Jprowd REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE M o o,. PFic taofnqbr am, Uue ouf intonfatiol is estimated to OWN@ I h~our Off toOA. indluin tim a w"nqll~tG OWdIn...System Development and Implementation . . . . . 2 3 . Recommended Alternative . ............ 2 SECTION I - TECHNOLOGY CAPABILITY DESCRIPTION...4 A. Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1. Hidden Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2. Technology Program . . . . . . . . . 4 3
Lystlund, Stefanie; Stevens, Eric; Planas, Lourdes G; Marcy, Todd R
To describe patient interest and involvement in participating in a clinic-based community pharmacy drug take-back program to dispose of unused, unwanted, or expired (UUE) medications and to identify patients' reasons for participating in the program. A convenience sample of patients at the University of Oklahoma Family Medicine Pharmacy was recruited to complete a needs assessment survey regarding interest in drug take-back programs and current practices for handling UUE medications. Participants who purchased a postage-paid drug disposal envelope were asked to complete a program survey identifying sources of UUE medications, experience with drug take-back programs, and reasons for participation. These participants were later contacted for a follow-up telephone survey regarding their experience with the program and medications sent back. 62 needs assessment surveys were collected. 61% of patients reported interest in a drug take-back program. 57% reported having no UUE medications at home. Commonly reported UUE handling practices included disposal in the garbage (53.2%) or sewer (29.0%) and home storage (17.7%). 15 disposal envelopes were sold to 10 participants whose most common reasons for participation included concern about the safety of household members, accidental or intentional ingestion, and environmental impact. For 4 patients who returned a median of 9.5 prescriptions, the most common class of returned drugs was antibiotics (19.0%). Interest in drug take-back programs exists, but awareness and availability of continuous programs is limited. Programs may be more successful if offered at no cost to patients. Future studies are needed on the types of medications sent back and specific reasons for accumulation.
Pereira, A C; Gama, V F
In this study we analysed the dynamics of deforestation and burnings during the dry seasons from 2003 to 2008 in the Uruçuí-Una Ecological Station (UUES) and its buffer zone, located in the Cerrado biome of the southwest of Piauí, a Brazil's State, based on images from the orbital sensors CCD/CBERS-2 and TM/Landsat-5. Two dates from each of the years were interpreted and analysed: one in the middle of the dry season and one at the end. The deforested areas were expanded through the period analysed and were larger in the buffer zone, suggesting a relative protection of the UUES. New cut-offs were predictable because of the early opening of roads that would become their limits. The burning scars were larger at the end of the dry season as a consequence of the management and implementation of agricultures and pastures. In 2004 and 2007 these scars were larger probably because of the increase of dry phytomass that every three years is big enough to spread the fire originated in the anthropogenic burnings through the native vegetation. This scenario reaffirms the need for: stronger enforcement in order to stop anthropisation in the UUES and a management plan, absent for this unit so far. These proceedings are urgent also because the UUES is located in one of the most preserved regions of the Cerrado and controversially where intense anthropisation in ongoing, which stresses the lack, need and urgency of biological conservation proceedings for the Piauí's southeastern Cerrado.
Campo, Carlos; Ruilope, Luis M; Segura, Julian; Rodicio, José L; García-Robles, Rafael; Garcia-Puig, Juan
Hyperuricemia can be the consequence of an increased urate production, a decreased renal excretion, or both. An increased prevalence of hyperuricemia has been described in essential hypertensive patients partly due to a decreased renal urinary urate excretion (UUE). Hyperuricemia has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in hypertensive patients in some but not in all epidemiological studies in which this relationship has been investigated. To assess the influence of low UUE in the association between serum urate, renal function and hypertension severity. This cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 677 male hypertensive patients, aged 35-60 years, with essential arterial hypertension consecutively attended in a hospital hypertension unit. The presence of hypertension-related organ damage at diagnosis was classified according to classical WHO criteria as grade 1, 2 or 3. Urate underexcretion was defined as 24-h urinary urate below the product serum urate x 100. Mean serum urate levels were 6.4 +/- 1.6 mg/dl in the total sample. Hyperuricemia (serum urate >7 mg/dl) was present in 28.5% of patients and only 17.0% had underexcretory hyperuricemia. This subgroup of patients exhibited the higher rate of hypertension-related target organ damage (TOD). A multivariate analysis, showed that underexcretory hyperuricemia but not hyperuricemia remained an independent predictor of TOD (odds ratio 2.5. 95% CI 1.6-3.89). Serum urate correlated positively with serum creatinine in hyperuricemic patients (r = 0.50, p < 0.001), but not in patients with underexcretory hyperuricemia (r = 0.21, p = 0.18). Underexcretory hyperuricemia is strongly related to hypertensive organ damage and this relationship does not seem to be mediated by a decreased renal function. This aspect could underline the predictive value of hyperuricemia independently of serum creatinine. UUE could improve the clinical predictive value of hyperuricemia as a
Jing, Jun; Xia, Lingdan; Li, Kai
The aim of this work was to understand the development of defoliating insects and their preferences for host plants under varying temperatures in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in China. We measured the main developmental parameters of three typical defoliating insects (i.e., Ourapteryx ebuleata szechuana, Biston marginata, and Euproctis angulata) and their preferences for five host plants at temperatures from 16°C to 31°C at 3°C intervals in the Tiantong National Forest Research station in eastern China. The results showed the following. 1) An appropriate rise in temperature increases the survival rate with an increase in the number of offspring. The developmental durations for these three insects were shortened, and pupal weight increased with an increase in temperature. 2) A shift in the preference for host plants for these three insects was observedat elevated temperatures. They all preferred to feed on Schima superba and Castanopsis sclerophylla at elevated temperatures, showing an opposite response to the other three plants. The daily leaf consumption of the three insects was positively correlated with their feeding preference, with more leaves being consumed from the plants they preferred. 3) For O. ebuleata szechuana larvae, daily leaf consumption initially increased and then decreased with increasing temperatures. In contrast, Biston marginata and Euproctis angulata larvae consumed more leaves at elevated temperatures. The feeding preferences of O. ebuleata szechuana and Biston marginata were more sensitive to changing temperatures than that of Euproctis angulata laevae. We concluded that increased numbers of offspring and generations, pupal weights, and a shift in preference to two plants for these three defoliating insects might lead to severe damage to these two plants which would enhance the fragmentation and decrease the stability of the forest communities under changing temperatures. Meanwhile, the variations in the responses of
b----e~ REPORT , DOCUMENTATIONPAGE ____________________ I. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ lp _MOR aUUE ACESO O3 I TATALOG ŘU01 R A Study of the Crack Damage in Fuel...ates es5 r ~~~Filled Tank’Wa~lls Due to Ballistic ____________ a. PaRPORMIMS 0960. REPORT NUMBS" Steven Lock/Fahrenkrog Naval Postgraduiate School...the accurate prediction of damage to the tank. due to a ball.istic projectile. This report presents a method for predicting the amount of cracking of a
Agarwal, U; Hu, Q; Bequette, B J
Feeding and postruminal infusion of propionate is known to increase N retention in ruminants. Our aim was to determine the role of rumen propionate on urea N recycling and gluconeogenesis in growing sheep. In Exp. 1, wether sheep ( = 6; 32.5 ± 3.57 kg BW) fitted with a rumen cannula were fed to 1.8 × ME requirement a concentrate-type ration (172 g CP/kg DM and 10.4 MJ ME/kg DM) and continuously infused into the rumen with isoenergetic (10% of dietary ME intake) solutions of either sodium acetate (control) or sodium propionate for 9-d periods in a crossover design. In Exp. 2, a different group of wether sheep ( = 5; 33.6 ± 3.70 kg BW) fitted with a rumen cannula were fed, on an isonitrogenous basis, either a control (151 g CP/kg DM and 8.4 MJ ME/kg DM) or sodium propionate-supplemented (139 g CP/kg DM and 8.9 MJ ME/kg DM) diet at 2-h intervals. [N] urea was continuously infused intravenously for the last 5 d of each period, and total urine was collected by vacuum and feces were collected by a harness bag. Over the last 12 h, [C]glucose was continuously infused intravenously and hourly blood samples were collected during the last 5 h. Propionate treatments increased ( < 0.001) the proportion of rumen propionate in both experiments. In Exp. 1, N retention was not affected by propionate infusion as compared with isoenergetic acetate. There was no effect on urea entry (synthesis) rate (UER) in Exp. 1; however, sodium propionate infusion tended ( < 0.1) to increase urinary urea elimination (UUE). In Exp. 2, feeding propionate increased ( < 0.01) N retention by 0.8 g N/d. In addition, UER was reduced by approximately 2 g urea N/d, leading to a reduction ( < 0.05) in UUE (7.0 vs. 6.2 g urea N/d). Between the 2 experiments, the proportion of UER recycled to the gut was greater with the forage-type diet in Exp. 2 (approximately 60%) compared with the concentrate-type diet in Exp. 1 (approximately 40%), although urea N fluxes across the gut remained unchanged in both