Science.gov

Sample records for liina hussar rein

  1. Length and elasticity of side reins affect rein tension at trot.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Hilary M; Larson, Britt; Kaiser, LeeAnn J; Lavagnino, Michael

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the horse's contribution to tension in the reins. The experimental hypotheses were that tension in side reins (1) increases biphasically in each trot stride, (2) changes inversely with rein length, and (3) changes with elasticity of the reins. Eight riding horses trotted in hand at consistent speed in a straight line wearing a bit and bridle and three types of side reins (inelastic, stiff elastic, compliant elastic) were evaluated in random order at long, neutral, and short lengths. Strain gauge transducers (240 Hz) measured minimal, maximal and mean rein tension, rate of loading and impulse. The effects of rein type and length were evaluated using ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests. Rein tension oscillated in a regular pattern with a peak during each diagonal stance phase. Within each rein type, minimal, maximal and mean tensions were higher with shorter reins. At neutral or short lengths, minimal tension increased and maximal tension decreased with elasticity of the reins. Short, inelastic reins had the highest maximal tension and rate of loading. Since the tension variables respond differently to rein elasticity at different lengths, it is recommended that a set of variables representing different aspects of rein tension should be reported.

  2. Reines-Cowan team discovery of the electron neutrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Herald W.

    2011-12-01

    Personal perspective and recollections by the author discuss the Reines-Cowan team discovery of the electron neutrino at a Savannah River reactor in 1956. First presented at the Neutrino Santa Fe 2006 Conference.

  3. The effect of reins on kinetic variables of locomotion.

    PubMed

    Biau, S; Couve, O; Lemaire, S; Barrey, E

    2002-09-01

    The equestrian literature and reports of experienced riders indicated that attitude of a horse's head and neck is related to the equine locomotion characteristics. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of 3 types of reins on locomotion at walk and trot. Eight saddle horses were tested in an automatic walker without reins, with rubber bands, Chambons and Back lift, using the same procedure. The rubber bands closed the head-neck angle, whereas the Chambons and the Back lift opened it. The gait characteristics were measured with the Equimetrix gait analysis system. Two accelerometric devices were fixed on the sternum and sacrum to measure the kinetic characteristics of the fore- and hindlimbs at walk and trot. Analysis of variance was used to test the effects of reins on the fore- and hindlimbs. All 3 types of reins significantly (P<0.05) modified walk and trot, with increased forelimb propulsion at the trot (P<0.05). Chambons increased the dorsoventral activity of the hindlimbs at the trot and hindlimb propulsion at the walk (P<0.05). Back lift increased forelimb dorsoventral activity both at the trot and walk (P<0.05). It was concluded that the Chambons increased the activity of the hindlimbs while Back lift increased that of the forelimbs. The use of reins modified the head placement and the fore- and hindlimbs activity. The specific effect of each type of rein can be used for training, rehabilitation or management of locomotor's injury.

  4. Influence of draw reins on ground reaction forces at the trot.

    PubMed

    Roepstorff, L; Johnston, C; Drevemo, S; Gustås, P

    2002-09-01

    According to riding texts, draw reins are supposed to support increased collection. This has not been measured objectively. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether a horse ridden with draw reins would relatively increase weightbearing of the hindquarters while worked with the draw reins compared to a normal rein. Ground reaction forces were measured in 8 horses at the slow trot over a force plate in 3 different experimental set-ups: 1) riding with only a draw rein (DR); 2) riding with the combination of a normal and a draw rein (NR-DR) and 3) riding with a normal rein (NR). Horses ridden with NR-DR showed significant higher vertical impulse in the hindlimb compared to riding both with only DR and only NR. Several significant differences were also seen in the horizontal force. It is concluded that draw reins, when used correctly, together with a normal rein, achieve the desired result of shifting the weight of the horse caudally. This was not the case when the draw rein was used alone. It is important that trainers, as well as veterinarians, recommending draw reins in a rehabilitation programme, know about these possible effects.

  5. Davis takes the reins of JGR—Solid Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul M. Davis is looking forward to carrying on the tradition of excellence that William Hinze and the associate editors have established for his term, which will formally begin January 1997 and end December 2000. He shares in the excitement of discovery as he assists new manuscripts on their path toward publication. “As I take on the reins as new editor, I am in awe of the excellent job done by William Hinze and his staff, and it has become all too clear the debt so many of us owe to Bill,” Davis commented.

  6. Rein and Zheng Elected to American Academy of Microbiology | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer Earlier this year, Alan Rein, Ph.D., and Zhi-Ming (Thomas) Zheng, M.D., Ph.D., were elected to fellowship in the American Academy of Microbiology, the honorific leadership group within the American Society for Microbiology (ASM). They were among 88 microbiologists who were elected to the academy “through a highly selective, peer-review process, based on their records of scientific achievement and original contributions that have advanced microbiology,” according to the society’s website.

  7. Identification of Haptic Based Guiding Using Hard Reins.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Anuradha; Dasgupta, Prokar; Althoefer, Kaspar; Nanayakkara, Thrishantha

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents identifications of human-human interaction in which one person with limited auditory and visual perception of the environment (a follower) is guided by an agent with full perceptual capabilities (a guider) via a hard rein along a given path. We investigate several identifications of the interaction between the guider and the follower such as computational models that map states of the follower to actions of the guider and the computational basis of the guider to modulate the force on the rein in response to the trust level of the follower. Based on experimental identification systems on human demonstrations show that the guider and the follower experience learning for an optimal stable state-dependent novel 3rd and 2nd order auto-regressive predictive and reactive control policies respectively. By modeling the follower's dynamics using a time varying virtual damped inertial system, we found that the coefficient of virtual damping is most appropriate to explain the trust level of the follower at any given time. Moreover, we present the stability of the extracted guiding policy when it was implemented on a planar 1-DoF robotic arm. Our findings provide a theoretical basis to design advanced human-robot interaction algorithms applicable to a variety of situations where a human requires the assistance of a robot to perceive the environment.

  8. Identification of Haptic Based Guiding Using Hard Reins

    PubMed Central

    Ranasinghe, Anuradha; Dasgupta, Prokar; Althoefer, Kaspar; Nanayakkara, Thrishantha

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents identifications of human-human interaction in which one person with limited auditory and visual perception of the environment (a follower) is guided by an agent with full perceptual capabilities (a guider) via a hard rein along a given path. We investigate several identifications of the interaction between the guider and the follower such as computational models that map states of the follower to actions of the guider and the computational basis of the guider to modulate the force on the rein in response to the trust level of the follower. Based on experimental identification systems on human demonstrations show that the guider and the follower experience learning for an optimal stable state-dependent novel 3rd and 2nd order auto-regressive predictive and reactive control policies respectively. By modeling the follower’s dynamics using a time varying virtual damped inertial system, we found that the coefficient of virtual damping is most appropriate to explain the trust level of the follower at any given time. Moreover, we present the stability of the extracted guiding policy when it was implemented on a planar 1-DoF robotic arm. Our findings provide a theoretical basis to design advanced human-robot interaction algorithms applicable to a variety of situations where a human requires the assistance of a robot to perceive the environment. PMID:26201076

  9. Prise en charge des traumatismes graves du rein

    PubMed Central

    Lakmichi, Mohamed Amine; Jarir, Redouane; Sadiki, Bader; Zehraoui; Bentani; Wakrim, Bader; Dahami, Zakaria; Moudouni; Sarf, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Les traumatismes graves du rein de grade III, IV et V selon la classification de l'Amercan Society for Surgery For Trauma (ASST) sont plus rares et se retrouvent dans 5% des cas en moyenne. Leur prise en charge est souvent délicate, nécessitant alors des centres expérimentés dotés de moyen adéquats d'imagerie (scanner spiralé). Cependant, durant ces dernières années, la prise en charge de ces traumatismes a évolué vers une attitude de moins en moins chirurgicale grâce à l’évolution des techniques de la radiologie interventionnelle, de l'endourologie et des moyens de surveillance aux urgences et de réanimation. L'objectif de cette étude est d’évaluer notre expérience dans la prise en charge des traumatismes rénaux de haut grade. Notre étude rétrospective porte sur 25 cas de traumatismes grave du rein de grade III, IV et V selon la classification de l'ASST, colligés entre Janvier 2002 et Juin 2009 au service d'urologie du centre Hospitalier Universitaire Mohammed VI, Université Cadi Ayyad de Marrakech, Maroc. Nous avons étudié les données épidémiologiques, les signes cliniques et biologiques à l'admission (état de choc hémorragique, taux d'hémoglobine), les données radiologiques (échographie et scanner), les lésions associées, la prise en charge thérapeutique et les complications. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 24,9 ans 15 et 58 ans, avec une prédominance masculine (sex-ratio = 7, 3). Le rein droit était intéressé dans 15 cas (60%). Le traumatisme rénal était fermé dans 15 cas, et ouvert par arme blanche dans 10 cas. Huit patients se sont présentés en état de choc hémorragique (32%). Une anémie inférieur à 10g /100ml a été observée dans 10 cas (40%). L'uroscanner fait systématiquement à l'admission a retrouvé un grade III (10 cas), grade IV (13 cas) et grade V (2 cas). La prise en charge a consisté en une exploration chirurgicale avec néphrectomie chez 2 cas de Grade IV pour une instabilité h

  10. Conclusions and future directions for the REiNS International Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Widemann, Brigitte C; Blakeley, Jaishri O; Dombi, Eva; Fisher, Michael J; Hanemann, Clemens O; Walsh, Karin S; Wolters, Pamela L; Plotkin, Scott R

    2013-11-19

    The Response Evaluation in Neurofibromatosis and Schwannomatosis (REiNS) International Collaboration was established with the goal to develop consensus recommendations for the use of endpoints in neurofibromatosis (NF) clinical trials. This supplement includes the first series of REiNS recommendations for the use of patient-reported, functional, and visual outcomes, and for the evaluation of imaging response in NF clinical trials. Recommendations for neurocognitive outcome measures, the use of whole-body MRI in NF, the evaluation of potential biomarkers of disease, and the comprehensive evaluation of functional and patient-reported outcomes in NF are in development. The REiNS recommendations are made based on current knowledge. Experience with the use of the recommended endpoints in clinical trials, development of new tools and technologies, new knowledge of the natural history of NF, and advances in the methods used to analyze endpoints will likely lead to modifications of the currently proposed guidelines, which will be shared with the NF research community through the REiNS Web site www.reinscollaboration.org. Due to the clinical complexity of NF, there is a need to seek expertise from multiple medical disciplines, regulatory agencies, and industry to develop trial endpoints and designs, which will lead to the identification and approval of effective treatments for NF tumor and nontumor manifestations. The REiNS Collaboration welcomes anyone interested in providing his or her expertise toward this effort.

  11. Scaling of crystal field parameters between Pd 2REIn and Pd 2RESn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babateen, M.; Neumann, K.-U.; Ziebeck, K. R. A.

    1995-02-01

    Experimentally it is found that crystal field (CF) parameters between the same rare earth compounds in the alloy series Pd 2REIn and Pd 2RESn (RE = rare earth element) exhibit scaling properties. A phenomenological model is put forward to explain this observation.

  12. [The development of Rein van Bemmelens (1904-1983) undation theory: forty years of Dutch geology].

    PubMed

    Barzilay, Willemjan

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch geologist Rein van Bemmelen was the greatest opponent of plate tectonics in The Netherlands. He lived and worked during an important period in the history of earth sciences. He had studied geology when Wegeners theory was introduced and enthusiastically received in the Netherlands and he worked as a geologists during the period in which, after Wegeners theory was rejected in The Netherlands, several Dutch geologists came with their own theories to explain the origin of continents and oceans and in which plate tectonics was introduced in The Netherlands. He had proposed his own theory, the undation theory, at the beginning of the 1930s and kept on developing it during the following years. He continued to do so until his death in 1983. The history of the undation theory thus sheds light on the history of geology in The Netherlands. I will trace the history of geology in The Netherlands using Rein van Bemmelen and his undation theory as a lens.

  13. Achieving consensus for clinical trials: the REiNS International Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Plotkin, Scott R; Blakeley, Jaishri O; Dombi, Eva; Fisher, Michael J; Hanemann, C Oliver; Walsh, Karin S; Wolters, Pamela L; Widemann, Brigitte C

    2013-11-19

    The neurofibromatoses (NF)--including neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1), neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2), and schwannomatosis--are related tumor-suppressor syndromes characterized by a predisposition to multiple tumor types and other disease manifestations, which often result in functional disability, reduced quality of life, pain, and, in some cases, malignancy. With increasing knowledge of the biology and pathogenesis of NF, clinical trials with targeted agents directed at NF tumors have become available. Most clinical trials for patients with NF have used designs and endpoints similar to oncology trials. However, differences in the disease manifestations and natural history of NF (compared to cancers) require the development of new designs and endpoints to perform meaningful NF clinical trials. The Response Evaluation in Neurofibromatosis and Schwannomatosis (REiNS) International Collaboration was established in 2011 at the Children's Tumor Foundation meeting to achieve consensus within the NF community about the design of future clinical trials, with a specific emphasis on endpoints. The REiNS Collaboration includes 7 working groups that focus on imaging of tumor response; functional, visual, patient-reported, and neurocognitive outcomes; whole-body MRI; and disease biomarkers. This supplement includes the first series of recommendations by the REiNS Collaboration. The hope is that these recommendations will be used by members of the group and by researchers outside of the REiNS International Collaboration to standardize the measurement of outcomes and thus improve clinical trials for patients with NF. Ultimately, we plan to engage industry partners and national regulatory agencies in this process to facilitate the approval of drugs for patients with NF.

  14. Carcinoïde primitif du rein métastasant après 12 ans

    PubMed Central

    Bacha, Dhouha; Lahmar, Ahlem; Gharbi, Lassad; Slama, Sana Ben; Bouraoui, Saadia; Chatti, Samia; Regaya, Sabeh Mzabi

    2016-01-01

    Les carcinoïdes primitifs du rein sont rares avec une centaine de cas rapportés dans la littérature. Sur le plan histologique, il s'agit d'une tumeur bien différenciée dont la morphologie rejoint souvent celle des carcinoïdes dans les autres localisations. Nous rapportons un cas de carcinoïde primitif du rein survenant chez un homme de 41 ans, découvert à la suite de métastases hépatiques. La tumeur était particulière par son architecture tubulo-papillaire, suggérant à tort le diagnostic de carcinome papillaire du rein. Ce diagnostic a été redressé 12 ans après, à la suite de l'apparition d'autres métastases hépatiques, osseuses et pulmonaires. PMID:27217899

  15. [RDPLF and Rein, 2 complementary registries: a comparison of the collected data].

    PubMed

    Couchoud, Cécile; Duman, Mirela; Frimat, Luc; Ryckelynck, Jean-Philippe; Verger, Christian

    2007-03-01

    The 2 registries RDPLF and Rein are information systems concerning the treatment of end-stage renal disease. The aim of the study was to evaluate the representativeness and exhaustivity of the recorded cases as well as the accuracy of the informations in the 2 registries. Were included 375 adults, who started a first ESRD treatment between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2003 in 7 French regions and were treated by peritoneal dialysis (PD) on the first day of the 4th month of ESRD treatment. 264 patients were identified found in both registries. Age, body mass index and albuminemia didn't differ significantly. The mean haemoglobin level was higher in RDPLF. There was a good concordance on sex, diabetes status but less so on primary renal disease and PD modalities. There were significant discrepancies between the two registries on the date of the first treatment. The analysis of outcomes (transplantation or death) showed 8 discrepancies related to the lack of recording of the event in one of the 2 registries. The good global agreement observed between Rein and RDPLF for the common data emphasizes the fiability and representativeness of the 2 structures and the synergy of their activities for a best evaluation of the quality of peritoneal dialysis. This study shows the necessity of a common patient identification that will allow us to maintain a good complementarity between the 2 registries and will favour common studies.

  16. Free Rein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galley, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    This article presents Fairhaven School, located in a still-bucolic area near Washington, which operates in a way that would baffle many educators, much less the public. Known as a "free school," Fairhaven offers students a radical alternative to the demands of traditional education since it was founded in 1998. In this article, the author…

  17. REINS Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Paul, Rand [R-KY

    2011-02-07

    07/20/2011 Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. Hearings held. Hearings printed: S.Hrg. 112-220. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. REINS Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Paul, Rand [R-KY

    2013-02-26

    02/26/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Evolution of lattice dynamics in ferroelectric hexagonal REInO3 (RE = Ho, Dy, Tb, Gd, Eu, Sm) perovskites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Barnita; Chatterjee, Swastika; Gop, Sumana; Roy, Anushree; Grover, Vinita; Shukla, Rakesh; Tyagi, A. K.

    2016-07-01

    Rare-earth indates emerge as one of the efficient geometric ferroelectric materials, in which the spontaneous polarization can be tuned by varying their crystal structure along the 4f rare-earth series. We report a systematic study of structural changes in hexagonal REInO3 perovskite (RE = Ho3+, Dy3+, Tb3+, Gd3+, Eu3+, Sm3+) and YInO3 of P63 cm space group by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman scattering measurements. The crystal structure of these materials could be investigated by the Rietveld refinement of their XRD patterns. We have calculated density of states of phonons using density functional theory and examined the atomic displacements corresponding to observed Raman modes. The evolution of lattice dynamics of REInO3 has been probed by correlating various Raman modes with the structural distortion of the unit cell and the characteristics of the rare-earth ions. We report the appearance of the coupled mode in the phonon spectra. We have estimated spontaneous polarization from the structural distortion in this system and shown that it can be modulated by varying RE3+ ions in REInO3. We also report the appearance of a ferroelectric soft Raman mode, a unique characteristic of these materials.

  20. Les traumatismes fermés du rein: à propos de 55 observations

    PubMed Central

    Ksiri, Khalid; Goultein, Issam; Aboutaeib, Rachid; Dakir, Mohamed; Rabii, Redouaune; Debbagh, Adil; Bennani, Saad; Meziane, Fathi

    2014-01-01

    Le rein est l'organe le plus fréquemment atteint lors des traumatismes urologiques. Actuellement la prise en charge des traumatismes rénaux est de plus en plus conservatrice. Nous avons réalisé une étude rétrospective portant sur 55 cas de traumatisme fermé du rein, colligés au service d'urologie au CHU Ibn Rochd de Casablanca sur une période de 6 ans étalée entre 2006 et 2012. Le but de ce travail est d'analyser notre prise en charge thérapeutique et les résultats obtenus en les comparants à différentes séries de la littérature. Le but final étant d'améliorer la prise en charge des traumatismes fermés du rein au sein de notre établissement sanitaire. L’âge moyen était de 26 ans. Le sexe ratio (H/F) était de 10. Les étiologies étaient dominées par les accidents de la voie publique (27 cas), et les chutes (11cas). Cinq patients se sont présentés en état de choc et opérés en urgence. Tous nos patients ont eu une tomodensitométrie rénale permettant de classer les traumatismes selon l'AAST (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma): 25% de lésions grade I, 9% de lésions grade II, 38,6% de lésions grade III, 22,7% de lésions grade IV, et 4,5% de lésions grade V. Le traitement conservateur était efficace chez 40 cas, dont 6 ont bénéficié d'une montée de sonde JJ. Le traitement chirurgical était nécessaire chez 15 cas, 5 en urgence immédiate et 10 en urgences différées après une attitude conservatrice initiale. Après un recul moyen de 11 mois les patients traités de façon conservatrice ont évolué favorablement. Devant l’évolution favorable de nos patients ayant eu une simple surveillance et tenant compte des résultats de la littérature, nous pensons qu'en l'absence de lésions intra-abdominales associées ou d'instabilité hémodynamique, la simple surveillance reste la méthode thérapeutique de choix. PMID:25374632

  1. The French Chronic Kidney Disease-Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (CKD-REIN) cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, Bénédicte; Combe, Christian; Jacquelinet, Christian; Briançon, Serge; Fouque, Denis; Laville, Maurice; Frimat, Luc; Pascal, Christophe; Herpe, Yves-Edouard; Deleuze, Jean-François; Schanstra, Joost; Pisoni, Ron L.; Robinson, Bruce M.; Massy, Ziad A.

    2014-01-01

    Background While much has been learned about the epidemiology and treatment of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the last 30 years, chronic kidney disease (CKD) before the end-stage has been less investigated. Not enough is known about factors associated with CKD progression and complications, as well as its transition to ESRD. We designed the CKD-renal epidemiology and information network (REIN) cohort to provide a research platform to address these key questions and to assess clinical practices and costs in patients with moderate or advanced CKD. Methods A total of 46 clinic sites and 4 renal care networks participate in the cohort. A stratified selection of clinic sites yields a sample that represents a diversity of settings, e.g. geographic region, and public versus for-profit and non-for-profit private clinics. In each site, 60–90 patients with CKD are enrolled at a routine clinic visit during a 12-month enrolment phase: 3600 total, including 1800 with Stage 3 and 1800 with Stage 4 CKD. Follow-up will continue for 5 years, including after initiation of renal replacement therapy. Data will be collected from medical records at inclusion and at yearly intervals, as well as from self-administered patient questionnaires and provider-level questionnaires. Patients will also be interviewed at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 5 years. Healthcare costs will also be determined. Blood and urine samples will be collected and stored for future studies on all patients at enrolment and at study end, and at 1 and 3 years in a subsample of 1200. Conclusions The CKD-REIN cohort will serve to improve our understanding of the biological, clinical and healthcare system determinants associated with CKD progression and adverse outcomes as well as of international variations in collaboration with the CKD Outcome and Practice Pattern Study (CKDopps). It will foster CKD epidemiology and outcomes research and provide evidence to improve the health and quality of life of patients with CKD and

  2. Salient Feature of Haptic-Based Guidance of People in Low Visibility Environments Using Hard Reins.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Anuradha; Sornkarn, Nantachai; Dasgupta, Prokar; Althoefer, Kaspar; Penders, Jacques; Nanayakkara, Thrishantha

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents salient features of human-human interaction where one person with limited auditory and visual perception of the environment (a follower) is guided by an agent with full perceptual capabilities (a guider) via a hard rein along a given path. We investigate several salient features of the interaction between the guider and follower such as: 1) the order of an autoregressive (AR) control policy that maps states of the follower to actions of the guider; 2) how the guider may modulate the pulling force in response to the trust level of the follower; and 3) how learning may successively apportion the responsibility of control across different muscles of the guider. Based on experimental systems identification on human demonstrations from ten pairs of naive subjects, we show that guiders tend to adopt a third-order AR predictive control policy and followers tend to adopt second-order reactive control policy. Moreover, the extracted guider's control policy was implemented and validated by human-robot interaction experiments. By modeling the follower's dynamics with a time varying virtual damped inertial system, we found that it is the coefficient of virtual damping which is most sensitive to the trust level of the follower. We used these experimental insights to derive a novel controller that integrates an optimal order control policy with a push/pull force modulator in response to the trust level of the follower monitored using a time varying virtual damped inertial model.

  3. Workload and stress in horses: comparison in horses ridden deep and round ('rollkur') with a draw rein and horses ridden in a natural frame with only light rein contact.

    PubMed

    Sloet van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M M; Blok, M B; Begeman, L; Kamphuis, M C D; Lameris, M C; Spierenburg, A J; Lashley, M J J O

    2006-03-01

    'Rollkur' or 'overbending' is the low and deep riding of a dressage horse during training or warming up. Lately, this technique has been criticized, and not necessarily objectively, on welfare grounds. To be able to evaluate these criticisms, more needs to be known about the workload and stress of horses being ridden 'rollkur'. The aim of the present study was to compare the workload of eight riding-school horses when being ridden deep and round with a draw rein ('rollkur') and when being ridden in a natural frame with only light rein contact ('free'). Workload (as measured by heart rate and blood lactate concentration) was slightly higher when horses were ridden 'rollkur' than when they were ridden 'free'. There were no differences in packed cell volume, or glucose and cortisol concentrations. No signs of uneasiness or stress could be determined when the horses were ridden 'rollkur'. Subjectively, all horses improved their way of moving during 'rollkur' and were more responsive to their rider.

  4. Léiomyome vésical entraînant la destruction d'un rein

    PubMed Central

    Kehila, Mehdi; Mekni, Karima; Abouda, Hassine Saber; Chtourou, Maher; Zeghal, Dorra; Chanoufi, Mohamed Badis

    2016-01-01

    Le léiomyome de la vessie est une tumeur bénigne rare réputée avoir un bon pronostic après traitement chirurgical. Ceci n'est malheureusement pas toujours vrai. Nous rapportons le cas d'une patiente âgée de 33 ans qui a consulté pour des douleurs lombaires droites. Les explorations réalisées ont conclu à une tumeur solide du plancher vésical avec, en amont, un rein droit non fonctionnel et des voies urinaires gauches dilatées. La cystoscopie a objectivé une tumeur solide de la vessie périméatique droite. Des biopsies tumorales ont été faites en même temps qu'une montée de sonde double J gauche. L’étude anatomopathologique a conclu à un léiomyome vésical. Elle a eu une myomectomie par voie transvésicale. Les suites opératoires étaient simples. La patiente a toutefois gardé comme séquelle un rein totalement détruit. PMID:27583074

  5. Sarcome à cellules claires du rein : À propos d’un cas chez un jeune de 17 ans

    PubMed Central

    Mazdar, Adil; Sakel, Adil Ait; Essatara, Younes; Beddouche, Ali; Elsayegh, Hachem; Iken, Ali; Benslimane, Lounis; Nouini, Yassine

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Le sarcome à cellules claires du rein (SCCR) se voit très rarement chez les jeunes. Il est caractérisé par une évolution agressive marquée par un taux élevé de récidive et de mortalité. Nous rapportons le cas d’un SCCR chez un patient de 17 ans et nous discutons de son apport et de son intérêt médical en vue d’une bonne prise en charge thérapeutique. L’agressivité du SCCR et la prolifération de métastases surtout osseuses impliquent qu’il ne faut pas méconnaître ce diagnostic afin de mettre en place un traitement adapté. PMID:24940474

  6. Absence of population asymmetry in the American Quarter Horse (Equus ferus caballus) performing skilled left and right manoeuvres in reining competition.

    PubMed

    Whishaw, Ian Q

    2015-01-01

    Use of the right hand by humans for speech-related hand gestures, writing and throwing exemplifies motoric asymmetry. There are reports of asymmetry in many other animal species, including reports of left preference in emotional responsivity, spontaneous behaviour and the trained performance of the horse, Equus ferus caballus. The present study used the novel approach of using judges' scores to examine asymmetry in an equestrian event. The study analysed the scores of five judges evaluating the reining performance of 482, three-year-old American Quarter Horses competing in a major competition. Reining requires that the horses perform the manoeuvres of spin, circle and stop directed to either the left or right and symmetrical performance is featured in the judging criteria. The scores were sensitive to performance level, sex and manoeuvre, but there was no evidence of a population asymmetry in the left vs. right direction of the manoeuvres. The results are discussed in relation to need of using a large number of subjects in measuring asymmetry, the expression of individual vs. population asymmetry as a function of morphological and behavioural measures, and the influence of behavioural training on asymmetry.

  7. The mane effect in the horse (Equus ferus caballus): Right mane dominance enhanced in mares but not associated with left and right manoeuvres in a reining competition.

    PubMed

    Whishaw, Ian Q; Kolb, Bryan

    2016-08-18

    A human physical asymmetry is the near 90% clockwise occipitoparietal scalp hair-whorl direction in Europeans, an incidence that approximates the left lateralization of speech and right-handedness. Hair-whorl direction is also asymmetric in horses, Equus ferus caballus and placement is proposed to be related to temperament and lateralized skill in equitation manoeuvres. We describe a hair-whorl asymmetry in the horse, mane direction. Of 526, 3-year-old American Quarter horses, 69% of horses had mane directed to the right and 31% had mane directed to the left. The bias was larger in females, with 74% of females vs. 65% of males having mane directed to the right. Mane direction was unrelated to coat colour. The behavioural significance of mane asymmetry was investigated using judges' scores from a reining competition requiring symmetrical maneuvers of spin, circle and roll-back to either the left or to the right. There was no relation between mane asymmetry and overall reining performance and no relation between mane direction and scores for left or right manoeuvres. The results are discussed in relation to the significance of morphological asymmetries, neural function and the influence of planar cell polarity genes, such as Frizzled, that influence epidermal hair cell patterning.

  8. Groves takes the reins

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, S.

    1992-12-01

    A study of General Leslie R. Groves and his management style, largely concentrating on the time period beginning with his appointment on September 17, 1942 as head of the Army Corps of Engineers, Manhattan Engineer District and ending when the first bomb was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. This is one of a series of articles in this magazine commemorating the 50th anniversary of the first controlled chain reaction.

  9. The reins of the soul: the centrality of the intercostal nerves to the neurology of Thomas Willis and to Samuel Parker's theology.

    PubMed

    Knoeff, Rina

    2004-07-01

    Thomas Willis's description of the intercostal nerves has not received much attention by historians of medicine. Yet the intercostal nerves are of paramount importance for his neurology. Willis explained that via these nerves, which connect the brain to the heart and lower viscera, the brain controls the passions and instincts of the lower body. In other words, Willis believed that the intercostal nerves mediate a kind of rationality and that therefore they make a human a rational being. Willis's theory, I argue, must be seen in the context of the early modern mind-body problem. In the second part of the article I discuss how Oxford theologian Samuel Parker took up Willis's argument while stating that the intercostal nerves are the most important instruments (reins) of the soul. They control the bodily passions so that humans can transform into more virtuous beings. The explanation of the intercostal nerves offered by Willis and Parker fits the Anglican optimism about the abilities of human reason as well as about the moral potential of humankind.

  10. Registration on the Renal Transplantation Waiting List and Mortality on Dialysis: an Analysis of the French REIN Registry Using a Multi-state Model

    PubMed Central

    Beuscart, Jean-Baptiste; Pagniez, Dominique; Boulanger, Eric; Duhamel, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Background Access to the renal transplantation (RT) waiting list depends on factors related to lower mortality rates and often occurs after dialysis initiation. The aim of the study was to use a flexible regression model to determine if registration on the RT waiting list is associated with mortality on dialysis, independent of the comorbidities associated with such registration. Methods Data from the French REIN registry on 7138 incident hemodialysis (HD) patients were analyzed. A multi-state model including four states (‘HD, not wait-listed’, ‘HD, wait-listed’, ‘death’, and ‘RT’) was used to estimate the effect of being wait-listed on the probability of death. Results During the study, 1392 (19.5%) patients were wait-listed. Of the 2954 deaths observed in the entire cohort during follow-up, 2921 (98.9%) were observed in the not wait-listed group compared with only 33 (1.1%) in the wait-listed group. In the multivariable analysis, the adjusted hazard ratio for death associated with non-registration on the waiting list was 3.52 (95% CI, 1.70–7.30). The risk factors for death identified for not wait-listed patients were not found to be significant risk factors for wait-listed patients, with the exception of age. Conclusions The use of a multi-state model allowed a flexible analysis of mortality on dialysis. Patients who were not wait-listed had a much higher risk of death, regardless of co-morbidities associated with being wait-listed, and did not share the same risk factors of death as wait-listed patients. Registration on the waiting list should therefore be taken into account in survival analysis of patients on dialysis. PMID:25721069

  11. Professionalism: Teachers Taking the Reins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helterbran, Valeri R.

    2008-01-01

    It is essential that teachers take a proactive look at their profession and themselves to strengthen areas of professionalism over which they have control. In this article, the author suggests strategies that include collaborative planning, reflectivity, growth in the profession, and the examination of certain personal characteristics.

  12. Place du traitement chirurgical sous circulation extracorporelle à cœur battant dans les cancers du rein avec envahissement cave supra-diaphragmatique: à propos de sept cas

    PubMed Central

    Lahyani, Mounir; Karmouni, Tarik; Elkhader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdellatif; Andaloussi, Ahmed Ibn Attya

    2014-01-01

    Ce travail vise à analyser les résultats de la néphrectomie avec thrombectomie atrio-cave sous circulation extracorporelle (CEC) chez sept patients ayant un cancer du rein avec envahissement cave supra-diaphragmatique et de discuter les indications opératoires. Sept patients, six hommes et une femme dont l’âge varie entre 46ans et 65ans, ont été opérés d'un cancer du rein avec extension atrio-cave. L’écho-doppler a toujours permis la mise en évidence de l'extension veineuse mais la limite supérieure du thrombus était formellement identifiée par l'examen tomodensitométrique quatre fois, et par la résonance magnétique nucléaire dans tous les cas. Tous les patients ont été opérés sous CEC à cœur battant en normothermie. Un seul décès postopératoire est survenu. La durée du séjour en réanimation a été de 4,5 jours. Cinq patients ont eu à distance une dissémination métastatique. Cinq malades ont eu une médiane de survie de 11,5 mois (de 7 à16). Un malade a subi une métastasectomie pulmonaire 6 mois après la néphrectomie. L'exérèse des thrombi atrio-caves a été facilitée par la CEC avec une mortalité et une morbidité postopératoires acceptables mais les résultats à distance ont été décevants. Cette intervention ne peut être proposée qu'aux patients n'ayant aucune extension locorégionale et générale décelable, ce qui souligne l'importance des examens morphologiques préopératoires. PMID:25995777

  13. Slow gamma takes the reins in replay.

    PubMed

    Colgin, Laura Lee

    2012-08-23

    The mechanisms supporting hippocampal memory reactivation are puzzling. Reactivation occurs during ripple oscillations, yet ripples are not coordinated across regions. In this issue of Neuron, Carr et al. (2012) report that another oscillation, slow gamma, coordinates memory reactivation across the hippocampal network.

  14. Taking the Reins: Preservice Teachers Practicing Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Karen; Hansen-Thomas, Holly

    2011-01-01

    What makes the difference between a good teacher and a great one? Knowing one's content is important, but having strong leadership skills can tip the scales from mediocrity to excellence. The best time to begin practicing being a teacher leader is during the preservice years. By practicing leadership skills, one can begin to view oneself not only…

  15. States Eye Looser Rein on Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The push to give school districts greater operating flexibility--a grassroots rallying cry eclipsed in recent years by the charter school movement--is seeing a resurgence, as states seek to spur innovation that will help raise student achievement. In Georgia, Governor Sonny Perdue is proposing "performance contracts" that would free…

  16. National Equine Forum: Taking up the reins on equine issues.

    PubMed

    2015-04-04

    Gill Harris reports from this year's National Equine Forum, where one of the main themes was the horse industry and government. The forum, held in London on March 5, was attended by more than 200 people with a connection to the equestrian industry. Lord de Mauley, parliamentary undersecretary of state for natural environment and science at Defra, set the course of the proceedings.

  17. Actin-binding proteins take the reins in growth cones.

    PubMed

    Pak, Chi W; Flynn, Kevin C; Bamburg, James R

    2008-02-01

    Higher-order actin-based networks (actin superstructures) are important for growth-cone motility and guidance. Principles for generating, organizing and remodelling actin superstructures have emerged from recent findings in cell-free systems, non-neuronal cells and growth cones. This Review examines how actin superstructures are initiated de novo at the leading-edge membrane and how the spontaneous organization of actin superstructures is driven by ensembles of actin-binding proteins. How the regulation of actin-binding proteins can affect growth-cone turning and axonal regeneration is also discussed.

  18. MicroRNA reins in embryonic and cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Bibekanand; Chakrabarti, Jayprokas; Ghosh, Zhumur

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs represents a new layer of gene regulation in stem cells by controlling the molecular mechanisms involved in modulating stem cell fate and behavior. Such a role of microRNA is seen in embryonic stem cell as well, maintaining a delicate balance between survival, proliferation, and self-renewal signals. Further, dysregulation of stem cell self-renewal is a likely requirement for the initiation and formation of cancer stem cells that probably pose resistance to current cancer treatments. In fact, the precise mechanism that regulates embryonic as well as cancer stem cell self-renewal and pluripotency remains largely unknown. Understanding the miRNA related stem cell biology and pathways offers great promise for improving stem cell mediated regenerative therapy as well as cancer therapies. Here we summarize some of the emerging evidences demonstrating the role of these molecular switches in embryonic and cancer stem cells.

  19. Editorial: Joe Jorner Hands Reins To Paul Yoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskill, Jack D.

    1987-03-01

    A very important part of Optical Engineering is the Book Reviews section, in which reviews of usually two or three current books dealing with the general subject of optical engineering are published in each issue. From July 1981 until January 1986, Dr. Joseph L. Horner of Rome Air Development Center, Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts, served as the Editor lof the SPIE Reports portion of Optical Engineering, which contains the Book Reviews section. Since January 1986, when the edito rial organization of the journal was changed, he has continued to serve as Book Reviews Editor. Joe has done a superb job in this volunteer position but has now decided to step down so that he can pursue other activities in SPIE; however, he has agreed to continue his duties as Book Reviews Editor until the reviews he has in progress have been published. On behalf of the officers, governors, and members of the Society, I would like to take this opportunity to express our appreciation to him for a job well done. Thanks, Joe, and best wishes.

  20. Political chaos reins progress on new joint ventures in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-16

    This paper reports that frustration is mounting among foreign petroleum companies chasing business opportunities in Russia. Political uncertainty continues to block large oil and gas exploration and production deals there. Most foreign officials believe Russia's transformation from a centrally planned economy to a market economy is irreversible. But enough political, social, and economic uncertainty persists that Russian leaders are hesitant to approve deals with foreign companies. The lack of certainty among leaders of the former Soviet republic about who controls Russia's natural resources, who can approve contracts, and who determines winners of bid tenders is causing confusion among foreign companies trying to negotiate major E and P deals. With no clearly successful path apparent for completing large deals, various secondary negotiating strategies are prevailing. Russian industry specialists say those secondary strategies work best for small deals involving relatively small players in less prospective regions. Meantime, countervailing political forces within the country, the world's top producer of oil and gas, continue to buffet petroleum companies that are negotiating deals or getting projects off the ground.

  1. High Court Case Could Rein in Private Placements under IDEA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on starkly contrasting portraits of special education that the justices are sure to hear on the first day of the new U.S. Supreme Court term. In a case from New York City, the 1.1 million-student district argues that school officials made every attempt to provide an appropriate education plan under the federal Individuals with…

  2. Porter Takes Reins of the FNL Green Team | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Courtesy of the FNL Green Team Melissa Porter, who recently joined the staff of Craig Reynolds, Ph.D., director, Office of Scientific Operations, as administrative manager, has stepped forward to lead the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNL) Green Team in its efforts to promote a “green” work environment. “I am excited to lead the FNL Green Team and have been impressed by the enthusiasm and commitment of the FNL Green Team,” Porter said.

  3. Pakistan’s Nuclear Future: Reining in the Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    market on longer-term Pakistan Investment Bonds ( PIBs ) without offering higher interest rates. It thus resorted to the low cost alternative of...expanded by largely eliminating the sizable amount of government borrowing. Market borrowing by the government through the PIBs will help to identify...of the PIBs of varying maturities. At this level, there should not be a significant crowding out of credit to the private sector. Beyond this, the

  4. Putting reins on the brain. How the body and environment use it.

    PubMed

    Dotov, Dobromir G

    2014-01-01

    Radical embodied cognitive neuroscience (RECN) will probably rely on dynamical systems theory (DST) and complex systems theory for methods and formalism. Yet, there have been plenty of non-radical neurodynamicists out there for quite some time. How much of their work fits with radical embodied cognitive science, what do they need RECN for, and what are the inconsistencies between RECN and established neurodynamics that would have to be resolved? This paper is both theoretical hypothesis and review. First, it provides a brief overview of the typical, purely structural considerations why the central nervous systems (CNS) should be treated as a nonlinear dynamical system and what this entails. The reader will learn about the circular causality enclosing brain and behavior and different attempts to formalize this circularity. Then, three different attempts at linking dynamics and theory of brain function are described in more detail and criticized. A fourth method based on ecological psychology could fix some of the issues that the others encounter. It is argued that studying self-organization of the brain without taking its ecological embedding into account is insufficient. Finally, based on existing theoretical work we propose two roles that the CNS has to be fulfilling in order to allow an animal to behave adequately in its niche. In its first role the CNS has to be enslaved easily by patterns of behavior that guide the animal through its environment. In the second role the brain has to flexibly switch among patterns, what can be called the metastable circuit breaker. The relevance of this idea is supported using certain motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). These symptoms can be explained as consequent to an excessive stability of the (metastable) circuit breaker.

  5. Take the Reins on Model Quality with ModelCHECK and Gatekeeper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Corey

    2012-01-01

    Model quality and consistency has been an issue for us due to the diverse experience level and imaginative modeling techniques of our users. Fortunately, setting up ModelCHECK and Gatekeeper to enforce our best practices has helped greatly, but it wasn't easy. There were many challenges associated with setting up ModelCHECK and Gatekeeper including: limited documentation, restrictions within ModelCHECK, and resistance from end users. However, we consider ours a success story. In this presentation we will describe how we overcame these obstacles and present some of the details of how we configured them to work for us.

  6. Keeping a tight grip on the reins: donor control over aid coordination and management in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Buse, K

    1999-09-01

    A long-standing consensus that aid coordination should be owned by recipient authorities has been eclipsed by accord on the desirability of recipient management of aid along-side domestic resources. Nonetheless, in many low and lower-middle income countries, donors remain remarkably uncoordinated; where attempts at coordination are made, they are often donor-driven, and only a small proportion of aid is directly managed by recipients. This paper draws on evidence from an in-depth review of aid to the health sector in Bangladesh to analyze the systems by which external resources are managed. Based on interviews with key stakeholders, a questionnaire survey and analysis of documentary sources, the factors constraining the government from assuming a more active role in aid management are explored. The results suggest that donor perceptions of weak government capacity, inadequate accountability and compromised integrity only partially account for the propensity for donor leadership. Equally important is the consideration that aid coordination has a markedly political dimension. Stakeholders are well aware of the power, influence and leverage which aid coordination confers, an awareness which colours the desire of some stakeholders to lead aid coordination processes, and conditions the extent and manner by which others wish to be involved. It is argued that recipient management of external aid is dependent on major changes in the attitudes and behaviours of recipients and donors alike.

  7. Amid Fiscal Crisis, L.A. Gives Site Councils Budget Reins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    At Jefferson High School, a governing body made up of teachers, nonclassroom-based educators, parents, and Principal Michael Taft appears to be living the dream, to the extent such a thing is possible during a staggering fiscal crisis. The leadership team, officially known as a "school site council," has mainly used an infusion of…

  8. Surgical inflammatory stress: the embryo takes hold of the reins again.

    PubMed

    Aller, Maria-Angeles; Arias, Jose-Ignacio; Prieto, Isabel; Gilsanz, Carlos; Arias, Ana; Yang, Heping; Arias, Jaime

    2013-02-01

    The surgical inflammatory response can be a type of high-grade acute stress response associated with an increasingly complex trophic functional system for using oxygen. This systemic neuro-immune-endocrine response seems to induce the re-expression of 2 extraembryonic-like functional axes, i.e. coelomic-amniotic and trophoblastic-yolk-sac-related, within injured tissues and organs, thus favoring their re-development. Accordingly, through the up-regulation of two systemic inflammatory phenotypes, i.e. neurogenic and immune-related, a gestational-like response using embryonic functions would be induced in the patient's injured tissues and organs, which would therefore result in their repair. Here we establish a comparison between the pathophysiological mechanisms that are produced during the inflammatory response and the physiological mechanisms that are expressed during early embryonic development. In this way, surgical inflammation could be a high-grade stress response whose pathophysiological mechanisms would be based on the recapitulation of ontogenic and phylogenetic-related functions. Thus, the ultimate objective of surgical inflammation, as a gestational process, is creating new tissues/organs for repairing the injured ones. Since surgical inflammation and early embryonic development share common production mechanisms, the factors that hamper the wound healing reaction in surgical patients could be similar to those that impair the gestational process.

  9. Executive Director Fred Spilhaus Steps Down; Interim Leader Takes AGU Reins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Peter

    2009-02-01

    After 39 years as AGU executive director, Fred Spilhaus has stepped down from his post; he will become executive director emeritus. At a 27 January 2009 staff meeting at AGU headquarters, in Washington, D. C., three of the Union officers introduced Robert T. Van Hook, who will serve as interim executive director while AGU conducts a worldwide search for a new executive director. The search is expected to start in the summer of 2009 and to take from 6 to 18 months. ``AGU is a growing, vibrant organization that wishes to thoughtfully chart its course for the coming decades,'' Van Hook said. ``I am a professional interim executive, here to build on Fred Spilhaus's legacy. I want to help this extraordinary Union of researchers, teachers, and students take careful stock of where it is today, where it wants to go tomorrow, and what kind of staff leader it needs to help it get there,'' he said. ``My job is to get you ready for the next executive director,'' Van Hook told AGU staff, noting that he is not a candidate for the position himself.

  10. Taking the Reins: Institutional Transformation in Higher Education. The ACE Series on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckel, Peter D.; Kezar, Adrianna

    2011-01-01

    Peter Eckel and Adrianna Kezar have written this book to offer insight to campus leaders who face transformational change--to help them mount a proactive, rather than a reactive, process to effect transformation. They believe that most institutional leaders have little to no experience with implementing large-scale change and lack a solid…

  11. Parental controls: past indiscretions lead to tighter reins on new and future conversion foundations.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Joe

    2012-02-13

    Conversion foundations created when a struggling not-for-profit hospital sells to a for-profit company have billions at their disposal to help their communties. The decision to create one and its direction are locally based. "It's really the community that drives it," says Martin Rash, of RegionalCare.

  12. One Way to Rein in the Cost of Textbooks: Make Them Free

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delespinasse, Paul F.

    2008-01-01

    The prices for college texts have soared way beyond inflation for the last quarter-century. As such, they have become a burden on today's financially strapped students. From the point of students and of faculty members who are concerned about their students' welfare, the important question is what can be done to drive text prices back down. In…

  13. Leading Change to Improve Student Achievement: Novice Leaders Take the Reins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brazer, S. David; Bauer, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the effects of education leadership candidates' experiences taking a non-traditional research course in which they identify a specific instructional performance gap in their school sites, then engage in action research, consult published literature, and develop an action plan to address the gap. Candidates are required to…

  14. Giving Them Free Rein: Connections in Student-Led Book Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Teresa Fluth

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the author's desire to create student-led discussion groups, instead of teacher-led groups. Considers specific research questions for student-led groups. Inquires what kinds of writing and discussion students would engage in if given the opportunity to make their own writing/discussion choices. Indicates that students do engage in…

  15. Reining in Student Comments: A Model for Categorising and Studying Online Student Comments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonyea, Nathan E.; Gangi, Joseph M.

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of research has investigated the comments by students on websites that offer evaluations of college faculty. This corpus includes both quantitative and qualitative studies that each use a different scheme for classifying/analysing student comments, which makes the comparison of findings across studies impossible. The present study…

  16. Putting reins on the brain. How the body and environment use it

    PubMed Central

    Dotov, Dobromir G.

    2014-01-01

    Radical embodied cognitive neuroscience (RECN) will probably rely on dynamical systems theory (DST) and complex systems theory for methods and formalism. Yet, there have been plenty of non-radical neurodynamicists out there for quite some time. How much of their work fits with radical embodied cognitive science, what do they need RECN for, and what are the inconsistencies between RECN and established neurodynamics that would have to be resolved? This paper is both theoretical hypothesis and review. First, it provides a brief overview of the typical, purely structural considerations why the central nervous systems (CNS) should be treated as a nonlinear dynamical system and what this entails. The reader will learn about the circular causality enclosing brain and behavior and different attempts to formalize this circularity. Then, three different attempts at linking dynamics and theory of brain function are described in more detail and criticized. A fourth method based on ecological psychology could fix some of the issues that the others encounter. It is argued that studying self-organization of the brain without taking its ecological embedding into account is insufficient. Finally, based on existing theoretical work we propose two roles that the CNS has to be fulfilling in order to allow an animal to behave adequately in its niche. In its first role the CNS has to be enslaved easily by patterns of behavior that guide the animal through its environment. In the second role the brain has to flexibly switch among patterns, what can be called the metastable circuit breaker. The relevance of this idea is supported using certain motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). These symptoms can be explained as consequent to an excessive stability of the (metastable) circuit breaker. PMID:25346675

  17. Surgical inflammatory stress: the embryo takes hold of the reins again

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The surgical inflammatory response can be a type of high-grade acute stress response associated with an increasingly complex trophic functional system for using oxygen. This systemic neuro-immune-endocrine response seems to induce the re-expression of 2 extraembryonic-like functional axes, i.e. coelomic-amniotic and trophoblastic-yolk-sac-related, within injured tissues and organs, thus favoring their re-development. Accordingly, through the up-regulation of two systemic inflammatory phenotypes, i.e. neurogenic and immune-related, a gestational-like response using embryonic functions would be induced in the patient’s injured tissues and organs, which would therefore result in their repair. Here we establish a comparison between the pathophysiological mechanisms that are produced during the inflammatory response and the physiological mechanisms that are expressed during early embryonic development. In this way, surgical inflammation could be a high-grade stress response whose pathophysiological mechanisms would be based on the recapitulation of ontogenic and phylogenetic-related functions. Thus, the ultimate objective of surgical inflammation, as a gestational process, is creating new tissues/organs for repairing the injured ones. Since surgical inflammation and early embryonic development share common production mechanisms, the factors that hamper the wound healing reaction in surgical patients could be similar to those that impair the gestational process. PMID:23374964

  18. Taking the reins: the effects of new leader status and leadership style on team performance.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Stephen J

    2011-05-01

    New leaders face a challenging task when they take charge of their teams. They have to determine how best to guide the work process, and they must understand how their behaviors will affect the members of their team. This research examines how a newly assigned team leader's status moderates subordinates' reactions to different leadership styles to affect assessments of the leader's self-confidence and effectiveness, and how this impacts team performance. Across 2 experimental studies, results demonstrate that low-status leaders are rated as more effective when they use a directive style, whereas high-status leaders are viewed as more effective when they use a participative style, and this relationship is mediated by perceptions of self-confidence. In addition, teams whose leaders are viewed more favorably perform better on a complex group task. These findings imply that low-status individuals are able to enhance their level of personal power by drawing on whatever positional power they hold, whereas high-status individuals are better off relying solely on their personal power to influence others. This research also provides a clear demonstration that assessments of new leaders' behaviors are subject to an appraisal that is clouded by observers' status perceptions and attributions.

  19. Keeping the senescence secretome under control: Molecular reins on the senescence-associated secretory phenotype.

    PubMed

    Malaquin, Nicolas; Martinez, Aurélie; Rodier, Francis

    2016-09-01

    Cellular senescence is historically associated with cancer suppression and aging. Recently, the reach of the senescence genetic program has been extended to include the ability of senescent cells to actively participate in tissue remodelling during many physiological processes, including placental biology, embryonic patterning, wound healing, and tissue stress responses caused by cancer therapy. Besides growth arrest, a significant feature of senescent cells is their ability to modify their immediate microenvironment using a senescence-associated (SA) secretome, commonly termed the SA secretory phenotype (SASP). Among others, the SASP contains growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular proteases that modulate the majority of both the beneficial and detrimental microenvironmental phenotypes caused by senescent cells. The SASP is thus becoming an obvious pharmaceutical target to manipulate SA effects. Herein, we review known signalling pathways underlying the SASP, including the DNA damage response (DDR), stress kinases, inflammasome, alarmin, inflammation- and cell survival-related transcription factors, miRNAs, RNA stability, autophagy, chromatin components, and metabolic regulators. We also describe the SASP as a temporally regulated dynamic sub-program of senescence that can be divided into a rapid DDR-associated phase, an early self-amplification phase, and a late "mature" phase, the late phase currently being the most widely studied SASP signature. Finally, we discuss how deciphering the signalling pathways regulating the SASP reveal targets that can be manipulated to harness the SA effects to benefit therapies for cancer and other age-related pathologies.

  20. Surveillance of chronic kidney disease around the world: tracking and reining in a global problem.

    PubMed

    Saran, Rajiv; Hedgeman, Elizabeth; Huseini, Mustafa; Stack, Austin; Shahinian, Vahakn

    2010-05-01

    In recent years, there has been a general recognition of the importance of tackling noncommunicable chronic diseases throughout the world and not just in developed nations. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasingly recognized as a public health threat, based on its high prevalence, rising incidence, associated complications, and cost. It is imperative that nations develop screening and surveillance programs related to CKD. This article provides a global perspective on existing and emerging CKD surveillance efforts. A variety of programs are described, ranging from cross-sectional screening studies to determine CKD prevalence; targeted screening of high-risk populations presenting for voluntary testing; to more systematic surveillance within the scope of integrated health care systems in many developed nations. The choice of surveillance programs for many countries will depend on available resources and competing health care priorities. Integration with surveillance programs for other major chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and obesity is highly desirable and could be a key to the prevention of CKD. Finally, we propose the model of integrated health systems as one that is perhaps best suited to systematic, longitudinal surveillance of many chronic diseases, a model based on a national electronic health care record with linkage across primary care and hospital-based programs. Robust health education efforts and timely dissemination strategies will remain the key to the success of disease surveillance. It is gratifying to note that more and more countries are developing and adopting CKD surveillance programs as part of national disease prevention strategies.

  1. Developing Cooperatives in the Sahel. National Experts Trained by the ILO Take the Reins of International Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromont, Michel

    2001-01-01

    Describes the network of experts in training and the organization of cooperatives that is being in formed in Central Africa. Suggests that government authorities must encourage their efforts and create a favorable environment for the organization of rural producers. (JOW)

  2. Holding the Reins of the Professional Learning Community: Eight Themes from Research on Principals' Perceptions of Professional Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranston, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    Using a naturalistic inquiry approach and thematic analysis, this paper outlines the findings of a research study that examined 12 Manitoba principals' conceptions of professional learning communities. The study found that these principals consider the development of professional learning communities to be a normative imperative within the…

  3. "My reins admonish me at night" (Psalm 16:7): the kidneys in ancient and medieval Jewish sources.

    PubMed

    Kottek, Samuel S

    2010-01-01

    David Macht already stated that in several ancient languages the same term is used for kidneys and testes. "Preparation or elaboration of the semen was considered to be one of the functions of the kidneys in man". In the Bible, however, this confusion does not exist, at least not on the anatomical level. Together with the heart, the kidneys are paradigmatic of the innermost organs, wherefrom result their metaphoric association in being the seat of emotions and of wisdom. Some of these aspects will be delineated in the present study, briefly in Bible and Talmud, while stressing medieval Jewish sources, including the works of Shabtai Donnolo, Judah Halevi, Shem-Tov Falaquera, and Meir ibn Aldabi.

  4. Lépaute, Nicole-Reine Etable, née de la Briére (1723-88)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    French astronomer, aide to JOSEPH LALANDE calculating circumstances of an annular eclipse of the Sun visible in France and Europe. She worked on the predictions for the return of HALLEY's Comet in 1759, including the perturbations by Jupiter and Saturn. She also assisted her husband, the royal clockmaker of France, making calculations such as the number of oscillations per unit time of pendulums ...

  5. Pills, shots, implants, vaccines: can the elusive sperm be reined in? Male contraceptive research extremely slow, but promising.

    PubMed

    1995-08-01

    Although it may be 20 years before a male contraceptive is marketed, researchers continue to explore various options. Part of the difficulty with male contraception is the fact that the oral contraceptives were so successful in women that they cornered the market. Another problem is that it is easier to control one egg per month than hundreds of millions of sperm cells each day. Another is that it is more expensive to do research on male than on female rats since the males require separate cages. The physiologic targets for male birth control are 1) the process of spermatogenesis, 2) the process of sperm maturation, and 3) the process of capacitation. The substance gossypol, which suppresses sperm without affecting androgen levels, has been the subject of male contraceptive research in the US since the 1970s. Clinical trials of gossypol are planned by a collaborative groups of investigators from developing countries. Research has also continued for more than 20 years on compounds to alter male hormone levels. The use of one such compound, testosterone enanthate, required weekly injections, so current research is centered on finding a more marketable product, such as a 3-month injectable that uses testosterone buciclate. The combination of testosterone enanthate with cyproterone acetate is also showing promise in achieving complete azoospermia in trials in men. The dosing schedule makes this regimen unmarketable, however. Protocols have also been completed for a clinical trial using two implanted rods to deliver a GnRH analog and a specially developed androgen. Work is also proceeding on the development of a GnRH vaccine and on a vaccine specific only to follicle-stimulating hormone. Other avenues of research are focusing on nifedipine, a drug used to treat high blood pressure, on mifepristone (RU-486) which temporarily blocks calcium, and on etoprine, which suppresses rapidly dividing sperm cells. Research has halted on two compounds that protect cells from oxidative damage (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) because of the potential damage to sperm DNA, which could cause early miscarriage or birth defects.

  6. Online Portfolios: Marketing Apparel Merchandising Millennials into Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keist, Carmen N.; Bruer, Shanna

    2016-01-01

    In a sea of applicant uniformity, how can an undergraduate student develop a means of personal differentiation while attempting to land an internship or job? That is the dilemma of the roughly 1.9 million Millennials graduating with bachelor's degrees within the United States in 2015 (Hussar & Bailey, 2015). Although the national unemployment…

  7. Part-Time Undergraduates in Postsecondary Education: 2003-04. Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Report. NCES 2007-165

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xianglei

    2007-01-01

    After dramatic growth between 1970 and 1990, part-time students have formed a large and stable segment of the undergraduate population in U.S. postsecondary institutions (Hussar 2005). In fall 2004, approximately 5.5 million undergraduates were enrolled part time, making up 37 percent of the undergraduate enrollment in all degree-granting…

  8. Auβ Quecksilber und Schwefel Rein: Johann Mathesius (1504-65) and Sulfur-Mercurius in the Silver Mines of Joachimstal.

    PubMed

    Norris, John A

    2014-01-01

    The Sarepta, oder Bergpostill (1562) by Johann Mathesius is a book of sermons on mining and mineral subjects in which the composition and generation of metals in ore veins are discussed in terms of the sulfur-mercurius theory. Gur was an embodiment of mercurius or of sulfur and mercurius. Sulfur was evident in the sulfurous odor of the mines, in the supposed effects of subterranean heat, and in the deposition of mineral sulfur during the roasting of the ores. The toxic smoke given off during smelting was considered to be an additional manifestation of mercurius. Mathesius's sermons offer a glimpse of the ways miners' understanding of ores overlapped with alchemists' theories.

  9. Sticker shock at the hospital. Freed from reins of managed care, hospitals accelerate price hikes for fourth consecutive year; blame placed on staffing, tech costs.

    PubMed

    Jaklevic, Mary Chris

    2003-01-20

    Free from the shackles of managed care, the nation's hospitals boosted prices for the fourth consecutive year, according to a new report released by the government last week. David Cyganowski, left, a managing director at Salomon Smith Barney, says if taxes on dividends are wiped out, hospitals could be confronted with higher long-term interest rates.

  10. Getting up to code. While some wait for vendors to save them from ICD-10, savvy CIOs are taking the reins early.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Daphne

    2008-11-01

    For mandates, a passing grade is good enough--don't over-do. Alert the CEO early, but wait for a plan before going to the Board. Partner with end-user departments. Don't rely on your vendor to prepare for government mandates. Utilize information from CHIME, AHIMA and peers.

  11. Getting back in the race. Retired healthcare executives are being lured back into the office as organizations look for experienced leaders to take the reins.

    PubMed

    Jaklevic, Mary Chris

    2003-09-15

    All the young whippersnappers better look out--the veterans are coming back to show how it's done. More and more as of late, executives who chucked the 80-hour workweek grind are coming out of retirement to take the helm at beleaguered healthcare systems. MedCath Corp. board Chairman Steve Puckett, at left, says experience counts for a lot when handing over such responsibility.

  12. Characterization of Underwater Sounds Produced by a Hydraulic Cutterhead Dredge during Maintenance Dredging in the Stockton Deepwater Shipping Channel, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    Hydraulic Cutterhead Dredge during Maintenance Dredging in the Stockton Deepwater Shipping Channel, California by Kevin J. Reine and Charles Dickerson...contact Kevin J. Reine (601 634-3436), Kevin.J.Reine@usace.army.mil, or Charles Dickerson (601 634-3484), Charles.Dickerson@ usace.army.mil of the...Monitoring the effects of conventional pile driving on three species of fish. Richmond, CA: Manson Construction Company. American National Standards

  13. Station Change of Command Ceremony

    NASA Video Gallery

    The reins of the International Space Station were passed from Expedition 29 Commander Mike Fossum of NASA to his NASA colleague, newly arrived Expedition 30 Commander Dan Burbank in a ceremony on t...

  14. Science and technology in the 101st Congress

    SciTech Connect

    Roush, W.

    1990-11-01

    Congressional say over science and technology is growing along with a consensus that the reins of management should accompany the power of the purse. This article outlines six key issues and how each member of Congress voted on them.

  15. Stages of Development in Poverty Program Neighborhood Action Committees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurcher, Louis A., Jr.

    1969-01-01

    Two discussion papers, commenting on the main article, are included: (1) "Community Action: The Limits of a Developmental Framework by Martin Rein, and (2) "For the Advocate and the Innovator by Franklin M. Zweig.

  16. New directors for ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2017-01-01

    The International Linear Collider Collaboration, which promotes the construction of a new linear collider to complement CERN's Large Hadron Collider, has appointed two new associate directors, who both take the reins this month.

  17. Effects of pre-conditioning on behavior and physiology of horses during a standardised learning task

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Holly; Starling, Melissa J.; Freire, Rafael; Buckley, Petra; McGreevy, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    Rein tension is used to apply pressure to control both ridden and unridden horses. The pressure is delivered by equipment such as the bit, which may restrict voluntary movement and cause changes in behavior and physiology. Managing the effects of such pressure on arousal level and behavioral indicators will optimise horse learning outcomes. This study examined the effect of training horses to turn away from bit pressure on cardiac outcomes and behavior (including responsiveness) over the course of eight trials in a standardised learning task. The experimental procedure consisted of a resting phase, treatment/control phase, standardised learning trials requiring the horses (n = 68) to step backwards in response to bit pressure and a recovery phase. As expected, heart rate increased (P = 0.028) when the handler applied rein tension during the treatment phase. The amount of rein tension required to elicit a response during treatment was higher on the left than the right rein (P = 0.009). Total rein tension required for trials reduced (P < 0.001) as they progressed, as did time taken (P < 0.001) and steps taken (P < 0.001). The incidence of head tossing decreased (P = 0.015) with the progression of the trials and was higher (P = 0.018) for the control horses than the treated horses. These results suggest that preparing the horses for the lesson and slightly raising their arousal levels, improved learning outcomes. PMID:28358892

  18. "Finger Kits:" An Interactive Demonstration of Biomaterials and Engineering for Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canavan, Heather E.; Stanton, Michael; Lopez, Kaori; Grubin, Catherine; Graham, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a hands-on activity and demonstration developed at the University of Washington and further reined at the University of New Mexico. In this activity, the authors present a real-world problem to the student: Someone has an injured finger joint, and the students in the class need to design an implant to replace it. After…

  19. Too Much Discretion: TMA Supports Banning Insurance Discretionary Clause.

    PubMed

    Conde, Crystal

    2010-02-01

    The Texas Office of Public Insurance Counsel, the Texas Medical Association, the American Heart Association, AARP, the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, and a Texas physician-lawmaker are upset about insurers' use of discretionary clauses. Such clauses give the companies free rein to interpret policy terms and evaluate a patient's claim for benefits however they choose.

  20. Movements of the horse's mouth in relation to horse-rider kinematic variables.

    PubMed

    Eisersiö, M; Roepstorff, L; Weishaupt, M A; Egenvall, A

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the behavioural response of horses to rein contact and the movement of the riders' hands through analysis of data from horses ridden at two different head and neck positions. It was hypothesised that the riders' hand movements and rein tension would generate behavioural responses from horses and that these responses would be more marked when horses were ridden 'on the bit' than when unrestrained. Data were collected from seven dressage horse/rider combinations at sitting trot on a high speed treadmill. Kinematics were recorded using a 12-camera, infrared-based opto-electronic system. Three horses wore a rein tension meter. Behavioural registrations were made from video. Behavioural responses included lip movement, mouth movement, open mouth, change in ear position, head tilt and tail movement. Mouth movements were associated with the suspension phase of the trot. Head and neck position was non-significant in the final models, while rein tension and the distance between the rider's hand and the horse's mouth were related to mouth movements. Interactions between horses and riders are complex and highly variable.

  1. The Election of 1800: Teaching about a Critical Moment in the History of American Constitutional Democracy. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, William A.

    In 1800 the U.S. democracy faced a challenge when Republican Thomas Jefferson defeated Federalist President John Adams. The Federalists handed over the reins of power to their hated rivals, setting a precedent that has guided U.S. politics ever since. This precedent established the tradition of the peaceful transfer of power. The bicentennial of…

  2. In Canada: Under the Rainbow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Heather-jane

    2005-01-01

    Inclusive education seeks to provide a welcoming environment for all students, not by ignoring gender, race, disability, or sexual identities, but by recognizing and validating difference. It is precisely this validation that alarms those who are attempting to rein in schools that have initiated anti-heterosexist programs. But no one is satisfied…

  3. Changing Course: Thurgood Marshall College Fund President Johnny Taylor Seeks New Partnerships and Avenues of Support for Public HBCUs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2011-01-01

    When veteran educator Dr. N. Joyce Payne handed the reins of the organization she founded, the Thurgood Marshall College Fund, to entertainment lawyer and board member Johnny Taylor, Taylor began pursuing a remake of the prestigious group that has turned it on its head in just a matter of months. Today, with just more than a year of leading the…

  4. Affirmative Action Redux: Who Is behind the Latest Effort to End the Consideration of Race in College Admissions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The homepage of the Project on Fair Representation (POFR) features a smiling photo of Abigail Fisher, the young White woman at the center of "Fisher v. the University of Texas," which could end race as a criterion in university admissions. Edward Blum, founder of POFR, a conservative advocacy group, connected Fisher with Wiley Rein LLP,…

  5. A Good Fit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Violino, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Outsourcing has evolved into a strategic imperative at a growing number of community colleges, especially as administrators rein in spending and streamline operations in the face of shrinking budgets. Across the country, more colleges are outsourcing a range of functions, including information technology (IT), course instruction, food service,…

  6. Charters as a Solution?: So Far, States and Districts Have Opted for Anything But

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nelson

    2007-01-01

    "Reopening the school as a public charter school" is Option #1 on the list of NCLB's restructuring alternatives for failing schools. But this has not proved a popular choice. NCLB made the bold assumption that states and districts would voluntarily turn over the reins to charter operators. The authors of the legislation must have…

  7. Schools in the New Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Schools and universities across the United States have been forced to cope with a grim financial situation that has left them without adequate resources. Administrators are cutting programs, reining in salaries and jettisoning employees to keep operating budgets in line. Education institutions also have had to shutter facilities or postpone,…

  8. Philosophieren als Unterrichtsprinzip im Mathematikunterricht

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerwaldt, Diana

    Philosophieren und Mathematik scheinen zunächst gegensätzliche Bereiche zu sein, die sich kaum vereinbaren lassen. Dies trifft für eine Auffassung zu, die Philosophieren als "Gerede" disqualifiziert und Mathematik als eine reine "Formelwissenschaft" begreift. Beide Auffassungen werden den Gegenständen nicht gerecht.

  9. Mayoral School Leadership and Integrated Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Study of Education Policy, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The past two decades have seen an emerging trend in urban school governance: mayors taking the reins of school district leadership. The impetus for putting the mayor in charge of a city's schools usually stems from at least one of the following being documented or generally perceived about an urban school district: (1) Lack of accountability; (2)…

  10. Can We Choose a Management Style?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Thomas O.

    1985-01-01

    Options in management style from corporate administration literature available to educational institutions include the choices of Theory X vs. Theory Y, the managerial vs. academic grid, management by objectives, autocratic vs. bureaucratic vs. participative vs. free-rein leadership styles, situational leadership, presidential role, leadership…

  11. A FURTHER SEARCH FOR ELEMENTS OF TOMORROW'S CLASSROOM. DENVER-STANFORD PROJECT ON THE CONTEXT OF INSTRUCTIONAL TELEVISION, REPORT NUMBER 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAYMAN, JOHN L., JR.; JOHNSON, JAMES T., JR.

    THIS FINAL PHASE OF THE PROJECT (FOR THE ORIGINAL STUDY SEE FL 000 147) WAS AN ATTEMPT TO REACH BEYOND THE FORMAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN TO ANSWER A NUMBER OF PEDAGOGICAL QUESTIONS NOT EASILY EXPLORED WITHIN ITS LIMITATIONS. SEVEN TEACHERS WERE GIVEN FREE REIN TO SUPPLEMENT THE INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS ALREADY IN USE FOR SIXTH-GRADE SPANISH PUPILS.…

  12. You're a CEO--Now What? Veteran Advice for a New Generation of Community College Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    What does it take to be an effective leader? That's a question 146 first-time community college presidents will be attempting to answer as they take the reins at their respective institutions this fall. Whether it's figuring out how to be a better listener or how to form relationships with trustees and board members and other stakeholders in the…

  13. Manual for Teaching Western Riding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Elizabeth

    This manual for teaching western riding is divided into two parts. Part one is composed of discussions of general aspects of riding instruction. Included are discussions of the basic goals of riding, characteristics of a basic position, styles of holding reins, standing position, and elementary control. Part two is composed of 20 suggested lesson…

  14. Behind the habits of the hermit nation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElligott, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Discussed the conflict of Ireland's religious orders and their stranglehold on the reins of education versus the rising discontent of parents, the decline of religious personnel and the wan of the influence of religion on the development of education in the "hermit nation ". (RK)

  15. Tightening the Purchasing Process: Superintendents Get More Involved in Buying Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Over the last 18 months, school district purchasing offices across the country have been tightening the reins like never before while more top-level administrators get involved in the budget process. "When the economy really hit the skids, states got hit hard, so a lot of school districts were forced to make severe budget cuts," says John Musso,…

  16. The Management of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersey, Paul; Blanchard, Kenneth H.

    1972-01-01

    Second of three articles cites research indicating employee productivity is usually higher under employee-centered" supervisors who keep a loose rein than under job-centered" ones who exercise close supervision. Since high expectations lead to increasingly high performance, and vice versa, authors suggest ways to turn around low-producing…

  17. Hung out to Dry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2006-01-01

    It was only three years ago that Dr. R. Wayne Branch was tapped to take over the reins at Clark College, a 70-year-old private college in Vancouver, Washington. As president of the Community College of Baltimore County-Essex, Branch oversaw the reorganization of the college after it was folded into a three-college system. Those organizational…

  18. Last Step to Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Ed

    2016-01-01

    First-time community college presidents are typically chosen from the senior ranks of two-year colleges' administrations, so they know what the job entails to some extent--at least from a close secondhand perspective. Leaders of community colleges who have taken the reins in the mid-2010s say that a close secondhand view only goes so far in…

  19. Beating Swords into . . . Chips?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Eliot

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are the efforts of the Pentagon to help U.S. companies remain competitive in high-tech civilian markets. The tug-of-war for these companies between Congress, which has come to view them as a vehicle for pork-barrel funding, and the administration, which is trying to rein them in, is described. (KR)

  20. KSC-04PD-1959

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. The Damage Assessment Recovery Team (DART) meets at the NASA KSC News Center following Hurricane Jeanne. At left (red shirt) is Center Director Jim Kennedy and Media Services Division Chief Mike Rein. A category 3 storm, Jeanne barreled through Central Florida Sept. 25-26, the fourth hurricane in 6 weeks to batter the state.

  1. Dissident Youth's Appeal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlsen, Merle M.

    This paper is designed to help youth's significant others harness dissident youth's energy into the reins of society's problems. Included is a comparison between healthy rebellion (arising out of love for something) and neurotic rebellion (having no purpose except to fight conformity or the establishment). The author classifies secondary and…

  2. Five Uncommon but Useful Knots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisnall, Rob

    1997-01-01

    Describes five useful, little-known knots: mooring hitch for securing a line to a stump or post; highwayman's cutaway for securing canoe lines or horses' reins; taut-line hitch or midshipman's hitch for securing tent guys; and Hedden knot and C&F belay hitch, used by rock climbers and mountaineers, which combine in a simple rescue haul system.…

  3. The Untamed Imagination: Creative Writing in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Gillian

    1999-01-01

    Offers thoughts on mastering creative writing, and why a good teacher is essential to the process. Asserts that students must ultimately satisfy themselves and not their teachers, and that a pupil's innermost imagination must be nurtured and given free-rein. Makes emphatic the view that good teaching is one of the most unselfish activities that…

  4. Pity the Poor Professor of Educational Administration: The Puzzlements of Knowledge and of Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burlingame, Martin

    1985-01-01

    Professors of educational administration are being pressed to hold one of three conflicting viewpoints about knowledge and practice: "behavioral science,""symbolic," or "critical." Using Rein's notion of stories, the author urges professors to debate these viewpoints among themselves but use stories to study…

  5. Unintended Consequences: An Uncertain Future for Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfond, Jay A.

    2011-01-01

    While most in the academic community know about the attempt to rein in the for-profits, few are aware of its collateral damage. In October, the Department of Education (DOE) issued its Program Integrity Rules, intended to protect federal funds especially from those for-profit institutions with high student loan default rates. Well-intentioned…

  6. Written Vocabulary of Elementary School Pupils, Ages 6-14. Monograph in Language and Reading Studies Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Carl B.; Ingersoll, Gary M.

    A study explored the written compositions of elementary school students (ages 6-14) and the vocabulary they use. Compositions were written by a large national sample of over 4,000 children, who were given free rein to write whatever they wanted; thus the study provides status information on the vocabulary that children currently use. The study…

  7. Morality as a Yardstick of Educational Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roepke, William J.

    1995-01-01

    Ponders the role of journalism and mass communication education in America and its apparent failure to impress the importance of leadership and morality on some of its students. Discusses how journalism schools can take up the reins of moral leadership, with applications in the professional curriculum, non-major course selection, faculty…

  8. A Critical Feminist and Race Critique of Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-First Century"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-first Century" documents the foreboding nature of rising wealth inequality in the twenty-first century. In an effort to promote a more just and democratic global society and rein in the unfettered accumulation of wealth by the few, Piketty calls for a global progressive annual tax on corporate…

  9. In Iowa, a Life of the Mind, Heart, and Soul

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selingo, Jefery

    2005-01-01

    When Dr. Skorton was tapped as Iowa's president, in 2003, his appointment was widely favored by faculty and staff members. Unlike most academics who give up their day jobs when they become college presidents, Dr. David J. Skorton 55, kept his when he took the reins at Iowa two years ago. A cardiologist by training, he still sees patients with…

  10. N-{Delta} weak transition

    SciTech Connect

    Graczyk, Krzysztof M.

    2011-11-23

    A short review of the Rein-Sehgal and isobar models is presented. The attention is focused on the nucleon-{Delta}(1232) weak transition form-factors. The results of the recent re-analyses of the ANL and BNL bubble chamber neutrino-deuteron scattering data are discussed.

  11. A Fine Reach Home: Excerpts from a Sailor's Wind Journal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fels, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Sailing, a harnessing of wind with canvas to propel a sailboat across distances of water, in winds shaped by landforms, airflow and temperature, requires constant renegotiation by skipper and crew in response to the wind's changeable presence. In a choreography of movement, sails secured by sheets are loosened or reined in by hand to allow wind…

  12. Enterprising Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2006-01-01

    A master's-degree program blends courses in education and business to prepare leaders for the entrepreneurial world of charter schooling. Verree D. Laughlin wants to launch a network of small, community-oriented charter schools, starting with one near the Mexican border in Yuma, Arizona. Katheryn Crayton-Shay recently took the reins of a…

  13. Prescriptions for Change: Can Ideas from Health Care Cure Higher Education's Ills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckel, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    Higher education is facing a series of tough questions: (1) Is its business model broken beyond repair?; (2) How can costs that are fast outpacing median family income be reined in?; (3) How can higher education demonstrate that students are getting the quality education they expect and deserve?; and (4) Is higher education competing in ways that…

  14. Early Retirement Payoff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D.; Lovenheim, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    As public budgets have grown tighter over the past decade, states and school districts have sought ways to control the growth of spending. One increasingly common strategy employed to rein in costs is to offer experienced teachers with high salaries financial incentives to retire early. Although early retirement incentive (ERI) programs have been…

  15. NATO Politico-Military Consultation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    General Manlio Brosio has observed that for the larger allies, consultation is "a way to legitimize and rein- force their foreign policy initiatives...ested in the experiences of a skillful practitioner of consultation. 21. Manlio Brosio, "Consultation and the Atlantic Alliance," Survival 16 (May

  16. CF CIMIC Operations 1990-2010: An Annotated Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of National Defence, 2010 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que...analysis is in depth, comprehensive and insightful. His conclusion includes a well articulated critique of the program and recommendations for

  17. Issues in Intelligence Production: Summary of Interviews with Canadian Managers of Intelligence Analysts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Canada, as represented by the Minister of National Defence, 2010 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de...intelligence community to the decision maker” (see Scowcroft 2009, for the link to the audio recording of his comments). Another critique of the

  18. Modelling and Simulation for Requirements Engineering and Options Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Defence, 2010 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2010 DRDC Toronto CR 2010...externalize their mental model of the assumed solution for critique and correction by others, and whether or not this would assist in ensuring that

  19. Linking Costs and Postsecondary Degrees: Key Issues for Policymakers. Working Paper 2011-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nate

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the author offers practical advice for decision-makers who are struggling to rein in college costs while improving productivity. He provides a step-by-step guide to different approaches for calculating costs, highlights the tremendous variability in cost across programs within institutions, and documents some of the "hidden costs" of…

  20. Legislating German University Structure: The Politics of Tradition in Hesse, 1960-1966. Yale Higher Education Program Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van de Graffe, John F.

    The protracted process by which Hesse's University Law of 1966 was enacted is traced. It is shown how that process gave rein to the still dominant forces of accommodation to traditional ideals of university mission and structure. As the last important attempt at moderate university reform in Germany, the law mandated certain changes in university…

  1. Measurement of Coherent π+ Production in Low Energy Neutrino-Carbon Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Andreopoulos, C.; Antonova, M.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Ban, S.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bartet-Friburg, P.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Berardi, V.; Berkman, S.; Bhadra, S.; Blondel, A.; Bolognesi, S.; Bordoni, S.; Boyd, S. B.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Buizza Avanzini, M.; Calland, R. G.; Campbell, T.; Cao, S.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Chikuma, N.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Collazuol, G.; Coplowe, D.; Cremonesi, L.; Dabrowska, A.; De Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Denner, P. F.; Dennis, S. R.; Densham, C.; Dewhurst, D.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Dolan, S.; Drapier, O.; Duffy, K. E.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Emery-Schrenk, S.; Ereditato, A.; Feusels, T.; Finch, A. J.; Fiorentini, G. A.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, D.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A. P.; Galymov, V.; Garcia, A.; Giffin, S. G.; Giganti, C.; Gizzarelli, F.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Hadley, D. R.; Haegel, L.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Harada, J.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayashino, T.; Hayato, Y.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Hogan, M.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Hosomi, F.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Intonti, R. A.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Iwai, E.; Iwamoto, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Jiang, M.; Johnson, S.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Jung, C. K.; Kabirnezhad, M.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Katori, T.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kim, H.; Kim, J.; King, S.; Kisiel, J.; Knight, A.; Knox, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Koch, L.; Koga, T.; Konaka, A.; Kondo, K.; Kopylov, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koshio, Y.; Kropp, W.; Kudenko, Y.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Lamont, I.; Larkin, E.; Lasorak, P.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lazos, M.; Lindner, T.; Liptak, Z. J.; Litchfield, R. P.; Li, X.; Longhin, A.; Lopez, J. P.; Ludovici, L.; Lu, X.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Martins, P.; Martynenko, S.; Maruyama, T.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Ma, W. Y.; Mazzucato, E.; McCarthy, M.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; Mefodiev, A.; Metelko, C.; Mezzetto, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Mine, S.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakamura, K. G.; Nakamura, K.; Nakamura, K. D.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Nantais, C.; Nielsen, C.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Novella, P.; Nowak, J.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Ovsyannikova, T.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Palladino, V.; Palomino, J. L.; Paolone, V.; Patel, N. D.; Pavin, M.; Payne, D.; Perkin, J. D.; Petrov, Y.; Pickard, L.; Pickering, L.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Pistillo, C.; Popov, B.; Posiadala-Zezula, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radermacher, T.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Redij, A.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Riccio, C.; Rojas, P.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Rychter, A.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schoppmann, S.; Schwehr, J.; Scott, M.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shah, R.; Shaikhiev, A.; Shaker, F.; Shaw, D.; Shiozawa, M.; Shirahige, T.; Short, S.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sobel, H.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Stewart, T.; Stowell, P.; Suda, Y.; Suvorov, S.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thakore, T.; Thompson, L. F.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vallari, Z.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Wakamatsu, K.; Walter, C. W.; Wark, D.; Warzycha, W.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yano, T.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoo, J.; Yoshida, K.; Yuan, T.; Yu, M.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; Żmuda, J.; T2K Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    We report the first measurement of the flux-averaged cross section for charged current coherent π+ production on carbon for neutrino energies less than 1.5 GeV, and with a restriction on the final state phase space volume in the T2K near detector, ND280. Comparisons are made with predictions from the Rein-Sehgal coherent production model and the model by Alvarez-Ruso et al., the latter representing the first implementation of an instance of the new class of microscopic coherent models in a neutrino interaction Monte Carlo event generator. We observe a clear event excess above background, disagreeing with the null results reported by K2K and SciBooNE in a similar neutrino energy region. The measured flux-averaged cross sections are below those predicted by both the Rein-Sehgal and Alvarez-Ruso et al. models.

  2. Measurement of Coherent π^{+} Production in Low Energy Neutrino-Carbon Scattering.

    PubMed

    Abe, K; Andreopoulos, C; Antonova, M; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Ban, S; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bartet-Friburg, P; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Berardi, V; Berkman, S; Bhadra, S; Blondel, A; Bolognesi, S; Bordoni, S; Boyd, S B; Brailsford, D; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Buizza Avanzini, M; Calland, R G; Campbell, T; Cao, S; Caravaca Rodríguez, J; Cartwright, S L; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cervera, A; Cherdack, D; Chikuma, N; Christodoulou, G; Clifton, A; Coleman, J; Collazuol, G; Coplowe, D; Cremonesi, L; Dabrowska, A; De Rosa, G; Dealtry, T; Denner, P F; Dennis, S R; Densham, C; Dewhurst, D; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Dolan, S; Drapier, O; Duffy, K E; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Emery-Schrenk, S; Ereditato, A; Feusels, T; Finch, A J; Fiorentini, G A; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, D; Fukuda, Y; Furmanski, A P; Galymov, V; Garcia, A; Giffin, S G; Giganti, C; Gizzarelli, F; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Hadley, D R; Haegel, L; Haigh, M D; Hamilton, P; Hansen, D; Harada, J; Hara, T; Hartz, M; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hayashino, T; Hayato, Y; Helmer, R L; Hierholzer, M; Hillairet, A; Himmel, A; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Hogan, M; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Hosomi, F; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Insler, J; Intonti, R A; Irvine, T J; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Iwai, E; Iwamoto, K; Izmaylov, A; Jacob, A; Jamieson, B; Jiang, M; Johnson, S; Jo, J H; Jonsson, P; Jung, C K; Kabirnezhad, M; Kaboth, A C; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Karlen, D; Karpikov, I; Katori, T; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kim, H; Kim, J; King, S; Kisiel, J; Knight, A; Knox, A; Kobayashi, T; Koch, L; Koga, T; Konaka, A; Kondo, K; Kopylov, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koshio, Y; Kropp, W; Kudenko, Y; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Lamont, I; Larkin, E; Lasorak, P; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lazos, M; Lindner, T; Liptak, Z J; Litchfield, R P; Li, X; Longhin, A; Lopez, J P; Ludovici, L; Lu, X; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marino, A D; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Martins, P; Martynenko, S; Maruyama, T; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Ma, W Y; Mazzucato, E; McCarthy, M; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Mefodiev, A; Metelko, C; Mezzetto, M; Mijakowski, P; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Mine, S; Missert, A; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Mueller, Th A; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakamura, K G; Nakamura, K; Nakamura, K D; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Nantais, C; Nielsen, C; Nirkko, M; Nishikawa, K; Nishimura, Y; Novella, P; Nowak, J; O'Keeffe, H M; Ohta, R; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oryszczak, W; Oser, S M; Ovsyannikova, T; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Palladino, V; Palomino, J L; Paolone, V; Patel, N D; Pavin, M; Payne, D; Perkin, J D; Petrov, Y; Pickard, L; Pickering, L; Pinzon Guerra, E S; Pistillo, C; Popov, B; Posiadala-Zezula, M; Poutissou, J-M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Quilain, B; Radermacher, T; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A M; Redij, A; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Riccio, C; Rojas, P; Rondio, E; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Rychter, A; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; Sánchez, F; Sato, F; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Schoppmann, S; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Sgalaberna, D; Shah, R; Shaikhiev, A; Shaker, F; Shaw, D; Shiozawa, M; Shirahige, T; Short, S; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Southwell, L; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Stewart, T; Stowell, P; Suda, Y; Suvorov, S; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H K; Tanaka, H A; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thakore, T; Thompson, L F; Tobayama, S; Toki, W; Tomura, T; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vallari, Z; Vasseur, G; Wachala, T; Wakamatsu, K; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Warzycha, W; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilkinson, C; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, M; Yanagisawa, C; Yano, T; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yoo, J; Yoshida, K; Yuan, T; Yu, M; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Żmuda, J

    2016-11-04

    We report the first measurement of the flux-averaged cross section for charged current coherent π^{+} production on carbon for neutrino energies less than 1.5 GeV, and with a restriction on the final state phase space volume in the T2K near detector, ND280. Comparisons are made with predictions from the Rein-Sehgal coherent production model and the model by Alvarez-Ruso et al., the latter representing the first implementation of an instance of the new class of microscopic coherent models in a neutrino interaction Monte Carlo event generator. We observe a clear event excess above background, disagreeing with the null results reported by K2K and SciBooNE in a similar neutrino energy region. The measured flux-averaged cross sections are below those predicted by both the Rein-Sehgal and Alvarez-Ruso et al.

  3. Organization and Employment of Aerospace Power, This documents compliments Joint Pubs 0-2, 3-0, and 3-56.1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    infrastruc- ture that impairs the enemy’s ability or will to wage war or carry out aggres- sive activity. At this level the NCA, sometimes as a...a significant morale impact to an equally devastat- ing physical blow. Surface maneuver warfare requires that small-unit commanders probe for...can overwhelm an enemy’s rein- forcement and resupply capacity, creating synergistic effects that have an adverse impact throughout the enemy system

  4. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-02

    address nuclear proliferation concerns related to Iran and North Korea . While working with China to revive the global economy, the United States has...the United Nations Security Council, to help block the nuclear ambitions of Iran and North Korea . With the United States and China now the two...global and regional issues, from rebalancing the global economy to reining in the nuclear programs of Iran and North Korea , the United States

  5. Body lean angle in sound dressage horses in-hand, on the lunge and ridden.

    PubMed

    Greve, Line; Dyson, Sue

    2016-11-01

    Animals can minimise the risk of falling by leaning into a curve. The aims of this study were: (1) to quantify the difference between observed (measured by an inertial measurement unit, IMU) and predicted body lean angle (calculated as a cyclist when turning) in horses; and (2) to compare circles versus straight lines ridden versus in-hand and trot with canter, and investigate the influence of age, rein and ridden work quality in trot (Fédération Equestre Internationale grading scale 1-10) in horses. Thirteen non-lame horses were assessed prospectively in a non-random, cross-sectional survey. The horses were trotted in straight lines, lunged and ridden on both reins. A global positioning system-aided IMU attached to the skin over the tuber sacrale quantified body lean and recorded the velocity and the radius, which were used to calculate predicted lean. Horses ≤ 6 years of age leant more than predicted (mean ± standard deviation 2.9 ± 2.6°) and more than horses ≥ 7 years old (0.4 ± 3°) (P = 0.01). Horses that scored ≥ 7 in ridden work quality leant less than predicted (-1.1 ± 2.7°) and less than horses which scored ≤ 6 in ridden work quality (2.4 ± 1.5°) (P = 0.02). There were no significant differences between trot and canter, either on the lunge or ridden (P = 0.3), or between left and right reins (P = 0.2). Asymmetry of body lean between reins may be abnormal and may be helpful for recognition of lameness.

  6. Numerical Simulation of Tokamak Electron Dynamics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-29

    Chapman and T. G. Cowling, The Mathematical Theory of Non-Uniform Gases, Cambridge University Press, London, 1939. 2. Lyman Spitzer , Jr ., Physics of...Cowling, and was reined by Spitzer , et al. 2 Hinton and Oberman 3 first pointed out the non-local relationship between current den- sity and electric...distribution was that calculated in Appendix B and corresponds to the counterpart of the Spitzer -Harm calculation for the case of trapped particles. The

  7. KSC-04PD-0038

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Mike Rein (at left), division chief of KSC External Affairs, moderates the press conference featuring (second from left to right) U.S. Rep. Tom Feeney, Center Director Jim Kennedy and U.S. Rep. Dave Weldon. The media were interested in hearing Kennedys and the congressmens reactions to the new mission for NASA outlined by President George W. Bush Jan. 14.

  8. Phaethon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    An Apollo asteroid discovered by Simon Green and John Davies in 1983 from data returned by the IRAS satellite; it is designated (3200) Phaethon. It follows a highly elliptical orbit and at perihelion is just 0.14 AU from the Sun, well within the orbit of Mercury. It was named after the son of the Sun-god Helios, who took the reins of the Sun-chariot and, losing control, nearly incinerated the Ear...

  9. Theory institute appoints new head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Hamish

    2008-06-01

    The cosmologist Neil Turok has been appointed as the next executive director of the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Canada. Turok, who is currently chair of mathematical physics at the University of Cambridge in the UK, will take over the reins in October. The 50- year-old cosmologist described the move as the "opportunity of a lifetime" and says he plans to make the institute "the leading centre in the world for theoretical physics".

  10. Criteria for electrically heated temperature probes in flames.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, I. M.; Schryer, D. R.

    1971-01-01

    Measurement techniques proposed by Gilbert and Lobdell (1953) and Rein and O'Laughlin (1967) are considered, giving attention to an apparent paradox. The criteria under which the assumptions made for the measurement techniques apply are specified. If sensors of different diameters are tested and the resultant plots of the parameter ?S' vs the wire temperature intersect below the abscissa, the considered measurement techniques are not applicable.

  11. A Ventromedian Cervical Sclerite of Mosquito Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    Mosquito Sys tematics VOL. 8(2) 1976 205 A Ventromedian Cervical Sclerite oflMosquito Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) John F. Rein& Department of...aegypt; (Linnaeus) by Hochman and Reinert (1974). The ventromedian cervical sclerite has a frag- mented appearance in a number of species of the...Dyar and Knab and dupreei (Coquillett)). Seventy-four species in 19 subgenera of Aedes examined possessed a ven- tromedian cervical sclerite. These

  12. Project SQUID. Liquid Propellant Rockets. Volume 2, Part 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1947-06-30

    Department . This report was prepared by the Technical Survey Group of Project SQUID as a cooperative effort of Princeton University and Engineering Re...In addition, Professor J. V. Charyk of the Aeronautical Engineering Depart - ment at Princeton visited the California Institute of Technology and fur...of the War and Navy Departments and other Government agencies, and of representatives of academic and industrial laboratories who arc under contract

  13. Part I: Development of an Animal Model to Investigate the 2D and 3D High Image Resolution Ultrasonic Technology Using Synthetic Aperture and Adaptive Beamformers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    on a examin6 l’effet des lipopolysaccharides (LPS), un constituant de la paroi cellulaire bact6rienne, sur les poumons, le foie et les reins chez le...lipopolysaccharides (un constituant de la paroi cellulaire bactdrienne commundment utilis6 pour provoquer les atteintes pathologiques observdes dans les...personnel with rapid diagnosis and therapy of numerous pathological disorders. Thus, several manufacturers of imaging equipment are introducing computerized

  14. Technical Performance Measures and Distributed-Simulation Training Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    Winter 2000 32 Piplani , L . K ., Mercer, J. G., & Roop, R. O. (1994). Systems acquisition manager’s guide for the use of models and simulations. Fort...tasks, moving on to learn advanced unit tasks, rein- forcement of p r e v i o u s l y learned tasks, and, finally, in- tegration of various combinations... Piplani , Mercer, and Roop, 1994), identifies numerous outcome-oriented, technical performance measures for use by acquisition managers of combat systems

  15. Theory of EMP Coupling in the Source Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-28

    complicated than frcc -fiell cuj1ij•, where only the fields need to be colnsidered. Nevertheless, a useful approximate theory of source region coupling...latter are rein-forced concrete , and ha0ve a IW ow lMpedaiC e to dims ta nt groun11d . The 1 I-CIMrb 11 , which 1 s n c1 Coitac t wvi t 11 thle 50 i I , a

  16. Twenty years (actually 16) in retrospect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, H.

    1990-01-01

    I have been editor of Earthquakes and Volcanoes for the last 16 years. Since I will soon be handing over the reins to a consortium of editors who will produce the magazine at the USGS National Earthquake Information Center in Golden, Colorado, I thought I would offer a tetrospective view of editing a magazine designed for a diversified audience. 

  17. A Summary Report on Store Heating Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    Edney (Ref. 5) classified shock interference patterns and the associated heating amplification factors into six types. However, the specific ... constant St - (I PooVooCp(To - T w) . p voo.x Rein, x Poo m i i m m m m m I l I Turbulent Heat -Transfer Predictions Based on Spalding-Chi...AEDO-TR-78-46 A SUMMARY REPORT ON STORE HEATING TECHNOLOGY R. K. Matthews ARO, Inc., a Sverdrup Coporation Company VON KARM~,N GAS DYNAMICS

  18. Report Of The HST Strategy Panel: A Strategy For Recovery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    implementation is difficult. ISSUES • Is the ambient vacuum at the HST altitude adequate? (1 micro-Torr is required.) • What is the adhesion ...and installed a shield over the Soft X-ray Polychrometer propane vent port. On mission STS-51A, two satellites, Westar-VI and Palapa-B2, were...power tools. With regard to adhesives and taping, any bonding operations with graphite-rein- forced epoxy composites would require qualification of

  19. 3D-Meshes aus medizinischen Volumendaten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelzer, Sascha; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    Diese Arbeit beschreibt eine template-basierte Methode zur Erzeugung von adaptiven Hexaeder-Meshes aus Volumendaten, welche komplizierte konkave Strukturen aufweisen können. Es wird ein vollständiger Satz von Templates generiert der es erlaubt, die Ränder konkaver Regionen feiner zu zerlegen als angrenzende Bereiche und somit die Gesamtzahl an Hexaeder verringert. Der Algorithmus arbeitet mit beliebigen gelabelten Volumendaten und erzeugt ein adaptives, konformes, reines Hexaeder-Mesh.

  20. Proceedings of the Annual Military Librarians’ Workshop (29th) Held in Colorado Springs, CO, on 9-11 October 1985

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-11

    E. McCann, Director of Research) Academy Libraries Briefing (Lt Col Schaeffer) Multi- Media Presentation "Pilgrimage" (Lt Col Bruford L. Doyle...will prepare them to take the reins of leadership in a world filled with social , economic, and political challenges ." The third presentation, on the...several most unusual media in the Gimbel L~brary depict aeronautic*) events--chinaware artifacts, bookends, snuff boxes, bowls, clippings, fans, military

  1. Neutrino mass

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    Despite intensive experimental work since the neutrino's existence was proposed by Pauli 60 years ago, and its first observation by Reines and Cowan almost 40 years ago, the neutrino's fundamental properties remain elusive. Among those properties are the masses of the three known flavors, properties under charge conjugation, parity and time-reversal, and static and dynamic electromagnetic moments. Mass is perhaps the most fundamental, as it constrains the other properties. The present status of the search for neutrino mass is briefly reviewed.

  2. Fourier Transformation Theory for Averaged Functions, with Application to Very Long Baseline Radio Interferometry.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    using the standard Fouuier inversion method. Thep- reins concernIng the Fourier transformation of a tr-ncated and/or averaged visi- bility function are...is reviewed. Basic properties of the two-dimensional Fourier transform are reviewed, and the standard Fourier inversion method is presented. This...averaging are illustrated for a double Gaussian model source using the standard Fourier inversion method. Theorems concerning the Fourier transforma- tion

  3. AGARD Bulletin. Meetings, Publications, Membership.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    V.GEORGE Professor Dr Ing. J.BARCHE Chef d’Etat-Major Adjoint Feldhausen 46 Logistique die [a Force Aerienne 2804 Lilienthal Quartier Reine Elisabeth rue...B.P. No.10 B-1 180 Bruxelles Domaine de Corbeville 91401, Orsay Colonel d’Aviation Ir. C.SPRENKELS Commandant 2 me WingGRMN Logistique (22 Log W)GEMN...Adjoint Informatique Logistique Leiter der Hauptabteilung Datenverarbeitung Etat Major Force Afrienne (VSL/I) Gesellschaft fur Information und Quartier

  4. Kernkraftwerke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allelein, H. J.

    Die Nutzung der Kernenergie ist untrennbar mit dem Element Uran verknüpft. Da die Umwandlung eines Elements in ein anderes auf chemischem Weg nicht möglich ist, muss das heute vorhandene Uran durch kosmische Prozesse vor Entstehung der Erde entstanden sein. Reines Uran ist ein silberweiß glänzendes, relativ weiches Schwermetall. In der Elementhäufigkeit steht Uran vor Gold, Silber oder Quecksilber.

  5. Medicare up, up and ... a way for the industry to get more money may be difficult, experts says, since CMS finds Medicare spending rose 19% in '06.

    PubMed

    DoBias, Matthew

    2008-01-14

    Medicare spending skyrocketed nearly 19% in 2006, fueled by the Part D drug benefit and expanded Medicare Advantage enrollment. That's likely to put pressure on lawmakers to rein in spending, but one expert said it could have been worse. "We are fortunate that the actual cost of Part D has continued to come in under what our earlier projections were," says CMS Chief Actuary Richard Foster, left.

  6. Combat Resource Management (11bm) Applied Research Project (ARP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Right of Canada as represented by the Minister of National Defence, 2009 c© Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le...temps critiques représentent des défis significatifs pour les futurs systèmes de commandement et contrôle embarqués. En plus d’autres

  7. Measurements and Analysis of Reverberation, Target Echo, and Clutter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Review Panel c© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada as represented by the Minister of National Defence, 2010 c© Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du...La prochaine étape, qui consiste à modéliser l’écho de la cible, est critique pour la prévision du rendement d’un sonar. Le modèle normal du

  8. A Random Matrix Theory Approach to National Procurement Spending: Applications to the CC130 Hercules Fleet Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2010 Dr aft Co py Abstract We apply the methods...que l’entretien de la flotte des CC130 est robuste et que le financement n’est pas tombé sous le seuil critique qui se traduirait par des

  9. INCOMMANDS TDP: Human Factors Evaluation of the Command Decision Support Capability Prototype

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2009 DRDC Toronto CR 2009-041 Abstract...temps critiques . f. La CADC INCOMMANDS n’a pas d’incidence négative sur les communications qui se déroulent dans la salle des opérations. Plans

  10. Collective Political Violence in Easton’s Political Systems Model (La Violence Politique Collective dans le Modele de Systeme Politique d’Easton)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of National Defence,.2011 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada...d’autocorrection du système. Le recours à la violence peut – dans une certaine mesure – permettre à un régime de restaurer le niveau critique ...Model ............................................................................................. 3 4 A Critique of Easton’s Model

  11. Neutrino '88. Proceedings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneps, J.; Kafka, T.; Mann, W. A.; Nath, P.

    Contents: 1. Neutrino mass. 2. Neutrino oscillations. 3. Double beta decay. 4. Solar neutrinos. 5. Neutrinos from supernovae. 6. Neutrino interactions at accelerators. 7. New detectors for neutrino processes. 8. Neutrino interactions at accelerators II. 9. W, Z, and the standard model. 10. "Fred Reines at 70" Fest. 11. Nucleon decay, the standard model, and beyond. 12. Neutrinos: Earth, atmosphere, Sun, and galaxies. 13. Dark matter and cosmology. 14. Theoretical topics. 15. Future prospects.

  12. Host Genotype and Hypersensitive Reaction Influence Population Levels of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians in Lettuce.

    PubMed

    Bull, Carolee T; Gebben, Samantha J; Goldman, Polly H; Trent, Mark; Hayes, Ryan J

    2015-03-01

    Dynamics of population sizes of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians inoculated onto or into lettuce leaves were monitored on susceptible and resistant cultivars. In general, population growth was greater for susceptible (Clemente, Salinas 88, Vista Verde) than resistant (Batavia Reine des Glaces, Iceberg, Little Gem) cultivars. When spray-inoculated or infiltrated, population levels of X. campestris pv. vitians were consistently significantly lower on Little Gem than on susceptible cultivars, while differences in the other resistant cultivars were not consistently statistically significant. Populations increased at an intermediate rate on cultivars Iceberg and Batavia Reine des Glaces. There were significant positive correlations between bacterial concentration applied and disease severity for all cultivars, but bacterial titer had a significantly greater influence on disease severity in the susceptible cultivars than in Little Gem and an intermediate influence in Iceberg and Batavia Reine des Glaces. Infiltration of X. campestris pv. vitians strains into leaves of Little Gem resulted in an incompatible reaction, whereas compatible reactions were observed in all other cultivars. It appears that the differences in the relationship between population dynamics for Little Gem and the other cultivars tested were due to the hypersensitive response in cultivar Little Gem. These findings have implications for disease management and lettuce breeding because X. campestris pv. vitians interacts differently with cultivars that differ for resistance mechanisms.

  13. Dimensions rénales en Service de Néphrologie Clinique, Befelatanana, Antananarivo

    PubMed Central

    Ramilitiana, Benja; Dodo, Mihary; Rakotoarimanga, Henintsoa Nirina; Randriamboavonjy, Rado Lalao; Randriamarotia, Willy Franck

    2016-01-01

    La connaissance des dimensions rénales pour tout individu et pour toute ethnie, aide à une décision médicale d'ordre diagnostique et thérapeutique. Pour un pays à faible revenu comme Madagascar, l’échographie constitue un outil idéal à cette fin. Ce travail a comme objectifs de recueillir les dimensions rénales, puis de chercher la corrélation entre ces dernières et les paramètres démographiques ou anthropométriques des Malgaches. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective, s’étalant sur une période de 3 ans, effectuée dans le service de Néphrologie du centre hospitalier de Befelatanana, Antananarivo, recrutant 200 patients non diabétiques, sans maladie rénale chronique. L’âge moyen de nos patients était de 45 ans ±16, avec un sex ratio de 0,9. En moyenne, les dimensions (longueur × largeur × épaisseur) étaient de 98 mm × 42 mm × 30 mm pour le rein droit et 99 mm × 45 mm × 31 mm pour le rein gauche. Nous avons retrouvé une différence significative entre le rein droit et gauche sur la longueur (p<0,00001) et la largeur (p = 0,03). Une relation significative était aussi retrouvée entre la longueur rénale et l’âge (p = 0,0016 et p = 0,04 respectivement pour le rein droit et le rein gauche). Aucune relation significative n'a été établie entre les dimensions rénales et la taille ni le poids de nos patients. Malgré ses limites, notre étude apporterait une aide sur le plan pratique clinique ainsi que pour une étude ultérieure. PMID:27642455

  14. Measuring Neutrino Oscillations with Nuclear Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, R. D.

    2007-10-26

    Since the first direct observations of antineutrino events by Reines and Cowan in the 1950's, nuclear reactors have been an important tool in the study of neutrino properties. More recently, the study of neutrino oscillations has been a very active area of research. The pioneering observation of oscillations by the KamLAND experiment has provided crucial information on the neutrino mixing matrix. New experiments to study the remaining unknown mixing angle are currently under development. These recent studies and potential future developments will be discussed.

  15. From the President

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boles, T.

    2003-12-01

    During Guy Hurst's very successful two years as President, he made many changes that have improved the management of the Association. Although it has meant long hours, a lot of dedication by him and his wife Anne, and a forever full mailbox, he has confided in me that he is somewhat saddened to be finally handing over the reins. My personal thanks, and those on behalf of our members and everyone on the Council go to Guy and Anne for their great contribution and dedication over the last twenty-four months.

  16. Assessing the Effects of Crew Exposure to Cabin Altitudes of 8,000 ft to 10,000 ft. A Literature Review and Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-08-01

    the Minister of National Defence, 2002 "© Sa majestd la reine, repr~sent6e par le ministre de la Defense nationale, 2002 - - - , m m6 Abstract...d’altitude reposent sur une r~duction de Pactivit6 du syst~me sympathique au moyen d’un traitement A la clonidine ou au propranolol (deux m ~dicaments utilis~s...the full duration of such a mission. Paul, M ., Gray, G. 2002. Assessing the effects of crew exposure to cabin altitudes of 8,000 ft to 10,000 ft: A

  17. American health system reform: a view from the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Butler, E

    1994-06-01

    Governments East and West have learnt the cost of trying to manage healthcare systems from a government department. In France, Belgium, Germany, Italy, the UK, the Netherlands ... they are all on the defensive, trying to rein in costs by transferring more and more responsibilities onto private insurers and suppliers. Even in Russia, alongside the public system, which is now arranged on insurance principles, people are quite free to purchase additional voluntary insurance, or direct payment, if they desire additional services such as shorter waiting times or better hospital accommodations. Can America really be going in the opposite direction?

  18. Evaluation of Visual Alerts in the Maritime Domain. Study 2. Program Modifications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    as represented by the Minister of National Defence, 2009 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la...types d’alertes et assurer la surveillance visuelle des trois écrans par les participants. Le présent rapport explique les travaux effectués par CAE...Un programme de recherche de RDDC Atlantique est en cours pour explorer les méthodes permettant d’améliorer la manière d’alerter les opérateurs

  19. IPME and External Clients: Enhancing Performance by Offloading Simulation Workload to External Clients; Explaining and Simplifying the Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of National Defence, 2007 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le...clients aide à la réalisation de cette activité. Perspectives : La version 4 de l’EIMP est en cours de développement et elle devrait être plus puissante...dispositif améliorant les performances ira en diminuant, ils continueront d’aider à assurer la modularité des modèles de l’EIMP. La démarche qui fait

  20. Constraint-Based Argumentation for Decision Support in the Context of Combat Power Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Scientist c© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada as represented by the Minister of National Defence, 2008 c© Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du...cadre du projet Advisory Threat and Intent Assessment in Littoral Joint Context actuellement en cours . L’objectif de ce projet est de soutenir les...can all lead to a situation of under-confidence, where the operator becomes overly concerned with the perils of a course of action [18]. In such a

  1. Netz ohne doppelten Boden: Internet-Sicherheit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, Johann

    2002-07-01

    Die Sicherheitslücken des heutigen Internets haben zwei Ursachen: sein ursprüngliches Design für rein militärische Zwecke sowie die gefährliche Sorglosigkeit der Entwickler und Betreiber von Internet-Komponenten. Dabei kann ein kleiner Kreis von Experten Angriffe auf die eigentlichen Netzknoten ausführen. Typische Hacker-Angriffe kommen von Endsystemen des Internets und richten sich auch gegen Endsysteme wie Firmen-Intranets oder einzelne PCs. Dagegen gibt es eine Reihe von Schutzmöglichkeiten. Es ist jedoch keine einfache Lösung zur Erhöhung der Internet-Sicherheit in Sicht.

  2. Log files analysis to assess the use and workload of a dynamic web server dedicated to end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Ben Said, Mohamed; Le Mignot, Loic; Richard, Jean Baptiste; Le Bihan, Christine; Toubiana, Laurent; Jais, Jean-Philippe; Landais, Paul

    2006-01-01

    A Multi-Source Information System (MSIS), has been designed for the Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) dedicated to End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). MSIS aims at providing reliable follow-up data for ESRD patients. It is based on an n-tier architecture, made out of a universal client, a dynamic Web server connected to a production database and to a data warehouse. MSIS is operational since 2002 and progressively deployed in 9 regions in France. It includes 16,677 patients. We show that the analysis of MSIS web log files allows evaluating the use of the system and the workload in a public-health perspective.

  3. [Total laryngopharyngectomy and reconstruction with a jejunum speech siphon : A case report].

    PubMed

    Seidel, D U; Sheppard, K; Dogan, Z A; Remmert, S

    2014-06-01

    Advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinomas are associated with a poor prognosis and a pronounced loss of quality of life due to impairment of the swallowing and voice function. The fundamental therapeutic challenge is successful tumor control with concomitant rehabilitation of swallowing and voice functions. Further objectives are a low complications rate (fistula, aspiration) and prompt transfer to the adjuvant radio-oncologic therapy. With these factors in mind, the microvascular anastomosed jejunum speech siphon with a biventer rein has proven to be an effective method of reconstruction following extensive circular laryngopharyngeal resections. In this case report, a typical operative and postoperative course is presented, as are the functional results.

  4. Who chooses a consumer-directed health plan?

    PubMed

    Barry, Colleen L; Cullen, Mark R; Galusha, Deron; Slade, Martin D; Busch, Susan H

    2008-01-01

    Consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs) hold the promise of reining in health spending by giving consumers a greater stake in health care purchasing, yet little is known about employers' experience with these products. In examining the characteristics of those selecting a CDHP offered by one large employer, we found stronger evidence of selection than has been identified in prior research. Our findings suggest that in the context of plan choice, CDHPs may offer little opportunity to greatly lower employers' cost burden, and they highlight concerns about the potential for risk segmentation and the value of conferring preferential tax treatment to CDHPs.

  5. Los Alamos Science, Number 25 -- 1997: Celebrating the Neutrino

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Cooper, N. G. ed.

    1997-01-01

    This issue is devoted to the neutrino and its remaining mysteries. It is divided into the following areas: (1) The Reines-Cowan experiment -- detecting the poltergeist; (2) The oscillating neutrino -- an introduction to neutrino masses and mixing; (3) A brief history of neutrino experiments at LAMPF; (4) A thousand eyes -- the story of LSND (Los Alamos neutrino oscillation experiment); (5) The evidence for oscillations; (6) The nature of neutrinos in muon decay and physics beyond the Standard Model; (7) Exorcising ghosts -- in pursuit of the missing solar neutrinos; (8) MSW -- a possible solution to the solar neutrino problem; (8) Neutrinos and supernovae; and (9) Dark matter and massive neutrinos.

  6. Was leistet ein Sportler? Kraft, Leistung und Energie im Muskel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaller, Sigrid; Mathelitsch, Leopold

    2006-01-01

    Der Leistungsbegriff ist im Sport weiter gefasst als in der Physik. In beiden Fällen liegt der Fokus jedoch auf einer pro Zeiteinheit erfolgten Energieumsetzung. Allerdings gibt die rein physikalische Leistung nicht immer Auskunft über den Energieumsatz der Muskeln. Die Muskelkraft hängt von der Kontraktionsgeschwindigkeit des Muskels ab. Ein Muskel verhält sich also anders als eine Feder. Für den Hochleistungssport müssen die Energieumsätze der Muskeln durch spezielle Trainings- und Nahrungsprogramme optimiert werden.

  7. Los Alamos Science, Number 25 -- 1997: Celebrating the neutrino

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, N.G.

    1997-12-31

    This issue is devoted to the neutrino and its remaining mysteries. It is divided into the following areas: (1) The Reines-Cowan experiment -- detecting the poltergeist; (2) The oscillating neutrino -- an introduction to neutrino masses and mixing; (3) A brief history of neutrino experiments at LAMPF; (4) A thousand eyes -- the story of LSND (Los Alamos neutrino oscillation experiment); (5) The evidence for oscillations; (6) The nature of neutrinos in muon decay and physics beyond the Standard Model; (7) Exorcising ghosts -- in pursuit of the missing solar neutrinos; (8) MSW -- a possible solution to the solar neutrino problem; (8) Neutrinos and supernovae; and (9) Dark matter and massive neutrinos.

  8. Adding a Capability to Extract Sentiment from Text Using HanDles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    Minister of National Defence, 2012 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2012...HanDles afin qu’il fasse la distinction entre bonnes et mauvaises critiques de film. Nous avons exécuté ce scénario à trois reprises dans le but de...vérifier à quel point il parvient à classifier correctement les documents. Le premier essai portait sur des critiques de l’appareil Kindle d’Amazon

  9. Stakeholder Analysis for the CF Counter-IED Training Courses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    Canada, as represented by the Minister of National Defence, 2010 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la...Element #1a Wedding guests arrived Yes MTP #1c Insufficient critique of answer 1 CoachScript MTP #1c Acquired SA Element #1b No cell phone activity...Acq MTP #2b Cultural sensitivity 0 CoachScript MTP #2b Acquired SA Element #2a Recent CF activity displaced ins Yes MTP #2c Insufficient critique of

  10. Trust Violation and Repair (12oe): Project Summary and Closeout Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Minister of National Defence, 2008 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2008 DRDC...subject matter expert (SME) feedback and critique was elicited. This feedback occurred in five focus groups with 19 Canadian Forces (CF) personnel who...confiance de manière à refléter les dimensions théoriques importantes de la confiance, puis l’on a cherché à obtenir la rétroaction et les critiques

  11. Experimental Investigation of the Strength of Damaged Pressure Hulls - Phases 5 & 6: The Influence of Out-of-Circularity on Collapse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Right of Canada, as represented by the Minister of National Defence, 2011 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le... critique . Des dommages supplémentaires ont été infligés à six des cylindres d’essai, sous forme d’amincissement par corrosion artificielle, réalisée... critique n=3. L’analyse des données expérimentales reste à faire, ainsi que les simulations numériques des essais d’affaissement. Ceci fait, RDDC

  12. The 2007 Surge in Iraq: An Alternative View

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2014 DRDC-RDDC-2014-R105 i Abstract...milices aurait eu pour effet de repousser de plusieurs mois un nouveau sommet de violence. Dans notre étude, nous faisons un examen critique d’autres...pour effet de repousser de plusieurs mois un nouveau sommet de violence. Dans notre étude, nous faisons un examen critique d’autres facteurs qui

  13. Internet Based Robot Control Using CORBA Based Communications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    the Minister of National Defence, 2009 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale...interact with a service. Its lack of tools to support implementation is the main critique against it. 3.6.2 WSDL-based Web Services This type of Web...The main critiques against it are its complexity and loss of functionality of the “back” button and bookmarking ability for web browsers, though the

  14. Gas Dynamics, Characterization, and Calibration of Fast Flow Flight Cascade Impactor Quartz Crystal Microbalances (QCM) for Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, J.R.; Thorpe, A. N.; James, C.; Michael, A.; Ware, M.; Senftle, F.; Smith, S.

    1997-01-01

    During recent high altitude flights, we have tested the aerosol section of the fast flow flight cascade impactor quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) on loan to Howard University from NASA. The aerosol mass collected during these flights was disappointingly small. Increasing the flow through the QCM did not correct the problem. It was clear that the instrument was not being operated under proper conditions for aerosol collect ion primarily because the gas dynamics is not well understood. A laboratory study was therefore undertaken using two different fast flow QCM's in an attempt to establish the gas flow characteristics of the aerosol sections and its effect on particle collection, Some tests were made at low temperatures but most of the work reported here was carried out at room temperature. The QCM is a cascade type impactor originally designed by May (1945) and later modified by Anderson (1966) and Mercer et al (1970) for chemical gas analysis. The QCM has been used extensively for collecting and sizing stratospheric aerosol particles. In this paper all flow rates are given or corrected and referred to in terms of air at STP. All of the flow meters were kept at STP. Although there have been several calibration and evaluation studies of moderate flow cascade impactors of less than or equal to 1 L/rein., there is little experimental information on the gas flow characteristics for fast flow rates greater than 1 L/rein.

  15. Gravitational Instability in Planetesimal Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolin, Bryce T.; Lithwick, Yoram; Pan, Margaret; Rein, Hanno; Wu, Yanqin

    2014-11-01

    Gravitational instability (GI) has been proposed as a method of forming giant gas planets enhanced by disk thermodynamics in a protoplanetary disk (Boss, 1997, Science 276; Durisen et al., 2007, Protostars and Planets V) and as a method of forming planetesimals through the focusing of boulders by the interaction between solids and gases in a turbulent circumstellar disk (Johansen et al., 2007, Nature 448; Youdin & Goodman, 2005, Astrophys. J. 620). GI is mediated through a gaseous circumstellar disk in each each of these scenarios. We explore the possibility of GI occurring in a planetesimal disk devoid of gas. In this regime, mutual collisions between planetesimals are required to dissipate their orbital shear and velocity dispersion enough for collapse to occur as described by the Toomre stability criterion (Toomre, 1964, Astrophys. J. 139; Toomre, 1981, Structure and Evolution of Normal Galaxies). How frequent must collisions be between planetesimals in a gravitationally stable planetesimal disk for GI to occur? Are there collisional rates where GI is postponed indefinitely in an equilibrium state between gravitational stirring and collisional cooling? We present 3D shearing sheet simulations using the REBOUND N-body code with the symplectic epicyclic integrator (Rein & Liu, 2011, A&A 537; Rein & Tremaine, 2011, MNRAS 415) in which the candidate collision rates are within a few orders of magnitude of the disk dynamical lifetime. Our simulations suggest that collisions rate directly controls disk cooling. The shape of the disk cooling curve is independent of the collision rate when scaled to the collision time.

  16. Effects of hyperflexion on acute stress responses in ridden dressage horses.

    PubMed

    Christensen, J W; Beekmans, M; van Dalum, M; VanDierendonck, M

    2014-04-10

    The effects of hyperflexion on the welfare of dressage horses have been debated. This study aimed to investigate acute stress responses of dressage horses ridden in three different Head-and-Neck-positions (HNPs). Fifteen dressage horses were ridden by their usual rider in a standardised 10-min dressage programme in either the competition frame (CF), hyperflexion ("Low-Deep-and-Round"; LDR) or a looser frame (LF) in a balanced order on three separate test days. Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability parameters (HRV), behaviour and rein tension were recorded during the test. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured 60 min before and 0, 5, 15 and 30 min after the test. Rein tension was significantly lower in LF and did not differ between CF and LDR; however approx. 15% of recordings in CF and LDR were above the sensor detection limit of 5 kg. The horses had significantly higher cortisol concentrations directly after LDR compared to LF. In addition, the horses showed more distinctive head movements, including head waving, during LDR. There were no significant treatment effects on HR and HRV. In conclusion, the results indicate that LDR may be more stressful to these horses during riding.

  17. Über vollkommene Tonsysteme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirring, W.

    Ein Tonsystem, dessen Stufen aus k Intervallen gebildet wird, heiße vollkommenes k-intervalliges N-Tonsystem, wenn nach N Stufen die reine Oktav und zwischendurch die reine Quint erreicht wird. Wir beeweiseniVollkommene ein-intervallige Tonsysteme gibt es für kein N.iiBis N = 16 gibt es vollkommene zwei-intervallige Systeme für N = 2, 3, 5, 7, 12.iiiFür k ≥ 3 gibt es für alle N ≥ 3 unendlich viele verschiedene vollkommene Tonsysteme.Translated AbstractOn Complete Tone SystemsA tone system with steps build of k intervals is called a k interval N tone system if the pure octave is reached after N steps touching the pure quint between. We prove: iThere are no complete one-interval tone systems at any N.iiUp to N = 16 two-interval systems are complete with N = 2, 3, 5, 7, 12.iiiWith k ≥ 3 and N ≥ 3 there are infinitly many different complete tone systems.

  18. Design and Evaluation of a Fully Implantable Control Unit for Blood Pumps

    PubMed Central

    Unthan, Kristin; Gräf, Felix; Laumen, Marco; Finocchiaro, Thomas; Sommer, Christoph; Lanmüller, Hermann; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    As the number of donor hearts is limited while more and more patients suffer from end stage biventricular heart failure, Total Artificial Hearts become a promising alternative to conventional treatment. While pneumatic devices sufficiently supply the patients with blood flow, the patient's quality of life is limited by the percutaneous pressure lines and the size of the external control unit. This paper describes the development of the control unit of the ReinHeart, a fully implantable Total Artificial Heart. General requirements for any implantable control unit are defined from a technical and medical point of view: necessity of a Transcutaneous Energy Transmission, autonomous operation, safety, geometry, and efficiency. Based on the requirements, a prototype is designed; it incorporates a LiFePo4 battery pack with charger, a rectifier for transcutaneous energy transmission, the motor's driver electronics, and a microcontroller which monitors and controls all functions. In validation tests, the control unit demonstrated a stable operation on TET and battery supply and a safe switching from one supply to the other. The overall mean efficiency is 14% on TET and 22% on battery supply. The control unit is suitable for chronic animal trials of the ReinHeart. PMID:26583095

  19. A synergistic therapeutic scheme for hyperglycemia and nephrotic disorders in diabetes.

    PubMed

    He, Qingyi; Zhang, Xing; Han, Baosan; Xu, Jianzhong; Tang, Kanglai; Fu, Zhiren; Yin, Hao

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the utilization of an electrospun scaffold could boost functional outputs of transplanted islets. In this study, we aim to develop a drug-eluting scaffold with a payload of pioglitazone to simultaneously rein in hyperglycemia and recoup lost renal functions in diabetic mice that underwent islet transplantation. The in vivo proliferation of islets was measured by a non-invasive bio-imaging technology whereas the blood insulin, blood glucose and renal proteins were assayed. The local stimulation of transplanted islets by pioglitazone saw an accelerated in vivo proliferation without apoptosis caused by the drug-eluting scaffold. In addition, pioglitazone contributed to an increased secretion of insulin and C-peptide 2, giving rise to an accelerated rein-in of hyperglycemia and enhanced tolerance of sudden oral glucose challenge. Moreover, the accelerated decrease of blood creatinine, urine creatinine and blood urea nitrogen suggested that pioglitazone contributed to the recovery of renal functions compromised by diabetes. Our bioengineering strategy effectively ameliorated hyperglycemia and associated nephrotic disorders, and shed a new light on an engineering approach to combat diabetes.

  20. Design and Evaluation of a Fully Implantable Control Unit for Blood Pumps.

    PubMed

    Unthan, Kristin; Gräf, Felix; Laumen, Marco; Finocchiaro, Thomas; Sommer, Christoph; Lanmüller, Hermann; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    As the number of donor hearts is limited while more and more patients suffer from end stage biventricular heart failure, Total Artificial Hearts become a promising alternative to conventional treatment. While pneumatic devices sufficiently supply the patients with blood flow, the patient's quality of life is limited by the percutaneous pressure lines and the size of the external control unit. This paper describes the development of the control unit of the ReinHeart, a fully implantable Total Artificial Heart. General requirements for any implantable control unit are defined from a technical and medical point of view: necessity of a Transcutaneous Energy Transmission, autonomous operation, safety, geometry, and efficiency. Based on the requirements, a prototype is designed; it incorporates a LiFePo4 battery pack with charger, a rectifier for transcutaneous energy transmission, the motor's driver electronics, and a microcontroller which monitors and controls all functions. In validation tests, the control unit demonstrated a stable operation on TET and battery supply and a safe switching from one supply to the other. The overall mean efficiency is 14% on TET and 22% on battery supply. The control unit is suitable for chronic animal trials of the ReinHeart.

  1. Assessment of the impact of Aluminum on germination, early growth and free proline content in Lactuca sativa L.

    PubMed

    Silva, Patrícia; Matos, Manuela

    2016-09-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major problem in crop production on acid soils. The use of industrial or municipal wastewaters, which may be contaminated with metals, for irrigation in agriculture is common over the world. This action can increase the concentration of these agents in the soil and decrease crops yields. In order to evaluate the toxicological effects of recommended Al levels in irrigation water, under acidic conditions, on lettuce, seeds of two cultivars ("cv Reine de Mai" and "cv White Boston") were exposed to five different Al concentrations (0, 0.05, 0.5, 5 and 20mg/L) and germination percentage, root and shoot lengths were measured. Also, the germination rate and the vigor index were calculated, and the proline content was estimated for all concentrations. Results showed that seed germination was not negatively affected by Al, but the germination rate decreased in both cultivars. For the other factors analyzed, with the exception of 20mg/L concentration for "cv White Boston", Al induced, in general, negative effects including the content of proline that increased in the seeds that were exposed to this metal. The "cv Reine de Mai" was more sensitive for the analyzed concentrations than the other cultivar.. The results indicated that even recommended Al concentrations for irrigation, under acidic conditions, can interfere negatively in seed germination and seedling establishment and possibly with crop production.

  2. Multispectral Digital Image Analysis of Varved Sediments in Thin Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, K.; Rein, B.; Dietrich, S.

    2006-12-01

    An update of the recently developed method COMPONENTS (Rein, 2003, Rein & Jäger, subm.) for the discrimination of sediment components in thin sections is presented here. COMPONENTS uses a 6-band (multispectral) image analysis. To derive six-band spectral information of the sediments, thin sections are scanned with a digital camera mounted on a polarizing microscope. The thin sections are scanned twice, under polarized and under unpolarized plain light. During each run RGB images are acquired which are subsequently stacked to a six-band file. The first three bands (Blue=1, Green=2, Red=3) result from the spectral behaviour in the blue, green and red band with unpolarized light conditions, and the bands 4 to 6 (Blue=4, Green=5, Red=6) from the polarized light run. The next step is the discrimination of the sediment components by their transmission behaviour. Automatic classification algorithms broadly used in remote sensing applications cannot be used due to unavoidable variations of sediment particle or thin section thicknesses that change absolute grey values of the sediment components. Thus, we use an approach based on band ratios, also known as indices. By using band ratios, the grey values measured in different bands are normalized against each other and illumination variations (e.g. thickness variations) are eliminated. By combining specific ratios we are able to detect all seven major components in the investigated sediments (carbonates, diatoms, fine clastic material, plant rests, pyrite, quartz and resin). Then, the classification results (compositional maps) are validated. Although the automatic classification and the analogous classification show high concordances, some systematic errors could be identified. For example, the transition zone between the sediment and resin filled cracks is classified as fine clastic material and very coarse carbonates are partly classified as quartz because coarse carbonates can be very bright and spectra are partly

  3. Measurement of Neutral Current Neutral Pion Production on Carbon in a Few-GeV Neutrino Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Kurimoto, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the π0 production via neutrino-nucleus neutral current interaction in the neutrino energy region of a few GeV is essential for the neutrino oscillation experiments. In this thesis, we present a study of neutral current π0 production from muon neutrinos scattering on a polystyrene (C8H8) target in the SciBooNE experiment. All neutrino beam data corresponding to 0.99 × 1020 protons on target have been analyzed. We have measured the cross section ratio of the neutral current π0 production to the total charge current interaction and the π0 kinematic distribution such as momentum and direction. We obtain [7.7 ± 0.5(stat.) ± 0.5(sys.)] × 10-2 as the ratio of the neutral current neutral pion production to total charged current cross section; the mean energy of neutrinos producing detected neutral pions is 1.1 GeV. The result agrees with the Rein- Sehgal model, which is generally used for the Monte Carlo simulation by many neutrino oscillation experiments. We achieve less than 10 % uncertainty which is required for the next generation search for νµ → νe oscillation. The spectrum shape of the π0 momentum and the distribution of the π0 emitted angle agree with the prediction, which means that not only the Rein-Sehgal model but also the intra-nuclear interaction models describe our data well. We also measure the ratio of the neutral current coherent pion production to total charged current cross section to be (1.17 ± 0.23 ) × 10-2 based on the Rein and Sehgal model. The result gives the evidence for non-zero coherent pion production via neutral current interaction at the mean neutrino energy of 1.0 GeV.

  4. A Blended Learning Course Design in Clinical Pharmacology for Post-graduate Dental Students.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Paul-Erik Lillholm; Mikalsen, Oyvind; Lygre, Henning; Solheim, Einar; Schjøtt, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Postgraduate courses in clinical pharmacology are important for dentists to be updated on drug therapy and information related to their clinical practice, as well as knowledge of relevant adverse effects and interactions. A traditional approach with classroom delivery as the only method to teaching and learning has shortcomings regarding flexibility, individual learning preferences, and problem based learning (PBL) activities compared to online environments. This study examines a five week postgraduate course in clinical pharmacology with 15 hours of lectures and online learning activities, i.e. blended course design. Six postgraduate dental students participated and at the end of the course they were interviewed. Our findings emphasize that a blended learning course design can be successfully used in postgraduate dental education. Key matters for discussion were time flexibility and location convenience, change in teacher's role, rein-forced learning strategies towards professional needs, scarcity in online communication, and proposed future utilization of e-learning components.

  5. KSC-04PD-0158

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Armando Oliu, Final Inspection Team lead for the Shuttle program, speaks to reporters about the aid the Image Analysis Lab is giving the FBI in a kidnapping case. Behind him at right is Mike Rein, External Affairs division chief. Oliu oversees the image lab that is using an advanced SGI TP9500 data management system to review the tape of the kidnapping in progress in Sarasota, Fla. KSC installed the new $3.2 million system in preparation for Return to Flight of the Space Shuttle fleet. The lab is studying the Sarasota kidnapping video to provide any new information possible to law enforcement officers. KSC is joining NASAs Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama in reviewing the tape.

  6. Detecting the Neutrino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arns, Robert G.

    In 1930 Wolfgang Pauli suggested that a new particle might be required to make sense of the radioactive-disintegration mode known as beta decay. This conjecture initially seemed impossible to verify since the new particle, which became known as the neutrino, was uncharged, had zero or small mass, and interacted only insignificantly with other matter. In 1951 Frederick Reines and Clyde L. Cowan, Jr., of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory undertook the difficult task of detecting the free neutrino by observing its inverse beta-decay interaction with matter. They succeeded in 1956. The neutrino was accepted rapidly as a fundamental particle despite discrepancies in reported details of the experiments and despite the absence of independent verification of the result. This paper describes the experiments, examines the nature of the discrepancies, and discusses the circumstances of the acceptance of the neutrino's detection by the physics community.

  7. KSC-05PD-0359

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. During an End-to-End (ETE) Mission Management Team (MMT) launch simulation at KSC, Mike Rein, division chief of Media Services, and Lisa Malone, director of External Relations and Business Development at KSC, work the consoles. In Firing Room 1 at KSC, Shuttle launch team members put the Shuttle system through an integrated simulation. The control room is set up with software used to simulate flight and ground systems in the launch configuration. The ETE MMT simulation included L-2 and L-1 day Prelaunch MMT meetings, an external tanking/weather briefing, and a launch countdown. The ETE transitioned to the Johnson Space Center for the flight portion of the simulation, with the STS-114 crew in a simulator at JSC. Such simulations are common before a launch to keep the Shuttle launch team sharp and ready for liftoff.

  8. FERC Order No. 451: freedom (almost) for old gas

    SciTech Connect

    Shoneman, C.H.; McConnell, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    Order No. 451 represents the final step in the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) continuing effort to loosen its regulatory reins over the gas industry and make it more competitive. Significant changes have been made in the Commission's regulations governing transportation, pricing, and abandonment, all of which were the subject of the Notices of Inquiry (NOIs) issued by the Commission in late 1984 and early 1985. Order Nos. 436 and 451, however, must survive judicial review. There are also numerous remnants of the old regulatory structure that need to be adjusted, and the new structure will certainly need fine tuning. Only after this is accomplished and the Commission's orders are approved by the courts, will the new gas market be able to function as envisioned by the Commission.

  9. Depth of origin of solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1984-01-01

    Observations show that the individual bipolar magnetic regions on the sun remain confined during their decay phase, with much of the magnetic field pulling back under the surface, in reverse of the earlier emergence. This suggests that the magnetic field is held on a short rein by subsurface forces, for otherwise the region would decay entirely by dispersing across the face of the sun. With the simple assumption that the fields at the surface are controlled from well-defined anchor points at a depth h, it is possible to relate the length l of the bipolar region at the surface to the depth h, with h about equal to l. The observed dimensions l about equal to 100,000 km for normal active regions, and l about equal to 10,000 km for the ephemeral active regions, indicate comparable depths of origin. More detailed observational studies of the active regions may be expected to shed further light on the problem.

  10. Positron annihilation lifetime evaluation of thermal cycling effects in atactic polystyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Kasbekar, A.D.; Jones, P.L.

    1989-01-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is an atomic-level probing technique that has been shown to be extremely sensitive to vacancy-type defects in a wide variety of solids. In amorphous and semicrystalline polymers this technique is uniquely sensitive to free-volume-based structural changes such as the glass transition. As such, PALS complements conventional macroscopic polymer characterization techniques. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) was used to investigate the thermal-cycling characteristics of two different-molecular-weight atactic polystyrene reins. Annealed compression-molded samples were thermally cycled over the temperature range 253 to 393 K with PAL spectra taken in 10 K increments upon both cooling and heating. The longest-lived component lifetime and intensity, indicative of orthopositronium pick-off, exhibit thermal dependencies that can be interpreted in a manner consistent with anticipated free-volume changes associated with structural transitions.

  11. KSC-05PD-1529

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Mike Rein (right), division chief of Media Services at the NASA News Center, walks the area near the countdown clock (far right) at sunrise. The scene is the calm before the storm of journalists, photographers and television media who have descended upon KSC to capture the Return to Flight mission STS-114 to the International Space Station. This is the first Space Shuttle flight since the loss of Columbia, STS-107, on Feb. 1, 2003. Launch is scheduled for 3:51 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39B. The 12-day mission is expected to end with touchdown at NASA Kennedy Space Centers Shuttle Landing Facility at 11:06 a.m. July 25.

  12. KSC-04PD-0710

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- NASA-KSC representatives pose with two students in front of Oscar Patterson Elementary Magnet School in Panama City, Fla. From left are Pam Biegert (chief of KSCs Education Programs and University Research Office), astronaut Sam Durrance, Center Director Jim Kennedy, John Halsema (chief, Government Relations Office), Steve Lewis (assistant to Kennedy), and Mike Rein (division chief, Communications). NASA-KSC officials are visiting NASA Explorer Schools in Florida and Georgia to share Americas new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy is talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASAs stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  13. Looking Outward from the Central Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1998-12-01

    During this 75th year, we have often recalled the past. It is now time to look to the future and ask what we might expect in the next 25 years, as the Journal approaches 100. I have no doubt that this Journal will continue to exist, serving and leading the chemical education community. But in what format and with what content? If the past is any guide regarding lengths of editors' terms, in 25 years the reins will be held by the ninth editor-someone who is now between 20 and 35 years old. And the Journal will have been shaped by its constituency and its editors into whatever best suits their collective needs and vision. Extrapolating from our current system of print, JCE Online+, and JCE CD, we may well be entirely electronic, both in presentation and distribution. We certainly will have many new features that haven't been dreamed of today.

  14. Military Wives' Transition and Coping: Deployment and the Return Home

    PubMed Central

    Marnocha, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this qualitative study is to explore the experiences of wives of deployed soldiers. Semistructured interviews were used to answer the research questions. Meleis' Transitions Theory was used to guide the understanding of the wives' experiences. Phase One: news of deployment, property of awareness, themes of emotional chaos and making preparations. Phase Two: during deployment, property of engagement, themes of taking the reins and placing focus elsewhere, along with the property of change and difference, with themes of emotional and physical turmoil, staying strong, and reaching out. Phase Three: after deployment, property of time span, themes of absence makes the heart grow fonder and reestablishing roles. The study concluded that the wife often feels forgotten during deployment. Nurses can give better care by understanding how the different phases of deployment and separation affect the wife's coping ability and her physical and emotional health. PMID:22844613

  15. On a Graph Theoretic Formula of Gammelgaard for Berezin-Toeplitz Quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hao

    2013-02-01

    We give a proof of (a slightly refined version of) a graph theoretic formula due to Gammelgaard, Karabegov and Schlichenmaier for Berezin-Toeplitz quantization on Kähler manifolds. We obtain the formula by inverting the Berezin transform using a composition formula for the ring of differential operators encoded by linear combinations of strongly connected graphs. The same method is also used to identify the dual Karabegov-Bordemann-Waldmann star product. Our proof has the merit of giving more insight into Karabegov-Schlichenmaier's identification theorem (Karabegov in J Reine Angew Math 540:49-76, 2001) that the Karabegov classifying form of the Berezin and Berezin-Toeplitz star products are, respectively, obtained by deforming the Kähler metric along the Ricci curvature and the logarithm of the Bergman kernel.

  16. Faster, better, cheaper: lean labs are the key to future survival.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Patsy M; Gulling, Richard D

    2006-03-28

    Process improvement techniques have been used in manufacturing for many years to rein in costs and improve quality. Health care is now grappling with similar challenges. The Department of Laboratory Services at Good Samaritan Hospital, a 560-bed facility in Dayton, OH, used the Lean process improvement method in a 12-week project to streamline its core laboratory processes. By analyzing the flow of samples through the system and identifying value-added and non-value-added steps, both in the laboratory and during the collection process, Good Samaritan's project team redesigned systems and reconfigured the core laboratory layout to trim collection-to-results time from 65 minutes to 40 minutes. As a result, virtually all morning results are available to physicians by 7 a.m., critical values are called to nursing units within 30 minutes, and core laboratory services are optimally staffed for maximum cost-effectiveness.

  17. The Einstein-Vlasov System/Kinetic Theory.

    PubMed

    Andréasson, Håkan

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to provide a guide to theorems on global properties of solutions to the Einstein-Vlasov system. This system couples Einstein's equations to a kinetic matter model. Kinetic theory has been an important field of research during several decades in which the main focus has been on non-relativistic and special relativistic physics, i.e., to model the dynamics of neutral gases, plasmas, and Newtonian self-gravitating systems. In 1990, Rendall and Rein initiated a mathematical study of the Einstein-Vlasov system. Since then many theorems on global properties of solutions to this system have been established. This paper gives introductions to kinetic theory in non-curved spacetimes and then the Einstein-Vlasov system is introduced. We believe that a good understanding of kinetic theory in non-curved spacetimes is fundamental to a good comprehension of kinetic theory in general relativity.

  18. Akustikgestaltung in der Fahrzeugentwicklung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletschen, Bernd

    Die zielgerichtete Entwicklung der Fahrzeugakustik stellt eine hochkomplexe, integrative Aufgabenstellung im Rahmen der Fahrkomfortgestaltung des Automobils dar. Die Wahrnehmung der Komforteigenschaften eines Fahrzeugs erfolgt grundsätzlich als Wahrnehmung der Wirkung dieser Eigenschaften über einen oder mehrere Wahrnehmungskanäle des Menschen: visuell, auditiv, haptisch, olfaktorisch. Die individuelle Wahrnehmung ist hierbei subjektiv und daher mit rein physikalisch objektiven Messgrößen allein nur unvollständig zu beschreiben. Sie hängt einerseits von den Eigenschaften des betrachteten Fahrzeugs oder einer erlebten Situation ab und andererseits außerdem von der Sozialisation des Bewertenden und der Umgebung, in der die Bewertung stattfindet (Wikipedia). Der Fahrkomfort, den ein Fahrzeug Fahrer und Beifahrern bietet, wird also wegen unterschiedlicher Erwartungen des Kunden in den verschiedenen Weltmärkten sehr unterschiedlich erlebt.

  19. Neutrino induced coherent pion production

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, E.; Nieves, J.; Valverde, M.; Vicente-Vacas, M. J.

    2010-03-30

    We discuss different parameterizations of the C{sub 5}{sup A}(q{sup 2}) NDELTA form factor, fitted to the old Argonne bubble chamber data for pion production by neutrinos, and we use coherent pion production to test their low q{sup 2} behavior. We find moderate effects that will be difficult to observe with the accuracy of present experiments. We also discuss the use of the Rein-Sehgal model for low energy coherent pion production. By comparison to a microscopic calculation, we show the weaknesses some of the approximations in that model that lead to very large cross sections as well as to the wrong shapes for differential ones. Finally we show that models based on the partial conservation of the axial current hypothesis are not fully reliable for differential cross sections that depend on the angle formed by the pion and the incident neutrino.

  20. Phase Diagram Modelling: Nickel - Aluminum - Chromium System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    0.79850E-21 0.10305E-22 0.27743E-25 0.12188E-25 N2 Ni Cr Al A120 CrO NO CrN N AlO O NiO N20 Cr02 N3 (AlO)2 AIN Al 2 02 A102 N02...Defence SA MAJESTE LA REINE EN DROIT DU CANADA (1998) Defense Nationale Canada r> o DEPARTMENT OF NATIONAL DEFENCE - CANADA IWMHlBU’flOi Approved...Jaansalu Air Vehicle Research Detachment The Ni-Al- Cr system is of importance to the gas turbine industry as it forms the basis for protective

  1. Application of Computer Methods for Calculation of Multicomponent Phase Diagrams of High Temperature Structural Ceramics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-27

    been largely completed. The system is available at NBS and at MIT in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Modeling of the Fe-Ni- O , Fe- Cr - O , Ti-C-N, ZrO2 -Y 2 0 3... O ~d 009T Figure 43. Calculated isothermai Sections in the HO(1/3HfO 2) DO(1/2CaO) -ZO(1/3Zro 2 ) system 7 0 i-l 0 ’I a Ne C"rj + L Cr c C ’i4-i cLI...IT. DST 014410rI@.. A SALINT faI She abathago afte.erd aoe 91J.h s. of 01laweent #rein. epej of RLY WORDS (feaev en "Ve ,. Ojos o at ereslae. done

  2. The effects of EDTA and EGTA on renin secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Peart, W S; Quesada, T; Tenyi, I

    1977-01-01

    1 The effects of the disodium salt of ethylenediamine tetra-acetate (EDTA) and 1, 2, bis, 2 aminoethoxyethane-NNN'N'-tetra-acetic acid (EGTA) on renin secretion and vascular resistance were studied in the isolated perfused kidney of the rat. 2 Both substances produced a significant increase of renin release 3 In the absence of calcium and magnesium, EDTA still increased rein release and there was now a considerable increase of perfusion pressure. 4 The rise of pressure but not the rise of renin was inhibited by the removal of potassium from the perfusate when EDTA was administered in the absence of calcium. 5 Propranolol and phenoxybenzamine had no effect on the vasoconstrictor action of EDTA. 6 EGTA was less effective as a renin releaser than EDTA until magnesium was removed from the perfusate. Furter, it had only a small effect on perfusion pressure in contrast to EDTA. PMID:402166

  3. Bombers, Bank Accounts, & Bleedout. Al-Qa’ida’s Road In and Out of Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    foreign  fighters and likely has become more bureaucratic to rein in operators who  use  violence wantonly  and  thereby  degrade  fundraising ...on  three  sources  of  funding: transfers from other  leaders  in AQI;  fundraising  from  local Iraqis; and  money brought by foreign suicide bombers...Other AQI sectors likely had very different  fundraising  dynamics.     Saudi Arabian  Jihadis  contribute  far more money  to AQI  than  fighters  from

  4. A Web-Based GIS for Health Care Decision-Support

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Toubiana, Laurent; Le Mignot, Loïc; Ben Said, Mohamed; Mugnier, Claude; Le Bihan–Benjamin, Christine; Jaïs, Jean Philippe; Landais, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This Web-based application allows access to the epidemiology of the demand and the supply of care concerning End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). It is a Web-based Geographic Information System (Web-GIS), the SIGNe (Système d’Information Géographique pour la Néphrologie), designed for the Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) dedicated to ESRD. It is a visualisation and decision-support tool. This Web-GIS was coupled to a data warehouse and embedded in a n-tier architecture designed as the Multi-Source Information System (MSIS). It provides maps matching the offer of care to the demand. It is presented with insights on the design and underlying technologies. It is dedicated to professionals and to public health care decision-makers. PMID:16779063

  5. A Web-based GIS for health care decision-support.

    PubMed

    Jean-Baptiste, Richard; Toubiana, Laurent; Le Mignot, Loïc; Ben Said, Mohamed; Mugnier, Claude; Le Bihan-Benjamin, Christine; Jaïs, Jean Philippe; Landais, Paul

    2005-01-01

    This Web-based application allows to access views of End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) concerning the epidemiology of the demand and the supply of care. It is a Web-based Geographic Information System (Web-GIS), the SIGNe (Système d'Information Géographique pour la Néphrologie), designed for the Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) dedicated to ESRD. It is a visualisation and decision-support tool. This Web-GIS was coupled to a data warehouse and embedded in an n-tier architecture designed as the Multi-Source Information System (MSIS). It provides maps matching the offer of care to the demand. It is presented with insights on the design and underlying technologies. It is dedicated to professionals and to public health care decision-makers.

  6. A Multi-Source Information System via the Internet for End-Stage Renal Disease: Scalability and Data Quality.

    PubMed

    Ben Saïd, Mohamed; le Mignot, Loic; Mugnier, Claude; Richard, Jean Baptiste; le Bihan-Benjamin, Christine; Jais, Jean-Philippe; Guillon, Didier; Simonet, Ana; Simonet, Michel; Landais, Paul

    2005-01-01

    A Multi-Source Information System (MSIS), has been designed for the Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) dedicated to End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). MSIS aims at providing reliable follow-up data for ESRD patients. It is based on an n-tier architecture, made out of a universal client, a dynamic Web server connected to a production database and to a data warehouse. MSIS is operational since 2002 and progressively deployed in 9 regions in France. It includes 11,500 patients. MSIS facilitates documenting medical events which occur during the course of ESRD patient' health care and provides means to control the quality of each patient's record and reconstruct the patient trajectory of care. Consolidated data are made available to a data warehouse and to a geographic information system for analysis and data representation in support of public-health decision making.

  7. A dynamic Web application within an n-tier architecture: a Multi-Source Information System for end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Ben Saïd, Mohamed; Simonet, Ana; Guillon, Didier; Jacquelinet, Christian; Gaspoz, Franck; Dufour, Eric; Mugnier, Claude; Jais, Jean Philippe; Simonet, Michel; Landais, Paul

    2003-01-01

    A Multi-Source Information System (MSIS) has been designed for the Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) dedicated to End-Stage Renal Disease. Interoperability has been considered at 4 levels: semantics, network, formats and contents. An n-tier architecture has been chosen at the network level. It is made out of a universal client, a dynamic Web server connected to a production database and to a data warehouse. The MSIS is patient-oriented, based on a regional organization. Its implementation in the context of a regional experimentation is presented with insights on the design and underlying technologies. The n-tier architecture is a robust model and flexible enough to aggregate multiple information sources and integrate modular developments. The data warehouse is dedicated to support health care decision-making.

  8. SIGNe: A Geographic Information System on the Web for End-Stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Toubiana, Laurent; le Mignot, Loïc; Ben Said, Mohamed; Mugnier, Claude; le Bihan-Benjamin, Christine; Jaïs, Jean Philippe; Landais, Paul

    2005-01-01

    A Web-based Geographic Information System (Web-GIS), the SIGNe (Système d'Information Géographique pour la Néphrologie), was designed for the Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) dedicated to End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). This Web-GIS was coupled to a data warehouse and embedded in an n-tier architecture designed as the Multi-Source Information System (MSIS). It allows to access views of ESRD concerning the epidemiology of the demand and the supply of care. It also provides maps matching the offer of care to the demand. It is presented with insights on the design and underlying technologies. It is dedicated to professionals and to public health care decision-makers in the domain of ESRD.

  9. Proceedings of the 1973 Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center Endocrine Program Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Papers given at the conference are presented. Subjects covered include the following: biochemical changes during 28 days of space flight, modulating the pituitary-adrenal response to stress, the significance of biorhythms in space flight, the importance of the rein-angiotensin system in normal cardiovascular homeostasis, a progress report of stress-induced changes in corticosteroid metabolism, recent studies of physiological factors involved in the regulation of serotonin content and turnover in the brain, the role of brain biogenic amines in the control of pituitary-adrenocortical activity, application of the water immersion model to man by studies of acid-base homeostasis during simulated weightlessness, the present status of physiological studies and analysis of calcium homeostasis in the Apollo and Skylab programs, and endocrine considerations in the red-cell-mass and plasma-volume changes of Skylab 2 and 3 crews.

  10. The emotionally competent leader.

    PubMed

    Goleman, D

    1998-01-01

    Aristotle once challenged man "to be angry with the right person, to the right degree, at the right time, for the right purpose, and in the right way" (The Nicomachean Ethics). Daniel Goleman, Ph.D., a journalist for the New York Times, expands on this statement in his new book, "Emotional Intelligence." He defines emotional intelligence as the ability to rein in emotional impulses, to read another's innermost feelings and to handle relationships and conflict smoothly. This new model of intelligence puts emotions at the center of our aptitudes for living. Goleman asserts that these emotional aptitudes can preserve relationships, protect our health and improve our success at work. The following adaptation from "Emotional Intelligence" (Bantam Books, 1995) offers suggestions to managers and supervisors on how they can create a more cost-effective and healthier workplace for their employees by becoming more aware of their own emotional. intelligence.

  11. The habenula.

    PubMed

    Namboodiri, Vijay Mohan K; Rodriguez-Romaguera, Jose; Stuber, Garret D

    2016-10-10

    The habenula is a tiny brain region the size of a pea in humans. This region is highly conserved across vertebrates and has been traditionally overlooked by neuroscientists. The name habenula is derived from the Latin word habena, meaning "little rein", because of its elongated shape. Originally its function was thought to be related to the regulation of the nearby pineal gland (which Rene Descartes described as the "principal seat of the soul"). More recent evidence, however, demonstrates that the habenula acts as a critical neuroanatomical hub that connects and regulates brain regions important for divergent motivational states and cognition. In this Primer, we will discuss the recent and converging evidence that points to the habenula as a key brain region for motivation and decision-making.

  12. [Ambroise Paré in French literature].

    PubMed

    Dumaitre, P

    1995-01-01

    The 16th century by its passionate side has been the favourite one of authors of historical novels in which among the heroes of "cloak and dagger stories" appears sometime Ambroise Paré. Alexandre Dumas (the father) has shown him at the court of Charles IX in La Reine Margot (1845) where he does not however play a great role. On the contrary, Balzac in Le Martyr calviniste (1842) has given him a capital part close to the dying François II, whom he intended to trepanize but had to give up this idea as a consequence of the opposition of the queen-mother Catherine de Médicis. In the present century, Robert Merle in Paris ma bonne ville (Fortune de France, 3, 1980) shows Paré at the time of the Saint Barthélemy.

  13. Measurement of Charged Pions from Neutrino-produced Nuclear Resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Clifford N.

    2014-01-01

    A method for identifying stopped pions in a high-resolution scintillator bar detector is presented. I apply my technique to measure the axial mass MΔAfor production of the Δ(1232) resonance by neutrino, with the result MΔA = 1.16±0.20 GeV (68% CL) (limited by statistics). The result is produced from the measured spectrum of reconstructed momentum-transfer Q2. I proceed by varying the value of MΔA in a Rein-Sehgal-based Monte Carlo to produce the best agreement, using shape only (not normalization). The consistency of this result with recent reanalyses of previous bubble-chamber experiments is discussed.

  14. Discovery and Characterization of DNA Excision Repair Pathways: the Work of Philip Courtland Hanawalt

    PubMed Central

    Kresge, Nicole; Simoni, Robert D.; Hill, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Expression of Wild-type p53 Is Required for Efficient Global Genomic Nucleotide Excision Repair in UV-irradiated Human Fibroblasts (Ford, J. M., and Hanawalt, P. C. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 28073–28080) Structural Characterization of RNA Polymerase II Complexes Arrested by a Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimer in the Transcribed Strand of Template DNA (Tornaletti, S., Reines, D., and Hanawalt, P. C. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 24124–24130) G4-forming Sequences in the Non-transcribed DNA Strand Pose Blocks to T7 RNA Polymerase and Mammalian RNA Polymerase II (Tornaletti, S., Park-Snyder, S., and Hanawalt, P. C. (2008) J. Biol. Chem. 283, 12756–12762) PMID:20740724

  15. KSC-04PD-0290

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe talks to the media at the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando. He and government officials were at the park for a presentation about the assets of the research park as the site of NASAs new Shared Services Center. Behind OKeefe are (left to right) Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida; U.S. Representative Ric Keller; Florida Congressman Tom Feeney; and Congressman Dave Weldon. At right is Mike Rein, division chief of KSC External Affairs. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Others attending the presentation included U.S. Senator Bill Nelson and Center Director Jim Kennedy.

  16. KSC-04PD-0280

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe talks to the media at the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando. He and government officials were at the park for a presentation about the assets of the research park as the site of NASAs new Shared Services Center. Behind OKeefe are (left to right) Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida; Florida Congressman Tom Feeney; U.S. Representative Ric Keller; and Congressman Dave Weldon. At right is Mike Rein, division chief of KSC External Affairs. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Others attending the presentation included U.S. Senator Bill Nelson and Center Director Jim Kennedy.

  17. Tracking the implementation of green credit policy in China: top-down perspective and bottom-up reform.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing; Yang, Yan; Bi, Jun

    2011-04-01

    The Chinese government has introduced the green credit policy to mitigate the environmental impact of industrialization by reining in credit loans to companies and projects with poor environmental performance. This research investigated the implementation of the green credit policy both at the national and provincial levels. Our results show that the green credit policy is not fully implemented. The wide-ranging impact on high-polluting and high energy-consuming industries, vague policy details unclear implementing standards, and lack of environmental information are the main problems in the implementation of the green credit policy in China. On the other hand, the practice at local level (Jiangsu Province) is more practical by integrating green credit policy with the environmental performance rating system. Finally, suggestions are outlined to improve China's green credit policy.

  18. Measurement of inclusive neutral current {pi}{sup 0} production on carbon in a few-GeV neutrino beam

    SciTech Connect

    Kurimoto, Y.; Hiraide, K.; Kubo, H.; Matsuoka, K.; Nakajima, Y.; Nakaya, T.; Orme, D.; Otani, M.; Yokoyama, M.; Alcaraz-Aunion, J. L.; Jover-Manas, G.; Sanchez, F.; Brice, S. J.; Finley, D. A.; Kobilarcik, T.; Moore, C. D.; Russell, A. D.; Stefanski, R. J.; Tesarek, R. J.; White, H. B.

    2010-02-01

    The SciBooNE Collaboration reports inclusive neutral current neutral pion production by a muon neutrino beam on a polystyrene target (C{sub 8}H{sub 8}). We obtain (7.7{+-}0.5(stat){+-}0.5(sys))x10{sup -2} as the ratio of the neutral current neutral pion production to total charged current cross section; the mean energy of neutrinos producing detected neutral pions is 1.1 GeV. The result agrees with the Rein-Sehgal model implemented in our neutrino interaction simulation program with nuclear effects. The spectrum shape of the {pi}{sup 0} momentum and angle agree with the model. We also measure the ratio of the neutral current coherent pion production to total charged current cross section to be (0.7{+-}0.4)x10{sup -2}.

  19. Canadian Forces in Joint Fires Support - Human Factors Analysis: Coalition Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale, 2010 DRDC Atlantic CR 2009-203 i Abstract...données (méthode de décision critique et entrevues structurées), à faire la synthèse et l’interprétation des données, à formuler les questions, les...avons fait appel à la méthode de décision critique et à des entrevues structurées, à une synthèse des données par des spécialistes des facteurs

  20. Congruences for the Andrews spt function

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Ramanujan-type congruences for the Andrews spt(n) partition function have been found for prime moduli 5 ≤ ℓ ≤ 37 in the work of Andrews [Andrews GE, (2008) J Reine Angew Math 624:133–142] and Garvan [Garvan F, (2010) Int J Number Theory 6:1–29]. We exhibit unexpectedly simple congruences for all ℓ≥5. Confirming a conjecture of Garvan, we show that if ℓ≥5 is prime and , then (mod ℓ). This congruence gives (ℓ - 1)/2 arithmetic progressions modulo ℓ3 which support a mod ℓ congruence. This result follows from the surprising fact that the reduction of a certain mock theta function modulo ℓ, for every ℓ≥5, is an eigenform of the Hecke operator T(ℓ2). PMID:21177432

  1. Can sustainable hospitals help bend the health care cost curve?

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Susan; Sadler, Blair; Little, Kevin; Franz, Calvin; Orris, Peter

    2012-11-01

    As policymakers seek to rein in the nation's escalating health care costs, one area deserving attention is the health system's costly environmental footprint. This study examines data from selected hospitals that have implemented programs to reduce energy use and waste and achieve operating room supply efficiencies. After standardizing metrics across the hospitals studied and generalizing results to hospitals nationwide, the analysis finds that savings achievable through these interventions could exceed $5.4 billion over five years and $15 billion over 10 years. Given the return on investment, the authors rec­ommend that all hospitals adopt such programs and, in cases where capital investments could be financially burdensome, that public funds be used to provide loans or grants, particularly to safety-net hospitals.

  2. Angiomyolipome rénale: à propos de huit cas

    PubMed Central

    Statoua, Mouad; El Ghanmi, Jihad; Karmouni, Tarik; El Khader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdellatif; Attya, Ahmed Iben

    2014-01-01

    L'angiomyolipome est la tumeur bénigne la plus fréquente des masses dolides du rein, elle représente un cadre de fréquence de 1 à 3% des tumeurs du rein, sa composition histologique est faite de trois contingents: graisseux, fibres musculaires lisses et vasculaires a des proportions variables, elle sévit sur un cadre sporadique et peut s'exprimer dans un cadre congénitale comme manifestation de la sclérose tubéreuse de Bourneville. Nous rapportons l'expérience du service d'Urologie B du CHU IBN Sina de Rabat dans la prise en charge de huit cas d'angiomyolipome sur une période s’étalant sur six ans en précisant les manifestations cliniques, données de l'imagerie, le résultat histologique et la conduite thérapeutique. Les manifestations cliniques ne lui sont pas spécifiques, elle peut se manifester par des lombalgies, crise de colique néphritiques, hématurie, masse palpable dans le flanc. La TDM reste l'examen radiologique le plus sensible en mettant en évidence la présence de graisse au sein de la masse, l'histologie confirme le diagnostic et il n'y a aucun consensus qui régit la prise en charge de ce type de tumeur, on peut admettre une surveillance pour les petites masses de moins de 4 cm et traité les formes symptomatiques ou qui dépasse les 4 cm par embolisation ou chirurgie partielle ou totale. Les nouvelles thérapeutiques focales peuvent révolutionner la prise en charge de ce type de tumeur bénigne, mais les études sont toujours en cours. PMID:25767658

  3. Multi-wavelength applications of gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadely, Ross

    2010-12-01

    substructure with a series of lens models which add clumps of mass near the lensed images. We detect the presence of a clump near image A, with a mass of log (MA<REin/M⊙h-170)=7.68+0.92-0.85. We also find support for a second clump, near image B, with mass log (MB<REin/M⊙h-170)=6.6+1.02-1.52, although evidence for this clump is not decisive. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we connect these clumps to their associated populations, finding the mass fraction in substructure to be f

  4. Obituary: Glenn M. Frye (1926-2007)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fickinger, William

    2011-12-01

    Glenn M. Frye, professor emeritus of physics at Case Western Reserve University, died in January 2007. His research interests at Case centered on the detection and identification of cosmic rays at the top of the atmosphere. Glenn was born in Michigan in 1926. He completed both his undergraduate and graduate studies at the University of Michigan. After earning his doctorate in 1950, he joined the nuclear physics research staff at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Frye's research changed direction when he joined Fred Reines, who was also at LASL, in a cosmic ray experiment. In 1959, Reines moved east to become chair of the Case Institute of Technology physics department, and the following year Frye joined him there. The first years at Case Tech were devoted to the development of the rather complex spark chamber detectors which were destined to be suspended from high altitude balloons. Frye s experiments would be carried by the winds for hundreds of miles at altitudes greater than thirty miles, in both the northern and southern hemispheres. The maiden flights were launched in 1965 from the Palestine, Texas National Center for Atmospheric Research Balloon Base. The object was to search for gammas in the 30 to 500 MeV range coming from discrete point sources. Three years later the Frye team, along with collaborators from the University of Melbourne, reported success in this search. In a later Texas flight, high energy gammas were observed to come from the direction of the Crab Nebula, and, much more significantly, they arrived in the correct one millisecond bin of the known thirty millisecond period of the responsible pulsar. In later flights, involving ever more sophisticated detection schemes, Frye and his team collected valuable data on energetic gamma rays emitted by a dozen other sources. Through the 1970s and 1980s, they employed detectors with improved sensitivity and directionality to determine the energy distribution of cosmic gammas. With the participation of

  5. The kidneys in the Bible: what happened?

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2005-12-01

    The kidneys, always used in the plural (kelayot), are mentioned more than 30 times in the Bible. In the Pentateuch, the kidneys are cited 11 times in the detailed instructions given for the sacrificial offering of animals at the altar. Whereas those instructions were for purification ceremonies at the Temple, sacrificial offerings were made subsequently in seeking divine intervention for the relief of medical problems. In the books of the Bible that follow the Pentateuch, mostly in Jeremiah and Psalms, the human kidneys are cited figuratively as the site of temperament, emotions, prudence, vigor, and wisdom. In five instances, they are mentioned as the organs examined by God to judge an individual. They are cited either before or after but always in conjunction with the heart as mirrors of the psyche of the person examined. There is also reference to the kidneys as the site of divine punishment for misdemeanors, committed or perceived, particularly in the book of Job, whose suffering and ailments are legendary. In the first vernacular versions of the Bible in English, the translators elected to use the term "reins" instead of kidneys in differentiating the metaphoric uses of human kidneys from that of their mention as anatomic organs of sacrificial animals burned at the altar. This initial effort at linguistic purity or gentility has progressed further in recent versions of the Bible, in which the reins are now replaced by the soul or the mind. The erosion may have begun in the centuries that followed the writing of the Bible, when recognition of the kidneys as excretory organs deprived them of the ancient aura of mysterious organs hidden deep in the body but accessible to the look of God. At approximately the same time, Greek analytical philosophy argued that the brain, which is never mentioned in the Bible, was the most divine and sacred part of the body. This argument gained ground in the past century, when the functions of the brain were elucidated, and

  6. Estimation of Filling and Afterload Conditions by Pump Intrinsic Parameters in a Pulsatile Total Artificial Heart.

    PubMed

    Cuenca-Navalon, Elena; Laumen, Marco; Finocchiaro, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2016-07-01

    A physiological control algorithm is being developed to ensure an optimal physiological interaction between the ReinHeart total artificial heart (TAH) and the circulatory system. A key factor for that is the long-term, accurate determination of the hemodynamic state of the cardiovascular system. This study presents a method to determine estimation models for predicting hemodynamic parameters (pump chamber filling and afterload) from both left and right cardiovascular circulations. The estimation models are based on linear regression models that correlate filling and afterload values with pump intrinsic parameters derived from measured values of motor current and piston position. Predictions for filling lie in average within 5% from actual values, predictions for systemic afterload (AoPmean , AoPsys ) and mean pulmonary afterload (PAPmean ) lie in average within 9% from actual values. Predictions for systolic pulmonary afterload (PAPsys ) present an average deviation of 14%. The estimation models show satisfactory prediction and confidence intervals and are thus suitable to estimate hemodynamic parameters. This method and derived estimation models are a valuable alternative to implanted sensors and are an essential step for the development of a physiological control algorithm for a fully implantable TAH.

  7. Molecular pathways to therapeutics: Paradigms and challenges in oncology meeting report: Carcinogenesis 2015.

    PubMed

    Warawdekar, Ujjwala M; Kowtal, Pradnya

    2015-01-01

    The search for the most effective therapy with minimum side effects has always been the goal of oncologists and efforts to develop such therapies through understanding disease mechanisms has been the focus of many basic scientists in cancer research, leading to a common interest of convergence. The 5(th) International Conference organized by the Carcinogenesis Foundation, USA and Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, India, was held between February 11(th) and 13(th) 2015, at ACTREC. During these proceedings, the scientific community engaged in oncology research discussed novel ideas emerging from the laboratory and their translation into improved clinical outcomes. However, the lack of major success in the genesis of novel cancer therapeutics that is safe and provides long-term relief to patients is a challenge that needs to be overcome. The focus of this meeting was to highlight these challenges and to encourage collaborations between scientists and clinicians and clearly a message through exemplary scientific contribution was conveyed to all the dedicated scientists and clinician that even if two decades of tireless work on a single idea does not generate a reliable and safe therapy, the combat to rein cancer must not cease. In this report we have communicated some of the outstanding work done in the areas of cancer therapeutics, biomarkers and prevention and described the salient observations associated with cancer stem cells in disease progression and some of the pathways implicated in tumor progression.

  8. Staphylococcus epidermidis in the human skin microbiome mediates fermentation to inhibit the growth of Propionibacterium acnes: implications of probiotics in acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhan; Kuo, Sherwin; Shu, Muya; Yu, Jinghua; Huang, Stephen; Dai, Ashley; Two, Aimee; Gallo, Richard L; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that commensal microorganisms in the human skin microbiome help fight pathogens and maintain homeostasis of the microbiome. However, it is unclear how these microorganisms maintain biological balance when one of them overgrows. The overgrowth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes), a commensal skin bacterium, has been associated with the progression of acne vulgaris. Our results demonstrate that skin microorganisms can mediate fermentation of glycerol, which is naturally produced in skin, to enhance their inhibitory effects on P. acnes growth. The skin microorganisms, most of which have been identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), in the microbiome of human fingerprints can ferment glycerol and create inhibition zones to repel a colony of overgrown P. acnes. Succinic acid, one of four short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) detected in fermented media by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis, effectively inhibits the growth of P. acnes in vitro and in vivo. Both intralesional injection and topical application of succinic acid to P. acnes-induced lesions markedly suppress the P. acnes-induced inflammation in mice. We demonstrate for the first time that bacterial members in the skin microbiome can undergo fermentation to rein in the overgrowth of P. acnes. The concept of bacterial interference between P. acnes and S. epidermidis via fermentation can be applied to develop probiotics against acne vulgaris and other skin diseases. In addition, it will open up an entirely new area of study for the biological function of the skin microbiome in promoting human health.

  9. The false claims act and the eroding scienter in healthcare fraud litigation.

    PubMed

    Doan, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the federal government's expansive methods in tackling healthcare fraud, particularly in misapplying the False Claims Act. Although tasked with the obligation to curtail the fraudulent submission of Medicare & Medicaid claims, the U.S. government must rein in the current trend to utilize the False Claims Act against smaller medical providers. As the Act's original focus has ebbed in significance, the government has increasingly applied the False Claims Act to circumstances that do not evince actual fraud. In doing so, federal courts have effectively eroded the statute's critical scienter requirement. The federal common-law doctrines of "payment by mistake" and "unjust enrichment" adequately address the payment of non-fraudulent, albeit false, Medicare & Medicaid claims. Yet the federal government pursues these appropriate remedies only rarely and in the alternative, essentially when the government fails under the False Claims Act. Thus, this article argues for reform, calling for a clearer delineation between remedial and punitive measures. In cases involving smaller medical providers, courts should strictly limit the False Claims Act to those instances where fraud is clearly manifest.

  10. Die kalte Zunge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Sören; Müller, Rüdiger

    Gefühlte Temperaturen. Ist ein Null Grad Celsius kalter Metallstab eigentlich kälter als ein Holzstab mit der selben Temperatur? Rein physikalisch gesehen natürlich nicht, aber wenn wir beide Stäbe anfassen, kommt uns der Metallstab deutlich kälter vor. Und wer kennt nicht die Szene aus dem Film Dumm und Dümmer in der Harry mit seiner Zunge am Metallrahmen des Skilifts hängen bleibt.Würde das auch passieren, wenn man an einem eiskalten Stück Holz lecken würde? Wohl kaum, doch woran liegt das eigentlich? Unterschiedliche Materialien haben verschiedene Fähigkeiten, Wärme zu übertragen und zu leiten. So transportiert Metall die von der Zunge ausgehende Wärme sehr schnell weiter und verändert seine Temperatur kaum, während die Zunge abkühlt. Holz hingegen leitet Wärme fast gar nicht und daher wird der Teil, der von der Zunge berührt wird, aufgewärmt.

  11. Neurocognitive outcomes in neurofibromatosis clinical trials: Recommendations for the domain of attention.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Karin S; Janusz, Jennifer; Wolters, Pamela L; Martin, Staci; Klein-Tasman, Bonita P; Toledo-Tamula, Mary Anne; Thompson, Heather L; Payne, Jonathan M; Hardy, Kristina K; de Blank, Peter; Semerjian, Claire; Gray, Laura Schaffner; Solomon, Sondra E; Ullrich, Nicole

    2016-08-16

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is associated with neurocognitive deficits that can impact everyday functioning of children, adolescents, and adults with this disease. However, there is little agreement regarding measures to use as cognitive endpoints in clinical trials. This article describes the work of the Neurocognitive Committee of the Response Evaluation in Neurofibromatosis and Schwannomatosis (REiNS) International Collaboration. The goal of this committee is to identify standardized and specific cognitive assessment tools for use in NF clinical trials. The committee first identified cognitive domains relevant to NF1 and prioritized attention as the first domain of focus given prior and current trends in NF1 cognitive clinical trials. Performance measures and behavioral rating questionnaires of attention were reviewed by the group using established criteria to assess patient characteristics, psychometric properties, and feasibility. The highest rated tests underwent side-by-side comparison. The Digit Span subtest from the Wechsler scales was given the highest ratings of the performance measures due to its good psychometrics, feasibility, utility across a wide age range, and extensive use in previous research. The Conners scales achieved the highest ratings of the behavioral questionnaires for similar reasons. Future articles will focus on other cognitive domains, with the ultimate goal of achieving agreement for cognitive endpoints that can be used across NF clinical trials.

  12. Off-label drug promotion and the ephemeral line between marketing and education

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Joan H.

    2015-01-01

    Fueled by massive settlements and concerns about pharmaceutical company influence over medical practice, the fight over off-label promotion has become a rancorous one with little middle ground. For some, off-label restrictions are both bad law and bad medicine, violating the First Amendment while denying physicians access to crucial information. For others, the battle pits the very soul of the FDA against the excesses of a profit-driven marketplace. Far from ameliorating concerns over manufacturer influence, the New Model proposed by Bennett et al. would exacerbate them. The Model would limit FDA authority to core communications proposing immediate commercial transactions, giving manufacturers unfettered discretion over scientific exchanges and nearly free rein over truthful quasi-commercial communications. Most problematically, the New Model relies on the longstanding assumption that truly educational and scientific activities can be distinguished from simple product promotion – a dichotomy that exists not only in federal law and professional association codes, but also underlies the jurisdiction of the federal agencies overseeing the pharmaceutical sector. Experience invites skepticism that these activities can be cleanly separated, suggesting that the New Model may simply perpetuate abusive behaviors without offering concomitant benefits to physicians or patients. PMID:27774219

  13. [Estimate of the needs in renal transplantation in Morocco].

    PubMed

    Boly, Ahmadou; El Hassane Trabelsi, Mohamed; Ramdani, Benyounes; Bayahia, Rabea; Benghanem Gharbi, Mohamed; Boucher, Stéphanie; El Berri, Hicham; Nejjari, Chakib; Couchoud, Cécile

    2014-12-01

    Kidney transplantation is still underdeveloped in Morocco. In order to anticipate needs and discuss a possible reorganization of the provision of care, an estimate of the number of patients who would benefit from kidney transplant was conducted. This study was done in two steps. During the first step, based on the French renal replacement therapy registry (Rein), we develop a prediction score based on the likelihood of being treated by an autonomous dialysis (hemodialysis in self-care unit or peritoneal dialysis non-assisted by a nurse) and be registered on the national kidney transplant waiting list. During the second step, we apply this score to the data of the registry Magredial (Moroccan registry of renal replacement therapy, deployed in seven regions). Twelve parameters were related to autonomy and registration on the waiting list. Each of these parameters has been assigned a weight. Each patient was assigned a number of points, sum of different weights. By retaining a threshold of 21 points (80% specificity), 2260 subjects (57%) had a score less than or equal to this threshold in Magredial. With a number of patients on dialysis in Morocco estimated to 13,000 in late 2013, the estimated need for kidney transplant will be of 7410. This estimate should encourage professionals and health authorities of Morocco to engage more effort in the implementation of actions related to the transplant program.

  14. Loewner Theory in annulus II: Loewner chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Manuel D.; Díaz-Madrigal, Santiago; Gumenyuk, Pavel

    2011-12-01

    Loewner Theory, based on dynamical viewpoint, proved itself to be a powerful tool in Complex Analysis and its applications. Recently Bracci et al. (J Reine Angew Math to appear, arXiv:0807.1594; Math Ann 344:947-962, 2009) and Contreras et al. (Revista Matemática Iberoamericana 26:975-1012, 2010) have proposed a new approach bringing together all the variants of the (deterministic) Loewner Evolution in a simply connected reference domain. This paper is devoted to the construction of a general version of Loewner Theory for the annulus launched in Contreras et al. (Trans Amer Math Soc to appear, arXiv:1011.4253). We introduce the general notion of a Loewner chain over a system of annuli and obtain a 1-to-1 correspondence between Loewner chains and evolution families in the doubly connected setting similar to that in the Loewner Theory for the unit disk. Furthermore, we establish a conformal classification of Loewner chains via the corresponding evolution families and via semicomplete weak holomorphic vector fields. Finally, we extend the explicit characterization of the semicomplete weak holomorphic vector fields obtained in Contreras et al. (Trans Amer Math Soc to appear, arXiv:1011.4253) to the general case.

  15. Deterrence: potential for failure. Student report

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, R.E.

    1988-04-01

    Having been exposed to the threat of nuclear annihilation all their lives, many of the post-war generation have adopted fatalistic attitudes about survival in a nuclear war. The premise that the world stands defenseless against these ultimate weapons is often accepted at face value. This same generation is now beginning to take the reins of power and must face the nuclear dilemma head-on and answer the question, Can the strategy that has served the nation so well during this era of assured destruction continue to protect the nation's security interests in the foreseeable future. The problem with deterrence is it's all or nothing nature. Deterrence is designed only to maintain peace. Should the strategy fail, it offers no guidance for the prosecution of war. This paper attempts to highlight the fragility of deterrence by identifying certain real-world factors that could cause the strategy to crumble. Perhaps the one factor having the most potential to bring about such a failure is the never-ending advance of science and technology - the same technology that made a possible defense against such weapons. Strategists and leaders must recognize the danger of continuing to rely on a strategy that is by no means foolproof. New alternatives for credible strategies must be considered today if the USA is to insure its security in the future.

  16. Continuing debate over science and secrecy

    SciTech Connect

    Chalk, R.

    1986-03-01

    The academic community breathed a sign of relief when President Reagan signed a new national security decision directive, NSDD 189, exempting fundamental research from national security controls. Issued September 27, 1985, the one-paragraph statement begins with the welcome assertion that the Administration's policy is not to restrict the products of fundamental research. The statement adds that where national security interests do intrude upon fundamental research activities, classification will be the primary mechanism for control. However, a more careful reading of the directive, and of the cover memorandum circulated with it to Cabinet officers, reveals a loophole through which the Administration was once again shaking the reins of control. The innocuous phrase appeared at the very end of the directive, forbidding the placement of restrictions upon unclassified federally funded fundamental research except as provided in applicable US statutes. Expanding on this phrase, the cover memorandum emphasized that the directive preserved the ability of the agencies to control unclassified information using legislated authority provided expressly for that purpose in applicable US statutes. The memorandum made no mention of the need to preserve openness in scientific and technical communication or to exercise caution in controlling unclassified information.

  17. FROGS (Friends of Granites) report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Calvin

    This VGP News, which is devoted to petrology, is a good one for noting the existence of FROGS. FROGS is, as the name suggests, an informal organization of people whose research relates in one way or another to granitic rocks. Its purpose has been to promote communication among geoscientists with different perspectives and concerns about felsic plutonism. Initially, a major focus was experimental petrology and integration of field-oriented and lab-oriented viewpoints; now that there is the opportunity to communicate with the Eos readership, an obvious additional goal will be to bring together volcanic and plutonic views of felsic magmatism.FROGS first gathered in late 1982 under the guidance of E-an Zen and Pete Toulmin (both at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Reston, Va.), who saw a need for greater interaction among those interested in granites and for renewed, focused experimental investigations. They produced two newsletters (which were sent out by direct mail) and organized an informal meeting at the Geological Society of America meeting at Indianapolis, Ind., and then turned over the FROG reins to Sue Kieffer (USGS, Flagstaff, Ariz.) and John Clemens (Arizona State University, Tempe). They generated another newsletter, which was directly mailed to a readership that had grown beyond 200.

  18. Four Momentum Transfer Discrepancy in the Charged Current pi+ Production in the MiniBooNE: Data versus Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, Jaroslaw A.; /Louisiana State U.

    2009-09-01

    The MiniBooNE experiment has collected what is currently the world's largest sample of {nu}{sub {mu}} charged current single charged pion (CCl{pi}{sup +}) interactions, roughly 46,000 events. The purity of the CCl{pi}{sup +} sample is 87% making this the purest event sample observed in the MiniBooNE detector. The average energy of neutrinos producing CC{pi}{sup +} interactions in MiniBooNE is about 1 GeV, therefore the study of these events can provide insight into both resonant and coherent pion production processes. In this talk, we will discuss the long-standing discrepancy in four-momentum transfer observed between CC{pi}{sup +} data and existing predictions. Several attempts to address this problem will be presented. Specifically, the Rein-Sehgal model has been extended to include muon mass terms for both resonant and coherent production. Using calculations from, an updated form for the vector form factor has also been adopted. The results of this improved description of CC{pi}{sup +} production will be compared to the high statistics MiniBooNE CC{pi}{sup +} data and several existing parametrizations of the axial vector form factor.

  19. U.S. outlook issues: putting America's house in order.

    PubMed

    Brinner, R E

    1989-03-01

    Despite the economic growth in 1987 and 1988, there are three issues of concern: the strength of consumer spending, the risk of accelerating inflation, and the federal budget deficit. The history of recent consumer spending is reviewed, and the recommendation made that if the recent "binge" of 1987-1988 has caused the economy to overshoot its production capacity, monetary and fiscal policies should be adjusted to rein in the spending. Regarding inflation, despite projected productivity gains, the economy seems to be heading for a 4.5%-5.0% core rate of inflation, a rate that can surge to 1970s-like levels with any substantial bad news. The observation is made that no major sustained cut in financing costs will occur until U.S. fiscal policy is changed. Regarding the deficit, voters cannot seek more services without either higher taxes or higher interest rates; growth alone will not cure the federal deficit. The distinction between good and bad types of debt is made and the history and causes of the $ 2 trillion increase in federal debt between fiscal years 1980 and 1988 is reviewed. Corporate debt and the recent corporate acquisitions and leveraged buyouts are analyzed. Public policy considerations arise primarily from the need to limit the system risks imposed by the scale of the buyout mania and to insure fair treatment of current debt holders of target corporations. Greater regulation of pension investments may be necessary, and widespread use of change-of-ownership clauses in bonds would be productive.

  20. A measurement of coherent neutral pion production in neutrino neutral current interactions in the NOMAD experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullenberg, C. T.; Mishra, S. R.; Seaton, M. B.; Kim, J. J.; Tian, X. C.; Scott, A. M.; Kirsanov, M.; Petti, R.; Alekhin, S.; Astier, P.; Autiero, D.; Baldisseri, A.; Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Banner, M.; Bassompierre, G.; Benslama, K.; Besson, N.; Bird, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bobisut, F.; Bouchez, J.; Boyd, S.; Bueno, A.; Bunyatov, S.; Camilleri, L.; Cardini, A.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Cavasinni, V.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Challis, R.; Chukanov, A.; Collazuol, G.; Conforto, G.; Conta, C.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cousins, R.; Degaudenzi, H.; De Santo, A.; Del Prete, T.; Di Lella, L.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Dumarchez, J.; Ellis, M.; Feldman, G. J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrère, D.; Flaminio, V.; Fraternali, M.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Gangler, E.; Geiser, A.; Geppert, D.; Gibin, D.; Gninenko, S.; Godley, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.-J.; Gosset, J.; Gößling, C.; Gouanère, M.; Grant, A.; Graziani, G.; Guglielmi, A.; Hagner, C.; Hernando, J.; Hurst, P.; Hyett, N.; Iacopini, E.; Joseph, C.; Juget, F.; Kent, N.; Klimov, O.; Kokkonen, J.; Kovzelev, A.; Krasnoperov, A.; Kulagin, S.; Lacaprara, S.; Lachaud, C.; Lakić, B.; Lanza, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Laveder, M.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Levy, J.-M.; Ling, J.; Linssen, L.; Ljubičić, A.; Long, J.; Lupi, A.; Lyubushkin, V.; Marchionni, A.; Martelli, F.; Méchain, X.; Mendiburu, J.-P.; Meyer, J.-P.; Mezzetto, M.; Moorhead, G. F.; Naumov, D.; Nédélec, P.; Nefedov, Yu.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Peak, L. S.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Placci, A.; Polesello, G.; Pollmann, D.; Polyarush, A.; Poulsen, C.; Popov, B.; Rebuffi, L.; Rico, J.; Riemann, P.; Roda, C.; Rubbia, A.; Salvatore, F.; Samoylov, O.; Schahmaneche, K.; Schmidt, B.; Schmidt, T.; Sconza, A.; Sevior, M.; Sillou, D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Sozzi, G.; Steele, D.; Stiegler, U.; Stipčević, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Tareb-Reyes, M.; Taylor, G. N.; Tereshchenko, V.; Toropin, A.; Touchard, A.-M.; Tovey, S. N.; Tran, M.-T.; Tsesmelis, E.; Ulrichs, J.; Vacavant, L.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Valuev, V.; Vannucci, F.; Varvell, K. E.; Veltri, M.; Vercesi, V.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Vieira, J.-M.; Vinogradova, T.; Weber, F. V.; Weisse, T.; Wilson, F. F.; Winton, L. J.; Wu, Q.; Yabsley, B. D.; Zaccone, H.; Zuber, K.; Zuccon, P.

    2009-11-01

    We present a study of exclusive neutral pion production in neutrino-nucleus Neutral Current interactions using data from the NOMAD experiment at the CERN SPS. The data correspond to 1.44 ×106 muon-neutrino Charged Current interactions in the energy range 2.5 ⩽Eν ⩽ 300 GeV. Neutrino events with only one visible π0 in the final state are expected to result from two Neutral Current processes: coherent π0 production, ν + A → ν + A +π0 and single π0 production in neutrino-nucleon scattering. The signature of coherent π0 production is an emergent π0 almost collinear with the incident neutrino while π0's produced in neutrino-nucleon deep inelastic scattering have larger transverse momenta. In this analysis all relevant backgrounds to the coherent π0 production signal are measured using data themselves. Having determined the backgrounds, and using the Rein-Sehgal model for the coherent π0 production to compute the detection efficiency, we obtain 4630 ± 522 (stat) ± 426 (syst) corrected coherent-π0 events with Eπ0 ⩾ 0.5 GeV. We measure σ (νA → νAπ0) = [ 72.6 ± 8.1 (stat) ± 6.9 (syst) ] ×10-40 cm2 /nucleus. This is the most precise measurement of the coherent π0 production to date.

  1. Repeated cocaine exposure increases fast-spiking interneuron excitability in the rat medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Campanac, Emilie; Hoffman, Dax A

    2013-06-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex plays a key role in cocaine addiction. However, how chronic cocaine exposure affects cortical networks remains unclear. Most studies have focused on layer 5 pyramidal neurons (the circuit output), while the response of local GABAergic interneurons to cocaine remains poorly understood. Here, we recorded from fast-spiking interneurons (FS-IN) after repeated cocaine exposure and found altered membrane excitability. After cocaine withdrawal, FS-IN showed an increase in the number of spikes evoked by positive current injection, increased input resistance, and decreased hyperpolarization-activated current. We also observed a reduction in miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents, whereas miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current activity was unaffected. We show that, in animals with cocaine history, dopamine receptor D(2) activation is less effective in increasing FS-IN intrinsic excitability. Interestingly, these alterations are only observed 1 wk or more after the last cocaine exposure. This suggests that the dampening of D(2)-receptor-mediated response may be a compensatory mechanism to rein down the excitability of FS-IN.

  2. Semi-exact concentric atomic density fitting: Reduced cost and increased accuracy compared to standard density fitting

    SciTech Connect

    Hollman, David S.; Schaefer, Henry F.; Valeev, Edward F.

    2014-02-14

    A local density fitting scheme is considered in which atomic orbital (AO) products are approximated using only auxiliary AOs located on one of the nuclei in that product. The possibility of variational collapse to an unphysical “attractive electron” state that can affect such density fitting [P. Merlot, T. Kjærgaard, T. Helgaker, R. Lindh, F. Aquilante, S. Reine, and T. B. Pedersen, J. Comput. Chem. 34, 1486 (2013)] is alleviated by including atom-wise semidiagonal integrals exactly. Our approach leads to a significant decrease in the computational cost of density fitting for Hartree–Fock theory while still producing results with errors 2–5 times smaller than standard, nonlocal density fitting. Our method allows for large Hartree–Fock and density functional theory computations with exact exchange to be carried out efficiently on large molecules, which we demonstrate by benchmarking our method on 200 of the most widely used prescription drug molecules. Our new fitting scheme leads to smooth and artifact-free potential energy surfaces and the possibility of relatively simple analytic gradients.

  3. Off-label drug promotion and the ephemeral line between marketing and education.

    PubMed

    Krause, Joan H

    2015-11-01

    Fueled by massive settlements and concerns about pharmaceutical company influence over medical practice, the fight over off-label promotion has become a rancorous one with little middle ground. For some, off-label restrictions are both bad law and bad medicine, violating the First Amendment while denying physicians access to crucial information. For others, the battle pits the very soul of the FDA against the excesses of a profit-driven marketplace. Far from ameliorating concerns over manufacturer influence, the New Model proposed by Bennett et al. would exacerbate them. The Model would limit FDA authority to core communications proposing immediate commercial transactions, giving manufacturers unfettered discretion over scientific exchanges and nearly free rein over truthful quasi-commercial communications. Most problematically, the New Model relies on the longstanding assumption that truly educational and scientific activities can be distinguished from simple product promotion - a dichotomy that exists not only in federal law and professional association codes, but also underlies the jurisdiction of the federal agencies overseeing the pharmaceutical sector. Experience invites skepticism that these activities can be cleanly separated, suggesting that the New Model may simply perpetuate abusive behaviors without offering concomitant benefits to physicians or patients.

  4. Blockbusters and controlled substances: Miltown, Quaalude, and consumer demand for drugs in postwar America.

    PubMed

    Herzberg, David

    2011-12-01

    In 1955 Carter Products launched its new tranquilizer Miltown with a huge marketing blitz; Miltown soon became one of America's earliest "blockbuster" celebrity drugs. In 1981, federal agents shut down a network of "stress clinics" and arrested the owners, medical staff, and other personnel for illegally trafficking in the sedative Quaalude; Quaalude soon became a "Schedule I Controlled Substance." Both of these stories are familiar, indeed archetypal, moments from America's postwar medical system. As the Miltown example reminds us, this fundamentally commercial system was built on the creation and courting of consumer demand for medical products and services, particularly drugs. As the Quaalude example shows, however, this system also incorporated tools for reining in excessive consumer demand. Together the two episodes affirm an enduring irony of the American medical system: the need for regulatory campaigns to tame lively markets for drugs that had become popular, in part, because of advertising campaigns. This article uses the Miltown and Quaalude sagas to explore the issue of consumer demand for prescription medicines, arguing that efforts to stoke or quash that demand have shaped (and linked) America's medical system and its drug control regimes.

  5. Follow the heart or the head? The interactive influence model of emotion and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jiayi; Yu, Rongjun

    2015-01-01

    The experience of emotion has a powerful influence on daily-life decision making. Following Plato’s description of emotion and reason as two horses pulling us in opposite directions, modern dual-system models of decision making endorse the antagonism between reason and emotion. Decision making is perceived as the competition between an emotion system that is automatic but prone to error and a reason system that is slow but rational. The reason system (in “the head”) reins in our impulses (from “the heart”) and overrides our snap judgments. However, from Darwin’s evolutionary perspective, emotion is adaptive, guiding us to make sound decisions in uncertainty. Here, drawing findings from behavioral economics and neuroeconomics, we provide a new model, labeled “The interactive influence model of emotion and cognition,” to elaborate the relationship of emotion and reason in decision making. Specifically, in our model, we identify factors that determine when emotions override reason and delineate the type of contexts in which emotions help or hurt decision making. We then illustrate how cognition modulates emotion and how they cooperate to affect decision making. PMID:25999889

  6. Bilski: assessing the impact of a newly invigorated patent-eligibility doctrine on the pharmaceutical industry and the future of personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Holman, Christopher M

    2010-01-01

    The patent-eligibility doctrine serves a gatekeeper role in excluding from patent protection natural phenomena, principles of nature, abstract ideas, and mental processes. Beginning around 1980, the U.S. patent system embarked upon a pronounced expansion in its definition of patent-eligible subject matter, particularly with respect to software and business method inventions, but also in the life sciences. In recent years, however, we have seen a backlash, with many critics from the public and private sectors arguing that the threshold for patent-eligibility needs to be raised in order to ensure that patents fulfill their constitutional objective of encouraging innovation rather than impeding it. The courts and PTO appear to have heard these critics, and have begun to actively rein in the scope of patent-eligible subject matter. This shift in the swing of the patent-eligibility pendulum will likely have a profound impact on the patentability of innovations arising out of the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, particularly those relating to diagnostics and personalized medicine. In this article, I discuss the current status of the patent-eligibility doctrine, how it is that we got here, and what the future might hold, particularly for the life science industries.

  7. Kinetics of the forelimb in horses circling on different ground surfaces at the trot.

    PubMed

    Chateau, Henry; Camus, Mathieu; Holden-Douilly, Laurène; Falala, Sylvain; Ravary, Bérangère; Vergari, Claudio; Lepley, Justine; Denoix, Jean-Marie; Pourcelot, Philippe; Crevier-Denoix, Nathalie

    2013-12-01

    Circling increases the expression of distal forelimb lameness in the horse, depending on rein, diameter and surface properties of the circle. However, there is limited information about the kinetics of horses trotting on circles. The aim of this study was to quantify ground reaction force (GRF) and moments in the inside and outside forelimb of horses trotting on circles and to compare the results obtained on different ground surfaces. The right front hoof of six horses was equipped with a dynamometric horseshoe, allowing the measurement of 3-dimensional GRF, moments and trajectory of the centre of pressure. The horses were lunged at slow trot (3 m/s) on right and left 4 m radius circles on asphalt and on a fibre sand surface. During circling, the inside forelimb produced a smaller peak vertical force and the stance phase was longer in comparison with the outside forelimb. Both right and left circling produced a substantial transversal force directed outwards. On a soft surface (sand fibre), the peak transversal force and moments around the longitudinal and vertical axes of the hoof were significantly decreased in comparison with a hard surface (asphalt). Sinking of the lateral or medial part of the hoof in a more compliant surface enables reallocation of part of the transversal force into a proximo-distal force, aligned with the limb axis, thus limiting extrasagittal stress on the joints.

  8. The emergence of environmental homeostasis in complex ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Dyke, James G; Weaver, Iain S

    2013-01-01

    The Earth, with its core-driven magnetic field, convective mantle, mobile lid tectonics, oceans of liquid water, dynamic climate and abundant life is arguably the most complex system in the known universe. This system has exhibited stability in the sense of, bar a number of notable exceptions, surface temperature remaining within the bounds required for liquid water and so a significant biosphere. Explanations for this range from anthropic principles in which the Earth was essentially lucky, to homeostatic Gaia in which the abiotic and biotic components of the Earth system self-organise into homeostatic states that are robust to a wide range of external perturbations. Here we present results from a conceptual model that demonstrates the emergence of homeostasis as a consequence of the feedback loop operating between life and its environment. Formulating the model in terms of Gaussian processes allows the development of novel computational methods in order to provide solutions. We find that the stability of this system will typically increase then remain constant with an increase in biological diversity and that the number of attractors within the phase space exponentially increases with the number of environmental variables while the probability of the system being in an attractor that lies within prescribed boundaries decreases approximately linearly. We argue that the cybernetic concept of rein control provides insights into how this model system, and potentially any system that is comprised of biological to environmental feedback loops, self-organises into homeostatic states.

  9. The American Quarter Horse: Population Structure and Relationship to the Thoroughbred

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A breed known for its versatility, the American Quarter Horse (QH), is increasingly bred for performance in specific disciplines. The impact of selective breeding on the diversity and structure of the QH breed was evaluated using pedigree analysis and genome-wide SNP data from horses representing 6 performance groups (halter, western pleasure, reining, working cow, cutting, and racing). Genotype data (36 037 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) from 36 Thoroughbreds were also evaluated with those from the 132 performing QHs to evaluate the Thoroughbred’s influence on QH diversity. Results showed significant population structure among all QH performance groups excepting the comparison between the cutting and working cow horses; divergence was greatest between the cutting and racing QHs, the latter of which had a large contribution of Thoroughbred ancestry. Significant coancestry and the potential for inbreeding exist within performance groups, especially when considering the elite performers. Relatedness within performance groups is increasing with popular sires contributing disproportionate levels of variation to each discipline. Expected heterozygosity, inbreeding, F ST, cluster, and haplotype analyses suggest these QHs can be broadly classified into 3 categories: stock, racing, and pleasure/halter. Although the QH breed as a whole contains substantial genetic diversity, current breeding practices have resulted in this variation being sequestered into subpopulations. PMID:24293614

  10. Health risk from veterinary antimicrobial use in China's food animal production and its reduction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2016-12-01

    The overuse and misuse of veterinary drugs, particularly antimicrobials, in food animal production in China cause environmental pollution and wide food safety concerns, and pose public health risk with the selection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) that can spread from animal populations to humans. Elevated abundance and diversity of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and resistant bacteria (including multi-drug resistant strains) in food-producing animals, food products of animal origin, microbiota of human gut, and environmental media impacted by intensive animal farming have been reported. To rein in drug use in food animal production and protect public health, the government made a total of 227 veterinary drugs, including 150 antimicrobial products, available only by prescription from licensed veterinarians for curing, controlling, and preventing animal diseases in March 2014. So far the regulatory ban on non-therapeutic use has failed to bring major changes to the long-standing practice of drug overuse and misuse in animal husbandry and aquaculture, and significant improvement in its implementation and enforcement is necessary. A range of measures, including improving access to veterinary services, strengthening supervision on veterinary drug production and distribution, increasing research and development efforts, and enhancing animal health management, are recommended to facilitate transition toward rational use of veterinary drugs, particularly antimicrobials, and to reduce the public health risk arising from AMR development in animal agriculture.

  11. The mPEG-PCL Copolymer for Selective Fermentation of Staphylococcus lugdunensis Against Candida parapsilosis in the Human Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Ming-Shan; Wang, Yanhan; Marito, Shinta; Huang, Stephen; Lin, Wan-Zhen; Gangoiti, Jon A; Barshop, Bruce A; Hyun, Choi; Lee, Woan-Ruah; Sanford, James A; Gallo, Richard L; Ran, Yuping; Chen, Wan-Tzu; Huang, Chun-Jen; Hsieh, Ming-Fa; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Many human skin diseases, such as seborrheic dermatitis, potentially occur due to the over-growth of fungi. It remains a challenge to develop fungicides with a lower risk of generating resistant fungi and non-specifically killing commensal microbes. Our probiotic approaches using a selective fermentation initiator of skin commensal bacteria, fermentation metabolites or their derivatives provide novel therapeutics to rein in the over-growth of fungi. Staphylococcus lugdunensis (S. lugdunensis) bacteria and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) fungi coexist in the scalp microbiome. S. lugdunensis interfered with the growth of C. parapsilosis via fermentation. A methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) copolymer functioned as a selective fermentation initiator of S. lugdunensis, selectively triggering the S. lugdunensis fermentation to produce acetic and isovaleric acids. The acetic acid and its pro-drug diethyleneglycol diacetate (Ac-DEG-Ac) effectively suppressed the growth of C. parapsilosis in vitro and impeded the fungal expansion in the human dandruff. We demonstrate for the first time that S. lugdunensis is a skin probiotic bacterium that can exploit mPEG-PCL to yield fungicidal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The concept of bacterial fermentation as a part of skin immunity to re-balance the dysbiotic microbiome warrants a novel avenue for studying the probiotic function of the skin microbiome in promoting health. PMID:28111598

  12. Differences in rider movement pattern between different degrees of collection at the trot in high-level dressage horses ridden on a treadmill.

    PubMed

    Byström, A; Roepstroff, L; Geser-von Peinen, K; Weishaupt, M A; Rhodin, M

    2015-06-01

    Collection is a central term in equine dressage, defined as a shortening of the horse's stride length with retained energy and hind limb activity. How collection is induced by the rider has yet not been investigated objectively. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the movement pattern of high-level dressage riders between free trot (loose reins), passage and a range of three speeds in collected trot. Both at higher speed in collected trot and in passage, the rider's pelvis became more caudally rotated and the rider's lumbar back became more flexed. However, in passage there was also a decrease in phase-shift between horse and rider movements, suggesting that the rider used the seat more actively. In free trot, the rider's pelvis was more cranially rotated, the lumbar back was more extended, the rider's body inclined more forwards, and the phase-shift between horse and rider was increased, compared to collected trot. The observed changes were partly explainable from changes in the horse's movement pattern. However, most differences in rider body position seemed unrelated to the horse's movements, but were in accordance with instructions in equestrian texts, suggesting that those changes were voluntarily adopted by the riders.

  13. Building the giant planet cores by convergent migration of pebble-accreting embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrenko, Ondrej; Broz, Miroslav

    2016-10-01

    An explanation of the accretion buildup of giant planet cores on rather short (~Myr) time scales remains a long-standing challenge for scenarios of planetary system formation. One of the recently proposed processes that can take part during this evolutionary stage is the convergent Type I migration of Earth-sized embryos towards the zero-torque radius, occurring at an opacity transition within the dusty-gaseous protoplanetary disk (e.g. Pierens et al. 2013). Inconveniently, simulations show that such groups of embryos do not merge easily because they often get locked in mutual mean-motion resonances and consequently form an inward-migrating convoy.We revise this possibility of merging embryos while taking into account their ongoing growth by pebble accretion. Our aim is to check whether the rapid changes of masses combined with the migration of embryos through the feeding zone can break the resonant chain and allow for the giant planet core formation.The environment of the protoplanetary disk is modeled with the 2D FARGO code (Masset 2000), which we modified in order to perform non-isothermal hydrodynamic simulations, assuming flux-limited radiative diffusion (Levermore & Pomraning 1981). The embedded massive bodies are evolved simultaneously in 3D using the hybrid Wisdom-Holman/Gauss-Radau integrator from the Rebound package (Rein & Spiegel 2015). A semi-analytic method is used to evolve the masses of embryos by pebble accretion (e.g. Levison et al. 2015).

  14. The advent of equitation science.

    PubMed

    McGreevy, Paul D

    2007-11-01

    The lengthy association of humans with horses has established traditional equestrian techniques that have served military and transport needs well. Although effective, these techniques have by-passed the research findings of modern psychologists, who developed the fundamentals of learning theory. That said, the pools of equestrian debate are far from stagnant. The latest wave of horse whisperers has offered some refinements and some novel interpretations of the motivation of horses undergoing training. Additionally, the Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI) has introduced the concept of the 'happy equine athlete' and, in the light of the hyperflexion (Rollkür) debate, recently examined the possible effects of some novel dressage modalities on equine 'happiness'. However, many still question the welfare of the ridden horse since it is largely trained using negative reinforcement, has to respond to pressure-based signals and is seldom asked to work for positive rewards. Science holds tremendous promise for removing emotiveness from the horse-riding welfare debate by establishing how much rein tension is too much; how much contact is neutral; how contact can be measured; how discomfort can be measured; how pain can be measured; and how learned helplessness manifests in horses. These are some of the topics addressed by equitation science, an emerging discipline that combines learning theory, physics and ethology to examine the salience and efficacy of horse-training techniques.

  15. General topology meets model theory, on p and t.

    PubMed

    Malliaris, Maryanthe; Shelah, Saharon

    2013-08-13

    Cantor proved in 1874 [Cantor G (1874) J Reine Angew Math 77:258-262] that the continuum is uncountable, and Hilbert's first problem asks whether it is the smallest uncountable cardinal. A program arose to study cardinal invariants of the continuum, which measure the size of the continuum in various ways. By Gödel [Gödel K (1939) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 25(4):220-224] and Cohen [Cohen P (1963) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 50(6):1143-1148], Hilbert's first problem is independent of ZFC (Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory with the axiom of choice). Much work both before and since has been done on inequalities between these cardinal invariants, but some basic questions have remained open despite Cohen's introduction of forcing. The oldest and perhaps most famous of these is whether " p = t," which was proved in a special case by Rothberger [Rothberger F (1948) Fund Math 35:29-46], building on Hausdorff [Hausdorff (1936) Fund Math 26:241-255]. In this paper we explain how our work on the structure of Keisler's order, a large-scale classification problem in model theory, led to the solution of this problem in ZFC as well as of an a priori unrelated open question in model theory.

  16. Selling space colonization and immortality: A psychosocial, anthropological critique of the rush to colonize Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slobodian, Rayna Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Extensive media coverage regarding the proposal to send four people to Mars by 2025 has exploded recently. Private enterprise has taken the reins to venture into space, which has typically only been reserved for government agencies. I argue, that with this new direction comes less regulation, raising questions regarding the ethics of sending people into outer space to colonize Mars within a decade. Marketers selling colonization to the public include perspectives such as biological drives, species survival, inclusiveness and utopian ideals. I challenge these narratives by suggesting that much of our desire to colonize space within the next decade is motivated by ego, money and romanticism. More specifically, I will examine the roles that fear and stories of immortality play within selling space and how those stories are marketed. I am passionate about space and hope that one day humanity will colonize other worlds, but the rush to settle is dangerous and careless. I assert that humanity should first gain more experience and knowledge before colonizing outer space, using this research to mitigate the risk to astronauts and proceed with careful consideration for the lives of potential astronauts.

  17. Gauß and beyond: the making of Easter algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bien, Reinhold

    2004-07-01

    It is amazing to see how many webpages are devoted to the art of finding the date of Easter Sunday. Just for illustration, the reader may search for terms such as Gregorian calendar, date of Easter, or Easter algorithm. Sophisticated essays as well as less enlightening contributions are presented, and many a doubt is expressed about the reliability of some results obtained with some Easter algorithms. In short, there is still a great interest in those problems. Gregorian Easter algorithms exist for two centuries (or more?), but most of their history is rather obscure. Some reasons may be that some important sources are written in Latin or in the German of Goethe's time, or they are difficult to discover. Without being complete, the following paper is intended to shed light on how those techniques emerged and evolved. Like a microcosm, the history of Easter algorithms resembles the history of any science: it is a story of trials, errors, and successes, and, last but not least, a story of offended pride. A number of articles, published before 1910, are cited in: A. Fraenkel, Die Berechnung des Osterfestes. Journal für die reine und angewandte Mathematik, Volume 138 (1910), 133-146.

  18. Social heuristics shape intuitive cooperation.

    PubMed

    Rand, David G; Peysakhovich, Alexander; Kraft-Todd, Gordon T; Newman, George E; Wurzbacher, Owen; Nowak, Martin A; Greene, Joshua D

    2014-04-22

    Cooperation is central to human societies. Yet relatively little is known about the cognitive underpinnings of cooperative decision making. Does cooperation require deliberate self-restraint? Or is spontaneous prosociality reined in by calculating self-interest? Here we present a theory of why (and for whom) intuition favors cooperation: cooperation is typically advantageous in everyday life, leading to the formation of generalized cooperative intuitions. Deliberation, by contrast, adjusts behaviour towards the optimum for a given situation. Thus, in one-shot anonymous interactions where selfishness is optimal, intuitive responses tend to be more cooperative than deliberative responses. We test this 'social heuristics hypothesis' by aggregating across every cooperation experiment using time pressure that we conducted over a 2-year period (15 studies and 6,910 decisions), as well as performing a novel time pressure experiment. Doing so demonstrates a positive average effect of time pressure on cooperation. We also find substantial variation in this effect, and show that this variation is partly explained by previous experience with one-shot lab experiments.

  19. The mPEG-PCL Copolymer for Selective Fermentation of Staphylococcus lugdunensis Against Candida parapsilosis in the Human Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Kao, Ming-Shan; Wang, Yanhan; Marito, Shinta; Huang, Stephen; Lin, Wan-Zhen; Gangoiti, Jon A; Barshop, Bruce A; Hyun, Choi; Lee, Woan-Ruah; Sanford, James A; Gallo, Richard L; Ran, Yuping; Chen, Wan-Tzu; Huang, Chun-Jen; Hsieh, Ming-Fa; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Many human skin diseases, such as seborrheic dermatitis, potentially occur due to the over-growth of fungi. It remains a challenge to develop fungicides with a lower risk of generating resistant fungi and non-specifically killing commensal microbes. Our probiotic approaches using a selective fermentation initiator of skin commensal bacteria, fermentation metabolites or their derivatives provide novel therapeutics to rein in the over-growth of fungi. Staphylococcus lugdunensis (S. lugdunensis) bacteria and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) fungi coexist in the scalp microbiome. S. lugdunensis interfered with the growth of C. parapsilosis via fermentation. A methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) copolymer functioned as a selective fermentation initiator of S. lugdunensis, selectively triggering the S. lugdunensis fermentation to produce acetic and isovaleric acids. The acetic acid and its pro-drug diethyleneglycol diacetate (Ac-DEG-Ac) effectively suppressed the growth of C. parapsilosis in vitro and impeded the fungal expansion in the human dandruff. We demonstrate for the first time that S. lugdunensis is a skin probiotic bacterium that can exploit mPEG-PCL to yield fungicidal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The concept of bacterial fermentation as a part of skin immunity to re-balance the dysbiotic microbiome warrants a novel avenue for studying the probiotic function of the skin microbiome in promoting health.

  20. The Emergence of Environmental Homeostasis in Complex Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Dyke, James G.; Weaver, Iain S.

    2013-01-01

    The Earth, with its core-driven magnetic field, convective mantle, mobile lid tectonics, oceans of liquid water, dynamic climate and abundant life is arguably the most complex system in the known universe. This system has exhibited stability in the sense of, bar a number of notable exceptions, surface temperature remaining within the bounds required for liquid water and so a significant biosphere. Explanations for this range from anthropic principles in which the Earth was essentially lucky, to homeostatic Gaia in which the abiotic and biotic components of the Earth system self-organise into homeostatic states that are robust to a wide range of external perturbations. Here we present results from a conceptual model that demonstrates the emergence of homeostasis as a consequence of the feedback loop operating between life and its environment. Formulating the model in terms of Gaussian processes allows the development of novel computational methods in order to provide solutions. We find that the stability of this system will typically increase then remain constant with an increase in biological diversity and that the number of attractors within the phase space exponentially increases with the number of environmental variables while the probability of the system being in an attractor that lies within prescribed boundaries decreases approximately linearly. We argue that the cybernetic concept of rein control provides insights into how this model system, and potentially any system that is comprised of biological to environmental feedback loops, self-organises into homeostatic states. PMID:23696719

  1. Kosmologie und Teilchenphysik.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appenzeller, I.

    This book is a selection of 17 articles published in the journal "Spektrum der Wissenschaft". The original English versions of the papers were first published in "Scientific American". Contents: 1. Einführung (I. Appenzeller). 2. Sehr große Strukturen im Universum (J. O. Burns). 3. Die großräumigen Eigenbewegungen der Galaxien (A. Dressler). 4. Dunkle Materie im Universum (L. M. Krauss). 5. Der doppelte Beta-Zerfall (M. K. Moe, S. P. Rosen). 6. Quark-Lepton Familien (D. B. Cline). 7. Beschleunigerexperimente testen kosmologische Theorien (D. N. Schramm, G. Steigman). 8. Das Rätsel der kosmologischen Konstanten (L. Abbott). 9. Das Higgs-Boson (M. J. G. Veltman). 10. Die Suche nach dem Protonenzerfall (J. M. LoSecco, F. Reines, D. Sinclair). 11. Das inflationäre Universum (A. H. Guth, P. J. Steinhardt). 12. Die fünfte Dimension (E. Schmutzer). 13. Die verborgenen Dimensionen der Raumzeit (D. Z. Freedman, P. van Nieuwenhuizen). 14. Ist die Natur supersymmetrisch? (H. E. Haber, G. L. Kane). 15. Schwerkraft und Antimaterie (T. Goldman, R. J. Hughes, M. M. Nieto). 16. Superstrings (M. B. Green). 17. Kosmische Strings (A. Vilenkin).

  2. p16 deficiency promotes nonalcoholic steatohepatitis via regulation of hepatic oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Lv, Fangqiao; Wu, Jun; Miao, Dengshun; An, Wei; Wang, Yutong

    2017-03-10

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by excess accumulation of lipids in liver, accompanied with hepatocyte injury, cell death and inflammation. Although p16 is known as tumor suppressor in multiple cancer types, it remains unclear whether p16 plays a critical role in NASH. To determine whether p16 could play a role in the pathogenesis of NASH, wild-type mice and p16(-/-) mice were fed on a methionine and choline-deficient (MCD) diet for 3 weeks, and liver steatosis, fibrosis, and inflammation were evaluated. Our data show that p16(-/-) mice fed with MCD diet displayed more significant hepatic steatosis, hepatocyte damage, increased oxidative stress and inflammatory cell infiltration compared to MCD-fed WT mice. It was also clear that the increased ROS and the accumulation of lipid in BEL-7402 cells occurred when p16 expression was depleted with siRNA. These findings indicate that p16 may play a critical role in the development of NASH by reining in ROS production and by inhabiting inflammatory response.

  3. [Kidney diseases: new issues].

    PubMed

    Ronco, Pierre

    2012-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects two to four million people in France and most of them are not aware of their disease. CKD is a major, independent risk factor of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity; the cardiovascular risk increases with the severity of renal failure. Evaluation of renal function (GFR) relies on MDRD and CKD-EPI equations. The French CKD-REIN cohort with more than 3000 patients followed for 5 years, will hopefully provide substantial advances in the knowledge of CKD epidemiology, of risk factors and mechanisms of CKD progression and medical practices. Improving CKD screening based on blood pressure, proteinuria (microalbuminuria in diabetic patients) and serum creatinine, is a national duty in high risk patients (with diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases). A major research goal is to identify new therapeutic targets and biomarkers, in order to treat kidney diseases before the occurrence of renal insufficiency, to halt their progression and to decrease cardiovascular risk. Careful therapeutic education of patients is required to successfully implement established guidelines, appropriate diets and new therapeutic strategies.

  4. Nom et lumière: enlightenment through nomenclature (the 1996 Kenneth F. Russell Memorial Lecture).

    PubMed

    Pearn, J

    1997-08-01

    The classification of living things is both an acknowledgement of biological relationships and an identification of their differences. When Linnaeus, in 1735, published Systema Naturae, he set in place a system of biological classification that saw its apogee in the invention of binomial nomenclature: the description of every living thing being embodied simply in two names, (i.e. a genus and the species within it). Linnaeus built on the work of scientific forebears, of whom Nehemiah Grew (1641-1712) was one of the most influential. Grew was a surgeon-physician whose passionate interest was plant anatomy; his work led to the discovery and documentation of sexual dimorphism in plants. Grew's life and works are a witness to that philosophy which views nature as a continuum, a broad holistic entity in which discoveries in one biological field have ramifications in other areas. Grew allowed his scientific curiosity full rein, manifested the courage to publish his work and possessed the self-discipline to stand by the audit of his peers. Modern biological research and contemporary clinical practice owes much to the enlightenment engendered by the classification and nomenclature that developed from his work.

  5. Changes to intellectual property policy in South Africa: putting a stop to evergreening?

    PubMed

    Hill, Julia E

    2014-08-01

    South Africa is a middle-income country with the world's largest HIV patient cohort and a growing burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases - a prime location for pharmaceutical companies looking to expand their markets. Yet, 20 years after the country's first democratic elections, poor health indicators and an over-burdened public health system belie persistently stark levels of socioeconomic inequality. As the South African government revises national intellectual property (IP) policies, the pharmaceutical industry and global access to medicines movement are watching, aware of ramifications South Africa's actions will have on patent laws and the availability of generic medicines in other middle-income countries and across Africa. South Africa's draft IP policy is meeting fierce resistance from industry, although proposed reforms are compliant with the Agreement on trade related aspects of intellectual property (TRIPS) and in line with on-going policies and actions of both developing and developed countries. Could the establishment of a patent examination system and new patentability criteria rein in evergreening and lead to lower medicine prices? What will be the potential impact of reform on medical innovation? And why is it both necessary and urgent that the South African government seek a fairer balance between private and public interests?

  6. Assault in medical law: revisiting the boundaries of informed consent to medical treatment in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Maria C I

    2009-05-01

    This article focuses on assault as a cause of action in medical law, with particular emphasis on the requirements for informed consent, both under common law and under the National Health Act 2003 (Sth Africa). In particular, the test for consent, adopted in Castell v De Greef 1994 (4) SA 408 (C), is analysed in detail. It is noted that the wording of this test for informed consent mirrors the wording of the test for negligence laid down in the Australian case of Rogers v Whitaker (1992) 175 CLR 479. Further, the relationship between the delictual elements of wrongfulness and fault in assault is discussed. It is argued that in South African law a valid consent to medical treatment requires knowledge not only of the general nature of medical treatment but also of the consequences of the treatment and, in determining which consequences should be disclosed to a patient, the constitutional rights to equality and self-determination support the application of a subjective patient-centred test for informed consent. However, it is also proposed that the broad right of a patient to information is reined in at the fault element of assault, so that a limited requirement of consciousness of wrongfulness on the part of the defendant negates liability for delictual assault.

  7. The changing healthcare landscape and implications of organizational ethics on modern medical practice.

    PubMed

    Castlen, Joseph P; Cote, David J; Moojen, Wouter A; Robe, Pierre A; Balak, Naci; Brennum, Jannick; Ammirati, Mario; Mathiesen, Tiit; Broekman, Marike L D

    2017-03-24

    Medicine is rapidly changing, both in the level of collective medical knowledge and in how it is being delivered. The increased presence of administrators in hospitals helps to facilitate these changes and ease administrative workloads on physicians; however, tensions sometimes form between physicians and administrators. This is due to perceptions from both sides that physicians obstruct cost-saving measures and administrators put profits before patients. In reality, growing patient populations and changes in healthcare are necessitating action by hospitals to prevent excessive spending as healthcare systems become larger and more difficult to manage. Recognizing the cause of changes in healthcare, which do not always originate with physicians and administrators, along with implementing changes in hospitals such as increased physician leadership, could help to ease tensions and promote a more collaborative atmosphere. Ethically, there is a need to preserve physician autonomy, which is a tenet of medical professionalism, and a need to rein in spending costs while ensuring patients receive the best possible care. Physicians and administrators both need to have a well-developed personal ethic in order to achieve these goals. Ultimately, physicians need be allowed to retain relative autonomy over their practices as they support and participate in administrator-led efforts toward distributive justice.

  8. Phosphate May Promote CKD Progression and Attenuate Renoprotective Effect of ACE Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Ruggenenti, Piero; Perna, Annalisa; Leonardis, Daniela; Tripepi, Rocco; Tripepi, Giovanni; Mallamaci, Francesca; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Phosphate may promote the onset and progression of chronic nephropathies. Here we evaluated the relationships between baseline serum phosphate levels, disease progression, and response to ACE inhibition in 331 patients with proteinuric nephropathies in the prospective Ramipril Efficacy In Nephropathy (REIN) trial. Independent of treatment, patients with phosphate levels in the highest two quartiles progressed significantly faster either to ESRD or to a composite endpoint of doubling of serum creatinine or ESRD compared with patients with phosphate levels below the median (P < 0.001). Results were similar when we analyzed phosphate as a continuous variable (P ≤ 0.004). The renoprotective effect of ramipril decreased as serum phosphate increased (P ≤ 0.008 for interaction); this modification of the treatment effect by phosphate persisted despite adjusting for potential confounders such as GFR and urinary protein. In summary, these data suggest that phosphate is an independent risk factor for progression of renal disease among patients with proteinuric CKD, and high levels of phosphate may even attenuate the renoprotective effect of ACE inhibitors. Future trials should test whether reducing serum phosphate improves renal outcomes and optimizes the renoprotective effect of ACE inhibition. PMID:21852581

  9. Reduced Investment in Science: An Examination of the Current Federal Budget and a Case Study on Its Impact on the Scientific Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlenbrock, K.; Landau, E. A.; Hankin, E. R.

    2013-12-01

    Federally funded scientific research is one of the building blocks of technological advancement and economic growth. This research can also lead to transformational ideas and discoveries. In our current fiscal environment, strategies to rein in federal spending have become a priority, although they have proven to be complex. The possible deals and negotiations to reduce federal spending may hinder the work of the scientific community to serve society. Since 2005 federal investment in research and development has slowed. The average annual growth in federal funding for scientific research from 2004 - 2009 was 0.9% as compared to 3.3% over the previous 20 years. What does the current budget situation mean for science? It means reductions in basic and applied research, interruptions in long-term monitoring and data collection, an inability to repair or build infrastructure, and less federal grant support for current and future scientists. I will first provide an update on the current federal budget situation and examples of how current policies are impacting the scientific community. Second, I will present a case study of the effect of reduced federal investment in science. Specifically, I will discuss how investments in research and development have far-reaching impacts on society and examine how reduced funding impairs valuable research efforts.

  10. Revealing Massive Black Holes in Dwarf Galaxies with X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reines, A.

    2014-07-01

    Supermassive black holes (BHs) live at the heart of essentially all massive galaxies, power AGN, and are thought to be important agents in the evolution of their hosts. However, the origin of these monster BHs is largely unknown. While direct observations of the first ``seeds" of supermassive BHs in the infant Universe are unobtainable with current telescopes, finding and studying dwarf galaxies hosting massive BHs today can provide valuable constraints on the masses, host galaxies, and formation mechanism of supermassive BH seeds. We have recently completed the first systematic search for AGN in dwarf galaxies using optical spectroscopy, increasing the number of known dwarfs with massive BHs by more than an order of magnitude (Reines et al. 2013). However, this optical search is biased towards BHs radiating at high fractions of their Eddington limit in galaxies with little on-going star formation. Alternative search techniques and diagnostics at other wavelengths are necessary to make further progress. I will discuss our efforts to find and study massive BHs in dwarf galaxies using observations at X-ray wavelengths. These observations are more sensitive to weakly accreting massive BHs and are already beginning to reveal massive BHs hidden at optical wavelengths in star-forming dwarf galaxies.

  11. 2011 Einstein Fellows Chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-03-01

    ASA has announced the selection of the 2011 Einstein Fellows who will conduct research related to NASA's Physics of the Cosmos program, which aims to expand our knowledge of the origin, evolution, and fate of the Universe. The Einstein Fellowship provides support to the awardees for three years, and the Fellows may pursue their research at a host university or research center of their choosing in the United States. The new Fellows will begin their programs in the fall of 2011. The new Einstein Fellows and their host institutions are listed below: * Akos Bogdan (Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass.) * Samuel Gralla (University of Maryland, College Park, Md.) * Philip Hopkins (University of California at Berkeley) * Matthew Kunz (Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.) * Laura Lopez (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.) * Amy Reines (National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, Virg.) * Rubens Reis (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor) * Ken Shen (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, Calif.) * Jennifer Siegal-Gaskins (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena) * Lorenzo Sironi (Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.) NASA has two other astrophysics theme-based fellowship programs: the Sagan Fellowship Program, which supports research into exoplanet exploration, and the Hubble Fellowship Program, which supports research into cosmic origins. More information on the Einstein Fellowships can be found at: http://cxc.harvard.edu/fellows/

  12. Insights into the inner structure of high-nickel agglomerate as high-performance lithium-ion cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Cheng-Kai; Qi, Li-Ya; Zuo, Zicheng; Wang, Ru-Na; Ye, Meng; Lu, Jing; Zhou, Heng-Hui

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the intrinsic impact of inner structure features on the electrochemical performances of LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathodes is for the first time systematically investigated. Three different spherical Ni0.6Co0.2Mn0.2(OH)2 precursors are successfully synthesized by controlling pH values and ammonia concentrations. Interestingly, via a further lithiation process, the final cathodes can gradually inherit the structural features, showing distinct particle arrangement and genetic orientation characteristics in the inner structures. Such a hereditary property can be well reined for customizing the grain-orientation, helping the growth of the inert crystal direction, reducing cation mixing and exposing the high active (100) or (010) lattice planes for lithiation/delithiation processes via an intrinsical way. The degree of grain-orientation of the primary particles turns out to be a critical factor in determining the long-term stability and power performances. Due to the reduced cation mixing degree and favorable lithium diffusion pathways, the ordered agglomerates with the grain growth along with [003] direction exhibit superior rate capability and good cycle stability.

  13. The Effects of Climate Change on Water Resources in the West: Introduction and Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, Tim P.; Malone, Robert; Pennell, William T.; Stammer, Detlet; Semtner, Bret; Washington, Warren M.

    2004-01-31

    In the summer of 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded a project to perform an experimental “end-to-end” assessment of the effects of climate change on the western United States. The project was intended both to demonstrate and test a methodology for performing quantitative assessments of climate-driven environmental impacts. A second objective was to provide useful information to regional, state, and local decision-makers, whose job it will be to deal with the conflicting demands that climate change, population increases, and economic growth will place on the water resources of the West. The third objective was to demonstrate the potential value of an Accelerated Climate Prediction Initiative (ACPI). The ACPI was a DOE initiative to accelerate the development, improvement, and application of U.S. climate models and to provide the advanced computational facilities that would be needed to carry out this work. Although the ACPI was not funded, some of its spirit lives on in various DOE and other federal agency projects and programs designed to advance “ultra-scale” computing and the science of climate simulation. In this volume, we hope to demonstrate what can be achieved if a highly qualified group of scientists are brought together, under relatively light management reins, to take an in-depth look at how future climate change might affect issues of real importance to the citizens of the United States.

  14. Dramatic increase of Cesarean deliveries in the midst of health reforms in rural China.

    PubMed

    Bogg, Lennart; Huang, Kun; Long, Qian; Shen, Yuan; Hemminki, Elina

    2010-05-01

    Cesarean delivery (CD) rates were until recently low in rural China where the population lacked health insurance. In July 2003 the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) was introduced. We report findings from a health systems study carried out in the EC-funded project "Structural hinders to and promoters of good maternal care in rural China" in central and western China. The purpose was to analyze how CD rates changed with the increased level of funding of the NCMS. The research design was a natural experiment. Quantitative demographic, administrative and accounts data for 2001-2007 were collected in five counties from the county public health bureaux, the county NCMS offices, the county statistical offices and the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) hospitals, using a structured data collection form. We found that the CD rates increased in four of the five counties in the period 2004-2007 by 36%, 53%, 61% and 131% respectively. In the fifth county the CD rate remained high at 60%. The revenue from CD made up 72-85% of total delivery fee revenue. CD fee revenue increased by 97%, 239% and 408% in the three counties with available data; a higher increase than in general health care revenue. Our conclusion is that the design of NCMS, the provider payment systems, and the revenue-related bonus systems for doctors need to be studied to rein in the unhealthy increases in rural CD rates.

  15. Repeated cocaine exposure increases fast-spiking interneuron excitability in the rat medial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Dax A.

    2013-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex plays a key role in cocaine addiction. However, how chronic cocaine exposure affects cortical networks remains unclear. Most studies have focused on layer 5 pyramidal neurons (the circuit output), while the response of local GABAergic interneurons to cocaine remains poorly understood. Here, we recorded from fast-spiking interneurons (FS-IN) after repeated cocaine exposure and found altered membrane excitability. After cocaine withdrawal, FS-IN showed an increase in the number of spikes evoked by positive current injection, increased input resistance, and decreased hyperpolarization-activated current. We also observed a reduction in miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents, whereas miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current activity was unaffected. We show that, in animals with cocaine history, dopamine receptor D2 activation is less effective in increasing FS-IN intrinsic excitability. Interestingly, these alterations are only observed 1 wk or more after the last cocaine exposure. This suggests that the dampening of D2-receptor-mediated response may be a compensatory mechanism to rein down the excitability of FS-IN. PMID:23486201

  16. [The decree of June 15th, 1888, the first text that legislates the pharmacy practice in Tunisia and the progress of the pharmaceutical legislation before and after the independence].

    PubMed

    Ben Azzouna, Rana; Hamdane, Ridha

    2007-01-01

    In 1881, the French protectorate is established in Tunisia whose independence will not be officially declared before March 20th, 1956. This article presents the content of the decree of June 15th, 1888, the first text that legislates pharmacy practice in Tunisia. The publication of this decree, a real fundamental text, did not put an end to the illegal practice of pharmacy in the Regency, which could be explained by the few shortcomings of the text, the legislator's inability to implement the law, the ignorance and the inadvertency of the diplomats, and also the "regime of the surrenders" (le régime des capitulations) which, by preventing the pharmaceutical inspection, gave free rein to all the offenders. This situation led in the course of time to the promulgation of a number of laws which progressively allowed a better organization of the pharmaceutical profession in the Regency. The progress made by the pharmaceutical legislation throughout the French protectorate continued after the independence of Tunisia as is attested by the law number 73-55 of August 3rd, 1973 which is still in use at present.

  17. Survival advantage of hemodialysis relative to peritoneal dialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease and congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Sens, Florence; Schott-Pethelaz, Anne-Marie; Labeeuw, Michel; Colin, Cyrille; Villar, Emmanuel

    2011-11-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) has been proposed as a therapeutic option for patients with end-stage renal disease and associated congestive heart failure (CHF). Here, we compare mortality risks in these patients by dialysis modality by including all patients who started planned chronic dialysis with associated congestive heart failure and were prospectively enrolled in the French REIN Registry. Survival was compared between 933 PD and 3468 hemodialysis (HD) patients using a Kaplan-Meier model, Cox regression, and propensity score analysis. The patients were followed from their first dialysis session and stratified by modality at day 90 or last modality if death occurred prior. There was a significant difference in the median survival time of 20.4 months in the PD group and 36.7 months in the HD group (hazard ratio, 1.55). After correction for confounders, the adjusted hazard ratio for death in PD compared to the HD patients remained significant at 1.48. Subgroup analyses showed that the results were not changed with regard to the New York Heart Association stage, age strata, or estimated glomerular filtration rate strata at first renal replacement therapy. The use of propensity score did not change results (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.55). Thus, mortality risk was higher with PD than with HD among incident patients with end-stage renal disease and congestive heart failure. These results may help guide clinical decisions and also highlight the need for randomized clinical trials.

  18. Safety-cost trade-offs in medical device reuse: a Markov decision process model.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Thomas W

    2007-02-01

    Healthcare expenditures in the US are approaching 2 trillion dollars, and hospitals and other healthcare providers are under tremendous pressure to rein in costs. One cost-saving approach which is gaining popularity is the reuse of medical devices which were designed only for a single use. Device makers decry this practice as unsanitary and unsafe, but a growing number of third-party firms are willing to sterilize, refurbish, and/or remanufacture devices and resell them to hospitals at a fraction of the original price. Is this practice safe? Is reliance on single-use devices sustainable? A Markov decision process (MDP) model is formulated to study the trade-offs involved in these decisions. Several key parameters are examined: device costs, device failure probabilities, and failure penalty cost. For each of these parameters, expressions are developed which identify the indifference point between using new and reprocessed devices. The results can be used to inform the debate on the economic, ethical, legal, and environmental dimensions of this complex issue.

  19. Integrating early detection with DNA barcoding: species identification of a non-native monitor lizard (Squamata: Varanidae) carcass in Mississippi, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Robert N.; Hopken, Matthew W.; Steen, David A.; Falk, Bryan G.; Piaggio, Antoinette J.

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of invasive species is critical to increasing the probability of successful management. At the primary stage of an invasion, invasive species are easier to control as the population is likely represented by just a few individuals. Detection of these first few individuals can be challenging, particularly if they are cryptic or otherwise characterized by low detectability. The engagement of members of the public may be critical to early detection as there are far more citizen s on the landscape than trained biologists. However, it can be difficult to assess the credibility of public reporting, especially when a diagnostic digital image or a physical specimen in good condition are lacking. DNA barcoding can be used for verification when morphological identification of a specimen is not possible or uncertain (i.e., degraded or partial specimen). DNA barcoding relies on obtaining a DNA sequence from a relatively small fragment of mitochondrial DNA and comparing it to a database of sequences containing a variety of expertly identified species. He rein we report the successful identification of a degraded specimen of a non-native, potentially invasive reptile species (Varanus niloticus) via DNA barcoding, after discovery and reporting by a member of the public.

  20. Means and ENDS - e-cigarettes, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and global health diplomacy in action.

    PubMed

    Russell, Andrew; Wainwright, Megan; Tilson, Melodie

    2016-03-07

    E-cigarettes are a new and disruptive element in global health diplomacy (GHD) and policy-making. This is an ethnographic account of how e-cigarettes and other Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) were tackled at the 6th Conference of the Parties to the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. It demonstrates how uncertainty about ENDS and differences of opinion are currently so great that 'agreeing to disagree' as a consensus position and 'strategic use of time' were the principles that ensured effective GHD in this case. Observers representing accredited non-governmental organisations were active in briefing and lobbying country delegates not to spend too much time debating an issue for which insufficient evidence exists, and for which countries were unlikely to reach a consensus on a specific regulatory approach or universally applicable regulatory measures. Equally, the work of Costa Rica in preparing and re-negotiating the draft decision, and the work of the relevant Committee Chair in managing the discussion, contributed to effectively reining in lengthy statements from Parties and focusing on points of consensus. As well as summarising the debate itself and analysing the issues surrounding it, this account offers an example of GHD working effectively in a situation of epistemic uncertainty.

  1. Not a slippery slope or sudden subversion: German medicine and national socialism in 1933.

    PubMed Central

    Hanauske-Abel, H. M.

    1996-01-01

    The history of medicine this century is darkened by the downfall of the German medical profession, exposed during the doctors' trial at Nuremberg in 1946. Relying largely on documents published during 1933 in German medical journals, this paper examines two widely accepted notions of those events, metaphorically termed "slippery slope" and "sudden subversion." The first connotes a gradual slide over infinitesimal steps until, suddenly, all footing is lost; the second conveys forced take over of the profession's leadership and values. Both concepts imply that the medical profession itself became the victim of circumstances. The slippery slope concept is a prominent figure of argument in the current debate on bioethics. The evidence presented here, however, strongly suggests that the German medical community set its own course in 1933. In some respects this course even outpaced the new government, which had to rein in the profession's eager pursuit of enforced eugenic sterilizations. In 1933 the convergence of political, scientific, and economic forces dramatically changed the relationship between the medical community and the government. That same convergence is occurring again and must be approached with great caution if medicine is to remain focused on the preservation of physical and medical integrity. Images p1456-a p1457-a p1457-b p1458-a p1459-a p1459-b Fig 1 PMID:8973235

  2. Organ preservation at low temperature: a physical and biological problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aussedat, J.; Boutron, P.; Coquilhat, P.; Descotes, J. L.; Faure, G.; Ferrari, M.; Kay, L.; Mazuer, J.; Monod, P.; Odin, J.; Ray, A.

    1993-02-01

    réalisée avec succès à l'échelle industrielle, ne peut se faire qu'en présence de substances plus ou moins toxiques dites cryoprotectrices, et à condition de respecter des vitesses de refroidissement et de réchauffement adaptées à chaque type de cellule. Nous montrons ensuite que l'extension de la cryopréservation au cas des organes entiers ne pourra se faire qu'au moyen de la vitrification, seule solution pour éviter toute formation de glace. Cette vitrification sera l'aboutissement de 2 axes de recherche, l'un sur l'élaboration de solutions cryoprotectrices les moins toxiques possibles, l'autre sur l'obtention de vitesses de refroidissement et de réchauffement suffisamment élevées et homogènes. Après avoir brièvement résumé l'état des recherches sur le coeur et le rein de petits mammifères, nous présentons les premiers résultats que nous avons obtenus sur la perfusion à 4 ^{circ}C et l'autotransplantation de reins de lapin, sur la toxicité sur le coeur de rat d'un nouveau cryoprotecteur le 2,3-butanediol, et sur le refroidissement de systèmes modèles expérimentaux d'organes.

  3. Regional Haze Evolved from Peat Fires - an Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuqi; Rein, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    -fire-induced haze has become a regional seasonal phenomenon. Exposure to smoky haze results in deleterious physiologic responses, predominantly to the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. In 1997, an estimation of 100 million people in 5 countries in Southeast Asia were affected by Indonesia haze episode while 20 million people suffered from respiratory problems in Indonesia alone. Fine PM fraction generated from peat fires could penetrate into lower respiratory tracks and exacerbate respiratory diseases including chronic bronchitis, emphysema and asthma. Epidemiological studies show that direct exposure to haze pollution is associated with decreased pulmonary function and increased morbidity and mortality among individuals with pre-existent cardiovascular diseases. Reported cases of acute respiratory infection increased 3.8 times during the 1997 Indonesia haze episode (1,446,120 cases in total with 527 haze-related deaths). Collectively, peat fire and the resultant haze considerably affect the local society in many aspects, and more thorough research need to be carried out for further haze mitigation and governance. Corresponding author: Dr. Guillermo Rein: g.rein@imperial.ac.uk

  4. Simulation of a pulsatile total artificial heart: Development of a partitioned Fluid Structure Interaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonntag, Simon J.; Kaufmann, Tim A. S.; Büsen, Martin R.; Laumen, Marco; Linde, Torsten; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Heart disease is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Due to a shortage in donor organs artificial hearts can be a bridge to transplantation or even serve as a destination therapy for patients with terminal heart insufficiency. A pusher plate driven pulsatile membrane pump, the Total Artificial Heart (TAH) ReinHeart, is currently under development at the Institute of Applied Medical Engineering of RWTH Aachen University.This paper presents the methodology of a fully coupled three-dimensional time-dependent Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) simulation of the TAH using a commercial partitioned block-Gauss-Seidel coupling package. Partitioned coupling of the incompressible fluid with the slender flexible membrane as well as a high fluid/structure density ratio of about unity led inherently to a deterioration of the stability (‘artificial added mass instability’). The objective was to conduct a stable simulation with high accuracy of the pumping process. In order to achieve stability, a combined resistance and pressure outlet boundary condition as well as the interface artificial compressibility method was applied. An analysis of the contact algorithm and turbulence condition is presented. Independence tests are performed for the structural and the fluid mesh, the time step size and the number of pulse cycles. Because of the large deformation of the fluid domain, a variable mesh stiffness depending on certain mesh properties was specified for the fluid elements. Adaptive remeshing was avoided. Different approaches for the mesh stiffness function are compared with respect to convergence, preservation of mesh topology and mesh quality. The resulting mesh aspect ratios, mesh expansion factors and mesh orthogonalities are evaluated in detail. The membrane motion and flow distribution of the coupled simulations are compared with a top-view recording and stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements, respectively, of the actual pump.

  5. Propeller Peregrinations: Ongoing Observations of Disk-Embedded Migration In Saturn's Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.

    2012-10-01

    The "propeller" moons within Saturn's rings are the first objects ever to have their orbits tracked while embedded in a disk, rather than moving through empty space (Tiscareno etal. 2010, ApJL; hereafter T10). The km-sized "giant propellers" whose orbits have been tracked in the outer-A ring, as well as their smaller 0.1-km-sized brethren swarming in the mid-A ring, are not seen directly; rather, their locations are inferred by means of the propeller-shaped disturbances they create in the surrounding ring material (Tiscareno etal. 2006, Nature; Sremcevic etal. 2007, Nature; Tiscareno etal. 2008, AJ). The orbits of giant propellers are primarily Keplerian, but with clear excursions of the semimajor axis on the order of +-0.15 degrees longitude for the largest and best-studied, and +-several degrees longitude for others (T10). Most theories that have been proposed to explain the non-Keplerian motion of propeller moons rely on gravitational and/or collisional interactions between the moon and the surrounding disk, and thus hold out the prospect for directly observing processes that are important in protoplanetary scenarios and other disk systems. One model suggests that the moons migrate due to azimuthal variations in the disk that they themselves create (Pan and Chiang 2010, ApJL; 2012, AJ). Although the classical form of "Type I migration," relying on the asymmetries in the dynamics themselves, is not powerful enough to explain the observed motions (Crida etal. 2010, AJ), modifications of that model relying on temporal (Rein and Papaloizou 2010, A&A, Pan etal. 2012, MNRAS) or radial (Tiscareno 2012, P&SS) variations in the disk have been suggested. The different models make different predictions, and future data will likely distinguish among them. In 2012, after a nearly two-year hiatus, Cassini left Saturn's ringplane and resumed tracking the propellers. We will report early results of the new observing campaign.

  6. Diabetes benefit management: evolving strategies for payers.

    PubMed

    Tzeel, Albert L

    2011-11-01

    Over the next quarter century, the burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is expected to at least double. Currently, 1 in every 10 healthcare dollars is spent on diabetes management; by 2050, it has been projected that the annual costs of managing T2DM will rise to $336 billion. Without substantial, systemic changes, T2DM management costs will lead to a potentially untenable strain on the healthcare system. However, the appropriate management of diabetes can reduce associated mortality and delay comorbidities. In addition, adequate glycemic control can improve patient outcomes and significantly reduce diabetes-related complications. This article provides an overview of key concepts associated with a value-based insurance design (VBID) approach to T2DM coverage. By promoting the use of services or treatments that provide high benefits relative to cost, and by alternatively discouraging patients from utilizing services whose benefits do not justify their cost, VBID improves the quality of healthcare while simultaneously reining in spending. VBID initiatives tend to focus on chronic disease management and generally target prescription drug use. However, some programs have expanded their scope by incorporating services traditionally offered by wellness and disease management programs. The concept of VBID is growing, and it is increasingly being implemented by a diverse and growing number of public and private entities, including pharmacy benefit managers, health plans, and employers. This article provides key background on VBID strategies, with a focus on T2DM management. It also provides a road map for health plans seeking to implement VBID as part of their programs.

  7. A Few Endpoint Geodesic Restriction Estimates for Eigenfunctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuehua; Sogge, Christopher D.

    2014-07-01

    We prove a couple of new endpoint geodesic restriction estimates for eigenfunctions. In the case of general 3-dimensional compact manifolds, after a TT* argument, simply by using the L 2-boundedness of the Hilbert transform on , we are able to improve the corresponding L 2-restriction bounds of Burq, Gérard and Tzvetkov (Duke Math J 138:445-486, 2007) and Hu (Forum Math 6:1021-1052, 2009). Also, in the case of 2-dimensional compact manifolds with nonpositive curvature, we obtain improved L 4-estimates for restrictions to geodesics, which, by Hölder's inequality and interpolation, implies improved L p -bounds for all exponents p ≥ 2. We do this by using oscillatory integral theorems of Hörmander (Ark Mat 11:1-11, 1973), Greenleaf and Seeger (J Reine Angew Math 455:35-56, 1994) and Phong and Stein (Int Math Res Notices 4:49-60, 1991), along with a simple geometric lemma (Lemma 3.2) about properties of the mixed-Hessian of the Riemannian distance function restricted to pairs of geodesics in Riemannian surfaces. We are also able to get further improvements beyond our new results in three dimensions under the assumption of constant nonpositive curvature by exploiting the fact that, in this case, there are many totally geodesic submanifolds.

  8. The Near-Ir Spectrum of CH_3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shaoyue; Lehmann, Kevin; Hargreaves, Robert J.; Bernath, Peter F.; Rey, Michael; Nikitin, Andrei V.; Tyuterev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    The near-IR spectrum, from 5000-8960 cm-1, of isotopically pure CH_3D was taken at temperatures of 294, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, and 900K with a high resolution Fourier Transform machine at Old Dominion University. The spectra where analyzed to give the wavenumbers, integrated line intensities, and lower state term values (using lines observed in at least 3 different spectra). For the 294 K spectrum 12080 lines with S between 3.6x10-22 and 1x10-27 cm (not corrected for CH_3D natural abundance) were determined for this spectral interval. A theoretical spectrum of CH_3D has also been calculated at the Univ. of Reins, with >400,000 transitions predicted between 5000-6300 cm-1 with S values between 2.1x10-22 and 1 x 10-27 cm at 294K. Comparison of the predictions with 175 J" = 0 and 1 transitions previously assigned by the ETH group^1 shows that for 130 of these the absolute difference between the observed and predicted line wavenumbers is less than 0.1 cm-1 and for all but one transition the absolute difference is less than 1 cm-1. In this project, we are combining the temperature dependence of the line intensities, combination differences, and comparisons of line positions and strengths with the theoretical spectrum to extend the assignments of CH_3D lines in this spectral region. Selected assignments will be confirmed by IR-IR double resonance measurements at the University of Virginia. Ultimately, we hope to give a global analysis of CH_3D spectrum using a global effective Hamiltonian model. 1. Ulenikov, O.N. et al., Molecular Physics 108, 1209-1240 (2010)

  9. Early changes in body weight and blood pressure are associated with mortality in incident dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Duranton, Flore; Duny, Yohan; Szwarc, Ilan; Deleuze, Sébastien; Rouanet, Catherine; Selcer, Isabelle; Maurice, François; Rivory, Jean-Pierre; Servel, Marie-Françoise; Jover, Bernard; Brunet, Philippe; Daurès, Jean-Pierre; Argilés, Àngel

    2016-01-01

    Background While much research is devoted to identifying novel biomarkers, addressing the prognostic value of routinely measured clinical parameters is of great interest. We studied early blood pressure (BP) and body weight (BW) trajectories in incident haemodialysis patients and their association with all-cause mortality. Methods In a cohort of 357 incident patients, we obtained all records of BP and BW during the first 90 days on dialysis (over 12 800 observations) and analysed trajectories using penalized B-splines and mixed linear regression models. Baseline comorbidities and all-cause mortality (median follow-up: 2.2 years) were obtained from the French Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) registry, and the association with mortality was assessed by Cox models adjusting for baseline comorbidities. Results During the initial 90 days on dialysis, there were non-linear decreases in BP and BW, with milder slopes after 15 days [systolic BP (SBP)] or 30 days [diastolic BP (DBP) and BW]. SBP or DBP levels at dialysis initiation and changes in BW occurring in the first month or during the following 2 months were significantly associated with survival. In multivariate models adjusting for baseline comorbidities and prescriptions, higher SBP value and BW slopes were independently associated with a lower risk of mortality. Hazard ratios of mortality and 95% confidence intervals were 0.92 (0.85–0.99) for a 10 mmHg higher SBP and 0.76 (0.66–0.88) for a 1 kg/month higher BW change on Days 30–90. Conclusions BW loss in the first weeks on dialysis is a strong and independent predictor of mortality. Low BP is also associated with mortality and is probably the consequence of underlying cardiovascular diseases. These early markers appear to be valuable prognostic factors. PMID:26985382

  10. Revisiting Training and Verification Process Implementation for Risk Reduction on New Missions at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Larry W.; Fragoso, Ruth S.

    2007-01-01

    In 2003 we proposed an effort to develop a core program of standardized training and verification practices and standards against which the implementation of these practices could be measured. The purpose was to provide another means of risk reduction for deep space missions to preclude the likelihood of a repeat of the tragedies of the 1998 Mars missions. We identified six areas where the application of standards and standardization would benefit the overall readiness process for flight projects at JPL. These are Individual Training, Team Training, Interface and Procedure Development, Personnel Certification, Interface and procedure Verification, and Operations Readiness Testing. In this paper we will discuss the progress that has been made in the tasks of developing the proposed infrastructure in each of these areas. Specifically we will address the Position Training and Certification Standards that are now available for each operational position found on our Flight Operations Teams (FOT). We will also discuss the MGSS Baseline Flight Operations Team Training Plan which can be tailored for each new flight project at JPL. As these tasks have been progressing, the climate and emphasis for Training and for V and V at JPL has changed, and we have learned about the expansion, growth, and limitations in the roles of traditional positions at JPL such as the Project's Training Engineer, V and V Engineer, and Operations Engineer. The need to keep a tight rein on budgets has led to a merging and/or reduction in these positions which pose challenges to individual capacities and capabilities. We examine the evolution of these processes and the roles involved while taking a look at the impact or potential impact of our proposed training related infrastructure tasks. As we conclude our examination of the changes taking place for new flight projects, we see that the importance of proceeding with our proposed tasks and adapting them to the changing climate remains an important

  11. Movable detector to search for neutrino oscillations in the BNL neutrino beam

    SciTech Connect

    Bozoki, G.; Fainberg, A.; Weygand, D.; Fagg, L.; Uberall, H.; Goldberg, M.; Meadows, B.; Saenz, A.W.; Seeman, N.

    1980-01-01

    A simple, straightforward, and economic experiment utilizing a set of water Cherenkov counters is proposed to search for neutrino oscillations in the AGS neutrino beam. The detector will be movable and will be able to provide reasonable counting rates up to 2 km downstream of the pion decay tunnel. Whereas previous accelerator experiments have sought to increase the ratio l/p (with l the neutrino path length and p its momentum) by decreasing p, increasing l is suggested instead. Further, by making measurements at several different values of l with the same apparatus, many sources of systematic error are eliminated. The experiment will measure beam-associated muon- and electron-type events at each position. A change in the ratio of muon- to electron-type events as a function of position would be evidence for ..nu../sub ..mu../ + ..nu../sub e/ oscillations. Sensitivity in terms of (..delta..m)/sup 2/ (the square of the mass difference in the mass eigenstates) can be as low as 0.1 eV/sup 2/, for full mixing, which is below the most probable value found by Reines et al for ..delta..m/sup 2/ in their electron neutrino reactor experiment. This experiment would be parasitic, running behind the usual neutrino beam experiments, assuming the nominal beam energy (peaked at 1 GeV), and would thus make a minimal demand on AGS support. It is suggested that the first two measurements be made inside the Isabelle tunnel at the points of intersection with the AGS neutrino beam. No further excavations would be required, and the data could be taken before ISA equipment is installed.

  12. Cortisol release, heart rate and heart rate variability, and superficial body temperature, in horses lunged either with hyperflexion of the neck or with an extended head and neck position.

    PubMed

    Becker-Birck, M; Schmidt, A; Wulf, M; Aurich, J; von der Wense, A; Möstl, E; Berz, R; Aurich, C

    2013-04-01

    Bringing the head and neck of ridden horses into a position of hyperflexion is widely used in equestrian sports. In our study, the hypothesis was tested that hyperflexion is an acute stressor for horses. Salivary cortisol concentrations, heart rate, heart rate variability (HRV) and superficial body temperature were determined in horses (n = 16) lunged on two subsequent days. The head and neck of the horse was fixed with side reins in a position allowing forward extension on day A and fixed in hyperflexion on day B. The order of treatments alternated between horses. In response to lunging, cortisol concentration increased (day A from 0.73 ± 0.06 to 1.41 ± 0.13 ng/ml, p < 0.001; day B from 0.68 ± 0.07 to 1.38 ± 0.13 ng/ml, p < 0.001) but did not differ between days A and B. Beat-to-beat (RR) interval decreased in response to lunging on both days. HRV variables standard deviation of RR interval (SDRR) and RMSSD (root mean square of successive RR differences) decreased (p < 0.001) but did not differ between days. In the cranial region of the neck, the difference between maximum and minimum temperature was increased in hyperflexion (p < 0.01). In conclusion, physiological parameters do not indicate an acute stress response to hyperflexion of the head alone in horses lunged at moderate speed and not touched with the whip. However, if hyperflexion is combined with active intervention of a rider, a stressful experience for the horse cannot be excluded.

  13. Pursuing cost containment in a pluralistic payer environment: from the aftermath of Clinton's failure at health care reform to the Balanced Budget Act of 1997.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Rick; Hurley, Robert E

    2006-07-01

    Following a decade in which Medicare operated as the leading 'change agent' within the US health care system, the private sector rose to the fore in the mid 1990s. The failure of President Clinton's attempt at comprehensive, public sector-led reform left managed care as the solution for cost control. And for a period it worked, largely because managed care organizations were able to both squeeze payments to selective networks of medical providers and significantly reduce inpatient hospital stays. There was a lot of 'fat' in the nation's convoluted health care system that could be (and was) eliminated through competitive negotiations between medical providers and insurers, employers, or managed care organizations. One of our primary arguments in this article is that managed care operated partly as a systematic suppression of price discrimination or differential pricing (often referred to as 'cost shifting'), as managed care organizations qua purchasing agents prevented hospitals and physicians from summarily raising prices to private payers to meet their financial requirements. Over time, however, managed care fell victim to inflated expectations, its own initial success, and larger fiscal forces. During this same period, Republicans and Democrats struggled to reach a consensus over the future direction of Medicare. Their disagreements contributed to the impasse over budget policy in 1995 and the infamous partial federal government shutdown. After President Clinton's reelection in 1996, partisan disagreements over Medicare dissipated. And, in 1997, Congress and the president passed the Balanced Budget Act of 1997, which emerged as a massive piece of patchwork legislation that sought to balance the federal budget, rein in Medicare spending, and increase the number of the programme's beneficiaries in private health plans.

  14. An annealed chaotic maximum neural network for bipartite subgraph problem.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiahai; Tang, Zheng; Wang, Ronglong

    2004-04-01

    In this paper, based on maximum neural network, we propose a new parallel algorithm that can help the maximum neural network escape from local minima by including a transient chaotic neurodynamics for bipartite subgraph problem. The goal of the bipartite subgraph problem, which is an NP- complete problem, is to remove the minimum number of edges in a given graph such that the remaining graph is a bipartite graph. Lee et al. presented a parallel algorithm using the maximum neural model (winner-take-all neuron model) for this NP- complete problem. The maximum neural model always guarantees a valid solution and greatly reduces the search space without a burden on the parameter-tuning. However, the model has a tendency to converge to a local minimum easily because it is based on the steepest descent method. By adding a negative self-feedback to the maximum neural network, we proposed a new parallel algorithm that introduces richer and more flexible chaotic dynamics and can prevent the network from getting stuck at local minima. After the chaotic dynamics vanishes, the proposed algorithm is then fundamentally reined by the gradient descent dynamics and usually converges to a stable equilibrium point. The proposed algorithm has the advantages of both the maximum neural network and the chaotic neurodynamics. A large number of instances have been simulated to verify the proposed algorithm. The simulation results show that our algorithm finds the optimum or near-optimum solution for the bipartite subgraph problem superior to that of the best existing parallel algorithms.

  15. Quantitative determination of guggulsterone in existing natural populations of Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari for identification of germplasm having higher guggulsterone content.

    PubMed

    Kulhari, Alpana; Sheorayan, Arun; Chaudhury, Ashok; Sarkar, Susheel; Kalia, Rajwant K

    2015-01-01

    Guggulsterone is an aromatic steroidal ketonic compound obtained from vertical rein ducts and canals of bark of Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari (Family - Burseraceae). Owing to its multifarious medicinal and therapeutic values as well as its various other significant bioactivities, guggulsterone has high demand in pharmaceutical, perfumery and incense industries. More and more pharmaceutical and perfumery industries are showing interest in guggulsterone, therefore, there is a need for its quantitative determination in existing natural populations of C. wightii. Identification of elite germplasm having higher guggulsterone content can be multiplied through conventional or biotechnological means. In the present study an effort was made to estimate two isoforms of guggulsterone i.e. E and Z guggulsterone in raw exudates of 75 accessions of C. wightii collected from three states of North-western India viz. Rajasthan (19 districts), Haryana (4 districts) and Gujarat (3 districts). Extracted steroid rich fraction from stem samples was fractionated using reverse-phase preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) coupled with UV/VIS detector operating at wavelength of 250 nm. HPLC analysis of stem samples of wild as well as cultivated plants showed that the concentration of E and Z isomers as well as total guggulsterone was highest in Rajasthan, as compared to Haryana and Gujarat states. Highest concentration of E guggulsterone (487.45 μg/g) and Z guggulsterone (487.68 μg/g) was found in samples collected from Devikot (Jaisalmer) and Palana (Bikaner) respectively, the two hyper-arid regions of Rajasthan, India. Quantitative assay was presented on the basis of calibration curve obtained from a mixture of standard E and Z guggulsterones with different validatory parameters including linearity, selectivity and specificity, accuracy, auto-injector, flow-rate, recoveries, limit of detection and limit of quantification (as per norms of International

  16. Interactions between adipose tissue and the immune system in health and malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Wensveen, Felix M; Valentić, Sonja; Šestan, Marko; Wensveen, Tamara Turk; Polić, Bojan

    2015-09-01

    Adipose tissue provides the body with a storage depot of nutrients that is drained during times of starvation and replenished when food sources are abundant. As such, it is the primary sensor for nutrient availability in the milieu of an organism, which it communicates to the body through the excretion of hormones. Adipose tissue regulates a multitude of body functions associated with metabolism, such as gluconeogenesis, feeding and nutrient uptake. The immune system forms a vital layer of protection against micro-organisms that try to gain access to the nutrients contained in the body. Because infections need to be resolved as quickly as possible, speed is favored over energy-efficiency in an immune response. Especially when immune cells are activated, they switch to fast, but energy-inefficient anaerobic respiration to fulfill their energetic needs. Despite the necessity for an effective immune system, it is not given free rein in its energy expenditure. Signals derived from adipose tissue limit immune cell numbers and activity under conditions of nutrient shortage, whereas they allow proper immune cell activity when food sources are sufficiently available. When excessive fat accumulation occurs, such as in diet-induced obesity, adipose tissue becomes the site of pathological immune cell activation, causing chronic low-grade systemic inflammation. Obesity is therefore associated with a number of disorders in which the immune system plays a central role, such as atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In this review, we will discuss the way in which adipose tissue regulates activity of the immune system under healthy and pathological conditions.

  17. Leadership run amok. The destructive potential of overachievers.

    PubMed

    Spreier, Scott W; Fontaine, Mary H; Malloy, Ruth L

    2006-06-01

    The desire to achieve is a major source of strength in business, and it is on the rise. The authors' consulting firm has seen a steady increase in the extent to which achievement motivates managers. There's a dark side to the trend, however. By relentlessly focusing on tasks and goals, an executive or company can damage performance. Overachievers tend to command and coerce, stifling subordinates. Psychologist David McClelland identified three drivers of behavior: achievement, meeting a standard of excellence; affiliation, maintaining close relationships; and power, having an impact on others. He said the power motive comes in two forms: personalized, in which the leader draws strength from controlling people, and socialized, where the leader derives strength from empowering people. Studies show that great charismatic leaders are highly motivated by socialized power. To look at how motives and leadership style affect a group's work climate and performance, the authors studied 21 senior managers at IBM. The leaders who created high-performing and energizing climates got more lasting results by using a broad range of styles, choosing different ones for different circumstances. Rather than order people around, they provided vision, sought buy-in and commitment, and coached. If you're an overachiever seeking to broaden your range, you can study your actions and ask your team, peers, and manager to give you honest feedback. You can adopt specific new behaviors, such as engaging your team in a discussion of how to achieve goals, rather than issuing a set of directives. The company as a whole can play a part, too: Organizations must learn when to draw on the achievement drive and when to rein it in.

  18. Type III Radio Burst Duration and SEP Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Xie, H.

    2010-01-01

    Long-duration (>15 min), low-frequency (<14 MHz) type III radio bursts have been reported to be indicative of solar energetic particle events. We measured the durations of type III bursts associated with large SEP events of solar cycle 23. The Type III durations are distributed symmetrically at 1 MHz yielding a mean value of approximately 33 min (median = 32 min) for the large SEP events. When the SEP events with ground level enhancement (GLE,) are considered, the distribution is essentially unchanged (mean = 32 min, median = 30 min). To test the importance of type III bursts in indicating SEP events, we considered a set of six type III bursts from the same active region (AR 10588) whose durations fit the "long duration" criterion. We analyzed the coronal mass ejections (CMEs), flares, and type II radio bursts associated with the type III bursts. The CMEs were of similar speeds and the flares are also of similar size and duration. All but one of the type III bursts was not associated with a type II burst in the metric or longer wavelength domains. The burst without type II burst also lacked a solar energetic particle (SEP) event at energies >25 MeV. The 1-MHz duration of the type III burst (28 rein) is near the median value of type III durations found for gradual SEP events and ground level enhancement (GLE) events. Yet, there was no sign of SEP events. On the other hand, two other type III bursts from the same active region had similar duration but accompanied by WAVES type 11 bursts; these bursts were also accompanied by SEP events detected by SOHO/ERNE. This study suggests that the type III burst duration may not be a good indicator of an SEP event, consistent with the statistical study of Cliver and Ling (2009, ApJ ).

  19. A strong-lensing elliptical galaxy in the MaNGA survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Russell J.

    2017-01-01

    I report discovery of a new galaxy-scale gravitational lens system, identified using public data from the Mapping Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey, as part of a systematic search for lensed background line emitters. The lens is SDSS J170124.01+372258.0, a giant elliptical galaxy with velocity dispersion σ = 256 km s-1, at a redshift of zl = 0.122. After modelling and subtracting the target galaxy light, the integral-field data cube reveals [O II], [O III] and Hβ emission lines corresponding to a source at zs = 0.791, forming an identifiable ring around the galaxy centre. If the ring is formed by a single lensed source, then the Einstein radius is REin ≈ 2.3 arcsec, projecting to ˜5 kpc at the distance of the lens. The total projected lensing mass is MEin = (3.6 ± 0.6) × 1011 M⊙, and the total J-band mass-to-light ratio is 3.0 ± 0.7 solar units. Plausible estimates of the likely dark matter content could reconcile this with a Milky Way-like initial mass function (IMF), for which M/L ≈ 1.5 is expected, but heavier IMFs are by no means excluded with the present data. An alternative interpretation of the system, with a more complex source plane, is also discussed. The discovery of this system bodes well for future lens searches based on MaNGA and other integral-field spectroscopic surveys.

  20. PBL triggers in relation to students’ generated learning issues and predetermined faculty objectives: Study in a Malaysian public university

    PubMed Central

    Ruslai, Nurul Hidayati; Salam, Abdus

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Foundational elements of problem based learning (PBL) are triggers, tutors and students. Ineffective triggers are important issues for students’ inability to generate appropriate learning issues. The objective of this study was to evaluate PBL triggers and to determine similarities of students’ generated learning issues with predetermined faculty objectives. Methods: It was a retrospective study conducted in 2014 analyzing all 24 PBL-triggers used at Centre for Foundation Studies, International Islamic University Malaysia, in four semesters during two consecutive years 2011 and 2012. Triggers were used as textual and illustration format equally in each semester. Total 16 PBL-triggers with highest and lowest achieving similarities of learning issues with predetermined faculty objectives were selected equally from each semester and format. The trigger quality and learning issues related to predetermine faculty objectives were analyzed and presented as mean and percent distribution. Results: Mean similarities score of students’ generated learning issues were 3.4 over 5 predetermined faculty objectives which was 68%, varied from 58% to 79%. More than 70% similarities were generated from five textual and four illustrated triggers, while <70% similarities observed from four illustrated and three textual triggers. Conclusion: Whatever the trigger formats in PBL, it is the designing considering influential variables that influence higher outcomes. Triggers should have planned clues that lead students to generate issues correlate with faculty objectives. Educational institution should emphasize on training needs of faculty at regular interval to develop and re-in force teachers’ skills in trigger design, thereby to promote a sustainable educational and organizational development. PMID:27182232

  1. ACE Inhibition Is Renoprotective among Obese Patients with Proteinuria

    PubMed Central

    Mallamaci, Francesca; Ruggenenti, Piero; Perna, Annalisa; Leonardis, Daniela; Tripepi, Rocco; Tripepi, Giovanni; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Obesity may increase the risk for progression of CKD, but the effect of established renoprotective treatments in overweight and obese patients with CKD is unknown. In this post hoc analysis of the Ramipril Efficacy In Nephropathy (REIN) trial, we evaluated whether being overweight or obese influences the incidence rate of renal events and affects the response to ramipril. Of the 337 trial participants with known body mass index (BMI), 105 (31.1%) were overweight and 49 (14.5%) were obese. Among placebo-treated patients, the incidence rate of ESRD was substantially higher in obese patients than overweight patients (24 versus 11 events/100 person-years) or than those with normal BMI (10 events/100 person-years); we observed a similar pattern for the combined endpoint of ESRD or doubling of serum creatinine. Ramipril reduced the rate of renal events in all BMI strata, but the effect was higher among the obese (incidence rate reduction of 86% for ESRD and 79% for the combined endpoint) than the overweight (incidence rate reduction of 45 and 48%, respectively) or those with normal BMI (incidence rate reduction of 42 and 45%, respectively). We confirmed this interaction between BMI and the efficacy of ramipril in analyses that adjusted for potential confounders, and we observed a similar effect modification for 24-hour protein excretion. In summary, obesity predicts a higher incidence of renal events, but treatment with ramipril can essentially abolish this risk excess. Furthermore, the reduction in risk conferred by ramipril is larger among obese than nonobese patients. PMID:21527660

  2. X-ray and Ultraviolet Properties of AGNs in Nearby Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldassare, Vivienne F.; Reines, Amy E.; Gallo, Elena; Greene, Jenny E.

    2017-02-01

    We present new Chandra X-ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope observations of eight optically selected broad-line active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates in nearby dwarf galaxies (z < 0.055). Including archival Chandra observations of three additional sources, our sample contains all 10 galaxies from Reines et al. (2013) with both broad Hα emission and narrow-line AGN ratios (six AGNs, four composites), as well as one low-metallicity dwarf galaxy with broad Hα and narrow-line ratios characteristic of star formation. All 11 galaxies are detected in X-rays. Nuclear X-ray luminosities range from L 0.5–7keV ≈ 5 × 1039 to 1 × 1042 ergs‑1. In all cases except for the star-forming galaxy, the nuclear X-ray luminosities are significantly higher than would be expected from X-ray binaries, providing strong confirmation that AGNs and composite dwarf galaxies do indeed host actively accreting black holes (BHs). Using our estimated BH masses (which range from ∼7 × 104 to 1 × 106 M ⊙), we find inferred Eddington fractions ranging from ∼0.1% to 50%, i.e., comparable to massive broad-line quasars at higher redshift. We use the HST imaging to determine the ratio of UV to X-ray emission for these AGNs, finding that they appear to be less X-ray luminous with respect to their UV emission than more massive quasars (i.e., α OX values an average of 0.36 lower than expected based on the relation between α OX and 2500 Å luminosity). Finally, we discuss our results in the context of different accretion models onto nuclear BHs.

  3. Should this team be saved?

    PubMed

    Heimbouch, H

    2001-01-01

    As far as anyone could tell, Vigor Skin Care's star was rising, mostly on the strength of Ageless Vigor, its new line of enriched skin cleansers and cosmetics. In fact, this evening, the three employees responsible for developing the product line were slated to receive the parent company's highest award for performance. But CEO Peter Markles knew that despite the accolades, the business unit--and its "fearsome threesome"--had hit a rough patch in recent months. When Peter took the reins four years ago, Vigor Skin Care was the sleeping dog of the health-and-beauty industry; his challenge was to rejuvenate the maturing business. He knew a turnaround would require equal parts discipline, politics, and creativity--so he pulled together a team that could address those needs. Peter relied on Sandy Fryda, Vigor's longtime marketing director, to help him navigate the tricky political waters at headquarters. And he tapped 30-year-old Josh Bartola, a maverick contributor to Vigor Skin Care's research group, for his independent spirit and new product ideas. Their all-consuming, intensely collaborative efforts resulted in the successful Ageless Vigor line. Then reality set in. The team found the day-to-day operations of manufacturing Ageless Vigor, for all their necessity and urgency, a bit tedious. Peter felt relegated to troubleshooting distribution problems. Josh was having meetings with executives from another division who were actively recruiting the wunderkind. And Sandy was simply on the verge of burnout. Tonight, at the award ceremony, there would be speeches and applause and toasts. But tomorrow, Peter would have to face the question: Should he try to salvage the Ageless Vigor team? Four commentators offer their advice in this fictional case study.

  4. Confirming the First Supermassive Black Hole in a Dwarf Starburst Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reines, Amy

    2011-10-01

    In the modern universe, supermassive black holes lie at the heart of most, if not all, galaxies with bulges. However, the birth and growth of the first "seed" black holes, back in the earlier universe, is observationally unconstrained. Reines et al. {2011} have recently discovered a candidate million-solar mass black hole in the bulgeless dwarf starburst galaxy Henize 2-10, offering the first opportunity to study a growing black hole in a nearby galaxy much like those in the infant universe. The case for an accreting black hole in Henize 2-10 is strong {e.g. co-spatial non-thermal radio and hard X-ray point sources}, but not watertight. Our proposal aims to confirm {or refute} the presence of this candidate black hole using STIS optical spectroscopy to trace the kinematics and ionization conditions in its immediate vicinity. Existing HST observations show a marginally resolved H-alpha knot coincident with the radio and X-ray point source, so our primary aim is to detect a compact rotating disk of ionized gas, directly yielding a black hole mass. Our secondary aim is to find evidence for AGN-related emission line signatures at the location of the H-alpha knot, and possibly along a narrow jet-like filament. Confirming the presence of a supermassive black hole in Henize 2-10 with these HST observations has immediate implications for our understanding of the birth and early evolution of the first black holes in the high-redshift universe.

  5. The Right Superior Frontal Gyrus and Individual Variation in Proactive Control of Impulsive Response.

    PubMed

    Hu, Sien; Ide, Jaime S; Zhang, Sheng; Li, Chiang-Shan R

    2016-12-14

    A hallmark of cognitive control is the ability to rein in impulsive responses. Previously, we used a Bayesian model to describe trial-by-trial likelihood of the stop signal or p(Stop) and related regional activations to p(Stop) to response slowing in a stop signal task. Here, we characterized the regional processes of conflict anticipation in association with intersubject variation in impulse control in 114 young adults. We computed the stop signal reaction time (SSRT) and a measure of motor urgency, indexed by the reaction time (RT) difference between go and stop error trials or "GoRT - SERT," where GoRT is the go trial RT and SERT is the stop error RT. Motor urgency and SSRT were positively correlated across subjects. A linear regression identified regional activations to p(Stop), each in correlation with SSRT and motor urgency. We hypothesized that shared neural activities mediate the correlation between motor urgency and SSRT in proactive control of impulsivity. Activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG) during conflict anticipation correlated negatively with the SSRT. Activation of the right SFG also correlated negatively with GoRT - SERT. Therefore, activation of the right SFG was associated with more efficient response inhibition and less motor urgency. A mediation analysis showed that right SFG activation to conflict anticipation mediates the correlation between SSRT and motor urgency bidirectionally. The current results highlight a specific role of the right SFG in translating conflict anticipation to the control of impulsive response, which is consistent with earlier studies suggesting its function in action restraint.

  6. Comparing and Reconciling Traditional Field and Photogeologic Mapping Techniques: Lessons from the San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Eppler, D. B.; Bleacher, J. E.; Evans, C. A.; Feng, W.; Gruener, J.; Hurwitz, D. M.; Janoiko, B.; Whitson, P.

    2014-01-01

    Cartographic products and - specifically - geologic maps provide critical assistance for establishing physical and temporal frameworks of planetary surfaces. The technical methods that result in the creation of geologic maps vary depending on how observations are made as well as the overall intent of the final products [1-3]. These methods tend to follow a common linear work flow, including the identification and delineation of spatially and temporally discrete materials (units), the documentation of their primary (emplacement) and secondary (erosional) characteristics, analysis of the relative and absolute age relationships between these materials, and the collation of observations and interpretations into an objective map product. The "objectivity" of a map is critical cross comparison with overlapping maps and topical studies as well as its relevance to scientific posterity. However, the "accuracy" and "correctness" of a geologic map is very subject to debate. This can be evidenced by comparison of existing geologic maps at various scales, particularly those compiled through field- and remote-based mapped efforts. Our study focuses on comparing the fidelity of (1) "Apollo-style" geologic investigations, where typically non-geologist crew members follow static traverse routes established through pre-mission planning, and (2) "traditional" field-based investigations, where geologists are given free rein to observe without preplanned routes. This abstract summarizes the regional geology wherein our study was conducted, presents the geologic map created from traditional field mapping techniques, and offers basic insights into how geologic maps created from different tactics can be reconciled in support of exploratory missions. Additional abstracts [4-6] from this study discuss various exploration and science results of these efforts.

  7. [The cultural history of disease].

    PubMed

    Viniegra-Velázquez, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    In this essay the concept of Cultural History of Disease (CHD) is proposed as an alternative to Natural History of Disease (NHD). A brief historic recapitulation of the concept of disease is made, and the present idea is given a detailed account which is the basis of the nosological theory of the health/disease paradigm. The main aspects of the NHD are specified, its limitations and restrictive consequences in health care are highlighted. It is proposed the idea of disease as particular and differential ways of being from human beings. It is showed how culture (everything that make us human) "takes the reins of evolution" in our species and determines, in every period, our ways of being, of living, and getting sick. Some distinctive qualities of life are showed to take a distance from the idea of machine and the dominant mechanism of health care in our time. The concept of CHD is developed as a proposal that "lightens" aspects ignored by NHD. An account is made of how, by cultural effect, a number of diseases no longer exist; others have appeared or increased their presence, have changed their features or varied their distribution. The every time more and more unsupported congenital/acquired dichotomy is discussed. It is showed how the epigenetic inheritance is a strong evidence against the separation between genetic and environmental. The mechanist causality, in its different characteristics, proper of the health/disease paradigm and of NHD, is contrasted to contextual causality proper of CHD. The implications of CHD in the way of approaching to diseases, in restating the patients', physicians' and health care institutions' role are discussed. As well as in recognizing that health care has no sense without life care in its different manifestations, from which derives the need to fight for more proper conditions and circumstances for a dignified, satisfactory, serene, fraternal life in including societies.

  8. Obituary: Maurice M. Shapiro, 1915-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yodh, Gaurang B.

    2009-01-01

    emulsions--to study cosmic-ray induced stars. Maury wrote definitive reviews on the emulsion technique (use of high-density visual detectors) in 1941 in Reviews of Modern Physics and then an article entitled "Nuclear Emulsions" in the Handbuch der Physik of 1958. He did many experimental investigations related to cosmic rays and particle properties after the war when he joined NRL. Using emulsion-chamber techniques and high-altitude exposures, Maury measured and verified saturation of relativistic rise in ionization, a measurement of helium and proton flux at high rigidity, and accurate measurements of secondary-to-primary ratio (Li, Be, B/CNO); with his colleagues he did one of the best measurements of neutral pion life time. He also did important measurements of properties of heavy baryons. My association with Maury started when I joined University of Maryland's High Energy group in 1961, a time when Maury had a very active group working in particle physics and cosmic rays using nuclear emulsions and was starting a bubble-chamber group. (Some of the members were Bernard Hildebrand, Bert Stiller, Rein Silberberg, C. H. Tsao, and Robert Glasser.) There was active interaction between George Snow (University of Maryland) and the NRL group, both studying properties of high-energy particles with nuclear emulsions and bubble chambers. I was a consultant with the NRL group for some ten years. In 1960s, Maury investigated the ramifications and limitations of supernova theories for the origin of cosmic rays and discussed the production of high-energy neutrinos and gamma rays from these sources. He was one of the active members of the DUMAND project to study high-energy neutrinos. With Rein Silberberg he explored the capabilities of such a project. Maury's group made seminal contributions on quantitatively exploring isotope ratios (using isotopes to determine the time lag between explosion and acceleration in supernova sources--to suggest the importance of FIP in injection), the

  9. Making the GeoConnection: Web 2.0-based support for early-career geoscientists (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, C. M.; Gonzales, L. M.; Keane, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    The US Bureau of Labor estimates that there will be an 18% increase in geoscience jobs between 2008 and 2018 in the United States, and demand for geoscientists is expected to rise worldwide as scientists tackle global challenges related to resources, hazards and climate. At the same time, the geoscience workforce is aging, with approximately half of the current workforce reaching retirement age within the next 10-15 years. A new generation of geoscientists must be ready to take the reins. To support this new generation, AGI’s geoscience workforce outreach programs were designed to help retain geoscience students through their degree programs and into careers in the field. These resources include support for early-career professional development and career planning. AGI’s GeoConnection Network for the Geosciences provides a venue for informal dissemination of career information and professional resources. The network links Web 2.0 platforms, including a Facebook page, YouTube Channel and Twitter feed, to build a robust geoscience community of geoscientists at all stages of their careers. Early-career geoscientists can participate in GeoConnection to network with other scientists, and to receive information about professional development and job opportunities. Through GeoConnection packets, students can join professional societies which will assist their transition from school to the workplace. AGI’s member societies provide professional development course work, field trips, career services, interviewing opportunities, and community meetings. As part of the GeoConnection Network, AGI hosts informational webinars to highlight new workforce data, discuss current affairs in the geosciences, and to provide information about geoscience careers. Between December 2009 and August 2010, AGI hosted 10 webinars, with more than 300 total participants for all the webinars, and 5 additional webinars are planned for the remainder of the year. The webinars offer early

  10. Phase diagrams of the Tb-Ag-In and Dy-Ag-In systems at 870 K

    SciTech Connect

    Demchyna, M.; Belan, B.; Manyako, M.; Pietraszko, A.; Kalychak, Ya.

    2012-08-15

    The phase equilibria of Tb-Ag-In and Dy-Ag-In ternary systems have been studied at 870 K in the whole concentration range by means of X-ray powder, single crystal X-ray diffraction and EDX analyses. Isothermal sections of Tb-Ag-In and Dy-Ag-In phase diagrams at this temperature have been constructed. Both systems are characterized by formation of three ternary compounds: REAg{sub 3}In{sub 3} (YbAg{sub 2}In{sub 4}-type, space group Im-3), REAg{sub 2}In (MnCu{sub 2}Al-type, space group Fm-3m) and RE{sub 2}AgIn{sub 3} (CaIn{sub 2}-type, space group P6{sub 3}/mmc) RE=Tb, Dy. Homogeneity ranges of the ternary phases with CaIn{sub 2} structure type lies from 35 to 60 at% of In for Tb-containing phase and from 39 to 50 at% of In for Dy-containing phase. The existence of solid solutions based on REAg (CsCl-type, space group Pm-3m) binary compounds up to 30 at% of In and REIn{sub 3} (AuCu{sub 3}-type, space group Pm-3 m) binary compounds up to 5 at% of Ag has been found. - Graphical Abstract: Phase relations in the ternary systems Tb-Ag-In and Dy-Ag-In have been established for the isothermal section at T=870 K based on X-ray powder and single crystal diffraction analyses. The existence of three ternary compounds in each system were observed. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isothermal section of Tb-Ag-In system at T=870 K was constructed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isothermal section of Dy-Ag-In system at T=870 K was constructed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three ternary compounds and two solid solutions in each system were detected.

  11. [Medicine in ancient Mesopotamia--part 1].

    PubMed

    Martins E Silva, J

    2009-01-01

    The present work summarizes the more elucidating aspects on the foundations and the practice of the medicine in Antique Mesopotamia, since the invention of the writing, more than 5000 thousand years ago, and the beginning of our era. The first part of the article includes a brief perspective about the political and social evolution that characterized those archaic civilizations, as well as the inventions and knowledge further used by the following Humanity's generations. Most of what is known on the subject, as well as the history and political-social events that occurred in the region during that remote epoch, resulted of the laborious decoding of about half a million small clay plates or fragments with text engravings in cuneiform characters that were discovered since the middle of the XIX century in the ruins of the main cities of the Babylonian and Assyrian empires. The second part embraces exclusively the main characteristics of the medicine in Ancient Mesopotamia, in its main facets: concept of disease, healers and practice. The disease was considered a divine punishment or resultant from a malign influence. In that base, the medicine began by being preventive, by the use of appropriate amulets, or by offerings or sacrifices intending to pacify those malign forces. The treatment of the generality of the diseases privileged the expulsion of those spirits and malign influences from the patient body, purifying it, which was done by the specific intervention of an ãshipu (clergyman-exorcist); not having results, the treatment was continued by the asû (practical healer) that appealed to a group of physical manipulations, limited surgical acts and the administration or application of prescriptions, resultants of the mixture of organic and inorganic substances. In case of failing, the patients (as well as individuals or rein leaders) could fall back upon a priest diviner (bârû) who, by examination of the organs of an animal especially sacrificed for the effect

  12. The Laboratoire Souterrain Bas Bruit (lsbb) In Rustrel-pays D'apt (france): A Unique Opportunity For Low-noise Underground Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waysand, G.; Gaffet, S.; Virieux, J.; Chwala, A.; Auguste, M.; Boyer, D.; Cavaillou, A.; Guglielmi, Y.; Rodrigues, D.

    The former underground lauching control room 1 of the ground based component of the french nuclear missile system has been decommissioned. This installation has been designed and built to remain operational even in case of a near-by nuclear blast. As a result it is robust to radioactive clouds, thermal and mechanical waves as well as electromagnetic pulses. The whole installation has been turned progressively into a cross disciplinary underground laboratory LSBB. LSBB is, so far, a unique low noise underground set-up because of its initial conception and its location in the regional parc of Luberon far from large cities, industries and heavy car traffic. The galleries of LSBB, horizontally accessible from the surface, are buried in the south of the Albion Plateau, northward Aix-en-Provence. Their ensemble is almost flat with a 2% slope and a total length larger than 3.5km under the karstic calcareous "Grande Montagne". The deepest point is 500m below the surface. At this depth, a huge and non conven- tional shielded cylindrical capsule with an horizontal axis was installed. It measures 28m long with 9m in diameter surrounded by 1cm of stainless steel plus 2m of rein- forced concrete. This is indeed a very large Faraday cage but with µmetal, 1250m3 no in volume with a residual electromagntic noise lower than 2fT/ Hz above 10Hz, the present limit of the residual noise of the SQUID magnetometer we have used. As a result, earth magnetic field fluctuations can be recorded even at a very low noise level with SQUIDS (superconducting quantum interferometric devices) at liquid he- lium temperature. Taking advantage of the "V" geometry of the main gallery, a broad- band underground seismic array has been designed with 5 STS2 sensors and is de- ployed since the beginning of 2001. Simultaneously, magnetic measurements are done with a low Tc SQUID magnetometer jointly to the seismic recordings. The spectral noise calibration of the LSBB will be presented and discussed as well

  13. Comparing Apollo and Mars Exploration Rover (MER)/phoenix operations paradigms for human exploration during NASA Desert-RATS science operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yingst, R. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Ming, D. W.; Eppler, D. B.

    2013-10-01

    The Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) field tested two models of human-in-the-loop remote field geology: one based on the Apollo science backroom that integrated tactical and strategic decisions, and one that separated tactical and strategic processes as utilized during the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) and Mars Phoenix Scout missions. The 2010 D-RATS field test was the first attempt at integrating best practices from these two models, to determine how best to maximize science return from future missions. The Apollo model was utilized in 2008 and 2009 as a way to integrate science into field analog studies; the model allowed for real time communications between the crew on the surface and the scientists in the backroom. This model greatly improved efficiency of field operations and scientific return, but did not allow sufficient time for hypotheses to mature to the point where they could inform operations. The MER/Phoenix model, adapted for the 2010 D-RATS test, divided the responsibilities and processes of tactical science and strategic science. This division provided opportunities to discuss science results in greater detail so that the overall planning of science observations could be iterative rather than static. However, because of the nearly complete separation of the two science teams, there was a great deal of repeated effort as the strategic team had no prior knowledge of the tactical process and the observations that led to certain tactical decisions. Lessons learned from 2010 D-RATS science operations include: (1) well-trained geologists on the crew and a science backroom with which that crew can interact are both critical components for maximizing science return; (2) sufficient time or another mechanism that increases time available to be spent on science analysis must be built into the system to allow free rein to the scientific process; (3) data flow must be improved so that time is not wasted in repetitive review of acquired datasets

  14. Ponction biopsies rénales dans le Service de Néphrologie de Fès: indications et résultats: à propos de 522 cas

    PubMed Central

    Mbarki, Houda; Belghiti, Khadija Alaoui; Harmouch, Taoufiq; Najdi, Adil; Arrayhani, Mohamed; Sqalli, Tarik

    2016-01-01

    L'apport de la ponction biopsie rénale (PBR) dans le diagnostic, le choix thérapeutique et l’évaluation pronostique des néphropathies est considérable. Aucune étude marocaine n'a évalué la pratique et l'apport de la PBR. Notre objectif est d’étudier les indications de la PBR, déterminer la fréquence des maladies rénales identifiées par PBR dans notre région et de faire une confrontation entre les données clinico-biologiques et le diagnostic historique. Notre étude menée entre Janvier 2009 et Décembre 2012, est rétrospective. Nous avons inclus tous les patients du service de Néphrologie du CHU Hassan II de Fès ayant bénéficié d'une biopsie de reins natifs. 522 PBR ont été réalisées. Nous avons exclu 8 biopsies devant le manque de renseignements et avons donc retenu 514. L’âge moyen des patients au moment de la PBR est de 39 ±17 ans (3-82 ans). Le sex ratio est de 0,9. Le syndrome néphrotique est le diagnostic clinique le plus fréquent à tous les âges (58,2%). Les néphropathies glomérulaires représentent 94,2% des maladies rénales diagnostiquées, leur distribution varie selon l’âge des patients. La PBR a confirmé le premier diagnostic suspecté cliniquement dans 40,65% des cas, alors qu'elle a révélé un diagnostic inattendu chez 22,5% d'entre eux. Le diagnostic syndromique permet d'orienter vers la maladie rénale la plus probable et de guider les thérapeutiques urgentes en attendant les résultats de la PBR. Mais il ne peut en aucun remplacer la PBR qui reste le gold standard. PMID:27583085

  15. Viking Phase III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    VIKING PHASE III - With the incredible success of the Viking missions on Mars, mission operations have progressed though a series of phases - each being funded as mission success dictated its potential. The Viking Primary Mission phase was concluded in November, 1976, when the reins were passed on to the second phase - the Viking Extended Mission. The Extended Mission successfully carried spacecraft operations through the desired period of time needed to provided a profile of a full Martian year, but would have fallen a little short of connecting and overlapping a full Martian year of Viking operations which scientists desired as a means of determining the degree of duplicity in the red planet's seasons - at least for the summer period. Without this continuation of spacecraft data acquisitions to and beyond the seasonal points when the spacecraft actually began their Mars observations, there would be no way of knowing whether the changing environmental values - such as temperatures and winds atmospheric dynamics and water vapor, surface thermal dynamics, etc. - would match up with those acquired as the spacecraft began investigations during the summer and fall of 1976. This same broad interest can be specifically pursued at the surface - where hundreds of rocks, soil drifts and other features have become extremely familiar during long-term analysis. This picture was acquired on the 690th Martian day of Lander 1 operations - 4009th picture sequence commanded of the two Viking Landers. As such, it became the first picture acquired as the third phase of Viking operations got under way - the Viking Continuation Mission. Between the start of the Continuation Mission in April, 1978, until spacecraft operations are concluded in November, the landers will acquire an additional 200 pictures. These will be used to monitor the two landscaped for the surface changes. All four cameras, two on Lander 1 and two on Lander 2, continue to operate perfectly. Both landers will also

  16. Reciprocal regulation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 and mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-3

    SciTech Connect

    Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Mauro, Laura J.; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.

    2008-11-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatase-3 (MKP-3) is a putative tumor suppressor. When transiently overexpressed, MKP-3 dephosphorylates and inactivates extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. Little is known about the roles of endogenous MKP-3, however. We previously showed that MKP-3 is upregulated in cell lines that express oncogenic Ras. Here we tested the roles of endogenous MKP-3 in modulating ERK1/2 under conditions of chronic stimulation of the Ras/Raf/MEK1/2/ERK1/2 pathway by expression of oncogenic Ras. We used two cell lines: H-ras MCF10A, breast epithelial cells engineered to express H-Ras, and DLD-1, colon cancer cells that express endogenous Ki-Ras. First, we found that MKP-3 acts in a negative feedback loop to suppress basal ERK1/2 when oncogenic Ras stimulates the Ras/Raf/MEK1/2/ERK1/2 cascade. ERK1/2 was required to maintain elevated MKP-3, indicative of a negative feedback loop. Accordingly, knockdown of MKP-3, via siRNA, increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Second, by using siRNA, we found that MKP-3 helps establish the sensitivity of ERK1/2 to extracellular activators by limiting the duration of ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Third, we found that the regulation of ERK1/2 by MKP-3 is countered by the complex regulation of MKP-3 by ERK1/2. Potent ERK1/2 activators stimulated the loss of MKP-3 within 30 min due to an ERK1/2-dependent decrease in MKP-3 protein stability. MKP-3 levels recovered within 120 min due to ERK1/2-dependent resynthesis. Preventing MKP-3 resynthesis, via siRNA, prolonged ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Altogether, these results suggest that under the pressure of oncogenic Ras expression, MKP-3 reins in ERK1/2 by serving in ERK1/2-dependent negative feedback pathways.

  17. EDITORIAL: Thank you and farewell from the Founding Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskes, Mike

    2005-07-01

    I have been involved with Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering (MSMSE) from the very beginning when it was merely an idea, over 14 years ago, to the current journal that is well supported by the community. During my time as Editor there have been many changes in the journal, including the introduction of electronic submissions, web-based services and free printed colour where it is essential to the article, as well as completely free colour online. The journal has seen excellent growth in the number and quality of submissions and the number of articles published continues to rise, enabling us to expand the journal to eight issues in 2005. Web accesses and downloads have greatly surpassed even my wildest dreams. In my opinion, the emergence of MSMSE as a top materials modelling journal has confirmed the vision of Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP) and the Executive Board that this area of science and engineering was ripe for a specialized journal. I feel that, having seen the journal through the early years and watched it grow into a successful arena for multidisciplinary materials research, it is now an appropriate time for me to hand over the reins. The journal has a great foundation for future growth and development and is supported by an excellent Editorial Board, who have given me a great deal of help and advice over the years. I feel sure that they will continue to support the journal when Bill Curtin, Brown University, takes over on 1 July 2005. Bill has the diverse experience in modelling at the atomic, dislocation, and continuum levels to lead the journal to new heights. Finally I would like to thank all of the readers, authors and referees who have greatly contributed to MSMSE over the years. Thank you for your support and help, and I hope you will continue to support the journal. Last, but not least, I would like to thank the staff at IOPP. Without their expert assistance, the journal could not have been as successful as it is

  18. PREFACE: 1st Franco-Algerian Workshop on Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mebarki, N.; Mimouni, J.; Vanucci, F.; Aissaoui, H.

    2015-04-01

    The first Franco-Algerian workshop on neutrino physics was held on 22-23 October 2013 at the University of Mentouri, Constantine, Algeria. It was jointly organized by the Laboratory of Mathematical and Subatomic Physics (LPMS) and the Direction of Scientific Research (DGRSTD) for the Algerian side, and for the French part by the IN2P3, CNRS and CEA IRFU. It is one of a series of international scientific meetings organized every two years by the LPMS at Constantine on high energy physics (theoretical, nuclear physics, classical and quantum cosmology, astrophysics, mathematical physics and quantum computing etc...) to maintain a high quality in scientific research and education at Algerian universities. This specific meeting brought together experts in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology from France and Algeria. It touched upon several theoretical, phenomenological as well as experimental aspects of the neutrinos. The workshop participants were mostly young researchers from many universities and research institutes in Algeria. The physics of neutrinos is a very active field in particle physics, hence the importance for the High Energy community in Algeria to gain expertise in this ''strategic'' area at the intersection of various topics in theoretical physics and high energy astrophysics (SM physics, CP violation, in general, SNe explosions, baryogenesis...). The neutrino proposed by Pauli back in 1930 as a ''desperate remedy'' to save the law of energy conservation in beta decay had a bright early history. Discovered in 1956 in the Cowan-Reines experiment despite all odds, this elusive particle which enabled us to understand the chiral nature of the weak interactions which later lead to the electro-weak unification finally appears to hold a key role in understanding subatomic physics as well as the structure and structuration of the Universe. It is also, after the discovery of the Higgs particle at the LHC in 2012, the only grey area left today in the

  19. Exploring the potential of hyper-spectral imaging for the biogeochemical analysis of varved lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, Christoph; Grosjean, Martin; Enters, Dirk; Tylmann, Wojciech

    2014-05-01

    Varved lake sediments have successfully been used to make inferences about past environmental and climate conditions from annual to multi-millennial scales. Among other proxies, concentrations of sedimentary photopigments have been used for temperature reconstructions. However, obtaining well calibrated annually resolved records from sediments still remains challenging. Most laboratory methods used to analyse lake sediments require physical subsampling and are destructive in the process. Hence, temporal resolution and number of data are limited by the amount of material available in the core. Furthermore, for very low sediment accumulation rates annual subsampling is often very difficult or even impossible. To address these problems we explore hyper-spectral imaging as a new method to analyse lake sediments based on their reflectance spectra in the visible and near infrared spectrum. In contrast to other fast and non-destructive methods like X-ray fluorescence, VIS/NIR reflectance spectrometry distinguishes between biogeochemical substances rather than single elements. Rein (2003) has shown that VIS-RS can be used to detect relative concentrations of sedimentary photopigments (e.g. chlorins, carotenoids) and clay minerals. This study presents an advanced approach using a hyper-spectral camera and remote sensing techniques to infer climate proxy data from reflectance spectra of varved lake sediments. Hyper-spectral imaging allows analysing an entire sediment core in a single measurement, producing a spectral dataset with very high spatial (30x30µm/pixel) and spectral resolutions (~1nm) and a higher spectral range (400-1000nm) compared to previously used spectrophotometers. This allows the analysis of data time series at sub-varve scales or spatial mapping of sedimentary substances (e.g. chlorophyll-a and diagenetic products) at very high resolution. The method is demonstrated on varved lake sediments from northern Poland showing the change of the relative

  20. Quantifying the impact of daily and seasonal variation in sap pH on xylem dissolved inorganic carbon estimates in plum trees.

    PubMed

    Erda, F G; Bloemen, J; Steppe, K

    2014-01-01

    In studies on internal CO2 transport, average xylem sap pH (pH(x)) is one of the factors used for calculation of the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon in the xylem sap ([CO2 *]). Lack of detailed pH(x) measurements at high temporal resolution could be a potential source of error when evaluating [CO2*] dynamics. In this experiment, we performed continuous measurements of CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and stem temperature (T(stem)), complemented with pH(x) measurements at 30-min intervals during the day at various stages of the growing season (Day of the Year (DOY): 86 (late winter), 128 (mid-spring) and 155 (early summer)) on a plum tree (Prunus domestica L. cv. Reine Claude d'Oullins). We used the recorded pH(x) to calculate [CO2*] based on T(stem) and the corresponding measured [CO2]. No statistically significant difference was found between mean [CO2*] calculated with instantaneous pH(x) and daily average pH(x). However, using an average pH(x) value from a different part of the growing season than the measurements of [CO2] and T(stem) to estimate [CO2*] led to a statistically significant error. The error varied between 3.25 ± 0.01% under-estimation and 3.97 ± 0.01% over-estimation, relative to the true [CO2*] data. Measured pH(x) did not show a significant daily variation, unlike [CO2], which increased during the day and declined at night. As the growing season progressed, daily average [CO2] (3.4%, 5.3%, 7.4%) increased and average pH(x) (5.43, 5.29, 5.20) decreased. Increase in [CO2] will increase its solubility in xylem sap according to Henry's law, and the dissociation of [CO2*] will negatively affect pH(x). Our results are the first quantifying the error in [CO2*] due to the interaction between [CO2] and pH(x) on a seasonal time scale. We found significant changes in pH(x) across the growing season, but overall the effect on the calculation of [CO2*] remained within an error range of 4%. However, it is possible that the error could be more

  1. Characterizing the population of active galactic nuclei in dwarf galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldassare, Vivienne F.; Reines, Amy E.; Gallo, Elena; Greene, Jenny E.

    2017-01-01

    Clues to super-massive black hole (BH) formation and growth reside in the population and properties of BHs in local dwarf galaxies. The masses of BHs in these systems are our best observational constraint on the masses of the first BH "seeds" at high redshift. Moreover, present-day dwarf galaxies are unlikely to have undergone major mergers, making them a relatively pristine testbed for studying triggers of BH accretion. However, in order to find BHs in dwarf galaxies outside the Local Group, it is necessary to search for signatures of accretion, i.e., active galactic nuclei (AGN). Until recently, only a handful of dwarf galaxies were known to contain AGN. However, large surveys such as the SDSS have led to the production of samples of over a hundred dwarf galaxies with AGN signatures (see e.g., Reines et al. 2013). My dissertation work has involved in-depth, multi-wavelength follow-up of nearby (z<0.055) dwarf galaxies with optical spectroscopic AGN signatures in SDSS.I analyzed high resolution spectra of dwarf galaxies with narrow-line AGN, which led to the discovery of a 50,000 MSun BH in the nucleus of RGG 118 - the smallest BH yet reported in a galaxy nucleus (Baldassare et al. 2015). I also used multi-epoch optical spectroscopy to study the nature of broad H-alpha emission in dwarf galaxies. A characteristic signature of dense gas orbiting around a BH, broad emission can also be produced by transient stellar processes. I showed that broad H-alpha in star-forming dwarf galaxies fades over a baseline of 5-10 years, and is likely produced by e.g., a Type II SN as opposed to an AGN. However, broad emission in dwarf galaxies with AGN/composite narrow lines is persistent and consistent across observations, suggesting an AGN origin (Baldassare et al. 2016). Finally, I analyzed X-ray and UV observations of dwarf galaxies with broad and narrow-line AGN signatures. All targets had nuclear X-ray detections at levels significantly higher than expected from X-ray binaries

  2. Integration of data from censuses and remote sensing to measure the socio-economic and environmental evolution in urban areas: case of the city of Sherbrooke (1981-2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dari, Ouassini

    population is spread over the two cities. The aboriginal population is well distributed over the city of Sherbrooke. The population from Asian and Oceanic backgrounds are concentrated (sometimes on an exclusive basis) in the north and west-centre area of Jardins-Fleuris, in the eastern area of l'Assomption, the northeastern area of Sainte-Famille and the center area of Marie-Reine. We also find concentrations of immigrant populations from all backgrounds in areas such as in the southern part of the Immaculee-Conception and Saint-Joseph and in the south-eastern part of Sainte-Jeanne-d'Arc. This indicates that ethnic neighborhoods are taking roots in the city of Sherbrooke. Keywords : socio-economic and environmental, urban, remote sensing, multiple factor analysis, dissemination areas, the city of Sherbrooke, Lennoxville municipality.

  3. [Conservative treatment, hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis for elderly patients: The choice of treatment does not influence the survival].

    PubMed

    Rouveure, Anne-Cécile; Bonnefoy, Marc; Laville, Maurice

    2016-02-01

    Hemodialysis is the predominant replacement therapy in the 70 year-old French population (18% in peritoneal dialysis, 72% in hemodialysis from the REIN registry). Managing older patients reaching the end stage renal disease poses many ethical questions, since outcomes balanced regarding survival and quality of life. The aim of this study was to compare the survival of patients aged over 70 years according to the ESRD treatment choice: conservative treatment without dialysis (CT), hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD). We included all patients over 70 years reaching stade IV CKD integrated in a predialysis information program between 01/01/2005 and 31/12/2010. We compared their survival from the start of their program, in function of their treatment choice: HD, PD or CT. On this period, 148 patients were included, we excluded from analysis 17 patients who had a contraindication to PD, 26 patients who did not make a choice because their kidney function was stabilized, 4 patients lost to follow-up and 12 patients who died before the treatment choice. The average age was 79±6 years, 40% of patients were women, and the mean eGFR was 16±9 mL/min/1.73 m(2) at the entry in the program. Among the 89 patients, 21 choose CT (24%), 68 accepted dialysis (76%), including 48 HD (71%) and 20 PD (29%). No significant eGFR difference at the inclusion time between the groups. The time initiation of dialysis was significantly shorter in the PD group (146 days vs 442 in the HD group; P=0.004). Survival between the groups of patients who accepted or refused dialysis was not statistically different (749 days or 2 years in the HD + PD group vs 562 days, or 1 year and 6 months in the CT group; P=0.95) and between the HD group (760 days or 2 years and 2 months) and the PD group (343 days or 11 months; P=0.32). As measured from the time they entered in the predialysis program, the survival of older patients over 70 years does not seem to depend on

  4. Experimenting seismological and GNSS equipment in extreme conditions in preparation for complex studies in the area of the Bulgarian Antarctic Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Liliya; Georgieva, Gergana; Raykova, Reneta; Gurev, Vasil; Georgiev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Study of seismicity and Earth's structure on Livingston Island and surrounding area is carrying out in the frame of the project "Creating an information base for study of seismicity and Earth's structure on Livingston island and surroundings through complex research in the Bulgarian Arctic Base area" supported by the Science Research Fund to Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science for a period of 2 years including two Antarctic expeditions. The main goal of the project is to carry out a complex seismological and geodetic research based on data recorded by broadband seismic station and 2 GNSS receivers, which will be installed near the Bulgarian Antarctic Base on Livingston Island. Additionally, the velocity of the Perunica glassier (Livingston Island) will be estimated by processing and analyzing of GNSS data. The seismic station and GNSS receivers were installed on Vitosha Mountain, near Sofia, and were working during the winter to test the performance of the equipment in extreme weather conditions similar to the Antarctic climate. The seismological equipment included CMT40T seismometer and Reftek 130 digitizer. A thermo isolating cover was used to protect the seismic station. The power was supplied by a set of special batteries. The recorded seismological and geodetic data were stored into memory cards inside the apparatus. McNamara method was used to study ambient seismic noise. Effects of harsh weather conditions (wind, snowing, reining, low temperatures) and absence of man-made noise on the distribution of the noise power are investigated. Registered signals and noise power distribution were compared with records and noise power distribution of seismic station Vitosha (VTS). The result was used to estimate and improve the performance of the equipment. Registered seismic events were localized by application of Gallitzin method. A software for localization of the events on the base of three component registration was developed and tested. . Software was

  5. La maladie de Wilson: à propos d'un cas familial

    PubMed Central

    Mouzari, Yassine; Abdelkhalek, Ryme; El Asri, Fouad; Reda, Karim; Oubaaz, Abedelbarre

    2014-01-01

    La maladie de Wilson est une maladie rare autosomique récessive due à une diminution de l’élimination du cuivre dans la bile et son accumulation toxique dans les organes en particulier le cerveau, le foie, la cornée et le rein d'où son hétérogénéité clinique. Les manifestations ophtalmologiques représentent des critères diagnostiques importants. Le traitement précoce permet une réversibilité des déficits; non traitée la maladie de Wilson est létale. Nous rapportons un cas familial de la maladie de Wilson: deux membres d'une fratrie issus d'un mariage consanguin étaient atteints de la maladie de Wilson dans ses trois formes cliniques: hépatique, neurologique et psychiatrique. Les manifestations ophtalmologiques de la maladie de Wilson sont l'anneau de Keyser Fleischer et la cataracte en tournesol, l'atteinte hépatique se manifeste par une hépatite chronique et une cirrhose, la symptomatologie neurologique et psychiatrique est variée; on retrouve à l'IRM une atteinte prédominante aux noyaux gris centraux. Le diagnostic positif de la maladie de Wilson est fait sur la triade: présence de l'anneau de Keyser Fleischer, céruloplasmine sanguine basse et augmentation de la cuprurie de 24 heures. Le traitement précoce basé sur les chélateurs de cuivre permet la réversibilité des lésions. Le pronostic dépend de la sévérité de la maladie lors du diagonstic et de la qualité de la prise en charge. Ce cas familial de la maladie de Wilson démontre l'importance du dépistage des membres pré symptomatique par un examen ophtalmologique et général rigoureux. PMID:25426217

  6. Dose and dose rate dependency of lipid peroxide formation in rat tissues by low level contamination with tritiated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moisoi, N.; Petcu, I.

    1999-01-01

    The changes in peroxide level in different tissues (liver, kidney, small intestine, spleen, bone marrow) of rats exposed to low levels of tritiated water were investigated in relation to tissue radiosensitivity, the irradiation dose and the dose rate domain. The radiation exposure was performed by internal contamination of rats with tritiated water, in the 0 50cGy dose domain, with dose rates in the range of 0.01 2cGy/day. For the lower dose rates (< 0.35cGy/day) the peroxide levels did not increase for doses up to 10cGy, while a dose rate of 1 1.75cGy/day induced an increase in peroxide levels starting at 5cGy. The increases were more significant for the tissues with higher radiosensitivity: spleen, small intestine and bone marrow. For the 4.2 7cGy dose domain and very low dose rates, up to 0.1cGy/day, the peroxide level seemed to have an inverse dose rate dependency. Nous avons étudié la modification du niveau des peroxydes lipidiques pour des tissus ayant des radiosensibilités différentes (foie, rein, rate, intestin grêle, moelle osseuse) après irradiation de rats par contamination interne à l'eau tritiée dans le domaine des faibles doses (0 - 50 cGy) et faibles débits de doses (0,01 - 2 cGy/jour). L'irradiation au débit de dose inférieure à 0,35 cGy/jour, n'augmente le niveau de peroxydation que pour des doses supérieures à 10 cGy. Par contre, le débit de 1-1.75 cGy/jour induit une augmentation significative du paramètre étudié à partir de la dose de 5 cGy. Cette augmentation est plus accentuée pour la rate, l'intestin grêle et la moelle osseuse. Aux doses de 4,2-7 cGy et débits de doses très faibles (< 0.1 cGy), le niveau de peroxydation montre une dépendance inverse par rapport au débit de dose.

  7. La mujer en la astronomía: pasado y presente

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, G.

    There exists a long and honorable tradition of participation of women in astronomy, affording many significant contributions to the field. Historically, however, many of these contributions have remained ignored, or recorded under the names of husbands, brothers or bosses. The present report includes an historical perspective, summarizing some of the most signicant contributions done along the last three centuries by female astronomers. Briefly: Catherina Hevelius (1646-1693), author of the largest and last stars catalog made without the aid of a telescope; Nicole-Reine Lepaute (1723-1788) extraordinary mathematician who predicted the path of Halley's Comet in 1757; Caroline Herschel (1750-1848) assistant of her brother William, discovered 8 comets, reduced the positions to a common epoch and published the catalog of 2500 nebulae observed by her brother, was elected honorary member of the Royal Astronomical Society (RAS); Maria Mitchell (1818-1889), professor of astronomy and director of the Vassar College Observatory, dedicated her life to women's education; Williamina Fleming (1857-1911)discovered 94 of the 107 Wolf-Rayet stars known at her time, the bulk of the first HD catalog was based on her spectral types classification; Annie Cannon (1863-1941) examined and classified nearly 500.000 stars, rearranged Fleming's spectral system, defining the OBAFGKM series; Henrietta Swan Leavitt (1868-1921) worked cataloging variable stars, discovered the period-luminosity relations in Cepheids; Cecilia Payne-Gaposhkin combined observations with theory to obtain a temperature scale for Cannon's spectral types; Ruby Payne-Scott (1912-1981), the first female radioastronomer in the world, developed the theory of aperture synthesis, in which most of the larger radio interferometers are based. The present trends are analized based on statistics of the International Astronomical Union (IAU): women represent 11.8% of the total of IAU members; in Argentina the percentage is 33

  8. Scientific habits of mind: A reform of structure and relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, Linda Beth

    This research was designed to broaden current elementary science reform efforts by including the voices of our young scientists. Ten high school students who were defined as possessing both coherent science knowledge and scientific habits of mind were selected for the study. Through a three-part series of in-depth, phenomenological interviews, these students revealed early childhood experiences from birth through age ten to which they attributed their development of science knowledge and scientific habits of mind. Educational connoisseurship and criticism provided the framework through which the experiences were analyzed. The research revealed the overwhelming role of scientific habits of mind in the current success of these young scientists. Scientific habits of mind were developed through the structures and relationships in the home. Parents of the participants provided a non-authoritarian, fun, playful, tolerant atmosphere in which messes and experimentation were the norm. Large blocks of uninterrupted, unstructured time and space that "belonged" to the child allowed these children to follow where curiosity led. Frequently, the parent modeled scientific habits of mind. Good discipline in the minds of these families had nothing to do with punishments, rewards, or rules. The parents gave the children responsibilities, "free rein," and their trust, and the children blossomed in that trust and mutual respect. Parents recognized and supported the uniqueness, autonomy, interests, and emotions of the child. Above all, the young scientists valued the time, freedom, patience, and emotional support provided by their parents. For girls, construction toys, hot wheels, sand boxes, and outdoor experiences were particularly important. Art classes, free access to art media, sewing, music, and physical activity facilitated observational skills and spatial relationship development. The girls knew that doing traditionally masculine and feminine activities were acceptable and

  9. An updated review of the optimal lithium dosage regimen for renal protection.

    PubMed

    Carter, Lorie; Zolezzi, Monica; Lewczyk, Andrea

    2013-10-01

    Objectif : Malgré plusieurs décennies de recherche, il y a encore de l’incertitude concernant la posologie optimale du lithium associée au risque réduit d’effets rénaux, comme la polyurie, chez les patients souffrant du trouble bipolaire affectif. Nous présentons une revue mise à jour de la littérature afin d’offrir aux prescripteurs une recommandation éclairée de régime posologique. Méthode : Cette recherche a été menée à partir des grandes bases de données MEDLINE et Embase à l’aide de termes comme : lithium, horaire d’administration des médicaments, relation dose–réponse, une fois par jour, deux fois par jour, et libération prolongée. En outre, les bibliographies de publications connexes ont fait l’objet d’une recherche manuelle. Résultats : Un total de 20 essais ont été inclus. Certains essais montraient une réduction du volume d’urine avec une dose unique quotidienne (DUQ), alors que d’autres n’indiquaient aucun changement. Le seul essai qui évaluait les patients qui commençaient le lithium a observé une réduction de la fréquence urinaire avec la DUQ après 21 jours. Les essais examinant les résultats de biopsie rénale ont constaté que les doses multiples quotidiennes étaient associées à plus de dommages pathologiques aux reins. Les posologies de DUQ étaient généralement bien tolérées, et aucune réduction d’efficacité n’a été notée dans tous les essais. Conclusions : Les données probantes disponibles sont contradictoires sur le fait que la DUQ de lithium réduise la polyurie; cependant, aucun essai n’a démontré un désavantage de la DUQ en ce qui concerne l’efficacité prophylactique ou les effets indésirables. Étant donné les avantages ajoutés de la DUQ, comme une meilleure observance, nous recommandons aux patients qui commencent le lithium de se convertir à une DUQ de lithium au coucher, une fois que la dose quotidienne appropriée est déterminée.

  10. Symbiotic physiology promotes homeostasis in Daisyworld.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Richard A; Lenton, Timothy M; Watson, Andrew J

    2011-04-07

    A connection is hypothesized between the physiological consequences of mutualistic symbiosis and life's average long-term impact on certain highly biologically conserved environmental variables. This hypothesis is developed analytically and with a variant of the Daisyworld model. Biological homeostasis is frequently effective due to co-ordination between opposing physiological "rein" functions, which buffer an organism in response to an external (often environmental) perturbation. It is proposed that during evolutionary history the pooling of different species' physiological functions in mutualistic symbioses increased the range of suboptimal environmental conditions that could be buffered against--a mutual tolerance benefit sometimes sufficient to outweigh the cost of cooperation. A related argument is that for a small number of biologically-crucial physical variables (i) the difference between organism interiors and the life-environment interface is relatively low, and (ii) the biologically optimum level of that variable is relatively highly conserved across different species. For such variables, symbiosis tends to cause (at a cost) an increase in the number of environmental buffering functions per unit of selection, which in turn biases the overall impact of the biota on the state of the variable towards the biological optimum. When a costly but more temperature-tolerant and physiologically versatile symbiosis between one black (warming) and one white (cooling) "daisy" is added to the (otherwise unaltered) Daisyworld parable, four new results emerge: (1) The extension of habitability to a wider luminosity range, (2) resistance to the impact of "cheater" white daisies with cold optima, that derive short-term benefit from environmental destabilisation, (3) the capacity to maintain residual, oscillatory regulation in response to forcings that change more rapidly than allele frequencies and (crucially) (4) "succession"-type dynamics in which the tolerant symbiosis

  11. [Obstetrics--a gear in the machinery of history].

    PubMed

    Schaller, A

    1998-01-01

    It was not Julius Caesar who was born by Caesarean section, as generally assumed, but Scipio Cornelius Africanus, who subdued Spain 100 years before Caesar's time. In chambers with walls of porphyrite, the Byzantine empresses used to give birth to the heirs to the throne. In England, the infertility of Queen Anne, who suffered from porphyria, led to the succession of the Protestant House of Hannover following the Catholic Stuarts. Christina of Sweden, called 'queen of baroque, rebel and scholar', was born in the 'caul'. At the age of 39 years, Johanna of Pfirt, married to Albrecht the Lame, secured the continuation of the Habsburg dynasty by giving birth to Rudolf the Founder. Maria Theresia, who had 16 children, was called 'mother-in-law of Europe'. She was delivered of her first child at the age of 19. The death of her sister Maria-Anna in childbed was one of the reasons why Gerard van Swieten was called to Vienna. Elisabeth of Württemberg, first wife of Franz I of Austria, died, not as a consequence of. but after a forceps operation carried out by Johann Lukas Boër. In England, Princess Charlotte, daughter of George IV, and her baby son died at the delivery; Sir Richard Croft, who had not used the forceps, committed suicide after this tragic incident. Being the next in succession, Victoria ascended the throne. The term 'narcose au chloroforme' (first used by James Young Simpson) was changed to 'narcose à la reine' after this method had been used at the birth of Victoria's eighth child by John Snow. It was Queen Victoria, who passed on haemophilia in European dynasties. When Marie Louise of Habsburg had her first child, Napoleon's son, the later Duke of Reichstadt, Antoine Dubois had to perform a turning of the transverse presentation and use the forceps on the head following after. The birth of Napoleon himself was a case of precipitate labour. Johann Klein, the successor of Boër, applied the forceps when Archduchess Sophie was delivered of her first child

  12. Comparison of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) on Martian Meteorite NWA 7034 to ChemCam Observations at Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, S.; Newsom, H. E.; Agee, C. B.; Santos, A. R.; Clegg, S. M.; Wiens, R. C.; Lasue, J.; Sautter, V.

    2014-12-01

    The ChemCam instrument on board the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover uses laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to analyze rock and soil targets on Mars from up to 7 m away. The Nd:KGW laser can shoot up to 1000 shots at one location and profile up to 1 mm depth into a rock. Identical LIBS instrumentation is located at Los Alamos National Laboratory and was used to analyze martian meteorite NWA 7034, a non-SNC basaltic breccia whose bulk composition matches the martian surface. Initial LIBS analysis of NWA 7034 included observations on two basaltic clasts in the meteorite. Electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) was performed on the two clasts for comparison with elemental compositions measured using LIBS. The two instruments give similar compositions of major oxides within the error of both techniques. EPMA analysis was also completed on three light-toned clasts and a dark-toned clast in the meteorite. The light-toned clasts have Al/Si vs. (Fe+Mg)/Si compositions ranging from felsic to mafic, and the dark-toned clast shows a mafic composition. A Sammon's map was created to compare LIBS data for NWA 7034 and ChemCam targets Stark, Crestaurum, Link, Portage, Jake_M, Mara, Thor_Lake, Coronation, Pearson, and Prebble. This nonlinear statistical mapping technique is used for clustering assessment of LIBS data in two dimensions. The map shows NWA 7034 clustering in its own location, and the closest similar ChemCam rock targets are La_Reine and Ashuamipi, which are both coarse grained targets that have a mafic component consistent with augite. The most similar ChemCam soil targets are the Crestaurum and Portage. Creation of maps with a greater number of targets will show more of the similarities between NWA 7034 and ChemCam target rocks and soils. Further analysis will compare NWA 7034 LIBS data, data from the paired meteorite NWA 7533, and a variety of ChemCam targets that are similar in morphology and texture.

  13. Effects of inbreeding on fighting ability measured in Aosta Chestnut and Aosta Black Pied cattle.

    PubMed

    Sartori, C; Mantovani, R

    2012-09-01

    Aosta Black Pied (ABP) and Aosta Chestnut (AC) are dual-purpose cattle indigenous to the western Alps and famous for their fighting ability in traditional Italian Batailles de Reines. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of inbreeding on breeding values for fighting ability achieved in participants. Inbreeding (F) and average relatedness (AR) were obtained from the entire pedigree information available (19,554 and 87,967 records for ABP and AC, respectively). Data (n = 23,998) relating to 8,259 cows competing in years 2001-2009 were analyzed to obtain heritability (h(2)) estimates and breeding values for the trait. A placement score was chosen as a phenotype for fighting ability and both a classical quantitative model (NORM) and its implementation, used to identify its indirect genetic effects (COMP), were analyzed using the expectation maximization-REML (EM-REML) method. The F and AR trends in animals born between 1990 and 2009 were generally low and were greater for ABP (+0.06%/yr) than for AC (+0.03%/yr) populations, which also presented a greater mean F (about 2.8% ± 1.7% vs. 0.8% ± 1.5% for ABP and AC, respectively) and mean AR among individuals (about 1.0% ± 0.8% vs. 0.4% ± 0.3% for ABP and AC, respectively). Heritability estimates from 0.083 ± 0.036 to 0.120 ± 0.037 were obtained using the NORM model, accounting for or not accounting for F, respectively. Similar results were obtained also for the COMP model, with h(2) estimates of 0.12 ± 0.037, whether or not F was taken into consideration. Linear regression analyses carried out on the 33 major lineages to which most of participants belonged (n = 6,087) revealed an overall negative trend of EBV compared with the increase of either F (b = -21.3, P < 0.01) or AR (b = -50.1, P < 0.01). However, a great variability in the relationship between EBV and F or AR was found by analyzing data within lineages. Despite the variability, an unfavorable effect of inbreeding was detected in the

  14. A Search for Neutrino Induced Coherent NC($\\pi^{0}$) Production in the MINOS Near Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Cherdack, Daniel David

    2011-02-01

    is in agreement with NEUGEN3 implementation of the model by Rein and Sehgal which is motived by the PCAC hypothesis.

  15. 3μm - 1.6μm Double Resonance Spectroscopy of CH_4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, George; Belaas, Erik; Yang, Shaoyue; Lehmann, Kevin

    2016-06-01

    The Near-IR Spectrum of CH_4 is dense with many overlapping bands that perturb each other by vibrational and ro-vibrational interactions. Assignments of the individual lines are needed in order to simulate the spectrum as a function of pressure and temperature, as needed in the search for CH_4 in extrasolar planets. Both the group at the University College, London^1 and that at the University of Reins^2 have produced theoretical spectra that allows simulation up to the high temperatures expected on ``Hot Jupiters''. The accuracy of these theoretical spectra need to be further tested. Because CH_4 is a light spherical top, assignment of its perturbed spectra is a formable challenge as none of the lines allowed in the rigid rotor approximation have ground vibrational state combination differences. We are using IR-IR double resonance to observe modulation in the strength of near-IR absorption caused by a modulation of a 3 μm OPO beam that is tuned to a particular transition in the C-H stretching fundamental of CH_4. This produces V-type double resonance transitions (which share the lower state with the pump transition), which provides firm assignments for lines normally observed in absorption in the near-IR. We also observe sequential double resonance which reveals transitions that have a known rotational level of the ν_3 fundamental as the lower state and reaches final states in the 9000 cm-1 spectral region. These are states of A, E, F_1 vibrational symmetries which are forbidden in transitions from the ground vibrational state. These 3 level double resonance transitions are Doppler Free and have a linewidth of ˜10 MHz due to a combination of near-IR laser jitter and power broadening of the mid-IR transition. We also observed many 4-level double resonance transitions that we have tentatively assigned as arising from the ν_4 fundamental level. These are distinguished from the 3-level double resonance transitions by they being Doppler broadened and having a large

  16. Human Preferences for Conformation Attributes and Head-And-Neck Positions in Horses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Human preferences for certain morphological attributes among domestic animals may be entirely individual or, more generally, may reflect evolutionary pressures that favor certain conformation. Artificial selection for attributes, such as short heads and crested necks of horses, may have functional and welfare implications because there is evidence from other species that skull shape co-varies with behaviour. Crested necks can be accentuated by flexion of the neck, a quality that is often manipulated in photographs vendors use when selling horses. Equine head-and-neck positions acquired through rein tension can compromise welfare. Our investigation was designed to identify conformations and postures that people are attracted to when choosing their ‘ideal’ horse. Participants of an internet survey were asked to rate their preference for horse silhouettes that illustrated three gradations of five variables: facial shape, crest height, ear length, ear position and head-and-neck carriage. There were 1,234 usable responses. The results show that overall preferences are for the intermediate, rather than extreme, morphological choices (p=<0.001). They also indicate that males are 2.5 times less likely to prefer thicker necks rather than the intermediate shape, and 4 times more likely to prefer the thinner neck shape. When compared to the novice participants, experienced participants were 1.9 times more likely to prefer a thicker neck shape than the intermediate neck shape and 2.8 times less likely to prefer a thinner neck shape than the intermediate neck shape. There was overall preference of 93% (n=939) for the category of head carriage ‘In front of the vertical’. However, novice participants were 1.8 times more likely to choose ‘behind the vertical’ than ‘in front of the vertical’. Our results suggest that people prefer a natural head carriage, concave facial profile (dished face), larger ears and thicker necks. From these survey data, it seems that some

  17. Hyper-spectral imaging: A promising tool for quantitative pigment analysis of varved lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, Christoph; Grosjean, Martin; Tylmann, Wojciech

    2015-04-01

    Varved lake sediments are good archives for past environmental and climate conditions from annual to multi-millennial scales. Among other proxies, concentrations of sedimentary photopigments have been used for temperature reconstructions. However, obtaining well calibrated annually resolved records from sediments still remains challenging. Most laboratory methods used to analyse lake sediments require physical subsampling and are destructive in the process. Hence, temporal resolution and number of data are limited by the amount of material available in the core. Furthermore, for very low sediment accumulation rates annual subsampling is often very difficult or even impossible. To address these problems we explore hyper-spectral imaging as a non-destructive method to analyse lake sediments based on their reflectance spectra in the visible and near infrared spectrum. In contrast to other scanning methods like X-ray fluorescence, VIS/NIR reflectance spectrometry distinguishes between biogeochemical substances rather than single elements. Among others Rein (2003) has shown that VIS-RS can be used to detect relative concentrations of sedimentary photopigments (e.g. chlorins, carotenoids) and clay minerals. In this study hyper-spectral imaging is used to infer ecological proxy data from reflectance spectra of varved lake sediments. Hyper-spectral imaging permits the measurement of an entire sediment core in a single run at high spatial (30x30µm/pixel) and spectral resolutions (~2.8nm) within the visual to near infrared spectrum (400-1000nm). This allows the analysis of data time series and spatial mapping of sedimentary substances (e.g. chlorophylls/bacterio-chlorophylls and diagenetic products) at sub-varve scales. The method is demonstrated on two varved lake sediments from northern Poland showing the distributions of relative concentrations of two types of sedimentary pigments (Chlorophyll-a + derivatives and Bacterio-pheophytin-a) within individual varve years. The

  18. Managing biological diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1993-01-01

    Biological diversity is the variety of life and accompanying ecological processes (Off. Technol. Assess. 1987, Wilcove and Samson 1987, Keystone 1991). Conservation of biological diversity is a major environmental issue (Wilson 1988, Counc. Environ. Quality 1991). The health and future of the earth's ecological systems (Lubchenco et al. 1991), global climate change (Botkin 1990), and an ever-increasing rate in loss of species, communities, and ecological systems (Myers 1990) are among issues drawing biological diversity to the mainstream of conservation worldwide (Int. Union Conserv. Nat. and Nat. Resour. [IUCN] et al. 1991). The legal mandate for conserving biological diversity is now in place (Carlson 1988, Doremus 1991). More than 19 federal laws govern the use of biological resources in the United States (Rein 1991). The proposed National Biological Diversity Conservation and Environmental Research Act (H.R. 585 and S.58) notes the need for a national biological diversity policy, would create a national center for biological diversity research, and recommends a federal interagency strategy for ecosystem conservation. There are, however, hard choices ahead for the conservation of biological diversity, and biologists are grappling with how to set priorities in research and management (Roberts 1988). We sense disillusion among field biologists and managers relative to how to operationally approach the seemingly overwhelming charge of conserving biological diversity. Biologists also need to respond to critics like Hunt (1991) who suggest a tree farm has more biological diversity than an equal area of old-growth forest. At present, science has played only a minor role in the conservation of biological diversity (Weston 1992) with no unified approach available to evaluate strategies and programs that address the quality and quantity of biological diversity (Murphy 1990, Erwin 1992). Although actions to conserve biological diversity need to be clearly defined by

  19. Asia Rice Crop Estimation and Monitoring (Asia-RiCE) for GEOGLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyoshi, K.; Tomiyama, N.; Okumura, T.; Sobue, S.

    2013-12-01

    Food security is a critical issue for the international community because of rapid population and economic growth, and climate change. In June 2011, the meeting of G20 agriculture ministers was held to discuss food security and food price volatility, and they agreed on an 'Action Plan on Food Price Volatility and Agriculture'. This plan includes a GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative. The aim of GEOGLAM is to reinforce the international community's ability to produce and disseminate relevant, timely, and accurate forecasts of agricultural production on regional, national, and global scales by utilizing remote sensing technology. GEOGLAM focused on four major grain crops, wheat, maize, soybeans and rice. In particular, Asian countries are responsible for approximately 90% of the world rice production and consumption, rice is the most significant cereal crop in Asian region. Hence, Asian space and agricultural agencies with an interest in the development of rice crop monitoring technology launched an Asia-Rice Crop Estimation & Monitoring (Asia-RiCE) component for the GEOGLAM initiative. In Asian region, rice is mainly cultivated in rainy season, and a large amount of cloud limits rice crop monitoring with optical sensors. But, Synthetic Aperture RADAR (SAR) is all-weather sensor and can observe land surface even if the area is covered by cloud. Therefore, SAR technology would be powerful tool to monitor rice crop in Asian region. Asia-RiCE team required mainly SAR observation data including ALOS-2, RISAT-1, Sentinel-1 and RADARSAT, TerraSAR-X, COSMO-SkyMed for Asia-RiCE GEOGLAM Phase 1 implementation (2013-2015) to the Committee on Earth Observations (CEOS) in the GEOGLAM-CEOS Global Agricultural Monitoring Co-community Meeting held in June 2013. And also, rice crop has complicated cropping systems such as rein-fed or irrigated cultivation, single, double or sometimes triple cropping. In addition, each agricultural field is smaller than that of

  20. Diagnostic tardif d'une hyperoxalurie primitive au stade d'insuffisance rénale chronique terminale avec hypoparathyroïdie sévère

    PubMed Central

    El Ghali, Zineb; Lahcen, Zineb Ait; Fadili, Wafaa; Kaitouni, Abderrahim Idrissi; Hakkou, Mohamed; Hamdaoui, Abderrachid; Laouad, Inass

    2014-01-01

    L'hyperoxalurie primitive est une anomalie métabolique congénitale rare caractérisée par un excès de production avec accumulation d'oxalate secondaire à un déficit enzymatique hépatique. Nous rapportons le cas d'un patient de 18 ans qui avait comme antécédent des lithiases rénales récidivantes depuis l'enfance évoluant vers l'insuffisance rénale chronique terminale, mis en hémodialyse périodique depuis 4 ans avec apparition d'une anémie résistante à l’érythropoïétine pour laquelle il a été multitransfusé et qui était admis pour prise en charge de douleurs osseuses invalidantes d'aggravation progressive associées à un syndrome tumoral fait d'adénopathies périphériques et de splénomégalie avec dyspnée et altération de l’état général. Le bilan réalisé avait objectivé de multiples images lytiques lacunaires et condensantes au niveau des poignets et des mains avec des petits reins calcifiés, une pleurésie avec péricardite de grande abondance drainée, une ascite de moyenne abondance avec splénomégalie homogène, une anémie normochrome normocytaire à 7.2 g/dl avec hyperferritinémie à 1129 μg/l et un syndrome inflammatoire biologique. La calcémie était spontanément normale à 97 mg/l avec hyperphosphorémie à 83 mg/l et hypoparathyroïdie à 74,85 pg/ml. Les PAL étaient à 136 UI/l, l'aluminium sérique à 13μg/l et la Vitamine D native à 20,87ng/ml. Le diagnostic d'hyperoxalurie a été retenu sur les données de la biopsie ostéomédullaire objectivant des dépôts de cristaux d'oxalate de calcium avec fibrose médullaire et réaction macrophagique à corps étranger. L’évolution a été marquée par la survenue de fractures spontanées récidivantes au niveau de l’épaule et des 2 hanches. PMID:25328593

  1. PREFACE: Special section on vortex rings Special section on vortex rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, Yasuhide

    2009-10-01

    . Their formation is a problem of vortex sheet dynamics, the steady state is a problem of existence, their duration is a problem of stability, and if there are several we have the problem of vortex interactions. Helmholtz himself, in the same paper (1858), devoted a few pages to an analysis of the motion of a vortex ring, and made substantial contributions. Since then, theoretical, experimental and numerical treatments of vortex rings have been developing continuously, yet we encounter mysteries and novel phenomena, with which vortex rings find new applications in, say, bio-fluid mechanics. Recently vortex rings have enlarged their scope beyond classical fluids to encompass super-fluids and Bose-Einstein condensates. On the occasion of the 150th anniversary of Helmholtz's theory on a vortex ring, it is worthwhile to bring together, in one issue, the latest understandings of and open problems in vortex rings from various aspects. The topics in this issue include development of theories and experiments for motion of vortex rings and their interaction with other vortex rings, flows and boundaries, with application to vortex-ring manipulation for flow control, original experiments on collision of vortex rings with a porous boundary, a novel numerical technique to simulate three-dimensional motion of vortex rings and new theories of dynamics of quantum vortex rings governed by nonlinear Schrödinger equations. I hope that this special section gives a sketch, in some proportion, of the current frontier of the field and provides a means to tackle future problems. References Saffman P G 1981 Dynamics of vorticity J. Fluid Mech. 106 49-58 von Helmholtz H 1858 Über Integrale der hydrodynamischen Gleichungen welche den Wirbelbewegungen entsprechen J. Reine Angew. Math. 55 25-55 (Engl. transl.: Tait P G 1867 On the integrals of the hydrodynamical equations which express vortex-motion Phil. Mag. 33 (4) 485-512)

  2. New rare earth metal-rich indides RE14Ni 3In 3 ( RE=Sc, Y, Gd-Tm, Lu)—synthesis and crystal chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukachuk, Mar'yana; Galadzhun, Yaroslav V.; Zaremba, Roman I.; Dzevenko, Mariya V.; Kalychak, Yaroslav M.; Zaremba, Vasyl I.; Rodewald, Ute Ch.; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2005-09-01

    The rare earth-nickel-indides RE14Ni 3In 3 ( RE=Sc, Y, Gd-Tm, Lu) were synthesized from the elements by arc-melting and subsequent annealing. The compounds were investigated on the basis of X-ray powder and single crystal data: Lu 14Co 2In 3 type, P4 2/ nmc, Z=4, a=888.1(1), c=2134.7(4), wR2=0.0653, 1381 F2 values, 63 variables for Sc 13.89Ni 3.66In 2.45; a=961.2(1), c=2316.2(5), wR2=0.0633, 1741 F2 values, 64 variables for Y 13.84Ni 3.19In 2.97; a=965.3(1), c=2330.5(5), wR2=0.0620, 1765 F2 values, 63 variables for Gd 14Ni 3.29In 2.71; a=956.8(1), c=2298.4(5), wR2=0.0829, 1707 F2 values, 64 variables for Tb 13.82Ni 3.36In 2.82; a=951.7(1), c=2289.0(5), wR2=0.0838, 1794 F2 values, 64 variables for Dy 13.60Ni 3.34In 3.06; a=948.53(7), c=2270.6(1), wR2=0.1137, 1191 F2 values, 64 variables for Ho 13.35Ni 3.17In 3.48; a=943.5(1), c=2269.1(5), wR2=0.0552, 1646 F2 values, 64 variables for Er 13.53Ni 3.14In 3.33; a=938.42(7), c=2250.8(1), wR2=0.1051, 1611 F2 values, 64 variables for Tm 13.47Ni 3.28In 3.25; a=937.3(1), c=2249.6(5), wR2=0.0692, 1604 F2 values, 64 variables for Tm 13.80Ni 3.49In 2.71; and a=933.4(1), c=2263.0(5), wR2=0.0709, 1603 F2 values, 64 variables for Lu 13.94Ni 3.07In 2.99. The RE14Ni 3In 3 indides show significant Ni/In mixing on the 4 c In1 site. Except the gadolinium compound, the RE14Ni 3In 3 intermetallics also reveal RE/In mixing on the 4 c RE1 site, leading to the refined compositions. Due to the high rare earth metal content, the seven crystallographically independent RE sites have between 9 and 10 nearest RE neighbors. The RE14Ni 3In 3 structures can be described as a complex intergrowth of rare earth-based polyhedra. Both nickel sites have a distorted trigonal-prismatic rare earth coordination. An interesting feature is the In2-In2 dumb-bell at an In2-In2 distance of 304 pm (for Gd 14Ni 3.29In 2.71). The crystal chemical peculiarities of the RE14Ni 3In 3 indides are briefly discussed.

  3. [History of anaesthesia in Belgium].

    PubMed

    De Rood, M

    2012-01-01

    Man has for a long time searched means of fighting pain, by administration of plant extracts such as poppy seed, jimson weed, henbane, mandrake and alcohol. These substances were given in the form of cataplasms, potions or clysters. Somniferous sponges, applied on the face, were known since Antiquity and have been in use in some countries up to the 13th century. Surgery and pain were inseparable till mid 19th century. Indications for surgery were few, even though some patients could benefit from these sedative drugs. The anesthetic properties of ether and nitrous oxide (laughing gas), known since the 18th century, were only recognized in the 19th century. William Morton, a dentist, was the first to successfully provide general anesthesia with ether in 1846 in Boston. News spread to England shortly afterwards. On the European continent, the first use of ether was due to 2 Belgian surgeons. Next came chloroform as novel anesthetic. They were administered via either a gauze or a mask by the general practitioner, a medical student or a nurse. Unlike England, the use of these drugs for obstetrical anesthesia (called anesthesia "a la reine", alluding to Queen Victoria who benefited from chloroform during childbirth) was never very popular in Belgium. Since the years 1880, the use of cocaine, then of novocaine allowed to perform local anesthesia, then local nerve blocks and spinal anesthesia, installed by the surgeon prior to operating. Since then, surgery experienced rapid progress, Belgium included. During the 1914-1918 first World War, these advances saved many human lives. When general anesthesia was necessary, it was cared for by another physician or a nurse. The interwar period did not see significant advances in anesthesia, except in intravenous anesthesia with barbiturates, appeared in the late 1930's. Intra- and postoperative complications were frequent. Apart from sulfonamides, antibiotics were non-existent. During the war 1940-45, there was no progress in

  4. Profil de la néphropathie diabétique à l’Hôpital Général de Référence Nationale de N'Djamena (Tchad)

    PubMed Central

    Hamat, Ibrahim; Abderraman, Guillaume Mahamat; Cisse, Mouhamadou Moustapha; Youssouf, Mahamat; Djafar, Matar Saboune; Mbainguinam, Dionadji; Fotclossou, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Le diabète sucré constitue un véritable problème de santé et ses complications touchent plusieurs organes dont les reins. Un diagnostic précoce de la néphropathie diabétique permet de prendre en charge les patients plus efficacement et de façon multidisciplinaire, de retarder sa progression vers l'insuffisance rénale chronique. Peu d'études ont été faites en Afrique dans ce domaine. Au Tchad, nous ne disposons pas de données statistiques sur l'atteinte rénale liée au diabète. C'est pourquoi nous nous proposons d'étudier la néphropathie diabétique avec pour objectifs d'analyser le profil de la néphropathie diabétique des patients de l'hôpital général de référence nationale de N'Djamena. Méthodes Nous avions mené une étude transversale descriptive à l'Hôpital Générale de Référence Nationale de N'Djamena d'avril à septembre 2012. Etaient inclus dans l'étude tous les patients diabétiques hospitalisés ou suivis dans les services de néphrologie et d'endocrinologie. Résultats Il y avait 54 cas de néphropathie diabétique sur 181 patients soit 29,80%. L'âge de plus de 50 ans représentait 87%, le sexe masculin dominait avec 67%, la durée d'évolution du diabète au moment de la découverte de la néphropathie était de 10,25 ans, la pression artérielle moyenne était de 138 mm Hg, l'HbA1C était supérieur à 6,5% dans 74,5%, l'insuffisance rénale terminale était retrouvée dans 26,90%, une protéinurie à 2,65 g/24 h était détectée dans 60,30%. 57,4% des patients avaient une rétinopathie diabétique au stade III. Conclusion Au Tchad, la fréquence de la néphropathie diabétique est de l'ordre de 29,83%. C'est une affection qui touche les hommes avec une moyenne d'âge de 58,7 ans. Le diabète de type 2 est le plus fréquent avec 90,7% des cas. Les facteurs de risque mal contrôlés pouvaient conduire la néphropathie diabétique vers une altération de la fonction rénale notamment l'HTA (70,8%), un d

  5. EDITORIAL: Deeper, broader, higher, better?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Ken

    1998-07-01

    Honorary Editor The standard of educational achievement in England and Wales is frequently criticized, and it seems to be an axiom of government that schools and teachers need to be shaken up, kept on a tight rein, copiously inspected, shamed and blamed as required: in general, subjected to the good old approach of: ' Find out what Johnny is doing and tell him to stop.' About the only exception to this somewhat severe attitude is at A-level, where the standard is simply golden. Often, comparisons are made between the performance of, say, English children and that of their coevals in other countries, with different customs, systems, aims and languages. But there has been a recent comparison of standards at A-level with a non-A-level system of pre-university education, in an English-speaking country that both sends students to English universities and accepts theirs into its own, and is, indeed, represented in the UK government at well above the level expected from its ethnical weighting in the population. This semi-foreign country is Scotland. The conclusions of the study are interesting. Scotland has had its own educational system, with `traditional breadth', and managed to escape much of the centralized authoritarianism that we have been through south of the border. It is interesting to note that, while for the past dozen years or so the trend in A-level Physics entries has been downwards, there has been an increase in the take-up of Scottish `Highers'. Highers is a one-year course. Is its popularity due to its being easier than A-level? Scottish students keen enough to do more can move on to the Certificate of Sixth Year Studies, and will shortly be able to upgrade a Higher Level into an Advanced Higher Level. A comparability study [ Comparability Study of Scottish Qualifications and GCE Advanced Levels: Report on Physics January 1998 (free from SQA)] was carried out by the Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) with the aim (amongst others) of helping

  6. Optimizing Drone Fertility With Spring Nutritional Supplements to Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Andrée; Giovenazzo, Pierre

    2016-03-27

    Supplemental feeding of honey bee (Apis melliferaL., Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies in spring is essential for colony buildup in northern apicultural regions. The impact of pollen and syrup feeding on drone production and sperm quality is not well-documented, but may improve fecundation of early-bred queens. We measured the impact of feeding sucrose syrup, and protein supplements to colonies in early spring in eastern Canada. Drones were reared under different nutritional regimes, and mature individuals were then assessed in regard to size, weight, and semen quality (semen volume, sperm count, and viability). Results showed significant increases in drone weight and abdomen size when colonies were fed sucrose and a protein supplement. Colonies receiving no additional nourishment had significantly less semen volume per drone and lower sperm viability. Our study demonstrates that feeding honey bee colonies in spring with sucrose syrup and a protein supplement is important to enhance drone reproductive quality. RÉSUMÉ: L'administration de suppléments alimentaires aux colonies de l'abeille domestique (Apis melliferaL., Hymenoptera: Apidae) au printemps est essentielle pour le bon développement des colonies dans les régions apicoles nordiques. L'impact de la supplémentation des colonies en pollen et en sirop sur la production des faux-bourdons et la qualité du sperme demeure peu documenté mais pourrait résulter en une meilleure fécondation des reines produites tôt en saison. Nous avons mesuré l'impact de la supplémentation en sirop et/ou en supplément de pollen sur les colonies d'abeilles tôt au printemps dans l'est du Canada. Les faux-bourdons ont été élevé sous différents régimes alimentaires et les individus matures ont ensuite été évalués pour leur taille, leur poids ainsi que la qualité de leur sperme (volume de sperme, nombre et viabilité des spermatozoïdes. Les résultats montrent une augmentation significative du poids et de la taille

  7. The man and the hill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1962-01-01

    He was sitting on a large slab of rock. As he looked at the cloud of dust hanging hazily on the horizon, the piece of antler and the block of flint he held in his hand hung as if they were suspended from their previous rapid motion. The man gazed intently across the swaying grass which rose in wave-like billows across the distant hills. What was that dust - a herd of buffalo, a band of hunters, or were coyotes chasing the antelope again? After watching for a while he started again to chip the flint with a rapid twisting motion of the bone in his right hand. The little chips of flint fell in the grass before him. It is the same hill but the scene has changed. Seated on the same rock, holding the reins of a saddle horse, a man dressed in buckskin took the fur cap off his head and wiped his brow. He was looking intently across a brown and desolate landscape at a cloud of dust on the far horizon. Was it the hostile tribe of Indians? It could be buffalo. Nervously he kicked at the ground with the deerhide moccasin, pushing the flint chips out of the way. He wiped the dust from his long rifle. What a terrible place - no water, practically no grass, everything bare and brown. Now at sunset, slanting across the hills green with springtime, a cowman sits on a big rock, pushes his sombrero back on his head, and looks across the valley at a large but quiet herd of stock, moving slowly as each steer walks from one lush patch of grass to another, nibbling. Suddenly he stood up. Far on the horizon some dark objects were moving. Is it the sheepmen? Could it be the stage coach from Baggs to the Sweetwater Crossing?Same hill - a gray truck was grinding slowly toward the summit. It pulled up near a small fenced enclosure where there were some instruments painted a bright silver color. A man stepped out of the truck and turned to his younger companion, "You've never found an arrowhead? Maybe you have never thought about it correctly. If you want to find where an Indian camped long

  8. Status and progress of the RERTR program in the year 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    2000-09-28

    } dispersion fuel and on LEU conversion feasibility studies in the Russian RERTR program. Conversion of the BER-11reactor in Berlin, Germany, was completed and conversion of the La Reins reactor in Santiago, Chile, began. These are exciting times for the program. In the fuel development area, the RERTR program is aggressively pursuing qualification of high-density LEU U-Mo dispersion fuels, with the dual goal of enabling fi.uther conversions and of developing a substitute for LEU silicide fuels that can be more easily disposed of after expiration of the FRR SNF Acceptance Program. The {sup 99}Mo effort has reached the point where it appears feasible for all the {sup 99}Mo producers of the world to agree jointly to a common course of action leading to the elimination of HEU use in their processes. As in the past, the success of the RERTR program will depend on the international friendship and cooperation that has always been its trademark.

  9. Transplantation rénale au Maroc: l'hémodialysé et son entourage sont-ils suffisamment informés?

    PubMed Central

    Noto-Kadou-Kaza, Béfa; Sabi, Kossi Akomola; Imangue, Ghislain; Al-Torayhi, Mays Hadi; Amekoudi, Eyram Yoan Makafui; Tsevi, Claude Mawufemo; Zamd, Mohamed; Medkouri, Ghislaine; Benghanem, Mohamed Gharbi; Ramdani, Benyounes

    2014-01-01

    Introduction La transplantation rénale constitue le traitement idéal de l'insuffisance rénale chronique. Cependant il existe une insuffisance de donneurs contrairement aux receveurs dont le nombre ne cesse de s'accroitre. La méconnaissance de la transplantation par les hémodialysés et leur entourage pourrait être l'une des causes. Notre but était d’évaluer les connaissances et opinions de l'hémodialysé et de son entourage sur la transplantation rénale. Méthodes L'enquête menée en Aout 2013 avait inclus 83 hémodialysés de notre centre et 70 membres de leur entourage. Ils ont été soumis à un questionnaire qui portait sur les thèmes suivants: statut socio-économique, volonté d’être transplanté ou d’être donneur, avantages de la transplantation rénale, point de vue de la religion sur la transplantation. Aucun des individus interrogés n'avait jamais fait l'objet d'une transplantation ou d'un don d'organe. Résultats Parmi 83 hémodialysés on notait 49,4% de femmes avec une moyenne d’âge de 41,4±12 ans. Le niveau socio-économique bas représentait 66,7%. Le manque d'information chez était estimé à 62,7%. Seuls 41% se disaient être candidat à la transplantation rénale mais 12% seulement était inscrit sur la liste d'attente de greffe. La transplantation était estimée plus couteuse que l'hémodialyse par 50,6% des patients et seuls 71,1% estimaient qu'elle offrait une meilleure vie. Pour 20,5%, l'Islam s'opposerait au don cadavérique et pour 10,9% au don vivant. Parmi les 70 membres de l'entourage interrogé il y avait 56,8% de femmes; la moyenne d’âge était de 44,4±10,5 ans. Le niveau économique bas représentait 52,3%. Le manque d'information était estimé à 61,4%. Pour 56,8% la vie serait impossible avec un seul rein. Seuls 13,6% étaient inscrit sur le registre de don. Pour 45,5% l'Islam s'opposerait au don cadavérique. Conclusion Il importe d'intensifier la sensibilisation des hémodialysées et leur famille

  10. Craniomandibular/temporomandibular/cervical implications of a forced hyper-extension/hyper-flexion episode (i.e., whiplash).

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, T

    1994-01-01

    Clinicians now appreciate the full chain of tissue damage of the interconnecting muscles, tendons, ligaments and fascia: this compromised linkage from the skull through the suboccipital musculature to the cervical spine and anterior/posterior cervical muscles, from the check-rein ligaments and muscles extending from the skull and maxilla to the mandible, from the suprahyoid musculature connecting the mandible through to the hyoid bone, from the hyoid through the infrahyoid to the supporting shoulder girdle, all contribute to damaged interconnecting matrices. Consequently, unresolved tissue damage in any of this linkage becomes mutually provocative during function to any part of the linkage. Diagnostics, therefore, must necessarily include examination of this total linkage; similarly, eventual treatment protocols must resolve tissue damage in all of this interconnecting linkage if treatment is to be successful beyond palliative applications. The influence of an angular component in any such trauma must be emphasized; force vectors then attack the craniomandibular/temporo-mandibular/cervical complex where it is most vulnerable, at the most restrictive parameters of functional mobility. Thus, the angular component brings an exponential increase in tissue damage potential to all of the craniomandibular/temporomandibular/cervical complex. Finally, if we are to treat the occlusion of these victims intelligently, we must understand the effects of this trauma on the 'whole body', and not just focus singularly on the restoration or the malocclusion or the TMJoint problem. There are lessons to be learned from this acute trauma which provide valuable insights into the diagnosis of chronic pain patients. If these victims do not come to us for help immediately following the acute trauma episode, but arrive in our offices months or years later, our clinical examinations must include head and neck mobility or functional restrictions, observations of the patients' gait, other

  11. Polymers at membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breidenich, Markus

    2000-11-01

    ätigen die perturbativ berechneten Resultate. Bei Hinzunahme eines attraktiven Potentials zwischen Polymer und Membran verringert sich die ursprünglich vom Polymer induzierte Krümmung. Im Limes starker Adsorption, in welchem das Polymer ganz auf der Membranoberfläche lokalisiert ist, verschwindet der Polymerdruck und die durch diesen induzierte Krümmung der Membran. Falls das Polymer nicht direkt auf der Membranoberfläche verankert ist, sondern in endlichem Ankerabstand, biegt sich die Membran im adsorbierten Fall zum Polymer hin. Im letzten Teil der Arbeit werden nicht verankerte Polymere in Lösung betrachtet. Untersucht wird der Einfluss einer solchen Polymerlösung auf die Krümmung der Membran. Im Grenzfall einer rein sterischen, repulsiven Wechselwirkung zwischen Polymeren und Membran biegt sich diese, im Gegensatz zur verankerten Situation, zur Lösung hin. Bei zunehmender Attraktion biegt sich die Membran im Limes starker Adsorption der Polymere von der Lösung weg.

  12. What's the Kepler Spacecraft Been Up To?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    includes:26 candidates with sizes between 1 and 4 Earth radii, orbiting bright stars. These are well suited for precise radial velocity follow-up.10 candidates with radii between 1.6 and 4 Earth radii that are likely to have gaseous envelopes. These are well suited for atmospheric characterization.8 sub-Earth sized candidates, the smallest of which are about 0.75 times the size of Earth.Vanderburg and collaborators make all of their data products (light curves, spectra, vetting diagnostics, etc.) publicly available. Their observations and data provide an excellent starting point for follow-up on the many potential planets discovered by K2 within the first year of its proposed three-year mission. And given this already long list of candidates, its clear that while Keplers power may have been reined in slightly, this telescope still has many more discoveries to show us.CitationAndrew Vanderburg et al 2016 ApJS 222 14. doi:10.3847/0067-0049/222/1/14

  13. Pions to Quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Laurie Mark; Dresden, Max; Hoddeson, Lillian

    2009-01-01

    neutrino Frederick Reines; 25. Recollections on the establishment of the weak-interaction notion Bruno M. Pontecorvo; 26. Symmetry and conservation laws in particle physics in the fifties Louis Michel; 27. A connection between the strong and weak interactions Sam B. Treiman; Part VII. Weak interactions and parity nonconservation; 29. The nondiscovery of parity nonconservation Allan Franklin; 30. K-meson decays and parity violation Richard H. Dalitz; 31. An Experimentalist's Perspective Val L. Fitch; 32. The early experiments leading to the V - A interaction Valentine L. Telegdi; 33. Midcentury adventures in particles physics E. C. G. Sudarshan; Part VIII. The particle physics community; 34. The postwar political economy of high-energy physics Robert Seidel; 35. The history of CERN during the early 1950s Edoardo Amaldi; 36. Arguments pro and contra the European laboratory in the participating countries Armin Hermann; 37. Physics and excellences of the life it brings Abdus Salam; 38. Social aspects of Japanese particle physics in the 1950s Michiji Konuma; Part IX. Theories of hadrons; 39. The early S-matrix theory and its propagation (1942-1952) Helmut Rechenberg; 40. From field theory to phenomenology: the history of dispersion relations Andy Pickering; 41. Particles as S-matrix poles: hadron democracy Geoffrey F. Chew; 42. The general theory of quantised fields in the 1950s Arthur S. Wrightman; 43. The classification and structure of hadrons Yuval Ne'eman; 44. Gauge principle, vector-meson dominance and spontaneous symmetry breaking Yoichiro Nambu; Part X. Personal overviews; 45. Scientific impact of the first decade of the Rochester conferences (1950-1960) Robert E. Marshak; 46. Some reflections on the history of particle physics in the 1950s Silvan S. Schweber; 47. Progress in elementary particle theory 1950-1964 Murray Gell-Mann.

  14. Microbial Rhodopsin Optogenetic Tools: Application for Analyses of Synaptic Transmission and of Neuronal Network Activity in Behavior.

    PubMed

    Glock, Caspar; Nagpal, Jatin; Gottschalk, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Optogenetics was introduced as a new technology in the neurosciences about a decade ago (Zemelman et al., Neuron 33:15-22, 2002; Boyden et al., Nat Neurosci 8:1263-1268, 2005; Nagel et al., Curr Biol 15:2279-2284, 2005; Zemelman et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:1352-1357, 2003). It combines optics, genetics, and bioengineering to render neurons sensitive to light, in order to achieve a precise, exogenous, and noninvasive control of membrane potential, intracellular signaling, network activity, or behavior (Rein and Deussing, Mol Genet Genomics 287:95-109, 2012; Yizhar et al., Neuron 71:9-34, 2011). As C. elegans is transparent, genetically amenable, has a small nervous system mapped with synapse resolution, and exhibits a rich behavioral repertoire, it is especially open to optogenetic methods (White et al., Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 314:1-340, 1986; De Bono et al., Optogenetic actuation, inhibition, modulation and readout for neuronal networks generating behavior in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, In: Hegemann P, Sigrist SJ (eds) Optogenetics, De Gruyter, Berlin, 2013; Husson et al., Biol Cell 105:235-250, 2013; Xu and Kim, Nat Rev Genet 12:793-801, 2011). Optogenetics, by now an "exploding" field, comprises a repertoire of different tools ranging from transgenically expressed photo-sensor proteins (Boyden et al., Nat Neurosci 8:1263-1268, 2005; Nagel et al., Curr Biol 15:2279-2284, 2005) or cascades (Zemelman et al., Neuron 33:15-22, 2002) to chemical biology approaches, using photochromic ligands of endogenous channels (Szobota et al., Neuron 54:535-545, 2007). Here, we will focus only on optogenetics utilizing microbial rhodopsins, as these are most easily and most widely applied in C. elegans. For other optogenetic tools, for example the photoactivated adenylyl cyclases (PACs, that drive neuronal activity by increasing synaptic vesicle priming, thus exaggerating rather than overriding the intrinsic activity of a neuron, as occurs with

  15. A Study of Charged Current Single Charged Pion Productions on Carbon in a Few-GeV Neutrino Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraide, Katsuki

    2009-01-01

    current coherent pion production to the total charged current cross section at 0.67 x 10-2 at mean neutrino energy 1.1 GeV and 1.36 x 10-2 at mean neutrino energy 2.2 GeV. We reveal that the Rein-Sehgal model widely used in neutrino oscillation experiments breaks down at the neutrino energy region of a few GeV. This creates active controversies on the model of coherent pion production, and the understanding of coherent pion production is being progressed. In addition, future prospects of measurements of charged current single charged pion production in SciBooNE are discussed.

  16. Stochastic Modeling based on Dictionary Approach for the Generation of Daily Precipitation Occurrences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panu, U. S.; Ng, W.; Rasmussen, P. F.

    2009-12-01

    The modeling of weather states (i.e., precipitation occurrences) is critical when the historical data are not long enough for the desired analysis. Stochastic models (e.g., Markov Chain and Alternating Renewal Process (ARP)) of the precipitation occurrence processes generally assume the existence of short-term temporal-dependency between the neighboring states while implying the existence of long-term independency (randomness) of states in precipitation records. Existing temporal-dependent models for the generation of precipitation occurrences are restricted either by the fixed-length memory (e.g., the order of a Markov chain model), or by the reining states in segments (e.g., persistency of homogenous states within dry/wet-spell lengths of an ARP). The modeling of variable segment lengths and states could be an arduous task and a flexible modeling approach is required for the preservation of various segmented patterns of precipitation data series. An innovative Dictionary approach has been developed in the field of genome pattern recognition for the identification of frequently occurring genome segments in DNA sequences. The genome segments delineate the biologically meaningful ``words" (i.e., segments with a specific patterns in a series of discrete states) that can be jointly modeled with variable lengths and states. A meaningful “word”, in hydrology, can be referred to a segment of precipitation occurrence comprising of wet or dry states. Such flexibility would provide a unique advantage over the traditional stochastic models for the generation of precipitation occurrences. Three stochastic models, namely, the alternating renewal process using Geometric distribution, the second-order Markov chain model, and the Dictionary approach have been assessed to evaluate their efficacy for the generation of daily precipitation sequences. Comparisons involved three guiding principles namely (i) the ability of models to preserve the short-term temporal-dependency in

  17. MicroRNA-19b-3p Modulates Japanese Encephalitis Virus-Mediated Inflammation via Targeting RNF11

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Usama; Zhu, Bibo; Ye, Jing; Wan, Shengfeng; Nie, Yanru; Chen, Zheng; Cui, Min; Wang, Chong; Duan, Xiaodong; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Huanchun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) can invade the central nervous system and consequently induce neuroinflammation, which is characterized by profound neuronal cell damage accompanied by astrogliosis and microgliosis. Albeit microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as major regulatory noncoding RNAs with profound effects on inflammatory response, it is unknown how astrocytic miRNAs regulate JEV-induced inflammation. Here, we found the involvement of miR-19b-3p in regulating the JEV-induced inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo. The data demonstrated that miR-19b-3p is upregulated in cultured cells and mouse brain tissues during JEV infection. Overexpression of miR-19b-3p led to increased production of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, after JEV infection, whereas knockdown of miR-19b-3p had completely opposite effects. Mechanistically, miR-19b-3p modulated the JEV-induced inflammatory response via targeting ring finger protein 11, a negative regulator of nuclear factor kappa B signaling. We also found that inhibition of ring finger protein 11 by miR-19b-3p resulted in accumulation of nuclear factor kappa B in the nucleus, which in turn led to higher production of inflammatory cytokines. In vivo silencing of miR-19b-3p by a specific antagomir reinvigorates the expression level of RNF11, which in turn reduces the production of inflammatory cytokines, abrogates gliosis and neuronal cell death, and eventually improves the survival rate in the mouse model. Collectively, our results demonstrate that miR-19b-3p positively regulates the JEV-induced inflammatory response. Thus, miR-19b-3p targeting may constitute a thought-provoking approach to rein in JEV-induced inflammation. IMPORTANCE Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is one of the major causes of acute encephalitis in humans worldwide. The pathological features of JEV-induced encephalitis are inflammatory reactions and

  18. Europe's Neogene and Quaternary lake gastropod diversity - a statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, Thomas A.; Georgopoulou, Elisavet; Harzhauser, Mathias; Mandic, Oleg; Kroh, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    - and planorbid-dominated lakes. Nevertheless, several pre-Holocene lakes, such as the early Middle Miocene Lake Rein (Styrian Basin, Austria), several Middle Miocene lakes in Hungary and some Pliocene ones in France, are strikingly "modern" in their generic inventory and genus/species relations. This suggests that the modern composition is not necessarily a young pattern, explained only by the glacial bottleneck. Nevertheless, an overall turnover from melanopsid-pyrgulid-dominated faunas towards planorbid-viviparid-dominated lake faunas from Miocene to Pliocene seems to be reflected in the data on central Europe. This rule of thumb, however, is contradicted by melanopsid-dominated faunas on the Aegean islands during the Pliocene. The FreshGEN project (Freshwater Gastropods of the European Neogene) is currently collecting data for providing the first detailed assessment of the composition of the European freshwater gastropod fauna during the Neogene and Quaternary at species level, with emphasis on lake faunas. This includes revealing shifts in the overall γ-biodiversity, changing evolutionary hotspots, faunal gradients, and the evolution of endemic radiations. The results will be discussed in terms of regional and global patterns and will be related to regional and large-scale climatic changes during the Neogene.

  19. Le don après un décès d'origine cardiocirculatoire au Canada

    PubMed Central

    Shemie, Sam D.; Baker, Andrew J.; Knoll, Greg; Wall, William; Rocker, Graeme; Howes, Daniel; Davidson, Janet; Pagliarello, Joe; Chambers-Evans, Jane; Cockfield, Sandra; Farrell, Catherine; Glannon, Walter; Gourlay, William; Grant, David; Langevin, Stéphan; Wheelock, Brian; Young, Kimberly; Dossetor, John

    2006-01-01

    engagement des intervenants, mécanismes d'assurance de la sécurité et de la qualité et information du public. Il est recommandé de commencer par un program de DDC contrôlé à l'unité de soins intensifs où, après une décision par consentement mutuel de cesser le traitement de maintien des fonctions vitales, la mort est attendue, mais n'est pas survenue, ce qui rend possible des discussions non précipitées sur le consentement. Un don non contrôlé, en cas de décès après un arrêt cardiaque non prévu, doit être envisagé seulement une fois que le program de DDC contrôlé a été établi. Bien qu'il soit recommandé de restreindre le programme initial au don de reins, le don d'autres organes peut aussi être envisagé selon l'expertise régionale en matière de transplantation. Les répercussions d'un DDC, y compris les interventions pratiquées avant et après le décès, sur la famille du donneur, la disponibilité des organes, la fonction du greffon et la survie du receveur doivent être documentées de façon méthodique et examinées.

  20. Characterization of Contaminant Transport by Gravity, Capillarity and Barometric Pumping in Heterogeneous Vadose Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, C R; Martins, S A; Ramirez, A L; Daily, W D; Hudson, G B; Ralsont, D; Ekwurzel, B

    2001-02-27

    in the vadose zone. From the VZO at the LLNL site and from 3-D diagnostic simulations of our very first tracer-spiked plume infiltration event, we produced a much better understanding of the implications of soil heterogeneity for unsaturated zone contaminant transport at DOE sites. Even though the LLNL VZO site is considered to be hydrologically ''tight'' owing to the low permeability of the clays and silts that dominate the soil formations there, we find that saturation increases resulting from a near-surface ''leak'' reach the water table across the 20-meter-thick vadose zone in only tens of hours. This rapid transport at the site cannot be accurately simulated by layered models that derive their hydrologic properties from borehole-soil samples. In the LLNL vadose zone, layered infiltration models clearly underpredict of the rate of contaminant infiltration to the water table. Chemical transport simulations based on layered models of the Hanford vadose zone also appear to drastically underpredict contaminant migration. Furthermore, only simulations assuming a heterogeneous regime ''threaded'' by extremely high-permeability pathways can explain the rapid increase in saturation observed with ERT near the water table. Three-dimensional predictive models of a hypothetical tritiated water leak that are based on the above mentioned VZO infiltration-experiment diagnostic models were run. Tritiated water is an excellent conservative tracer and the infiltration simulations predict, in very good agreement with VZO experiments, that a continuous hypothetical tritium release (2-3 liters/rein) would be expected to reach the water table at significant concentrations within days. The numerical model suggests that this arrival time is determined by the amount of time required, infiltrating liquid at a given rate, to flush one pore volume in the soil between the infiltration point and the water table. Another infiltration event monitored by ERT demonstrated that infiltration could

  1. Obituary: Franklyn M. Branley, 1915-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Kenneth L.

    2003-12-01

    Jersey State Teachers College where he was teaching teachers how to teach science, and had been a guest lecturer at the Hayden for several months. Frank continued his own education while working at the Planetarium, gaining a Masters degree from New York University, and his Ed. D. from Columbia Teachers College. I joined the Hayden staff two weeks after Frank. Many of our friends and professional colleagues are aware of the confusion caused by the coincidence of our arrival and the similarity of our names. Frank did not appreciate it when the payroll department took my deductions from his check. About five years ago, a librarian I met in our travels wanted to know if I still wrote books. Evidently, the confusion persists. On Friday, 4 October 1957, the Russian satellite, Sputnik, was sent into orbit, surprising the world, and embarrassing our science establishment in the midst of the International Geophysical Year. CBS producers Vern Diamond and Don Hewitt were at the Planetarium on Saturday to plan a Sunday nationwide broadcast concerning this event. Branley and I were the only staff members available for the hour-long show. Richard C. Hottlet was at the Planetarium, and Douglas Edwards was in the CBS studio. It went well. In 1959, Chairman Joseph Miles Chamberlain, then Education Officer of the AAS, Frank Edmondson, AAS Treasurer, and Frank Branley met at the nearby Alden Hotel for lunch. When they had finished, the Society's Visiting Professor program was born. Branley, assisted by his secretary Barbara Harrison, administered the program for several years. The first four in the stable were Harlow Shapley, Seth Nicholson, Frank Edmondson, and Gibson Reaves. This highly successful program is now named for Harlow Shapley. In 1968, he took the reins of the Hayden as Chairman until he retired in 1972. During that time, we went to taped public shows, but shows for schools continued to be live. The use of tapes for the shows allowed much tighter control over their scientific

  2. EDITORIAL: Incoming Editor-in-Chief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidström, Suzanne

    2012-04-01

    implemented whereby manuscripts containing insufficiently novel results or papers deemed to be too specialized to warrant inclusion in a broad-based physics journal are being eliminated by experts working actively in the field and deemed to be well-qualified to make this judgment. All of the manuscripts that pass this preliminary round of selection commence the full peer review process. Nevertheless, as it is unrealistic to expect to recruit expert editors to screen every aspect of all subjects, a few manuscripts are occasionally rejected on the basis of just one particularly unfavourable report. These measures are being implemented, in part, because of an awareness that certain researchers are being asked to engage in reviewing with inappropriate regularity: it is my aim to do my best to protect these researchers from excessive and onerous reviewing. As mentioned briefly above, the extensive variety in the material covered by Physica Scripta makes the support of a considerable number of expert subject editors from a variety of fields a necessity. We still have some fields where the addition of further editors is imperative, so I will be striving to identify these and the gaps in our editorial coverage with a view to building up the service that our experts can provide. This is a matter of some urgency, as it must be achieved before the existing editors start to bow under the strain! A second, but by no means less important, priority is to continue to augment the quality of the scientific publications as a whole. This will be achieved by maintaining the trend of increasingly strict acceptance criteria demonstrated in figure 1, where it can be seen that, although the submissions are increasing rapidly, a tight rein is being kept on the quality: the acceptances will not increase with greater rapidity than the quality allows. In addition to the manuscripts received through the conventional submissions process, our popular Comments articles, in which foremost scientists address

  3. Young Astronomers' Observe with ESO Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    characteristics are listed in great detail. Two are small and dense and the outermost is gaseous. It turns out that the distance to our Earth is 26 light-years and that it would be not be too easy to observe the Ikaros system from here. It is unlikely that life can develop in this planetary system during the relatively short lifetime of the central star. United Kingdom: Mr. Michael Ching, Mr. Richard Field (Teacher) (Oundle School, Peterborough) This project is directed towards variable stars of the pulsating type. It discusses the theory for these pulsations and the peculiar location of these types of stars in the HR-diagramme, as well as the technique to determine distances by means of measurements of the period. Once the period has been found observationally, the Period-Luminosity diagram makes is possible to find the luminosity and hence the distance to the star. The project also involved real measurements of an RR Lyr-type variable with a period of about 1/3 day. For this, a phototransitor and a registering device were used. The expected light variations were clearly seen. Addendum 2 A brief summary of the results obtained at ESO This brief description is based on the provisional data reduction and subsequent interpretation by the six teams, as presented during a final session on November 20, 1995. Further work will allow to quantify the results in greater detail. Each team was guided by a young ESO astronomer as Team Leader and was also provided support during the observations by ESO-astronomers Lex Kaper and Marcus Kissler, as well as by night assistants Vicente Reyes and Jesus Rodriguez (Garching), Hernan Nunez, Jorge Miranda and Victor Merino at (La Silla). For the data reduction, the teams used the MIDAS image processing system; the introduction was provided by Rein Warmels, one of ESO's experts on these matters. Since the teams that were observing during the last night (3A and 3B) had very little time to reduce and interpret their data, it was not possible to carry