground-motion properties than shallow earthquakes) (3) uniform background source zones (4) finite faults/seismogenic sources as defined in the previous activity. The first three models are based on the earthquake catalog and characterize the hazard from earthquakes Mw>4.7. In most cases, the faults contribute most to the hazard for earthquakes larger than Mw5.5. The earthquake occurrence for the faults are modeled both as a Poisson time-independent process and introducing the various renewal

  12. Vision screening of preschool children in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ingrosso, A; Mancioppi, S; Orsoni, J G

    1995-03-01

    Vision screening of preschool children is designed and performed to identify those affected by amblyopia or related, predisposing visual defects. In order to determine the prevalence of preschool vision screening in Italy, a questionnaire was mailed to the 635 regional health offices in which the country's national health system was organized at the time of the study. Results of this survey demonstrated that in 61.3% of the regions which responded, some form of preschool vision screening is performed. However, individual, non-standardized methods are used by the physicians or health care professionals responsible in each regional program. It is evident from this study that standardized procedures for preschool vision testing are lacking in Italy, and that the existing European Community guidelines should be disseminated and applied on a greater scale for the development of such a program on the national and European level.

  13. Ten years of continuous observations of stratospheric ozone depleting gases at Monte Cimone (Italy)--comments on the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol from a regional perspective.

    PubMed

    Maione, M; Giostra, U; Arduini, J; Furlani, F; Graziosi, F; Lo Vullo, E; Bonasoni, P

    2013-02-15

    Halogenated gases potentially harmful to the stratospheric ozone layer are monitored worldwide in order to assess compliance with the Montreal Protocol requiring a phase out of these compounds on a global scale. We present the results of long term (2002-2011) continuous observation conducted at the Mt. Cimone GAW Global Station located on the highest peak of the Italian Northern Apennines, at the border of two important regions: the Po Valley (and the Alps) to the North and the Mediterranean Basin to the South. Bi-hourly air samples of CFC-12, CFC-11, CFC-114, CFC-115, H-1211, H-1301, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, HCFC-22, HCFC-142b, HCFC-124 and methyl bromide are collected and analysed using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, providing multi annual time series. In order to appreciate the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol from a regional perspective, trends and annual growth rates of halogenated species have been calculated after identification of their baseline values. A comparison with results from other international observation programmes is also presented. Our data show that the peak in the atmospheric mixing ratios of four chlorofluorocarbons, two halons and two chlorocarbons has been reached and all these species now show a negative atmospheric trend. Pollution episodes are still occurring for species like halon-1211, methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride, indicating fresh emissions from the site domain which could be ascribed both to fugitive un-reported uses of the compounds and/or emissions from banks. For the hydrofluorocarbons changes in the baseline are affected by emissions from fast developing Countries in East Asia. Fresh emissions from the site domain are clearly declining. Methyl bromide, for which the Mediterranean area is an important source region, shows, in a generally decreasing trend, an emission pattern that is not consistent with the phase-out schedule of this compound, with a renewed increase in the last two

  14. Ten years of continuous observations of stratospheric ozone depleting gases at Monte Cimone (Italy)--comments on the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol from a regional perspective.

    PubMed

    Maione, M; Giostra, U; Arduini, J; Furlani, F; Graziosi, F; Lo Vullo, E; Bonasoni, P

    2013-02-15

    Halogenated gases potentially harmful to the stratospheric ozone layer are monitored worldwide in order to assess compliance with the Montreal Protocol requiring a phase out of these compounds on a global scale. We present the results of long term (2002-2011) continuous observation conducted at the Mt. Cimone GAW Global Station located on the highest peak of the Italian Northern Apennines, at the border of two important regions: the Po Valley (and the Alps) to the North and the Mediterranean Basin to the South. Bi-hourly air samples of CFC-12, CFC-11, CFC-114, CFC-115, H-1211, H-1301, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, HCFC-22, HCFC-142b, HCFC-124 and methyl bromide are collected and analysed using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer, providing multi annual time series. In order to appreciate the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol from a regional perspective, trends and annual growth rates of halogenated species have been calculated after identification of their baseline values. A comparison with results from other international observation programmes is also presented. Our data show that the peak in the atmospheric mixing ratios of four chlorofluorocarbons, two halons and two chlorocarbons has been reached and all these species now show a negative atmospheric trend. Pollution episodes are still occurring for species like halon-1211, methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride, indicating fresh emissions from the site domain which could be ascribed both to fugitive un-reported uses of the compounds and/or emissions from banks. For the hydrofluorocarbons changes in the baseline are affected by emissions from fast developing Countries in East Asia. Fresh emissions from the site domain are clearly declining. Methyl bromide, for which the Mediterranean area is an important source region, shows, in a generally decreasing trend, an emission pattern that is not consistent with the phase-out schedule of this compound, with a renewed increase in the last two

  15. Regional uplift and local tectonic deformation recorded by the Quaternary marine terraces on the Ionian coast of northern Calabria (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucci, Luigi; Cinti, Francesca R.

    1998-06-01

    The setting of a flight of marine terraces along a 65-km-long section of the Ionian coast of northern Calabria is the result of the interaction between interglacial sea levels, regional uplift, and local fault-related elevation changes. Seven terraces with corresponding palaeoshoreline angles at elevations ranging from 12 m to ˜420 m were recognised by aerial photo interpretation and field surveying. The terraces were correlated to the oxygen isotope stages 1, 5a, 5c, 5e, 7, 9, 15, which correspond to the 7, 81, 102, 124, 215, 330 and ˜600 ka highstands of the palaeosea-level curve. The ˜600-ka-long regional ascent of the terraces took place at an average uplift rate of 0.67 mm/yr; this value slightly but progressively increases southward along the coastline. The elevation of the strandlines is related to the activity of tectonic structures. Three cases were analysed, allowing us: (1) to recognise the height anomalies of the terraces on the Sibari plain as the result of cumulated coseismic deformation caused by the normal Castrovillari fault, and on this basis calculate a minimum slip rate and a mean recurrence time for a single event of deformation; (2) to exclude the presence of significant vertical deformations and consequently activity on the easternmost section of the normal Pollino fault; and (3) to hypothesise the presence of an hitherto unknown active fault responsible for the strong vertical displacements of the flight of terraces near the river Avena. Finally, we find the ratio of the rate of regional uplift to the average rates of local tectonic deformation to be 2 to 3 : 1.

  16. [Definition and adoption of a building code based on biological and ecological sustainability in the Local Health Authority 11 of Empoli (Tuscany Region, Central Italy): strengths and areas for improvement].

    PubMed

    Petronio, Maria Grazia; Battisti, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Built environment is an important social determinant of health, but nowadays local health authorities (LHAs) have lost their competences in the issuing of building permits, especially since a new legislation introduced the possibility of personal declaration of conformity. They are also usually excluded from the urban planning process. At the same time, in recent years construction of buildings has been developed with insufficient regard to environmental health requirements, proper exposure to sunlight and winds, comfort, building materials, consumption of resources, and waste production. To deal with these issues, an interdepartmental working group was set up under the direction of the Department of Prevention of the LHA of Empoli (Tuscany Region, Central Italy), with members of the Regional Environmental Protection Agency, along with experts of the 15 Municipalities included in the LHA territory and members of other local institutions. The objective of the Working Group was to define and propose as mandatory a set of rules for local governments aimed at regulating construction activities according to criteria of environmental sustainability, eco-efficiency, comfort, and healthiness of living areas, at the same time encouraging the responsible use of natural resources, the reduction of energy consumption and the use of renewable energy sources in order to place environmental safety and health at the heart of all building activities. Experts of six Municipalities joined the working group and the regulation framework was adopted (and made legally binding) in 8 out of 15 Municipalities, with an almost complete overlap with participation in the working group. The active participation of experts, whose work consists in examining municipal building, permits, and declarations, has therefore marked the difference in the transition from theory to practice. The level of know-how attained by the participants and their motivation and enthusiasm have been so relevant in the

  17. [Definition and adoption of a building code based on biological and ecological sustainability in the Local Health Authority 11 of Empoli (Tuscany Region, Central Italy): strengths and areas for improvement].

    PubMed

    Petronio, Maria Grazia; Battisti, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Built environment is an important social determinant of health, but nowadays local health authorities (LHAs) have lost their competences in the issuing of building permits, especially since a new legislation introduced the possibility of personal declaration of conformity. They are also usually excluded from the urban planning process. At the same time, in recent years construction of buildings has been developed with insufficient regard to environmental health requirements, proper exposure to sunlight and winds, comfort, building materials, consumption of resources, and waste production. To deal with these issues, an interdepartmental working group was set up under the direction of the Department of Prevention of the LHA of Empoli (Tuscany Region, Central Italy), with members of the Regional Environmental Protection Agency, along with experts of the 15 Municipalities included in the LHA territory and members of other local institutions. The objective of the Working Group was to define and propose as mandatory a set of rules for local governments aimed at regulating construction activities according to criteria of environmental sustainability, eco-efficiency, comfort, and healthiness of living areas, at the same time encouraging the responsible use of natural resources, the reduction of energy consumption and the use of renewable energy sources in order to place environmental safety and health at the heart of all building activities. Experts of six Municipalities joined the working group and the regulation framework was adopted (and made legally binding) in 8 out of 15 Municipalities, with an almost complete overlap with participation in the working group. The active participation of experts, whose work consists in examining municipal building, permits, and declarations, has therefore marked the difference in the transition from theory to practice. The level of know-how attained by the participants and their motivation and enthusiasm have been so relevant in the

  18. Beginning Reading in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutolo, Daniel

    Teaching practices in Italy, where teachers combine three different methods for teaching reading, may provide insight into ways to improve methodologies in the United States. The first method is the natural method, which, unlike American methods, teaches reading and writing simultaneously with the emphasis on writing. The teacher writes as…

  19. Italy. [CME Country Reports].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    Ever since 1946, increased emigration in Italy has been paralleled by a slow but steady increase in educational activity. In 1971, Law No. 153 was adopted which provides for special educational arrangements to be made for migrant workers and their spouses adopted by the Italian Government are based on the need for Italian children to: (1) be…

  20. Marking Strategies in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattullo, Mario

    1987-01-01

    Three types of student evaluation strategies used in Italy are described: (1) teacher's free comments; (2) standardized adjectives used as rating scales; and (3) numeric scores based on tests and other evaluation criteria. Implications of the third approach, which was implemented according to legislation in 1977, are discussed. (GDC)

  1. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-05-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects.

  2. Personal Identity in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Sica, Luigia Simona

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses specifics of identity formation in Italian adolescents and emerging adults. We review consistent evidence illustrating that, in Italy, a progressive deferral of transition to adulthood strongly impacts youth identity development by stimulating identity exploration and postponement of identity commitments. We also consider…

  3. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-01-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects. PMID:10350509

  4. How to analyse the typological features of stone terrace walls. A methodology applied to the rural landscape of the Tuscan Region (Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnoletti, Mauro; Conti, Leonardo; Frezza, Lorenza; Santoro, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Terraced systems currently represent an indubitable added value for Tuscany, as for other regions. This value goes beyond their original function of hosting new areas for cultivation. Indeed, the hydrological functions performed by such systems within the historic and modern agricultural matrix, including control of erosion, stabilisation of the slopes, prolongation of run-off times and the possible reduction of the volumes of surface runoff, are well-known. In addition they also play a strategic role in the conservation of biodiversity and in maintaining local identity value. These systems are evidence of the laborious knowledge built up by many generations of farmers in making the most of the territorial resources in terms of quality production through agronomic operations for the management of the crops. Within the framework of policies for the conservation and valorisation of the rural landscape, this recognised economic, environmental and historic-cultural value has engendered a growing awareness and sensitivity towards the safeguarding of such structural characteristics. Indeed, at national level the terraced agricultural systems come within the scope of actions scheduled in the National Strategic Plan for Rural Development 2007-2013, and the Cross-Compliance Decree envisages that they be maintained through the granting of economic aid as laid down in the Regional Development Plans, to be pursued through appropriate agronomic and environmental conditions in adherence to the obligatory management criteria for the protection of the soil. 18 sample areas, previously selected on the basis of the terracing intensity index (> 400 m/ha), were subjected to on-site surveys to determine the geo-typological features through the identification and measurement of the main technical-construction parameters of the dry stone walls. In view of the complexity of carrying out a census of the entire regional territory, it was essential to restrict the analysis to a limited

  5. Understanding, promoting and protecting geodiversity and geoheritage of the Piemonte region (Italy) through innovative techniques and public engagement in Earth Science studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardino, Marco; Lozar, Francesca; Perotti, Luigi; Palomba, Mauro; Groppo, Chiara; Natalicchio, Marcello; Ghiraldi, Luca; Beltramo, Riccardo; Lombardo, Vincenzo

    2016-04-01

    The onset of Antropocene demonstrates the importance of considering both 1) geodiversity and 2) geoheritage as parts of the landscape "interfaces" where relationships between natural and socio-economic systems can be studied and interpreted. By definition: 1) is the variety, recognizable in nature ("diversity"), of geological features (rocks, minerals, fossils…), of geomorphological environments (and related forms and processes) and of soil characteristics; 2) is an integral part of the global natural heritage focusing on unique, special and representative sites of geological interests (geosites l.s.). In the Antropocene, both 1) and 2) hold a dynamic character, as the result of actions and interactions of natural and/or human factors. Therefore, geodiversity and geoheritage studies are essential for breaking down geological environments and human territories into their main parts and to understand the variables and mechanisms that control their changes. In this perspective, results of the multidisciplinary project PROGEO-Piemonte ("PROactive management of GEOlogical heritage in the Piemonte Region") are presented here: an innovative approach for assessing geodiversity in order to select areas of high potential value of geoheritage to be enhanced by targeted management actions. Since the geodiversity of Piemonte is materialized by elements of high scientific, educational, tourism, etc. value, the geosites where this geoheritage is preserved have been comprehensively analysed and characterized for encompassing both public and private interests. 9 strategic geothematic areas have been selected in the Piemonte Region to test this approach, and to improve social engagement aimed at protecting and promoting geodiversity ad geoheritage. The investigated areas represent the multifaceted geodiversity of Piemonte; each area is characterized by high potential for scientific studies, enhancement of public understanding of science, recreation activities and for economic

  6. Definition of a Standard Protocol to Determine the Growth Potential of Listeria Monotgenes and Yersinia Enterocolitica in Pork Sausage Produced in Abruzzo Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Diana; Romantini, Romina; Santarelli, Gino Angelo; Prencipe, Vincenza

    2014-01-01

    Pork meat products consumed raw or after a short period of fermentation can be considered at risk for food safety. Sausages (fresh sausage made from pork meat) are produced in several Italian regions, with variation in ingredients. In some Italian Regions, including Abruzzo, these products are frequently consumed raw or undercooked, after a variable period of fermentation. The European Community food regulation promotes the use of challenge tests to determine safety levels. This study is aimed to ensure safety of Abruzzo’s sausages, compared with growth potential (δ) of Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica, and also aims to define an experimental standard protocol document to carry out challenge tests. Guidelines classify ready-to-eat foods in categories that are able to support (δ>0.5 log10 ufc/g) and not support (δ≤0.5 log10 ufc/g) the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. The products were manufactured according to traditional recipes and were contaminated in laboratory. Results from the experiment yielded information useful to assess the ability of these products to support the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The batches of sausages were stored at 8, 12, 18 and 20°C to get statistical evaluation. The results showed that, despite the conditioning of the storage temperature and the level of water activity, both organisms remain in the product in concentrations similar to those leading or being able to increase its charge. In particular, the period of greatest consumption of this product (7/8 days of preparation) corresponds to the period of greatest growth of pathogenic microorganisms studied, except for those stored at a temperature of 8°C, which are safer for the consumer. PMID:27800415

  7. Deep reaching versus vertically restricted Quaternary normal faults: Implications on seismic potential assessment in tectonically active regions: Lessons from the middle Aterno valley fault system, central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcucci, E.; Gori, S.; Moro, M.; Fubelli, G.; Saroli, M.; Chiarabba, C.; Galadini, F.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the Middle Aterno Valley fault system (MAVF), a poorly investigated seismic gap in the central Apennines, adjacent to the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake epicentral area. Geological and paleoseismological analyses revealed that the MAVF evolved through hanging wall splay nucleation, its main segment moving at 0.23-0.34 mm/year since the Middle Pleistocene; the penultimate activation event occurred between 5388-5310 B.C. and 1934-1744 B.C., the last event after 2036-1768 B.C. and just before 1st-2nd century AD. These data define hard linkage (sensu Walsh and Watterson, 1991; Peacock et al., 2000; Walsh et al., 2003, and references therein) with the contiguous Subequana Valley fault segment, able to rupture in large magnitude earthquakes (up to 6.8), that did not rupture since about two millennia. By the joint analysis of geological observations and seismological data acquired during to the 2009 seismic sequence, we derive a picture of the complex structural framework of the area comprised between the MAVF, the Paganica fault (the 2009 earthquake causative fault) and the Gran Sasso Range. This sector is affected by a dense array of few-km long, closely and regularly spaced Quaternary normal fault strands, that are considered as branches of the MAVF northern segment. Our analysis reveals that these structures are downdip confined by a decollement represented by to the presently inactive thrust sheet above the Gran Sasso front limiting their seismogenic potential. Our study highlights the advantage of combining Quaternary geological field analysis with high resolution seismological data to fully unravel the structural setting of regions where subsequent tectonic phases took place and where structural interference plays a key role in influencing the seismotectonic context; this has also inevitably implications for accurately assessing seismic hazard of such structurally complex regions.

  8. Concentrations of Contaminants with Regulatory Limits in Samples of Clam (Chamelea gallina) Collected along the Abruzzi Region Coast in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Visciano, Pierina; Scortichini, Giampiero; Suzzi, Giovanna; Diletti, Gianfranco; Schirone, Maria; Martino, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Concentrations of pollutants with regulatory limits were determined in specimens of Chamelea gallina, a species of clam collected along the Abruzzi coastal region of the central Adriatic Sea. Nine sampling sites were selected to evaluate the distribution of contaminants in the environment and the health risk for consumers. The concentrations of all the examined compounds were lower than the maximums set by European legislation. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and total mercury were below the detection limit (0.18 μg/kg for benzo[a]anthracene, 0.30 μg/kg for chrysene, 0.12 μg/kg for benzo[b]fluoranthene, 0.08 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene, and 0.0050 mg/kg for total mercury) in all the analyzed samples. Mean concentrations of lead and cadmium were 0.104 and 0.110 mg/kg, respectively. Of the non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, PCB-153, PCB-180, and PCB-138 were the most abundant at all sampling sites (1a to 9a) at 0.25 mi (ca. 0.4 km) and at some sampling sites (1b, 2b, 3b, 5b and 7b) at 0.35 mi (ca. 0.56 km). Principal component analysis revealed that the concentrations of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls were similar at the majority of sampling sites, and O8CDD and 2,3,7,8-T4CDF were the predominant dioxin congeners.

  9. Frequency dependent Qα and Qβ in the Umbria-Marche (Italy) region using a quadratic approximation of the coda-normalization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lorenzo, Salvatore; Bianco, Francesca; Del Pezzo, Edoardo

    2013-06-01

    The coda normalization method is one of the most used methods in the inference of attenuation parameters Qα and Qβ. Since, in this method, the geometrical spreading exponent γ is an unknown model parameter, the most part of studies assumes a fixed γ, generally equal to 1. However γ and Q could be also jointly inferred from the non-linear inversion of coda-normalized logarithms of amplitudes, but the trade-off between γ and Q could give rise to unreasonable values of these parameters. To minimize the trade-off between γ and Q, an inversion method based on a parabolic expression of the coda-normalization equation has been developed. The method has been applied to the waveforms recorded during the 1997 Umbria-Marche seismic crisis. The Akaike criterion has been used to compare results of the parabolic model with those of the linear model, corresponding to γ = 1. A small deviation from the spherical geometrical spreading has been inferred, but this is accompanied by a significant variation of Qα and Qβ values. For almost all the considered stations, Qα smaller than Qβ has been inferred, confirming that seismic attenuation, in the Umbria-Marche region, is controlled by crustal pore fluids.

  10. Active Tectonics of the Umbria Region (Central Italy) in the Framework of the Neogene-Quaternary Extension of the Northern Apennines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchi, M. R.; Collettini, C.; Federico, C.; Minelli, G.; Mirabella, F.; Pauselli, C.

    2001-12-01

    The Northern Apennines are interested by contemporaneous compression in the external part (Po Plain and Adriatic coast) and extension in the internal part (Apenninic Ridge), as revealed by seismological and geological data on the present-day stress field. The pair compression/extension has been migrating from W to E since Middle Miocene (i.e. about 20 Ma). The eastward migration of the extension reflects on the crustal setting of the Northern Apennines: the Western part (Tyrrhenian domain) is characterised by positive Bouguer anomalies, high values of heat flow and by a flat-young-thinned crust (20-25 km); whilst the eastern part (Adriatic domain) is characterised by negative gravity anomalies, low values of heat flow and a west-dipping-old crust, about 35 km thick. The CROP03, deep NVR profile, crossing the Italian peninsula from the Tyrrhenian coast (Punta Ala, Tuscany) to the Adriatic coast (Gabicce, Marche), gave an important contribution for understanding the geometry and modes of the extensional tectonics in the Northern Apennines, showing that the most relevant structural feature in the upper crust of the western domain is the presence of five main ENE dipping, crustal scale normal faults, producing severe extension of the Tuscan crust and deeply disrupting the previously formed, compressional features. At the hanging-wall of these extensional shear zones, antithetic, high angle, west-dipping normal faults are also present. The Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary basins of the region appear to be geometrically and genetically related to these major shear zones. Many recent studies, based on both geological and geophysical data, confirm the presence of these low angle detachments, and effectively depict the migration of the extension in space and time, from the Corsica basin to the axial zone of the Apennines. The easternmost of these shear zones, named Altotiberina fault , is located in Umbria, at the border between the western domain and the eastern Domain. The

  11. Relative roles of rifting tectonics and magma ascent processes: Inferences from geophysical, structural, volcanological, and geochemical data for the Neapolitan volcanic region (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piochi, Monica; Bruno, Pier Paolo; de Astis, Gianfilippo

    2005-07-01

    The Neapolitan volcanic region is located within the graben structure of the Campanian Plain (CP), which developed between the western sector of the Appenine Chain and the eastern margin of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Two volcanic areas, spaced less than 10 km apart, are situated within the CP: the Somma-Vesuvius Volcano (SVV) and the Phlegraean Volcanic District (PVD). SVV is a typical stratovolcano, whereas PVD, including Campi Flegrei, Procida, and Ischia, is composed mostly of monogenetic centers. This contrast is due to different magma supply systems: a widespread fissure-type system beneath the PVD and a central-type magma supply system for the SVV. Volcanological, geophysical, and geochemical data show that magma viscosity, magma supply rate, and depth of magma storage are comparable at PVD and SVV, whereas different structural arrangements characterize the two areas. On the basis of geophysical data and magma geochemistry, an oblique-extensional tectonic regime is proposed within the PVD, whereas in the SVV area a compressive stress regime dominates over extension. Geophysical data suggest that the area with the maximum deformation rate extends between the EW-running 41st parallel and the NE-running Magnaghi-Sebeto fault systems. The PVD extensional area is a consequence of the Tyrrhenian Sea opening and is decoupled from the surrounding areas (Roccamonfina and Somma-Vesuvius) which are still dominated by Adriatic slab dynamics. Spatially, we argue that the contribution of the asthenospheric wedge become much less important from W-NW to E-SE in the CP. The development of the two styles of volcanism in the CP reflects the different tectonic regimes acting in the area.

  12. Concentrations of Contaminants with Regulatory Limits in Samples of Clam (Chamelea gallina) Collected along the Abruzzi Region Coast in Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Visciano, Pierina; Scortichini, Giampiero; Suzzi, Giovanna; Diletti, Gianfranco; Schirone, Maria; Martino, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    Concentrations of pollutants with regulatory limits were determined in specimens of Chamelea gallina, a species of clam collected along the Abruzzi coastal region of the central Adriatic Sea. Nine sampling sites were selected to evaluate the distribution of contaminants in the environment and the health risk for consumers. The concentrations of all the examined compounds were lower than the maximums set by European legislation. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and total mercury were below the detection limit (0.18 μg/kg for benzo[a]anthracene, 0.30 μg/kg for chrysene, 0.12 μg/kg for benzo[b]fluoranthene, 0.08 μg/kg for benzo[a]pyrene, and 0.0050 mg/kg for total mercury) in all the analyzed samples. Mean concentrations of lead and cadmium were 0.104 and 0.110 mg/kg, respectively. Of the non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, PCB-153, PCB-180, and PCB-138 were the most abundant at all sampling sites (1a to 9a) at 0.25 mi (ca. 0.4 km) and at some sampling sites (1b, 2b, 3b, 5b and 7b) at 0.35 mi (ca. 0.56 km). Principal component analysis revealed that the concentrations of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls were similar at the majority of sampling sites, and O8CDD and 2,3,7,8-T4CDF were the predominant dioxin congeners. PMID:26319726

  13. Active faulting Vs other surface displacing complex geomorphic phenomena. Case studies from a tectonically active area, Abruzzi Region, central Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Sardo, Lorenzo; Gori, Stefano; Falcucci, Emanuela; Saroli, Michele; Moro, Marco; Galadini, Fabrizio; Lancia, Michele; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Pezzo, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    How can be univocally inferred the genesis of a linear surface scarp as the result of an active and capable fault (FAC) in tectonically active regions? Or, conversely, how it is possible to exclude that a scarp is the result of a capable fault activation? Trying to unravel this open questions, we show two ambiguous case studies about the problem of the identification of active and capable faults in a tectonically active area just based on the presence of supposed fault scarps at surface. The selected cases are located in the area comprised between the Middle Aterno Valley Fault (MAVF) and the Campo Imperatore Plain (Abruzzi Region, central Apennines), nearby the epicentral area of the April 6th, 2009 L'Aquila earthquake. In particular, the two case studies analysed are located in a region characterized by a widespread Quaternary faults and by several linear scarps: the case studies of (i) Prata D'Ansidonia area and (ii) Santo Stefano di Sessanio area. To assess the origin and the state of activity of the investigated geomorphic features, we applied a classical geological and geomorphological approach, based on the analysis of the available literature, the interpretation of the aerial photographs, field surveying and classical paleoseismological approach, the latter consisting in digging excavations across the analysed scarps. These analysis were then integrated by morphometrical analyses. As for case (i), we focused on determining the geomorphic "meaning" of linear scarps carved onto fluvial-deltaic conglomerates (dated to the Early Pleistocene; Bertini and Bosi, 1993), up to 3 meters high and up to 1,5 km long, that border a narrow, elongated and flat-bottom depressions, filled by colluvial deposits. These features groove the paleo-landsurface of Valle Daria (Bosi and Bertini, 1970), wide landsurface located between Barisciano and Prata D'Ansidonia. Entwining paleoseismological trenching with geophysical analyses (GPR, ERT and microgravimetrical prospections), it

  14. Helium isotopes and tectonics in southern Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, Yuji; Wakita, Hiroshi ); Nuccio, M.P. ); Italiano, F.

    1989-06-01

    Geodynamic evolution of southern Italy can be understood within the framework of the Mediterranean-Alpine System. Subduction of a plate along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc under the Tyrrhenian Sea has been suggested by many geophysicists, although it is not yet confirmed and remains somewhat controversial. Helium isotope ratios provide useful information on the geotectonic structure of the region. The authors report here the {sup 3}H/{sup 4}He ratios of terrestrial gas samples from southern Italy. The observed {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios are relatively high in the Eolian volcanic arc region and low in the other areas. Dichotomous explanations are presented. Firstly, volcanic arc-forearc hypothesis suggests the subduction along the Sicily-Calabrian forearc. Secondly, horizontal transport hypothesis is described based on the relationship between the ratios and radial distance from the recent spreading basin in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea.

  15. Climate services for the assessment of climate change impacts and risks in coastal areas at the regional scale: the North Adriatic case study (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentina, Gallina; Torresan, Silvia; Giannini, Valentina; Rizzi, Jonathan; Zabeo, Alex; Gualdi, Silvio; Bellucci, Alessio; Giorgi, Filippo; Critto, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    At the international level, the interest for climate services is rising due to the social and economic benefits that different stakeholders can achieve to manage climate risks and take advantage of the opportunities associated with climate change impacts. However, there is a significant gap of tools aimed at providing information about risks and impacts induced by climate change and allowing non-expert stakeholders to use both climate-model and climate-impact data. Within the CLIM-RUN project (FP7), the case study of the North Adriatic Sea is aimed at analysing the need of climate information and the effectiveness of climate services for the integrated assessment of climate change impacts in coastal zones of the North Adriatic Sea at the regional to local scale. A participative approach was developed and applied to identify relevant stakeholders which have a mandate for coastal zone management and to interact with them in order to elicit their climate information needs. Specifically, the participative approach was carried out by means of two local workshops and trough the administration of a questionnaire related to climate information and services. The results of the process allowed identifying three major themes of interest for local stakeholders (i.e. hydro-climatic regime, coastal and marine environment, agriculture) and their preferences concerning key climate variables (e.g. extreme events, sea-level, wave height), mid-term temporal projections (i.e. for the next 30-40 years) and medium-high spatial resolution (i.e. from 1 to 50 km). Furthermore, the workshops highlighted stakeholder concern about several climate-related impacts (e.g. sea-level rise, storm surge, droughts) and vulnerable receptors (e.g. beaches, wetlands, agricultural areas) to be considered in vulnerability and risk assessment studies for the North Adriatic coastal zones. This information was used by climate and environmental risk experts in order to develop targeted climate information and

  16. Bioengineering applied to erosion and stability control in the North Apennines (Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy): a check about critical aspects of the works.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selli, Lavinia; Cavazza, Claudio; Pavanelli, Donatella

    2013-04-01

    Because of its geological structure, in the Emilia-Romagna Region over 32,000 landslides have been identified. Several works have been made in order to control mass movement's dynamics and to secure of Reno and Lamone Mountain Basin Rivers, the road network and near by villages and towns. Most of the control works dealt with bioengineering practices: palisades piles, geotextiles, seedings, surface flow control works, dikes within main drainage ditches. In order to check about critical aspects related to the use of these techniques in the Apennines, a survey in this basins was designed with specific interest in the several kinds of works realised, in which plant species were mostly used and in the factors that affected the success or failure of the works. Territory encompasses steep slopes covered with woods to low reliefs covered with grasslands. It is characterized by prevailing clays, inducing instability, and arenaceous lithology with impermeable soils; drainage density is quite high and hillsides suffer extensive and severe erosion and slope stability problems. Chestnut woods mainly represent land use at higher altitudes, while coppice, pastures and crops are present on milder hillsides. The remaining part of the basin is covered by vineyards, orchards, ponds and urban areas, which are basically located in the valley floor. Precipitation events mainly consist of rainfall ranging between 950-1015 mm per year; few snowfalls occur during winter and a long dry season lasts from June until September. We have analyzed 187 works designed mainly for the consolidation of slope instabilities through a widespread enhancement of the vegetation cover. The surveyed works are classified as a function of their building features: it can be seen that cribwalls and palisades are by far the most common types, being the 24% and the 34% respectively of the works. As far as the most adopted plant species, they were silver willow (Salix alba), Spanish Broom (Spartium Junceum) and

  17. Mapping Soil Water-Holding Capacity Index to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Phytoremediation Protocols and ExposureRisk to Contaminated Soils in a National Interest Priority Site of the Campania Region (Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, N.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture is an important state variable that influences water flow and solute transport in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system, and plays a key role in securing agricultural ecosystem services for nutrition and food security. Especially when environmental studies should be carried out at relatively large spatial scales, there is a need to synthesize the complex interactions between soil, plant behavior, and local atmospheric conditions. Although it relies on the somewhat loosely defined concepts of "field capacity" and "wilting point", the soil water-holding capacity seems a suitable indicator to meet the above-mentioned requirement, yet easily understandable by the public and stakeholders. This parameter is employed in this work to evaluate the effectiveness of phytoremediation protocols funded by the EU-Life project EcoRemed and being implemented to remediate and restore contaminated agricultural soils of the National Interest Priority Site Litorale Domizio-Agro Aversano. The study area is located in the Campania Region (Southern Italy) and has an extent of about 200,000 hectares. A high-level spotted soil contamination is mostly due to the legal or outlaw industrial and municipal wastes, with hazardous consequences also on groundwater quality. With the availability of soil and land systems maps for this study area, disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected at two different soil depths to determine basic soil physico-chemical properties for the subsequent application of pedotransfer functions (PTFs). Soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions were determined for a number of soil cores, in the laboratory with the evaporation experiments, and used to calibrate the PTFs. Efficient mapping of the soil hydraulic properties benefitted greatly from the use of the PTFs and the physically-based scaling procedure developed by Nasta et al. (2013, WRR, 49:4219-4229).

  18. Unraveling Landscape Complexity: Land Use/Land Cover Changes and Landscape Pattern Dynamics (1954-2008) in Contrasting Peri-Urban and Agro-Forest Regions of Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Smiraglia, D; Ceccarelli, T; Bajocco, S; Perini, L; Salvati, L

    2015-10-01

    This study implements an exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics and a change detection analysis of land use and population density to assess landscape dynamics (1954-2008) in two physiographic zones (plain and hilly-mountain area) of Emilia Romagna, northern Italy. The two areas are characterized by different landscape types: a mixed urban-rural landscape dominated by arable land and peri-urban settlements in the plain and a traditional agro-forest landscape in the hilly-mountain area with deciduous and conifer forests, scrublands, meadows, and crop mosaic. Urbanization and, to a lesser extent, agricultural intensification were identified as the processes underlying landscape change in the plain. Land abandonment determining natural forestation and re-forestation driven by man was identified as the process of change most representative of the hilly-mountain area. Trends in landscape metrics indicate a shift toward more fragmented and convoluted patterns in both areas. Number of patches, the interspersion and juxtaposition index, and the large patch index are the metrics discriminating the two areas in terms of landscape patterns in 1954. In 2008, mean patch size, edge density, interspersion and juxtaposition index, and mean Euclidean nearest neighbor distance were the metrics with the most different spatial patterns in the two areas. The exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics contributed to link changes over time in both landscape composition and configuration providing a comprehensive picture of landscape transformations in a wealthy European region. Evidence from this study are hoped to inform sustainable land management designed for homogeneous landscape units in similar socioeconomic contexts.

  19. Determinants of out-of-hours service users' potentially inappropriate referral or non-referral to an emergency department: a retrospective cohort study in a local health authority, Veneto Region, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Toffanin, Roberto; Rigon, S; Sandonà, P; Carrara, T; Damiani, G; Baldo, V

    2016-01-01

    Background A growing presence of inappropriate patients has been recognised as one of the main factors influencing emergency department (ED) overcrowding, which is a very widespread problem all over the world. On the other hand, out-of-hours (OOH) physicians must avoid delaying the diagnostic and therapeutic course of patients with urgent medical conditions. The aim of this study was to analyse the appropriateness of patient management by OOH services, in terms of their potentially inappropriate referral or non-referral of non-emergency cases to the ED. Methods This was an observational retrospective cohort study based on data collected in 2011 by the local health authority No. 4 in the Veneto Region (Italy). After distinguishing between patients contacting the OOH service who were or were not referred to the ED, and checking for patients actually presenting to the ED within 24 hours thereafter, these patients’ medical management was judged as potentially appropriate or inappropriate. Results The analysis considered 22 662 OOH service contacts recorded in 2011. The cases of potentially inappropriate non-referral to the ED were 392 (1.7% of all contacts), as opposed to 1207 potentially inappropriate referrals (5.3% of all contacts). Age, nationality, type of disease and type of intervention by the OOH service were the main variables associated with the appropriateness of patient management. Conclusions These findings may be useful for pinpointing the factors associated with a potentially inappropriate patient management by OOH services and thus contribute to improving the deployment of healthcare and the quality of care delivered by OOH services. PMID:27503862

  20. Unraveling Landscape Complexity: Land Use/Land Cover Changes and Landscape Pattern Dynamics (1954-2008) in Contrasting Peri-Urban and Agro-Forest Regions of Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiraglia, D.; Ceccarelli, T.; Bajocco, S.; Perini, L.; Salvati, L.

    2015-10-01

    This study implements an exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics and a change detection analysis of land use and population density to assess landscape dynamics (1954-2008) in two physiographic zones (plain and hilly-mountain area) of Emilia Romagna, northern Italy. The two areas are characterized by different landscape types: a mixed urban-rural landscape dominated by arable land and peri-urban settlements in the plain and a traditional agro-forest landscape in the hilly-mountain area with deciduous and conifer forests, scrublands, meadows, and crop mosaic. Urbanization and, to a lesser extent, agricultural intensification were identified as the processes underlying landscape change in the plain. Land abandonment determining natural forestation and re-forestation driven by man was identified as the process of change most representative of the hilly-mountain area. Trends in landscape metrics indicate a shift toward more fragmented and convoluted patterns in both areas. Number of patches, the interspersion and juxtaposition index, and the large patch index are the metrics discriminating the two areas in terms of landscape patterns in 1954. In 2008, mean patch size, edge density, interspersion and juxtaposition index, and mean Euclidean nearest neighbor distance were the metrics with the most different spatial patterns in the two areas. The exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics contributed to link changes over time in both landscape composition and configuration providing a comprehensive picture of landscape transformations in a wealthy European region. Evidence from this study are hoped to inform sustainable land management designed for homogeneous landscape units in similar socioeconomic contexts.

  1. Mount Vesuvius, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. Vesuvius, Italy was acquired September 26, 2000. The full-size false-color image covers an area of 36 by 45 km. Vesuvius overlooks the city of Naples and the Bay of Naples in central Italy. (Popocatepetl and Mount Fuji are other volcanos surrounded by dense urban areas.) In 79 AD, Vesuvius erupted cataclysmically, burying all of the surrounding cites with up to 30 m of ash. The towns of Pompeii and Herculanaeum were rediscovered in the 18th century, and excavated in the 20th century. They provide a snapshot of Roman life from 2000 years ago: perfectly preserved are wooden objects, food items, and the casts of hundreds of victims. Vesuvius is intensively monitored for potential signs of unrest that could signal the beginning of another eruption. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  2. Italy: pluralism takes root.

    PubMed

    Mori, Maurizio

    1987-06-01

    Mori gives an overview of biomedical ethics in Italy in one of four Hastings Center Report country reports. Public policy on issues like in vitro fertilization, sterilization and abortion, passive euthanasia, and organ transplantation reflects the declining influence of the Catholic Church and the increasing cultural pluralism of Italian society. The government has appointed advisory bodies on reproductive technologies and AIDS to study the issues and make recommendations. Bills regulating technologies such as in vitro fertilization or liberalizing restrictive laws such as those on contraception are introduced regularly in Parliament, if not always enacted. Mori concludes that general interest in and formal study and discussion of biomedical ethics is increasing in Italy. He sees a danger that the field of bioethics will develop a dual identity, with little progress made in resolving the issues, unless serious dialogue between Catholics and non-Catholics increases. PMID:11644031

  3. Conscientious objection in Italy.

    PubMed

    Minerva, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The law regulating abortion in Italy gives healthcare practitioners the option to make a conscientious objection to activities that are specific and necessary to an abortive intervention. Conscientious objectors among Italian gynaecologists amount to about 70%. This means that only a few doctors are available to perform abortions, and therefore access to abortion is subject to constraints. In 2012 the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF EN) lodged a complaint against Italy to the European Committee of Social Rights, claiming that the inadequate protection of the right to access abortion implies a violation of the right to health. In this paper I will discuss the Italian situation with respect to conscientious objection to abortion and I will suggest possible solutions to the problem.

  4. Conscientious objection in Italy.

    PubMed

    Minerva, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The law regulating abortion in Italy gives healthcare practitioners the option to make a conscientious objection to activities that are specific and necessary to an abortive intervention. Conscientious objectors among Italian gynaecologists amount to about 70%. This means that only a few doctors are available to perform abortions, and therefore access to abortion is subject to constraints. In 2012 the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF EN) lodged a complaint against Italy to the European Committee of Social Rights, claiming that the inadequate protection of the right to access abortion implies a violation of the right to health. In this paper I will discuss the Italian situation with respect to conscientious objection to abortion and I will suggest possible solutions to the problem. PMID:24861043

  5. Group Psychotherapy in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giannone, Francesca; Giordano, Cecilia; Di Blasi, Maria

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the history and the prevailing orientations of group psychotherapy in Italy (psychoanalytically oriented, psychodrama, CBT groups) and particularly group analysis. Provided free of charge by the Italian health system, group psychotherapy is growing, but its expansion is patchy. The main pathways of Italian training in the different group psychotherapy orientations are also presented. Clinical-theoretical elaboration on self development, psychopathology related to group experiences, and the methodological attention paid to objectives and methods in different clinical groups are issues related to group therapy in Italy. Difficulties in the relationship between research and clinical practice are discussed, as well as the empirical research network that tries to bridge the gap between research and clinical work in group psychotherapy. The economic crisis in Italy has led to massive cuts in health care and to an increasing demand for some forms of psychological treatment. For these reasons, and because of its positive cost-benefit ratio, group psychotherapy is now considered an important tool in the national health care system to expand the clinical response to different forms of psychological distress. PMID:26401793

  6. Bluetongue in Italy: Part II.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, A; Calistri, P; Nannini, D; Paladini, C; Santucci, U; Patta, C; Caporale, V

    2004-01-01

    In summer 2000, bluetongue (BT) infection was reported in Italy and caused a widespread epidemic involving a total of ten southern and central regions and is still in progress after three years. From the date of the first case (18 August 2000) to 14 May 2001, when the lowpoint in the first epidemic curve was reached, a total of 310,234 animals in 6,869 flocks of three regions had been involved. From 15 May 2001 to 14 April 2002, when a second epidemic wave swept through central and southern Italy, a total of 323,635 animals in 6,807 flocks in seven regions were involved. During 2000 and 2001 virtually no susceptible ruminants were vaccinated. On 11 May 2001, the Italian Ministry of Health ordered the vaccination of all susceptible domestic ruminant species (i.e. sheep, goats, cattle and water buffalo) in the infected and surrounding areas. The vaccination strategy stemmed from a risk assessment that demonstrated the possibility of such a strategy preventing most of the direct economic losses and decreasing the level of virus circulation. Vaccination of the target populations commenced in January 2002. In July 2002, when the new epidemic peak was reached, the percentage of vaccinated populations varied between the regions with direct consequences on the spread of BT. The relationship between vaccination coverage of the target populations and animal losses due to disease and virus circulation, and as detected by the sentinel surveillance system, was analysed. The effectiveness of the vaccination campaign in limiting virus circulation and consequently indirect losses due to animal movement restrictions was analysed and evaluated. At the end of 2002, a second risk assessment led to the authorization of the movement of vaccinated animals from infected areas (where at least 80% of the susceptible population was vaccinated) directly to slaughter in unvaccinated areas free from infection. This risk assessment also generated new criteria to define zones where animal

  7. Continuing Training in Firms and Trainer Development in Italy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villa, Paola; Marchetti, Aldo

    In Italy, all responsibility for vocational training has been delegated to the regions. At the regional level, three types of training are available: training for work, on-the-job training, and training under special state legislation. No obligation is placed on employers to train the work force. Most worker training is informal and conducted…

  8. In Italy, North-South Differences in IQ Predict Differences in Income, Education, Infant Mortality, Stature, and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Regional differences in IQ are presented for 12 regions of Italy showing that IQs are highest in the north and lowest in the south. Regional IQs obtained in 2006 are highly correlated with average incomes at r = 0.937, and with stature, infant mortality, literacy and education. The lower IQ in southern Italy may be attributable to genetic…

  9. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    PubMed

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  10. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    PubMed

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  11. Sexual behaviour in Ligurian (Northern Italy) adolescents and young people: suggestions for HPV vaccination policies.

    PubMed

    Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Lugarini, Jessica; Sasso, Tiziana; Sormani, Maria Pia; Badolati, Giuseppe; Gasparini, Roberto

    2009-05-29

    Human papillomavirus is a common sexually transmitted virus, and persistent infection with high-risk types is the necessary factor for cervical cancer. We investigated sexual behaviour and the age of the first sexual intercourse among young people (14-24 years) in Liguria (Northern Italy) in order to provide information that might orient the country's future vaccination policy. The Italian Authorities offer free vaccination to 12-year-old females, however a better prevention of HPV would to be implemented by introducing the vaccine to new cohorts of females after the first year of the vaccination campaign. Our survey was carried out from 1st May 2006 to 31st December 2007 and involved 3474 volunteers. We administered a written questionnaire to students (14-24 years) and workers (20-24 years). The median age+/-MAD of the sexual debut was 15+/-1 for both females and males in students group and 16+/-1 for both males and females in workers group. This study provides evidence that many Ligurian adolescents have their first sexual experience at a very early age, and often without protection against sexually transmitted diseases. Furthermore, a large percentage of all age-groups are sexually active and have multiple partners. The aim of this study was to identify those cohorts of females to whom vaccination should be offered free of charge. To this end, we calculated the percentage of infections that could be avoided by vaccination in each age-class: the younger the subjects, the higher the number of preventable infections. Our findings suggest that current HPV vaccination should be implemented by introducing new cohorts, especially young girls (14-16 years).

  12. Assessment of Karst Spring Features in a typical Mediterranean fluvial landscape with an Interdisciplinary Investigation nased on Radon-222 as an Environmental Indicator. The case study of the Bussento River basin (Campania region, Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuomo, A.; Guadagnuolo, D.; Guida, D.; Guida, M.; Knoeller, K.; Schubert, M.; Siervo, V.

    2012-04-01

    Karst aquifers provide 25% of the overall drinking water resources to the world's population and sustain aquatic life in most fluvial systems, providing several ecological services to human beings, although, because of their complex links between surface and groundwater, turn out to be very vulnerable to contamination and pollution. Hydrological assessment of karst systems reveals to be extremely complex and difficult and requires a stepwise multi-tracers approach. This work describes some of the most relevant findings obtained from the implementation of an interdisciplinary approach based on the use of Environmental Tracers, consisting of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides like Radon-222 (referred to as Radon), for the investigation of Groundwater/Surface water Interaction (GSI) processes in fluvial water bodies. In particular, Radon activity concentration measurement data having been collected from streamflow and instream springs during monthly field campaigns performed in a typical Mediterranean karst river basin: the Bussento river system (Campania region, Southern Italy). The general task has been to investigate the complex interactions and exchanges between streamflow and groundwater in a fluvial water body, at scales that are imperceptible to standard hydrological and hydraulic analyses. The Bussento River basin has been chosen as a study case for the following features of extreme relevance: Its location inside the Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park, its inclusion of a WWF Nature Reserve, it represents a remarkable Drinking Water resource for the territory and last but not least its system includes Submarine Groundwater Discharges (SGD) to the Policastro Gulf. All these issues causes, therefore, that the management of its relevant water resources requires not only groundwater protection for domestic drinking use, but also riverine wildlife preservation and coastal water quality maintenance. As a support for hydro-geomorphological and hydrological

  13. Using Radon-222 as a Naturally Occurring Tracer to investigate the streamflow-groundwater interactions in a typical Mediterranean fluvial-karst landscape: the interdisciplinary case study of the Bussento river (Campania region, Southern Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuomo, Albina; Guida, Michele; Guida, Domenico; Villani, Paolo; Guadagnuolo, Davide; Longobardi, Antonia; Siervo, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Karst aquifers provide 25% of the overall drinking water resources to the world's population and sustain aquatic life in most fluvial systems, providing several ecological services to human beings, although, because of their complex links between surface and groundwater, turn out to be very vulnerable to contamination and pollution. This paper describes the preliminary findings from Radon-222 activity concentration measurement data collected in streamflow and instream springs during monthly field campaigns, performed from September 2007 to December 2008, in a typical Mediterranean karst river: the Bussento river (Campania region, Southern Italy). The general aim is to investigate the complex interactions and exchanges between streamflow and groundwater, at scales that are imperceptible to standard hydrological and hydraulic analyses. In fact, the study area is located inside the Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park and, therefore, the management of its relevant water resources requires not only groundwater protection for domestic drinking use, but also riverine wildlife preservation and coastal water quality maintenance. As a support for hydro-geomorphological and hydrological modelling for planning tasks, in application of the European Water Framework Directive (EWFD), a Bussento River Monitoring System (BRMS) has been built, at basin, segment and reach scale. Experimental data about 222Rn concentrations, in addition to physical-chemical and streamflow rate, have been acquired and managed from BRMS selected stations, sampling the streamflow and inflow spring waters by means of the Radon-in-Air analyzer, RAD7, together with the Radon-in-water accessories, Radon Water Probe and RAD7H2O (DURRIDGE Co. Inc.), for continuous and batch sampling measurements, respectively. During preliminary surveys, appropriate sampling procedures and measurement protocols have been tested, taking into account the different local hydrogeological and hydrological situations occurring

  14. The Bologna Process in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballarino, Gabriele; Perotti, Loris

    2012-01-01

    Italy was among the promoters of the Bologna Process and the early adopters of the reform. If one looks at its impact on the formal structure of curricula and study programmes, the reform undertaken under the Bologna banner seems to have been one of the major educational reforms ever achieved in Italy. This article describes how the Bologna…

  15. Fukushima fallout at Milano, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ioannidou, Alexandra; Manenti, Simone; Gini, Luigi; Groppi, Flavia

    2012-12-01

    The radionuclides (131)I, (137)Cs and (134)Cs were observed in the Milano region (45°) of Italy early after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan. Increased atmospheric radioactivity was observed on an air filter taken on 30 March 2011, while the maximum activity of 467 μBq m(-3) for (131)I was recorded at April 3-4, 2011. The first evidence of Fukushima fallout was confirmed with (131)I and (137)Cs measured in precipitation at two sampling sites at Milano on 28 March, 2011, with the concentrations of (131)I and (137)Cs in the rainwater equal to 0.89 Bq L(-1) and 0.12 Bq L(-1), respectively. A sample of dry deposition that was collected 9 days after the first rainfall event of 27-28 March, 2011 showed that the dry deposition was more effective in the case of (137)Cs than it was for (131)I, probably because iodine was mainly in gaseous form whereas caesium was rapidly bound to aerosols and thus highly subject to dry deposition. The relatively high observed values of (137)Cs in grass, soil and fresh goat and cow milk samples were probably from Chernobyl fallout and global fallout from past nuclear tests rather than from the Fukushima accident. Finally, a dose assessment for the region of investigation showed clearly that the detected activities in all environmental samples were very far below levels of concern.

  16. The Complex Epidemiological Scenario of West Nile Virusin Italy

    PubMed Central

    Barzon, Luisa; Pacenti, Monia; Franchin, Elisa; Squarzon, Laura; Lavezzo, Enrico; Cattai, Margherita; Cusinato, Riccardo; Palù, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Entomological, veterinary, and human surveillance systems for West Nile virus (WNV) infection have been implemented in Italy since the first detection of the virus in 1998. These surveillance activities documented a progressive increase of WNV activity and spread in different regions and the emergence of new WNV lineages and strains. Italy is a paradigmatic example of the complex epidemiology of WNV in Europe, where sporadic cases of WNV infection, clusters, and small outbreaks have been reported in several regions. In addition, different strains of both WNV lineage 1 and lineage 2 have been identified, even co-circulating in the same area. PMID:24084676

  17. Myth and Reality: A Response to Lynn on the Determinants of Italy's North-South Imbalances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felice, Emanuele; Giugliano, Ferdinando

    2011-01-01

    In his article "In Italy, North-South differences in IQ predict differences in income, education, infant mortality, stature, and literacy," Richard Lynn claims to have found the reason causing the divergence between the Northern and the Southern regions of Italy. This article identifies the four main hypotheses formulated in his paper and presents…

  18. Biodiversity of entomopathogenic nematodes in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tarasco, E; Clausi, M; Rappazzo, G; Panzavolta, T; Curto, G; Sorino, R; Oreste, M; Longo, A; Leone, D; Tiberi, R; Vinciguerra, M T; Triggiani, O

    2015-05-01

    An investigation was carried out on the distribution and biodiversity of steinernematid and heterorhabdtid entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) in nine regions of Italy in the period 1990-2010. More than 2000 samples were collected from 580 localities and 133 of them yielded EPN specimens. A mapping of EPN distribution in Italy showed 133 indigenous EPN strains belonging to 12 species: 43 isolates of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, 1 of H. downesi, 1 of H. megidis, 51 of Steinernema feltiae, 12 of S. affine, 4 of S. kraussei, 8 of S. apuliae, 5 of S. ichnusae, 3 of S. carpocapsae, 1 of S. vulcanicum, 3 of Steinernema 'isolate S.sp.MY7' of 'S. intermedium group' and 1 of S. arenarium. Steinernematids are more widespread than heterorhabditids and S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora are the most commonly encountered species. Sampling sites were grouped into 11 habitats: uncultivated land, orchard, field, sea coast, pinewood, broadleaf wood, grasslands, river and lake borders, caves, salt pan and moist zones; the soil texture of each site was defined and the preferences of habitat and soil texture of each species was assessed. Except for the two dominant species, S. feltiae and H. bacteriophora, EPN occurrence tends to be correlated with a specific vegetation habitat. Steinernema kraussei, H. downesi and H. megidis were collected only in Sicily and three of the species recently described - S. apuliae, S. ichnusae and S. vulcanicum - are known only from Italy and seem to be endemic.

  19. [Consistency and dynamics of immigration in Italy].

    PubMed

    Blangiardo, G C; Terzera, L

    2011-01-01

    According to recent data, foreign population currently in Italy is estimated to be 5,3 million, 550,000 irregular. Migration from Eastern Europe has progressively assumed leading position in the Italian panorama, downsizing other origins: betweenn 2005 and 2010, this component passed from 46% to 50,8% of the total immigrants, whereas all the other macro-areas have lost relative importance. Perspectives of slowing down of migration toward Italy could be real only when significant changes would happen in the areas at the origin of migration flow. In fact, if it is true that the demographic surplus from East Europe is bound to decrease through the process of local turnover of work supply, other great regions will show enormous excess of manpower. In North Africa, 3 million new workplaces will yearly be needed just to absorb excess of young workforce; in Latin America, the new workplaces to create will be almost twice as many. The sub Saharan Africa will however be under special observation, with 15-20 million places to create annually to absorb excess of offer. Italy could play as one of the safety valves of emigration.

  20. [Epidemiologic surveillance of pleural mesothelioma in Italy].

    PubMed

    Vetrugno, T; Comba, P; Savelli, D; Belli, S; Magnani, C

    1991-01-01

    A collaborative study has been performed in order to detect cases of pleural mesothelioma diagnosed or treated in Italy in the years 1984-88. Cases have been notified to ISS by 88 centres (clinics of thoracic surgery and respiratory diseases, oncologic centres, institutes of pathology), active in 14 Italian regions. Altogether, 575 cases (415 males and 160 females) have been included in the study. Information on occupation and/or on non occupational exposure to asbestos was available for 65% of the subjects, and the occurrence of definite or possible exposure to asbestos was estimated for 58% of them.

  1. Italy INAF Data Center Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Italian INAF VLBI Data Center. Our Data Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics.

  2. The (Adverse) Effects of Expanding Higher Education: Evidence from Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppedisano, Veruska

    2011-01-01

    Over the period 1995-1998 Italy experienced an expansion of its higher education supply with the aim of reducing regional differences in educational attainment. This paper evaluates the effects of this policy on enrolment, drop out and academic performance. The paper combines differences across provinces in the number of campuses constructed with…

  3. Late industrial development and occupational health in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Assennato, Giorgio; Bisceglia, Lucia; De Nichilo, Gigliola; Grassi, Maria Emanuela; Lo Izzo, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    The authors report the occupational medicine problems in the Apulia region, which are representative of those in Southern Italy. Late industrialization was associated with an early peak in injuries that was not associated with an increased workforce. Examples of operations adversely affecting worker and population health are presented.

  4. Lake Garda, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This ASTER image was acquired on July 29, 2000 and covers an area of 30 by 57 km in northern Italy. Lake Garda was formed by glaciers during the last Ice Age, and is Italy's largest lake. Lago di Garda lies in the provinces of Verona, Brescia, and Trento, and is 51 kilometers (32 miles) long and from 3 to 18 kilometers (2 to 11 miles) wide. The Sarca is its chief affluent, and the lake is drained southward by the Mincio, which discharges into the Po River. Many villas are situated on its shores. On the peninsula of Sirmione, at the southern end of the lake, are the ruins of a Roman villa and a castle of the Scaligers, an Italian family of the 16th century. The RIGHT image has the land area masked out, and a harsh stretch was applied to the lake values to display variations in sediment load. Also visible are hundreds of boats and their wakes, criss-crossing the lake.

    The image is centered at 45.6 degrees north latitude, 10.6 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for

  5. The role of historical agricultural terraces in geo-hydrological risk reduction: a case study from the Bisagno Stream Catchment (Genoa, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccini, Francesco; Giostrella, Paola; Paliaga, Guido; Piana, Pietro; Sacchini, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Terraces, traditionally sustained by dry stonewalls, occupy about thirty percent of the territory of Liguria. If constantly maintained, they effectively contribute to slow down the natural slope erosion. When no longer managed, terraces are recognized as one of the reasons for increased geomorphological risk along the slopes and, consequently, at the bottom of the valley. This study concerns the terraced landscapes of the Bisagno Stream catchment, internationally known for the recent and recurring floods which affected the city of Genoa. The Bisagno Stream catchment is an example of historical evolution of the territory both in terms of land use change and geo-hydrological risk. The catchment, whose highest point is Mount Candelozzo (1034 m), has a total area of 95 km2. In its terminal stretch the stream flows across the eastern part of Genoa city centre. It is a typical valley of the Genoa metropolitan area, with steep slopes and short times of concentration. Here the signs of the tragic floods which have affected the area since 1970 are still visible. The most recent and tragic geo-hydrological event in Liguria took place in the Bisagno Valley in October 2014. The study was carried out with a multi-temporal comparison of the terraced areas using aerial photographs and regional cartographic information. A further step will involve the analysis and classification of the terraces based on their maintenance condition and hydrogeological effectiveness, using some representative areas of the valley as cases study. The comparison between the distribution of terraces in the Bisagno valley and applied geomorphological cartography suggests the need of measures to reduce the risk according to a suitable set of priorities, including the recovery of the terraced areas and connected structures aimed to limit the accumulation of solid material along the main waterway.

  6. Societal and individual landslide risk to the population of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvati, Paola; Bianchi, Cinzia; Mondini, Alessandro; Rossi, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2010-05-01

    Landslides cause damage to people every year in Italy. The number of fatalities (deaths and missing persons) and the number of casualties (deaths, missing persons, and injured people) are a direct, quantitative measure of the intensity of a disaster, and can be used to evaluate individual and societal risk quantitatively. Individual-risk criteria are expressed using mortality (or death) rates, which are given by the number of deaths per 100,000 people, in a given period. Societal-risk criteria are commonly established constructing frequency-consequences plots. In these plots, the number of losses (deaths, fatalities, or casualties) in each event is plotted versus the frequency of the event. Societal risk is then determined investigating the relationships linking the frequency of the events to their intensity, measured by the number of the losses. We have updated existing estimates of societal and individual landslide risk in Italy. For our assessment, we have used an improved version of the catalogue of historical landslide events that have resulted in loss of life, missing persons, injured people, and homelessness in Italy, from 1850 to 2008. This is the recent portion of a larger catalogue spanning the 1941-year period from 68 AD to 2008. This information was used to update the existing national estimates and to obtain first regional estimates of societal and individual landslide risk in Italy. To model the distribution of the frequency of landslide events with casualties in Italy, and in each of the 20 Regions in Italy, we adopted a Zipf distribution. We used the scaling exponent of the probability mass function (PMF) of the intensity of the events, which controls the proportion of small, medium and large events, to compare societal landslide risk levels in different geographical areas and for different periods. To consider the frequency of the events with casualties, we have scaled the PMF obtained for the individual Regions to the total number of events in

  7. Radioactivity in honey of the central Italy.

    PubMed

    Meli, Maria Assunta; Desideri, Donatella; Roselli, Carla; Feduzi, Laura; Benedetti, Claudio

    2016-07-01

    Natural radionuclides and (137)Cs in twenty seven honeys produced in a region of the Central Italy were determined by alpha ((235)U, (238)U, (210)Po, (232)Th and (228)Th) and gamma spectrometry ((137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra and (228)Ra). The study was carried out in order to estimate the background levels of natural ((40)K, (238)U and (232)Th and their progeny) and artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs) in various honey samples, as well as to compile a data base for radioactivity levels in that region. (40)K showed a mean activity of 28.1±23.0Bqkg(-1) with a range of 7.28-101Bqkg(-1). The mean of (210)Po activity resulted 0.40±0.46Bqkg(-1) with a range of 0.03-1.98Bqkg(-1). The mean of (238)U activity resulted 0.020±0.010Bqkg(-1). (226)Ra and (228)Ra resulted always <0.34 and <0.57Bqkg(-1) respectively, (235)U, (228)Th and (232)Th were always <0.007Bqkg(-1). (137)Cs resulted <0.10Bqkg(-1) in all samples. The committed effective doses due to (210)Po from ingestion of honey for infants, children and adults account for 0.002-5.13% of the natural radiation exposure in Italy. The honeys produced in Central Italy were of good quality in relation to the studied parameters, confirming the general image of a genuine and healthy food associated to this traditional products.

  8. Nardo Ring, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Nardo Ring is a striking visual feature from space, and astronauts have photographed it several times. The Ring is a race car test track; it is 12.5 kilometers long and steeply banked to reduce the amount of active steering needed by drivers. The Nardo Ring lies in a remote area on the heel of Italy's 'boot,' 50 kilometers east of the naval port of Taranto. The Ring encompasses a number of active (green) and fallow (brown to dark brown) agricultural fields. In this zone of intensive agriculture, farmers gain access to their fields through the Ring via a series of underpasses. Winding features within the southern section of the Ring appear to be smaller, unused race tracks.

    The image covers an area of 18.8 x 16.4 km, was acquired on August 17. 2007, and is located at 49.3 degrees north latitude, 17.8 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  9. Gypsum karst in Italy: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Waele, Jo; Chiarini, Veronica; Columbu, Andrea; D'Angeli, Ilenia M.; Madonia, Giuliana; Parise, Mario; Piccini, Leonardo; Vattano, Marco; Vigna, Bartolomeo; Zini, Luca; Forti, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Although outcropping only rarely in Italy, gypsum karst has been described in detail since the early XXth century (Marinelli, 1917). Gypsum caves are now known from almost all Italian regions (Madonia & Forti, 2003), but are mainly localised along the northern border of the Apennine chain (Emilia Romagna and Marche regions), Calabria, and Sicily, where the major outcrops occur. Recently, important caves have also been discovered in the underground gypsum quarries in Piedmont (Vigna et al., 2010). During the late 80s and 90s several multidisciplinary studies have been carried out in many gypsum areas. All this work converged into a comprehensive overview in 2003 (Madonia & Forti, 2003). Further detailed studies focused on the gypsum areas of Emilia Romagna (Chiesi et al., 2010; Forti & Lucci, 2010; Demaria et al., 2012; De Waele & Pasini, 2013; Ercolani et al., 2013; Columbu et al., 2015; Lucci & Piastra, 2015; Tedeschi et al., 2015) and of Sicily (Madonia & Vattano, 2011). Sinkholes related to Permo-Triassic gypsum have been studied in Friuli Venezia Giulia (Zini et al., 2015). This presentation will review the state of the art regarding different aspects of evaporite karst in Italy focusing on the main new results. References Chiesi M., et al. (2010) - Origin and evolution of a salty gypsum/anhydrite karst spring: the case of Poiano (Northern Apennines, Italy). Hydrogeology Journal, 18, pp. 1111-1124. Columbu A. et al. (2015) - Gypsum caves as indicators of climate-driven river incision and aggradation in a rapidly uplifting region. Geology, 43(6), 539-542. Demaria D. et al. (Eds.) (2012), Le Grotte Bolognesi, GSB-USB, 431 p. De Waele J., Pasini G. (2013) - Intra-messinian gypsum palaeokarst in the northern Apennines and its palaeogeographic implications. Terra Nova 25, pp. 199-205. Ercolani M., et al. (Eds.) (2013), I Gessi e la Cave i Monte Tondo. Studio multidisciplinare di un'area carsica nella Vena del Gesso Romagnola. Memorie Ist. It. Spel. II(26), 559 p

  10. A socioeconomic profile of vulnerable land to desertification in Italy.

    PubMed

    Salvati, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Climate changes, soil vulnerability, loss in biodiversity, and growing human pressure are threatening Mediterranean-type ecosystems which are increasingly considered as a desertification hotspot. In this region, land vulnerability to desertification strongly depends on the interplay between natural and anthropogenic factors. The present study proposes a multivariate exploratory analysis of the relationship between the spatial distribution of land vulnerability to desertification and the socioeconomic contexts found in three geographical divisions of Italy (north, center and south) based on statistical indicators. A total of 111 indicators describing different themes (demography, human settlements, labor market and human capital, rural development, income and wealth) were used to discriminate vulnerable from non-vulnerable areas. The resulting socioeconomic profile of vulnerable areas in northern and southern Italy diverged significantly, the importance of demographic and economic indicators being higher in southern Italy than in northern Italy. On the contrary, human settlement indicators were found more important to discriminate vulnerable and non-vulnerable areas in northern Italy, suggesting a role for peri-urbanization in shaping the future vulnerable areas. An in-depth knowledge of the socioeconomic characteristics of vulnerable land may contribute to scenarios' modeling and the development of more effective policies to combat desertification.

  11. Risk sharing agreements: what lessons from Italy?

    PubMed

    Garattini, Livio; Casadei, Gianluigi

    2011-04-01

    Italy is one of the few countries that have matured substantial experience of risk-sharing agreements so far. The first performance-based arrangement was agreed in July 2006, and as of October 2010, eighteen contracts have been in force.The complex management of discount schemes is entirely based on Web registries run by AIFA, the Italian drug agency. The system validates each prescription and automatically requests the hospital pharmacy by e-mail to release the drug. If a patient meets nonresponder criteria, the hospital pharmacist should apply for pay-back to the manufacturer. There are still some important question marks to address. First of all, nonresponders have to be documented by health authorities, otherwise any undocumented nonresponder will be paid as a success. Another question concerns pre-set timing. Although the scientific rationale of the nonresponder criteria for each drug has not been made public, time frames appear too short to allow a reliable assessment. Another question is whether regions, which are financially accountable in Italy for pharmaceutical expenditure, are really able to claw back refunds from manufacturers. Unfortunately here again there are no official figures, and regions do not seem yet able to quantify the amount of pay-back matured in the 4 previous years. The delayed and incomplete availability of pay-back procedures may be one explanation.

  12. Adolescent health care in Italy: a mini-review.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, V; Filati, G; Fiscina, B; Marsciani, A; Piacentini, G; Timoncini, G; Reggiani, L; Zucchini, A

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this mini-review is to present the National Health System and services available for adolescents in Italy, and to review the most relevant data on morbidity and mortality in Italian teens. Adolescent medicine in Italy is not a separate speciality, but there are some distinct services for adolescents in paediatric departments or gynaecologic wards, mostly in large cities where university hospitals or hospital of national relevance are located. Primary health care in Italy is provided mainly by general practitioners (GPs) and pediatricians, and on-call physicians (Guardia Medica) for after-hours medical care and services. The number of centres providing care for adolescents in Italy is 4097 (50% of these are in the North of Italy, 20% in the Central regions and 20% in the South and Islands). The population of Italy on January 1st 2011 was approximately 60,477,881 and the number of adolescents, aged 10 to 19 years, was 6,214,000. The most frequent causes of death in adolescents are motor vehicle accidents - more than half of which are related to drug or alcohol use - followed by cancer and suicide. In primary care, adolescents present with a large number of issues, particularly upper respiratory infections, musculoskeletal problems, pain syndromes, obesity, eating disorders, dermatological issues, mood and somatoform disorders, school and mental health problems, and chronic fatigue, many of which require a coordinated, multidisciplinary management approach. The estimated population with a chronic illness is 8%. There are no specific protocols for the transition to adult medicine physicians for patients with chronic diseases or special health needs. In order to improve the quality and quantity of education in adolescent health for paediatricians and GPs, the Study Group of Emilia and Romagna Region for Adolescent Health Care (SGA-ER) is going to organize, beginning in 2012, a two year educational intervention course in adolescent health.

  13. [Planning a Health Residence for Prison Security Measures, Tuscany (Italy)].

    PubMed

    Porfido, Eugenio; Colombai, Renato; Scarpa, Franco; Totaro, Michele; Tani, Luca; Baldini, Claudio; Baggiani, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Health Residences for Prison Security Measures are facilities hosting psychotic persons who have committed crimes and providing them with personalized rehabilitation and treatment plans to promote their reinstatement in society. The aim of this study was to describe the criteria for planning and designing a prison health residence in the Tuscany region (Italy), to be managed by the regional healthcare service, in line with current regulations, with dedicated staff for providing specific treatment plans and programmes. PMID:27510291

  14. The Bisagno stream catchment (Genoa, Italy) and its major floods: geomorphic and land use variations in the last three centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccini, Francesco; Paliaga, Guido; Piana, Pietro; Sacchini, Alessandro; Watkins, Charles

    2016-11-01

    The city of Genoa (Liguria, Italy) and the Bisagno Valley are affected by frequent floods, often with loss of human lives. Historically characterised by high flood hazards, the Bisagno Valley was recently affected by a flood event on 9 October 2014, less than three years after the tragic flood event of 4 November 2011 when six people died, including two children. In the last 50 years, four destructive floods occurred in the Bisagno Valley, in addition to some other events that caused significant damage and economic losses. This paper examines the three largest flood events in terms of intensity and ground effects which affected the Bisagno Valley in the last three centuries: the flood of 25 October 1822, well documented by contemporary sources, the flood of 8 October 1970, undoubtedly the most tragic on record, and the very recent event of 9 October 2014. For this purpose scientific and historical-geographical methodologies were adopted, the latter particularly useful for the reconstruction of the flood event of 1822 and the landscape history of the Bisagno Valley in the nineteenth century. This comparison shows that the Bisagno Valley is characterised by climatic and landform features that have been making the flood events historically common in the area. However, recent climate change and land-use variations, including some major modifications of the catchment basin, have progressively determined a decrease of the concentration time and an increase of runoff, solid transport, and flood hazard. Consequently, in recent decades a growth in the number of flood events occurred, to the extent that the Bisagno today is a famous case study on an international scale.

  15. Agricultural terraces and slope instability at Cinque Terre (NW Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandolini, Pierluigi; Cevasco, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Cinque Terre, located in the eastern Liguria, are one of the most representative examples of terraced coastal landscape within the Mediterranean region. They are the result of a century-old agricultural practice and constitute an outstanding example of human integration with the natural landscape. For this highly unusual man-made coastal landscape, the Cinque Terre have been recognized as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO since 1997 and became National Park in 1999. The complex network of retaining dry stone walls and drainage networks ensured through times the control of shallow water erosion and therefore, indirectly, favoured debris cover stability. The lack of maintenance of terracing due to farmer abandonment since the 1950s led to widespread slope erosion phenomena. The effects of such phenomena culminated during the 25 October 2011 storm rainfall event, when slope debris materials charged by streams gave rise to debris floods affecting both Monterosso and Vernazza villages. As the analysis of the relationships between geo-hydrological processes and land use in the Vernazza catchment highlighted, abandoned and not well maintained terraces were the most susceptible areas to shallow landsliding and erosion triggered by intense rainfall. As a consequence, the thousands of kilometres of dry stone walls retaining millions of cubic metres of debris cover at Cinque Terre currently constitute a potential menace for both villages, that are mainly located at the floor of deep cut valleys, and tourists. Given the increasing human pressure due to tourist activities, geo-hydrological risk mitigation measures are urgently needed. At the same time, restoration policies are necessary to preserve this extraordinary example of terraced coastal landscape. In this framework, the detailed knowledge of the response of terraced areas to intense rainfall in terms of slope instability is a topic issue in order to identify adequate land planning strategies as well as the areas where

  16. Educational Documentation: Present and Future. Proceedings of an International Meeting (Florence, Italy, May 31-June 4, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biblioteca di Documentazione Pedagogica, Florence (Italy).

    The Library of Educational Documentation in Florence, Italy began work in 1980 on the establishment of an educational documentation system for Italy. Recognition of its role in this regard was accorded by the Regional Institutes for Educational Research, Innovation and Teacher Training (IRRSAE) and by the European Centre for Education (CEDE) in…

  17. Rainfall thresholds for shallow landslides occurrence in Calabria, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennari, C.; Gariano, S. L.; Antronico, L.; Brunetti, M. T.; Iovine, G.; Peruccacci, S.; Terranova, O.; Guzzetti, F.

    2013-09-01

    In many areas, rainfall is the primary trigger of landslides. Determining the rainfall conditions responsible for landslide occurrence is important, and may contribute to save lives and properties. In a long-term national project for the definition of rainfall thresholds for possible landslide occurrence in Italy, and for the implementation of a national landslide warning system, we compiled a catalogue of 186 rainfall events that have resulted in 251 shallow landslides in Calabria, southern Italy, from January 1996 to September 2011. Landslides were located geographically using Google Earth®, and were given a mapping and a temporal accuracy. We used the landslide information, and sub-hourly rainfall measurements obtained from two complementary networks of rain gauges, to determine cumulated event vs. rainfall duration (ED) thresholds for Calabria. For the purpose, we adopted an existing method used to prepare rainfall thresholds and to estimate their associated uncertainties in central Italy. The regional thresholds for Calabria were found nearly identical to previous ED thresholds for Calabria obtained using a reduced set of landslide information, and slightly higher than the ED thresholds obtained for central Italy. We segmented the regional catalogue of rainfall events with landslides on lithology, soil regions, rainfall zones, and seasonal periods. The number of events in each subdivision was insufficient to determine reliable thresholds, but allowed for preliminary conclusions on the role of the environmental factors on the rainfall conditions responsible for shallow landslides in Calabria. We further segmented the regional catalogue based on administrative subdivisions used for hydro-meteorological monitoring and operational flood forecasting, and we determined separate ED thresholds for the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian coasts of Calabria. We expect the ED rainfall thresholds for Calabria to be used in regional and national landslide warning systems. The

  18. Rainfall thresholds for shallow landslide occurrence in Calabria, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennari, C.; Gariano, S. L.; Antronico, L.; Brunetti, M. T.; Iovine, G.; Peruccacci, S.; Terranova, O.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-02-01

    In many areas, rainfall is the primary trigger of landslides. Determining the rainfall conditions responsible for landslide occurrence is important, and may contribute to saving lives and properties. In a long-term national project for the definition of rainfall thresholds for possible landslide occurrence in Italy, we compiled a catalogue of 186 rainfall events that resulted in 251 shallow landslides in Calabria, southern Italy, from January 1996 to September 2011. Landslides were located geographically using Google Earth®, and were given a mapping and a temporal accuracy. We used the landslide information, and sub-hourly rainfall measurements obtained from two complementary networks of rain gauges, to determine cumulated event vs. rainfall duration (ED) thresholds for Calabria. For this purpose, we adopted an existing method used to prepare rainfall thresholds and to estimate their associated uncertainties in central Italy. The regional thresholds for Calabria were found to be nearly identical to previous ED thresholds for Calabria obtained using a reduced set of landslide information, and slightly higher than the ED thresholds obtained for central Italy. We segmented the regional catalogue of rainfall events with landslides in Calabria into lithology, soil regions, rainfall zones, and seasonal periods. The number of events in each subdivision was insufficient to determine reliable thresholds, but allowed for preliminary conclusions about the role of the environmental factors in the rainfall conditions responsible for shallow landslides in Calabria. We further segmented the regional catalogue based on administrative subdivisions used for hydro-meteorological monitoring and operational flood forecasting, and we determined separate ED thresholds for the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian coasts of Calabria. We expect the ED rainfall thresholds for Calabria to be used in regional and national landslide warning systems. The thresholds can also be used for landslide hazard

  19. Italy's Intelligent Educational Training Station

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    The Intelligent Educational Training Station has been developed in Italy to meet emerging school building needs. The project, for schools from the primary to upper secondary level, proposes flexible architecture for an "intelligent school" network, and was developed by CISEM, the Centre for Educational Innovation and Experimentation of Milan.

  20. Fatal Naegleria fowleri Meningoencephalitis, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Scaglia, Massimo; Gatti, Simonetta; Rossetti, Flavio; Alaggio, Rita; Laverda, Anna Maria; Zhou, Ling; Xiao, Lihua; Visvesvara, Govinda S.

    2004-01-01

    We report the first case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis in Italy, in a 9-year-old boy. Clinical course was fulminant, and diagnosis was made by identifying amebas in stained brain sections and by indirect immunofluorescence analysis. Naegleria fowleri was characterized as genotype I on the basis of polymerase chain reaction test results. PMID:15504272

  1. Fatal Naegleria fowleri meningoencephalitis, Italy.

    PubMed

    Cogo, Paola E; Scagli, Massimo; Gatti, Simonetta; Rossetti, Flavio; Alaggio, Rita; Laverda, Anna Maria; Zhou, Ling; Xiao, Lihua; Visvesvara, Govinda S

    2004-10-01

    We report the first case of primary amebic meningoencephalitis in Italy, in a 9-year-old boy. Clinical course was fulminant, and diagnosis was made by identifying amebas in stained brain sections and by indirect immunofluorescence analysis. Naegleria fowleri was characterized as genotype I on the basis of polymerase chain reaction test results.

  2. Management of immigration and pregnancy screening in northeastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Tamaro, Giorgio; Parco, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of immigration in Friuli Venezia Giulia, a region of northeastern Italy, on the epidemiological features of hemoglobin patterns and on prothrombotic and trisomy risk in pregnancy for patients of non-Italian origin. This study follows a series of studies on the incidence of thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies with reduced globin chain synthesis, that were performed during the postwar (1939-45) period in Friuli Venezia Giulia following immigration into the region from Istria and Sardinia (regions of northern and central Italy). Current data show that today's constantly growing immigration into the region differs from previous decades, in terms of origin and quantity of migrants, who mainly come from third world countries. This has a significant impact on health care issues, and more specifically on prospective health screening for foreigners. The authors conclude that scholastic education and hospital services, either public or private, and voluntary associations, may contribute to solving the problem, but only in terms of training and organization, for non-European Union citizens arriving in northern Italy and neighboring areas, especially those from Africa, Asia, Latin America, and eastern Europe.

  3. Ambient noise levels in north central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzorati, S.; Bindi, D.

    2006-09-01

    The characteristics of background seismic noise in north central Italy have been investigated by means of velocity power spectral analysis within the frequency range 0.1-15 Hz. The method proposed by McNamara and Buland (2004) has been applied to estimate the probability density function (PDF) of power spectra computed for ten different stations. Since the target region is the most industrialized area of Italy, a large variability among the power spectra for different sites is observed in the frequency range 1-15 Hz, with the noise levels at two stations exceeding the New High Noise Model (NHNM) of Peterson (1993). The 95th percentile of the PDF varies from -165 to -125 dB (relative to (m/s)2/Hz). This variability could significantly affect the detection capabilities of a network installed for recording the small to moderate size seismicity occurring in north central Italy. We also observed that the dispersion of the powers, estimated at each site as the difference between the 95th and the 5th percentiles, shows a positive trend with frequency that can be ascribed to the diurnal variation of the background noise levels. In the frequency range 0.1-1 Hz, the dominant feature is the double frequency (DF) peak of microseisms generated by oceanic storms. At one of the considered stations, the seasonal variability of the maximum amplitude of the DF peak has been observed in the period from April 2004 to December 2005. Considering the barometric maps provided by the UK Meteorological Office, we observed that the strongest powers in the range 0.10-0.25 Hz occur when intense storms are present over the North Atlantic Ocean, whereas the measurements of the height, frequency, and azimuth of the sea waves at two buoys of the Rete Ondametrica Italiana deployed in the Adriatic and Tyrrhenian seas suggest that the DF microseisms in the frequency range 0.25-0.50 Hz are generated by storms over the Mediterranean Sea. Finally, the analyzed region is characterized by two large

  4. Renaissance Neurosurgery: Italy's Iconic Contributions.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Anil; Khan, Imad Saeed; Apuzzo, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Various changes in the sociopolitical milieu of Italy led to the increasing tolerance of the study of cadavers in the late Middle Ages. The efforts of Mondino de Liuzzi (1276-1326) and Guido da Vigevano (1280-1349) led to an explosion of cadaver-centric studies in centers such as Bologna, Florence, and Padua during the Renaissance period. Legendary scientists from this era, including Leonardo Da Vinci, Andreas Vesalius, Bartolomeo Eustachio, and Costanzo Varolio, furthered the study of neuroanatomy. The various texts produced during this period not only helped increase the understanding of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology but also led to the formalization of medical education. With increased understanding came new techniques to address various neurosurgical problems from skull fractures to severed peripheral nerves. The present study aims to review the major developments in Italy during the vibrant Renaissance period that led to major progress in the field of neurosurgery.

  5. Renaissance Neurosurgery: Italy's Iconic Contributions.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Anil; Khan, Imad Saeed; Apuzzo, Michael L

    2016-03-01

    Various changes in the sociopolitical milieu of Italy led to the increasing tolerance of the study of cadavers in the late Middle Ages. The efforts of Mondino de Liuzzi (1276-1326) and Guido da Vigevano (1280-1349) led to an explosion of cadaver-centric studies in centers such as Bologna, Florence, and Padua during the Renaissance period. Legendary scientists from this era, including Leonardo Da Vinci, Andreas Vesalius, Bartolomeo Eustachio, and Costanzo Varolio, furthered the study of neuroanatomy. The various texts produced during this period not only helped increase the understanding of neuroanatomy and neurophysiology but also led to the formalization of medical education. With increased understanding came new techniques to address various neurosurgical problems from skull fractures to severed peripheral nerves. The present study aims to review the major developments in Italy during the vibrant Renaissance period that led to major progress in the field of neurosurgery. PMID:26585723

  6. Southern Italy, Instrument Pointing Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This view of the 'heel' of the 'boot' of Southern Italy (40.5N, 18.0E) shows the rich an varied detail of the Salentina peninsula. This southern promontory, projecting into the Mediterranean Sea, is known for its year round mild climate and agricultural produce. The typical European cluster city and town plan wherein the farming population lives in communities and commutes to the fields can be observed throughout the peninsula.

  7. Italy INAF Analysis Center Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negusini, M.; Sarti, P.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the activity of the Italian INAF VLBI Analysis Center. Our Analysis Center is located in Bologna, Italy and belongs to the Institute of Radioastronomy, which is part of the National Institute of Astrophysics. IRA runs the observatories of Medicina and Noto, where two 32-m VLBI AZ-EL telescopes are situated. This report contains the AC's VLBI data analysis activities and shortly outlines the investigations into the co-locations of space geodetic instruments.

  8. Seismic risk perception in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Risk perception is a fundamental element in the definition and the adoption of preventive counter-measures. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. This paper presents results of a survey on seismic risk perception in Italy conducted from January 2013 to present . The research design combines a psychometric and a cultural theoretic approach. More than 7,000 on-line tests have been compiled. The data collected show that in Italy seismic risk perception is strongly underestimated; 86 on 100 Italian citizens, living in the most dangerous zone (namely Zone 1), do not have a correct perception of seismic hazard. From these observations we deem that extremely urgent measures are required in Italy to reach an effective way to communicate seismic risk. Finally, the research presents a comparison between groups on seismic risk perception: a group involved in campaigns of information and education on seismic risk and a control group.

  9. Global alliance against chronic respiratory diseases in Italy (GARD-Italy): strategy and activities.

    PubMed

    Laurendi, Giovanna; Mele, Sonia; Centanni, Stefano; Donner, Claudio F; Falcone, Franco; Frateiacci, Sandra; Lazzeri, Marta; Mangiacavallo, Antonino; Indinnimeo, Luciana; Viegi, Giovanni; Pisanti, Paola; Filippetti, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The steady increase in incidence of chronic respiratory disease (CRD) now constitutes a serious public health problem. CRDs are often underdiagnosed and many patients are not diagnosed until the CRD is too severe to prevent normal daily activities. The prevention of CRDs and reducing their social and individual impacts means modifying environmental and social factors and improving diagnosis and treatment. Prevention of risk factors (tobacco smoke, allergens, occupational agents, indoor/outdoor air pollution) will significantly impact on morbidity and mortality. The Italian Ministry of Health (MoH) has made respiratory disease prevention a top priority and is implementing a comprehensive strategy with policies against tobacco smoking, indoor/outdoor pollution, obesity, and communicable diseases. Presently these actions are not well coordinated. The Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD), set up by the World Health Organization, envisages national bodies; the GARD initiative in Italy, launched 11/6/2009, represents a great opportunity for the MoH. Its main objective is to promote the development of a coordinated CRD program in Italy. Effective prevention implies setting up a health policy with the support of healthcare professionals and citizen associations at national, regional, and district levels. What is required is a true inter-institutional synergy: respiratory diseases prevention cannot and should not be the responsibility of doctors alone, but must involve politicians/policymakers, as well as the media, local institutions, and schools, etc. GARD could be a significant experience and a great opportunity for Italy to share the GARD vision of a world where all people can breathe freely.

  10. Space Radar Image of Florence, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This radar image shows land use patterns in and around the city of Florence, Italy, shown here in the center of the image. Florence is situated on a plain in the Chianti Hill region of Central Italy. The Arno River flows through town and is visible as the dark line running from the upper right to the bottom center of the image. The city is home to some of the world's most famous art museums. The bridges seen crossing the Arno, shown as faint red lines in the upper right portion of the image, were all sacked during World War II with the exception of the Ponte Vecchio, which remains as Florence's only covered bridge. The large, black V-shaped feature near the center of the image is the Florence Railroad Station. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. This image is centered at 43.7 degrees north latitude and 11.15 degrees east longitude with North toward the upper left of the image. The area shown measures 20 kilometers by 17 kilometers (12.4 miles by 10.6 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is C-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received.

  11. Mt. Etna, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On Sunday, November 3, 2002, Mt. Etna's ash-laden plume was imaged by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. The plume is seen blowing toward the south-southeast, over the city and airport of Catania, Sicily. The previous day, the plume was blowing toward the northwest, and posed no hazard to Catania. The current eruption of Mt. Etna, Europe's most active volcano, began on October 27. These sorts of observations from space may help civil defense authorities mitigate hazards from active eruptions. Space data may also help scientists evaluate the behavior and effects volcanic eruptions have on our global climate system.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science

  12. Italy: An Open Air Museum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzorusso, Ann

    2016-04-01

    Imagine if you could see the River Styx, bathe in the Fountain of Youth, collect water which enhances fertility, wear a gem that heals bodily ailments, understand how our health is affected by geomagnetic fields, venture close to the flames of Hell on Earth and much, much, more. Know something? These things exist - on Earth - today - in Italy and you can visit them because Italy is an open air museum. Ann C. Pizzorusso, in her recent book, reveals how Italy's geology has affected its art, literature, architecture, religion, medicine and just about everything else. She explores the geologic birth of the land, describing the formation of the Alps and Apennines, romantic bays of Tuscany and Lazio, volcanoes of the south and Caribbean-like beaches of Puglia. But that's not all, from the first pages of this visually stunning book, the reader has the impression of being in an art museum, where one can wander from page to page to satisfy one's curiosity-- guided from time to time by the Etruscan priests, Virgil, Dante, Goethe or Leonardo da Vinci himself. Pizzorusso stitches together widely diverse topics - such as gemology, folk remedies, grottoes, painting, literature, physics and religion - using geology as a thread. Quoting everyone from Pliny the Elder to NASA physicist Friedemann Freund, the work is solidly backed scholarship that reads as easily as a summer novel. Wonderfully illustrated with many photos licensed from Italian museums, HRH Elizabeth II and the Ministero Beni Culturali the book highlights the best works in Italian museums and those outside in the "open air museums." This approach can be used in any other country in the world and can be used for cultural tourism (a tour following the book has been organized for cultural and university groups), an ideal way of linking museums to the surrounding landscape.

  13. First reports of Trichinella pseudospiralis in wild boars (Sus scrofa) of Italy.

    PubMed

    Merialdi, Giuseppe; Bardasi, Lia; Fontana, Maria Cristina; Spaggiari, Brunella; Maioli, Giulia; Conedera, Gabriella; Vio, Denis; Londero, Mauro; Marucci, Gianluca; Ludovisi, Alessandra; Pozio, Edoardo; Capelli, Gioia

    2011-06-10

    Trichinella pseudospiralis is a non-encapsulated species infecting both mammals and birds. In Italy, this parasite was reported only in two night-birds of prey of Central Italy. In January 2010, Trichinella larvae were detected in three wild boars (Sus scrofa) of two regions of Northern Italy by enzymatic digestion. The parasites were identified as T. pseudospiralis by multiplex-PCR. The first infected wild boar was hunted in the Emilia Romagna region and the other two infected wild boars were bred outdoors in a small family farm of the Friuli Venezia Giulia region. These new epidemiological data reinforce the role of the wild boar as the main reservoir of T. pseudospiralis in Europe. PMID:21296503

  14. Pattern of susceptibility to measles in Italy. Serological Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Salmaso, S.; Gabutti, G.; Rota, M. C.; Giordano, C.; Penna, C.; Mandolini, D.; Crovari, P.

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of seroprevalence and incidence data we describe the distribution of individuals susceptible and immune to measles in Italy in 1996-97. In regions where vaccination coverage was at least 70%, approximately 10% of 3-year-old children were susceptible to measles, whereas 40% were in this category in regions with lower vaccination coverage. Seroprevalence among children older than 4 years was similar for the two groups of regions; in the age group 20-39 years it was approximately 95%. During 1990-96 in the regions with lower vaccination coverage the incidence was highest among children aged 4-6 years, and the median age of cases was 7 years; in the regions with higher vaccination coverage, however, the incidence remained at around 5% for the age group 4-16 years, and the overall median age was 10 years. These data confirm the partial reduction in measles incidence in Italy, although transmission has still not been interrupted. The size and geographical distribution of the current pool of susceptible individuals can be expected to present an obstacle to measles elimination if appropriate vaccination strategies, such as catch-up campaigns, are not adopted. PMID:10994277

  15. A preliminary attempt to determine the landslide hazard in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Determining landslide hazard at the national scale remains a difficult task. However, such a complex task needs to be accomplished to mitigate the landslide consequences, including loss of lives and economic and environmental damages. For administrative purposes, the Italian territory (303,000 km sq.) is subdivided in 20 regions that cover a large variety of natural environments, most of which are subject to landslide hazards. To determine landslide hazard in such a complex and diversified territory, the many natural and anthropogenic variables, and their variations, must be considered. In Italy, the Italian national Civil Protection Department (DPC), an office of the Prime Minister, is in charge of managing natural and human-made hazards, and the associated risk. For landslide (and flood) hazards, the DPC has subdivided the Italian territory into 134 "alert zones" (AZ), decided based on administrative and hydrological criteria. Here, we describe the results of a preliminary effort made by our research group - in the framework of a larger effort to forecast landslide hazard and risk in Italy - to describe landslide hazard in each AZ. For the purpose, we summarized in a specifically designed form the geographical, morphological, geological and landslide information available for each AZ. The form also contains general information on past landslide events and on the vulnerability to landslides of the AZ. We obtained the morphological information from the SRTM DEM with a grid resolution of 90 m × 90 m, and the geological and lithological information from the Geological Map of Italy, at the 1:500,000 scale, published by the Italian Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale (ISPRA). We used the morphological (terrain elevation and terrain gradient) and the lithological information to subdivide the Italian territory in three main morphological domains (plains, hills and mountains), and we computed the proportion of the three domains in each AZ. We

  16. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Italy.

    PubMed

    Tozzi, Alberto E; Armenio, Lucio; Bernardini, Roberto; Boner, Attilio; Calvani, Mauro; Cardinale, Fabio; Cavagni, Giovanni; Dondi, Arianna; Duse, Marzia; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Marseglia, Gian L; del Giudice, Michele Miraglia; Muraro, Antonella; Pajno, Giovanni B; Paravati, Francesco; Peroni, Diego; Tripodi, Salvatore; Ugazio, Alberto G; Indinnimeo, Luciana

    2011-05-01

    In Italy, according to the International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood study, the prevalence of current asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic eczema in 2006 was 7.9%, 6.5%, and 10.1% among children aged 6-7 and 8.4%, 15.5%, and 7.75% among children aged 13-14 yr. University education in this field is provided by the Postgraduate Schools of Pediatrics and those of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, as well as several annual Master courses. The Italian Society of Pediatric Allergology and Immunology (SIAIP) was founded in 1996 and counts about 1000 members. SIAIP promotes evidence-based management of allergic children and disseminates information to patients and their families through a quite innovative website and the National Journal 'Rivista Italiana di Allergologia Pediatrica'. In the last decade, four major regional, inter-regional, and national web-based networks have been created to link pediatric allergy centers and to share their clinical protocols and epidemiologic data. In addition, National Registers of Primary Immune-deficiencies and on Pediatric HIV link all clinical excellence centers. Research projects in the field of pediatric allergy and immunology are founded by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) and by the National Research Council (CNR), but the overall investments in this research area are quite low. Only a handful Italian excellence centers participate in European Projects on Pediatric Allergy and Immunology within the 7th Framework Program. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology currently hosts two Italians in its Executive Committee (EC) and one in the EC of the Pediatric Section; moreover, major European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology meetings and courses in the area of pediatrics (e.g., PAAM, Venice, 2009) have been held in Italy in the last 3 yr. Italian hallmarks in the management of allergic diseases in childhood are a quite alive and spread interest in

  17. Ethnobotanical remarks on Central and Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Lucia, Leporatti Maria

    2007-01-01

    Background The present paper is a brief survey on the ethnobotanical works published by the Authors since 1981, concerning the research carried out in some southern and central Italian regions. Before Roman domination these territories were first inhabited by local people, while the southern areas were colonized by the Greeks. These different cultural contributions left certain traces, both in the toponyms and in the vernacular names of the plants and, more generally, in the culture as a whole. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews, mainly of farmers, shepherds and elderly people, born or living in these areas for a long time. Voucher specimens of collected plants are preserved in the respective herbaria of the Authors and in the herbarium of "Roma Tre" University. Important contributions have been made by several students native to the areas under consideration. A comparative analysis with local specific ethnobotanical literature was carried out. Results The paper reports several examples concerning human and veterinary popular medicine and in addition some anti-parasitic, nutraceutic, dye and miscellaneous uses are also described. Moreover vernacular names and toponyms are cited. Eight regions of central and southern Italy (particularly Latium, Abruzzo, Marche and Basilicata) were investigated and the data obtained are presented in 32 papers. Most of the species of ethnobotanical interest have been listed in Latium (368 species), Marche (274) and Abruzzo (203). The paper also highlights particularly interesting aspects or uses not previously described in the specific ethnobotanical literature. Conclusion Phyto-therapy in central and southern Italy is nowadays practised by a few elderly people who resort to medicinal plants only for mild complaints (on the contrary food uses are still commonly practised). Nowadays therapeutic uses, unlike in the past, are less closely or not at all linked to ritual aspects. Several plants deserve to be taken

  18. Patterns of Y-STR variation in Italy.

    PubMed

    Brisighelli, F; Blanco-Verea, A; Boschi, I; Garagnani, P; Pascali, V L; Carracedo, A; Capelli, C; Salas, A

    2012-12-01

    The 17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) included in the AmpFlSTR Yfiler Amplification Kit (AB Applied Biosystems) (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385ab, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and GATA H4.1) were typed in 292 samples from seven Italian regions. Population comparisons with other European samples were undertaken; for this purpose, two databases were collated from the literature: (a) 19 population samples including >2900 Yfiler profiles, and (b) 67 population samples including >15,000 minimum haplotype profiles. A total of 276 different Yfiler haplotypes were observed in Italy, and only one of them was shared among our seven population samples. The overall haplotype diversity (0.9996) was comparable to other European samples. AMOVA indicates that among population variance depends on the amount of Y-STRs used, being higher when using minimal haplotypes. This is probably due to the fact that Yfiler profiles are represented by singleton haplotypes in all the population samples raising the diversity values to the maximum theoretical value. AMOVA results seems to depend even more strongly on the amount of population samples used, the among population variance in Italy ranging from 2.82% to 11.03% (using 15 and 32 Italian populations samples, respectively). Variance is not as strongly stratified geographically within Italy, although it is notorious that latitude is more important than longitude in the distribution of variance. The results also indicated that Italy is less stratified than other European samples. The present study contributes to enrich the Y-chromosome databases regarding high-resolution Y-chromosome data sets and demonstrates that extended Y-STR profiles substantially increases the discriminatory capacity in individual identification for forensic purposes. PMID:22487686

  19. Application of Skylab imagery to some geological and environmental problems in Italy. [and Sicily

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassinis, R.; Lechi, G. M.; Tonelli, A. M.

    1975-01-01

    Four topics are considered: regional geology of Sicily, volcanic surveillance in southern Italy, hydrogeology (with special regard given to the discovery and mapping of paleoriverbeds), and crop investigation. The discovery of unknown lineaments and structures in Sicily contributes to the geological knowledge of this region and in particular to the mechanical phenomena involving the upper part of the crust. An attempt was made to relate the status of vegetation surrounding Etna volcano to the magmatic gas escapes filtering through the soil. False-color Skylab images were used to analyze the vigor of the Etnean forestal belt vegetation canopy in order to map possible gas-vent ways as well as the 'active' microfractures. In northern Italy, buried channels were mapped in the Venetian Plain, and a tentative cost-benefit evaluation was done in the field of vegetational studies, both disease detection and species inventory were performed in the Po River Delta and in northwestern Italy.

  20. Grapevine Pinot gris virus seems to have recently been introduced to vineyards in Veneto, Italy.

    PubMed

    Bertazzon, Nadia; Filippin, Luisa; Forte, Vally; Angelini, Elisa

    2016-03-01

    Grapevine Pinot gris virus (GPGV), a member of the genus Trichovirus in the family Betaflexiviridae, was recently discovered in Italy and subsequently in other European countries and in Korea. In this study, we assessed the occurrence of GPGV in 441 samples from Western and Eastern Europe collected over the period 2002-2014. The results suggest that the virus had recently appeared in the Veneto region (Northeast Italy) and had been present in some Eastern European countries for at least 10 years. The molecular characterization of the 5'-terminal genomic region of several GPGV isolates from Italy and other European countries showed low polymorphism, with a maximum nucleotide sequence divergence of 3.2%.

  1. Coxiella burnetii in central Italy: novel genotypes are circulating in cattle and goats.

    PubMed

    Di Domenico, Marco; Curini, Valentina; De Massis, Fabrizio; Di Provvido, Andrea; Scacchia, Massimo; Cammà, Cesare

    2014-10-01

    Genotyping of bacteria is critical for diagnosis, treatment, and epidemiological surveillance. Coxiella burnetii, the etiological agent of Q fever, has been recognized to have a potential for bioterrorism purposes. Because few serosurveys have been conducted in Italy, there is still limited information about the distribution of this pathogen in natural conditions. In this paper, we describe the genotyping of C. burnetii strains by multispacer sequence typing (MST) detected in cattle and goat farms in the Abruzzi region of Italy. Biological samples (milk, aborted fetus) positive for C. burnetii DNA were sequenced in the spacer regions and compared with those already publicly available ( http://ifr48.timone.univ-mrs.fr/MST_Coxiella/mst/group_detail ). The MST profile of C. burnetii detected in milk samples demonstrated the presence of a new allele, whereas the C. burnetii spacer sequences from fetus and milk goat samples displayed a new allelic combination. The results suggest the circulation of novel genotypes of C. burnetii in Italy.

  2. Grapevine Pinot gris virus seems to have recently been introduced to vineyards in Veneto, Italy.

    PubMed

    Bertazzon, Nadia; Filippin, Luisa; Forte, Vally; Angelini, Elisa

    2016-03-01

    Grapevine Pinot gris virus (GPGV), a member of the genus Trichovirus in the family Betaflexiviridae, was recently discovered in Italy and subsequently in other European countries and in Korea. In this study, we assessed the occurrence of GPGV in 441 samples from Western and Eastern Europe collected over the period 2002-2014. The results suggest that the virus had recently appeared in the Veneto region (Northeast Italy) and had been present in some Eastern European countries for at least 10 years. The molecular characterization of the 5'-terminal genomic region of several GPGV isolates from Italy and other European countries showed low polymorphism, with a maximum nucleotide sequence divergence of 3.2%. PMID:26666440

  3. Impact of universal vaccination against varicella in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bechini, Angela; Boccalini, Sara; Baldo, Vincenzo; Cocchio, Silvia; Castiglia, Paolo; Gallo, Tolinda; Giuffrida, Sandro; Locuratolo, Francesco; Tafuri, Silvio; Martinelli, Domenico; Prato, Rosa; Amodio, Emanuele; Vitale, Francesco; Bonanni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    In Italy, the introduction of Universal Varicella Vaccination (UVV) has been decided but postponed, as a national programme, until 2015, when data from Regions which have already implemented it will be available. Starting from 2003, eight Italian Regions (Basilicata, Calabria, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Apulia, Sardinia, Sicily, Tuscany and Veneto) have progressively introduced UVV, in their immunization programme, with different schedules in children aged 13-15 months and 5-6 years, currently a two-dose schedule is adopted by all Regions. In June 2013, an Interregional Group on Varicella Vaccination (IGVV) has been established in order to assess the effectiveness of varicella vaccination with standardized and shared tools. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of varicella vaccination on the incidence and hospitalizations due to varicella and its complications in the period 2003-2012 in order to support the Italian decision makers on the future national adoption. Preliminary data showed that a general reduction of incidence and hospitalization rates was observed in the study period, resulting in relevant savings for the National Health Service. Immunization coverage with first dose at 24 months of age was high in all Regions (84%-95%) in 2012. Adverse events due to varicella vaccines were rare and without permanent sequelae. Underreporting of varicella cases and delays in the administration of the first dose of varicella vaccines were the main critical issues. In conclusion, solid evidences in support of universal UVV arise from the experiences available today in Italy.

  4. Historical hydrology and database on flood events (Apulia, southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonigro, Teresa; Basso, Alessia; Gentile, Francesco; Polemio, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    Historical data about floods represent an important tool for the comprehension of the hydrological processes, the estimation of hazard scenarios as a basis for Civil Protection purposes, as a basis of the rational land use management, especially in karstic areas, where time series of river flows are not available and the river drainage is rare. The research shows the importance of the improvement of existing flood database with an historical approach, finalized to collect past or historical floods event, in order to better assess the occurrence trend of floods, in the case for the Apulian region (south Italy). The main source of records of flood events for Apulia was the AVI (the acronym means Italian damaged areas) database, an existing Italian database that collects data concerning damaging floods from 1918 to 1996. The database was expanded consulting newspapers, publications, and technical reports from 1996 to 2006. In order to expand the temporal range further data were collected searching in the archives of regional libraries. About 700 useful news from 17 different local newspapers were found from 1876 to 1951. From a critical analysis of the 700 news collected since 1876 to 1952 only 437 were useful for the implementation of the Apulia database. The screening of these news showed the occurrence of about 122 flood events in the entire region. The district of Bari, the regional main town, represents the area in which the great number of events occurred; the historical analysis confirms this area as flood-prone. There is an overlapping period (from 1918 to 1952) between old AVI database and new historical dataset obtained by newspapers. With regard to this period, the historical research has highlighted new flood events not reported in the existing AVI database and it also allowed to add more details to the events already recorded. This study shows that the database is a dynamic instrument, which allows a continuous implementation of data, even in real time

  5. Legal abortion in Italy: 1980-1981.

    PubMed

    Tosi, S L; Grandolfo, M E; Spinelli, A; O'Reilly, K R; Hogue, C J

    1985-01-01

    In 1980 and 1981, there were 446,430 legal abortions performed in Italy. There were about 345 legal abortions per 1,000 live births in 1980 and 363 in 1981. About 1.6 percent of women aged 15-49 obtained abortions in both years. An analysis of the characteristics of Italian women who obtained abortions indicates that most were married (about 70 percent), aged 18-36 (74 percent), had had less than a high school education (74 percent) and had had at least one previous live birth (70-75 percent). In 1981, 88 percent of abortions were obtained in public hospitals; 58 percent were carried out at eight or fewer weeks of gestation; and 78 percent were performed under general anesthesia. Only 20 percent were performed without an overnight stay in the hospital; and over 40 percent of women were hospitalized for two days or longer. Infection after the abortion was reported in only 0.03 percent of cases in 1981, and hemorrhage was reported in only 0.27 percent. In 1981, between 43 percent and 84 percent of gynecologists (depending on the region of the country) declined to perform abortions on grounds of conscience. PMID:3872230

  6. Evaluating Intensity Prediction Equations for Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, Sum; Schorlemmer, Danijel

    2016-04-01

    The macroseismic intensity has been, and will likely continue to be used for purposes such as seismic hazard assessment, loss estimation and communication to the public. Recently, there have been numerous validation studies for ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), while intensity prediction equations (IPEs) have received less attention. We attempted to extend the validation study to IPEs. We evaluated a number of Italian IPEs and one global IPE using intensity observations in Italy since 2002, derived from multiple datasets. The prediction and observations were compared using a simple metric of mean absolute error, as well as conventional residual analysis. IPEs with a physically meaningful functional form were found to perform better. Some IPEs derived from a large amount of data were not found to perform better than those derived from a moderate amount of data. A global IPE was found to have comparable performance with the best indigenous model, suggesting that the regional difference of intensity attenuation may not be significant. These findings could guide the development of IPEs in the future.

  7. Evaluation of flood and landslide risk to the population of Italy.

    PubMed

    Guzzetti, Fausto; Stark, Colin P; Salvati, Paola

    2005-07-01

    We have compiled a database of floods and landslides that occurred in Italy between AD 1279 and 2002 and caused deaths, missing persons, injuries, and homelessness. Analysis of the database indicates that more than 50,593 people died, went missing, or were injured in 2580 flood and landslide events. Harmful events were inventoried in 26.3% of the 8103 Italian municipalities. Fatal events were most frequent in the Alpine regions of northern Italy and were caused by both floods and landslides. In southern Italy, landslides were the principal agents of fatalities and were most numerous in the Campania region. Casualties were most frequent in the autumn. Fast-moving landslides, including rock falls, rockslides, rock avalanches, and debris flows, caused the largest number of deaths. In order to assess the overall risk posed by these processes, we merged the historical catalogs and identified 2682 "hydrogeomorphological" events that triggered single or multiple landslides and floods. We estimated individual risk through the calculation of mortality rates for both floods and landslides and compared these rates to the death rates for other natural, medical, and human-induced hazards in Italy. We used the frequency distribution of events with fatalities to ascertain the magnitude and frequency of the societal risks posed by floods and landslides. We quantified these risks in a Bayesian model that describes the probabilities of fatal flood and landslide events in Italy.

  8. Large human outbreak of West Nile virus infection in north-eastern Italy in 2012.

    PubMed

    Barzon, Luisa; Pacenti, Monia; Franchin, Elisa; Pagni, Silvana; Lavezzo, Enrico; Squarzon, Laura; Martello, Thomas; Russo, Francesca; Nicoletti, Loredana; Rezza, Giovanni; Castilletti, Concetta; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Salcuni, Pasquale; Cattai, Margherita; Cusinato, Riccardo; Palù, Giorgio

    2013-11-22

    Human cases of West Nile virus (WNV) disease have been reported in Italy since 2008. So far, most cases have been identified in north-eastern Italy, where, in 2012, the largest outbreak of WNV infection ever recorded in Italy occurred. Most cases of the 2012 outbreak were identified in the Veneto region, where a special surveillance plan for West Nile fever was in place. In this outbreak, 25 cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease and 17 cases of fever were confirmed. In addition, 14 WNV RNA-positive blood donors were identified by screening of blood and organ donations and two cases of asymptomatic infection were diagnosed by active surveillance of subjects at risk of WNV exposure. Two cases of death due to WNND were reported. Molecular testing demonstrated the presence of WNV lineage 1 in all WNV RNA-positive patients and, in 15 cases, infection by the novel Livenza strain was ascertained. Surveillance in other Italian regions notified one case of neuroinvasive disease in the south of Italy and two cases in Sardinia. Integrated surveillance for WNV infection remains a public health priority in Italy and vector control activities have been strengthened in areas of WNV circulation.

  9. Geoelectric monitoring of the Bagnaschino landslide (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochum, Birgit; Supper, Robert; Ottowitz, David; Pfeiler, Stefan; Kim, Jung-Ho; Lovisolo, Mario

    2013-04-01

    Landslides are one of the major natural threats to human lives, settlements and infrastructure. Permanent geoelectrical monitoring using the GEOMON4D instrumentation in combination with high resolution displacement monitoring by means of the DMS system was performed at an active landslide area in Italy (Bagnaschino). These sites are part of a geoelectrical monitoring network of the Geological Survey of Austria, which currently comprises six permanently monitored landslides in Europe. The Bagnaschino site represents a landslide/earthflow reactivated within an old landslide mass. The old landslide is situated on the slopes of the Val Casotto about 4 km SE of Torre Mondovì (NW Italy). Evident indications of deep-seated gravitational deformation suggest that the current slopes are in a condition of limit-equilibrium and are predisposed to slow instability, triggered most probably by rain and/or snow melting and river erosion at the foot. The recent landslide was activated during 1994 rainfall event. It covers an estimated area of 150,000 m² and comprises a displaced material of 1.2 million m³. It endangers a regional road and potential formation of a dam. For the purpose of early warning a DMS monitoring column with 60 m length was installed in October 2008. Total displacement recorded by DMS during the events between 2008 and 2010 was 600 mm. Subsequently, the GEOMON4D geoelectric monitoring system was installed there in 2010. Resistivity measurements are performed along a 224 m long profile, which is oriented parallel to the main movement direction. Its midpoint is next to the DMS station. One set of data comprising around 4000 gradient-type measurements is taken every 4 hours. For power supply a combination of a fuel cell and a solar panel is used. Within the observation interval one distinct displacement event was monitored. This event was accompanied by a decrease of electric resistivity. In addition to our standard analysis of resistivity data (e.g. time

  10. Performance assessment of fire-sat monitoring system based on satellite time series for fire danger estimation : the experience of the pre-operative application in the Basilicata Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanorte, Antonio; Desantis, Fortunato; Aromando, Angelo; Lasaponara, Rosa

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the results we obtained in the context of the FIRE-SAT project during the 2012 operative application of the satellite based tools for fire monitoring. FIRE_SAT project has been funded by the Civil Protection of the Basilicata Region in order to set up a low cost methodology for fire danger monitoring and fire effect estimation based on satellite Earth Observation techniques. To this aim, NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), ASTER, Landsat TM data were used. Novel data processing techniques have been developed by researchers of the ARGON Laboratory of the CNR-IMAA for the operative monitoring of fire. In this paper we only focus on the danger estimation model which has been fruitfully used since 2008 to 2012 as an reliable operative tool to support and optimize fire fighting strategies from the alert to the management of resources including fire attacks. The daily updating of fire danger is carried out using satellite MODIS images selected for their spectral capability and availability free of charge from NASA web site. This makes these data sets very suitable for an effective systematic (daily) and sustainable low-cost monitoring of large areas. The preoperative use of the integrated model, pointed out that the system properly monitor spatial and temporal variations of fire susceptibility and provide useful information of both fire severity and post fire regeneration capability.

  11. Imaging the structural style of an active normal fault through multidisciplinary geophysical investigation: a case study from the Mw 6.1, 2009 L'Aquila earthquake region (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villani, Fabio; Pucci, Stefano; Civico, Riccardo; De Martini, Paolo Marco; Nicolosi, Iacopo; D'Ajello Caracciolo, Francesca; Carluccio, Roberto; Di Giulio, Giuseppe; Vassallo, Maurizio; Smedile, Alessandra; Pantosti, Daniela

    2015-03-01

    The normal fault-system responsible of the 2009 Mw 6.1 L'Aquila earthquake (Paganica-San Demetrio fault-system) comprises several narrow, fault-parallel valleys of controversial origin. We investigated a key section of the southeastern portion of this fault network along the small Verupola Valley. In order to characterize its nature and possible tectonic activity, we applied multiple-geosciences techniques able to image at depth the structure associated to this peculiar landform. We integrated magnetometry, 2-D P wave and resistivity tomography, surface waves and seismic noise analysis coupled with field mapping, shallow boreholes and trenching. According to our results, the Verupola Valley is a ˜30-40-m-deep graben controlled by a SW-dipping master fault and synthetic splays paired with an antithetic NE-dipping fault. The SW-dipping splays are active and cut very shallow (<2 m deep) Late Pleistocene sediments. The small amount of cumulated vertical offset (˜15 m) across the conjugated system may indicate a young fault inception or very low Quaternary slip-rates. Due to its structural continuity with the adjacent mapped strands of the Paganica-San Demetrio fault network, we relate the Verupola Valley to the recent activity of the southeastern segment of this fault system. We also suggest that other fault-parallel valleys can have the same tectonic origin and setting of the Verupola Valley. This latter represents a scale-independent analogue from metric scale (exposed in the palaeoseismological trenches) to the Middle Aterno Basin scale (seen from seismic profiles and fault mapping). Overall, the imaged structural style is coherent with the regional tectonic setting due to Quaternary crustal extension.

  12. Demoiselles and Drafts from Italy and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, M. Dane

    1988-01-01

    Recounts the adventures of a journey taken through France and Italy. Makes an analogy of this trip to that of the one Charles Dickens took in 1844. Describes silicified horizons of the southern Paris Basin, moraines, outcrops, and "Hoodoos." (RT)

  13. High resolution fire risk mapping in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorucci, Paolo; Biondi, Guido; Campo, Lorenzo; D'Andrea, Mirko

    2014-05-01

    The high topographic and vegetation heterogeneity makes Italy vulnerable to forest fires both in the summer and in winter. In particular, northern regions are predominantly characterized by a winter fire regime, mainly due to frequent extremely dry winds from the north, while southern and central regions and the large islands are characterized by a severe summer fire regime, because of the higher temperatures and prolonged lack of precipitation. The threat of wildfires in Italy is not confined to wooded areas as they extend to agricultural areas and urban-forest interface areas. The agricultural and rural areas, in the last century, have been gradually abandoned, especially in areas with complex topography. Many of these areas were subject to reforestation, leading to the spread of pioneer species mainly represented by Mediterranean conifer, which are highly vulnerable to fire. Because of the frequent spread of fire, these areas are limited to the early successional stages, consisting mainly of shrub vegetation; its survival in the competition with the climax species being ensured by the spread of fire itself. Due to the frequency of fire ignition — almost entirely man caused — the time between fires on the same area is at least an order of magnitude less than the time that would allow the establishment of forest climax species far less vulnerable to fire. In view of the limited availability of fire risk management resources, most of which are used in the management of national and regional air services, it is necessary to precisely identify the areas most vulnerable to fire risk. The few resources available can thus be used on a yearly basis to mitigate problems in the areas at highest risk by defining a program of forest management interventions, which is expected to make a significant contribution to the problem in a few years' time. The goal of such detailed planning is to dramatically reduce the costs associated with water bombers fleet management and fire

  14. [Rosenfeld in Italy (1978 to 1985)].

    PubMed

    de Masi, Franco

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I try to throw some light on Rosenfeld's thought and his way of working when he came to Italy. I would like to show, in a sketchy way, the evolution of his thought and in particular the new way he looked at clinical practice at that time. My point is that the Rosenfeld we met in Italy was able to open new horizons in clinical practice, implicitly questioning some of his own or his circle's previous viewpoints. PMID:26595987

  15. Impacts of the 1669 eruption and the 1693 earthquakes on the Etna Region (Eastern Sicily, Italy): An example of recovery and response of a small area to extreme events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branca, Stefano; Azzaro, Raffaele; De Beni, Emanuela; Chester, David; Duncan, Angus

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we trace the impact of the 1669 eruption and the 1693 earthquakes in eastern Sicily, their effects on the people living in the Etna region and, more particularly, in the city of Catania and its hinterland. The former event was the largest historic eruption of Etna, having a flow field with an area of ca. 40 km2 and a maximum flow length of ca. 17 km, whereas the latter - occurring only 24 years later - killed between 11,000 and 20,000 of Catania's estimated 20-27,000 inhabitants, plus many more in smaller settlements. Using a combination of field-based research, contemporary accounts and archival sources, the authors are able to draw a number of conclusions. First, the 1669 eruption, although it did not kill or injure, was economically the most devastating of historical eruptions. Although it affected a limited area, inundation by lava meant that land was effectively sterilized for centuries and, in a pre-industrial agriculturally-based economy, recovery could not occur quickly without outside assistance from the State. Indeed some of the worst affected municipalities (i.e. Comuni) were only able to support populations that were much reduced in size. Secondly, much of the damage caused to buildings by volcanic earthquakes was effectively masked, because most of the settlements affected were quickly covered by lava flows. The vulnerability to volcanic earthquakes of traditionally constructed buildings has, however, remained a serious example of un-ameliorated risk exposure through to the present day. A third conclusion is that the 1693 earthquakes, although more serious with respect to the number of people and the area they affected in terms of mortality, morbidity and their immediate economic impact, saw a rapid and sustained recovery. This was due in part to the fact that, in contrast to lava flows, an earthquake does not sterilize land, but more significant was the reduction in population numbers which served both to release and concentrate funds

  16. Bio-social and environmental factors of premature births and stillbirths in Italy.

    PubMed

    Pinnelli, A; Zannella, F

    1981-01-01

    An examination of a number of biological and social aspects of infant survival in Italy is presented, with particular reference to regional differences in premature births and stillbirths. Factors examined include birth order, mother's age, mother's educational background, father's occupation, and the economic, hygienic, and health care conditions of the province of residence. Data are for 1974-1975. (summary in FRE, ITA)

  17. Making Federalism Work in Italy. OECD Economics Department Working Papers No. 590

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibbee, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    Fiscal federalism can be an important complement to structural reforms and budget consolidation. Empowering sub national governments, while at the same time making them accountable to local citizens in the uses of tax money, could improve the allocation of public resources and promote catch up of the lagging regions. Italy has launched itself in…

  18. An Evaluation Study of Youth Participation in Youth Work: A Case Study in Southern Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morciano, Daniele; Scardigno, Anna Fausta; Manuti, Amelia; Pastore, Serafina

    2014-01-01

    In this paper an evaluation study of a public programme financing a regional network of 157 youth centres in the South of Italy is presented. A theory-based evaluation model was adopted to explore the causal links between different types of participation experience. Evaluation questions focused on three main issues are: the perception of…

  19. Early Educational Settings in Italy: The Social Context and Educational Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musatti, Tullia

    2004-01-01

    The educational provision for young children in Italy today displays quite unique features; in some regions it attains some of the highest child access percentages in the world, is attended by families from all social classes and many services are denoted by qualitative excellence. It thus provides an interesting observatory for discussing the…

  20. [Evolution and practical application of the concept of clinical governance in Italy].

    PubMed

    Trabacchi, V; Pasquarella, C; Signorelli, C

    2008-01-01

    Clinical Governances' roots in the United Kingdom's National Health Service and the following introduction of "Governo Clinico" in Italy are analyzed. Some definitions of Clinical Governance and "Governo clinico" are presented and discussed, by highlighting the main characteristics and differences, both conceptual and semiological. Finally, legal bases for the official empowerment of Healthcare Governance in Italy are described, by focusing on the Region Emilia-Romagna, whose recent Social and Sanitary Plan for 2008-2010 has developed concepts of integration, multidisciplinarity, responsibility and quality of socio-sanitary services. PMID:19069257

  1. CBRN mobile laboratories in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Giorgio; Giraudi, Giampaolo; Bellino, Mariarosa; Pazienza, Michele; Garibaldi, Claudio; Lancia, Corrado

    2009-05-01

    The paper describes the experiences in Italy with the CBRN (Chemical Biological Radiological Nuclear) defense mobile laboratories. These laboratories were constructed by the Italian Army and the Italian Fire Brigades. The purpose of these mobile laboratories is to allow quick transport of the labs to the area of crisis in order to support emergency response in case of CBRN events. The differences between two alternative solutions will be developed in the paper. The first solution is when the lab is to be located in the "dangerous area" (this solution was chosen by the Italian Army) and the alternative approach is to place the mobile lab just outside the dangerous area (this approach was selected by the Italian Fire Brigades). One of the most important devices inside the lab is the isolator (also called "glove box") which allows safe ingress and handling of the "suspicious" samples from the external environment. The isolator has a special chamber for transfer of the sample from the outside. The pressure of the isolator is permanently kept below the air pressure inside the lab by means of one (or more) fan. The operators perform the sample preparations or part of the analysis by handling the sample with the gloves. The material flow inside the lab will be described depending on the kind of identification analysis to be done on the samples. Other devices installed on the mobile CBRN laboratories are: biohazard hood (UE regulation, containment level 2); autoclave; freezer; cleaning skid (tanks, pumps, etc.).

  2. New CALLISTO Station in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monstein, Chr.

    2013-10-01

    A new CALLISTO station is now active in Triest/Italy at the Astronomical Observatory premises located in Basovizza. It has been recently installed and set into operation on the 6th September 2013. The antenna has been installed on an old bunker named "Sissi" and is based on a commercial log-periodic antenna from RKB(http://www.rkb./articoli.asp?id=26), operating frequency 130-1000 MHz, gain of about 6-7 dBi. Beam&-width is of 103 degrees in the V plane and of 61 degrees in the H plane. Considering the site location, sun path variations during the year and beam-width, the antenna is installed fixed-mounted pointing towards South with an angle of 45 degrees in the V plane. This should cover all declination of solar path throughout the year with about 7 hours observation time centered around 12.00, local time. The front-end aerial is connected to a low noise preamplifier Mini-Circuits ZX60-33LN with 20dB of gain and 1.1dB of noise figure.

  3. Review of West Nile virus epidemiology in Italy and report of a case of West Nile virus encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Delbue, Serena; Ferrante, Pasquale; Mariotto, Sara; Zanusso, Gianluigi; Pavone, Antonino; Chinaglia, Mauro; L'Erario, Roberto; Monaco, Salvatore; Ferrari, Sergio

    2014-10-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a flavivirus that causes neurological disorders in less than 1 % of infected subjects. Human cases of WNV-associated fever and/or neurological disorders have been reported in Italy since 2008. The first outbreak occurred in the northeastern region of Italy surrounding the Po River and was caused by the Po River lineage 1 strain, and since then, WNV infections have been reported in several regions of central Italy. Although the virus is highly genetically conserved, stochastic mutations in its genome may lead to the emergence of new strains, as was observed in Italy in 2011 with the identification of two new lineage 1 strains, the WNV Piave and WNV Livenza strains. To help further define WNV epidemiology in Italy, we describe a case of an Italian man living in the Po River area who developed fatal encephalitis in 2009 due to infection with the WNV Piave strain. This finding supports the notion that the Piave strain has been circulating in this area of Italy for 2 years longer than was previously believed.

  4. Tuberculosis and leprosy in Italy: new skeletal evidence.

    PubMed

    Rubini, Mauro; Zaio, Paola; Roberts, Charlotte

    2014-02-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and leprosy are infections caused by Mycobacteria. This paper documents new skeletal evidence in Italy from the Iron Age site of Corvaro (Central Italy; 5th century BCE) and the Roman site of Palombara (Central Italy; 4th-5th century CE), and briefly reviews the extant evidence for these infections in Italy. The skeletal evidence for TB in Italy is more ancient than for leprosy, and is more common. The oldest evidence for both mycobacterial diseases is in the North of Italy, but this could be by chance, even if biomolecular models suggest a land route from the East to central Europe, especially for leprosy.

  5. Structural damages of L'Aquila (Italy) earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, H.; Bilgin, H.; Yilmaz, S.; Binici, H.; Öztas, A.

    2010-03-01

    On 6 April 2009 an earthquake of magnitude 6.3 occurred in L'Aquila city, Italy. In the city center and surrounding villages many masonry and reinforced concrete (RC) buildings were heavily damaged or collapsed. After the earthquake, the inspection carried out in the region provided relevant results concerning the quality of the materials, method of construction and the performance of the structures. The region was initially inhabited in the 13th century and has many historic structures. The main structural materials are unreinforced masonry (URM) composed of rubble stone, brick, and hollow clay tile. Masonry units suffered the worst damage. Wood flooring systems and corrugated steel roofs are common in URM buildings. Moreover, unconfined gable walls, excessive wall thicknesses without connection with each other are among the most common deficiencies of poorly constructed masonry structures. These walls caused an increase in earthquake loads. The quality of the materials and the construction were not in accordance with the standards. On the other hand, several modern, non-ductile concrete frame buildings have collapsed. Poor concrete quality and poor reinforcement detailing caused damage in reinforced concrete structures. Furthermore, many structural deficiencies such as non-ductile detailing, strong beams-weak columns and were commonly observed. In this paper, reasons why the buildings were damaged in the 6 April 2009 earthquake in L'Aquila, Italy are given. Some suggestions are made to prevent such disasters in the future.

  6. Obtaining reimbursement in France and Italy for new diabetes products.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Elmar; Schnell, Gerald; Sonsalla, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers launching next-generation or innovative medical devices in Europe face a very heterogeneous reimbursement landscape, with each country having its own pathways, timing, requirements and success factors. We selected 2 markets for a deeper look into the reimbursement landscape: France, representing a country with central decision making with defined processes, and Italy, which delegates reimbursement decisions to the regional level, resulting in a less transparent approach to reimbursement. Based on our experience in working on various new product launches and analyzing recent reimbursement decisions, we found that payers in both countries do not reward improved next-generation products with incremental reimbursement. Looking at innovations, we observe that manufacturers face a challenging and lengthy process to obtain reimbursement. In addition, requirements and key success factors differ by country: In France, comparative clinical evidence and budget impact very much drive reimbursement decisions in terms of pricing and restrictions, whereas in Italy, regional key opinion leader (KOL) support and additional local observational data are key. PMID:25550411

  7. Obtaining Reimbursement in France and Italy for New Diabetes Products

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Elmar; Sonsalla, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers launching next-generation or innovative medical devices in Europe face a very heterogeneous reimbursement landscape, with each country having its own pathways, timing, requirements and success factors. We selected 2 markets for a deeper look into the reimbursement landscape: France, representing a country with central decision making with defined processes, and Italy, which delegates reimbursement decisions to the regional level, resulting in a less transparent approach to reimbursement. Based on our experience in working on various new product launches and analyzing recent reimbursement decisions, we found that payers in both countries do not reward improved next-generation products with incremental reimbursement. Looking at innovations, we observe that manufacturers face a challenging and lengthy process to obtain reimbursement. In addition, requirements and key success factors differ by country: In France, comparative clinical evidence and budget impact very much drive reimbursement decisions in terms of pricing and restrictions, whereas in Italy, regional key opinion leader (KOL) support and additional local observational data are key. PMID:25550411

  8. Immunisation registers in Italy: a patchwork of computerisation.

    PubMed

    Alfonsi, V; D'Ancona, F; Rota, M C; Giambi, C; Ranghiasci, A; Iannazzo, S

    2012-01-01

    In Italy, the 21 regional health authorities are in charge of organising and implementing their own vaccination strategy, based on the national vaccine plan. Immunisation coverage varies greatly among the regions for certain vaccines. Efforts to increase childhood immunisation coverage have included initiatives to develop and implement computerised immunisation registers in as many regions as possible. We undertook a cross-sectional online survey in July 2011 to provide an updated picture of the use, heterogeneity and main functions of different computerised immunisation registers used in the Italian regions and to understand the flow of information from local health units to the regional authorities and to the Ministry of Health. Comparing current data with those obtained in 2007, a substantial improvement is evident. A total of 15 regions are fully computerised (previously nine), with 83% of local health units equipped with a computerised register (previously 70%). Eight of the 15 fully computerised regions use the same software, simplifying data sharing. Only four regions are able to obtain data in real time from local health units. Despite the progress made, the capacity to monitor vaccination coverage and to exchange data appears still limited. PMID:22551498

  9. Updates on cystic echinococcosis (CE) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Garippa, G

    2006-06-01

    An update on Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) diffusion in Italy during 2003-2005 is reported. CE seems to have a sporadic diffusion in the northern part of the country where this disease plays a minor role (prevalence < 1%). Recent investigations have shown the occurrence of CE cases in humans from the mountains between Reggio Emilia and Modena, with an average year incidence between 9.4 and 5.6/100,000. In Abruzzo prevalences in sheep and cattle are 20.2% and 15.3%, with a fertility of 4.6% and 1.3%, respectively. In the same region, G1 and G3 strains were identified and a prevalence of 31% in dogs was found with CaELISA. In Campania, CE prevalence was 14.8% in cattle, with no viable cysts recovered, and 10.5% in water buffaloes, with a fertility of 1.4%. Biotechnologies allowed to find G1 and G3 strains in water buffaloes. In Sicily, CE was found in 67.1% of cattle, with a fertility of 4%, and in 57.6% of sheep, with 9.2% of viable cysts. Biomolecular investigations have found G1 strain in sheep and cattle. In dogs, a prevalence of 5.6% for Echinococcus granulosus was reported. In Sardinia CE prevalence was 75.3% in sheep and 41.5% in cattle, with a fertility of 10.3% and 2.6%, respectively. CE was found also in 9.4% of pigs, with fertility of 6.5%. The G1 strain was recovered in sheep and cattle while the G7 in pigs.

  10. Uncertainty analysis for seismic hazard in Northern and Central Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombardi, A.M.; Akinci, A.; Malagnini, L.; Mueller, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    In this study we examine uncertainty and parametric sensitivity of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and 1-Hz Spectral Acceleration (1-Hz SA) in probabilistic seismic hazard maps (10% probability of exceedance in 50 years) of Northern and Central Italy. The uncertainty in hazard is estimated using a Monte Carlo approach to randomly sample a logic tree that has three input-variables branch points representing alternative values for b-value, maximum magnitude (Mmax) and attenuation relationships. Uncertainty is expressed in terms of 95% confidence band and Coefficient Of Variation (COV). The overall variability of ground motions and their sensitivity to each parameter of the logic tree are investigated. The largest values of the overall 95% confidence band are around 0.15 g for PGA in the Friuli and Northern Apennines regions and around 0.35 g for 1-Hz SA in the Central Apennines. The sensitivity analysis shows that the largest contributor to seismic hazard variability is uncertainty in the choice of ground-motion attenuation relationships, especially in the Friuli Region (???0.10 g) for PGA and in the Friuli and Central Apennines regions (???0.15 g) for 1-Hz SA. This is followed by the variability of the b-value: its main contribution is evident in the Friuli and Central Apennines regions for both 1-Hz SA (???0.15 g) and PGA (???0.10 g). We observe that the contribution of Mmax to seismic hazard variability is negligible, at least for 10% exceedance in 50-years hazard. The overall COV map for PGA shows that the uncertainty in the hazard is larger in the Friuli and Northern Apennine regions, around 20-30%, than the Central Apennines and Northwestern Italy, around 10-20%. The overall uncertainty is larger for the 1-Hz SA map and reaches 50-60% in the Central Apennines and Western Alps.

  11. ELF signals and EQLs in Central Italy in 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidani, Cristiano

    2010-05-01

    Instrumental studies of earthquake electromagnetic phenomena began in the 1800's in Italy. These studies were inspired by several observations reported on in the XVIII century collections of earthquake phenomena and the inventions of the first electric and magnetic instruments. From about fifteen years ago in Italy a VLF electromagnetic monitoring which concerns sub ionospheric channel of propagation has been active. It has produced interesting results in connection with seismic activity. Recently, a continuous monitoring of LF, ELF and SLF electromagnetic signals was started in Central Italy. This was done to verify the usefulness of this research field so to understand earthquake processes and forecasting. The first station started operating near the city of Fermo, in the Marche region in 2006; while a second station started operating in Perugia, in the Umbria region in 2008. The Fermo station was initially set up with only a low frequency amplifier but from mid 2007 it has also been equipped with a long wave radio receiver tuned at 150 KHz. The electrode and the antenna are oriented along a north-south direction. Signals are recorded in wave and spectral image files through a maximal sample frequency of 2-5.5 KHz, so that a maximum signal frequency of 1-2.75 KHz can be analysed, while minimum frequency is limited by amplifier band equal to 4 Hz. The Perugia station was set up with a couple of low frequency amplifiers which work on two orthogonal electrodes, oriented along north-south and east-west directions. At this station the maximum sample frequency is 2-22 KHz so a maximum signal frequency of 1-11 KHz can be analysed, while minimum frequency is limited to 4 Hz. Several signals were recorded before and after the Aquila earthquake and on the occasions of other central Italy seismic swarms in 2009. Here the search for a physical link between seismic events and electromagnetic signals is being carried out. At the opposite end of the electromagnetic spectrum

  12. Metal mobility in river and sea sediments affected by mine drainage (Sestri Levante, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consani, Sirio; Capello, Marco; Cutroneo, Laura; Vagge, Greta; Zuccarelli, Andrea; Carbone, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    The Gromolo Torrent is a metal-polluted Apennine streamflow located near Sestri Levante (Liguria, Italy). It springs from the Monte Rocca Grande (850 m a.s.l.), and flows for 11.5 km through the Gromolo Valley before flowing into the Ligurian Sea. Inside the Gromolo basin is located the abandoned Fe-Cu mine of Libiola, which was the most important sulfide deposit of the Ligurian Apennines. In this mining site, extensive Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) processes are active, both inside the mine tunnels and in the sulfide rich waste-rock dumps; the solutions generated are characterised by low pH values and high amounts of dissolved SO42-, Fe, and other chemical elements such as Cu, Zn, Pb, Al, Co, and Ni. Moreover, exstensively precipitation of Fe and Cu-rich secondary minerals occurs both as soft crusts inside the mine adits and as loose suspensions associated with overland flow of mine drainage. AMD waters flowed into the uncontaminated Gromolo Torrent where abundant precipitation of amorphous Fe(III)-oxy-hydroxides occurred. The marine study area is characterised by the presence of the headland of Sestri Levante with two bays, the western one named "Baia delle Favole". The dynamics of the area is dominated by a permanent north-westward off-shore current flowing approximately along isobath, and an eastward counter-current along the north coast with a resulting drift of the coastal materials from the West to Est towards "Baia delle Favole". The bottom sediment are principally characterised by coarse materials, mostly consisting of fine sand, with a percentage of the fine sediment increasing inside the bay, where the dynamics is low. The aims of this work are to 1) evaluate the metal mobility of colloidal river precipitates for about 7 km up to its mouth in the Ligurian Sea; 2) verify the contamination state of the marine bottom sediments off the mouth of the Gromolo Torrent ("Baia delle Favole" of Sestri Levante), and 3) identify the main sources and diffusion ways of

  13. The introduction of fox rabies into Italy (2008-2011) was due to two viral genetic groups with distinct phylogeographic patterns.

    PubMed

    Fusaro, Alice; Monne, Isabella; Salomoni, Angela; Angot, Angélique; Trolese, Matteo; Ferrè, Nicola; Mutinelli, Franco; Holmes, Edward C; Capua, Ilaria; Lemey, Philippe; Cattoli, Giovanni; De Benedictis, Paola

    2013-07-01

    Fox rabies re-emerged in north-eastern Italy at the end of 2008 and circulated until early 2011. As with previous rabies epidemics, the Italian cases were linked to the epidemiological situation in adjacent regions. To obtain a comprehensive picture of the dynamics of the recent Italian epidemic, we performed a detailed evolutionary analysis of RABVs circulating in north-eastern Italy. Sequences were obtained for the hyper-variable region of the nucleoprotein gene, the complete glycoprotein gene, and the intergenic region G-L from 113 selected fox rabies cases. We identified two viral genetic groups, here referred to as Italy-1 and Italy-2. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses revealed that both groups had been circulating in the Western Balkans and Slovenia in previous years and were only later introduced into Italy (into the Friuli Venezia Giulia region-FVG), occupying different areas of the Italian territories. Notably, viruses belonging to the Italy-1 group remained confined to the region of introduction and their spread was minimised by the implementation of oral fox vaccination campaigns. In contrast, Italy-2 viruses spread westward over a territory of 100 km from their first identification in FVG, likely crossing the northern territories where surveillance was inadequate. A genetic sub-group (Italy-2A), characterised by a unique amino acid mutation (D106A) in the N gene, was also observed to occupy a distinct geographic cluster. This molecular epidemiological analysis of the 2008-2011 fox rabies epidemic will contribute to future control programmes both at national and regional levels. In particular, our findings highlight the weaknesses of the national surveillance strategy in the period preceding rabies re-emergence, and of control plans implemented immediately after rabies notification, and underline the need of a coordinated approach at the regional level for both the surveillance and control of wildlife rabies.

  14. Oral hirudiniasis in a stray dog, first report in Italy.

    PubMed

    Raele, Donato Antonio; Galante, Domenico; Cafiero, Maria Assunta

    2015-10-01

    In June 2014, a male stray dog was recovered at Ente Nazionale di Protezione Animali (ENPA) kennel of Manfredonia, Apulia region, showing oral bleeding and physical prostration. The dog fell in a water canal and was trapped. During the clinical examination, a specimen of leech was revealed into its oral cavity. The parasite, probably entered by drinking unfiltered and contaminated water, has been identified as an adult of aquatic leech Limnatis nilotica. Leeches could overrun wide variety of animals, and few reports about blood sucking leech infestations in mammals are available in literature. This paper describes here the first oral hirudiniasis in a dog in Italy and highlights the possibility of human nasopharyngeal leech-related infection in Apulia region.

  15. Oral hirudiniasis in a stray dog, first report in Italy

    PubMed Central

    RAELE, Donato Antonio; GALANTE, Domenico; CAFIERO, Maria Assunta

    2015-01-01

    In June 2014, a male stray dog was recovered at Ente Nazionale di Protezione Animali (ENPA) kennel of Manfredonia, Apulia region, showing oral bleeding and physical prostration. The dog fell in a water canal and was trapped. During the clinical examination, a specimen of leech was revealed into its oral cavity. The parasite, probably entered by drinking unfiltered and contaminated water, has been identified as an adult of aquatic leech Limnatis nilotica. Leeches could overrun wide variety of animals, and few reports about blood sucking leech infestations in mammals are available in literature. This paper describes here the first oral hirudiniasis in a dog in Italy and highlights the possibility of human nasopharyngeal leech-related infection in Apulia region. PMID:26004432

  16. The incidence of fragility fractures in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ratti, Chiara; Vulcano, Ettore; La Barbera, Giuseppe; Canton, Gianluca; Murena, Luigi; Cherubino, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    Osteoporosis can significantly impact on the risk of developing a fracture. Thus, fragility fractures represent a challenge for health professionals and decision makers of the twenty-first century. The aim of this work is to review the literature concerning osteoporotic fractures in Italy in terms of incidence, rate of hospitalization, relative risk of a new fragility fracture, and costs for the national health system. It was estimated that the costs of treating proximal femur fragility fractures in 2002 summed up to 1 billion Euros. The number of fragility fractures in Italy was calculated as follows: 91.494 hip fractures, 61.009 clinical vertebral fractures, 57.401 humeral fragility fractures, and 94.045 forearm/wrist fragility fractures. The incidence of fragility fractures in Italy is very high, and osteoporosis is the leading cause of morbidity in the Italian population. PMID:24046040

  17. Relationship between Latitude and Melanoma in Italy.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Chiarugi, Alessandra; Nardini, Paolo; Pimpinelli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Evaluate the ecological relationship between skin melanoma epidemiology and latitude in Italy. Methods. We used data from the Italian network of cancer registries (Airtum). In a Poisson model, we evaluated the effect on incidence, mortality, and survival of latitude, adjusting for some demographic, social, phenotypic, and behavioural variables. Results. Incidence increased in Italy by 17% for each degree of increase in latitude. The effect of latitude was statistically significantly present also adjusting for other variables (incidence rate ratio = 1.08). The effect of latitude on increasing mortality (mortality rate ratio = 1.27) and improving survival (relative excess risk of death = 0.93) was no longer present in the multivariate model. Conclusion. Melanoma incidence, mortality, and survival vary in Italy according to latitude. After adjustment for several confounders, incidence still grows with growing latitude. Presumably, latitude expresses other variables that might be related to individual susceptibility and/or local care.

  18. John Ray in Italy: lost manuscripts rediscovered

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper discloses the content of two manuscripts of John Ray that have hitherto been unknown to Ray scholars. The manuscripts survive in the Hampshire Record Office, having descended through the Prideaux-Brune family. They record information about Ray's tour of Italy in the 1660s that does not appear in his Observations … made in a journey through … the Low-countries, Germany, Italy and France (1673), including a visit to the museum of Athanasius Kircher in Rome, and provide clues concerning the composition of Ray's 1673 book. PMID:24921104

  19. Foreign children with cancer in Italy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been a noticeable annual increase in the number of children coming to Italy for medical treatment, just like it has happened in the rest of the European Union. In Italy, the assistance to children suffering from cancer is assured by the current network of 54 centres members of the Italian Association of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (AIEOP), which has kept records of all demographic and clinical data in the database of Mod.1.01 Registry since 1989. Methods We used the information stored in the already mentioned database to assess the impact of immigration of foreign children with cancer on centres' activity, with the scope of drawing a map of the assistance to these cases. Results Out of 14,738 cases recorded by all centres in the period from 1999 to 2008, 92.2% were born and resident in Italy, 4.1% (608) were born abroad and living abroad and 3.7% (538) were born abroad and living in Italy. Foreign children cases have increased over the years from 2.5% in 1999 to. 8.1% in 2008. Most immigrant children came from Europe (65.7%), whereas patients who came from America, Asia and Oceania amounted to 13.2%, 10.1%, 0.2%, respectively. The immigrant survival rate was lower compared to that of children who were born in Italy. This is especially true for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients entered an AIEOP protocol, who showed a 10-years survival rate of 71.0% vs. 80.7% (p < 0.001) for immigrants and patients born in Italy, respectively. Conclusions Children and adolescents are an increasingly important part of the immigration phenomenon, which occurs in many parts of the world. In Italy the vast majority of children affected by malignancies are treated in AIEOP centres. Since immigrant children are predominantly treated in northern Italy, these centres have developed a special expertise in treating immigrant patients, which is certainly very useful for the entire AIEOP network. PMID:21923939

  20. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (JAN 2002) (a) The Contractor represents that...

  1. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c)(1), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (MAR 2012) (a) As the Contractor represented in its...

  2. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c)(1), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (MAR 2012) (a) As the Contractor represented in its...

  3. 48 CFR 252.229-7003 - Tax Exemptions (Italy).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tax Exemptions (Italy... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7003 Tax Exemptions (Italy). As prescribed in 229.402-70(c)(1), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Italy) (MAR 2012) (a) As the Contractor represented in its...

  4. 76 FR 4936 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... on granular PTFE resin from Italy and Japan (75 FR 67082-67083 and 67105-67108, November 1, 2010... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade... antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``granular PTFE resin'') from Italy....

  5. 76 FR 39896 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to... Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin from Italy: Investigation No. 731-TA-385 (Third Review). By order...

  6. Campland: Racial Segregation of Roma in Italy. Country Reports Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahn, Claude; Carlisle, Kathryn D.; Fregoli, Claudia; Kiuranov, Deyan; Petrova, Dimitrina

    This report addresses racial segregation and human rights abuses against Roma in Italy, focusing on: "Anti-Gypsyism in Italy"; "Roma in Italy: Racial Segregation"; "Abuses by Police and Judicial Authorities" (e.g., abusive raids and evictions, abusive use of firearms, torture and physical abuse, discriminatory targeting of Roma by police, theft by…

  7. Vector species of Culicoides midges implicated in the 2012‑2014 Bluetongue epidemics in Italy.

    PubMed

    Goffredo, Maria; Catalani, Monica; Federici, Valentina; Portanti, Ottavio; Marini, Valeria; Mancini, Giuseppe; Quaglia, Michela; Santilli, Adriana; Teodori, Liana; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, serotypes 1 and 4 of bluetongue virus (BTV) entered and co‑circulated in Sardinia. The following year, BTV‑1 spread all over Sardinia and invaded Sicily and the Italian Tyrrenian coast. In 2014, this strain spread extensively in mainland Italy, causing severe outbreaks. In late 2014, BTV‑4 was detected in Southern Italy (Apulia region). This study reports the detection of BTV in species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) collected in Italy during the epidemics between 2012 and 2014. A total of 2,925 pools (83,102 midges), sorted from 651 collections made on 339 affected farms of 12 Italian regions, were tested for the presence of BTV by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT‑PCR). The study clearly shows that Culicoides imicola and Obsoletus complex have played a crucial role in the bluetongue (BT) epidemics in Italy in 2012‑2014. Nevertheless, it also shows that other species may have played a role in transmitting BTV during these outbreaks. Culicoides dewulfi and at least 3 species of the Pulicaris complex, namely Culicoides pulicaris, Culicoides newsteadi and Culicoides punctatus, were found positive to BTV. Serotype 1 was detected in all species tested, whereas the BTV‑4 was detected in the Obsoletus complex, C. imicola, and C. newsteadi.

  8. First case report of invasive pseudoterranoviasis in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cavallero, Serena; Scribano, Daniela; D'Amelio, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    Members of the genera Anisakis and Pseudoterranova are the main causative agents of human anisakidosis: the disease is worldwide distributed, with major impact in countries with a large consumption of raw fish. Because of unspecific symptoms and limited diagnostic tools, incidence and burden of disease are probably underestimated. In Italy, all human infestations where the etiological agent has been properly identified, have been associated to the parasitic species Anisakis pegreffii, the most frequent anisakid in the Mediterranean area. Here, an invasive human case of pseudoterranoviasis is described for the first time in Italy: in 2015, a woman was found infected during a colonoscopy scheduled after the occurrence of nonspecific clinical symptoms. The nematode was found penetrating the ascending colon. The identification was performed by sequencing the mitochondrial region cox2 and by comparison to GenBank retrieved material using the BLAST search tool. The sample showed a 99% identity with Pseudoterranova decipiens sensu stricto. The record underlines the potential risk due to the consumption of raw or undercooked imported fishes.

  9. Gay and lesbian couples in Italy: comparisons with heterosexual couples.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Paolo; Dèttore, Davide; Lasagni, Irene; Snyder, Douglas K; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina

    2014-12-01

    Assessing couple relationships across diverse languages and cultures has important implications for both clinical intervention and prevention. This is especially true for nontraditional relationships potentially subject to various expressions of negative societal evaluation or bias. Few empirically validated measures of relationship functioning have been developed for cross-cultural applications, and none have been examined for their psychometric sufficiency for evaluating same-sex couples across different languages and cultures. The current study examined the psychometric properties of an Italian translation of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory - Revised (MSI-R), a 150-item 13-scale measure of couple relationship functioning, for its use in assessing the intimate relationships of gay and lesbian couples in Italy. Results for these couples were compared to data from heterosexual married and unmarried cohabiting couples from the same geographical region, as well as to previously published data for gay, lesbian, and unmarried heterosexual couples from the United States. Findings suggest that, despite unique societal pressures confronting Italian same-sex couples, these relationships appear resilient and fare well both overall and in specific domains of functioning compared to heterosexual couples both in Italy and the United States.

  10. Neospora caninum infection in a Bernese cattle dog from Italy.

    PubMed

    Poli, A; Mancianti, F; Carli, M A; Stroscio, M C; Kramer, L

    1998-07-31

    A cutaneous nodule associated with Neospora caninum infection was diagnosed in a 5-year-old male Bernese cattle dog from Italy. The ulcerative lesion was 2-3 cm wide located in the skin of the tarsal region. Haematological values were normal and the dog did not show any neurological abnormalities. The dermal lesion consisted of a diffuse necrotic dermatitis with a dense infiltrate of mostly neutrophils and macrophages, surrounded by a fibrous wall. Histological sections revealed numerous tachyzoites of N. caninum scattered throughout the tissue. Diagnosis was confirmed both by immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopic examination. The dog had a 1:640 IFAT titre to N. caninum. Four weeks after surgical excision new subcutaneous nodules reappeared. The cutaneous lesions resolved following 21 days of therapy with clindamycin hydrochloride. These observations demonstrate the presence of N. caninum in Italy and confirm that neosporosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pyogranulomatous dermatitis in dogs. Clindamycin may be an effective treatment for cutaneous neosporosis.

  11. Gay and lesbian couples in Italy: comparisons with heterosexual couples.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Paolo; Dèttore, Davide; Lasagni, Irene; Snyder, Douglas K; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina

    2014-12-01

    Assessing couple relationships across diverse languages and cultures has important implications for both clinical intervention and prevention. This is especially true for nontraditional relationships potentially subject to various expressions of negative societal evaluation or bias. Few empirically validated measures of relationship functioning have been developed for cross-cultural applications, and none have been examined for their psychometric sufficiency for evaluating same-sex couples across different languages and cultures. The current study examined the psychometric properties of an Italian translation of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory - Revised (MSI-R), a 150-item 13-scale measure of couple relationship functioning, for its use in assessing the intimate relationships of gay and lesbian couples in Italy. Results for these couples were compared to data from heterosexual married and unmarried cohabiting couples from the same geographical region, as well as to previously published data for gay, lesbian, and unmarried heterosexual couples from the United States. Findings suggest that, despite unique societal pressures confronting Italian same-sex couples, these relationships appear resilient and fare well both overall and in specific domains of functioning compared to heterosexual couples both in Italy and the United States. PMID:24867576

  12. "Intelligent" Primary School Project in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Giorgio

    2007-01-01

    Construction work is about to begin on a new "intelligent" primary school for 300 students (later to be expanded for 600) in the Municipality of Solaro in the province of Milan. This is the first primary school building in Italy designed according to the principles of the "intelligent school" as defined by the Centre for Educational Innovation and…

  13. An Urban Renewal School Project in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponti, Giorgio

    2005-01-01

    The restoration of an historic school building in Battipaglia, Italy, will provide new public facilities and is hoped to boost urban renewal. The municipality of Battipaglia, in the province of Salerno, held an architectural competition for renovating the E. De Amicis Primary School and the surrounding area. The winning project, submitted by a…

  14. Return migration to Italy and labour migration.

    PubMed

    Calvaruso, C

    1983-01-01

    The problems caused by large-scale return migration to Italy in recent years are considered. The importance of the additional skills and capital acquired by these migrants while abroad is stressed. Extensive data on the volume of return migration in the 1970s are included.

  15. Gastroenteritis outbreak at holiday resort, central Italy.

    PubMed

    Migliorati, Giacomo; Prencipe, Vincenza; Ripani, Alessandro; Di Francesco, Cristina; Casaccia, Claudia; Crudeli, Silvia; Ferri, Nicola; Giovannini, Armando; Marconi, Maria Maddalena; Marfoglia, Cristina; Melai, Valeria; Savini, Giovanni; Scortichini, Giampiero; Semprini, Primula; Ruggeri, Franco Maria

    2008-03-01

    During the summer of 2003, a gastroenteritis outbreak spread throughout a holiday resort in central Italy. Fecally contaminated groundwater and seawater were leaking into the non-drinking-water system, which was found to be connected to the drinking-water system of a large resort. This contamination had a primary role in the onset of the outbreak and spread of the infection.

  16. Italy's Treasures Are in Their Hands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocca, Francis X.

    2007-01-01

    Each year more than 300 applicants vie for 18 slots at