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Sample records for likert scale questions

  1. A New Likert Scale Based on Fuzzy Sets Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Cheryl Qing

    2010-01-01

    In social science research, the Likert method is commonly used as a psychometric scale to measure responses. This measurement scale has a procedure that facilitates survey construction and administration, and data coding and analysis. However, there are some problems with Likert scaling. This dissertation addresses the information distortion and…

  2. Using Likert-Type Scales in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croasmun, James T.; Ostrom, Lee

    2011-01-01

    Likert scales are useful in social science and attitude research projects. The General Self-Efficacy Exam is a test used to determine whether factors in educational settings affect participant's learning self-efficacy. The original instrument had 10 efficacy items and used a 4-point Likert scale. The Cronbach's alphas for the original test ranged…

  3. Reporting and Interpreting Scores Derived from Likert-Type Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmbrod, J. Robert

    2014-01-01

    Forty-nine percent of the 706 articles published in the "Journal of Agricultural Education" from 1995 to 2012 reported quantitative research with at least one variable measured by a Likert-type scale. Grounded in the classical test theory definition of reliability and the tenets basic to Likert-scale measurement methodology, for the…

  4. The Effects of Halo and Leniency on Cooperating Teacher Reports Using Likert-Type Rating Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, LeAdelle; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This study evaluated the adequacy of a Likert-type scale cooperating teacher report. Results demonstrated a significant presence of leniency error and halo effect, leaving highly questionable the validity of the report as a whole. Findings are discussed. (Author/MT)

  5. Examining Perceptions and Attitudes: A Review of Likert-Type Scales Versus Q-Methodology.

    PubMed

    Ho, Grace W K

    2016-07-24

    The purpose of this article is to compare and discuss the use of Likert-type scales and Q-methodology to examine perceptions and attitudes in nursing research. This article provides a brief review of each approach, and how they have been used to advance our knowledge in health-related perceptions and attitudes. Although Likert-type scales are economical, efficient, and easy to analyze, the results can be difficult to interpret or translate into meaningful practice. In contrast, Q-methodology yields holistic and in-depth information on what the prevailing perceptions and attitudes are, but its conduct is logistically challenging and the results' generalizability can be limited. The appropriate uses of either or both approaches to answer different research questions will be discussed. Nurse scientists are called upon to continue our exploration, utilization, and expansion of unique methodologies that directly speak to a meaningful examination of these important constructs in nursing research.

  6. Psychological Distance between Categories in the Likert Scale: Comparing Different Numbers of Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakita, Takafumi; Ueshima, Natsumi; Noguchi, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether the number of options in the Likert scale influences the psychological distance between categories. The most important assumption when using the Likert scale is that the psychological distance between options is equal. The authors proposed a new algorithm for calculating the scale values of options by applying item…

  7. The RAM Scale: Development and Validation of the Revised Scale in Likert Format.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Claudia R.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The development and validation of a revised form of the RAM Scale in Likert format are described. The RAM Scale measures student philosophical orientations in terms of relative, absolute, or mixed biases or preferences toward issues of knowledge, methods, and values. (Author/PN)

  8. Analyzing Likert Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Harry N., Jr.; Boone, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides information for Extension professionals on the correct analysis of Likert data. The analyses of Likert-type and Likert scale data require unique data analysis procedures, and as a result, misuses and/or mistakes often occur. This article discusses the differences between Likert-type and Likert scale data and provides…

  9. Personality as a Determinate of Response Dimension Scaling for Likert Rating Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Wayne E.; Sanford, David L.

    A study was designed to evaluate the use of summated rating (Likert) scales of agreement, evaluation, and frequency. The subjects, 58 female and 45 male college students, rank ordered the descriptive adjectives for the areas of agreement, evaluation, and frequency on a scale of 1 to 100. They also completed the Personal Report of Communication…

  10. Compressed ultrasound video image-quality evaluation using a Likert scale and Kappa statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Brent K.; Carter, Stephen J.; Langer, Steven G.; Andrew, Rex K.

    1998-06-01

    Experiments using NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite were conducted to provide an estimate of the compressed video quality required for preservation of clinically relevant features for the detection of trauma. Bandwidth rates of 128, 256 and 384 kbps were used. A five point Likert scale (1 equals no useful information and 5 equals good diagnostic quality) was used for a subjective preference questionnaire to evaluate the quality of the compressed ultrasound imagery at the three compression rates for several anatomical regions of interest. At 384 kbps the Likert scores (mean plus or minus SD) were abdomen (4.45 plus or minus 0.71), carotid artery (4.70 plus or minus 0.36), kidney (5.0 plus or minus 0.0), liver (4.67 plus or minus 0.58) and thyroid (4.03 plus or minus 0.74). Due to the volatile nature of the H.320 compressed digital video stream, no statistically significant results can be derived through this methodology. As the MPEG standard has at its roots many of the same intraframe and motion vector compression algorithms as the H.261 (such as that used in the previous ACTS/AMT experiments), we are using the MPEG compressed video sequences to best gauge what minimum bandwidths are necessary for preservation of clinically relevant features for the detection of trauma. We have been using an MPEG codec board to collect losslessly compressed video clips from high quality S- VHS tapes and through direct digitization of S-video. Due to the large number of videoclips and questions to be presented to the radiologists and for ease of application, we have developed a web browser interface for this video visual perception study. Due to the large numbers of observations required to reach statistical significance in most ROC studies, Kappa statistical analysis is used to analyze the degree of agreement between observers and between viewing assessment. If the degree of agreement amongst readers is high, then there is a possibility that the ratings (i

  11. Effect of Items Direction (Positive or Negative) on the Reliability in Likert Scale. Paper-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad; Qasem, Mamun Ali Naji; Bhat, Mehraj Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an attempt was made to analyze the effect of items direction (positive or negative) on the Alpha Cronbach reliability coefficient and the Split Half reliability coefficient in Likert scale. The descriptive survey research method was used for the study and sample of 510 undergraduate students were selected by used random sampling…

  12. A Review of the Reliability and Validity of Likert-Type Scales for People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, S. L.; MacLean, W. E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Likert-type scales are increasingly being used among people with intellectual disability (ID). These scales offer an efficient method for capturing a wide range of variance in self-reported attitudes and behaviours. This review is an attempt to evaluate the reliability and validity of Likert-type scales in people with ID. Methods:…

  13. Improving the Factor Structure of Psychological Scales: The Expanded Format as an Alternative to the Likert Scale Format

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xijuan; Savalei, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Many psychological scales written in the Likert format include reverse worded (RW) items in order to control acquiescence bias. However, studies have shown that RW items often contaminate the factor structure of the scale by creating one or more method factors. The present study examines an alternative scale format, called the Expanded format,…

  14. Cone beam CT dose reduction in prostate radiotherapy using Likert scale methods

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Louise A; Jordan, Suzanne; Smith, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To use a Likert scale method to optimize image quality (IQ) for cone beam CT (CBCT) soft-tissue matching for image-guided radiotherapy of the prostate. Methods: 23 males with local/locally advanced prostate cancer had the CBCT IQ assessed using a 4-point Likert scale (4 = excellent, no artefacts; 3 = good, few artefacts; 2 = poor, just able to match; 1 = unsatisfactory, not able to match) at three levels of exposure. The lateral separations of the subjects were also measured. The Friedman test and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to determine if the IQ was associated with the exposure level. We used the point-biserial correlation and a χ2 test to investigate the relationship between the separation and IQ. Results: The Friedman test showed that the IQ was related to exposure (p = 2 × 10−7) and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test demonstrated that the IQ decreased as exposure decreased (all p-values <0.005). We did not find a correlation between the IQ and the separation (correlation coefficient 0.045), but for separations <35 cm, it was possible to use the lowest exposure parameters studied. Conclusion: We can reduce exposure factors to 80% of those supplied with the system without hindering the matching process for all patients. For patients with lateral separations <35 cm, the exposure factors can be reduced further to 64% of the original values. Advances in knowledge: Likert scales are a useful tool for measuring IQ in the optimization of CBCT IQ for soft-tissue matching in radiotherapy image guidance applications. PMID:26689092

  15. Effect of Items Direction (Positive or Negative) on the Factorial Construction and Criterion Related Validity in Likert Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naji Qasem, Mamun Ali; Ahmad Gul, Showkeen Bilal

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted to know the effect of items direction (positive or negative) on the factorial construction and criterion related validity in Likert scale. The descriptive survey research method was used for the study and the sample consisted of 510 undergraduate students selected by used random sampling technique. A scale developed by…

  16. Detecting information processing bias toward psychopathology: Interpreting Likert scales at intake assessment.

    PubMed

    Flückiger, Christoph; Znoj, Hansjörg; Vîslă, Andreea

    2016-09-01

    Since the programmatic Rosenhan study, there is a broad discussion of how to actively construct clinical realities on both "insane" and "sane" perspectives. To inform patients about the output of the psychometric questionnaires assessed at intake is a required task in many clinical routines. Information processing bias toward psychopathology may impact many clinical communications and thus lead to clinical errors. Based on an output of the commonly used Symptom Check List 90, case examples demonstrate various grades of balanced and unbalanced alternatives of how to consider the psychopathological as well as the unproblematic poles of Likert scales in discussing psychometric questionnaires at Session 1. We provide one clinical error related to client information at intake assessments and offer four therapeutic tasks that can serve as observable quality indicators of how to facilitate a balanced picture of the patients' burdens and capabilities: (1) validate individual problems, (2) isolate individual problems, (3) validate individual strengths, and (4) break through black and white thinking. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Evidence of Factorial Validity of Parental Knowledge, Control and Solicitation, and Adolescent Disclosure Scales: When the Ordered Nature of Likert Scales Matters.

    PubMed

    Lionetti, Francesca; Keijsers, Loes; Dellagiulia, Antonio; Pastore, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    For evaluating monitoring and parent-adolescent communication, a set of scales addressing parental knowledge, control and solicitation, and adolescent disclosure was proposed by Kerr and Stattin (2000). Although these scales have been widely disseminated, their psychometric proprieties have often been found to be unsatisfactory, raising questions about their validity. The current study examines whether their poor psychometric properties, which are mainly attributed to the relatively poor conceptual quality of the items, could have been caused by the use of less-than-optimal analytical estimation methods. A cross-validation approach is used on a sample of 1071 adolescents. Maximum likelihood (ML) is compared with the diagonal weighted least squares (DWLS) method, which is suitable for Likert scales. The results of the DWLS approach lead to a more optimal fit than that obtained using ML estimation. The DWLS methodology may represent a useful option for researchers using these scales because it corrects for their unreliability.

  18. Evidence of Factorial Validity of Parental Knowledge, Control and Solicitation, and Adolescent Disclosure Scales: When the Ordered Nature of Likert Scales Matters

    PubMed Central

    Lionetti, Francesca; Keijsers, Loes; Dellagiulia, Antonio; Pastore, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    For evaluating monitoring and parent-adolescent communication, a set of scales addressing parental knowledge, control and solicitation, and adolescent disclosure was proposed by Kerr and Stattin (2000). Although these scales have been widely disseminated, their psychometric proprieties have often been found to be unsatisfactory, raising questions about their validity. The current study examines whether their poor psychometric properties, which are mainly attributed to the relatively poor conceptual quality of the items, could have been caused by the use of less-than-optimal analytical estimation methods. A cross-validation approach is used on a sample of 1071 adolescents. Maximum likelihood (ML) is compared with the diagonal weighted least squares (DWLS) method, which is suitable for Likert scales. The results of the DWLS approach lead to a more optimal fit than that obtained using ML estimation. The DWLS methodology may represent a useful option for researchers using these scales because it corrects for their unreliability. PMID:27445909

  19. How Differences among Data Collectors Are Reflected in the Reliability and Validity of Data Collected by Likert-Type Scales?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Köksal, Mustafa Serdar; Ertekin, Pelin; Çolakoglu, Özgür Murat

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate association of data collectors' differences with the differences in reliability and validity of scores regarding affective variables (motivation toward science learning and science attitude) that are measured by Likert-type scales. Four researchers trained in data collection and seven science teachers…

  20. The Analysis of Likert Scales Using State Multipoles: An Application of Quantum Methods to Behavioral Sciences Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camparo, James; Camparo, Lorinda B.

    2013-01-01

    Though ubiquitous, Likert scaling's traditional mode of analysis is often unable to uncover all of the valid information in a data set. Here, the authors discuss a solution to this problem based on methodology developed by quantum physicists: the state multipole method. The authors demonstrate the relative ease and value of this method by…

  1. Assessment of Dyspnea Early in Acute Heart Failure: Patient Characteristics and Response Differences Between Likert and Visual Analog Scales

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Peter S.; Collins, Sean P.; Sauser, Kori; Andrei, Adin-Cristian; Storrow, Alan B.; Hollander, Judd E.; Tavares, Miguel; Spinar, Jindrich; Macarie, Cezar; Raev, Dimitar; Nowak, Richard; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Mebazaa, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Background Dyspnea is the most common symptom in acute heart failure (AHF), yet how to best measure it has not been well defined. Prior studies demonstrate differences in dyspnea improvement across various measurement scales, yet these studies typically enroll patients well after the ED phase of management. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine predictors of early dyspnea improvement for three different, commonly used dyspnea scales (i.e. five point absolute Likert scale, 10 cm visual analogue scale [VAS], or seven point relative Likert scale). Methods This was a post-hoc analysis of URGENT Dyspnea, an observational study of 776 patients in 17 countries enrolled within one hour of first physician encounter. Inclusion criteria were broad to reflect real-world clinical practice. Prior literature informed the a priori definition of clinically significant dyspnea improvement. Resampling-based multivariable models were created to determine patient characteristics significantly associated with dyspnea improvement. Results Of the 524 AHF patients, approximately 40% of patients did not report substantial dyspnea improvement within the first 6 hours. Baseline characteristics were similar between those who did or did not improve, though there were differences in history of heart failure, coronary artery disease, and initial systolic blood pressure. For those who did improve, patient characteristics differed across all three scales, with the exception of baseline dyspnea severity for the VAS and five point Likert scale (c-index ranged from 0.708 to 0.831 for each scale). Conclusions Predictors of early dyspnea improvement differ from scale to scale, with the exception of baseline dyspnea. Attempts to use one scale to capture the entirety of the dyspnea symptom may be insufficient. PMID:25039550

  2. Effect of personality item writing on psychometric properties of ideal-point and likert scales.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jialin; Mead, Alan D

    2014-12-01

    The present study was designed to investigate personality item-writing practices and their effect on the psychometric properties of personality items and scales. Personality items were developed based on ideal-point and dominance models, analyzed using the generalized graded unfolding model, and empirically classified as having an ideal-point or dominance form. Results suggested that writing dominance items were slightly easier (more successful) than writing ideal-point items, but this varied slightly by personality dimensions. Of 3 ideal-point item writing tactics, the "neutral" tactic was least successful; success writing "double-barreled" and "average" ideal-point items was comparable to that of dominance items. Three personality scales were then constructed using successful ideal-point and dominance items. Scales constructed using ideal-point items had substantially inferior psychometric properties, including lower score reliability, lower correlations with important criteria, and mixed test information results. However, lower predictive validity of ideal-point scale scores may be due to lower reliability of the scores. Practical and methodological implications were also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. A Psychometric Evaluation of 4-Point and 6-Point Likert-Type Scales in Relation to Reliability and Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Lei

    1994-01-01

    Reliability and validity of 4-point and 6-point scales were assessed using a new model-based approach to fit empirical data from 165 graduate students completing an attitude measure. Results suggest that the issue of four- versus six-point scales may depend on the empirical setting. (SLD)

  4. Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Haley

    2007-01-01

    A canoe trip guide for young people gets used to the never-ending flow of questions. Kids are constantly inquiring about how many kilometres have been traveled that day, how many kilometres to go that day, what is for dinner, and when the next set of moving water is coming up. With kids, the questions are endless. Questions often are used as a…

  5. Five critical questions of scale for the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaney, D. P.; Humborg, C.; Emeis, K.; Kannen, A.; Silvert, W.; Tett, P.; Pastres, R.; Solidoro, C.; Yamamuro, M.; Hénocque, Y.; Nicholls, R.

    2012-01-01

    Social and ecological systems around the world are becoming increasingly globalized. From the standpoint of understanding coastal ecosystem behavior, system boundaries are not sufficient to define causes of change. A flutter in the stock market in Tokyo or Hong Kong can affect salmon producers in Norway or farmers in Togo. The globalization of opportunistic species and the disempowerment of people trying to manage their own affairs on a local scale seem to coincide with the globalization of trade. Human-accelerated environmental change, including climate change, can exacerbate this sense of disenfranchisement. The structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems have been developed over thousands of years subject to environmental forces and constraints imposed mainly on local scales. However, phenomena that transcend these conventional scales have emerged with the explosion of human population, and especially with the rise of modern global culture. Here, we examine five broad questions of scale in the coastal zone: How big are coastal ecosystems and why should we care? Temporal scales of change in coastal waters and watersheds: Can we detect shifting baselines due to economic development and other drivers? Are footprints more important than boundaries? What makes a decision big? The tyranny of small decisions in coastal regions. Scales of complexity in coastal waters: the simple, the complicated or the complex? These questions do not have straightforward answers. There is no single "scale" for coastal ecosystems; their multiscale nature complicates our understanding and management of them. Coastal ecosystems depend on their watersheds as well as spatially-diffuse "footprints" associated with modern trade and material flows. Change occurs both rapidly and slowly on human time scales, and observing and responding to changes in coastal environments is a fundamental challenge. Apparently small human decisions collectively have potentially enormous consequences for

  6. Estimating Ordinal Reliability for Likert-Type and Ordinal Item Response Data: A Conceptual, Empirical, and Practical Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadermann, Anne M.; Guhn, Martin; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a conceptual, empirical, and practical guide for estimating ordinal reliability coefficients for ordinal item response data (also referred to as Likert, Likert-type, ordered categorical, or rating scale item responses). Conventionally, reliability coefficients, such as Cronbach's alpha, are calculated using a Pearson…

  7. Evidence for an Oblique Social Intelligence Factor Established with a Likert-Based Testing Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legree, Peter J.

    1995-01-01

    To explore theoretical issues inspired by the Likert response format, 2 social insight scales were developed and administered to 391 Air Force recruits. Results demonstrate the applicability of the probabilistic response format to measure differences in nontraditional knowledge domains and the existence of a factor that may be interpreted as…

  8. A Two-Decision Model for Responses to Likert-Type Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thissen-Roe, Anne; Thissen, David

    2013-01-01

    Extreme response set, the tendency to prefer the lowest or highest response option when confronted with a Likert-type response scale, can lead to misfit of item response models such as the generalized partial credit model. Recently, a series of intrinsically multidimensional item response models have been hypothesized, wherein tendency toward…

  9. Use and Misuse of the Likert Item Responses and Other Ordinal Measures

    PubMed Central

    BISHOP, PHILLIP A.; HERRON, ROBERT L.

    2015-01-01

    Likert, Likert-type, and ordinal-scale responses are very popular psychometric item scoring schemes for attempting to quantify people’s opinions, interests, or perceived efficacy of an intervention and are used extensively in Physical Education and Exercise Science research. However, these numbered measures are generally considered ordinal and violate some statistical assumptions needed to evaluate them as normally distributed, parametric data. This is an issue because parametric statistics are generally perceived as being more statistically powerful than non-parametric statistics. To avoid possible misinterpretation, care must be taken in analyzing these types of data. The use of visual analog scales may be equally efficacious and provide somewhat better data for analysis with parametric statistics. PMID:27182418

  10. Ramsay Curve IRT for Likert-Type Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.

    2007-01-01

    Ramsay curve item response theory (RC-IRT) was recently developed to detect and correct for nonnormal latent variables when unidimensional IRT models are fitted to data using maximum marginal likelihood estimation. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the performance of RC-IRT for Likert-type item responses with varying test lengths, sample…

  11. ESMO - Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale V.1.0 questions and answers

    PubMed Central

    Cherny, N I; Sullivan, R; Dafni, U; Kerst, J M; Sobrero, A; Zielinski, C; Piccart, M J; Bogaerts, J; Tabernero, J; Latino, N J; de Vries, E G E

    2016-01-01

    The ESMO Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (ESMO-MCBS) is a standardised, generic, validated tool to stratify the magnitude of clinical benefit that can be anticipated from anticancer therapies. The ESMO-MCBS is intended to both assist oncologists in explaining the likely benefits of a particular treatment to their patients as well as to aid public health decision makers' prioritise therapies for reimbursement. From its inception the ESMO-MCBS Working Group has invited questions and critiques to promote understanding and to address misunderstandings regarding the nuanced use of the scale, and to identify shortcomings in the scale to be addressed in future planned revisions and updates. The ESMO-MCBS V.1.0 has attracted many questions regarding its development, structure and potential applications. These questions, together with responses from the ESMO-MCBS Working Group, have been edited and collated, and are herein presented as a supplementary resource. PMID:27900206

  12. Multi-scale ecosystem monitoring: an application of scaling data to answer multiple ecological questions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background/Question/Methods Standardized monitoring data collection efforts using a probabilistic sample design, such as in the Bureau of Land Management’s (BLM) Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring (AIM) Strategy, provide a core suite of ecological indicators, maximize data collection efficiency,...

  13. Quantitative analysis of scale of aeromagnetic data raises questions about geologic-map scale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nykanen, V.; Raines, G.L.

    2006-01-01

    A recently published study has shown that small-scale geologic map data can reproduce mineral assessments made with considerably larger scale data. This result contradicts conventional wisdom about the importance of scale in mineral exploration, at least for regional studies. In order to formally investigate aspects of scale, a weights-of-evidence analysis using known gold occurrences and deposits in the Central Lapland Greenstone Belt of Finland as training sites provided a test of the predictive power of the aeromagnetic data. These orogenic-mesothermal-type gold occurrences and deposits have strong lithologic and structural controls associated with long (up to several kilometers), narrow (up to hundreds of meters) hydrothermal alteration zones with associated magnetic lows. The aeromagnetic data were processed using conventional geophysical methods of successive upward continuation simulating terrane clearance or 'flight height' from the original 30 m to an artificial 2000 m. The analyses show, as expected, that the predictive power of aeromagnetic data, as measured by the weights-of-evidence contrast, decreases with increasing flight height. Interestingly, the Moran autocorrelation of aeromagnetic data representing differing flight height, that is spatial scales, decreases with decreasing resolution of source data. The Moran autocorrelation coefficient scems to be another measure of the quality of the aeromagnetic data for predicting exploration targets. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  14. A mixed-binomial model for Likert-type personality measures.

    PubMed

    Allik, Jüri

    2014-01-01

    Personality measurement is based on the idea that values on an unobservable latent variable determine the distribution of answers on a manifest response scale. Typically, it is assumed in the Item Response Theory (IRT) that latent variables are related to the observed responses through continuous normal or logistic functions, determining the probability with which one of the ordered response alternatives on a Likert-scale item is chosen. Based on an analysis of 1731 self- and other-rated responses on the 240 NEO PI-3 questionnaire items, it was proposed that a viable alternative is a finite number of latent events which are related to manifest responses through a binomial function which has only one parameter-the probability with which a given statement is approved. For the majority of items, the best fit was obtained with a mixed-binomial distribution, which assumes two different subpopulations who endorse items with two different probabilities. It was shown that the fit of the binomial IRT model can be improved by assuming that about 10% of random noise is contained in the answers and by taking into account response biases toward one of the response categories. It was concluded that the binomial response model for the measurement of personality traits may be a workable alternative to the more habitual normal and logistic IRT models.

  15. A mixed-binomial model for Likert-type personality measures

    PubMed Central

    Allik, Jüri

    2014-01-01

    Personality measurement is based on the idea that values on an unobservable latent variable determine the distribution of answers on a manifest response scale. Typically, it is assumed in the Item Response Theory (IRT) that latent variables are related to the observed responses through continuous normal or logistic functions, determining the probability with which one of the ordered response alternatives on a Likert-scale item is chosen. Based on an analysis of 1731 self- and other-rated responses on the 240 NEO PI-3 questionnaire items, it was proposed that a viable alternative is a finite number of latent events which are related to manifest responses through a binomial function which has only one parameter—the probability with which a given statement is approved. For the majority of items, the best fit was obtained with a mixed-binomial distribution, which assumes two different subpopulations who endorse items with two different probabilities. It was shown that the fit of the binomial IRT model can be improved by assuming that about 10% of random noise is contained in the answers and by taking into account response biases toward one of the response categories. It was concluded that the binomial response model for the measurement of personality traits may be a workable alternative to the more habitual normal and logistic IRT models. PMID:24847291

  16. The Response Scale for the Intellectual Disability Module of the WHOQOL: 5-Point or 3-Point?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, J.; Fleck, M. P.; Green, A.; McVilly, K.; Hao, Y.; Tan, W.; Fu, R.; Power, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To deal with the question of whether a 5-point response Likert scale should be changed to a 3-point scale when used in the field testing of people with intellectual disabilities (IDs), which was raised after the pilot study of World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-DIS, a module being developed with the World Health…

  17. Library Anxiety of Law Students: A Study Utilizing the Multidimensional Library Anxiety Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Stacey L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether law students experienced library anxiety and, if so, which components contributed to that anxiety. The Multidimensional Library Anxiety Scale (MLAS) developed by Dr. Doris Van Kampen was used to assess library anxiety levels of law students. The MLAS is a 53 question Likert scale instrument that…

  18. Effects of Scale, Question Location, Order of Response Alternatives, and Season on Self-Reported Noise Annoyance Using ICBEN Scales: A Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Brink, Mark; Schreckenberg, Dirk; Vienneau, Danielle; Cajochen, Christian; Wunderli, Jean-Marc; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Röösli, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The type of noise annoyance scale and aspects of its presentation such as response format or location within a questionnaire and other contextual factors may affect self-reported noise annoyance. By means of a balanced experimental design, the effect of type of annoyance question and corresponding scale (5-point verbal vs. 11-point numerical ICBEN (International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise) scale), presentation order of scale points (ascending vs. descending), question location (early vs. late within the questionnaire), and survey season (autumn vs. spring) on reported road traffic noise annoyance was investigated in a postal survey with a stratified random sample of 2386 Swiss residents. Our results showed that early appearance of annoyance questions was significantly associated with higher annoyance scores. Questionnaires filled out in autumn were associated with a significantly higher annoyance rating than in the springtime. No effect was found for the order of response alternatives. Standardized average annoyance scores were slightly higher using the 11-point numerical scale whereas the percentage of highly annoyed respondents was higher based on the 5-point scale, using common cutoff points. In conclusion, placement and presentation of annoyance questions within a questionnaire, as well as the time of the year a survey is carried out, have small but demonstrable effects on the degree of self-reported noise annoyance. PMID:27886110

  19. Effects of Scale, Question Location, Order of Response Alternatives, and Season on Self-Reported Noise Annoyance Using ICBEN Scales: A Field Experiment.

    PubMed

    Brink, Mark; Schreckenberg, Dirk; Vienneau, Danielle; Cajochen, Christian; Wunderli, Jean-Marc; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Röösli, Martin

    2016-11-23

    The type of noise annoyance scale and aspects of its presentation such as response format or location within a questionnaire and other contextual factors may affect self-reported noise annoyance. By means of a balanced experimental design, the effect of type of annoyance question and corresponding scale (5-point verbal vs. 11-point numerical ICBEN (International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise) scale), presentation order of scale points (ascending vs. descending), question location (early vs. late within the questionnaire), and survey season (autumn vs. spring) on reported road traffic noise annoyance was investigated in a postal survey with a stratified random sample of 2386 Swiss residents. Our results showed that early appearance of annoyance questions was significantly associated with higher annoyance scores. Questionnaires filled out in autumn were associated with a significantly higher annoyance rating than in the springtime. No effect was found for the order of response alternatives. Standardized average annoyance scores were slightly higher using the 11-point numerical scale whereas the percentage of highly annoyed respondents was higher based on the 5-point scale, using common cutoff points. In conclusion, placement and presentation of annoyance questions within a questionnaire, as well as the time of the year a survey is carried out, have small but demonstrable effects on the degree of self-reported noise annoyance.

  20. Appropriate Statistical Analysis for Two Independent Groups of Likert-Type Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warachan, Boonyasit

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the robustness and statistical power of three different methods for testing the hypothesis that ordinal samples of five and seven Likert categories come from equal populations. The three methods are the two sample t-test with equal variances, the Mann-Whitney test, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. In…

  1. The $500 Million Question: Can Charter Management Organizations Deliver Quality Education at Scale?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Kevin; Lake, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Charter school management organizations (CMOs) have emerged as a popular means for bringing charter schooling to scale. Advocates credit CMOs with delivering a coherent model of charter schooling to a growing number of children across numerous sites. Skeptics have wondered whether CMOs constitute an effective management approach, whether they…

  2. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: a bifactor answer to a two-factor question?

    PubMed

    McKay, Michael T; Boduszek, Daniel; Harvey, Séamus A

    2014-01-01

    Despite its long-standing and widespread use, disagreement remains regarding the structure of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). In particular, concern remains regarding the degree to which the scale assesses self-esteem as a unidimensional or multidimensional (positive and negative self-esteem) construct. Using a sample of 3,862 high school students in the United Kingdom, 4 models were tested: (a) a unidimensional model, (b) a correlated 2-factor model in which the 2 latent variables are represented by positive and negative self-esteem, (c) a hierarchical model, and (d) a bifactor model. The totality of results including item loadings, goodness-of-fit indexes, reliability estimates, and correlations with self-efficacy measures all supported the bifactor model, suggesting that the 2 hypothesized factors are better understood as "grouping" factors rather than as representative of latent constructs. Accordingly, this study supports the unidimensionality of the RSES and the scoring of all 10 items to produce a global self-esteem score.

  3. Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's "The Republic." Socrates used a series of strategic questions to help his student Glaucon come to understand the concept of justice. Socrates purposefully posed a series of…

  4. Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Goldberg, Stephanie; DiRocco, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    Well-known historical accounts of questioning used in the education process trace back to Socrates. One of the best examples of his use of questioning is found in Plato's classic work "The Republic" (2003). Today, teachers still use questions as one way to help students develop productive thinking skills and to understand concepts and topics.…

  5. Persistent questions of heterogeneity, uncertainty, and scale in subsurface flow and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitanidis, Peter K.

    2015-08-01

    When Water Resources Research was launched in 1965, heterogeneity, uncertainty, and scale issues in subsurface hydrology were in the backburner. Only about 10 years later, under the stimulus of dealing with solute transport problems, these problems received attention. The stochastic approach brought tools to deal both with problems of upscaling, also known as homogenization and coarse-graining, and uncertainty quantification. Effective conductivity and effective dispersion, also known as macrodispersion, coefficients in statistically homogeneous formations were extensively studied. Mixing, in its role of affecting reaction rates, started receiving attention. While in the dispersion problem emphasis was on Fickian representations, more sophisticated models have also been studied. Uncertainty quantification in the inverse problem has also made progress and geostatistical ideas, as well as ideas originating in signal processing, influenced how we approach problems of inference like interpolation and inverse modeling. My view is that we should emphasize information aspects, i.e., the collection of more and better data, their correct assimilation, the quantification of uncertainty associated with predictions, and the selection of designs or policies that accurately reflect what we actually know and thus manage risk. Progress in this department has been hampered by ingrained ideas, inadequate training, and inadequate resources. Research in problems of upscaling will continue to shed new light and provide better tools to deal with onerous problems. At the same time, no cure is more universally potent than using a more refined grid. Finally, although research is active, the diffusion of research results to education and practice has been slow.

  6. A Question of Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, John; McMillan, Rod

    In a conventional teaching situation, a lecturer may use a wide range of questioning techniques aimed at helping students to become active learners. In distance learning, students are often isolated and have limited opportunities for interaction in a social learning environment. Hence, learning strategies in distance learning need to be structured…

  7. Concept mapping improves academic performance in problem solving questions in biochemistry subject

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Mukhtiar; Tariq, Saba; Rehman, Rehana; Ali, Sobia; Gazzaz, Zohair J

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of concept mapping (CM) on the academic performance of medical students’ in problem-solving as well as in declarative knowledge questions and their perception regarding CM. Methods: The present analytical and questionnaire-based study was carried out at Bahria University Medical and Dental College (BUMDC), Karachi, Pakistan. In this analytical study, students were assessed with problem-solving questions (A-type MCQs), and declarative knowledge questions (short essay questions), and 50% of the questions were from the topics learned by CM. Students also filled a 10-item, 3-point Likert scale questionnaire about their perception regarding the effectiveness of the CM approach, and two open-ended questions were also asked. Results: There was a significant difference in the marks obtained in those problem-solving questions, which were learned by CM as compared to those topics which were taught by the traditional lectures (p<0.001), while no significant difference was observed in marks in declarative knowledge questions (p=0.704). Analysis of students’ perception regarding CM showed that majority of the students perceive that CM is a helpful technique and it is enjoyed by the students. In open-ended questions, the majority of the students commented positively about the effectiveness of CM. Conclusion: Our results indicate that CM improves academic performance in problem solving but not in declarative knowledge questions. Students’ perception about the effectiveness of CM was overwhelmingly positive. PMID:27648017

  8. A Comparison of Anchor-Item Designs for the Concurrent Calibration of Large Banks of Likert-Type Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Perez, Miguel A.; Alcala-Quintana, Rocio; Garcia-Cueto, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Current interest in measuring quality of life is generating interest in the construction of computerized adaptive tests (CATs) with Likert-type items. Calibration of an item bank for use in CAT requires collecting responses to a large number of candidate items. However, the number is usually too large to administer to each subject in the…

  9. Internal Consistency and Inter-Rater Reliability of the Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF) Rating Scale When Used by Teachers and Paraprofessionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Michael E.; Sheng, Yanyan; Chitiyo, Morgan; Brandt, Rachel C.; Howe, Abigail P.

    2014-01-01

    There has been considerable emphasis on indirect functional behavior assessments in school settings. However, little research has evaluated the reliability of these methods to identify behavioral function. One indirect measure, the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) scale, has yet to be extensively studied in school settings, though…

  10. An Evaluation of Functional Variables Affecting Severe Problem Behaviors in Adults with Mental Retardation by Using the Questions about Behavioral Function Scale (QABF).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applegate, Heather; Matson, Johnny L.; Cherry, Katie E.

    1999-01-01

    A study used the Questions about Behavior Function Scale to examine the functions of five severe problem behaviors (self-injurious behavior, aggression, stereotypies, pica, and rumination) in 417 institutionalized persons with mental retardation. The most common function for all behaviors except aggression was nonsocial. Aggression was maintained…

  11. A Statistical Assessment of Order of Presentation in Multiple Item Likert Scale Survey Responses, or "Who's on First?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCall, Chester H., Jr.; Gardner, Suzanne

    The Research Services of the National Education Association (NEA) conducted a nationwide teacher opinion poll (TOP) based upon a stratified disproportionate two-state cluster sample of classroom teachers. This research study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the order of presentation of items would make no difference in the conclusions…

  12. The convergent validity of the Questions About Behavioral Function scale and functional analysis for problem behavior displayed by individuals with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Nicholas; Rapp, John T

    2013-01-01

    Only a few studies have compared the convergent validity of the Questions About Behavioral Function (QABF) scale to the results of functional analyses (FA). In the current study, six participants who emitted problem behaviors participated in either a brief, or a no-interaction-series FA, while each participant's parent completed the QABF. The results of the study showed that for five participants, the QABF and the FA identified the same non-social function. For one participant, the QABF and FA identified potentially dual functions. Based on our findings, we suggest that the QABF could be embedded within a five-step functional assessment protocol.

  13. Question Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Josh

    2012-01-01

    After accepting the principal position at Farmersville (TX) Junior High, the author decided to increase instructional rigor through question mapping because of the success he saw using this instructional practice at his prior campus. Teachers are the number one influence on student achievement (Marzano, 2003), so question mapping provides a…

  14. Curiosity Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelsen, Jane; DeLorenzo, Chip

    2010-01-01

    Have you ever found yourself lecturing a child, with the best of intentions, in an attempt to help him or her learn a lesson or process a situation in a manner that you feel will be productive? Curiosity questions, which the authors also call What and How questions, help children process an experience, event, or natural consequence so that they…

  15. Questionable Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liemohn, Wendell; Haydu, Traci; Phillips, Dawn

    1999-01-01

    This publication presents general guidelines for exercise prescription that have an anatomical basis but also consider the exerciser's ability to do the exercise correctly. It reviews various common questionable exercises, explaining how some exercises, especially those designed for flexibility and muscle fitness, can cause harm. Safer…

  16. Questor's Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary; Dock, Michelle Nichols; Eldridge, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    Questor is a curious little bird whose four broad questions are helpful to anyone interested in making art or understanding the art of others. He was designed as a character in an online video for children, "Building on a River: Questor's Tale." The video is narrated by Questor, who relates the 2000 year history of architecture along the Salt…

  17. "The" Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Pardee, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the suggestions found in Michael Canale's paper, "Considerations in the Testing of Reading and Listening Proficiency," in the light of a possible U.S. Government's Interagency Language Roundtable receptive skills proficiency test which must supply the answer to the question of how well an individual can understand a particular…

  18. Critical Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthy, Jo; Hoffman, James V.

    1998-01-01

    Offers responses from four readers of this journal, all reading and/or classroom teachers, to a question posed by another teacher: whether children who have had limited literacy experiences should start reading in whole-language readers and/or trade books or whether they should start in controlled-vocabulary preprimers. (SR)

  19. Four Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hark-Weber, Amara G., Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Teaching artists often find themselves working in schools and communities that are new to them, whether these are situations close to home or farther afield. This issue of Four Questions highlights teaching artists who travel extensively as part of their teaching and artistic practices and bring their expertise, energy, and creativity to…

  20. A Mathematical Approach in Evaluating Biotechnology Attitude Scale: Rough Set Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narli, Serkan; Sinan, Olcay

    2011-01-01

    Individuals' thoughts and attitudes towards biotechnology have been investigated in many countries. A Likert-type scale is the most commonly used scale to measure attitude. However, the weak side of a likert-type scale is that different responses may produce the same score. The Rough set method has been regarded to address this shortcoming. A…

  1. A Monte Carlo Examination of the Sensitivity of the Differential Functioning of Items and Tests Framework for Tests of Measurement Invariance with Likert Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Adam W.; Lautenschlager, Gary J.; Johnson, Emily C.

    2007-01-01

    This article highlights issues associated with the use of the differential functioning of items and tests (DFIT) methodology for assessing measurement invariance (or differential functioning) with Likert-type data. Monte Carlo analyses indicate relatively low sensitivity of the DFIT methodology for identifying differential item functioning (DIF)…

  2. Is rock slope instability in high-mountain systems driven by topo-climatic, paraglacial or rock mechanical factors? - A question of scale!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messenzehl, Karoline; Dikau, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Due to the emergent and (often non-linear) complex nature of mountain systems the key small-scale system properties responsible for rock slope instability contrast to those being dominant at larger spatial scales. This geomorphic system behaviour has major epistemological consequences for the study of rockfalls and associated form-process-relationships. As each scale requires its own scientific explanation, we cannot simply upscale bedrock-scale findings and, in turn, we cannot downscale the valley-scale knowledge to smaller phenomena. Here, we present a multi-scale study from the Turtmann Valley (Swiss Alps), that addresses rock slope properties at three different geomorphic levels: (i) regional valley scale, (ii) the hillslope scale and (iii) the bedrock scale. Using this hierarchical approach, we aim to understand the key properties of high-mountain systems responsible for rockfall initiation with respect to the resulting form-process-relationship at each scale. (i) At the valley scale (110 km2) rock slope instability was evaluated using a GIS-based modelling approach. Topo-climatic parameters, i.e. the permafrost distribution and the time since deglaciation after LGM were found to be the key variables causative for the regional-scale bedrock erosion and the storage of 62.3 - 65.3 x 106 m3 rockfall sediments in the hanging valleys (Messenzehl et al. 2015). (ii) At the hillslope scale (0.03 km2) geotechnical scanline surveys of 16 rock slopes and one-year rock temperature data of 25 ibuttons reveal that the local rockfall activity and the resulting deposition of individual talus slope landforms is mainly controlled by the specific rock mass strength with respect to the slope aspect, than being a paraglacial reaction. Permafrost might be only of secondary importance for the present-day rock mechanical state as geophysical surveys disprove the existence of frozen bedrock below 2600 m asl. (Messenzehl & Draebing 2015). (iii) At the bedrock scale (0.01 mm - 10 m) the

  3. Recognizing Question Entailment for Medical Question Answering

    PubMed Central

    Abacha, Asma Ben; Dina, Demner-Fushman

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing heterogeneity and specialization of medical texts, automated question answering is becoming more and more challenging. In this context, answering a given medical question by retrieving similar questions that are already answered by human experts seems to be a promising solution. In this paper, we propose a new approach for the detection of similar questions based on Recognizing Question Entailment (RQE). In particular, we consider Frequently Asked Question (FAQs) as a valuable and widespread source of information. Our final goal is to automatically provide an existing answer if FAQ similar to a consumer health question exists. We evaluate our approach using consumer health questions received by the National Library of Medicine and FAQs collected from NIH websites. Our first results are promising and suggest the feasibility of our approach as a valuable complement to classic question answering approaches. PMID:28269825

  4. Further Empirical Results on Parametric Versus Non-Parametric IRT Modeling of Likert-Type Personality Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maydeu-Olivares, Albert

    2005-01-01

    Chernyshenko, Stark, Chan, Drasgow, and Williams (2001) investigated the fit of Samejima's logistic graded model and Levine's non-parametric MFS model to the scales of two personality questionnaires and found that the graded model did not fit well. We attribute the poor fit of the graded model to small amounts of multidimensionality present in…

  5. Questions, Questioning Techniques, and Effective Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilen, William W., Ed.

    This book focuses on questioning techniques and strategies teachers may employ to make the difference between active and passive learning in the classroom. There are nine chapters: (1) Why Questions? (Ambrose A. Clegg, Jr.); (2) Review of Research on Questioning Techniques (Meredith D. Gall and Tom Rhody); (3) The Multidisciplinary World of…

  6. More Information From Fewer Questions: The Factor Structure and Item Properties of the Original and Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Woods, Carol M.; Thissen, David M.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Chambless, Dianne L.; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2004-01-01

    Statistical methods designed for categorical data were used to perform confirmatory factor analyses and item response theory (IRT) analyses of the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (FNE; D. Watson & R. Friend, 1969) and the Brief FNE (BFNE; M. R. Leary, 1983). Results suggested that a 2-factor model fit the data better for both the FNE and the…

  7. "I Never Thought of It as Freezing": How Students Answer Questions on Large-Scale Science Tests and What They Know about Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Tracy; Suarez, Catherine; Rosebery, Ann; O'Connor, Mary Catherine; Warren, Beth; Hudicourt-Barnes, Josiane

    2012-01-01

    Education policy in the U.S. in the last two decades has emphasized large-scale assessment of students, with growing consequences for schools, teachers, and students. Given the high stakes of such tests, it is important to understand the relationships between students' answers to test items and their knowledge and skills in the tested content…

  8. The Effect of Reading Ability and Response Formats on Patients' Abilities To Respond to a Patient Satisfaction Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan A.; Swanson, Melvin S.

    2001-01-01

    Patients with third-fifth grade reading ability (n=16) and with higher ability (n=32) completed nursing care satisfaction questionnaires with either a Likert scale, yes/no/uncertain, or pictorial format. Yes/no/uncertain and Likert formats elicited the same information. All patients had difficulty with negatively worded items. (Contains 45…

  9. Testing new approaches to carbonate system simulation at the reef scale: the ReefSam model first results, application to a question in reef morphology and future challenges.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Samuel; Webster, Jody

    2016-04-01

    Numerical simulation of the stratigraphy and sedimentology of carbonate systems (carbonate forward stratigraphic modelling - CFSM) provides significant insight into the understanding of both the physical nature of these systems and the processes which control their development. It also provides the opportunity to quantitatively test conceptual models concerning stratigraphy, sedimentology or geomorphology, and allows us to extend our knowledge either spatially (e.g. between bore holes) or temporally (forwards or backwards in time). The later is especially important in determining the likely future development of carbonate systems, particularly regarding the effects of climate change. This application, by its nature, requires successful simulation of carbonate systems on short time scales and at high spatial resolutions. Previous modelling attempts have typically focused on the scales of kilometers and kilo-years or greater (the scale of entire carbonate platforms), rather than at the scale of centuries or decades, and tens to hundreds of meters (the scale of individual reefs). Previous work has identified limitations in common approaches to simulating important reef processes. We present a new CFSM, Reef Sedimentary Accretion Model (ReefSAM), which is designed to test new approaches to simulating reef-scale processes, with the aim of being able to better simulate the past and future development of coral reefs. Four major features have been tested: 1. A simulation of wave based hydrodynamic energy with multiple simultaneous directions and intensities including wave refraction, interaction, and lateral sheltering. 2. Sediment transport simulated as sediment being moved from cell to cell in an iterative fashion until complete deposition. 3. A coral growth model including consideration of local wave energy and composition of the basement substrate (as well as depth). 4. A highly quantitative model testing approach where dozens of output parameters describing the reef

  10. Development and Validation of the POSITIVES Scale (Postsecondary Information Technology Initiative Scale)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fichten, Catherine S.; Asuncion, Jennison V.; Nguyen, Mai N.; Wolforth, Joan; Budd, Jillian; Barile, Maria; Gaulin, Chris; Martiniello, Natalie; Tibbs, Anthony; Ferraro, Vittoria; Amsel, Rhonda

    2009-01-01

    Data on how well information and communication technology (ICT) needs of 1354 Canadian college and university students with disabilities are met on and off campus were collected using the newly developed Positives Scale (Postsecondary Information Technology Initiative Scale). The measure contains 26 items which use a 6-point Likert scale (1 =…

  11. Cosmic questions: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Primack, J R; Abrams, N E

    2001-12-01

    This introductory talk at the Cosmic Questions conference sponsored by the AAAS summarizes some earlier pictures of the universe and some pictures based on modern physics and cosmology. The uroboros (snake swallowing its tail) is an example of a traditional picture. The Biblical flat-earth picture was very different from the Greek spherical earth-centered picture, which was the standard view until the end of the Middle Ages. Many people incorrectly assume that the Newtonian picture of stars scattered through otherwise empty space is still the prevailing view. Seeing Earth from space shows the power of a new picture. The Hubble Space Telescope can see all the bright galaxies, all the way to the cosmic Dark Ages. We are at the center of cosmic spheres of time: looking outward is looking backward in time. All the matter and energy in the universe can be represented as a cosmic density pyramid. The laws of physics only allow the material objects in the universe to occupy a wedge-shaped region on a diagram of mass versus size. All sizes--from the smallest size scale, the Planck scale, to the entire visible universe--can be represented on the Cosmic Uroboros. There are interesting connections across this diagram, and the human scale lies in the middle.

  12. Improving the Factor Structure of Psychological Scales

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xijuan; Savalei, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Many psychological scales written in the Likert format include reverse worded (RW) items in order to control acquiescence bias. However, studies have shown that RW items often contaminate the factor structure of the scale by creating one or more method factors. The present study examines an alternative scale format, called the Expanded format, which replaces each response option in the Likert scale with a full sentence. We hypothesized that this format would result in a cleaner factor structure as compared with the Likert format. We tested this hypothesis on three popular psychological scales: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, the Conscientiousness subscale of the Big Five Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory II. Scales in both formats showed comparable reliabilities. However, scales in the Expanded format had better (i.e., lower and more theoretically defensible) dimensionalities than scales in the Likert format, as assessed by both exploratory factor analyses and confirmatory factor analyses. We encourage further study and wider use of the Expanded format, particularly when a scale’s dimensionality is of theoretical interest. PMID:27182074

  13. Posing Einstein's Question: Questioning Einstein's Pose.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topper, David; Vincent, Dwight E.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the events surrounding a famous picture of Albert Einstein in which he poses near a blackboard containing a tensor form of his 10 field equations for pure gravity with a question mark after it. Speculates as to the content of Einstein's lecture and the questions he might have had about the equation. (Contains over 30 references.) (WRM)

  14. Ask Questions to Encourage Questions Asked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    belcastro, sarah-marie

    2017-01-01

    We delineate some types of structured practice (modeling, requests, feedback, and space-making) that help students learn to pose appropriate questions and to initiate exploration of those questions. Developing skills requires practice, so we suggest ways to embed structured practice into existing class sessions. Including structured practice is…

  15. Validity and Reliability of Trichotomous Achievement Goal Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilker, Gokce Erturan; Arslan, Yunus; Demirhan, Giyasettin

    2011-01-01

    The Trichotomous Achievement Goal Scale was developed by Agbuga and Xiang (2008) by including selected items from the scales of Duda and Nicholls (1992), Elliot (1999), and Elliot and Church (1997) and adapting them into Turkish. The scale consists of 18 items, and students rated each item on a 7-point Likert scale. To ascertain the validity and…

  16. Scales

    MedlinePlus

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Eczema , ringworm , and psoriasis ...

  17. Designing the Nuclear Energy Attitude Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Lawrence; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Presents a refined method for designing a valid and reliable Likert-type scale to test attitudes toward the generation of electricity from nuclear energy. Discusses various tests of validity that were used on the nuclear energy scale. Reports results of administration and concludes that the test is both reliable and valid. (CW)

  18. Who Asks the Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hervey, Sheena

    2006-01-01

    From a very young age, children actively strive to make sense of their world through constant questioning. The ability to ask questions comes naturally for young children, but such natural inclination does not continue because it teachers who ask most of the questions. Sheena Hervey suggests that teaching students how to pose questions is a…

  19. Revisiting Routine Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Rebecca; Monaghan, John; Shingadia, Eisha; Vaughan, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    What is a routine question? The focus of this paper is routine questions and time (in years) since a hitherto routine question was last attempted by the solver. The data comes from undergraduate students' work on solving two calculus questions. The data was selected for reporting purposes because it is well documented and because it threw up…

  20. Questions of Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa de Jesus, Helena; Teixeira-Dias, Jose J. C.; Watts, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Documents the use of student-generated questions as diagnostic of their willingness to engage in classroom interactions. Explores four ways of gathering students' written questions and their relative effectiveness. Examines students' capacity to design and present 'quality questions' and the extent to which these questions are indicative of…

  1. Question analysis for Indonesian comparative question

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saelan, A.; Purwarianti, A.; Widyantoro, D. H.

    2017-01-01

    Information seeking is one of human needs today. Comparing things using search engine surely take more times than search only one thing. In this paper, we analyzed comparative questions for comparative question answering system. Comparative question is a question that comparing two or more entities. We grouped comparative questions into 5 types: selection between mentioned entities, selection between unmentioned entities, selection between any entity, comparison, and yes or no question. Then we extracted 4 types of information from comparative questions: entity, aspect, comparison, and constraint. We built classifiers for classification task and information extraction task. Features used for classification task are bag of words, whether for information extraction, we used lexical, 2 previous and following words lexical, and previous label as features. We tried 2 scenarios: classification first and extraction first. For classification first, we used classification result as a feature for extraction. Otherwise, for extraction first, we used extraction result as features for classification. We found that the result would be better if we do extraction first before classification. For the extraction task, classification using SMO gave the best result (88.78%), while for classification, it is better to use naïve bayes (82.35%).

  2. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes an exam question which challenges college freshmen, enrolled in chemistry, to derive temperature dependence of an equilibrium constant. The question requires cognitive response at the level of synthesis. (Author/SA)

  3. Burning Questions about Calories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, J. David; Berry, Kimberly A.

    2001-01-01

    Uses questioning techniques to teach about caloric consumption and weight gain. Starts with defining questions about calories and includes the stages of measuring calories, analyzing data, and conducting inquiry research. Includes directions for the experiment. (YDS)

  4. Pesticide Labeling Questions & Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide manufacturers, applicators, state regulatory agencies, and other stakeholders raise questions or issues about pesticide labels. The questions on this page are those that apply to multiple products or address inconsistencies among product labels.

  5. The Multidisciplinary Hemodialysis Patient Satisfaction Scale: Reliability, Validity, and Scale Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Pamela Davis; Brantley, Philip J.; McKnight, G. Tipton; Jones, Glenn N.; Springer, Annette

    1997-01-01

    The development and preliminary reliability and validity studies are reported for the Multidisciplinary Hemodialysis Patient Satisfaction Scale, a 110-item Likert scale that assesses satisfaction with team health care services. The methods used to construct subscales may have implications for other psychometric studies of satisfaction and quality…

  6. Questions in Reference Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Marilyn Domas

    1998-01-01

    Characterizes the questioning behavior in reference interviews preceding delegated online searches of bibliographic databases and relates it to questioning behavior in other types of interviews/settings. Compares questions asked by the information specialist and those asked by the client; findings show the information specialist dominates the…

  7. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Contains two articles relating to chemistry examination questions. One provides examples of how to sequence multiple choice questions so that partial credit may be given for some responses. The second includes a question and solution dealing with stereoisomerism as a result of free radical chlorination of a nonstereoisometic substance. (TW)

  8. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Acceptable answers are provided for two chemistry questions. The first question is related to the prediction of the appearance of non-first-order proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The second question is related to extraterrestrial kinetic theory of gases. (JN)

  9. Listening and Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haroutunian-Gordon, Sophie

    2007-01-01

    In the article that follows, I take up a debate that has arisen over the past three years concerning the following issue: Does every act of listening involve the listener in questioning? I argue that the answer to the questions is yes. I give background on the question and then consider one instance of listening that may suggest no role for…

  10. Making Questions Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Dan; Santana, Luz; Minigan, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Getting students to ask questions can feel like pulling teeth. How can teachers transform that feeling and create classrooms that come alive with questions? The authors, developers of the question formulation technique, suggest two simple changes: First, teachers need to give students both a structure and the opportunity to practice generating…

  11. Improving Student Question Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiner, Cecily; Zachary, Joseph L.

    2009-01-01

    Students in introductory programming classes often articulate their questions and information needs incompletely. Consequently, the automatic classification of student questions to provide automated tutorial responses is a challenging problem. This paper analyzes 411 questions from an introductory Java programming course by reducing the natural…

  12. Reflective Thinking Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basol, Gulsah; Evin Gencel, Ilke

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt Reflective Thinking Scale to Turkish and investigate its validity and reliability over a Turkish university students' sample. Reflective Thinking Scale (RTS) is a 5 point Likert scale (ranging from 1 corresponding Agree Completely, 3 to Neutral, and 5 to Not Agree Completely), purposed to measure reflective…

  13. Measuring Victimization inside Prisons: Questioning the Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Nancy; Shi, Jing; Bachman, Ronet

    2008-01-01

    Violence and victimization inside the prison setting are accepted as facts, although the facts about their prevalence remain uncertain. Variation in the methods used to estimate rates of sexual and physical victimization contribute to the wide range in estimates appearing in the prison literature. This article focuses on the questions used in the…

  14. Question-Asking and Question-Exploring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Lorraine; Carr, Margaret; Lee, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    The Centre of Innovation Research at Greerton Early Childhood Centre was characterised as a dispositional milieu where working theories were explored through a narrative research methodology. As the research progressed, the teachers at Greerton strengthened the way we were listening to, and watching out for young children's questions to enable…

  15. Asking questions with focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang; Xu, Yi

    2004-05-01

    This study investigates how different interrogative meanings interact with focus in determining the overall F0 profile of a question. We recorded eight native speakers of Mandarin producing statements, yes-no questions with and without a question particle, wh questions, incredulous questions, and confirmation questions. In each sentence, either the initial, medial, final, or no word was focused. The tonal components of the sentences are all high, all rising, all low, or all falling. F0 contours were extracted by measuring every complete vocal period in the initial, medial, and final disyllabic words in each sentence. Preliminary results show that in both statements and questions, the pitch range of the focused words is expanded and that of the postfocus words suppressed (compressed and lowered). However, postfocus pitch-range suppression seems less extensive in questions than in statements, and in some question types than in others. Finally, an extra F0 rise is often observed in the final syllable of a question unless the syllable is the question particle which has the neutral tone. This is indicative of a high or rising boundary tone associated with the interrogative meaning, which seems to be superimposed on the tone of the sentence-final syllable. [Work supported by NIDCD DC03902.

  16. Development of the Adolescent Cancer Suffering Scale

    PubMed Central

    Khadra, Christelle; Le May, Sylvie; Tremblay, Isabelle; Dupuis, France; Cara, Chantal; Mercier, Geneviève; Vachon, Marie France; Fiola, Jacinthe Lachance

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While mortality due to pediatric cancer has decreased, suffering has increased due to complex and lengthy treatments. Cancer in adolescence has repercussions on personal and physical development. Although suffering can impede recovery, there is no validated scale in French or English to measure suffering in adolescents with cancer. OBJECTIVE: To develop an objective scale to measure suffering in adolescents with cancer. METHODS: A methodological design for instrument development was used. Following a MEDLINE search, semistructured interviews were conducted with adolescents 12 to 19 years of age who had undergone four to six weeks of cancer treatment, and with a multidisciplinary cohort of health care professionals. Adolescents with advanced terminal cancer or cognitive impairment were excluded. Enrollment proceeded from the hematology-oncology department/clinic in Montreal, Quebec, from December 2011 to March 2012. Content validity was assessed by five health care professionals and four adolescents with cancer. RESULTS: Interviews with 19 adolescents and 16 health care professionals identified six realms of suffering: physical, psychological, spiritual, social, cognitive and global. Through iterative feedback, the Adolescent Cancer Suffering Scale (ACSS) was developed, comprising 41 questions on a four-point Likert scale and one open-ended question. Content validity was 0.98, and inter-rater agreement among professionals was 88% for relevance and 86% for clarity. Adolescents considered the scale to be representative of their suffering. CONCLUSIONS: The ACSS is the first questionnaire to measure suffering in adolescents with cancer. In future research, the questionnaire should be validated extensively and interventions developed. Once validated, the ACSS will contribute to promote a holistic approach to health with appropriate intervention or referral. PMID:26252665

  17. An Exploration of the Validity of the Unbounded Write-In Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Laura M.; Edmonds, Meaghan

    An exploratory reliability and validity study was conducted of a relatively new response scale developed in the marketing field. Unlike many Likert-type scales, the "unbounded write-in" scale is claimed to produce distributions that more closely approximate normal distributions. This type of scale has been used in large-scale marketing studies.…

  18. Unpark Those Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ness, Molly

    2013-01-01

    Whenever Mr. Henderson's 3rd grade students had a question that he couldn't immediately answer or that seemed off-topic, he asked them to write the question on a sticky note and place it on a poster dubbed the "Parking Lot." His intention was to find time later to answer those questions, but too often, he said, the parking lot…

  19. A Study on Emotional Literacy Scale Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akbag, Müge; Küçüktepe, Seval Eminoglu; Özmercan, Esra Eminoglu

    2016-01-01

    Emotional literacy is described as being aware of our own feelings in order to improve our personal power and life quality as well as people's life quality around us. In this study, the aim is to develop a Likert scale which measures people's emotional literacy in order to be used both in descriptive and experimental researches. Related literature…

  20. 1 Great Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nethery, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an ideal question that can take an art teacher and his or her students through all the levels of thought in Bloom's taxonomy--perfect for modeling the think-aloud process: "How many people is the artist inviting into this picture?" This great question always helps the students look beyond the obvious and dig…

  1. Let's Switch Questioning Around

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovani, Cris

    2015-01-01

    English teacher Cris Tovani knows from her experiences teaching elementary school that students are naturally curious. But, too often, students are so trained to be question answerers that by the time they reach high school, they no longer form questions of their own and instead focus on trying to figure out what answer the teacher wants. Tovani…

  2. Questions About the Oceans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubach, Harold W.; Taber, Robert W.

    This book was prompted by the success of a display mounted by the National Oceanographic Data Center at the 17th International Science Fair in 1966, which enabled visiting teachers and students to ask and receive answers to questions via teletype. The book contains one hundred questions typical of those asked, together with answers ranging in…

  3. Designing Great Hinge Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiliam, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    According to author Dylan Wiliam, because lessons never go exactly as planned, teachers should build plan B into plan A. This involves designing a lesson with a "hinge" somewhere in the middle and using specific kinds of questions--what he calls hinge questions--to quickly assess students' understanding of a concept before moving on.…

  4. Problem of Questioning

    SciTech Connect

    2005-10-31

    Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet

  5. Problem of Questioning

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet, chercheur sur le plan scientifique, artistique et humain, parle de la remise en question des hommes et la remise en question scientifique fondamentale ou exemplaire- plusieurs personnes prennent la parole p.ex Jeanmairet, Adam, Gregory. Le Prof.Gregory clot la soirée en remerciant le Prof.Leprince-Ringuet

  6. Scales

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2016-07-12

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  7. Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  8. What is a Question?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, Kevin H.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A given question can be defined in terms of the set of statements or assertions that answer it. Application of the logic of inference to this set of assertions allows one to derive the logic of inquiry among questions. There are interesting symmetries between the logics of inference and inquiry; where probability describes the degree to which a premise implies an assertion, there exists an analogous quantity that describes the bearing or relevance that a question has on an outstanding issue. These have been extended to suggest that the logic of inquiry results in functional relationships analogous to, although more general than, those found in information theory. Employing lattice theory, I examine in greater detail the structure of the space of assertions and questions demonstrating that the symmetries between the logical relations in each of the spaces derive directly from the lattice structure. Furthermore, I show that while symmetries between the spaces exist, the two lattices are not isomorphic. The lattice of assertions is described by a Boolean lattice 2(sup N) whereas the lattice of real questions is shown to be a sublattice of the free distributive lattice FD(N) = 2(sup 2(sup N)). Thus there does not exist a one-to-one mapping of assertions to questions, there is no reflection symmetry between the two spaces, and questions in general do not possess unique complements. Last, with these lattice structures in mind, I discuss the relationship between probability, relevance and entropy.

  9. The Role of Reading Comprehension in Responses to Positively and Negatively Worded Items on Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weems, Gail H.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

    2006-01-01

    Should instruments, such as Likert-type scales, contain both positively worded and negatively worded items within the same scale (i.e. mixed format)? Recent evidence suggests that the use of scales with a mixed format can adversely affect the psychometric properties of scales. In particular, the mean item response to the positively worded items…

  10. Development of an Attitude Scale towards High School Physics Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yavas, Pervin Ünlü; Çagan, Sultan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a Likert type attitude scale for high school students with regard to high school physics lessons. The research was carried out with high school students who were studying in Ankara. First, the opinions of 105 high school students about physics lessons were obtained and then 55 scale items were determined from…

  11. Development of a Metaconceptual Awareness and Regulation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet; Uzuntiryaki-Kondakci, Esen; Beeth, Michael Edward

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop the Metaconceptual Awareness and Regulation Scale (MARS) -- a self-report instrument for measuring the extent to which students realise, monitor, and evaluate their ideas. MARS consists of 10 items scored on a six-point Likert scale for two factors: metaconceptual awareness and metaconceptual regulation. A pilot study…

  12. EPA Subaward Frequent Questions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These answers to frequent questions (FQ) are intended to provide information to recipients of EPA financial assistance to help them understand EPA’s interpretations of the Uniform Grant Guidance (UGG) and EPA’s Subaward Policy.

  13. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J.

    1980-01-01

    Provides exam questions and solutions for a problem in amplification sequence of reactions, and a problem in applying group theory techniques and making spectral assignments and structural determination by qualitative arguments in the bonding in metal complexes. (CS)

  14. Rubella: Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... of special precautions. Does the MMR vaccine cause autism? There is no scientific evidence that measles, MMR, ... other vaccine causes or increases the risk of autism. The question about a possible link between MMR ...

  15. Perchlorate Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA's Interim Health Advisory for Perchlorate in Public Water Systems On January 8, 2009, the Environmental Protection ... thyroid hormone. Questions and Answers about EPA’s Drinking Water Findings If perchlorate is present in my drinking ...

  16. Panspermia asks new questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyce, Brig

    2001-08-01

    There is a widespread sentiment that panspermia is uninteresting is because it does not answer fundamental questions about the origin of life. The strongest version of panspermia asks entirely new questions. While barriers to the acceptance of panspermia are falling and evidence supporting it is accumulating, the mere possibility of panspermia unhinges the Darwinian account of evolutionary progress. The new theory removes an issue dividing science and religion, but it requires an amendment to the big bang theory.

  17. How Effective Are Your Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partin, Ronald L.

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines are given to the teacher on using questions to improve classroom discussions. Included are: reasons for using questions, ways to ask questions and acknowledge students' responses, and types of questions which should and should not be used. (SJL)

  18. Factor Analysis of the Omega Scale: A Scale Designed To Measure the Attitudes of College Students toward Their Own Deaths and the Disposition of Their Bodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staik, Irene M.

    A study was undertaken to provide a factor analysis of the Omega Scale, a 25-item, Likert-type scale developed in 1984 to assess attitudes toward death and funerals and other body disposition practices. The Omega Scale was administered to 250 students enrolled in introductory psychology classes at two higher education institutions in Alabama.…

  19. The Chinese Parental Stress Scale: psychometric evidence using Rasch modeling on clinical and nonclinical samples.

    PubMed

    Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra K M

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we examined the psychometric properties of the Parental Stress Scale (PSS; Berry & Jones, 1995) with Chinese parents. Participants included 162 parents recruited through primary schools and 38 parents with children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Rasch analysis results indicated that 2 items were outside the accepted fit statistics range and that the Likert scale response categories were not functioning properly. We identified a reduced 16-item scale with 5 categories as unidimensional, with a person reliability of .86; the Likert scale response categories worked well. The revised PSS correlated with measures of child behavior and parenting stress and could differentiate between the 2 groups of parents.

  20. Questioning Ohio's Loyalty Requirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neil, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Beginning this past summer, all new employees at some Ohio public universities, including those accepting teaching positions, are being confronted with politically sensitive and intrusive questions. In addition to the "Have you solicited any individual for membership in an organization on the U.S. Department of State Terrorist…

  1. A question of choice.

    PubMed

    Grabiner, Gene

    2011-06-22

    Women's reproductive rights, reproductive health, and constitutional privacy rights in the United States are addressed in light of the contemporary onslaught of the Christian Right. The misuse of State power by fundamentalist social forces in America is critiqued. The article also briefly reviews the question of State control over women's bodies.

  2. A Question of Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Reginald

    2010-01-01

    When intern placement veteran Jacqueline Perkins begins counseling students at Florida A&M University (FAMU) about their prospects for getting well-paying, security-related jobs with the federal government, she confronts the 800-pound gorilla in the room--the question of whether a student has been convicted of or pleaded guilty to a…

  3. Exam Question Exchange.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    Two exam questions are presented. One suitable for advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate courses in organic chemistry, is on equivalent expressions for the description of several pericyclic reactions. The second, for general chemistry students, asks for an estimation of the rate of decay of a million-year-old Uranium-238 sample. (BB)

  4. My Favorite Exam Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styer, Dan

    2015-01-01

    My favorite exam question comes from the final exam in an introductory mechanics course: "A rolling 31 ton railroad boxcar collides with a stationary flatcar. The coupling mechanism activates so the cars latch together and roll down the track attached. Of the initial kinetic energy, 38% dissipates as heat, sound, vibrations, mechanical…

  5. A Question of Choice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Women's reproductive rights, reproductive health, and constitutional privacy rights in the United States are addressed in light of the contemporary onslaught of the Christian Right. The misuse of State power by fundamentalist social forces in America is critiqued. The article also briefly reviews the question of State control over women's bodies. PMID:21696627

  6. Asking Questions about Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Ian; Flanagan, Bernie; Hogarth, Sylvia; Mountford, Paula; Philpott, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    We raise questions about young people's participation in light of findings from a project ("Democracy through Citizenship") funded by the Joseph Rowntree Reform Trust Limited, and managed by the Institute for Citizenship. Following a six-month feasibility study the project took place over a three-year period in one local authority in the…

  7. Asking the Right Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Rob

    2011-01-01

    As a student teacher at Nottingham Trent University, the author explored the issues surrounding children asking investigable questions in science and the repertoire of strategies that could be employed by teachers in the classroom to support this process. His project was carried out in an inner-city primary school in Nottingham. The four focus…

  8. The Compensation Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richwine, Jason; Biggs, Andrew; Mishel, Lawrence; Roy, Joydeep

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, as cash-strapped states and school districts have faced tough budget decisions, spending on teacher compensation has come under the microscope. The underlying question is whether, when you take everything into account, today's teachers are fairly paid, underpaid, or overpaid. In this forum, two pairs of respected…

  9. What Is the Question?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Melba D.

    Second language educators need to examine in greater depth the learning processes of young children in order to provide them with the kind of teaching they need in order to really learn. This means searching other fields to learn as much as possible about: questioning strategies and the development of critical thinking skills; hemispheric…

  10. That Is the Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korsunsky, Syd

    2002-01-01

    Describes the author's evolution from a teacher set in his ways to one who adapted to students' voices. Contends that classrooms need to be environments where students are able to ask their own questions. Explains that key elements of such an environment include the following: interviews; mini-lessons; multi-genre projects; literature circles;…

  11. Questioning and Experimentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mutanen, Arto

    2014-01-01

    The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated…

  12. Questioning in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Ronald T.

    This study investigates the pattern of teacher questioning regarding three elements: sequence, student respondent, and cognitive process. The rationale for this type of teaching rests on the claims for teaching students the process of critical (reflective) thinking. In this type of teaching it is necessary to have data before the students. Only…

  13. Value-Eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arseven, Zeynep; Kiliç, Abdurrahman; Sahin, Seyma

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, it is aimed to develop a valid and reliable scale for determining value-eroding behaviors of teachers, hence their values of judgment. The items of the "Value-eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale" were designed in the form of 5-point likert type rating scale. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to…

  14. Preparing Attitude Scale to Define Students' Attitudes about Environment, Recycling, Plastic and Plastic Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avan, Cagri; Aydinli, Bahattin; Bakar, Fatma; Alboga, Yunus

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to introduce an attitude scale in order to define students? attitudes about environment, recycling, plastics, plastic waste. In this study, 80 attitude sentences according to 5-point Likert-type scale were prepared and applied to 492 students of 6th grade in the Kastamonu city center of Turkey. The scale consists of…

  15. Knowledge based question answering

    SciTech Connect

    Pazzani, M.J.; Engelman, C.

    1983-01-01

    The natural language database query system incorporated in the Knobs Interactive Planning System comprises a dictionary driven parser, APE-II, and script interpreter whch yield a conceptual dependency as a representation of the meaning of user input. A conceptualisation pattern matching production system then determines and executes a procedure for extracting the desired information from the database. In contrast to syntax driven q-a systems, e.g. those based on atn parsers, APE-II is driven bottom-up by expectations associated with word meanings. The goals of this approach include utilising similar representations for questions with similar meanings but widely varying surface structures, developing a powerful mechanism for the disambiguation of words with multiple meanings and the determination of pronoun referents, answering questions which require inferences to be understood, and interpreting ellipses and ungrammatical statements. The Knobs demonstration system is an experimental, expert system for air force mission planning applications. 16 refs.

  16. Questions of wisdom.

    PubMed

    Schmidt Bunkers, Sandra

    2009-04-01

    In this column questions concerning wisdom are addressed, such as, what is wisdom? Can wisdom be taught in the academy? Several perspectives on wisdom from philosophy, education, business, and psychology are presented. Wisdom with creativity-creativity with wisdom is then explored through discussion of Parse's humanbecoming teaching-learning model and Laird Hamilton's life lessons learned from surfing, which he termed wisdom of the wave. The column concludes with consideration of the wise person.

  17. Quantum theory from questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhn, Philipp Andres; Wever, Christopher S. P.

    2017-01-01

    We reconstruct the explicit formalism of qubit quantum theory from elementary rules on an observer's information acquisition. Our approach is purely operational: we consider an observer O interrogating a system S with binary questions and define S 's state as O 's "catalog of knowledge" about S . From the rules we derive the state spaces for N elementary systems and show that (a) they coincide with the set of density matrices over an N -qubit Hilbert space C2N; (b) states evolve unitarily under the group PSU (2N) according to the von Neumann evolution equation; and (c) O 's binary questions correspond to projective Pauli operator measurements with outcome probabilities given by the Born rule. As a by-product, this results in a propositional formulation of quantum theory. Aside from offering an informational explanation for the theory's architecture, the reconstruction also unravels previously unnoticed structural insights. We show that, in a derived quadratic information measure, (d) qubits satisfy inequalities which bound the information content in any set of mutually complementary questions to 1 bit; and (e) maximal sets of mutually complementary questions for one and two qubits must carry precisely 1 bit of information in pure states. The latter relations constitute conserved informational charges which define the unitary groups and, together with their conservation conditions, the sets of pure quantum states. These results highlight information as a "charge of quantum theory" and the benefits of this informational approach. This work emphasizes the sufficiency of restricting to an observer's information to reconstruct the theory and completes the quantum reconstruction initiated in a companion paper (P. Höhn, arXiv:1412.8323).

  18. Questioning Many Mysteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Sara F.

    2015-04-01

    The first section of this memoir queries my formative years. Indirectly I address the question, did my childhood and early years make a difference in my choice of career? Why and how did I begin my journey to becoming a scientist? Did I choose the field of solar astronomy or did circumstances dictate it for me? In the second section, I travel through my work environments and experiences, talking about interactions and aspects of being a scientist that do not appear in our research papers. What parts of my research were happenstances and what parts did I plan? What does it feel like to be on scientific quests? Using examples in my journey, I also turn to questions that have intrigued me throughout my sojourn as a solar astronomer. How do scientific discoveries come about? What factors lead to little discoveries? And what factors lead to major exciting discoveries? Are there timely questions we do not think to ask? How can small, seemingly scattered pieces of knowledge suddenly coalesce into a deeper understanding - what is called the "Aha!" experience - the times when our mental light switches on, and with child-like wonder we behold a "big picture"?

  19. Questions, Relatives, and Minimal Projection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Katherine

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the acquisition of wh-questions and relative clauses in Sesotho, a language with no wh-movement in either questions or relatives, and in which wh-questions must be clefted. (10 references) (JL)

  20. The Art of Asking Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Rosetta A.

    1979-01-01

    A rationale is given for the use of questioning techniques and strategies in classroom instruction. B. Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives is presented as one framework for questions. Five pitfalls, including avoiding vague questions and personal pronouns, are discussed. (CL)

  1. To Question or Not to Question: That Seems to Be the Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradtmueller, Weldon G.; Egan, James B.

    Research on the effects of questioning in the classroom has explored the placement, timing, type, and social impact of questions. Principles of good questioning include the following: (1) well-stated questions should be concise, clear, and complete; (2) questions should be topical in nature, requiring a complex answer; (3) yes or no questions…

  2. Questioning and Experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutanen, Arto

    2014-08-01

    The paper is a philosophical analysis of experimentation. The philosophical framework of the analysis is the interrogative model of inquiry developed by Hintikka. The basis of the model is explicit and well-formed logic of questions and answers. The framework allows us to formulate a flexible logic of experimentation. In particular, the formulated model can be interpreted realistically. Moreover, the model demonstrates an explicit logic of knowledge acquisition. So, the natural extension of the model is to apply it to an analysis of the learning process.

  3. Approaches to Cell Biology Teaching: Questions about Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Deborah; Tanner, Kimberly

    2002-01-01

    There are many questions to be asked about the pedagogical practice of questioning. Questions provide insight into what students at any age or grade level already know about a topic, which provides a beginning point for teaching. Questions reveal misconceptions and misunderstandings that must be addressed for teachers to move student thinking…

  4. The Intuitive Eating Scale: Development and Preliminary Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawks, Steven; Merrill, Ray M.; Madanat, Hala N.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of an instrument designed to measure the concept of intuitive eating. To ensure face and content validity for items used in the Likert-type Intuitive Eating Scale (IES), content domain was clearly specified and a panel of experts assessed the validity of each item. Based on responses from 391…

  5. A Validation Study of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keck Seeley, Susan. M.; Perosa, Sandra, L.; Perosa, Linda, M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to further the validation process of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES). In this study, a 6-item Likert response format with descriptors was used when responding to the A-DES rather than the 11-item response format used in the original A-DES. Method: The internal reliability and construct…

  6. Developing a Scale on the Usage of Learner Control Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutlu, M. Oguz

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a Likert-like scale in order to measure teachers' usage level of learner control strategy. This study was carried out with 219 State primary school teachers who were class teachers, Turkish teachers, English teachers, Mathematics teachers, Science teachers, Social Sciences teachers, Religion and Moral teachers…

  7. Acquiescent Responding in Balanced Multidimensional Scales and Exploratory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2006-01-01

    Personality tests often consist of a set of dichotomous or Likert items. These response formats are known to be susceptible to an agreeing-response bias called acquiescence. The common assumption in balanced scales is that the sum of appropriately reversed responses should be reasonably free of acquiescence. However, inter-item correlation (or…

  8. Developing a Scale for Quality of Using Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasci, Guntay; Yurdugul, Halil

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to develop a measurement tool to measure the quality of using learning strategies. First, the quality of using learning strategies was described based on the literature. The 32 items in the 5-point Likert scale were then administered to 320 prospective teachers, and they were analysed with exploratory factor analysis using…

  9. Automatically Classifying Question Types for Consumer Health Questions

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kirk; Kilicoglu, Halil; Fiszman, Marcelo; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for automatically classifying consumer health questions. Our thirteen question types are designed to aid in the automatic retrieval of medical answers from consumer health resources. To our knowledge, this is the first machine learning-based method specifically for classifying consumer health questions. We demonstrate how previous approaches to medical question classification are insufficient to achieve high accuracy on this task. Additionally, we describe, manually annotate, and automatically classify three important question elements that improve question classification over previous techniques. Our results and analysis illustrate the difficulty of the task and the future directions that are necessary to achieve high-performing consumer health question classification. PMID:25954411

  10. The Gentle Art of Questioning: Writing Great Clicker Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasteen, Stephanie

    2012-02-01

    How does a teacher use questioning effectively? This workshop will focus on writing those questions that engage students, spark their curiosity, help recap material, give you insight into their thinking, or help them learn critical ideas in physics. We will focus on ``peer instruction'' -- a research-tested method of requiring students to discuss challenging questions with one another. We will investigate the surprising power of multiple-choice questions to achieve critical thinking skills. Finally, we will look at writing questions that align with our goals for students, discuss the elements of effective questions, and practice writing questions and work on improving them.

  11. Open questions in classical gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Mannheim, P.D. )

    1994-04-01

    In this work, the authors discuss some outstanding open questions regarding the validity and uniqueness of the standard second-order Newton-Einstein classical gravitational theory. On the observational side the authors discuss the degree to which the realm of validity of Newton's law of gravity can actually be extended to distances much larger than the solar system distance scales on which the law was originally established. On the theoretical side the authors identify some commonly accepted (but actually still open to question) assumptions which go into the formulation of the standard second-order Einstein theory in the first place. In particular, it is shown that while the familiar second-order Poisson gravitational equation (and accordingly its second-order covariant Einstein generalization) may be sufficient to yield Newton's law of gravity they are not in fact necessary. The standard theory thus still awaits the identification of some principle which would then make it necessary too. It is shown that current observational information does not exclusively mandate the standard theory, and that the conformal invariant fourth-order theory of gravity considered recently by Mannheim and Kazanas is also able to meet the constraints of data, and in fact to do so without the need for any so far unobserved nonluminous or dark matter. 37 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Engaging Students through Effective Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Mary-Anne

    2011-01-01

    In what ways might questioning techniques improve student learning? What kinds of questions enable educators to tap into different parts of the cognitive domain? How can questions engage students when their attention begins to wander? Many questions at the lower levels of Bloom's Taxonomy--particularly knowledge and comprehension--are closed-ended…

  13. Improving Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Cristina; Lopes, Ana Paula; Babo, Lurdes; Azevedo, Jose

    2011-01-01

    A MC (multiple-choice) question can be defined as a question in which students are asked to select one alternative from a given set of alternatives in response to a question stem. The objective of this paper is to analyse if MC questions may be considered as an interesting alternative for assessing knowledge, particularly in the mathematics area,…

  14. Unproven (questionable) cancer therapies.

    PubMed Central

    Brigden, M L

    1995-01-01

    More than half of all cancer patients use some form of alternative treatment during the course of their illness. Alternative therapies are often started early in patients' illness, and their use is frequently not acknowledged to health care professionals. Some alternative therapies are harmful, and their promoters may be fraudulent. Persons who try alternative cancer therapies may not be poorly educated but may ultimately abandon conventional treatment. Recent attention has focused on aspects of questionable therapies that make these treatments attractive to patients and that may be perceived as being deficient in the practice of conventional health care professionals. Physicians with patients with cancer should always make sure that unproven therapies are discussed early in the therapeutic relationship. They should also attempt to be aware of alternative therapies that are in vogue in their particular geographic area. PMID:8533410

  15. Development and evaluation of a regional, large-scale interprofessional collaborative care summit.

    PubMed

    Foote, Edward F; Clarke, Virginia; Szarek, John L; Waters, Sharon K; Walline, Vera; Shea, Diane; Goss, Sheryl; Farrell, Marian; Easton, Diana; Dunleavy, Erin; Arscott, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The Northeastern/Central Pennsylvania Interprofessional Education Coalition (NECPA IPEC) is a coalition of faculty from multiple smaller academic institutions with a mission to promote interprofessional education. An interprofessional learning program was organized, which involved 676 learners from 10 different institutions representing 16 unique professions, and took place at seven different institutions simultaneously. The program was a 3-hour long summit which focused on the management of a patient with ischemic stroke. A questionnaire consisting of the Interprofessional Education Perception Scale (IEPS) questionnaire (pre-post summit), Likert-type questions, and open comment questions explored the learners' perceptions of the session and their attitudes toward interprofessional learning. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics and statistical tests for difference and qualitative thematic coding. The attitude of learners toward interprofessional education (as measured by the IEPS) was quite high even prior to the summit, so there were no significant changes after the summit. However, a high percentage of learners and facilitators agreed that the summit met its objective and was effective. In addition, the thematic analysis of the open-ended questions confirmed that students learned from the experience with a sense of the core competencies of interprofessional education and practice. A collaborative approach to delivering interprofessional learning is time and work intensive but beneficial to learners.

  16. The Self-Assessment Scale of Cognitive Complaints in Schizophrenia: A validation study in Tunisian population

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ines; Kebir, Oussama; Ben Azouz, Olfa; Dellagi, Lamia; Rabah, Yasmine; Tabbane, Karim

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite a huge well-documented literature on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, little is known about the own perception of patients regarding their cognitive functioning. The purpose of our study was to create a scale to collect subjective cognitive complaints of patients suffering from schizophrenia with Tunisian Arabic dialect as mother tongue and to proceed to a validation study of this scale. Methods The authors constructed the Self-Assessment Scale of Cognitive Complaints in Schizophrenia (SASCCS) based on a questionnaire covering five cognitive domains which are the most frequently reported in the literature to be impaired in schizophrenia. The scale consisted of 21 likert-type questions dealing with memory, attention, executive functions, language and praxia. In a second time, the authors proceeded to the study of psychometric qualities of the scale among 105 patients suffering from schizophrenia spectrum disorders (based on DSM- IV criteria). Patients were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Global Assessment Functioning Scale (GAF scale) and the Calgary Depression Scale (CDS). Results The scale's reliability was proven to be good through Cronbach alpha coefficient equal to 0.85 and showing its good internal consistency. The intra-class correlation coefficient at 11 weeks was equal to 0.77 suggesting a good stability over time. Principal component analysis with Oblimin rotation was performed and yielded to six factors accounting for 58.28% of the total variance of the scale. Conclusion Given the good psychometric properties that have been revealed in this study, the SASCCS seems to be reliable to measure schizophrenic patients' perception of their own cognitive impairment. This kind of evaluation can't substitute for objective measures of cognitive performances in schizophrenia. The purpose of such an evaluation is to permit to the patient to express his own well-being and satisfaction of quality of life. PMID

  17. The Development of a Behavior Patterns Rating Scale for Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliskan, Nihat; Kuzu, Okan; Kuzu, Yasemin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a rating scale that can be used to evaluate behavior patterns of the organization people pattern of preservice teachers (PSTs). By reviewing the related literature on people patterns, a preliminary scale of 38 items with a five-points Likert type was prepared. The number of items was reduced to 29 after…

  18. The Development of an Objective Scale to Measure a Transpersonal Orientation to Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Stewart B.; Fitzgerald, Louise F.

    1989-01-01

    A 40-item Likert scale, Transpersonal Orientation to Learning, was developed to investigate transpersonal (spiritual or mystical) orientation. The scale was validated via administration to 166 graduate students in education to determine their beliefs about the development of spiritual potential in learning environments. Satisfactory reliability…

  19. Development of a Scale for Measuring Teachers' Attitudes toward Students' Inappropriate Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malak, Md. Saiful; Sharma, Umesh; Deppeler, Joanne M.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at developing a valid and reliable instrument for measuring attitudes of primary schoolteachers toward inappropriate student behaviour. A systematic approach was used to develop the scale. Results provide preliminary evidence that the new instrument (consisting of 13 items on a six-point Likert type scale) meets the standards for…

  20. A Cross-Cultural Validation Study of the Computer Attitude Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, JinGyu; And Others

    The reliability and factorial validity of the Computer Attitudes Scale (CAS) was assessed with college students in South Korea. The CAS was developed for use with high school students, but has been used in higher education in the United States. It is a Likert-type scale of 30 positive and negative statements about the use of computers, and is one…

  1. Determination of Reliability and Validity for Myself as a Teacher Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handley, Herbert M.; Thomson, James R., Jr.

    The reliability and validity of the Myself as a Teacher Scale (MTS), developed to assess the self-concept of teachers, were studied. Materials developed by David P. Butts and Robert Howe were used to construct a 62-item Likert-type scale asking individuals to rate themselves on certain criteria. After a pilot study with 92 preservice teachers and…

  2. [Ethical questions in neonatology].

    PubMed

    Popow, C

    1996-01-01

    Rapid scientific progress in the fields of prenatal diagnostics, obstetrics and neonatology has enabled severe malformations and hereditary diseases to be detected at a very early fetal stage and has also led to the survival of very immature newborn infants in increasing numbers. Parents, doctors and nurses must all participate in the difficult decision making with regard to therapeutic alternatives and due respect must be paid to the intersects of the child, the impact on the family, but also to the professional opinion of the attending doctors and carers. Problems of the ethical limits of prenatal diagnostics, as well as the severity of malformations or organ failure justifying termination of pregnancy or intensive care measures are discussed with reference to clinical cases. Likewise, the question of precedence of the rights of the parents and siblings to quality of life versus the right of the infant to live is broached. From the neonatological point of view candid discussion with the parents, painstaking efforts to build up an atmosphere of confidence and the provision of supportive measures on the one hand, whilst avoiding the expression of dogmatic opinions and patronizing attitudes on the other hand, are essential prerequisites in dealing with the ethical dilemmas arising in the pre- and neonatal management of such cases.

  3. Questioning cochlear amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, Marcel; Versteegh, Corstiaen P. C.

    2015-12-01

    Thirty years ago it was hypothesized that motile processes inject mechanical energy into cochlear traveling waves. This mechanical amplification, alternatively described as negative damping, is invoked to explain both the sensitivity and the nonlinear compression of cochlear responses. There is a recent trend to present cochlear amplification as an established fact, even though the evidence is at most circumstantial and several thorny problems have remained unresolved. We analyze several of these issues, and present new basilar membrane recordings that allowed us to quantify cochlear energy flow. Specifically, we address the following questions: (1) Does auditory sensitivity require narrowband amplification? (2) Has the "RC problem" (lowpass filtering of outer hair cell receptor potential) been resolved? (3) Can OHC motility improve auditory sensitivity? (4) Is there a net power gain between neighboring locations on the basilar membrane? The analyses indicate that mechanical amplification in the cochlea is neither necessary nor useful, and that realizing it by known forms of motility would reduce sensitivity rather than enhance it. Finally, our experimental data show that the peaking of the traveling wave is realized by focusing the acoustic energy rather than amplifying it. (Abbreviations. BM: basilar membrane; CF: characteristic frequency; IHC: inner hair cell; ME: middle ear; MT; mechanotransducer; OHC: outer hair cell; SPL: sound pressure level.)

  4. Questions for Music Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2008-01-01

    In addressing the question-set "What questions do music education researchers need to address?", an illustrative list of juxtaposed descriptive and normative questions is sketched as follows: What are and should be the dimensions of music education? What are and should be the institutional agencies of music education? What are and should be the…

  5. Improving the Questions Students Ask

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue-Smith, Maureen

    2006-01-01

    Teachers often tell their classes that "there is no such thing as a stupid question." But this is not completely honest. Questions aren't asked in a vacuum; their intelligence or stupidity depends on a variety of contextual variables. The ideal question is the right one, posed to the right source in the right way at the right time for the right…

  6. The Hermeneutics of Educational Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Charles

    2005-01-01

    This article looks at the practice of educational questioning using the philosophical hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer. It first looks at questions and statements from a hermeneutic perspective, demonstrating some of the differences and similarities between the two. It then details Gadamer's notion of the "true question", asking whether it is…

  7. Does Anyone Have Any Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Judith M.; Ritter, Virginia F.

    The purpose of this study was to determine if answering a child's question with a question produces further analytical questioning by the child. A sample of 80 children in nursery-kindergarten, first, second and third grades (ages ranging from 4-9 years) were divided into two groups. An abstract painting by Kandinsky was shown individually to each…

  8. Children Who Question Their Heterosexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carver, Priscilla R.; Egan, Susan K.; Perry, David G.

    2004-01-01

    Many gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults report a period of childhood sexual questioning--an uneasy questioning of their heterosexuality brought on by same-sex attractions and motivating same-sex sexual exploration. This article evaluates hypotheses about the correlates, causes, and consequences of childhood sexual questioning. Participants were 182…

  9. Investigations of Human Question Answering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graesser, Arthur C.

    The development and testing of QUEST, a model of human question answering, are reported. QUEST accounts for answers adults produce for different categories of open-class questions, identifying the information sources associated with the content words in questions. Each information source is organized in a conceptual graph structure. The model…

  10. Questioning Our Questions: Assessing Question Asking Practices to Evaluate a yPAR Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Sarah; Langhout, Regina Day

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine question asking practices in a youth participatory action research (yPAR) after school program housed at an elementary school. The research question was: In which ways did the adult question asking practices in a yPAR setting challenge and/or reproduce conventional models of power in educational…

  11. The Development of Will Perception Scale and Practice in a Psycho-Education Program with Its Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yener, Özen

    2014-01-01

    In this research, we aim to develop a 5-point likert scale and use it in an experimental application by performing its validity and reliability in order to measure the will perception of teenagers and adults. With this aim, firstly the items have been taken either in the same or changed way from various scales and an item pool including 61 items…

  12. Student Moderators in Asynchronous Online Discussion: A Question of Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingaro, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Much current research exalts the benefits of having students facilitate weekly discussions in asynchronous online courses. This study seeks to add to what is known about student moderation through an analysis of the types of questions students use to spur each discussion. Prior experimental work has demonstrated that the types of questions posed…

  13. Reference Readiness for AV Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drolet, Leon L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews 50 reference tools which librarians can use to answer almost any audiovisual question including queries on trivia, equipment selection, biographical information, and motion picture ratings. (LLS)

  14. Questioning Questions: Elementary Teachers' Adaptations of Investigation Questions Across the Inquiry Continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggers, Mandy

    2017-01-01

    Questioning is a central practice in science classrooms. However, not every question translates into a "good" science investigation. Questions that drive science investigations can be provided by many sources including the teacher, the curriculum, or the student. The variations in the source of investigation questions were explored in this study. A dataset of 120 elementary science classroom videos and associated lesson plans from 40 elementary teachers (K-5) across 21 elementary school campuses were scored on an instrument measuring the amount of teacher-direction or student-direction of the lessons' investigation questions. Results indicated that the investigation questions were overwhelmingly teacher directed in nature, with no opportunities for students to develop their own questions for investigation. This study has implications for researchers and practitioners alike, calling attention to the teacher-directed nature of investigation questions in existing science curriculum materials, and the need for teacher training in instructional strategies to adapt their existing curriculum materials across the continuum of teacher-directed and student-directed investigation questions. Teachers need strategies for adapting the teacher-directed questions provided in their existing curriculum materials in order to allow students the opportunity to engage in this essential scientific practice.

  15. Questions Dog Design of Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    On the verge of signing a contract to help design assessments for the common standards, ACT Inc. has withdrawn from the project amid conflict-of-interest questions sparked by its own development of a similar suite of tests. Even though it involves only a small subcontract, the move by the Iowa-based test-maker, and the questions from the state…

  16. Asking Research Questions: Theoretical Presuppositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenenberg, Josh

    2014-01-01

    Asking significant research questions is a crucial aspect of building a research foundation in computer science (CS) education. In this article, I argue that the questions that we ask are shaped by internalized theoretical presuppositions about how the social and behavioral worlds operate. And although such presuppositions are essential in making…

  17. Test Pool Questions, Area III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Jamee Reid

    This manual contains multiple choice questions to be used in testing students on nurse training objectives. Each test includes several questions covering each concept. The concepts in section A, medical surgical nursing, are diseases of the following systems: musculoskeletal; central nervous; cardiovascular; gastrointestinal; urinary and male…

  18. Answering Your Questions about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalichman, Seth C.

    This book focuses on AIDS education and answers 350 commonly asked questions about Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) taken from questions addressed to two major urban AIDS hotlines (Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and Houston, Texas). Chapter 1, "HIV - The Virus That Causes AIDS," discusses: the HIV…

  19. Toward Automated Consumer Question Answering: Automatically Separating Consumer Questions from Professional Questions in the Healthcare Domain

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feifan; Antieau, Lamont D.; Yu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Objective Both healthcare professionals and healthcare consumers have information needs that can be met through the use of computers, specifically via medical question answering systems. However, the information needs of both groups are different in terms of literacy levels and technical expertise, and an effective question answering system must be able to account for these differences if it is to formulate the most relevant responses for users from each group. In this paper, we propose that a first step toward answering the queries of different users is automatically classifying questions according to whether they were asked by healthcare professionals or consumers. Design We obtained two sets of consumer questions (~10,000 questions in total) from Yahoo answers. The professional questions consist of two question collections: 4654 point-of-care questions (denoted as PointCare) obtained from interviews of a group of family doctors following patient visits and 5378 questions from physician practices through professional online services (denoted as OnlinePractice). With more than 20,000 questions combined, we developed supervised machine-learning models for automatic classification between consumer questions and professional questions. To evaluate the robustness of our models, we tested the model that was trained on the Consumer-PointCare dataset on the Consumer-OnlinePractice dataset. We evaluated both linguistic features and statistical features and examined how the characteristics in two different types of professional questions (PointCare vs. OnlinePractice) may affect the classification performance. We explored information gain for feature reduction and the back-off linguistic category features. Results 10-fold cross-validation results showed the best F1-measure of 0.936 and 0.946 on Consumer-PointCare and Consumer-OnlinePractice respectively, and the best F1-measure of 0.891 when testing the Consumer-PointCare model on the Consumer-OnlinePractice dataset

  20. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    PubMed

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

  1. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  2. Retrospective Assessment of Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse: A Comparison of Scaled and Behaviorally Specific Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLillo, David; Fortier, Michelle A.; Hayes, Sarah A.; Trask, Emily; Perry, Andrea R.; Messman-Moore, Terri; Fauchier, Angele; Nash, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    This study compared retrospective reports of childhood sexual and physical abuse as assessed by two measures: the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which uses a Likert-type scaling approach, and the Computer Assisted Maltreatment Inventory (CAMI), which employs a behaviorally specific means of assessment. Participants included 1,195…

  3. In Search of the Optimal Number of Response Categories in a Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jihyun; Paek, Insu

    2014-01-01

    Likert-type rating scales are still the most widely used method when measuring psychoeducational constructs. The present study investigates a long-standing issue of identifying the optimal number of response categories. A special emphasis is given to categorical data, which were generated by the Item Response Theory (IRT) Graded-Response Modeling…

  4. The Development of a Competence Scale for Learning Science: Inquiry and Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Huey-Por; Chen, Chin-Chang; Guo, Gwo-Jen; Cheng, Yeong-Jin; Lin, Chen-Yung; Jen, Tsung-Hau

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an instrument to measure school students' competence in learning science as part of a large research project in Taiwan. The instrument consisted of 29 self-report, Likert-type items divided into 2 scales: Competence in Scientific Inquiry and Competence in Communication. The Competence in Scientific…

  5. Phrasal Paraphrase Based Question Reformulation for Archived Question Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Wei-Nan; Lu, Ke; Ji, Rongrong; Wang, Fanglin; Liu, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods.

  6. Phrasal Paraphrase Based Question Reformulation for Archived Question Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ke; Ji, Rongrong; Wang, Fanglin; Liu, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Lexical gap in cQA search, resulted by the variability of languages, has been recognized as an important and widespread phenomenon. To address the problem, this paper presents a question reformulation scheme to enhance the question retrieval model by fully exploring the intelligence of paraphrase in phrase-level. It compensates for the existing paraphrasing research in a suitable granularity, which either falls into fine-grained lexical-level or coarse-grained sentence-level. Given a question in natural language, our scheme first detects the involved key-phrases by jointly integrating the corpus-dependent knowledge and question-aware cues. Next, it automatically extracts the paraphrases for each identified key-phrase utilizing multiple online translation engines, and then selects the most relevant reformulations from a large group of question rewrites, which is formed by full permutation and combination of the generated paraphrases. Extensive evaluations on a real world data set demonstrate that our model is able to characterize the complex questions and achieves promising performance as compared to the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:23805178

  7. Questioning ORACLE: An Assessment of ORACLE's Analysis of Teachers' Questions and [A Comment on "Questioning ORACLE"].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarth, John; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of teachers' questions, part of the ORACLE (Observation Research and Classroom Learning Evaluation) project research, is examined in detail. Scarth and Hammersley argue that the rules ORACLE uses for identifying different types of questions involve levels of ambiguity and inference that threaten reliability and validity of the study's…

  8. Validation of the breathlessness, cough and sputum scale to predict COPD exacerbation

    PubMed Central

    DeVries, Rebecca; Kriebel, David; Sama, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The breathlessness, cough and sputum scale (BCSS) is a three-item questionnaire rating breathlessness, cough and sputum on a 5-point Likert scale from 0 (no symptoms) to 4 (severe symptoms). Researchers have explored the utility of this tool to quantify efficacy of treatment following a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation; however, little work has been done to investigate the ability of the BCSS to predict COPD exacerbation. As part of a prospective case-crossover study among a cohort of 168 COPD patients residing in central Massachusetts, patients were asked standard BCSS questions during exacerbation and randomly identified non-exacerbation (or healthy) weeks. We found that the BCSS was strongly associated with COPD exacerbation (OR=2.80, 95% CI=2.27–3.45) and that a BCSS sum score of 5.0 identified COPD exacerbation with 83% sensitivity and 68% specificity. These results may be useful in the clinical setting to expedite interventions of exacerbation. PMID:27906157

  9. Climate Leadership Awards Frequent Questions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Provides answers to frequently asked questions regarding the Climate Leadership Awards, sponsored by EPA's Center for Corporate Climate Leadership with co-sponsorship from the Center for Climate and Energy Solutions and The Climate Registry.

  10. Twenty Questions about Student Errors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kathleen M.; Lipson, Joseph Isaac

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the value of studying errors made by students in the process of learning science. Addresses 20 research questions dealing with student learning errors. Attempts to characterize errors made by students and clarify some terms used in error research. (TW)

  11. Interview Questions with Bentham Scientific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.

  12. Frequent Questions about TSCA CBI

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    General Questions and Answers Concerning Confidential Business Information (CBI) Provisions of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), as amended by the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act

  13. Solar physics: Dynamo theory questioned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonneau, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Observations of X-ray emission -- a diagnostic tool for the mechanisms driving stellar magnetic fields -- from four cool stars call into question accepted models of magnetic-field generation in the Sun and stars. See Letter p.526

  14. Birds: Old Questions and New.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses questions such as how birds fly and the meaning of bird songs. Explains the relationship between birds and ecological activism and points out the excitement in research and observation of birds. (Contains 34 references.) (YDS)

  15. HPV Vaccine - Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Media Resources News Newsletters Events Redirect for HPV Vaccine FAQ Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... to the address below. http://www.cdc.gov/hpv/parents/questions-answers.html File Formats Help: How ...

  16. Resource Classification for Medical Questions

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Kirk; Rodriguez, Laritza; Shooshan, Sonya E.; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach for manually and automatically classifying the resource type of medical questions. Three types of resources are considered: patient-specific, general knowledge, and research. Using this approach, an automatic question answering system could select the best type of resource from which to consider answers. We first describe our methodology for manually annotating resource type on four different question corpora totaling over 5,000 questions. We then describe our approach for automatically identifying the appropriate type of resource. A supervised machine learning approach is used with lexical, syntactic, semantic, and topic-based feature types. This approach is able to achieve accuracies in the range of 80.9% to 92.8% across four datasets. Finally, we discuss the difficulties encountered in both manual and automatic classification of this challenging task. PMID:28269901

  17. Frequent Questions About Universal Waste

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Frequent questions such as Who is affected by the universal waste regulations? What is “mercury-containing equipment”? How are waste batteries managed under universal waste? How are waste pesticides managed under universal waste?

  18. Resource Classification for Medical Questions.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Kirk; Rodriguez, Laritza; Shooshan, Sonya E; Demner-Fushman, Dina

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach for manually and automatically classifying the resource type of medical questions. Three types of resources are considered: patient-specific, general knowledge, and research. Using this approach, an automatic question answering system could select the best type of resource from which to consider answers. We first describe our methodology for manually annotating resource type on four different question corpora totaling over 5,000 questions. We then describe our approach for automatically identifying the appropriate type of resource. A supervised machine learning approach is used with lexical, syntactic, semantic, and topic-based feature types. This approach is able to achieve accuracies in the range of 80.9% to 92.8% across four datasets. Finally, we discuss the difficulties encountered in both manual and automatic classification of this challenging task.

  19. Extraction of Questions Behind Messages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Naohiro; Kawahara, Daisuke; Okamoto, Masashi; Kurohashi, Sadao; Nishida, Toyoaki

    To overcome the limitation of conventional text-mining approaches in which frequent patterns of word occurrences are to be extracted to understand obvious user needs, this paper proposes an approach to extracting questions behind messages to understand potential user needs. We first extract characteristic case frames by comparing the case frames constructed from target messages with the ones from 25M sentences in the Web and 20M sentences in newspaper articles of 20 years. Then we extract questions behind messages by transforming the characteristic case frames into interrogative sentences based on new information and old information, i.e., replacing new information with WH-question words. The proposed approach is, in other words, a kind of classification of word occurrence pattern. Qualitative evaluations of our preliminary experiments suggest that extracted questions show problem consciousness and alternative solutions -- all of which help to understand potential user needs.

  20. Questions Students Ask: Beta Decay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Jordan; Hartt, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Answers a student's question about the emission of a positron from a nucleus. Discusses the problem from the aspects of the uncertainty principle, beta decay, the Fermi Theory, and modern physics. (YP)

  1. Folic Acid Questions and Answers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Controls NCBDDD Cancel Submit Search The CDC Folic Acid Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Folic Acid Homepage Facts Quiz Frequently Asked Questions General Information ...

  2. Henipaviruses-unanswered questions of lethal zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Field, Hume; Kung, Nina

    2011-12-01

    The highly lethal Hendra and Nipah viruses have been described for little more than a decade, yet within that time have been aetiologically associated with major livestock and human health impacts, albeit on a limited scale. Do these emerging pathogens pose a broader threat, or are they inconsequential 'viral chatter'. Given their lethality, and the evident multi-generational human-to-human transmission associated with Nipah virus in Bangladesh, it seems prudent to apply the precautionary principle. While much is known of their clinical, pathogenic and epidemiologic features in livestock species and humans, a number of fundamental questions regarding the relationship between the viruses, their natural fruit-bat host and the environment remain unanswered. In this paper, we pose and probe these questions in context, and offer perspectives based primarily on our experience with Hendra virus in Australia, augmented with Nipah virus parallels.

  3. Explaining Errors in Children's Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Caroline F.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to explain the occurrence of errors in children's speech is an essential component of successful theories of language acquisition. The present study tested some generativist and constructivist predictions about error on the questions produced by ten English-learning children between 2 and 5 years of age. The analyses demonstrated that,…

  4. Teaching Ideas: Building Questioning Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, Randall G.; Allen, Rodney F.

    1986-01-01

    This exercise shows how to turn the expository treatment of a topic or event into a mystery or puzzling situation that students are asked to solve. Once a puzzle is presented, students may pose only questions that can be answered yes or no. Three sample lessons are included to illustrate the process. (JDH)

  5. Four Questions to Ask Yourself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abilock, Debbie, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    One's commitment to intellectual freedom is manifested not just in the creation of a strong and clear selection policy or the celebration of Banned Books Week but by his or her willingness to examine his or her practices openly with others. In this article, the author proposes four questions to explore in one's teaching and in professional…

  6. Instance-Based Question Answering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    answer clustering, composition, and scoring. Moreover, with the effort dedicated to improving monolingual system performance, system parameters are...text collections: document type, manual or automatic annotations (if any), and stylistic and notational differences in technical terms. Monolingual ...forum in which cross language retrieval systems and question answering systems are tested for various Eu- ropean languages. The CLEF QA monolingual task

  7. Constructivism and Objectivism: Additional Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Edmund S.

    2006-01-01

    In past issues of "The Educational Forum," David Elkind (2004; 2005) and Jamin Carson (2005) have engaged in a dialogue about constructivism and objectivism as viable philosophies of education. In this issue, yet another author joins in the discussion by questioning the role of science and religion in objectivism.

  8. Questionable Methods in Alcoholism Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koocher, Gerald P.

    1991-01-01

    Alcoholism research paradigms that use substantial cash incentives to attract participants and that call for alcoholics to consume ethanol in laboratory raise ethical questions. When using such methods, investigators should be obligated to discuss risk-benefit rationales and detail precautionary behaviors to protect participants. Discussion of…

  9. Addressing Phonological Questions with Ultrasound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound can be used to address unresolved questions in phonological theory. To date, some studies have shown that results from ultrasound imaging can shed light on how differences in phonological elements are implemented. Phenomena that have been investigated include transitional schwa, vowel coalescence, and transparent vowels. A study of…

  10. What Children Learn from Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that young children ask a multitude of why and how questions. And when they do, they're not simply trying to get adult attention; instead, they're actively seeking information. In this article, Paul Harris describes the findings of a number of research analyses based on extensive transcripts of children's natural speech. Some of the…

  11. Eight Questions for Better Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriegel, Otis

    2016-01-01

    In this article, veteran educator Otis Kriegel provides eight questions that teachers can ask themselves as they create or tweak lesson plans. With practical, straightforward advice, Kriegel suggests that teachers be mindful of who their audience is, how much students already know, and what materials they'll need. He also urges teachers to…

  12. Ten Practical Questions about Branding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Robert M.; Rattenbury, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    "Marketing" and "branding" were once considered dirty words on campus but faculty, staff, and board members now appreciate the value of getting their message out and managing their reputation. The question is not so much whether to invest, but when, how, and most important, what's the return on investment? A roundtable of accomplished marketing…

  13. The Geography of Virtual Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mon, Lorri; Bishop, Bradley Wade; McClure, Charles R.; McGilvray, Jessica; Most, Linda; Milas, Theodore Patrick; Snead, John T.

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the geography of virtual questioning by using geographic information systems to study activity within the Florida Electronic Library "Ask a Librarian" collaborative chat service. Researchers mapped participating libraries throughout the state of Florida that served as virtual "entry portals" for users as…

  14. [Menstruation in the systemic context. New questions -- questionable connections].

    PubMed

    Lütje, W

    2005-10-01

    Experiencing and the significance of menstruation could possibly be a decisive factor in your physiology or pathologic physiology, in accordance with blood flow disturbance or endometriosis. Menstruation is a systemic, characteristic experience. Evolution, family, culture, community, media, health service and even the economy have an influence on the "period system". Damage and use, sense and the nonsensical of regular bleeding stand to the test. The cycle comes under increasing "pressure" and is no longer in "rhythm". Counter regulation, through regulation of the period seems to prevent the personal, community and health-wise restrictions. The price for this is unknown. Clearly, there is no longer a path between a natural, relaxed acceptance of and an artificial abolition of blood flow. The question of direction is posed in the menarche. This question remains unanswered even in our time.

  15. On a question of Gross

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Abhijit

    2007-03-01

    Using the notion of weighted sharing of sets we prove two uniqueness theorems which improve the results proved by Fang and Qiu [H. Qiu, M. Fang, A unicity theorem for meromorphic functions, Bull. Malaysian Math. Sci. Soc. 25 (2002) 31-38], Lahiri and Banerjee [I. Lahiri, A. Banerjee, Uniqueness of meromorphic functions with deficient poles, Kyungpook Math. J. 44 (2004) 575-584] and Yi and Lin [H.X. Yi, W.C. Lin, Uniqueness theorems concerning a question of Gross, Proc. Japan Acad. Ser. A 80 (2004) 136-140] and thus provide an answer to the question of Gross [F. Gross, Factorization of meromorphic functions and some open problems, in: Proc. Conf. Univ. Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1976, in: Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 599, Springer, Berlin, 1977, pp. 51-69], under a weaker hypothesis.

  16. Classroom Questions. ERIC/AE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brualdi, Amy C.

    Questioning is one of the most popular modes of teaching, but it has the capacity to turn a child off to learning if done incorrectly. This digest provides teachers with information on the types of questions and questioning behaviors that can facilitate the learning process and on the types of questions that are ineffective. Good questions foster…

  17. Identification of depression in women during pregnancy and the early postnatal period using the Whooley questions and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale: protocol for the Born and Bred in Yorkshire: PeriNatal Depression Diagnostic Accuracy (BaBY PaNDA) study

    PubMed Central

    Littlewood, Elizabeth; Ali, Shehzad; Ansell, Pat; Dyson, Lisa; Gascoyne, Samantha; Hewitt, Catherine; Keding, Ada; Mann, Rachel; McMillan, Dean; Morgan, Deborah; Swan, Kelly; Waterhouse, Bev; Gilbody, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Perinatal depression is well recognised as a mental health condition but <50% of cases are identified by healthcare professionals in routine clinical practice. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) is often used to detect symptoms of postnatal depression in maternity and child services. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommends 2 ‘ultra-brief’ case-finding questions (the Whooley questions) to aid identification of depression during the perinatal period, but this recommendation was made in the absence of any validation studies in a perinatal population. Limited research exists on the acceptability of these depression case-finding instruments and the cost-effectiveness of routine screening for perinatal depression. Methods and analysis The diagnostic accuracy of the Whooley questions and the EPDS will be determined against a reference standard (the Client Interview Schedule—Revised) during pregnancy (around 20 weeks) and the early postnatal period (around 3–4 months post partum) in a sample of 379 women. Further outcome measures will assess a range of psychological comorbidities, health-related quality of life and resource utilisation. Women will be followed up 12 months postnatally. The sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the Whooley questions and the EPDS will be calculated against the reference standard at 20 weeks pregnancy and 3–4 months post partum. Acceptability of the depression case-finding instruments to women and healthcare professionals will involve in-depth qualitative interviews. An existing decision analytic model will be adapted to determine the cost-effectiveness of routine screening for perinatal depression. Ethics and dissemination This study is considered low risk for participants. Robust protocols will deal with cases where risk of depression, self-harm or suicide is identified. The protocol received favourable ethical opinion from the North East

  18. Interim Exceptional Events Rule Frequently Asked Questions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Air agencies and other stakeholders have raised technical questions and issues related to implementation since the EPA promulgated the EER. This Question and Answer (Q&A) document is intended to respond to some of these frequently asked questions.

  19. Development of the Chinese version of the Oro-facial Esthetic Scale.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; He, S L

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the Oro-facial Esthetic Scale among Chinese-speaking patients. The original Oro-facial Esthetic Scale was cross-culturally adapted in accordance with the international standards to develop a Chinese version (OES-C). Unlike the original Oro-facial Esthetic Scale, the version employed in this study used a 5-point Likert scale with items rated from unsatisfactory to most satisfactory. Psychometric evaluation included the reliability and validity of the OES-C. The reliability of the OES-C was determined through internal consistency and test-retest methods. The validity of OES-C was analysed by content validity, discriminative validity, construct validity and convergent validity. The corrected item-total correlation coefficients of the OES-C ranged from 0·859 to 0·910. The inter-item correlation coefficients between each two of the eight items of the OES-C ranged from 0·766 to 0·922. The values of ICC ranged from 0·79 (95% CI = 0·54-0·98) to 0·93 (95% CI = 0·87-0·99), indicating an excellent agreement. Construct validity was proved by the presence of one-factor structure that accounted for 83·507% of the variance and fitted well into the model. Convergent validity was confirmed by the association between OES-C scores and self-reported oral aesthetics and three questions from the Oral Health Impact Profile related to aesthetics (correlation coefficients ranged from -0·830 to -0·702, P < 0·001). OES-C scores discriminated aesthetically impaired patients from healthy controls. This study provides preliminary evidence concerning the reliability and validity of the OES-C. The results show that the OES-C may be a useful tool for assessment of oro-facial esthetics in China.

  20. Information Extraction Supported Question Answering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-15

    cymfony.com, wei@cymfony.com phone : (716) 565-9114 fax: (716) 565-0308 15 October, 1999 Abstract This paper discusses the use of our information...display a currently valid OMB control number . 1. REPORT DATE 19 OCT 1999 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-10-1999 to 00-10-1999 4. TITLE AND...SUBTITLE Information Extraction Supported Question Answering 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  1. Biology Question Generation from a Semantic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lishan

    Science instructors need questions for use in exams, homework assignments, class discussions, reviews, and other instructional activities. Textbooks never have enough questions, so instructors must find them from other sources or generate their own questions. In order to supply instructors with biology questions, a semantic network approach was developed for generating open response biology questions. The generated questions were compared to professional authorized questions. To boost students' learning experience, adaptive selection was built on the generated questions. Bayesian Knowledge Tracing was used as embedded assessment of the student's current competence so that a suitable question could be selected based on the student's previous performance. A between-subjects experiment with 42 participants was performed, where half of the participants studied with adaptive selected questions and the rest studied with mal-adaptive order of questions. Both groups significantly improved their test scores, and the participants in adaptive group registered larger learning gains than participants in the control group. To explore the possibility of generating rich instructional feedback for machine-generated questions, a question-paragraph mapping task was identified. Given a set of questions and a list of paragraphs for a textbook, the goal of the task was to map the related paragraphs to each question. An algorithm was developed whose performance was comparable to human annotators. A multiple-choice question with high quality distractors (incorrect answers) can be pedagogically valuable as well as being much easier to grade than open-response questions. Thus, an algorithm was developed to generate good distractors for multiple-choice questions. The machine-generated multiple-choice questions were compared to human-generated questions in terms of three measures: question difficulty, question discrimination and distractor usefulness. By recruiting 200 participants from

  2. No question about exciting questions in cell biology.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Thomas D

    2013-12-01

    Although we have a good grasp of many important processes in cell biology, including knowledge of many molecules involved and how they interact with each other, we still do not understand most of the dynamical features that are the essence of living systems. Fortunately, we now have the ability to dissect biological systems in enough detail to understand their dynamics, including the use of mathematical models to account for past observations and predict future experiments. This deep level of mechanistic understanding should be our goal—not simply to satisfy our scientific curiosity, but also to understand the causes of disease well enough to predict risks, make early diagnoses, and treat effectively. Many big questions remain to be answered before we reach this goal of understanding cellular dynamics.

  3. Les questions de migrations internationales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samman, Mouna Liliane

    1993-03-01

    International migrations have growing implications for both countries of origin and countries of destination. In the latter, the presence of foreigners and of members of their families today creates problems of integration, causes argument and brings mounting xenophobia. Paralleling political, economic and social measures taken by public authorities to respond to these difficulties, education needs to assist in defusing the resulting social tensions by preparing the minds of learners and helping to develop new attitudes. In particular, when educational programmes address questions of international migration, these should be treated in the framework of historical evolution so that their real significance and their true temporal and spatial dimensions become apparent. It is also important that the growing interdependence between countries should be made plain, that national history should be placed in its international context, and that the true consequences of these developments should be made clear. In this context, learners need to be acquainted with Human Rights, thereby stressing universal moral values and the role of the individual. Lastly, questions relating to international migration are usually presented in the media in a selective and partial manner, and the young people who take in this information often accept the hasty judgments which are made of situations as proven facts. This is why all teaching about international migration needs to be considered or reconsidered in the light of the complementary or competing actions of the media.

  4. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S.J.; Dixon, B.W.; Bennett, R.G.; Smith, J.D.; Hill, R.N.

    2004-10-03

    Given the range of fuel cycle goals and criteria, and the wide range of fuel cycle options, how can the set of options eventually be narrowed in a transparent and justifiable fashion? It is impractical to develop all options. We suggest an approach that starts by considering a range of goals for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and then posits seven questions, such as whether Cs and Sr isotopes should be separated from spent fuel and, if so, what should be done with them. For each question, we consider which of the goals may be relevant to eventually providing answers. The AFCI program has both ''outcome'' and ''process'' goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geologic repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are rea diness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties.

  5. Answering Key Fuel Cycle Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Steven J. Piet; Brent W. Dixon; J. Stephen Herring; David E. Shropshire; Mary Lou Dunzik-Gougar

    2003-10-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program has both “outcome” and “process” goals because it must address both waste already accumulating as well as completing the fuel cycle in connection with advanced nuclear power plant concepts. The outcome objectives are waste geological repository capacity and cost, energy security and sustainability, proliferation resistance, fuel cycle economics, and safety. The process objectives are readiness to proceed and adaptability and robustness in the face of uncertainties. A classic decision-making approach to such a multi-attribute problem would be to weight individual quantified criteria and calculate an overall figure of merit. This is inappropriate for several reasons. First, the goals are not independent. Second, the importance of different goals varies among stakeholders. Third, the importance of different goals is likely to vary with time, especially the “energy future.” Fourth, some key considerations are not easily or meaningfully quantifiable at present. Instead, at this point, we have developed 16 questions the AFCI program should answer and suggest an approach of determining for each whether relevant options improve meeting each of the program goals. We find that it is not always clear which option is best for a specific question and specific goal; this helps identify key issues for future work. In general, we suggest attempting to create as many win-win decisions (options that are attractive or neutral to most goals) as possible. Thus, to help clarify why the program is exploring the options it is, and to set the stage for future narrowing of options, we have developed 16 questions, as follows: · What are the AFCI program goals? · Which potential waste disposition approaches do we plan for? · What are the major separations, transmutation, and fuel options? · How do we address proliferation resistance? · Which potential energy futures do we plan for? · What potential external triggers do we

  6. [Nursing] Test Pool Questions. Area II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Nettie; Patton, Bob

    This manual consists of area 2 test pool questions which are designed to assist instructors in selecting appropriate questions to help prepare practical nursing students for the Oklahoma state board exam. Multiple choice questions are utilized to facilitate testing of nursing 2 curriculum objectives. Each test contains questions covering each…

  7. Five Strategies for Questioning with Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Arthur L.; Kallick, Bena

    2015-01-01

    Masterful teachers don't just ask a lot of questions; they ask questions in a purposeful way. In this article, Costa and Kallick describe five strategies that can help teachers become more purposeful in designing and posing questions. One strategy is to plan questions that elicit student thinking at various cognitive levels, from simple recall of…

  8. Big questions about the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinschi, Magda

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy is not only a branch of science but also an important part of the culture and civilisations of peoples. Starting with archeoastronomy to the present day, it has always contributed to a better understanding of life, of humanity. After 400 years of modern astronomy, it still addresses major problems such as: Why there is something rather than nothing? Why is nature comprehensible to humans? How is cosmos related to humanity? Do multiverses exist? Is there life on other planets? Are we alone in the universe? Does the universe have a beginning? If so, what does it mean? How did the universe originate? All these questions are a challenge for interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary investigations, for philosophers, physicists, cosmologists, mathematicians, theologians. The new insights gained by pursuing in depth these common investigations will shape the society we live in and have important consequences on the future we are creating.

  9. Socrates' questions: a focus for nursing.

    PubMed

    Bunkers, Sandra S

    2004-07-01

    This column focuses on the philosophical dialogue originated by Socrates. Six questions that Socrates would ask the ancient Greeks are explored in discussing a book written by Phillips entitled Six Questions of Socrates. These questions were: What is virtue? What is moderation? What is justice? What is good? What is courage? What is piety? A human becoming perspective is used as a lens to view the discussion on these questions and the question is posed, "What would it be like to frame discussions on health and quality of life around Socrates' questions?" Parse's teaching-learning processes are presented as a means of creating an environment where dialogue on these questions can occur.

  10. The Development of the Francis Moral Values Scales: A Study among 16- to 18-Year-Old Students Taking Religious Studies at A Level in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Village, Andrew; Francis, Leslie J.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the development of scales for measuring moral values in three domains: anti-social behaviour, sex and relationships, and substance use. Students studying religion at A level in 25 schools were invited to respond to 32 Likert items that referred to a wide range of moral issues and behaviours, employing a 5-point response…

  11. Secondary Students' Stable and Unstable Optics Conceptions Using Contextualized Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Hye-Eun; Treagust, David F.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on elucidating and explaining reasons for the stability of and interrelationships between students' conceptions about "Light Propagation" and "Visibility of Objects" using contextualized questions across 3 years of secondary schooling from Years 7 to 9. In a large-scale quantitative study involving 1,233…

  12. Answering Hard Questions: "Wh"-Movement across Dialects and Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Villiers, Jill; Roeper, Thomas; Bland-Stewart, Linda; Pearson, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    A large-scale study of complex "wh"-questions with 1,000 subjects aged 4-9 years is reported. The subjects' dialects were Mainstream American English or African American English, and approximately one-third were language impaired. The study examined when children permit long distance "wh"-movement, and when they respect a variety of syntactic…

  13. Evaluation of four maternal smoking questions.

    PubMed Central

    Kharrazi, M; Epstein, D; Hopkins, B; Kreutzer, R; Doebbert, G; Hiatt, R; Swan, S; Eskenazi, B; Pirkle, J L; Bernert, J T

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors evaluated four questions about maternal smoking during pregnancy for use on birth certificates. METHODS: Question 1 (yes/no format) and Question 2 (trimester-specific design) were tested among 1171 women who delivered at two Kaiser Permanente medical centers in northern California. Responses to Questions 1 and 2 were compared with smoking information provided by participants in telephone interviews conducted during pregnancy. Question 3 (multiple choice format) and Question 4 (month- and grouped month-specific design) were tested among 900 women who enrolled in a statewide prenatal screening program and who delivered in 20 hospitals in four Central Valley counties. Responses to Questions 3 and 4 were compared with mid-pregnancy serum cotinine levels. The authors evaluated the four questions in terms of conciseness, response rate, data accuracy, and type of data requested. RESULTS: Questions 1 and 2 were the most concise. Response rates could not be calculated for Questions 1 and 2. Response rates were 86.0% for Question 3 and 74.2% for Question 4. Sensitivity was 47.3% for Question 1, 62.1% for Question 2, 83.8% for Question 3, and 86.7% for Question 4. The types of data requested by Questions 2 and 4 seem to best satisfy the needs of the broad audience of birth certificate users. CONCLUSIONS: No single question was clearly superior. The authors propose a combination of Questions 2 and 4, which asks about average number of cigarettes smoked per day in the three months before pregnancy and in each trimester of pregnancy. PMID:9925173

  14. Open questions about giant viruses.

    PubMed

    Claverie, Jean-Michel; Abergel, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    The recent discovery of giant viruses exhibiting double-stranded DNA genomes larger than a million base pairs, encoding more than a thousand proteins and packed in near micron-sized icosahedral particles, opened a new and unexpected chapter in virology. As of today, these giant viruses and their closest relatives of lesser dimensions infect unicellular eukaryotes found in aquatic environments, but belonging to a wide diversity of early branching phyla. This broad phylogenetic distribution of hosts is consistent with the hypothesis that giant viruses originated prior to the radiation of the eukaryotic domain and/or might have been involved in the partition of nuclear versus cytoplasmic functions in ancestral cells. The distinctive features of the known giant viruses, in particular the recurrent presence of components of the translation apparatus in their proteome, raise a number of fundamental questions about their origin, their mode of evolution, and the relationship they may entertain with other dsDNA viruses, the genome size of which exhibits the widest distribution among all biological entities, from less than 5 kb to more than 1.25 Mb (a ratio of 1:250). At a more conceptual level, the convergence between the discovery of increasingly reduced parasitic cellular organisms and that of giant viruses exhibiting a widening array of cellular-like functions may ultimately abolish the historical discontinuity between the viral and the cellular world.

  15. Do Melt Inclusions Answer Big Questions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A. W.; Sobolev, A. V.

    2009-12-01

    In a pioneering paper, Sobolev and Shimizu (1993) demonstrated the existence of ultra-depleted melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts in MORB. They interpreted these as evidence for the preservation of parental melts formed by progressive near-fractional melting. Subsequently many cases have been described where melt inclusions from single basalt samples display enormous chemical and isotopic heterogeneity. The interpretation of these observations hinges critically on whether such melt inclusions can faithfully preserve primary or parental melt composition. If they do, melt inclusion data can truly answer big questions from small-scale observations. If they do not, they answer rather small questions. Favoring the second possibility, Danyushevsky et al. (2004) have suggested that much of the observed variability of highly incompatible trace elements in melt inclusions “may not represent geologically significant melts, but instead reflect localized, grain-scale reaction processes within the magmatic plumbing system.” We disagree and show that this mechanism cannot, for example, explain isotopic heterogeneity measured in several suites of melt inclusions, nor does it not account for the presence of ultra-depleted melts and "ghost" plagioclase signatures in other inclusions. More recently, Spandler et al. (2007) have suggested on the basis of experimental evidence that diffusion rates for REE in olivine are so rapid that parental melt compositions in melt inclusions are rapidly falsified by diffusional exchange with (evolved) host lava. We show that the very fact that extreme chemical and isotopic heterogeneities are routinely preserved in melt inclusions demonstrates that this conclusion is unwarranted, either because residence times of the olivine phenocrysts are much shorter than assumed by Spandler et al. or because the high experimental diffusion rates are caused by an unknown experimental artifact. Although there is no obvious flaw in design and execution of

  16. Regional Screening Levels Frequent Questions (May 2016)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Regional Screening Level RSL frequently asked question FAQ page provides risk assessors answers to common questions about the preliminary remediation goal PRG risk based concentration RBC and risk calculator for the assessment of human Health.

  17. Questions for Your Doctor: Your First Visit

    MedlinePlus

    The Testicular Cancer Resource Center Questions for your Doctor: Your First Visit This list of questions is intended to help ... cancer, be happy, but also be aware that testicular cancer is misdiagnosed as epididymitis or something similar almost ...

  18. What Questions Should I Ask My Doctor?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Database Supporting Research Raising Awareness Our Blog Patient Education Pancreas News Basics of Pancreatic Cancer FAQs The ... Detection- Goggins Lab Sol Goldman Center Discussion Board Patient Education / Basics of Pancreatic Cancer Questions What questions should ...

  19. Questions and Answers for Architectural Coatings Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA compiled this question and answer document from inquiries received after the publication of the 1999 final architectural coatings rule and from questions raised at meetings with industry associations.

  20. What Questions Do They Ask? Ausubel Rephrased.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spargo, Peter E.; Enderstein, L. Gus

    1997-01-01

    Investigates what questions elementary students would ask when presented with various situations relating to the natural environment. Findings reveal the extraordinary range of questions that elementary students have concerning the solar system and space. (JRH)

  1. Provocative Questions in Cancer: NCI Seminar

    Cancer.gov

    science writers' seminar to discuss various aspects of one of NCI’s signature efforts -- the Provocative Questions project. Discussion will focus on the scientific research that surrounds some of these questions.

  2. Two-Year-Old Children Differentiate Test Questions from Genuine Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Gerlind; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Children are frequently confronted with so-called "test questions". While genuine questions are requests for missing information, test questions ask for information obviously already known to the questioner. In this study we explored whether two-year-old children respond differentially to one and the same question used as either a genuine question…

  3. Better Questions and Answers Equal Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swicegood, Philip R.; Parsons, James L.

    1989-01-01

    Students with learning disabilities and behavior problems need instruction designed to increase active thinking and questioning skills. Described methods for teaching these skills include T. Raphael's question-answer relationships, A. Hahn's questioning strategy, reciprocal teaching, and the "ReQuest" procedure. Practice activities for…

  4. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  5. Answering Wh- Questions About Sentences and Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Murray

    1986-01-01

    Describes a study designed to identify the mental operations that contribute to people's ability to answer wh- questions, that is, questions which request information that plays a particular role in relation to some action or event. Wh- questions are signaled by interrogative pronouns and adverbs like who, what, when, and where. (SED)

  6. Answers to Your Questions About American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Many of the frequent questions which arise concerning the relationship between Indians and the Federal Government are answered in this document. These questions and answers, in general, relate to Indians with whom the Federal government still retains a special relationship. Questions and answers pertain to the following areas: (1) the Indian…

  7. Wh- Questions and Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the comprehension of questions beginning with different wh- question words presented in two referential conditions to individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Thirty-nine school-age participants completed a battery of who, what, where, when, why, and how questions with and without a picture…

  8. Memory, Knowledge, and the Answering of Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Donald A.

    An examination of the nature of memory reveals that the representation of knowledge cannot be separated from the uses of knowledge. The answering of questions is not a simple retrieval and response of stored information; rather the process is embedded in a general structural framework containing knowledge of the questioner, the question, and the…

  9. What Can We Learn from Students' Questions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commeyras, Michelle

    1995-01-01

    Creating opportunities and encouraging student-centered questioning requires a special teacher-student dynamic. Students need to be empowered to ask questions. The article explores what teachers can learn from questions students ask, focusing on learning outcomes for teachers, and using a second-grade lesson on Harriet Tubman as an example. (SM)

  10. Questions That Science Teachers Find Difficult (II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)

  11. Delivery of QTIiv2 Question Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Gary B.; Davis, Hugh C.; Gilbert, Lester; Hare, Jonathon; Howard, Yvonne; Jeyes, Steve; Millard, David; Sherratt, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The IMS Question and Test Interoperability (QTI) standard identifies 16 different question types which may be used in online assessment. While some partial implementations exist, the R2Q2 project has developed a complete solution that renders and responds to all 16 question types as specified. In addition, care has been taken in the R2Q2 project…

  12. How to Make Your Questions Essential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Grant; Wilbur, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Good essential questions rarely emerge in the first draft. Common first-draft questions typically are convergent low-level questions designed to support content acquisition. They either point toward the one official "right" answer, or they elicit mere lists and thus no further inquiry. So how can teachers ensure that subsequent drafts…

  13. 47 CFR 13.215 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS Examination System § 13.215 Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of...

  14. Teaching Students to Form Effective Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stafford, Tish

    2009-01-01

    The ability to question lies at the heart of human curiosity and is a necessary component of cognition. The author stresses that forming questions is essential to human thought and communication. As such, forming questions is a foundational process that cuts across curricular areas and is embedded in content standards across the nation, including…

  15. 32 CFR 316.7 - Questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Questions. 316.7 Section 316.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.7 Questions. Questions on both the substance and procedure...

  16. 32 CFR 316.7 - Questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Questions. 316.7 Section 316.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.7 Questions. Questions on both the substance and procedure...

  17. 32 CFR 316.7 - Questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Questions. 316.7 Section 316.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.7 Questions. Questions on both the substance and procedure...

  18. 32 CFR 316.7 - Questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Questions. 316.7 Section 316.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.7 Questions. Questions on both the substance and procedure...

  19. 32 CFR 316.7 - Questions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Questions. 316.7 Section 316.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DEFENSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS AGENCY PRIVACY PROGRAM § 316.7 Questions. Questions on both the substance and procedure...

  20. The Contrast between Interrogatives and Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huddleston, Rodney

    1994-01-01

    Explores the relation between interrogative, a category of grammatical form, and question, a category of meaning. Mismatches between interrogative phrases and questioned elements are also investigated. Two kinds of interrogative and three kinds of question are distinguished. (47 references) (Author/CK)

  1. Developing Qualitative Research Questions: A Reflective Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agee, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The reflective and interrogative processes required for developing effective qualitative research questions can give shape and direction to a study in ways that are often underestimated. Good research questions do not necessarily produce good research, but poorly conceived or constructed questions will likely create problems that affect all…

  2. Teaching Culture: Questioning Perspectives on Our Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Met, Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Despite years of training, teaching experience, reading professional literature, attending conferences, and learning from expert colleagues, when it comes to the teaching of culture, the author wishes she knew more answers to many critical questions. Her questions are framed by the basic questions that all curricula seek to answer: WHAT is the…

  3. Validation of the Persian Version of the 8-Item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) in Iranian Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Moharamzad, Yashar; Saadat, Habibollah; Shahraki, Babak Nakhjavan; Rai, Alireza; Saadat, Zahra; Aerab-Sheibani, Hossein; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Morisky, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    The reliability and validity of the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) was assessed in a sample of Iranian hypertensive patients. In this multi-center study which lasted from August to October 2014, a total of 200 patients who were suffering from hypertension (HTN) and were taking anti-hypertensive medication(s) were included. The cases were accessed through private and university health centers in the cities of Tehran, Karaj, Kermanshah, and Bafgh in Iran and were interviewed face-to-face by the research team. The validated Persian translation of the MMAS-8 was provided by the owner of this scale. This scale contains 7 questions with “Yes” or “No” response choices and an additional Likert-type question (totally 8 questions). The total score ranges from 0 to 8 with higher scores reflecting better medication adherence. Mean (±SD) overall MMAS-8 score was 5.57 (±1.86). There were 108 (54%), 62 (31%), and 30 (15%) patients in the low, moderate, and high adherence groups. Internal consistency was acceptable with an overall Cronbach’s α coefficient of 0.697 and test–retest reliability showed good reproducibility (r= 0.940); P< 0.001. Overall score of the MMAS-8 was significantly correlated with systolic BP (r= - 0.306) and diastolic BP (r= - 0.279) with P< 0.001 for both BP measurements. The Chi-square test showed a significant relationship between adherence level and BP control (P= 0.016). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the scale were 92.8%, 22.3%, 52.9%, and 76.7%, respectively. The Persian version of the MMAS had acceptable reliability and validity in Iranian hypertensive patients. This scale can be used as a standard and reliable tool in future studies to determine medication adherence of Persian-speaking patients with chronic conditions. PMID:25946926

  4. Using Visual Analogue Scales in eHealth: Non-Response Effects in a Lifestyle Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Reips, Ulf-Dietrich; Wienert, Julian; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Background Visual analogue scales (VASs) have been shown to be valid measurement instruments and a better alternative to Likert-type scales in Internet-based research, both empirically and theoretically [1,2]. Upsides include more differentiated responses, better measurement level, and less error. Their feasibility and properties in the context of eHealth, however, have not been examined so far. Objective The present study examined VASs in the context of a lifestyle study conducted online, measuring the impact of VASs on distributional properties and non-response. Method A sample of 446 participants with a mean age of 52.4 years (standard deviation (SD) = 12.1) took part in the study. The study was carried out as a randomized controlled trial, aimed at supporting participants over 8 weeks with an additional follow-up measurement. In addition to the randomized questionnaire, participants were further randomly assigned to either a Likert-type or VAS response scale version of the measures. Results Results showed that SDs were lower for items answered via VASs, 2P (Y ≥ 47 | n=55, P=.5) < .001. Means did not differ across versions. Participants in the VAS version showed lower dropout rates than participants in the Likert version, odds ratio = 0.75, 90% CI (0.58-0.98), P=.04. Number of missing values did not differ between questionnaire versions. Conclusions The VAS is shown to be a valid instrument in the eHealth context, offering advantages over Likert-type scales. The results of the study provide further support for the use of VASs in Internet-based research, extending the scope to senior samples in the health context. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01909349; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01909349 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6h88sLw2Y) PMID:27334562

  5. Planetary protection - some legal questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasan, E.

    2004-01-01

    When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lexlata, theexistingapplicableLaw, especially Space Law, and also lexferenda, whatshouldbethe law . With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of the notions "Planetary", and "Protection". About " Planetary": Our own Earth is our most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. But what is further meant by "Planetary"? Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B.)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN, etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites, etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protectionfrom what ? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B.Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits.Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there, etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from electronic "noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then, we have to

  6. Planetary protection - some legal questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasan, E.

    When we legally investigate the topic of Planetary Protection, we have to realise that there are primarily two very distinct parts of our juridical work: We have to study lex lata, the existing applicable Law, especially Space Law, and also lex ferenda, what should be the law. With this in mind, we have to deliberate the legal meaning of "Planetary", and of "Protection". About "Planetary": Our own Earth is the most important planet. At present only here do exist human beings, who are sensu strictu the only legal subjects. We make the law, we have to apply it, and we are to be protected as well as bound by it. Then, we have to discuss what is further meant by "Planetary": Is it planets in an astronomical sense only, the nine planets which revolve around our fixed star, namely the sun, or is it also satellites, moving around most of these planets, as our own Moon circles Earth. "The Moon and other Celestial Bodies (C.B)" are subject to Space Law, especially to International Treaties, Agreements, Resolutions of the UN etc. I propose that they and not only the planets in an strictly astronomical sense are to be protected. But I do not think that the said notion also comprises asteroids, comets, meteorites etc. although they too belong to our solar system. Our investigation comes to the result that such bodies have a different (lesser) legal quality. Also we have to ask Protection from what? From: Natural bodies - Meteorites, NEO Asteroids, Comets which could hit Earth or C.B. Artificial Objects: Space Debris threatening especially Earth and near Earth orbits. Terrestrial Life - no infection of other celestial bodies. Alien life forms which could bring about "harmful contamination" of Earth and the life, above all human life, there etc. Here, astrobiological questions have to be discussed. Special realms on C.B. which should be protected from Electronic "Noise" such as craters SAHA or Deadalus on the Moon, also taking into account the "Common Heritage" Principle. Then

  7. Development of Attitudes Towards Homosexuality Scale for Indians (AHSI).

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Kanika K

    2017-02-02

    Attitudes towards homosexuality vary across cultures, with the legal and societal position being rather complicated in India. This study describes the process of developing and validating a Likert-type scale to assess attitudes toward homosexuality amongst heterosexuals. Phase 1 describes the development of the scale. Items were written based on thematic analysis of narratives generated from 50 college students and reviewing existing scales. After administering the 70-item scale to 68 participants, item analysis yielded 20 statements with item-total correlations over .70. Cronbach alpha was .97. In Phase 2, the 20-item Attitudes Towards Homosexuality Scale for Indians (AHSI) was administered to 142 participants. Analysis yielded a corrected split-half correlation of .91. Further, AHSI discriminated between women and men; between liberal arts and STEM/business students; and those who reported interpersonal contact with gay men and lesbian women and those who did not. The scale has satisfactory reliability and shows promising construct validity.

  8. Scales, scales and more scales.

    PubMed

    Weitzenhoffer, Andre M

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the nature, uses, and limitations of the large variety of existing, so-called, hypnosis scales; that is, instruments that have been proposed for the assessment of hypnotic behavior. Although the major aim of most of the scales ostensively seems to be to assess several aspects of hypnotic states, they are found generally to say little about these and much more about responses to suggestions. The greatest application of these scales is to be found in research, but they also have a limited place in clinical work.

  9. 150 Student Questions on Solar Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, R. E.; Gross, N. A.; Knipp, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) holds a two-week Space Weather Summer School for introductory graduate students and space weather professionals to gain a system level understanding of the space environment and the effects of space weather. A typical day in the summer school consists of three morning lectures followed by an afternoon lab session. After the morning lectures, the participants are each asked to submit a question about the mornings topics on a question card. The lecturers then take the time to answer these questions prior to afternoon sessions. In the last 5 years over 1000 such question cards have been collected and cataloged. Despite detailed lectures by experts similar questions appear every year. We have analyzed over 150 questions related to the introductory lectures on solar physics and solar activity. Questions content was categorized using the AGU Index, and question sophistication was categorized using Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Specific analysis results along with lists of questions will be presented. We hope that these results can be used to improve the lecture and classroom content and allow students to move beyond low level education objectives and ask more sophisticated questions.

  10. Validation of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Sleep Questions

    PubMed Central

    Jungquist, Carla R.; Mund, Jaime; Aquilina, Alan T.; Klingman, Karen; Pender, John; Ochs-Balcom, Heather; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Dickerson, Suzanne S.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective: Sleep problems may constitute a risk for health problems, including cardiovascular disease, depression, diabetes, poor work performance, and motor vehicle accidents. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the current Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) sleep questions by establishing the sensitivity and specificity for detection of sleep/ wake disturbance. Methods: Repeated cross-sectional assessment of 300 community dwelling adults over the age of 18 who did not wear CPAP or oxygen during sleep. Reliability and validity testing of the BRFSS sleep questions was performed comparing to BFRSS responses to data from home sleep study, actigraphy for 14 days, Insomnia Severity Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and PROMIS-57. Results: Only two of the five BRFSS sleep questions were found valid and reliable in determining total sleep time and excessive daytime sleepiness. Conclusions: Refinement of the BRFSS questions is recommended. Citation: Jungquist CR, Mund J, Aquilina AT, Klingman K, Pender J, Ochs-Balcom H, van Wijngaarden E, Dickerson SS. Validation of the behavioral risk factor surveillance system sleep questions. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(3):301–310. PMID:26446246

  11. Question Classification Taxonomies as Guides to Formulating Questions for Use in Chemistry Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Festo, Kayima

    2016-01-01

    Teacher questions play an important role in facilitating classroom discourse. Using appropriate question types and proper questioning techniques help to create reflective-active learners. Teacher questions can elicit students' explanations, elaboration of their ideas and thinking, and they can be used to disclose students' misconceptions. Despite…

  12. Correlation between Question Intonation and Focus of Interrogation--Evidence from French Dislocated Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Xiao-nan

    This study explores the relationship between question intonation patterns in French using dislocated questions and question-focus (Q- focus). A dislocated question is defined as an interrogative sentence whose sequence is interrupted by the topicalization of a constituent at the left ("Toi, tu viens?"), at the right (Tu viens,…

  13. Is There a Relationship between Chemistry Performance and Question Type, Question Content and Gender?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Ross D.

    2012-01-01

    This research inquires into the effectiveness of the two predominant forms of questions--multiple-choice questions and short-answer questions--used in the State University Entrance Examination for Chemistry including the relationship between performance and gender. It examines not only the style of question but also the content type examined…

  14. Priority Questions and Horizon Scanning for Conservation: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kark, Salit; Sutherland, William J.; Shanas, Uri; Klass, Keren; Achisar, Hila; Dayan, Tamar; Gavrieli, Yael; Justo-Hanani, Ronit; Mandelik, Yael; Orion, Nir; Pargament, David; Portman, Michelle; Reisman-Berman, Orna; Safriel, Uriel N.; Schaffer, Gad; Steiner, Noa; Tauber, Israel; Levin, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Several projects aimed at identifying priority issues for conservation with high relevance to policy have recently been completed in several countries. Two major types of projects have been undertaken, aimed at identifying (i) policy-relevant questions most imperative to conservation and (ii) horizon scanning topics, defined as emerging issues that are expected to have substantial implications for biodiversity conservation and policy in the future. Here, we provide the first overview of the outcomes of biodiversity and conservation-oriented projects recently completed around the world using this framework. We also include the results of the first questions and horizon scanning project completed for a Mediterranean country. Overall, the outcomes of the different projects undertaken (at the global scale, in the UK, US, Canada, Switzerland and in Israel) were strongly correlated in terms of the proportion of questions and/or horizon scanning topics selected when comparing different topic areas. However, some major differences were found across regions. There was large variation among regions in the percentage of proactive (i.e. action and response oriented) versus descriptive (non-response oriented) priority questions and in the emphasis given to socio-political issues. Substantial differences were also found when comparing outcomes of priority questions versus horizon scanning projects undertaken for the same region. For example, issues related to climate change, human demography and marine ecosystems received higher priority as horizon scanning topics, while ecosystem services were more emphasized as current priority questions. We suggest that future initiatives aimed at identifying priority conservation questions and horizon scanning topics should allow simultaneous identification of both current and future priority issues, as presented here for the first time. We propose that further emphasis on social-political issues should be explicitly integrated into future

  15. Priority Questions and Horizon Scanning for Conservation: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Kark, Salit; Sutherland, William J; Shanas, Uri; Klass, Keren; Achisar, Hila; Dayan, Tamar; Gavrieli, Yael; Justo-Hanani, Ronit; Mandelik, Yael; Orion, Nir; Pargament, David; Portman, Michelle; Reisman-Berman, Orna; Safriel, Uriel N; Schaffer, Gad; Steiner, Noa; Tauber, Israel; Levin, Noam

    2016-01-01

    Several projects aimed at identifying priority issues for conservation with high relevance to policy have recently been completed in several countries. Two major types of projects have been undertaken, aimed at identifying (i) policy-relevant questions most imperative to conservation and (ii) horizon scanning topics, defined as emerging issues that are expected to have substantial implications for biodiversity conservation and policy in the future. Here, we provide the first overview of the outcomes of biodiversity and conservation-oriented projects recently completed around the world using this framework. We also include the results of the first questions and horizon scanning project completed for a Mediterranean country. Overall, the outcomes of the different projects undertaken (at the global scale, in the UK, US, Canada, Switzerland and in Israel) were strongly correlated in terms of the proportion of questions and/or horizon scanning topics selected when comparing different topic areas. However, some major differences were found across regions. There was large variation among regions in the percentage of proactive (i.e. action and response oriented) versus descriptive (non-response oriented) priority questions and in the emphasis given to socio-political issues. Substantial differences were also found when comparing outcomes of priority questions versus horizon scanning projects undertaken for the same region. For example, issues related to climate change, human demography and marine ecosystems received higher priority as horizon scanning topics, while ecosystem services were more emphasized as current priority questions. We suggest that future initiatives aimed at identifying priority conservation questions and horizon scanning topics should allow simultaneous identification of both current and future priority issues, as presented here for the first time. We propose that further emphasis on social-political issues should be explicitly integrated into future

  16. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-20

    Order Code RL33537 Military Medical Care : Questions and Answers Updated May 20, 2008 Richard A. Best Jr. Specialist in National Defense Foreign...control number. 1. REPORT DATE 20 MAY 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Medical Care : Questions and...8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Military Medical Care : Questions and Answers Summary The primary mission of the military health system, which

  17. The Relationship between Teaching and Learning Conceptions, Preferred Teaching Approaches and Questioning Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Maria Helena; da Silva Lopes, Betina

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between preferential teaching approach (PTA) and the concept of teachers' questioning practices (TQP), as part of a large-scale three-year project aimed at developing the scholarship of teaching and learning at one Portuguese university. In order to contribute to understandings of how teachers' questioning is…

  18. Children's questions: a mechanism for cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Chouinard, Michael M

    2007-01-01

    Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it. This information is available to them when they are particularly receptive to it, and because it comes as the result of their own disequilibrium, it may have depth of processing benefits. In that questions allow children to get information they need to move their knowledge structures closer to adult-like states, the ability to ask questions to gather needed information constitutes an efficient mechanism for cognitive development (referred to in this paper as the Information Requesting Mechanism [IRM]; this term is used because it includes question-asking and other information recruiting behaviors such as gestures, expressions, and vocalizations). However, the role of children's questions in their cognitive development has been largely overlooked. If questions are a force in cognitive development, the following must be true: (1) children must actually ask questions that gather information; (2) children must receive informative answers to their questions if they are able to be of use to cognitive development; (3) children must be motivated to get the information they request, rather than asking questions for other purposes such as attention; (4) the questions children ask must be relevant and of potential use to their cognitive development; (5) we must see evidence that children's questions help them in some way-that is, that they can ask questions for a purpose, and use the information they receive purposefully to successfully achieve some change of knowledge state. This monograph reports data on these points. Study 1 analyzed questions taken from four children's transcripts in the CHILDES database (age 1;2-5;1). This

  19. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...

  20. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...

  1. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...

  2. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...

  3. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining...

  4. Questions & Answers about Aeronautics and Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Answers to 27 questions about aeronautics, space, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are provided in this pamphlet. Among the topics dealt with in these questions are: costs of the space program; NASA's role in aeronautics; benefits received from the space program; why the United States hasn't developed means of rescuing…

  5. Children's Questions: A Mechanism for Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chouinard, Michelle M.

    2007-01-01

    Preschoolers' questions may play an important role in cognitive development. When children encounter a problem with their current knowledge state (a gap in their knowledge, some ambiguity they do not know how to resolve, some inconsistency they have detected), asking a question allows them to get targeted information exactly when they need it.…

  6. Question Generation for Learning by Reading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Ruminator generates a question such as: “Is Gabriela Mistral central to the story of Chile?” Examples of the types of journalist questions generated by...generated by the system are: “Is Bin Laden associated with Saddam Hussein?” “How is Gabriela Mistral related to Augusto Pinochet Ugarte?” “Who

  7. Fixed-Response Questions with a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, Alex H.; Ambusaidi, Abdullah

    2002-01-01

    Offers three types of fixed-response questions that are designed to overcome drawbacks appearing in the conventional forms of fixed-response questions such as not allowing the examiner to investigate reasoning, background, or prevent guessing. (Contains 14 references.) (Author/YDS)

  8. Concealed Questions. In Search of Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frana, Ilaria

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines the semantic interpretation of various types of DPs in so-called concealed-question (CQ) constructions, as "Bill's phone number" in the sentence "John knows Bill's phone number". The peculiar characteristic of DP-CQs is that they are interpreted as having the meaning of an embedded question. So, for instance, the…

  9. Questions to Ask Your Liability Insurance Broker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses some important questions to ask an insurance broker regarding liability insurance. The author based these questions on his interviews with Kathryn Hammerback, Craig Hammer, and Mike North: (1) Are centers covered when...?; (2) How can a center director cut costs on this policy?; (3) Is this an "occurrence" or a "claims-made"…

  10. Academic Oversight: Asking Questions, Building Bridges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, E. B.

    2011-01-01

    The best way for trustees to fully understand and fulfill their responsibility to ensure that their institution is providing quality education and meeting academic goals is by asking appropriate questions. Collaboration among trustees, faculty members, and administrators is essential to framing questions from a strategic perspective. Just the act…

  11. The Effects of Questioning on Thinking Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiang, Ching-Pyng; McDaniel, Ernest

    This study investigated the effects of self-generated questions and external questions on thinking processes. Thirty-three college students acted as investigators in a computer simulation of a Congressional investigation into the Pearl Harbor attack. The simulation--known as "The Attack on Pearl Harbor: Cloud of Mystery?"--presented the…

  12. Question Asking and the Teaching of Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odell, Lee

    This paper argues that provocative questions can be used by teachers to help students write. Described are a series of questions drawn from rhetorical theory, such as "How many times can I change focus so as to get the most complete understanding of a topic?""When does X occur?""Why does X occur?" and "What does X cause or prompt?" Several…

  13. Term weighting schemes for question categorization.

    PubMed

    Quan, Xiaojun; Liu, Wenyin; Qiu, Bite

    2011-05-01

    Term weighting has proven to be an effective way to improve the performance of text categorization. Very recently, with the development of user-interactive question answering or community question answering, there has emerged a need to accurately categorize questions into predefined categories. However, as a question is usually a piece of short text, can the existing term-weighting methods perform consistently in question categorization as they do in text categorization? The answer is not clear, since to the best of our knowledge, we have not seen any work related to this problem despite of its significance. In this study, we investigate the popular unsupervised and supervised term-weighting methods for question categorization. At the same time, we propose three new supervised term-weighting methods, namely, qf*icf, iqf*qf*icf, and vrf. Comparisons of them with existing unsupervised and supervised term-weighting methods are made through a series of experiments on question collections of Yahoo! Answers. The experimental results show that iqf*qf*icf achieves the best performance among all term-weighting methods, while qf*icf and vrf are also competitive for question categorization. Meanwhile, tf*OR is proven to be the most significant one among existing methods. In addition, iqf*qf*icf and vrf are also effective for long document categorization.

  14. Questioning Techniques: A Study of Instructional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Joan Buchanan

    2012-01-01

    This study took place in an independent all girls' school which serves over six hundred students in grades pre-kindergarten through twelve. This study seeks to answer the question: To what extent do teachers use questions to encourage deeper thinking and fuller responses. Through a review of literature, observations, interviews and analysis,…

  15. Training chemistry students to ask research questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartford, Fred; Good, Ron

    In previous studies, science students have been trained to ask more and better questions through intensive instruction apart from the ongoing academic program. Cognitive strategies (such as questioning) are developed best, however, within the framework of an academic subject. In the current study, questioning skills were taught to high school chemistry students in the context of their laboratory experiments. Since both intellectual development and questioning skills are causally related to problem solving, the effect of intellectual development on the learning of questioning skills also was investigated. The Piagetian model of intellectual development was chosen for its demonstrated effects on many important aspects of science instruction. The number and quality of student research questions was measured by the Science Inquiry Assessment Instrument. The student's level of intellectual development was measured by the Classroom Test of Formal Operations. The twelve-week experimental treatment involved printed lessons which taught students to ask research questions in response to unanticipated observations in their regularly scheduled laboratory experiments. The pretest exaggerated the effect of this treatment. This effect, however, was significant among unpretested students, accounting for 14% of the post-test score variance. The level of intellectual development has no effect on these post-test scores. These important questioning skills can be acquired within the framework of the regularly scheduled classroom activities by high school chemistry students, irrespective of their level of Piagetian intellectual development.

  16. Risk Factor Analysis and the Youth Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, Alan

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with exploring how in late modernity the "youth question" is being addressed by public policy and what impact this is having on understandings of childhood and youth. Historically the youth question has been shaped by adult anxieties over youth delinquency and their problems of social integration. In late modernity, this is…

  17. Teaching Dystopias: The Value of Religious Questioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seabury, Marcia Bundy

    1995-01-01

    Argues that a true general education should encourage the exploration of religious questions. Describes the author's use of works showing dystopian societies based on existing values, such as Huxley's "Brave New World," to encourage students to rethink their assumptions and develop openness toward the questions that religions address. (22…

  18. Using Questioning To Guide Student Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zee, Emily; Minstrell, Jim

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes ways in which an experienced physics teacher uses questioning to guide student thinking during a benchmark discussion on measurement. Proposes that teachers may shift toward more reflective discourse by asking questions that help students clarify their meanings, consider various points of view, and monitor their own thinking. (Author/DKM)

  19. Prereading Questions and Online Text Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Mark Rose; Mensink, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Prereading questions can be an effective tool for directing students' learning. However, it is not always clear what the online effects of a set of prereading questions will be. In two experiments, this study investigated whether readers direct additional attention to and learn more from sentences that are potentially relevant to a set of…

  20. Processing the Curriculum through Quality Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregerson, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    In this inquiry-based project, student-generated questions became the basis for student-directed individual and group projects that provided practice with problem solving, critical thinking, and research skills while digging deeper into the Earth science curriculum. The author used her students' high-level questions to provide relevance,…

  1. Statistics Test Questions: Content and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salcedo, Audy

    2014-01-01

    This study presents the results of the analysis of a group of teacher-made test questions for statistics courses at the university level. Teachers were asked to submit tests they had used in their previous two semesters. Ninety-seven tests containing 978 questions were gathered and classified according to the SOLO taxonomy (Biggs & Collis,…

  2. Adopted Children: A Question of Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, Samina; Visser, John

    2015-01-01

    This article draws upon a study completed in a specific school in Bangalore where most children enter at the pre-school level and continue till high school. While the particular children in the study constitute a small number--four--it was observed that questions of identity mainly arose when they started questioning the circumstances behind their…

  3. Question/Response Patterns in Indonesian Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grow-Maienza, Janice

    A study of question and response patterns in middle and secondary schools in Indonesia is presented. The study examines questioning from the point of view of several previous studies. Interactions in 12 classes in English and in Bahasa Indonesian were videotaped in three middle schools and three secondary schools. Analysis of the data revealed…

  4. From Asking to Answering: Making Questions Explicit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Gene

    2006-01-01

    "From Asking To Answering: Making Questions Explicit" describes a pedagogical procedure the author has used in writing classes (expository, technical and creative) to help students better understand the purpose, and effect, of text-questions. It accomplishes this by means of thirteen discrete categories (e.g., CLAIMS, COMMITMENT, ANAPHORA, or…

  5. The Right Questions, the Right Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiliam, Dylan

    2014-01-01

    According to Dylan Wiliam, the traditional classroom practice in which a teacher asks a question, students raise their hands, and the teacher calls on a volunteer does not actually provide much useful information--and it may even impede learning. When teachers ask questions in this way, they're only engaging the most confident students in the…

  6. Patterns and Punctuation: Learning to Question Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlessman, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    As teachers plan instruction--even instruction about punctuation--they have the opportunity to engage students' minds and create new labels: question-asking, problem-solving. How teachers teach embeds a vision of who they think kids are and what they think kids are capable of. Are they destined for a future of critical thinking, questioning,…

  7. Lunar interferometric astronomy: Some basic questions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolf, Neville

    1992-01-01

    The author examines some basic questions as to why there should be astronomical facilities on the far side of the moon. The questions are ones of appropriateness, i.e., is this a proper use for human resources, what the real goals are, and are the present concepts the best match for the goals.

  8. The American Indians: Answers to 101 Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Presented in a simple and straightforward manner, this publication answers questions basic to an understanding of the American Indian and his socioeconomic position in the United States. The following identify major areas covered and representative questions: (1) The Indian People (Who is an Indian?); (2) The Legal Status of Indians (Are Indians…

  9. "Wh"-Questions in the English Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes "wh"-questions in the English Language based mainly on Chomsky's Minimalist Programme of transformational grammar as the theoretical model. The four main objectives of this paper are as follows: first, it undertakes a cross linguistic typological analysis of "wh"-questions and it then discusses the derivation of…

  10. Conscience in Childhood: Old Questions, New Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksan, Nazan; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2005-01-01

    Although conscience has been the focus of reflection for centuries, fundamental questions regarding its organization have not been fully answered. To address those questions, the authors applied structural equation modeling techniques to longitudinal data comprising multiple behavioral measures of children's conscience, obtained in parallel…

  11. Privacy Questions from Practicing School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2004-01-01

    This Question and Answer (Q&A) article addresses practice issues related to school health records and school nursing documentation that were posed by school nurses in the field. Specifically, the questions addressed concern the following: education records, medication privacy issues, sharing of sensitive health information, privacy of…

  12. 9/11: Reflections, Memories, and Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingone, Joe

    2011-01-01

    What were you doing on September 11th? This seems like an obvious question to prompt conversations about the World Trade Center tragedy, but is it a good question to ask high school students a decade removed from the event? Many students now in high school were toddlers at the time. What do they really remember from that day? Are these memories…

  13. Asking the Wrong Questions about Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graen, George B.

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the article by R. J. Hackman and R. Wageman (see record 2006-23492-007) which presented some directions for leadership research. Hackman and Wageman organized their article around their five reject-accept questions suggesting new directions. The current author discusses how each of the questions appears far too timid for real progress…

  14. Geomorphic and vegetation processes of the Willamette River floodplain, Oregon: current understanding and unanswered science questions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallick, J. Rose; Jones, Krista L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Hulse, David; Gregory, Stanley V.

    2013-01-01

    4. How is the succession of native floodplain vegetation shaped by present-day flow and sediment conditions? Answering these questions will produce baseline data on the current distributions of landforms and habitats (question 1), the extent of the functional floodplain (question 2), and the effects of modern flow and sediment regimes on future floodplain landforms, habitats, and vegetation succession (questions 3 and 4). Addressing questions 1 and 2 is a logical next step because they underlie questions 3 and 4. Addressing these four questions would better characterize the modern Willamette Basin and help in implementing and setting realistic targets for ongoing management strategies, demonstrating their effectiveness at the site and basin scales, and anticipating future trends and conditions.

  15. Writing clinical scenarios for clinical science questions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Phil Em; Mucklow, John C

    2016-04-01

    Written knowledge assessments for physicians in training typically involve multiple-choice questions that use a clinical scenario in a single-best-answer format. The Royal College of Physicians Part 1 MRCP(UK) examination includes basic sciences themes that are challenging to assess through a clinical scenario. A realistic clinical setting based on everyday clinical practice and integral to the question is the clearest demonstration that the knowledge being assessed is clinically relevant. However, without special attention to detail, the scenario in a clinical science question can appear redundant or artificial. Reading unnecessary material frustrates candidates and threatens the reputation of the assessment. In this paper we discuss why a clinical scenario is important for basic science questions and offer advice on setting realistic and plausible clinical scenarios for such questions.

  16. Does Anyone Know the Answer to that Question? Individual Differences in Judging Answerability

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Bodil S. A.; Allwood, Carl Martin; Buratti, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Occasionally people may attempt to judge whether a question can be answered today, or if not, if it can be answered in the future. For example, a person may consider whether enough is known about the dangers of living close to a nuclear plant, or to a major electricity cable, for them to be willing to do so, and state-authorities may consider whether questions about the dangers of new technologies have been answered, or in a reasonable future can be, for them to be willing to invest money in research aiming develop such technologies. A total of 476 participants, for each of 22 knowledge questions, either judged whether it was answerable today (current answerability), or judged when it could be answered (future answerability). The knowledge questions varied with respect to the expected consensus concerning their answerability: consensus questions (high expected consensus), non-consensus questions (lower expected consensus), and illusion questions (formulated to appear answerable, but with crucial information absent). The questions’ judged answerability level on the two scales was highly correlated. For both scales, consensus questions were rated more answerable than the non-consensus questions, with illusion questions falling in-between. The result for the illusion questions indicates that a feeling of answerability can be created even when it is unlikely that somebody can come up with an answer. The results also showed that individual difference variables influenced the answerability judgments. Higher levels of belief in certainty of knowledge, mankind’s knowledge, and mankind’s efficacy were related to judging the non-consensus questions as more answerable. Participants rating the illusion questions as answerable rated the other answerability questions as more, or equally, answerable compared to the other participants and showed tendencies to prefer a combination of more epistemic default processing and less intellectual processing. PMID:26793164

  17. Textbook Questions to Support Spatial Thinking: Differences in Spatiality by Question Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Injeong; Bednarz, Sarah W.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the location and varying spatiality of questions in geography textbooks. The results show that study questions posed in page margins address the three components of spatial thinking--concepts of space, using tools of representation, and processes of reasoning--more than questions in other locations within the text. Three…

  18. The Technology of the Question: Structure and Use of Questions in Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hokanson, Brad

    2015-01-01

    This writing looks at an elemental aspect of learning and communication, the question, and contends that questions can be viewed as a technology for education. Questions that we ask in the classroom, online, or in discussion can shape learning and develop skills in students, and they should be more systematically employed in education. This…

  19. Cognitive and emotional reactions to questions in the Comparison Question Test.

    PubMed

    MacNeill, A Luke; Bradley, M T; Cullen, M C; Arsenault, Andrea M

    2014-04-01

    The effect of situational factors on perceptions of items on the polygraph Comparison Question Test (CQT) was assessed. In an initial experiment, 86 students (30 men, 56 women; M age = 20.3 yr., SD = 4.0) imagined one of eight scenarios that varied by guilt or innocence, the commission of a real crime or mock crime, and interrogation by a police officer or a professor. They then rated generic CQT questions for importance and emotional concern. All participants rated crime-relevant questions as being more important than past-crime comparison questions. "Guilty" participants also rated these questions as being more emotionally concerning, but "innocent" participants showed no differences in their ratings of concern for the two question types. Interrogator or crime type did not affect the general pattern of responding. A second experiment involving 80 students (21 men, 58 women, 1 non-specified; M age = 22.5 yr., SD = 7.3) replaced the generic CQT questions with content-specific questions developed by the participant. Those imagining guilt showed no differencesin their ratings of relevant and comparison questions, whereas those imagining innocence rated comparison questions as more concerning. Again, interrogator type and crime type had little effect on results. Overall these findings indicated distinctions in cognitive and emotional appraisal for CQT questions, with the nature of emotional concern dependent on guilt/innocence status and the personal relevance of comparison questions. Evidence suggests that the CQT is robust to other situational factors, such as crime type and interrogator type.

  20. Beginning EFL Teachers' Beliefs about Quality Questions and Their Questioning Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Ly Ngoc Khanh; Hamid, M. Obaidul

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the scarcity of research that examines the impact of teacher beliefs on their actual practices in Vietnam, this study investigated the relationship between teachers' beliefs about quality questions and their questioning behaviours in terms of questioning purposes, content focus, students' cognitive level, wording and syntax. Thirteen…

  1. Astronaut Jeff Williams Answers Your Questions

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 22 Commander Jeff Williams, aboard the International Space Station 220 miles above Earth, responds to questions posted on YouTube concerning the station's orientation, life in space and ...

  2. Response to Questions on Presentation to NAS

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R

    2011-03-17

    Response to questions on the presentation 'Overview to Chamber and Power Plant Designs for IFE' made at the 1/29-31 meeting of the National Academies Committee on the Prospects for Inertial Confinement Fusion Energy Systems.

  3. Frequently Asked Questions about Nutrition Labeling

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Teaching Gardens Teaching Gardens-See Our Gardens Teaching Gardens Supporters Why We Garden Weight Management Body Mass Index (BMI) Body Mass Index In Adults (BMI Calculator for Adults) Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) ...

  4. Five Big Questions about Cable Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenda, Michael

    1972-01-01

    It is the purpose of this article to answer a few of the major questions which most often arise in relation to the still embryonic but complex new medium of cable television. (22 references) (Author/SJ)

  5. Body Lice Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  6. Head Lice: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  7. Head Lice: Treatment Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  8. Roth 401(k): asking the right questions.

    PubMed

    Joyner, James F

    2006-01-01

    Roth 401(k) provisions are a newly available feature of 401(k) plans. Roth 401(k) provisions are after-tax savings that generally are tax-free at the time of distribution. Questions arise for plan sponsors about whether the new feature is beneficial, and to whom, and what needs to be done if the plan sponsor decides to offer this provision to its employees. This article tries to answer some of those common questions, including a simple computational analysis to try to answer the important question of how much an employee-participant genuinely benefits from this savings approach. Some practical issues of implementation are touched on, and some unanswered questions are identified.

  9. AgrAbility: Frequently Asked Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... AgrAbility Services Equipment and Vehicle Modifications Financing-Related Matters Other Modifications Other Disability and Agricultural-related questions Main Menu Home About AgrAbility State Projects Directory The Toolbox AT Database Resources Veterans & ...

  10. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Service Videos General Questions About West Nile Virus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... West Nile virus cases? What is West Nile virus? West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne virus ( ...

  11. Recruiting Students into Nursing: Prior Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipps, Opal S.

    1983-01-01

    Raises fundamental questions regarding student recruitment: (1) why recruit students into nursing? (2) what are the issues that determine whether a school should have a nursing program? and (3) what are students being recruited into? (JOW)

  12. Classroom Thought, Teacher Questions, and Student Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilen, William W.; Hogg, James

    1976-01-01

    Discussed is the need for teachers to improve their effectiveness in classroom skills such as questioning techniques. An instructor cognitive operation index is presented. For journal availability, see SO 505 192. (Author/DB)

  13. The Energy Question: Problems and Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, William A.

    1973-01-01

    Some ideas for teaching about the energy crisis are developed in this article. The author suggests related inquiry questions and suggests techniques for clarification of interrelationships. Graphs and data related to the energy crisis are included. (SM)

  14. Olympics: Questions & Answers on the Major Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Alan

    This book presents background information on the major Olympic events with a question-answer format. Events considered include track and field, swimming, diving, boxing, weightlifting, the equestrian events, and gymnastics. Line drawings illustrate the text. (MM)

  15. Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic Counseling

    MedlinePlus

    ... used on this page Frequently Asked Questions About Genetic Counseling What are genetic professionals and what do ... see a geneticist or other specialist? What are genetic professionals and what do they do? Genetics professionals ...

  16. Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... used on this page Frequently Asked Questions About Genetic Disorders What are genetic disorders? A genetic disorder is a disease caused ... significant risk of developing the disease. . Geneticists group genetic disorders into three categories: Monogenetic disorders are caused ...

  17. Frequently Asked Questions about Genetic Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... sobre las pruebas genéticas Frequently Asked Questions About Genetic Testing What is genetic testing? What can I ... find more information about genetic testing? What is genetic testing? Genetic testing uses laboratory methods to look ...

  18. Question Generation via Overgenerating Transformations and Ranking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    the sentence Francium was discov- ered by Marguerite Perey in France in 1939,2 the transducer produces the following questions: • Where was francium ...discovered by Marguerite Perey in 1939? • When was francium discovered by Marguerite Perey in France? • Was francium discovered by Marguerite Perey in...France in 1939? • By what was francium discovered in France in 1939? Of course, the last question ought to be By whom was.... This error is due to

  19. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-04

    providers, subject to regulations. Certain types of care , such as most dentistry and chiropractic services, are excluded. In addition to Tricare Standard...Order Code RL33537 Military Medical Care : Questions and Answers Updated August 4, 2008 Richard A. Best Jr. Specialist in National Defense Foreign...control number. 1. REPORT DATE 04 AUG 2008 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Medical Care : Questions and

  20. Statin intolerance: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Guyton, John R; Campbell, Kristen B; Lakey, Wanda C

    2014-01-01

    The dramatic effectiveness of statins in improving the course of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease tends to overshadow questions of statin intolerance. Thus after more than 25 years of clinical statin use, intolerance remains a poorly understood, frustrating issue for patients and providers. It has been extraordinarily difficult to define statin intolerance and its implications for clinical practice. Here, we briefly summarize current knowledge and raise questions that need to be addressed.

  1. Do Japanese children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder respond differently to Wh-questions and Yes/No-questions?

    PubMed

    Oi, Manabu

    2010-09-01

    The present study compared 12 Japanese children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD), ranging in age from 7.3-14.8 years, with 12 typically developing (TD) children matched for age, gender, and vocabulary. The means of full-scale IQ and verbal-IQ of the children with HFASD were 95.92 (SD = 15.30) and 98.00 (SD = 18.44), respectively. Children responded to questions from their mothers in conversations collected under a semi-structured setting, and the responses of both groups were examined from the viewpoint of adequacy. Compared to TD children, HFASD children produced more inadequate responses to Wh-questions than to Yes/No questions. To both types of questions, HFASD children produced more inappropriate responses than TD children. The findings suggest that parents of HFASD children should consider the influence of the question format on these children's response inadequacies.

  2. Global parallel unification for large question-answering systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auguston, J. G.; Minker, J.

    1974-01-01

    An efficient means of storing data in a first-order predicate calculus theorem-proving system is described. The data structure is oriented for large scale question-answering (QA) systems. An algorithm is outlined which uses the data structure to unify a given literal in parallel against all literals in all clauses in the data base. The data structure permits a compact representation of data within a QA system. Some suggestions are made for heuristics which can be used to speed-up the unification algorithm in systems.

  3. From Question Answering to Visual Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    McColgin, Dave W.; Gregory, Michelle L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2006-08-11

    Research in Question Answering has focused on the quality of information retrieval or extraction using the metrics of precision and recall to judge success; these metrics drive toward finding the specific best answer(s) and are best supportive of a lookup type of search. These do not address the opportunity that users? natural language questions present for exploratory interactions. In this paper, we present an integrated Question Answering environment that combines a visual analytics tool for unstructured text and a state-of-the-art query expansion tool designed to compliment the cognitive processes associated with an information analysts work flow. Analysts are seldom looking for factoid answers to simple questions; their information needs are much more complex in that they may be interested in patterns of answers over time, conflicting information, and even related non-answer data may be critical to learning about a problem or reaching prudent conclusions. In our visual analytics tool, questions result in a comprehensive answer space that allows users to explore the variety within the answers and spot related information in the rest of the data. The exploratory nature of the dialog between the user and this system requires tailored evaluation methods that better address the evolving user goals and counter cognitive biases inherent to exploratory search tasks.

  4. Eight questions about invasions and ecosystem functioning.

    PubMed

    Strayer, David L

    2012-10-01

    I pose eight questions central to understanding how biological invasions affect ecosystems, assess progress towards answering those questions and suggest ways in which progress might be made. The questions concern the frequency with which invasions affect ecosystems; the circumstances under which ecosystem change is most likely; the functions that are most often affected by invaders; the relationships between changes to ecosystems, communities, and populations; the long-term responses of ecosystems to invasions; interactions between biological invasions and other anthropogenic activities and the difficulty of managing undesirable impacts of non-native species. Some questions have been answered satisfactorily, others require more data and thought, and others might benefit from being reformulated or abandoned. Actions that might speed progress include careful development of trait-based approaches; strategic collection and publication of new data, including more frequent publication of negative results; replacement of expert opinion with hard data where needed; careful consideration of whether questions really need to be answered, especially in cases where answers are being provided for managers and policy-makers; explicit attention to and testing of the domains of theories; integrating invasions better into an ecosystem context; and remembering that our predictive ability is limited and will remain so for the foreseeable future.

  5. Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, Ian

    2012-01-01

    contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

  6. Ian Hinchliffe Answers Your Higgs Boson Questions

    ScienceCinema

    Hinchliffe, Ian

    2016-07-12

    contingent with the ATLAS experiment at CERN, answers many of your questions about the Higgs boson. Ian invited viewers to send in questions about the Higgs via email, Twitter, Facebook, or YouTube in an "Ask a Scientist" video posted July 3: http://youtu.be/xhuA3wCg06s CERN's July 4 announcement that the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider have discovered a particle "consistent with the Higgs boson" has raised questions about what scientists have found and what still remains to be found -- and what it all means. If you have suggestions for future "Ask a Scientist" videos, post them below or send ideas to askascientist@lbl.gov

  7. Questioning Behavior on a Consumer Health Electronic List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Marilyn Domas

    2000-01-01

    Using a thorough analytical framework, this study characterizes the questioning behavior on a consumer health-related electronic list. Analysis examines the dedication of the list to questioning; pattern of question asking within a message; type of question; length of answer anticipated; subject of question; combination of type of question and…

  8. Do clinicians use more question marks?

    PubMed Central

    Otte, Willem M; van’t Klooster, Maryse A; van Diessen, Eric; Leijten, Frans SS; Sander, Josemir W

    2015-01-01

    Objective To quantify the use of question marks in titles of published studies. Design and setting Literature review. Participants All Pubmed publications between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2013 with an available abstract. Papers were classified as being clinical when the search terms clin*, med* or patient* were found anywhere in the paper’s title, abstract or the journal’s name. Other papers were considered controls. As a verification, clinical journals were compared to non-clinical journals in two different approaches. Also, 50 highest impact journals were explored for publisher group dependent differences. Main outcome measure Total number of question marks in titles. Results A total of 368,362 papers were classified as clinical and 596,889 as controls. Clinical papers had question marks in 3.9% (95% confidence interval 3.8–4.0%) of titles and other papers in 2.3% (confidence interval 2.3–2.3%; p < 0.001). These findings could be verified for clinical journals compared to non-clinical journals. Different percentages between four publisher groups were found (p < 0.01). Conclusion We found more question marks in titles of clinical papers than in other papers. This could suggest that clinicians often have a question-driven approach to research and scientists in more fundamental research a hypothesis-driven approach. An alternative explanation is that clinicians like catchy titles. Publishing groups might have pro- and anti-question mark policies. PMID:26085937

  9. Asking a Great Question: A Librarian Teaches Questioning Skills to First-Year Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Adams, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    In a single one-hour session, first-year medical students were taught a framework for differentiating between lower-order questions that lead to knowledge of facts and higher-order questions that lead to integration of concepts and deeper learning, thereby preparing them for problem-based learning (PBL). Students generated lists of questions in response to an assertion prompt and categorized them according to Bloom's Taxonomy. These data were analyzed in addition to data from the course exam, which asked them to formulate a higher-level question in response to a prompt. Categorizing questions according to Bloom's Taxonomy was a more difficult task for students than was formulating higher-order questions. Students reported that the skills that they learned were used in subsequent PBL sessions to formulate higher-order learning objectives that integrated new and previously-learned concepts.

  10. Key questions for conducting role delineation research.

    PubMed

    Taub, Alyson; Gilmore, Gary D; Olsen, Larry K; Connell, Dave

    2011-06-01

    Role delineation research for the verification of professional competencies is essential in many professions to promote quality assurance and support capacity building and workforce development. In this article, guidance is provided about key aspects of role delineation research. The information contained in this article focuses on 13 key questions within three selected research phases when attempting to identify and verify the roles that are inherent within any given profession. The major sections in the paper include planning the research, collecting and analyzing the data, interpreting findings, and considering the future. Recommendations and examples related to each of the important questions are provided to assist others undertaking role delineation research.

  11. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology.

    PubMed

    Hays, Graeme C; Ferreira, Luciana C; Sequeira, Ana M M; Meekan, Mark G; Duarte, Carlos M; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W Don; Caley, M Julian; Costa, Daniel P; Eguíluz, Victor M; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L; Heithaus, Michael R; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L; Lowe, Christopher G; Madsen, Peter T; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; Sims, David W; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N; Thums, Michele

    2016-06-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology.

  12. Heidegger's relevance for engineering: questioning technology.

    PubMed

    Dias, W P

    2003-07-01

    Heidegger affirmed traditional technology, but was opposed to science-based modern technology, in which everything (including man) is considered to be a mere "resource". This opposition was expressed in the form of deep questioning and a suspicion of superficial evaluation, because the true nature of things was often concealed, though disclosed at times. Ways in which engineers should question technology are proposed, highlighting some of the hazards and injustices associated with technology and also its subtle sociological and psychological influences. The demands of engineering ethics and the use of metaphor in design are other ways in which a narrowly rationalistic technological outlook can be confronted.

  13. Alzheimer disease and genetics: anticipating the questions.

    PubMed

    Schutte, Debra L

    2006-12-01

    Three genes with autosomal dominant mutations have been identified that may lead to Alzheimer symptoms in carriers before they reach age 60. Genetic tests exist for Alzheimer disease, but they are considered useful only for the small number of families with a history of early-onset illness. As researchers continue to uncover evidence of genetic links to Alzheimer disease, nurses can expect to field questions from family members about genetic testing. The article presents a variety of questions nurses may be asked, as well as possible answers.

  14. Scaling up Psycholinguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation contains several projects, each addressing different questions with different techniques. In chapter 1, I argue that they are unified thematically by their goal of "scaling up psycholinguistics"; they are all aimed at analyzing large data-sets using tools that reveal patterns to propose and test mechanism-neutral hypotheses about…

  15. Grand challenge scientific questions in coupled modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Steven

    1993-01-01

    Most convective field experiments in the past (e.g., SESAME, CCOPE, CINDE) have attempted to resolve only the immediate scales of moist convection using network arrays that spanned two or three atmospheric scales at most. Furthermore, these scales have been defined more on practical considerations (cost, manpower, etc.) than on a clear understanding of their theoretical significance. Unfortunately, this has precluded a description of the entire life cycle of MCS's and their interaction with larger scale systems, the land surface, and trace species. Fortunately, the following factors now make it possible to attempt to simulate scale contraction processes from the synoptic scale down to the cloud scale, as well as interactions between complex meteorological, land surface, precipitation, chemical, and hydrologic processes with coupled, multiscale models: the availability of new technology to sample meteorological fields at high temporal and spatial resolution over a broad region made possible by the weather observing modernization program; increased computer power and improved numerical approaches to run limited area models with nonhydrostatic precipitation physics so as to explicitly resolve MCS (Mesoscale Convective System) processes; and four dimensional assimilation of non-conventional data to provide dynamically consistent datasets for diagnostic analysis of nonlinear scale-interactive dynamics. Several examples of scale-interactive processes which present grand challenges for coupled, multiscale modeling were presented.

  16. Manufacturer Tier 3 Questions and EPA Answers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document contains a record of EPA responses to manufacturer questions received prior to October 16, 2015 with respect to implementation of the Tier 3 final rule intended to aid regulated parties in achieving compliance with regulations for light-duty

  17. Treatment of Anthrax Disease Frequently Asked Questions

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Young, Joan E.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Malone, John D.

    2010-05-14

    This document provides a summary of Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on the treatment of anthrax disease caused by a wide-area release of Bacillus anthracis spores as an act bioterrorism. These FAQs are intended to provide the public health and medical community, as well as others, with guidance and communications to support the response and long-term recovery from an anthrax event.

  18. Smart Questions To Ask Your Insurance Agent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Abby J.

    1997-01-01

    Provides advice on insurance coverage for child care centers. Suggests that before purchasing insurance you inquire about the agent's qualifications, company's financial stability, and corporate ratings; and obtain written answers to questions about specific coverage issues such as volunteers, legal defense costs, special events, and…

  19. Interdisciplinarity and the Question of Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, James, IV

    2012-01-01

    The question of being adds another dimension to interdisciplinary theory and practice. The interdisciplinary approach to complex problems requires engaging with multiple perspectives from various disciplines, schools of thought, ideologies, and belief systems. All of these perspectives possess underlying and often unacknowledged ontological…

  20. Common Questions about Sexual Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    Provides research-based answers to questions commonly posed by educators, parents, and others about the philosophy, methods, and impact of school sexual health education, discussing such issues as: whether these school programs are needed, what values they teach, whether the programs should teach about sexual orientation and abstinence, and…

  1. American Indians Today: Answers to Your Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    This booklet attempts to answer briefly the most common questions about American Indians asked by students, people who believe they have Indian ancestors, individuals who want to visit or volunteer to work on a reservation, or those who want to know the current Indian policy. Separate sections outline President Reagan's American Indian policy;…

  2. The Syntax of Questions in Child English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Andrew

    1994-01-01

    Provides a contemporary Government-and-Binding reinterpretation and evaluation of Klima and Bellugi's 1966 work on the acquisition of interrogatives. It is argued that wh-questions in Child English involve a wh-pronoun positioned in the head complementizer position within the Complementizer Phrase (CP) and that children learn that wh-questions…

  3. Four questions for passive frame theory.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-01-01

    Four questions are raised about the passive frame theory of Morsella et al.: (1) What is the relation of the theory to the response-selection-bottleneck view of attention? (2) Does the theory accommodate the contents of consciousness? (3) What about animals without skeletal muscles? (4) How do the contents of consciousness change with the development of automaticity?

  4. Research Questions for the Digital Era Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcum, Deanna B.

    2003-01-01

    Examines three essential questions and suggests areas for research in each: (1) How are digital resource users best served: What resources will they want? How will they want to use them? What services will most enhance use? (2) What elements are required for a coherent preservation strategy covering resources both digital and traditional? (3) What…

  5. Questions of Intimacy: Rethinking Population Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Linda, Ed.

    This document contains 14 papers that examine recent changes in the definition, principles, and delivery of population education throughout the world. The paper titles are as follows: "Introduction" (Linda King); "Reaching Men for Health and Development" (Benno de Keijzer); "Boys, Men and Questions of Masculinity in South Africa" (Robert Morrell);…

  6. The "Volvo Effect"--Questioning Standardized Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, Kenneth A.

    2001-01-01

    Questions current emphasis on standardized tests and discusses several factors about the tests that should prompt reevaluation of their usefulness. Issues discussed include: development and design of standardized tests; the correlation between test scores and socioeconomic position; the discrepancy between test designs and accurate reflection of…

  7. Systemic Sclerosis: Commonly Asked Questions by Rheumatologists

    PubMed Central

    Young, Amber; Khanna, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a rare autoimmune disorder with significant morbidity and mortality due to multi-organ system involvement. Early diagnosis and screening for organ involvement is critical as earlier treatment appears to improve function and may impact mortality. The purpose of this article is to address some of the commonly asked questions by rheumatologists on systemic sclerosis. PMID:25807095

  8. Questioning the Athlete's Right to Sue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubell, Adele

    1989-01-01

    Questions to a legal expert discuss athletes' right to sue for injuries occurring in inherently dangerous sports. Proposed legislation could establish that injuries are assumed to have occurred from inherent risks, unless it can be proved that they occurred from defendant negligence. (SM)

  9. Thinking through Quality Questioning: Deepening Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Jackie Acree; Sattes, Beth Dankert

    2011-01-01

    This groundbreaking book provides teachers with an accessible, research-based blueprint for developing student metacognitive skills and ensuring that students take responsibility for their own learning. The authors use the findings of cognitive scientists to highlight quality questioning behaviors and explain how to apply them for improved student…

  10. Benedict Arnold: A Question of Honor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolosi, Annie; O'Connell, Libby Haight; Rust, Mead

    2003-01-01

    The spring 2003 The Idea Book for Educators highlights television programming from the Arts and Entertainment Network (A&E), the History Channel, and the Biography Channel, with a focus on an A&E original movie premiere, "Benedict Arnold: A Question of Honor." The booklet contains the following materials: "A&E Study…

  11. Questions Students Ask: About Terminal Velocity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Earl R.; Nelson, Jim

    1984-01-01

    If a ball were given an initial velocity in excess of its terminal velocity, would the upward force of air resistance (a function of velocity) be greater than the downward force of gravity and thus push the ball back upwards? An answer to this question is provided. (JN)

  12. Vocabulary Questions on Informal Reading Inventories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffelmeyer, Fredrick A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines the utility of informal reading inventories (IRI) and acknowledges four limitations of the research. Indicates that no validity-enhancing measures were implemented in conjunction with the three IRIs analyzed. Suggests that IRI vocabulary questions do not appear to be useful. (MG)

  13. Global Perspectives: Some Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Global Perspectives, New York, NY.

    To enlighten the reader on the status, objectives, and needs of global education, this paper poses and answers questions related to global perspectives. A global perspective is interpreted to include heightened awareness and understanding of the global system as well as increased consciousness of the intimate relationship of self, humankind, and…

  14. School Law: A Question of Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the Equal Access Act (EAA) as it pertains to high-school student clubs. It raises basics questions about EAA: What does "equal" mean? What level of access is required? Does the First Amendment's free-speech clause offer broader protection to student clubs than the EAA? (WFA)

  15. The Miracle Question & Therapy with College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Rita, Emilio

    Solution-focused therapy is based on the premise that client goals and solutions are more important than problems the client depicts in sessions. The miracle question technique is used in the first session to help the client construct and consider a future without the problem: "Suppose that one night, while you were asleep, there was a…

  16. Questions and Answers about CD ROM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Carolyn

    1987-01-01

    Question and answer column about the CD ROM medium discusses: (1) optical storage devices available; (2) language teaching applications; (3) types of courseware available; (4) costs to hook up a CD ROM drive as a peripheral to an existing system; (5) how to go about developing and mastering a disk; and (6) mastering and replication costs.…

  17. Answers to Health Questions in Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert, Ed.

    Culled from the answers of physical education teachers and coaches, this booklet attempts to indicate the scope of health problems and suggests some directions which the solutions may take. It is divided into three parts. Part 1, Health and Safety in Activity Programs, answers questions on first aid, excused absences, and desirability of…

  18. So, What Is the Answer? Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Don

    2005-01-01

    Leaders are barraged daily by teachers, administrators, and students seeking answers to questions ranging from the simplistic to the metaphysical in their complexity. The author is sure leaders wonder at times, "How in the world can I free up enough time to answer them all?" Well, the author states that he hates to break the news, but it is…

  19. Questions of Inclusion in Scotland and Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines inclusion in Scotland and in Europe. It considers some of the uncertainties surrounding inclusion and the questions--many of which give cause for concern--that are currently being raised by researchers, teachers and their representative unions, parents and children. The shifting political and policy contexts and recent patterns…

  20. Some Questions about Feature Re-Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Lydia

    2009-01-01

    In this commentary, differences between feature re-assembly and feature selection are discussed. Lardiere's proposals are compared to existing approaches to grammatical features in second language (L2) acquisition. Questions are raised about the predictive power of the feature re-assembly approach. (Contains 1 footnote.)

  1. Survey Questions Answered Only by Psychosocial Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Twelve tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 48 experts in the psychosocial treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of self-injurious or aggressive behavior, specific psychiatric disorders, specific target symptoms, use of applied behavior analysis…

  2. Dog Bite Reflections--Socratic Questioning Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toledo, Cheri A.

    2015-01-01

    In the online environment, the asynchronous discussion is an important tool for creating community, developing critical thinking skills, and checking for understanding. As students learn how to use Socratic questions for effective interactions, the discussion boards can become the most exciting part of the course. This sequel to the article…

  3. Evolution, Creationism, and the Courts: 20 Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Randy; Miksch, Karen L.

    2003-01-01

    The teaching of evolution and creationism is controversial to many people in the United States. Knowledge of the many important court-decisions about the teaching of evolution and creationism in the United States can be used not only to resist anti-evolution activities of creationists, but also to help teachers address questions about the teaching…

  4. Curriculum Issues: Using Questions to Elevate Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanTassel-Baska, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    Instructional strategies have always been underestimated for their role in enhancing gifted student learning. The use of deliberate questions is a critical strategy for getting gifted students to learn about their world in more complex and in-depth ways. It provides multiple pathways for challenging the gifted through their content learning. It…

  5. Differential Effects of Science Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, William G.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differential effects on low and high verbal students of verbatim study questions adjunct to a text describing science concepts. The sample consisted of 217 eighth grade students enrolled in twelve Calgary (Alberta, Canada) schools. Materials developed for the study included an introduction to the…

  6. Questioning the Founders--and Ourselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    The question of the relation between liberal education and political liberty, perennially important, is driven for this forum by the Obama administration's endorsement of "A Crucible Moment: College Learning & Democracy's Future," according to which the chief ends of postsecondary civic education ought to include the promotion of sweeping…

  7. Passage-Related Reading Comprehension Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuinman, J. Jaap

    Studies showing that even though certain factual questions are directly related to information in passages they are also easier to answer without reference to the passage are the basis for this study which attempted to define qualities of relationship which might be responsible for the ease of answerability. Three Tests of Acquisition of…

  8. Guiding Questions for Data Analysis, by Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake County Public School System, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This document, which is provided by the Data and Accountability Department staff at Wake County Public School System (WCPSS), is to be used as a resource to help guide the review of student data. This document provides examples of questions to consider when reviewing frequently accessed reports located in Case21, Quickr, EVAAS®, mClass®, or…

  9. Preposed Subjects in Questions: Some Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipski, John M.

    1977-01-01

    The preposing of subject pronouns in questions containing an interrogative word has become common in several Caribbean countries. Use of preposing with "tu,""usted" and "ustedes" is discussed, including its relation to final "s" aspirated or dropped, preservation of morphological oppositions, and increased use of subject pronouns. (CHK)

  10. Research Questions in Trade and Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichowski, Chester; Walker, Thomas

    Results are reported of a nationwide survey to identify and categorize research questions related to the trade and industrial education area. (Respondents were members of the Policy and Planning Committee and the Research Committee of the American Vocational Association's Trade and Industrial Division, state and territorial supervisors of trade…

  11. Questions & Answers about...Marfan Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This fact sheet answers general questions about Marfan syndrome, a heritable condition that affects the connective tissue. It describes the characteristics of the disorder, the diagnostic process, and ways to manage symptoms. Characteristics include: (1) people with Marfan syndrome are typically very tall, slender, and loose jointed; (2) more than…

  12. Striving for Optimal Relevance when Answering Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Raymond W., Jr.; Bryant, Gregory A.

    2008-01-01

    When people are asked "Do you have the time?" they can answer in a variety of ways, such as "It is almost 3," "Yeah, it is quarter past two," or more precisely as in "It is now 1:43." We present the results of four experiments that examined people's real-life answers to questions about the time. Our hypothesis, following previous research…

  13. Business Education: Addressing the "What" Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almoharby, Darwish

    2008-01-01

    In an attempt to diversify the economy and stimulate private enterprise development, government agencies and private institutions in many countries have emphasized the importance of setting up and developing small and medium-size enterprises and promoting entrepreneurship. An important question confronting policy makers, however, is how they can…

  14. Learning How to Ask Research Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musante, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative research is a demanding endeavor, and for a group of undergraduate students tasked with identifying their own interdisciplinary research problem, the challenges are even greater. "It was scary--we didn't know what to ask the professors, and we couldn't decide on a research question," says Miran Park, a student at the University of…

  15. Managing cancer pain: frequently asked questions.

    PubMed

    Induru, Raghava R; Lagman, Ruth L

    2011-07-01

    For a variety of reasons, cancer pain is often undertreated, adversely affecting the quality of life for patients and caregivers. To manage cancer pain effectively, physicians need to understand its pathogenesis, how to assess it, how to treat it, and, in particular, how to optimize opioid treatment. We discuss common questions faced by physicians in everyday practice.

  16. Questioning the Technical Quality of Performance Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    1993-01-01

    Ongoing research finds that alternatives to formal tests carry hidden costs and require trade-offs. National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST) is studying how performance assessments work so that they may be designed to help students reach their highest potential. This article raises priority questions,…

  17. Public Opinion Poll Question Databases: An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    This paper evaluates five polling resource: iPOLL, Polling the Nations, Gallup Brain, Public Opinion Poll Question Database, and Polls and Surveys. Content was evaluated on disclosure standards from major polling organizations, scope on a model for public opinion polls, and presentation on a flow chart discussing search limitations and usability.

  18. Questions, Curiosity and the Inquiry Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Leo

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the conceptual relationship between questions, curiosity and learning as inquiry elaborated in the work of Chip Bruce and others as the Inquiry Cycle. The Inquiry Cycle describes learning in terms of a continuous dynamic of ask, investigate, create, discuss and reflect. Of these elements "ask" has a privileged…

  19. Distance Education Complexities: Questions To Be Answered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Francis; Li, Ning

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the development of distance education for instruction and training due to new technologies and software focuses on questions that need to be asked to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. Highlights include institutional and organizational concerns; content design analyses; development issues; implementation; evaluation; management…

  20. Computers into Classrooms: More Questions than Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beynon, John, Ed.; Mackay, Hughie, Ed.

    This is one of a series of three books addressing the question of the nature of technological literacy. This volume, consisting of an introduction, an epilogue, and 12 chapters, focuses on classrooms and classroom processes involving computers and deals directly with teacher and student usage of microcomputers in teaching and learning. The 12…

  1. Increasing Deception Detection Accuracy with Strategic Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Timothy R.; Shaw, Allison; Shulman, Hillary C.

    2010-01-01

    One explanation for the finding of slightly above-chance accuracy in detecting deception experiments is limited variance in sender transparency. The current study sought to increase accuracy by increasing variance in sender transparency with strategic interrogative questioning. Participants (total N = 128) observed cheaters and noncheaters who…

  2. Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Updated:Oct 4, ... content was last reviewed on 04/06/2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  3. Vocation Project Interview Questions--Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Leahy, Mary; Fredman, Nick; Moodie, Gavin; Arkoudis, Sophie; Bexley, Emmaline

    2012-01-01

    This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report "Missing Links: The Fragmented Relation between Tertiary Education and Jobs. It is an added resource for further information. It contains interview questions for: (1) graduates; (2) learning advisors; (3) managers; (4) pathways officers; (5) students; and (6)…

  4. Creating with the 4 Essential Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2009-01-01

    As part of a Professional Learning Community (PLC), the author is asked to focus on the four essential questions of learning when developing projects: (1) What is it teachers want their students to learn?; (2) How will teachers know if each student has learned it?; (3) How will teachers respond when some students do not learn it?; and (4) How can…

  5. Question and Answer Guide to OCLC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Sidney S. C.

    The purpose of this guide is to provide basic factual information about the Ohio College Library Center (OCLC), its data base, its operation, and its functions. It is intended for libraries which have not yet participated in OCLC, but would be useful as a reference guide in all libraries. Presented in question and answer form, the guide consists…

  6. Survey Questions Answered Only by Medication Experts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Fifty-eight tables provide a breakdown of answers to a survey responded to by 45 experts in the medication treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in people with mental retardation. Questions address treatment of specific disorders, ratings of various medications for specific disorders or symptoms, and preferences in mood stabilizers,…

  7. The AP Descriptive Chemistry Question: Student Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent; Brooks, David W.

    2005-01-01

    For over a decade, the authors have been involved in a design theory experiment providing software for high school students preparing for the descriptive question on the Advanced Placement (AP) chemistry examination. Since 1997, the software has been available as a Web site offering repeatable practice. This study describes a 4-year project during…

  8. Brain Training Draws Questions about Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    While programs to improve students' working memory are among the hottest new education interventions, new studies are calling into question whether exercises to improve this foundational skill can actually translate into greater intelligence, problem-solving ability, or academic achievement. Working memory is the system the mind uses to hold…

  9. Questions About Venus after Venus Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    The observations from Venus Express for nearly 13 Venus years or 26 solar days from April 2006 till 27 November 2014. Earlier, Venus has been explored by fly-by spacecraft, orbiters, descending probes, landers and floating balloons. These data have been supplemented by many ground based observations at reflected solar wavelengths, short and long wave infrared, millimeter to radio waves. Venus Express added significantly to the collection that will continue to be examined for understanding the planet's atmosphere and continuing analysis will inform us about new facets of the atmosphere and raise new questions. Inter-comparison of the measurements have been able to provide a general idea of the global atmosphere. However, re-visiting these observations also raises some questions about the atmosphere that have not received much attention lately but deserve to be explored and considered for future measurements. These questions are about the precise atmospheric composition in the deep atmosphere, the atmospheric state in the lower atmosphere, the static stability of the lower atmosphere, the clouds and hazes, the nature of the ultraviolet absorber(s) in the cloud layer, and wind speed and direction near the surface from equator to the pole, interaction between the atmosphere and the solid planet. The answers to these questions are important for a better understanding of Venus, its weather and climate and how the climate has evolved. The questions include: (i) What are the implications of the supercritical state of the two primary constituents of the Venus atmosphere - carbon dioxide and nitrogen in the lower atmosphere? (ii) Is the Venus (lower) atmosphere well mixed? (iii) What determines the observed alternating stable and unstable layers (static stability) in the lower atmosphere? (iv) What causes the contrasts seen in reflected sunlight which are largest at ultraviolet wavelengths and very muted at other visible wavelengths? (v) what causes the morning -afternoon

  10. Question-Posing and Question-Responding: The Heart of "Possibility Thinking" in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Kerry; Craft, Anna; Burnard, Pamela; Cremin, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on research that sought to explore the characteristics of "Possibility Thinking" as central to creativity in young children's learning, this paper considers question-posing and question-responding as the driving features of "Possibility Thinking" (PT). This qualitative study employed micro-event analysis of peer and…

  11. A Study of Novice Instructors' Questioning Techniques and Classroom Discourse Surrounding Those Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Kitty Lane

    2015-01-01

    The goals of this dissertation were to examine how novice calculus teachers used questions in their classrooms, how those questions and their use might change after video case-based course coordination, and what evidence of influence on student learning might be seen in undergraduate student achievement. This research focused on one way to elicit…

  12. "Question Moments": A Rolling Programme of Question Opportunities in Classroom Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; Leite, Sara; Watts, Mike

    2016-01-01

    This naturalistic study integrates specific "question moments" into lesson plans to increase pupils' classroom interactions. A range of tools explored students' ideas by providing students with opportunities to ask and write questions. Their oral and written outcomes provide data on individual and group misunderstandings. Changes to the…

  13. The Importance of Questioning & Questions for Consideration in Programming for Intercultural Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    The significance of questioning in intercultural language learning was highlighted during Phase 1 of the project as project team members worked with teachers preparing units of work and long-term programs. This paper explores the types of questions asked by team members to elicit teachers' thinking regarding students' learning and teachers' roles…

  14. Any Questions? Want to Stimulate Student Curiosity? Let Them Ask Questions!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Tarin Harrar

    2013-01-01

    Of the eight scientific practices highlighted in "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas," the first is for students to develop abilities to ask questions and define problems (NRC 2012). Constructing a range of questions about an object or phenomenon validates not only what students have…

  15. Now That's a Good Question! How to Promote Cognitive Rigor through Classroom Questioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Erik M.

    2016-01-01

    In this book, Erik M. Francis explores how one of the most fundamental instructional strategies--questioning--can provide the proper scaffolding to deepen student thinking, understanding, and application of knowledge. You'll learn: (1) Techniques for using questioning to extend and evaluate student learning experiences; (2) Eight different kinds…

  16. Psychometric Properties of Measures of Team Diversity with Likert Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Lifang; Marcoulides, George A.; Yuan, Ke-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Certain diversity among team members is beneficial to the growth of an organization. Multiple measures have been proposed to quantify diversity, although little is known about their psychometric properties. This article proposes several methods to evaluate the unidimensionality and reliability of three measures of diversity. To approximate the…

  17. A Measurement Model for Likert Responses that Incorporates Response Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrando, Pere J.; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a model for response times that is proposed as a supplement to the usual factor-analytic model for responses to graded or more continuous typical-response items. The use of the proposed model together with the factor model provides additional information about the respondent and can potentially increase the accuracy of the…

  18. Organizing Questions for Reduced-Gravity Flammability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Fletcher

    2004-01-01

    A team consisting of of the Microgravity Flight Project Scientists for solid flammability experiments has been reviewing and prioritizing a set of organizing questions for fire prevention (material flammability).In particular the team has been charged with determining:What experiments must be conducted to best answer these questions, and can some of the quest ions be answered using existing/planned hardware or experimental concepts?Is the NASA STD 6001, Test 1 configuration conservative or non-conservative in assessing material flammability in reduced gravity?NASA ST D 6001, Test 1 is an upward flammability test, considered the most stringent test in normal gravity. A material that passes this test would most likely not burn in a quiescent microgravity environment.A forced ignition and spread test is described.

  19. Inferring Orthologs: Open Questions and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Tekaia, Fredj

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing number of sequenced genomes and their comparisons, the detection of orthologs is crucial for reliable functional annotation and evolutionary analyses of genes and species. Yet, the dynamic remodeling of genome content through gain, loss, transfer of genes, and segmental and whole-genome duplication hinders reliable orthology detection. Moreover, the lack of direct functional evidence and the questionable quality of some available genome sequences and annotations present additional difficulties to assess orthology. This article reviews the existing computational methods and their potential accuracy in the high-throughput era of genome sequencing and anticipates open questions in terms of methodology, reliability, and computation. Appropriate taxon sampling together with combination of methods based on similarity, phylogeny, synteny, and evolutionary knowledge that may help detecting speciation events appears to be the most accurate strategy. This review also raises perspectives on the potential determination of orthology throughout the whole species phylogeny. PMID:26966373

  20. Key questions to consider in stalking cases.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Lorraine; Roberts, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Stalkers can inflict severe injury upon and have been known to kill their victims. Based on the detailed responses of 1,565 stalking victims, a set of key questions was produced with the aim of increasing the opportunities of police officers to identify potentially dangerous stalkers. Despite marked methodological differences and the inclusion of a large number of variables, regression analyses for significant correlates for physical assault per se and for severe violence largely reflected the results of earlier works. For severe violence (n=136), the most important correlate was a high level of victim fear, suggesting that victims are adept at assessing their own risk of stalker violence. The set of 11 questions performed well on preliminary tests and is presented here.

  1. Frequently asked questions about global modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letellier, Christophe; Aguirre, Luis A.; Freitas, U. S.

    2009-06-01

    When a global model is attempted from experimental data, some preprocessing might be required. Therefore it is only natural to wonder what kind of effects the preprocessing might have on the modeling procedure. This concern is manifested in the form of recurrent frequently asked questions, such as "how does the preprocessing affect the underlying dynamics?" This paper aims at providing answers to important questions related to (i) data interpolation, (ii) data smoothing, (iii) data-estimated derivatives, (iv) model structure selection, and (v) model validation. The answers provided will hopefully remove some of those doubts and one shall be more confident not only on global modeling but also on various data analyses which may be also dependent on data preprocessing.

  2. Analysis of questioned documents: a review.

    PubMed

    Calcerrada, Matías; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    During the last years (2000-2014), many publications concerning the forensic analysis of questioned documents have been published, and new techniques and methodologies are nowadays employed to overcome forensic caseworks. This article reviews a comprehensive collection of the works focused on this issue, including dating studies, the analysis of inks from pens and printers, the analysis of paper, the analysis of other samples related to questioned documents and studies on intersecting lines. These sections highlight the most relevant analytical studies by a wide range of analytical techniques. Separation and spectrometric techniques are critically discussed and compared, emphasizing the advantages and disadvantages of each one. Finally, concluding remarks on the research published are included.

  3. Frequently asked questions in hypoxia research

    PubMed Central

    Wenger, Roland H; Kurtcuoglu, Vartan; Scholz, Carsten C; Marti, Hugo H; Hoogewijs, David

    2015-01-01

    “What is the O2 concentration in a normoxic cell culture incubator?” This and other frequently asked questions in hypoxia research will be answered in this review. Our intention is to give a simple introduction to the physics of gases that would be helpful for newcomers to the field of hypoxia research. We will provide background knowledge about questions often asked, but without straightforward answers. What is O2 concentration, and what is O2 partial pressure? What is normoxia, and what is hypoxia? How much O2 is experienced by a cell residing in a culture dish in vitro vs in a tissue in vivo? By the way, the O2 concentration in a normoxic incubator is 18.6%, rather than 20.9% or 20%, as commonly stated in research publications. And this is strictly only valid for incubators at sea level. PMID:27774480

  4. A scaling theory for linear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockett, R. W.; Krishnaprasad, P. S.

    1980-01-01

    A theory of scaling for rational (transfer) functions in terms of transformation groups is developed. Two different four-parameter scaling groups which play natural roles in studying linear systems are identified and the effect of scaling on Fisher information and related statistical measures in system identification are studied. The scalings considered include change of time scale, feedback, exponential scaling, magnitude scaling, etc. The scaling action of the groups studied is tied to the geometry of transfer functions in a rather strong way as becomes apparent in the examination of the invariants of scaling. As a result, the scaling process also provides new insight into the parameterization question for rational functions.

  5. Twenty-five questions for string theorists

    SciTech Connect

    Binetruy, Pierre; Kane, G.L.; Lykken, Joseph D.; Nelson, Brent D.; /Pennsylvania U.

    2005-09-01

    In an effort to promote communication between the formal and phenomenological branches of the high-energy theory community, we provide a description of some important issues in supersymmetric and string phenomenology. We describe each within the context of string constructions, illustrating them with specific examples where applicable. Each topic culminates in a set of questions that we believe are amenable to direct consideration by string theorists, and whose answers we think could help connect string theory and phenomenology.

  6. Bacterial protein acetylation: new discoveries unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Alan J

    2016-05-01

    Nε-acetylation is emerging as an abundant post-translational modification of bacterial proteins. Two mechanisms have been identified: one is enzymatic, dependent on an acetyltransferase and acetyl-coenzyme A; the other is non-enzymatic and depends on the reactivity of acetyl phosphate. Some, but not most, of those acetylations are reversed by deacetylases. This review will briefly describe the current status of the field and raise questions that need answering.

  7. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-29

    COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Medical Care : Questions and Answers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...deliver health care during wartime. The military health system also provides health care services through either Department of Defense (DOD...medical facilities, known as “military treatment facilities” or “MTFs” as space is available, or, through private health care providers. Known as “Tricare

  8. Military Medical Care: Questions and Answers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-14

    providers, subject to regulations. Certain types of care , such as most dentistry and chiropractic services, are excluded. In addition to Tricare...COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Medical Care : Questions and Answers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...deliver health care during wartime. The military health system also provides health care services through either Department of Defense (DOD) medical

  9. Biofilms and the plasmid maintenance question.

    PubMed

    Imran, Mudassar; Jones, Don; Smith, Hal

    2005-02-01

    Can a conjugative plasmid encoding enhanced biofilm forming abilities for its bacterial host facilitate the persistence of the plasmid in a bacterial population despite conferring diminished growth rate and segregative plasmid loss on its bearers? We construct a mathematical model in a chemostat and in a plug flow environment to answer this question. Explicit conditions for an affirmative answer are derived. Numerical simulations support the conclusion.

  10. A Hybrid Approach to Clinical Question Answering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    participation in TREC, we submitted a single run using a hybrid Natural Language Processing ( NLP )-driven approach to accomplish the given task. Evaluation re...for the CDS track uses a variety of NLP - based techniques to address the clinical questions provided. We present a description of our approach, and...discuss our experimental setup, results and eval- uation in the subsequent sections. 2 Description of Our Approach Our hybrid NLP -driven method presents a

  11. Why "Who Is the Client?" Is the Wrong Ethical Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Mary Alice

    2014-01-01

    The familiar question "Who is the client?" elicits a singular answer. This may be appropriate as a clinical question, and it is sometimes necessary as a legal question or reimbursement question, but on ethical questions, the National Association of School Psychologists Ethics Code requires school psychologists to "think plural"…

  12. Neural network classification of questionable EGRET events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meetre, C. A.; Norris, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    High energy gamma rays (greater than 20 MeV) pair producing in the spark chamber of the Energetic Gamma Ray Telescope Experiment (EGRET) give rise to a characteristic but highly variable 3-D locus of spark sites, which must be processed to decide whether the event is to be included in the database. A significant fraction (about 15 percent or 10(exp 4) events/day) of the candidate events cannot be categorized (accept/reject) by an automated rule-based procedure; they are therefore tagged, and must be examined and classified manually by a team of expert analysts. We describe a feedforward, back-propagation neural network approach to the classification of the questionable events. The algorithm computes a set of coefficients using representative exemplars drawn from the preclassified set of questionable events. These coefficients map a given input event into a decision vector that, ideally, describes the correct disposition of the event. The net's accuracy is then tested using a different subset of preclassified events. Preliminary results demonstrate the net's ability to correctly classify a large proportion of the events for some categories of questionables. Current work includes the use of much larger training sets to improve the accuracy of the net.

  13. Open questions for Alzheimer's disease immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Golde, Todd E

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps more definitively than any other class of novel Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapy, pre-clinical studies in mouse models of amyloid β (Aβ) deposition have established the disease-modifying potential of anti-Aβ immunotherapy. Despite disappointing results to date from anti-Aβ immunotherapy therapeutic trials, there is continued hope that such immunotherapies, especially if used in the preclinical stages, could prove to be the first disease-modifying therapies available for AD. The general optimism that Aβ-targeting and emerging tau-targeting immunotherapies may prove to be disease modifying is tempered by many unanswered questions regarding these therapeutic approaches, including but not limited to i) lack of precise understanding of mechanisms of action, ii) the factors that regulate antibody exposure in the brain, iii) the optimal target epitope, and iv) the mechanisms underlying side effects. In this review I discuss how answering these and other questions could increase the likelihood of therapeutic success. As passive immunotherapies are also likely to be extremely expensive, I also raise questions relating to cost-benefit of biologic-based therapies for AD that could limit future impact of these therapies by limiting access due to economic constraints.

  14. Questionable research practices among italian research psychologists

    PubMed Central

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Veldkamp, Coosje L. S.; Albiero, Paolo; Cubelli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    A survey in the United States revealed that an alarmingly large percentage of university psychologists admitted having used questionable research practices that can contaminate the research literature with false positive and biased findings. We conducted a replication of this study among Italian research psychologists to investigate whether these findings generalize to other countries. All the original materials were translated into Italian, and members of the Italian Association of Psychology were invited to participate via an online survey. The percentages of Italian psychologists who admitted to having used ten questionable research practices were similar to the results obtained in the United States although there were small but significant differences in self-admission rates for some QRPs. Nearly all researchers (88%) admitted using at least one of the practices, and researchers generally considered a practice possibly defensible if they admitted using it, but Italian researchers were much less likely than US researchers to consider a practice defensible. Participants’ estimates of the percentage of researchers who have used these practices were greater than the self-admission rates, and participants estimated that researchers would be unlikely to admit it. In written responses, participants argued that some of these practices are not questionable and they have used some practices because reviewers and journals demand it. The similarity of results obtained in the United States, this study, and a related study conducted in Germany suggest that adoption of these practices is an international phenomenon and is likely due to systemic features of the international research and publication processes. PMID:28296929

  15. Question, answer, compare: a cross-category comparison of answers on question and answer websites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocepek, Melissa G.; Westbrook, Lynn

    2015-10-01

    Online information seekers make heavy use of websites that accept their natural language questions. This study compared the three types of such websites: social question and answer (Q&A), digital reference services, and ask-an-expert services. Questions reflecting daily life, research, and crisis situations were posed to high use websites of all three types. The resulting answers' characteristics were analyzed in terms of speed, transparency, formality, and intimacy. The results indicate that social Q&A websites excel in speed, ask-an-expert websites in intimacy, and digital reference services in transparency and formality.

  16. `Question Moments': A Rolling Programme of Question Opportunities in Classroom Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; Leite, Sara; Watts, Mike

    2016-06-01

    This naturalistic study integrates specific `question moments' into lesson plans to increase pupils' classroom interactions. A range of tools explored students' ideas by providing students with opportunities to ask and write questions. Their oral and written outcomes provide data on individual and group misunderstandings. Changes to the schedule of lessons were introduced to explore these questions and address disparities. Flexible lesson planning over 14 lessons across a 4-week period of high school chemistry accommodated students' contributions and increased student participation, promoted inquiring and individualised teaching, with each teaching strategy feeding forward into the next.

  17. [Development of skill scale for communication skill measurement of pharmacist].

    PubMed

    Teramachi, Hitomi; Komada, Natsuki; Tanizawa, Katsuya; Kuzuya, Yumi; Tsuchiya, Teruo

    2011-04-01

    To purpose of this study was to develop a pharmacist communication skill scale. A 38 items scale was made and 283 pharmacists responded. The original questionnaire consisted of 38 items, with 1-5 graded Likert scale. Completed responses of 228 pharmacists data were used for testing the reliability and the validity of this scale. The first group of items from the original questionnaire were 38, and finally 38 original items were chosen for investigation of content validity, correlation coefficient and commonality. From factor analysis, four factors were chosen among the 31 items as follows: patient respect reception skill, problem discovery and solution skill, positive approach skill, feelings processing skill. The correlation coefficient between this original scale and the KiSS-18 (Social Skill) received high score (r=0.694). The reliability of this scale showed high internal consistency (Cronbach α coefficient=0.951), so the result of test for the validity of this scale supports high content validity. Thus we propose adoption of pharmacist communication skill scale to carry a brief eponymous name as TePSS-31. The above findings indicate that this developed scale possess adequate validity and reliability for practical use.

  18. Exam Question Exchange: A Popular Approach to Reaction Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Michael P. S.; Alexander, John J., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an undergraduate physical chemistry question and its acceptable solution. This question, presented to share exam questions with other teachers, shows the analogy between molecular kinetics and population dynamics. (HM)

  19. Toward Question-Asking Machines: The Logic of Questions and the Inquiry Calculus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth,Kevin H.

    2005-01-01

    For over a century, the study of logic has focused on the algebra of logical statements. This work, first performed by George Boole, has led to the development of modern computers, and was shown by Richard T. Cox to be the foundation of Bayesian inference. Meanwhile the logic of questions has been much neglected. For our computing machines to be truly intelligent, they need to be able to ask relevant questions. In this paper I will show how the Boolean lattice of logical statements gives rise to the free distributive lattice of questions thus defining their algebra. Furthermore, there exists a quantity analogous to probability, called relevance, which quantifies the degree to which one question answers another. I will show that relevance is not only a natural generalization of information theory, but also forms its foundation.

  20. Moon and Terrestrial Planets: Unresolved Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, H. H.

    2002-12-01

    Human exploration during Apollo began the documentation of the evolution of the Moon and of its importance in understanding the origin and evolution of the terrestrial planets. This revolution in planetary geology continues as a vigorous and vibrant arena for discovery and debate for new generations of geoscientists. Although much has been learned and, indeed, resolved in lunar science, we are left with major questions unresolved. One fundamental question is that of the origin of the Moon. A large consensus has developed in the planetary science community that the Moon was created by the "giant impact" of a Mars-sized asteroid on the Earth after the accretion of the Earth was largely complete and differentiation had begun. A minority, however, questions this consensus hypothesis because of increasing indications that the lower mantle of the Moon may be largely undifferentiated. If the issue of the high angular momentum of the Earth-Moon system can be resolved through new modeling studies, then capture of a co-orbiting planetesimal may be an important alternative to a "giant impact". Another important question, particularly in consideration of the terrestrial and Martian surface environments during the first 0.8 billion years of Earth history, is the impact record of that period as recorded on the Moon. Again, a large consensus has developed that the 50 or so large and very large impact basins identified on the Moon were created over a very short "cataclysm" between about 3.9 and 3.8 billion years ago. Here also, a minority suggests that this period of large basin formation, although distinct in lunar history, took place over several hundred million years and that the apparent cataclysm is an artifact of sampling the effects of the last few basin-forming impacts. Either way, a previously unavailable source of impactors appeared somewhere in the solar system and greatly affected terrestrial environments at the time the precursors to life were appearing on Earth

  1. Disability Discrimination and Obesity: The Big Questions?

    PubMed

    Flint, Stuart W; Snook, Jeremé

    2015-12-01

    Obesity discrimination in employment and recruitment has become a topic of focus for research examination with increasing reports of discrimination by colleagues and managers. Whilst a limited number of legal cases have emerged, disability law is consulted in line with the expectation of anti-discriminatory practices at work. In line with disability law, whether obesity is defined as a disability or not has an impact on the outcome of a court ruling. Ambiguity when defining obesity through either the medical or social model means there are many questions that remain unanswered which might lead to inconsistency in court rulings.

  2. Sepsis and Septic Shock: Lingering Questions.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Tiffany; Francis-Frank, Lyndave; Chong, Josebelo; Balaan, Marvin R

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis and septic shock are major health conditions in the United States, with a high incidence and mortality. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign, which was formed in 2002, formulates guidelines for the management of severe sepsis and septic shock and has actually demonstrated a reduction in mortality with institution of "sepsis bundles." Despite this, some elements of the guidelines have been questioned, and recent data suggest that strict compliance with bundles and protocols may not be necessary. Still, prompt recognition and treatment of sepsis and septic shock remain of utmost importance.

  3. The most intriguing question in synesthesia research.

    PubMed

    Rouw, Romke; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2014-01-01

    This discussion paper forms an insightful addition to the synesthesia literature. Accompanying a steep increase in recent publications on synesthesia, it helps remedy the conspicuous paucity of mechanistic process models explaining the condition. The paper furthermore addresses what is arguably among the most interesting questions: Why do most synesthetes *not* get confused by their additional sensations? This is particularly interesting when phrased in a broader context: What are the mechanisms for deciding which of the sensations we experience reflect something "real" (phenomena in the outside world) and which reflect something that is "not real" (internally generated and private phenomena).

  4. Seven Questions about the WAIS-III Regarding Differences in Abilities across the 16 to 89 Year Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Alan S.

    2000-01-01

    Data from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) manual and data provided by the test publisher were analyzed to address seven questions about differences in human cognitive abilities as they are measured by the WAIS-III across the 16-89 year age span. All seven questions were of a practical, clinical nature. (Author/MKA)

  5. Asking complex questions of the genome without programming.

    PubMed

    Woollard, Peter M

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, vast amounts of genomics and genetic data are available. Although much of the data is largely accessible to relatively simple web queries, in some cases, more complex queries are required. This paper reviews the hierarchy of tools for querying genetic and genomic data. For querying multiple genes, variants or regions ENSEMBL BioMart and the UCSC Table Browser offer flexible interfaces. For more complex queries, GALAXY is a sophisticated tool for building workflows over existing internet resources. For the most challenging genome scale queries, programmatic access may be required through a defined application programming interface (API) - such as the one provided by Ensembl. All these tools allow one to rapidly ask many questions that were difficult to answer a few years ago, but choosing the appropriate tool for the job is critical.

  6. Optimizing available network resources to address questions in environmental biogeochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinckley, Eve-Lyn; Suzanne Andersen,; Baron, Jill S.; Peter Blanken,; Gordon Bonan,; William Bowman,; Sarah Elmendorf,; Fierer, Noah; Andrew Fox,; Keli Goodman,; Katherine Jones,; Danica Lombardozzi,; Claire Lunch,; Jason Neff,; Michael SanClements,; Katherine Suding,; Will Wieder,

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of network observatories have been established globally to collect long-term biogeochemical data at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although many outstanding questions in biogeochemistry would benefit from network science, the ability of the earth- and environmental-sciences community to conduct synthesis studies within and across networks is limited and seldom done satisfactorily. We identify the ideal characteristics of networks, common problems with using data, and key improvements to strengthen intra- and internetwork compatibility. We suggest that targeted improvements to existing networks should include promoting standardization in data collection, developing incentives to promote rapid data release to the public, and increasing the ability of investigators to conduct their own studies across sites. Internetwork efforts should include identifying a standard measurement suite—we propose profiles of plant canopy and soil properties—and an online, searchable data portal that connects network, investigator-led, and citizen-science projects.

  7. Fouled Anchors: The CONSTELLATION Question Answered

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    peppering each lift. Each lift revealed the same nineteen transverse pencil lines. These were the designer’s indexes repeated on each lift. Each lift repre...4, Polland Papers. Shows Polland conversion of spar deck to a gun deck. 34. Sloop of War Cyane and Levant. May 7 1836. Scale: 1" =6’. RG-19, E-126, 41...3-20B, NARA. Design draft noting changes to be made and proving the lines. 35. Sloop of War Cyane May 7th 1836. Scale: 5/16" = 1’. RG-19. E-126, 41-3

  8. Amnestying Superiority Violations: Processing Multiple Questions

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Charles; Fanselow, Gisbert; Frazier, Lyn

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the acceptability of multiple questions. As expected, sentences violating the Superiority Condition were accepted less often than sentences obeying it. The status of the Superiority violations was not improved by the addition of a third wh, regardless of whether the third wh was an adjunct or an argument, though it was improved by the addition of a second question (e.g., and when). Further, in a small pilot study directly comparing a sentence with adjacent final wh-phrases that may induce a stress clash (I’d like to know who hid it where when) with a sentence violating Superiority but avoiding the final adjacent wh-phrases (I’d like to know where who hid it when), half the participants indicated that the Superiority violation sentence sounded better. This suggests that the status of some additional-wh sentences may appear to improve simply because the comparison sentence with adjacent final wh-phrases is degraded. Overall, the results of the studies suggest that there is no need to complicate syntactic theory to account for the additional-wh effect, because there is no general additional-wh effect. PMID:17356682

  9. Abortion: taking on the hard questions.

    PubMed

    Kissling, F

    1999-01-01

    This article answers several questions relating to the moral issue of abortion, the value of life, and the rights of women. Women all over the world have been having abortions, legal or illegal, since time immemorial for reasons which are difficult to document. While legal and safe abortions do not compromise the physical and psychological health of the woman, more than ten thousand women suffer and die from complications of illegal abortions especially in countries where women are denied of their reproductive rights. Though abortion remained illegal in many countries such as Brazil and Latin America, legal restrictions do little to reduce the incidence of abortion. Meanwhile, the question on when the fetus has life is viewed differently by the scientific, medical, legal and religious communities. But even with the conviction that abortion involves taking the life of a person, it is indeed a responsibility to respect the views of other religions. Finally, although the decision to have abortion should belong to the couple, the last word should belong to the woman.

  10. [Psychiatric assessment in civil law questions].

    PubMed

    Nedopil, N

    2009-05-01

    Psychiatric reports in German civil law cases are required if questions are raised of legal capacity, capacity to express a testamentary will, ability to sue or be sued, capacity to marry, ability of mentally disordered patients to consent to treatment, and when custody or hospital orders of these patients is considered or compensation is due for mental disorders resulting from accidents. Many reports must decide whether the ability to decide using sound reason or motives is or was impaired by a mental disorder. This capability is attributed to every adult person; only if incapability is claimed must it be proven by psychiatric assessment. As in most psychiatric court reports, such assessments must be structured in several steps. First a clinical diagnosis has to be established which must then be translated into legal terminology. After this has been accomplished, the psychiatrist must describe the functional impairments caused by the disorder and define the probability with which these impairments might affect the legal act in question. Most reports are prepared in the context of custody law, which centers on helping those patients who, due to a mental disorder, cannot manage their own legal matters.

  11. [5ARI and PSA: open questions.

    PubMed

    Tubaro, Andrea; Puccini, Federica; De Nunzio, Cosimo

    2014-09-23

    No consensus has ever been reached on the predictive value of serum prostate specific antigen(PSA) for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Limitations of PSA testing in clinical practice have beenoften discussed in the peer-reviewed literature following data derived from clinical trials such as theProstate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) and the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events(REDUCE) study that showed a linear rise in the risk of prostate cancer with increasing PSA levels.Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a known confounding factor for the use of PSA as a marker of prostatecancer. Increased prostate volume observed with ageing, urinary retention, acute and chronicinflammatory conditions of the prostate, sexual activity and digital rectal examination may all cause anincrease of PSA values. Both finasteride and dutasteride, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5ARI) used inthe treatment of BPH, are known to induce a significant decrease of serum PSA levels close to 50%.The observed change in PSA values following 5ARI treatment has raised questions about the accuracyof PSA testing for the early diagnosis of prostate cancer in patients on finasteride/dutasteride treatment.Careful analysis of data from various clinical trials on pharmacological treatment of LUTS due toBPH suggested that the accuracy of PSA testing is not just maintained but rather increased following5ARI use. Then, the question of PSA accuracy during 5ARI treatment can be considered closed.

  12. [On the question of a practice.].

    PubMed

    Sévigny, R

    1979-01-01

    The author, a psycho-sociologist and a professor in the department of sociology at l'Université de Montreal, looks back and reflects on his practice as an intervener in different types of groups. He returns to his first experiences with T-groups and to the analysis of them which he made at the beginning of his practice. Furthermore, this analysis touches on questions that remain very relevant. Thus the author explains why, for social reasons, he came to privilege work with "real groups" rather than that with spontaneous groups. On the basis of twenty years of experience and a view of many group approaches it can be asked whether the question of man in society as a change agent should not be posed to a greater extent within groups. 1) Dans Sociologie A Sociétés, vol. 9, no 2, d'octobre 1977, le lecteur trouvera un article de moi qui préserve une réflexion plus systématique mais sans référence immédiate à ma propre pratique. Oe numéro, entièrement consacré au thème "psychologie, sociologie, intervention" comprend également plusieurs textes qui ne sont pas étrangers à certains thèmes développés ici. On y trouvera aussi de nombreuses références bibliographiques.

  13. Evaluative Conditioning: The “How” Question

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Christopher R.; Olson, Michael A.; Fazio, Russell H.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to attitude formation or change toward an object due to that object's mere co-occurrence with another valenced object or objects. This chapter focuses on the “how” question, that is, the question of what cognitive processes intervene between mere co-occurrence and attitude formation or change. Though EC has typically been thought of as occurring through a single, albeit contentious, mechanism, we begin by pointing out that both the heterogeneity of EC methodologies and the abundance of inconsistent results suggest that multiple processes with different characteristics can produce EC. We describe how the earliest posited process of EC, Pavlovian conditioning or signal learning, is a valid mechanism of EC that appears to have operated in some experiments but is unlikely to have operated in others and also cannot account for various EC findings. We describe other mechanisms of EC, when they can be expected to occur, and what characteristics they have. We particularly focus our attention on a process model of EC we have recently introduced, the implicit misattribution model. Finally, we describe the implications of a multi-process view of EC, which we argue can help resolve theoretical controversies and further the application of EC as a practical intervention for influencing attitudes in various domains. PMID:22241936

  14. Cross-domain question classification in community question answering via kernel mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Lei; Hu, Zuoliang; Yang, Bin; Li, Yiyang; Chen, Jun

    2015-10-01

    An increasingly popular method for retrieving information is via the community question answering (CQA) systems such as Yahoo! Answers and Baidu Knows. In CQA, question classification plays an important role to find the answers. However, the labeled training examples for statistical question classifier are fairly expensive to obtain, as they require the experienced human efforts. Meanwhile, unlabeled data are readily available. This paper employs the method of domain adaptation via kernel mapping to solve this problem. In detail, the kernel approach is utilized to map the target-domain data and the source-domain data into a common space, where the question classifiers are trained under the closer conditional probabilities. The kernel mapping function is constructed by domain knowledge. Therefore, domain knowledge could be transferred from the labeled examples in the source domain to the unlabeled ones in the targeted domain. The statistical training model can be improved by using a large number of unlabeled data. Meanwhile, the Hadoop Platform is used to construct the mapping mechanism to reduce the time complexity. Map/Reduce enable kernel mapping for domain adaptation in parallel in the Hadoop Platform. Experimental results show that the accuracy of question classification could be improved by the method of kernel mapping. Furthermore, the parallel method in the Hadoop Platform could effective schedule the computing resources to reduce the running time.

  15. Semantic Technology and the Question-Centric Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fost, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    In this article I describe software that facilitates "question-centric curricula" in which "big questions," rather than academic disciplines, are the primary means of organizing educational resources. To find these questions, the software scans course catalogs and extracts all sentences ending in a question mark. To find connections between…

  16. Managing Affect in Learners' Questions in Undergraduate Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa-de-Jesus, Helena; Watts, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to position students' classroom questioning within the literature surrounding affect and its impact on learning. The article consists of two main sections. First, the act of questioning is discussed in order to highlight how affect shapes the process of questioning, and a four-part genesis to question-asking that we call…

  17. Effects of Question-Generation Training on Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davey, Beth; McBride, Susan

    1986-01-01

    The study examined the effects of training in question generation on comprehension question performance, on quality and form of generated questions, and on accuracy of predicted comprehension. Sixth-grade students trained in question generation outperformed four comparison groups on several comprehension and metacomprehension measures. (Author/LMO)

  18. Widening and Deepening Questions in Web-Based Investigative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashihara, Akihiro; Akiyama, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    Web allows learners to investigate any question with a great variety of Web resources, in which they could construct a wider, and deeper knowledge. In such investigative learning process, it is important for them to deepen and widen the question, which involves decomposing the question into the sub-questions to be further investigated. This…

  19. Additive Effects From Interspersed Adjunct Questions In Prose Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagaria, Sabato D.; Di Vesta, Francis J.

    A total of 150 undergraduate students randomly assigned to five experimental groups studied ten paragraphs with questions interspersed at different locations in the text. Performance on incidental items was significantly lower (p < .05) in the question before (QB) than in the question after (QA), question before and after (QBA), and the…

  20. THE TRANSLATION, VALIDATION AND CULTURAL ADAPTATION OF FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT OF CHRONIC ILLNESS THERAPY - SPIRITUAL WELL-BEING 12 (FACIT-SP12) SCALE IN GREEK LANGUAGE

    PubMed Central

    Fradelos, Evangelos C.; Tzavella, Foteini; Koukia, Evmorfia; Tsaras, Konstantinos; Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.; Aroni, Adamantia; Alikari, Victoria; Ralli, Maria; Bredle, Jason; Zyga, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Background: According to World Health Organization (WHO), spirituality is an important domain of quality of life especially in terminal, life threatens chronic diseases. For many people spirituality and religion are not just very important dimensions of their existence, but also a source of support that contributes to wellbeing and coping with everyday difficulties of life. Aim: Aim of the study was the translation of the Facit Spiritual Well Being Scale (Facit-Sp12) in Greek language and the validation of the scale for the Greek population. Material and Methods: The Facit-Sp12 questionnaire is an anonymous self-administered questionnaire that contains twelve, four point Likert scale, closed questions (0=Not at all, 1=A little bit, 2=Some-what, 3=Quite a bit, 4=Very Much). The questionnaire was translated into Greek language and then back translated in the English in order to be checked for any inconsistencies. The sample of the study was 183 chronic kidney disease patients, undergoing hemodialysis. Exploratory factor analysis, with principal components analysis with Varimax rotation was performed for checking the construct validity of the questionnaire. The test–retest reliability and the internal consistency were also examined. Statistical analysis performed by the use of SPSS 21.0. Statistical significance level was set at p=0.05 Results: The final Greek version of the questionnaire includes all of the twelve questions. The mean age of the participants was 61.81±13.9. Three factors were exported from the statistical analysis. The Cronbach-α coefficient was 0.77 for the total questionnaire and for each subscale was 0.70 for “meaning”, 0.73 for “peace” and 0.87 for “faith”. Between the three subscales “meaning” had the highest score (mean 12.49, SD=2.865). Conclusions: The Facit Spiritual Wellbeing Scale–Facit-Sp12, is a valuable and reliable questionnaire of three dimensions that can be used for assessing spirituality and spiritual wellbeing

  1. What questions can a placebo answer?

    PubMed

    Hey, Spencer Phillips; Weijer, Charles

    2016-03-01

    The concept of clinical equipoise restricts the use of placebo controls in clinical trials when there already exists a proven effective treatment. Several critics of clinical equipoise have put forward alleged counter-examples to this restriction-describing instances of ethical placebo-controlled trials that apparently violate clinical equipoise. In this essay, we respond to these examples and show that clinical equipoise is not as restrictive of placebos as these authors assume. We argue that a subtler appreciation for clinical equipoise-in particular the distinction between de facto and de jure interpretations of the concept-allows the concept to explain when and why a placebo control may be necessary to answer a question of clinical importance.

  2. Interpretation of genomic data: questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Simon, Richard

    2008-07-01

    Using a question and answer format we describe important aspects of using genomic technologies in cancer research. The main challenges are not managing the mass of data, but rather the design, analysis, and accurate reporting of studies that result in increased biological knowledge and medical utility. Many analysis issues address the use of expression microarrays but are also applicable to other whole genome assays. Microarray-based clinical investigations have generated both unrealistic hype and excessive skepticism. Genomic technologies are tremendously powerful and will play instrumental roles in elucidating the mechanisms of oncogenesis and in bringing on an era of predictive medicine in which treatments are tailored to individual tumors. Achieving these goals involves challenges in rethinking many paradigms for the conduct of basic and clinical cancer research and for the organization of interdisciplinary collaboration.

  3. Current questions and possible controversies in autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, L M; Simon, A K; Baehrecke, E H

    2015-01-01

    Interest in autophagy has exploded over the last decade, with publications highlighting crosstalk with several other cellular processes including secretion, endocytosis, and cell suicide pathways including apoptosis. Autophagy proteins have also been implicated in other cellular processes independently of their roles in autophagy, creating complexities in the interpretation of autophagy (Atg) mutant gene data. Interestingly, this self-eating process is a survival mechanism that can also promote cell death, but when and how autophagy may ‘switch’ its function is still under debate. Indeed, there are currently many models of how autophagy actually influences cell death. In this review, we highlight some outstanding questions and possible controversies in the autophagy field. PMID:26682061

  4. [Blood transfusion and ethics: new questions].

    PubMed

    Sicard, D

    2006-09-01

    Chairman to the French Institutional Review Board, Professor Didier Sicard raises blood donation issues from an ethical standpoint. The contaminated blood scandal focused on the necessity of reducing transfusion risks and regarded blood safety as an ethical mandatory requirement, a debatable subject to deal with. The author proposes to reconsider the nature of unpaid blood donations while advising not to scorn the remunerated gift when such is the case. As for the use of blood, he questions the solutions based on a zero risk perspective, in particular an excessive auto-transfusional practice or a restrictive use of blood, lately regarded as essential. Starting from the blood donation concern this article leads us to think over both our society's fears and the precautionary principle abuses.

  5. Unreviewed safety question determination application guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The basic purpose of the Unreviewed Safety Question Determination (USQD) process is to ascertain if a change to a facility can be made without a prior safety review and approval by the original approving body. The USQD process judges whether the change could result in the facility being outside its authorization basis. If the change could result in the facility being outside its authorization basis, the change involves an Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ). The authorization basis consists of those aspects of the facility design basis relied upon by the original approving body to authorize operation. The authorization basis would typically include the facility Safety Analysis Report, Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs), Technical Specifications, DOE-issued Safety Evaluation Reports, Safety Analysis Report Update Program documents, Safety Studies, Safety Assessments, Risk Assessments, Facility Safety Evaluations, and any applicable commitments made to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) orders or policies. Steps in the USQD process include defining the changes being evaluated; evaluating the process by which the change is accomplished; then the potential effects of the change are compared to the authorization basis for the facility to determine if the change could result in the facility being outside is authorization basis. The USQD will provide input to the change control board for facilities placed under configuration management to aid their understanding of the extent of a proposed change and whether or not the change should be authorized. The USQD will also provide input to the categorization of reportable occurrences under DOE Order 5000.3A, Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information. This report provides an overview of the steps in the USQD process and detailed instructions and examples intended primarily for use by the personnel who perform, review, and approve the USQDs. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Questioning the Patient, Questioning Hippocrates: Rufus of Ephesus and the Pursuit of Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Letts, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Rufus of Ephesus' short treatise, Quaestiones Medicinales, the only ancient medical work that takes as its topic the dialogue between doctor and patient, has usually been seen as a procedural practical handbook serving an essentially operational purpose. In this paper I argue that the treatise, with its insistent message that doctors cannot properly understand and treat illnesses unless they supplement their own knowledge by questioning patients, and its remarkable appreciation of the singularity of each patient's experience, shows itself to be no mere handbook but a work addressing the place of questioning in the clinical encounter. I illustrate some of the differences between Rufus' conceptualisation of the relevance and use of questioning and that which can be seen in the theoretical and descriptive writings of Galen and in the Hippocratic corpus, and show how apparent resonances with some of the preoccupations of modern Western healthcare can be used judiciously to elucidate the significance of those differences.

  7. How to Improve Your Impact Factor: Questioning the Quantification of Academic Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeyers, Paul; Burbules, Nicholas C.

    2011-01-01

    A broad-scale quantification of the measure of quality for scholarship is under way. This trend has fundamental implications for the future of academic publishing and employment. In this essay we want to raise questions about these burgeoning practices, particularly how they affect philosophy of education and similar sub-disciplines. First,…

  8. The Intonation and Signaling of Declarative Questions in Manchego Peninsular Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henriksen, Nicholas C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an experimental investigation on the tonal structure and phonetic signaling of declarative questions by speakers of Manchego Peninsular Spanish, a dialect of Spanish for which little experimental research on intonation is currently available. Analysis 1 examines the scaling and timing properties of final rises produced by 16 speakers…

  9. The Impact of Initial Teacher Education on Understandings of Physical Education: Asking the Right Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chroinin, Deirdre Ni; Coulter, Maura

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of professional socialisation can provide insight on the impact of Physical Education Teacher Education. A large-scale (n=326) single question "What is PE?" qualitative methodology was used to access pre-service primary teachers' understandings of the nature and purpose of physical education . Data analysis involved word…

  10. Factors Affecting Responses of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder to "Yes/No" Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funazaki, Yasuhiro; Oi, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify factors related to difficulties in responding to "yes/no" questions (Y/N-Qs) among 52 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), 41 boys and 11 girls aged between 3:5-16:0 years. Participants completed the Tanaka-Binet Intelligence Scale V, the Picture Vocabulary Test: Revised (PVT-R), and the Pervasive…

  11. Research in thermal biology: Burning questions for coldwater stream fishes

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, Dr. Dale; Bartholow, Dr. John; Jager, Yetta; al., et.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing appreciation of global warming impacts on ecological systems in addition to the myriad of land management effects on water quality, the number of literature citations dealing with the effects of water temperature on freshwater fish has escalated in the past decade. Given the many biological scales at which water temperature effects have been studied and the growing need to integrate knowledge from multiple disciplines of thermal biology to fully protect beneficial uses, we held that a survey of the most promising recent developments and an expression of some of the remaining unanswered questions with significant management implications would best be approached collectively by a diverse research community. We have identified five specific topic areas of renewed research where new techniques and critical thought could benefit coldwater stream fishes (particularly salmonids): molecular, organism, population/species, community and ecosystem, and policy issues in water quality. Our hope is that information gained through examination of recent research fronts linking knowledge at various scales will prove useful in managing water quality at a basin level to protect fish populations and whole ecosystems. Standards of the past were based largely on incipient lethal and optimum growth rate temperatures for fish species, while future standards should consider all integrated thermal impacts to the organism and ecosystem.

  12. Research in thermal biology: Burning questions for coldwater stream fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCullough, D.A.; Bartholow, J.M.; Jager, H.I.; Beschta, R.L.; Cheslak, E.F.; Deas, M.L.; Ebersole, J.L.; Foott, J.S.; Johnson, S.L.; Marine, K.R.; Mesa, M.G.; Petersen, J.H.; Souchon, Y.; Tiffan, K.F.; Wurtsbaugh, W.A.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing appreciation of global warming impacts on ecological systems, in addition to the myriad of land management effects on water quality, the number of literature citations dealing with the effects of water temperature on freshwater fish has escalated in the past decade. Given the many biological scales at which water temperature effects have been studied, and the growing need to integrate knowledge from multiple disciplines of thermal biology to fully protect beneficial uses, we held that a survey of the most promising recent developments and an expression of some of the remaining unanswered questions with significant management implications would best be approached collectively by a diverse research community. We have identified five specific topic areas of renewed research where new techniques and critical thought could benefit coldwater stream fishes (particularly salmonids): molecular, organism, population/species, community and ecosystem, and policy issues in water quality. Our hope is that information gained through examination of recent research fronts linking knowledge at various scales will prove useful in managing water quality at a basin level to protect fish populations and whole ecosystems. Standards of the past were based largely on incipient lethal and optimum growth rate temperatures for fish species, while future standards should consider all integrated thermal impacts to the organism and ecosystem. ?? Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  13. Validation of the self-confidence scale of nursing care in urinary retention

    PubMed Central

    Mazzo, Alessandra; Martins, José Carlos Amado; Jorge, Beatriz Maria; Batista, Rui Carlos Negrão; Almeida, Rodrigo Guimarães dos Santos; Henriques, Fernando Manuel Dias; Coutinho, Verónica Rita Dias; Mendes, Isabel Amélia Costa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to validate an instrument to measure self-confidence of nursing care in urinary retention. Methods: methodological research study, carried out after ethical approval. A Likert-like scale of 32 items related to nursing care in urinary retention was applied to students of the graduate nursing course. For instrument validation, analysis of the sample adequacy and main components, Varimax orthogonal rotation and internal consistency analyses were developed. Results: in a sample of 305 students, there was high correlation of all items with the total scale and Cronbach's alpha of 0.949. The scale items were divided into five factors with internal consistency: Factor 1 (0.890), Factor 2 (0.874), Factor 3 (0.868), Factor 4 (0.814) and Factor 5 (0.773), respectively. Conclusion: the scale meets the validity requirements, demonstrating potential for use in evaluation and research. PMID:26487130

  14. Question Safari: Seeking Questions in Their Natural Habitat. A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Emily S

    2016-01-01

    Due to the demanding schedules of nurses, many clinical queries generated during patient care are forgotten before the nurse has time to conduct a search. This article describes a new clinical librarian service, Question Safari, created in partnership with the Nursing Research & Evidence-Based Practice initiative to help mitigate this issue and to support patient care.

  15. Learning to Love the Questions: How Essential Questions Promote Creativity and Deep Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Educators know that creativity and innovation involve questioning and the capacity to frame topics as problems to be solved. They know that we are living in a time of a new generation of standards, including the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). In the U.S., compliance with these standards requires that educators encourage students to ask…

  16. Learning to Question: Categories of Questioning Used by Preservice Teachers during Diagnostic Mathematics Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Patricia S.; Milewicz, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Examines the questioning strategies used by (n=48) preservice teachers during one-on-one diagnostic mathematics interviews with children. Conducts audiotaped interviews, following analyses, and reflection on the interview. Indicates that using the diagnostic interview format allows preservice teachers to recognize and reflect upon effective…

  17. Classifying Teacher Questions in EFL Classrooms: Question Types and Their Proper Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a case study investigating the taxonomy of question-types in Hong Kong EFL classrooms, their appropriate application by teachers, and the resulting effectiveness in helping students understand the correct lesson objectives. Triangulation was conducted in data collection using classroom observations, teacher…

  18. Some Criticisms against Exam Questions: To What Extent Can Mythic, Romantic and Philosophical Questions Be Used?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seker, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, some of the pre-service teachers' criticisms against their exams were investigated. Moreover, as an alternative, to what extent philosophical, romantic and mythic questions could be used was also looked at. The study group consists of 117 pre-service teachers from the classroom teacher education. In the study, it was…

  19. Answering Questions and Questioning Answers. Part I. University of Central Florida Conference Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, C. C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Brief analyses are provided of presentations at a conference, held at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, which addressed questions and answers relating to research and education. Conference sessions explored the role of research in relation to educational practices with special focus on theory, research, issues, and application. Papers…

  20. L'enseignement de la civilisation en questions (Questions on the Teaching of Civilization).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porcher, Louis

    1982-01-01

    The questions addressed concern: (1) the connection between language and culture; (2) the need for a systematic analysis of general methodology in language teaching; and (3) problems related to instructional materials, including content, teaching materials, authentic documents, and the relation between traditional concepts of culture and daily…

  1. Answering Questions and Questioning Answers. Part II. University of Central Florida Conference Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, C. C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Brief analyses are provided of presentations made at a conference, held at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, which addressed questions and answers relating to research and education. Conference sessions explored the role of research in relation to educational practices with special focus on theory, research, issues and application.…

  2. Effects of Comparison Question Type and Between Test Stimulation on the Validity of Comparison Question Test

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-08

    C. J., & Iacono, W. G. (1989). Psychopathy , threat, and polygraph test accuracy. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 347-355. Patrick, C. J... Psychopathy and detection of deception in a prison population. Psychophysiology, 15,121-136. Raskin, D. C, & Honts, C. R. (2002). The comparison question

  3. Asked and answered--online: how two medical libraries are using OCLC's QuestionPoint to answer reference questions.

    PubMed

    Markgren, Susanne; Ascher, Marie T; Crow, Suzanne J; Lougee-Heimer, Haldor

    2004-01-01

    This paper imparts the experiences of two similar but unaffiliated medical libraries that use QuestionPoint, OCLC's collaborative virtual reference product. The authors introduce the major features of QuestionPoint, with particular emphasis on its asynchronous e-mail reference service. After presenting how both libraries have employed this service in their respective environments, the paper examines the quantity and quality of reference questions submitted via QuestionPoint. The types of questions are explicated, and statistical trends are compared.

  4. Basic Physics Questions Addressed by Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Dark matter, dark energy, the Big Bang, testing relativity -- all are physics questions accessible to astrophysicists -- but all require new equipment. As Harwit's "Cosmic Discovery" pointed out, almost all great surprises in astronomy came from new equipment or new uses of equipment designed for other purposes, and many of those had military applications. I will outline prospects for new equipment and discuss how that equipment can be developed and built. Bigger and lighter mirrors, wavefront sensing and control, new detector technology, cryogenics -- each has its own social network, its own special possibilities, and its own funding sources outside science. I will discuss some examples drawn from real-life experience with the James Webb Space Telescope, a telescope that was said to have a "giggle factor" when it was proposed in 1995. Now each of the 10 major technologies has been brought to maturity, flight hardware is being built, and launch is planned for 2014. As an instrument builder all my life, I will speculate a little on what may be within our reach over the next few decades.

  5. Chromospheric Activity in Cool Stars: Open Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, K.-P.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2013-04-01

    Despite a wealth of observational insight into chromospheric physics obtained in the past decades, a number of fundamental questions remain to be answered. On some of them we seem to make progress, others are motivation for ongoing research: is there a well-defined “zero-point” of magnetic stellar activity, and by which heating processes is the basal chromospheric flux created? Or: how did the Sun look like during the Maunder Minimum, and when is the next one due? And are activity cycles of cool giants caused by a solar-type dynamo, despite a very different internal structure? What makes magnetic stellar activity be still (or again?) at work in such very evolved stars — should not all angular momentum have been consumed? To find some answers, the Hamburg Robotic Telescope, equipped with a high-resolution (20,000) spectrograph, will start regular operation at its final site in Guanajuato, central Mexico, this year (2012), in part to resume the legendary Mt. Wilson stellar activity monitoring project.

  6. Unresolved questions regarding human hereditary deafness.

    PubMed

    Rehman, A U; Friedman, T B; Griffith, A J

    2016-06-04

    Human hearing loss is a common neurosensory disorder about which many basic research and clinically relevant questions are unresolved. This review on hereditary deafness focuses on three examples considered at first glance to be uncomplicated, however, upon inspection, are enigmatic and ripe for future research efforts. The three examples of clinical and genetic complexities are drawn from studies of (i) Pendred syndrome/DFNB4 (PDS, OMIM 274600), (ii) Perrault syndrome (deafness and infertility) due to mutations of CLPP (PRTLS3, OMIM 614129), and (iii) the unexplained extensive clinical variability associated with TBC1D24 mutations. At present, it is unknown how different mutations of TBC1D24 cause non-syndromic deafness (DFNB86, OMIM 614617), epilepsy (OMIM 605021), epilepsy with deafness, or DOORS syndrome (OMIM 220500) that is characterized by deafness, onychodystrophy (alteration of toenail or fingernail morphology), osteodystrophy (defective development of bone), mental retardation, and seizures. A comprehensive understanding of the multifaceted roles of each gene associated with human deafness is expected to provide future opportunities for restoration as well as preservation of normal hearing.

  7. Introducing human papillomavirus vaccines - questions remain.

    PubMed

    Paavonen, Jorma; Lehtinen, Matti

    2008-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV-associated cervical and other anogenital cancers are significant public health problems. HPV 16 and HPV 18 are responsible for approximately 70% of all invasive cervical cancers worldwide. The first prophylactic HPV virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine against HPV types 6/11/16/18 was licensed in 2006 for girls and women aged 9-26 years. The second prophylactic HPV vaccine against HPV types 16 and 18 has been licensed this year. These vaccines are almost 100% effective in preventing infection and high-grade precancer associated with the HPV types included in the vaccine. The vaccines are well tolerated, safe, and highly immunogenic when given in three doses within 6 months. Efficacy of the vaccine against external vulvar and HPV-related vaginal lesions is also high. Even though the vaccine is highly effective against high-grade cervical, vaginal, or vulvar precancers, this only applies to women unexposed to these HPV types and only to high-grade intraepithelial lesions caused by these HPV types. Therefore, it is important to understand that the population impact of the vaccines will be much lower than vaccinating naive populations. Implementing HPV vaccine is a great opportunity but also a great challenge. However, mandatory HPV vaccination may raise many questions, and more answers are needed.

  8. Functional symptoms in neurology: questions and answers

    PubMed Central

    Reuber, M; Mitchell, A; Howlett, S; Crimlisk, H; Grunewald, R

    2005-01-01

    Between 10 and 30% of patients seen by neurologists have symptoms for which there is no current pathophysiological explanation. The objective of this review is to answer questions many neurologists have about disorders characterised by unexplained symptoms (functional disorders) by conducting a multidisciplinary review based on published reports and clinical experience. Current concepts explain functional symptoms as resulting from auto-suggestion, innate coping styles, disorders of volition or attention. Predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating aetiological factors can be identified and contribute to a therapeutic formulation. The sympathetic communication of the diagnosis by the neurologist is important and all patients should be screened for psychiatric or psychological symptoms because up to two thirds have symptomatic psychiatric comorbidity. Treatment programmes are likely to be most successful if there is close collaboration between neurologists, (liaison) psychiatrists, psychologists, and general practitioners. Long term, symptoms persist in over 50% of patients and many patients remain dependent on financial help from the government. Neurologists can acquire the skills needed to engage patients in psychological treatment but would benefit from closer working relationships with liaison psychiatry or psychology. PMID:15716517

  9. CAFFEY DISEASE: NEW PERSPECTIVES ON OLD QUESTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Nistala, Harikiran; Mäkitie, Outi; Jüppner, Harald

    2014-01-01

    The autosomal dominant form of Caffey disease is a largely self-limiting infantile bone disorder characterized by acute inflammation of soft tissues and localized thickening of the underlying bone cortex. It is caused by a recurrent arginine-to-cysteine substitution (R836C) in the α1(I) chain of type of I collagen. However, the functional link between this mutation and the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms still remains elusive. First, it remains to be established as to how a point-mutation in type I collagen leads to a cascade of inflammatory events and spatio-temporally limited hyperostotic bone lesions, and second, the contribution of the structural and inflammatory components to the different organ-specific manifestations in Caffey disease. In this review we attempt to shed light on these questions based on the current understanding of other mutations in type I collagen, their role in perturbing collagen biogenesis, and consequent effects on cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. PMID:24389367

  10. Polyp Resection - Controversial Practices and Unanswered Questions.

    PubMed

    von Renteln, Daniel; Pohl, Heiko

    2017-03-09

    Detection and complete removal of precancerous neoplastic polyps are central to effective colorectal cancer screening. The prevalence of neoplastic polyps in the screening population in the United States is likely >50%. However, most persons with neoplastic polyps are never destined to develop cancer, and do not benefit for finding and removing polyps, and may only be harmed by the procedure. Further 70-80% of polyps are diminutive (≤5 mm) and such polyps almost never contain cancer. Given the questionable benefit, the high-cost and the potential risk changing our approach to the management of diminutive polyps is currently debated. Deemphasizing diminutive polyps and shifting our efforts to detection and complete removal of larger and higher-risk polyps deserves discussion and study. This article explores three controversies, and emerging concepts related to endoscopic polyp resection. First, we discuss challenges of optical resect-and-discard strategy and possible alternatives. Second, we review recent studies that support the use of cold snare resection for ≥5 mm polyps. Thirdly, we examine current evidence for prophylactic clipping after resection of large polyps.

  11. Writing Effective Online Homework Questions for Astro 101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, A.

    2014-07-01

    The online environment provides benefits and limitations to the scope and implementation of homework questions. In this session we discussed this topic, as well as the methodology used to write effective computer-graded online homework questions, specifically discussing targeted feedback and randomization. I demonstrated a few existing online astronomy questions and then workshop participants worked in groups to write their own questions. We concluded with a discussion of effective strategies for writing online homework questions. We focused on developing and writing questions within an environment that includes randomization and targeted feedback, similar to Sapling Learning, MasteringAstronomy, and WebAssign.

  12. The Impact of Guided Student-Generated Questioning on Chemistry Achievement and Self-Efficacy of Elementary Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Christine; Bonner, Emily; Ibey, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the use of Guided Student-Generated Questioning (GSGQ) as a metacognitive instructional strategy to increase chemistry achievement and self-efficacy of elementary preservice teachers. The Chemistry Self-Efficacy Scale (CSES), modified from the Biology Self-Efficacy Scale (BSES),was used to determine elementary preservice…

  13. Rainfall Simulation: methods, research questions and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, J. B.; Iserloh, T.

    2012-04-01

    In erosion research, rainfall simulations are used for the improvement of process knowledge as well as in the field for the assessment of overland flow generation, infiltration, and erosion rates. In all these fields of research, rainfall experiments have become an indispensable part of the research methods. In this context, small portable rainfall simulators with small test-plot sizes of one square-meter or even less, and devices of low weight and water consumption are in demand. Accordingly, devices with manageable technical effort like nozzle-type simulators seem to prevail against larger simulators. The reasons are obvious: lower costs and less time consumption needed for mounting enable a higher repetition rate. Regarding the high number of research questions, of different fields of application, and not least also due to the great technical creativity of our research staff, a large number of different experimental setups is available. Each of the devices produces a different rainfall, leading to different kinetic energy amounts influencing the soil surface and accordingly, producing different erosion results. Hence, important questions contain the definition, the comparability, the measurement and the simulation of natural rainfall and the problem of comparability in general. Another important discussion topic will be the finding of an agreement on an appropriate calibration method for the simulated rainfalls, in order to enable a comparison of the results of different rainfall simulator set-ups. In most of the publications, only the following "nice" sentence can be read: "Our rainfall simulator generates a rainfall spectrum that is similar to natural rainfall!". The most substantial and critical properties of a simulated rainfall are the drop-size distribution, the fall velocities of the drops, and the spatial distribution of the rainfall on the plot-area. In a comparison of the most important methods, the Laser Distrometer turned out to be the most up

  14. Medical Marijuana: More Questions than Answers

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the limited medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202

  15. Development of a scale to measure individuals’ ratings of peace

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The evolving concept of peace-building and the interplay between peace and health is examined in many venues, including at the World Health Assembly. However, without a metric to determine effectiveness of intervention programs all efforts are prone to subjective assessment. This paper develops a psychometric index that lays the foundation for measuring community peace stemming from intervention programs. Methods After developing a working definition of ‘peace’ and delineating a Peace Evaluation Across Cultures and Environments (PEACE) scale with seven constructs comprised of 71 items, a beta version of the index was pilot-tested. Two hundred and fifty subjects in three sites in the U.S. were studied using a five-point Likert scale to evaluate the psychometric functioning of the PEACE scale. Known groups validation was performed using the SOS-10. In addition, test-retest reliability was performed on 20 subjects. Results The preliminary data demonstrated that the scale has acceptable psychometric properties for measuring an individual’s level of peacefulness. The study also provides reliability and validity data for the scale. The data demonstrated internal consistency, correlation between data and psychological well-being, and test-retest reliability. Conclusions The PEACE scale may serve as a novel assessment tool in the health sector and be valuable in monitoring and evaluating the peace-building impact of health initiatives in conflict-affected regions. PMID:25298781

  16. Critical questions in development of targeted nanoparticle therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Korsmeyer, Richard

    2016-06-01

    major barrier to the exploration of nanoparticles is because they are so complex. The very design flexibility that makes the nanoparticle approach attractive also makes it challenging. Fortunately, continuing progress in experimental tools has greatly improved the ability to study biology and potential interventions at a nanoscale. Thus, it is increasingly possible to answer detailed questions about how nanoparticles can and should work. However, a detailed understanding at the mechanistic level is only the beginning. Any new medicine must not only work at the molecular level, but must also be manufactured reproducibly at scale and proven in the clinic. New materials will require new methods at all scales. The purpose of this short article is to focus on a set of questions that are being asked in the large biopharmaceutical companies and that must be answered if targeted nanoparticles are to become the medicines of the 21st century.

  17. Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Drug Facts Chat Day: NIH Experts Answer Students' Drug Questions Past Issues / ... Drug Abuse during their first Drug Facts Chat Day. Photo courtesy of NIDA The questions poured in… ...

  18. When Children Pose Inquiry Questions that Disagree with Society's Beliefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pataray-Ching, Jann; Kavanaugh-Anderson, Deborah C.

    1998-01-01

    Presents the dilemma of teachers determining the acceptability of a child's inquiry question (such as the making of a bomb). Lists reflective questions on moral and ethical concerns to guide decision making about whether such inquiries should be pursued. (SK)

  19. I Know the Answer, But What's the Question?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Lazer

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the importance of questioning as a means of achieving independent intelligence, critical thinking, and learning to learn. Advocates a science program that encourages investigation, discovery, and questioning. (MA)

  20. Skin Diseases: Questions for Your Health Care Provider

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Skin Diseases Questions for Your Health Care Provider Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... Sun—Not a good mix / Questions for Your Health Care Provider Fall 2008 Issue: Volume 3 Number 4 ...