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Sample records for limbic forebrain noradrenergic

  1. Effects of lithium and aripiprazole on brain stimulation reward and neuroplasticity markers in the limbic forebrain.

    PubMed

    Mavrikaki, Maria; Schintu, Nicoletta; Kastellakis, Andreas; Nomikos, George G; Svenningsson, Per; Panagis, George

    2014-04-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe pathological condition with impaired reward-related processing. The present study was designed to assess the effects of two commonly used BD medications, the mood stabilizer lithium chloride (LiCl) and the atypical antipsychotic and antimanic agent aripiprazole, in an animal model of reward and motivation and on markers of neuroplasticity in the limbic forebrain in rats. We utilized intracranial self-simulation (ICSS) to assess the effects of acute and chronic administration of LiCl and aripiprazole on brain stimulation reward, and phosphorylation studies to determine their effects on specific cellular neuroplasticity markers, i.e., the phosphorylation of CREB and crucial phosphorylation sites on the GluA1 subunit of AMPA receptors and the NA1 and NA2B subunits of NMDA receptors, in the limbic forebrain. Chronic LiCl induced tolerance to the anhedonic effect of the drug observed after acute administration, while chronic aripiprazole induced a sustained anhedonic effect. These distinct behavioral responses might be related to differences in molecular markers of neuroplasticity. Accordingly, we demonstrated that chronic LiCl, but not aripiprazole, decreased phosphorylation of CREB at the Ser133 site and NA1 at the Ser896 site in the prefrontal cortex and GluA1 at the Ser831 site and NA2B at the Ser1303 site in the ventral striatum. The present study provides evidence for BD medication-evoked changes in reward and motivation processes and in specific markers of neuronal plasticity in the limbic forebrain, promoting the notion that these drugs may blunt dysregulated reward processes in BD by counteracting neuronal plasticity deficits.

  2. Topographic architecture of stress-related pathways targeting the noradrenergic locus coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Van Bockstaele, E J; Bajic, D; Proudfit, H; Valentino, R J

    2001-06-01

    Peripheral sympathetic nerves and brainstem noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC) respond in parallel to a variety of stress-related stimuli which results in norepinephrine release both peripherally and centrally. Elucidation of central pathways subserving modulation of LC neurons point to extranuclear noradrenergic dendrites of LC somata that extend into peri-coerulear areas as a major target of afferents that participate in behavioral and physiological responses to stress. Anterograde tract tracing combined with immunoelectron microscopic detection of the catecholamine synthesizing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) has demonstrated that the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and the ventrolateral aspect of the periaqueductal gray (PAG), regions that participate in coordinating autonomic and motor behavior in response to stress, preferentially target the rostral ventromedial aspect of the peri-LC. In contrast, limbic forebrain afferents including the central nucleus of the amygdala (CNA) and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), regions that coordinate emotional responses to external stressors, provide direct synaptic input to noradrenergic dendrites that extend into rostral dorsolateral peri-coerulear areas. Neurochemical identification of transmitter systems impinging on LC indicate that the CNA provides corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a peptide essential for integrated physiological responses to stress, to the dorsolateral LC. Endogenous opioid peptides that originate from medullary sources, however, target primarily the "core" of the LC. Our physiological data suggest that stress engages CRF and opioid afferents to the LC, which have opposing influences on this noradrenergic system. The balance between opioid and CRF influences acting in the LC may, in part, maintain the balance of active and passive coping behaviors in response to stress. Understanding the afferent and neurochemical organization of the LC may help elucidate

  3. Lesioning noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus in C57Bl/6 mice with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine injection, to assess molecular, electrophysiological and biochemical changes in noradrenergic signaling

    PubMed Central

    Szot, P.; Knight, L.; Franklin, A.; Sikkema, C.; Foster, S.; Wilkinson, C.W.; White, S.S.; Raskind, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    The locus coeruleus (LC) is the major loci of noradrenergic innervation to the forebrain. Due to the extensive central nervous system innervation of the LC noradrenergic system, a reduction in the number of LC neurons could result in significant changes in noradrenergic function in many forebrain regions. LC noradrenergic neurons were lesioned in adult male C57Bl/6 mice with the unilateral administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHDA) (vehicle on the alternate side). Noradrenergic markers were measured 3 weeks later to determine the consequence of LC loss in the forebrain. Direct administration of 6OHDA into the LC results in the specific reduction of noradrenergic neurons in the LC (as measured by electrophysiology, immunoreactivity and in situ hybridization), the lateral tegmental neurons and dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental region were unaffected. The loss of LC noradrenergic neurons did not result in compensatory changes in the expression of mRNA for norepinephrine (NE) synthesizing enzymes. The loss of LC noradrenergic neurons is associated with reduced NE tissue concentration and NE transporter (NET) binding sites in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, as well as other forebrain regions such as the amygdala and SN. Adrenoreceptor (AR) binding sites (α1- and α2-AR) were not significantly affected on the 6OHDA-treated side compared to the vehicle-treated side, although there is a reduction of AR binding sites on both the vehicle- and 6OHDA-treated side in specific forebrain regions. These studies indicate that unilateral stereotaxic injection of 6OHDA into mice reduces noradrenergic LC neurons and reduces noradrenergic innervation to many forebrain regions, including the contralateral side. PMID:22542679

  4. The effect of chronic in vivo infusion of forskolin on noradrenergic receptor sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Suzdak, P D; Browne, R G

    1985-01-01

    Forskolin, a diterpene isolated from the plant Coleus forskolii, activates the catalytic subunit of adenylate cyclase, resulting in a hormone receptor-independent increase in the intracellular production of cyclic AMP. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of chronic in vivo infusion of forskolin on noradrenergic neuronal activity. Forskolin was infused into the right lateral ventricle of male Sprague Dawley rats via Alzet osmotic minipumps (model 2001) for 7 days. Chronic infusion of forskolin resulted in a decrease in norepinephrine-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in the limbic forebrain. Chronic infusion of forskolin also resulted in a decrease in the Bmax for 3H-dihydroalprenolol (3H-DHA) binding to beta-adrenergic receptors in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, with no apparent change in the Kd values. These data suggest the possibility of a novel therapeutic approach to modulating receptor sensitivity, and that chronic infusion of forskolin may be a useful model for studying the role of cyclic AMP in the control of neuronal activity.

  5. Prenatal exposure to MDMA alters noradrenergic neurodevelopment in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, V.B.; Koprich, J.B.; Chen, E.Y.; Kordower, J.H.; Terpstra, B.; Lipton, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) binds with high affinity to the norepinephrine transporter (NET), making the noradrenergic system a potential target during fetal exposure. Recent data indicates that adult rats that had been prenatally exposed to MDMA display persistent deficits in working memory and attention; behaviors consistent with abnormal noradrenergic signaling in the forebrain. The present study was designed to investigate whether prenatal exposure to MDMA from embryonic days 14–20 affects the structure and/or function of the noradrenergic system of the rat on postnatal day 21. Offspring that were prenatally exposed to MDMA exhibited an increase in noradrenergic fiber density in the prelimbic region of the prefrontal cortex and the CA1 region of the hippocampus that was not accompanied by an increase in the number of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus. Direct tissue autoradiography using tritiated nisoxetine demonstrated that while NET binding was not altered in the prelimbic cortex, the dentate gyrus, or the locus coeruleus, it was increased in the CA1, CA2, and CA3 regions of the hippocampus. Basal levels of norepinephrine were increased in the prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens of MDMA-exposed rats, as compared to saline-treated controls. These findings indicate that prenatal exposure to MDMA results in structural changes in the noradrenergic system as well as functional alterations in NE neurotransmission in structures that are critical in attentional processing. PMID:21978916

  6. Noradrenergic Modulation of Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Berridge, Craig W.

    2008-01-01

    Through a highly divergent efferent projection system, the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system supplies norepinephrine throughout the central nervous system. State-dependent neuronal discharge activity of locus coeruleus neurons has long-suggested a role of this system in the induction of an alert waking state. More recent work supports this hypothesis, demonstrating robust wake-promoting actions of the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system. Norepinephrine enhances arousal, in part, via actions of β- and α1-receptors located within multiple subcortical structures, including the general regions of the medial septal area and the medial preoptic areas. Recent anatomical studies suggest that arousal-enhancing actions of norepinephrine are not limited to the locus coeruleus system and likely include the A1 and A2 noradrenergic cell groups. Thus, noradrenergic modulation of arousal state involves multiple noradrenergic systems acting with multiple subcortical regions. Pharmacological studies indicate that the combined actions of these systems are necessary for the sustained maintenance of arousal levels associated with spontaneous waking. Enhanced arousal state is a prominent aspect of both stress and psychostimulant drug action and evidence indicates that noradrenergic systems likely play an important role in both stress-related and psychostimulant-induced arousal. These and other observations suggest that the dysregulation of noradrenergic neurotransmission could well contribute to the dysregulation of arousal associated with a variety of behavioral disorders including insomnia and stress-related disorders. PMID:18199483

  7. Serotonergic modulation of the limbic system.

    PubMed

    Hensler, Julie G

    2006-01-01

    The limbic system is composed of cortical as well as subcortical structures, which are intimately interconnected. The resulting macrostructure is responsible for the generation and expression of motivational and affective states. Especially high levels of serotonin are found in limbic forebrain structures. Serotonin projections to these structures, which arise from serotonergic cell body groups in the midbrain, form a dense plexus of axonal processes. In many areas of the limbic system, serotonergic neurotransmission can best be described as paracrine or volume transmission, and thus serotonin is believed to play a neuromodulatory role in the brain. Serotonergic projections to limbic structures, arising primarily from the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, compose two distinct serotonergic systems differing in their topographic organization, electrophysiological characteristics, morphology, as well as sensitivity to neurotoxins and perhaps psychoactive or therapeutic agents. These differences may be extremely important in understanding the role of these two serotonergic systems in normal brain function and in mental illness. Central serotonergic neurons or receptors are targets for a variety of therapeutic agents used in the treatment of disorders of the limbic system.

  8. The role of the central noradrenergic system in behavioral inhibition.

    PubMed

    Stone, Eric A; Lin, Yan; Sarfraz, Yasmeen; Quartermain, David

    2011-06-24

    Although the central noradrenergic system has been shown to be involved in a number of behavioral and neurophysiological processes, the relation of these to its role in depressive illness has been difficult to define. The present review discusses the hypothesis that one of its chief functions that may be related to affective illness is the inhibition of behavioral activation, a prominent symptom of the disorder. This hypothesis is found to be consistent with most previous neuropsychopharmacological and immunohistochemical experiments on active behavior in rodents in a variety of experimental conditions using manipulation of neurotransmission at both locus coeruleus and forebrain adrenergic receptors. The findings support a mechanism in which high rates of noradrenergic neural activity suppress the neural activity of principal neurons in forebrain regions mediating active behavior. The suppression may be mediated through postsynaptic galaninergic and adrenergic receptors, and via the release of corticotrophin-releasing hormone. The hypothesis is consistent with clinical evidence for central noradrenergic system hyperactivity in depressives and with the view that this hyperactivity is a contributing etiological factor in the disorder. A similar mechanism may underlie the ability of the noradrenergic system to suppress seizure activity suggesting that inhibition of the spread of neural activation may be a unifying function.

  9. Forebrain GABAergic projections to locus coeruleus in mouse.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Eugene L; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Usdin, Ted B

    2013-07-01

    The noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) regulates arousal, memory, sympathetic nervous system activity, and pain. Forebrain projections to LC have been characterized in rat, cat, and primates, but not systematically in mouse. We surveyed mouse forebrain LC-projecting neurons by examining retrogradely labeled cells following LC iontophoresis of Fluoro-Gold and anterograde LC labeling after forebrain injection of biotinylated dextran amine or viral tracer. Similar to other species, the central amygdalar nucleus (CAmy), anterior hypothalamus, paraventricular nucleus, and posterior lateral hypothalamic area (PLH) provide major LC inputs. By using mice expressing green fluorescent protein in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons, we found that more than one-third of LC-projecting CAmy and PLH neurons are GABAergic. LC colocalization of biotinylated dextran amine, following CAmy or PLH injection, with either green fluorescent protein or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)65/67 immunoreactivity confirmed these GABAergic projections. CAmy injection of adeno-associated virus encoding channelrhodopsin-2-Venus showed similar fiber labeling and association with GAD65/67-immunoreactive (ir) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-ir neurons. CAmy and PLH projections were densest in a pericoerulear zone, but many fibers entered the LC proper. Close apposition between CAmy GABAergic projections and TH-ir processes suggests that CAmy GABAergic neurons may directly inhibit noradrenergic principal neurons. Direct LC neuron targeting was confirmed by anterograde transneuronal labeling of LC TH-ir neurons following CAmy or PLH injection of a herpes virus that expresses red fluorescent protein following activation by Cre recombinase in mice that express Cre recombinase in GABAergic neurons. This description of GABAergic projections from the CAmy and PLH to the LC clarifies important forebrain sources of inhibitory control of central nervous system noradrenergic activity.

  10. Dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic deficits in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Buddhala, Chandana; Loftin, Susan K; Kuley, Brandon M; Cairns, Nigel J; Campbell, Meghan C; Perlmutter, Joel S; Kotzbauer, Paul T

    2015-01-01

    Objective People with Parkinson disease (PD) frequently develop dementia, which is associated with neocortical deposition of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) in Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. In addition, neuronal loss and deposition of aggregated α-syn also occur in multiple subcortical nuclei that project to neocortical, limbic, and basal ganglia regions. Therefore, we quantified regional deficits in innervation from these PD-affected subcortical nuclei, by measuring the neurotransmitters and neurotransmitter transporter proteins originating from projections of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta, serotonergic neurons in dorsal raphé nuclei, noradrenergic neurons in locus coeruleus, and cholinergic neurons in nucleus basalis of Meynert. Methods High-performance liquid chromatography and novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were performed to quantify dopaminergic, serotonergic, noradrenergic, and cholinergic innervation in postmortem brain tissue. Eight brain regions from 15 PD participants (with dementia and Braak stage 6 α-syn deposition) and six age-matched controls were tested. Results PD participants compared to controls had widespread reductions of dopamine transporter in caudate, amygdala, hippocampus, inferior parietal lobule (IPL), precuneus, and visual association cortex (VAC) that exceeded loss of dopamine, which was only significantly reduced in caudate and amygdala. In contrast, PD participants had comparable deficits of both serotonin and serotonin transporter in caudate, middle frontal gyrus, IPL, and VAC. PD participants also had significantly reduced norepinephrine levels for all eight brain regions tested. Vesicular acetylcholine transporter levels were only quantifiable in caudate and hippocampus and did not differ between PD and control groups. Interpretation These results demonstrate widespread deficits in dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic innervation of neocortical, limbic, and basal ganglia regions in advanced

  11. Neuropathology of the limbic system.

    PubMed

    Shaw, C M; Alvord, E C

    1997-02-01

    The history and development of the fanciful terminology concerning the structures of the limbic system are discussed. The diseases involving the limbic system are divided into three groups; (1) diseases in which the limbic system is more or less selectively involved, such as limbic encephalitis, herpes simplex encephalitis, cerebral confusions by the falx and tentorium, and internal herniations through the falx and tentorium; (2) diseases in which the limbic system is predominantly involved, such as arhinencephalia, holoprosencephaly, cyst of cavum septi pellucidi, Pick's disease, Alzheimer's disease, hippocampal sclerosis, and vascular diseases of the hippocampal formation; and (3) diseases in which the limbic system is randomly involved, such as various types of neoplasms and vascular and inflammatory lesions. The relationship between destructive lesions of the hippocampus and memory also is emphasized.

  12. A Comprehensive Analysis of the Effect of DSP4 on the Locus Coeruleus Noradrenergic System in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Szot, Patricia; Miguelez, Cristina; White, Sylvia S.; Franklin, Allyn; Sikkema, Carl; Wilkinson, Charles W.; Ugedo, Luisa; Raskind, Murray A.

    2014-01-01

    Degeneration of the noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) is a major component of Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), but the consequence of noradrenergic neuronal loss has different effects on the surviving neurons in the two disorders. Therefore, understanding the consequence of noradrenergic neuronal loss is important in determining the role of this neurotransmitter in these neurodegenerative disorders. The goal of the study was to determine if the neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4) could be used as a model for either (or both) AD or PD. Rats were administered DSP4 and sacrificed 3 days, 2 weeks and 3 months later. DSP4-treatment resulted in a rapid, though transient reduction in norepinephrine (NE) and NE transporter (NET) in many brain regions receiving variable innervation from the LC. Alpha1-adrenoreceptors binding site concentrations were unchanged in all brain regions at all three time points. However, an increase in α2-AR was observed in many different brain regions 2 weeks and 3 months after DSP4. These changes observed in forebrain regions occurred without a loss in LC noradrenergic neurons. Expression of synthesizing enzymes or NET did not change in amount of expression/neuron despite the reduction in NE tissue content and NET binding site concentrations at early time points, suggesting no compensatory response. In addition, DSP4 did not affect basal activity of LC at any time point in anesthetized animals, but 2 weeks after DSP4 there is a significant increase in irregular firing of noradrenergic neurons. These data indicate that DSP4 is not a selective LC noradrenergic neurotoxin, but does affect noradrenergic neuron terminals locally, as evident by the changes in transmitter and markers at terminal regions. However, since DSP4 did not result in a LOSS of noradrenergic neurons, it is not considered an adequate model for noradrenergic neuronal loss observed in AD and PD. PMID:20045445

  13. Heritability of the limbic networks

    PubMed Central

    Kawadler, Jamie M.; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Rijsdijk, Frühling V.; Kane, Fergus; Picchioni, Marco; McGuire, Philip; Toulopoulou, Timothea; Georgiades, Anna; Kalidindi, Sridevi; Kravariti, Eugenia; Murray, Robin M.; Murphy, Declan G.; Craig, Michael C.; Catani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Individual differences in cognitive ability and social behaviour are influenced by the variability in the structure and function of the limbic system. A strong heritability of the limbic cortex has been previously reported, but little is known about how genetic factors influence specific limbic networks. We used diffusion tensor imaging tractography to investigate heritability of different limbic tracts in 52 monozygotic and 34 dizygotic healthy adult twins. We explored the connections that contribute to the activity of three distinct functional limbic networks, namely the dorsal cingulum (‘medial default-mode network’), the ventral cingulum and the fornix (‘hippocampal-diencephalic-retrosplenial network’) and the uncinate fasciculus (‘temporo-amygdala-orbitofrontal network’). Genetic and environmental variances were mapped for multiple tract-specific measures that reflect different aspects of the underlying anatomy. We report the highest heritability for the uncinate fasciculus, a tract that underpins emotion processing, semantic cognition, and social behaviour. High to moderate genetic and shared environmental effects were found for pathways important for social behaviour and memory, for example, fornix, dorsal and ventral cingulum. These findings indicate that within the limbic system inheritance of specific traits may rely on the anatomy of distinct networks and is higher for fronto-temporal pathways dedicated to complex social behaviour and emotional processing. PMID:26714573

  14. Methylphenidate and atomoxetine inhibit social play behavior through prefrontal and subcortical limbic mechanisms in rats.

    PubMed

    Achterberg, E J Marijke; van Kerkhof, Linda W M; Damsteegt, Ruth; Trezza, Viviana; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2015-01-07

    Positive social interactions during the juvenile and adolescent phases of life, in the form of social play behavior, are important for social and cognitive development. However, the neural mechanisms of social play behavior remain incompletely understood. We have previously shown that methylphenidate and atomoxetine, drugs widely used for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), suppress social play in rats through a noradrenergic mechanism of action. Here, we aimed to identify the neural substrates of the play-suppressant effects of these drugs. Methylphenidate is thought to exert its effects on cognition and emotion through limbic corticostriatal systems. Therefore, methylphenidate was infused into prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortical regions as well as into several subcortical limbic areas implicated in social play. Infusion of methylphenidate into the anterior cingulate cortex, infralimbic cortex, basolateral amygdala, and habenula inhibited social play, but not social exploratory behavior or locomotor activity. Consistent with a noradrenergic mechanism of action of methylphenidate, infusion of the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine into these same regions also reduced social play. Methylphenidate administration into the prelimbic, medial/ventral orbitofrontal, and ventrolateral orbitofrontal cortex, mediodorsal thalamus, or nucleus accumbens shell was ineffective. Our data show that the inhibitory effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine on social play are mediated through a distributed network of prefrontal and limbic subcortical regions implicated in cognitive control and emotional processes. These findings increase our understanding of the neural underpinnings of this developmentally important social behavior, as well as the mechanism of action of two widely used treatments for ADHD.

  15. Cell migration in the forebrain.

    PubMed

    Marín, Oscar; Rubenstein, John L R

    2003-01-01

    The forebrain comprises an intricate set of structures that are required for some of the most complex and evolved functions of the mammalian brain. As a reflection of its complexity, cell migration in the forebrain is extremely elaborated, with widespread dispersion of cells across multiple functionally distinct areas. Two general modes of migration are distinguished in the forebrain: radial migration, which establishes the general cytoarchitectonical framework of the different forebrain subdivisions; and tangential migration, which increases the cellular complexity of forebrain circuits by allowing the dispersion of multiple neuronal types. Here, we review the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying each of these types of migrations and discuss how emerging concepts in neuronal migration are reshaping our understanding of forebrain development in normal and pathological situations.

  16. Electroencephalography of autoimmune limbic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Peter W; Sutter, Raoul

    2013-10-01

    There is an increasing recognition of autoimmune limbic encephalopathy with the hope for earlier diagnosis and expedited and improved treatment. Although antibody testing remains the definitive clinical diagnostic feature, the presentation of a rapid dementia, behavioral changes, and seizures leads to investigation using cerebral imaging, electroencephalography, and cerebrospinal fluid to confirm the diagnosis and also to exclude similar disorders. The electroencephalographer may be asked to comment on the types of electroencephalography abnormality and provide input toward the diagnosis of limbic encephalopathy. This article reviews the literature on limbic paraneoplastic and nonparaneoplastic encephalopathies, providing descriptions and examples of the electroencephalography findings. Typically, there are patterns of slow theta and delta activity and different patterns of temporal and frontal epileptic activity.

  17. Forebrain Mechanisms of Nociception and Pain: Analysis through Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Kenneth L.

    1999-07-01

    Pain is a unified experience composed of interacting discriminative, affective-motivational, and cognitive components, each of which is mediated and modulated through forebrain mechanisms acting at spinal, brainstem, and cerebral levels. The size of the human forebrain in relation to the spinal cord gives anatomical emphasis to forebrain control over nociceptive processing. Human forebrain pathology can cause pain without the activation of nociceptors. Functional imaging of the normal human brain with positron emission tomography (PET) shows synaptically induced increases in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in several regions specifically during pain. We have examined the variables of gender, type of noxious stimulus, and the origin of nociceptive input as potential determinants of the pattern and intensity of rCBF responses. The structures most consistently activated across genders and during contact heat pain, cold pain, cutaneous laser pain or intramuscular pain were the contralateral insula and anterior cingulate cortex, the bilateral thalamus and premotor cortex, and the cerebellar vermis. These regions are commonly activated in PET studies of pain conducted by other investigators, and the intensity of the brain rCBF response correlates parametrically with perceived pain intensity. To complement the human studies, we developed an animal model for investigating stimulus-induced rCBF responses in the rat. In accord with behavioral measures and the results of human PET, there is a progressive and selective activation of somatosensory and limbic system structures in the brain and brainstem following the subcutaneous injection of formalin. The animal model and human PET studies should be mutually reinforcing and thus facilitate progress in understanding forebrain mechanisms of normal and pathological pain.

  18. A Noradrenergic Lesion Exacerbates Neurodegeneration in a Down Syndrome Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lockrow, Jason; Boger, Heather; Gerhardt, Greg; Aston-Jones, Gary; Bachman, David; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) acquire Alzheimer’s-like dementia (AD) and associated neuropathology earlier and at significantly greater rates than age-matched normosomic individuals. However, biological mechanisms have not been discovered and there is currently limited therapy for either DS- or AD-related dementia. Segmental trisomy 16 (Ts65Dn) mice provide a useful model for many of the degenerative changes which occur with age in DS including cognitive deficits, neuroinflammation, and degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. Loss of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurons is an early event in AD and in DS, and may contribute to the neuropathology. We report that Ts65Dn mice exhibit progressive loss of norepinephrine (NE) phenotype in LC neurons. In order to determine whether LC degeneration contributes to memory loss and neurodegeneration in Ts65Dn mice, we administered the noradrenergic neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4; 2 doses of 50 mg/kg, i.p.) to Ts65Dn mice at four months of age, prior to working memory loss. At eight months of age, Ts65Dn mice treated with DSP-4 exhibited an 80% reduction in hippocampal NE, coupled with a marked increase in hippocampal neuroinflammation. Noradrenergic depletion also resulted in accelerated cholinergic neuron degeneration and a further impairment of memory function in Ts65Dn mice. In contrast, DSP-4 had minimal effects on normosomic littermates, suggesting a disease-modulated vulnerability to NE loss in the DS mouse model. These data suggest that noradrenergic degeneration may play a role in the progressive memory loss, neuroinflammation, and cholinergic loss occurring in DS individuals, providing a possible therapeutic avenue for future clinical studies. PMID:21098982

  19. Forebrain Pain Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, Volker; Galhardo, Vasco; Maione, Sabatino; Mackey, Sean C.

    2009-01-01

    Emotional-affective and cognitive dimensions of pain are less well understood than nociceptive and nocifensive components, but the forebrain is believed to play an important role. Recent evidence suggests subcortical and cortical brain areas outside the traditional pain processing network contribute critically to emotional-affective responses and cognitive deficits related to pain. These brain areas include different nuclei of the amygdala and certain prefrontal cortical areas. Their roles in various aspects of pain will be discussed. Biomarkers of cortical dysfunction are being identified that may evolve into therapeutic targets to modulate pain experience and improve pain-related cognitive impairment. Supporting data from preclinical studies in neuropathic pain models will be presented. Neuroimaging analysis provides evidence for plastic changes in the pain processing brain network. Results of clinical studies in neuropathic pain patients suggest that neuroimaging may help determine mechanisms of altered brain functions in pain as well as monitor the effects of pharmacologic interventions to optimize treatment in individual patients. Recent progress in the analysis of higher brain functions emphasizes the concept of pain as a multidimensional experience and the need for integrative approaches to determine the full spectrum of harmful or protective neurobiological changes in pain. PMID:19162070

  20. Sleep research in space: expression of immediate early genes in forebrain structures of rats during the nasa neurolab mission (STS-90).

    PubMed

    Centini, C; Pompeiano, O

    2007-05-01

    . Some Fos staining was also present in limbic cortical areas, the septum, and the hippocampus. The main area of the forebrain of FLT rats sacrificed at R + 1, showing an increased expression of Fos, was the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) (cf. 127), as well as the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) nucleus (cf. 122). At R + 13 Fos immunostaining was variable among FLT rats. However, none of these rats showed a significant number of Fos-positive cells in CeA. 4. Most of the rats studied for Fos expression were also tested for FRA expression. In particular, a scattered amount of FRA expression occurred at FD14 in different areas of the neocortex and in limbic forebrain regions (such as the cingulate, retrosplenial and entorhinal cortex). It included also the hippocampus, the lateral septum, the caudate/putamen, as well as some hypothalamic regions. At the reentry (R + 1) it was previously shown that a prominent increase in FRA expression occurred in the LC of FLT rats (cf. 122). This finding was associated with an increase in FRA expression which affected not only the nucleus paragigantocellularis lateralis of the medulla, which sends excitatory glutamatergic afferents to the LC (cf. 31 for ref.), but also structures which are known to produce corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a neuropeptide which activates the noradrenergic LC neurons during stress. 5. These findings which result from acceleration stress were followed by REMS episodes, which probably occurred after a long period of sleep deprivation following exposure to microgravity. It was previously shown that an increase in Fos and FRA expression occurred at the reentry in some pontine and medullary reticular structures (cf. 128), which are likely to be involved in both the descending (postural atonia) and the ascending manifestations of PS. These findings can be integrated by results of the present experiments showing that at the reentry high levels of FRA expression occurred in the hippocampus and the

  1. The forebrain of the ferret.

    PubMed

    Lockard, B I

    1985-06-01

    The basic neuroanatomy of the forebrain, mainly of the telencephalon, of the adult ferret (Mustela furo), is reviewed and illustrated with special references to the features that distinguish this animal from other carnivores. References to the pertinent literature describing similar regions of other carnivores are cited.

  2. LIMBIC CIRCUITRY OF THE MIDLINE THALAMUS

    PubMed Central

    Vertes, Robert P.; Linley, Stephanie B.; Hoover, Walter B.

    2016-01-01

    The thalamus was subdivided into three major groups: sensorimotor nuclei (or principal/relay nuclei), limbic nuclei and nuclei bridging these two domains. Limbic nuclei of thalamus (or ‘limbic thalamus’) consist of the anterior nuclei, midline nuclei, medial division of the mediodorsal nucleus (MDm) and central medial nucleus (CM) of the intralaminar complex. The midline nuclei include the paraventricular (PV) and paratenial (PT) nuclei, dorsally, and the reuniens (RE) and rhomboid (RH) nuclei, ventrally. The ‘limbic’ thalamic nuclei predominantly connect with limbic-related structures and serve a direct role in limbic–associated functions. Regarding the midline nuclei, RE/RH mainly target limbic cortical structures, particularly the hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex. Accordingly, RE/RH participate in functions involving interactions of the HF and mPFC. By contrast, PV/PT mainly project to limbic subcortical structures, particularly the amygdala and nucleus accumbens, and hence are critically involved in affective behaviors such as stress/anxiety, feeding behavior, and drug seeking activities. The anatomical/functional characteristics of MDm and CM are very similar to those of the midline nuclei and hence the collection of nuclei extending dorsoventrally along the midline/paramidline of the thalamus constitute the core of the ‘limbic thalamus’. PMID:25616182

  3. Loss of the tailless gene affects forebrain development and emotional behavior

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Kristine; Thiels, Edda; Monaghan, A. Paula

    2009-01-01

    We are studying the role of the evolutionarily conserved tlx gene in forebrain development in mice. Tlx is expressed in the ventricular zone that gives rise to neurons and glia of the forebrain. We have shown by mutating the tlx gene in mice, that in the absence of this transcription factor, mutant animals survive, but suffer specific anatomical defects in the limbic system. Because of these developmentally induced structural changes, mice with a mutation in the tlx gene can function, but exhibit extreme behavioral pathology. Mice show heightened aggressiveness, excitability, and poor cognition. In this article, we present a summary of our findings on the cellular and behavioral changes in the forebrain of mutant animals. We show that absence of the tlx gene leads to abnormal proliferation and differentiation of progenitor cells (PCs) in the forebrain from embryonic day 9 (E9). These abnormalities lead to hypoplasia of superficial cortical layers and subsets of GABAergic interneurons in the neocortex. We examined the behavior of mutant animals in three tests for anxiety/fear: the open field, the elevated plus maze, and fear conditioning. Mutant animals are less anxious and less fearful when assessed in the elevated plus and open-field paradigm. In addition, mutant animals do not condition to either the tone or the context in the fear-conditioning paradigm. These animals, therefore, provide a genetic tool to delineate structure/function relationships in defined regions of the brain and decipher how their disruption leads to behavioral abnormalities. PMID:12527005

  4. Sequential Loss of LC Noradrenergic and Dopaminergic Neurons Results in a Correlation of Dopaminergic Neuronal Number to Striatal Dopamine Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Szot, Patricia; Franklin, Allyn; Sikkema, Carl; Wilkinson, Charles W.; Raskind, Murray A.

    2012-01-01

    Noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) are significantly reduced in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and the LC exhibits neuropathological changes early in the disease process. It has been suggested that a loss of LC neurons can enhance the susceptibility of dopaminergic neurons to damage. To determine if LC noradrenergic innervation protects dopaminergic neurons from damage, the dopaminergic neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) was administered to adult male C57Bl/6 mice 3 days after bilateral LC administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHDA), a time when there is a significant reduction in LC neuronal number and innervation to forebrain regions. To assess if LC loss can affect dopaminergic loss four groups of animals were studied: control, 6OHDA, MPTP, and 6OHDA + MPTP; animals sacrificed 3 weeks after MPTP administration. The number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), and noradrenergic neurons in the LC were determined. Catecholamine levels in striatum were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The loss of LC neurons did not affect the number of dopaminergic neurons in the SN and VTA compared to control; however, LC 6OHDA significantly reduced striatal dopamine (DA; 29% reduced) but not norepinephrine (NE) concentration. MPTP significantly reduced SN and VTA neuronal number and DA concentration in the striatum compared to control; however, there was not a correlation of striatal DA concentration with SN or VTA neuronal number. Administration of 6OHDA prior to MPTP did not enhance MPTP-induced damage despite an effect of LC loss on striatal DA concentration. However, the loss of LC neurons before MPTP resulted now in a correlation between SN and VTA neuronal number to striatal DA concentration. These results demonstrate that the loss of either LC or DA neurons can affect the function of each others systems, indicating the importance of both the noradrenergic and

  5. Crocodilian Forebrain: Evolution and Development

    PubMed Central

    Pritz, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Organization and development of the forebrain in crocodilians are reviewed. In juvenile Caiman crocodilus, the following features were examined: identification and classification of dorsal thalamic nuclei and their respective connections with the telencephalon, presence of local circuit neurons in the dorsal thalamic nuclei, telencephalic projections to the dorsal thalamus, and organization of the thalamic reticular nucleus. These results document many similarities between crocodilians and other reptiles and birds. While crocodilians, as well as other sauropsids, demonstrate several features of neural circuitry in common with mammals, certain striking differences in organization of the forebrain are present. These differences are the result of evolution. To explore a basis for these differences, embryos of Alligator misissippiensis were examined to address the following. First, very early development of the brain in Alligator is similar to that of other amniotes. Second, the developmental program for individual vesicles of the brain differs between the secondary prosencephalon, diencephalon, midbrain, and hindbrain in Alligator. This is likely to be the case for other amniotes. Third, initial development of the diencephalon in Alligator is similar to that in other amniotes. In Alligator, alar and basal parts likely follow a different developmental scheme. PMID:25829019

  6. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis: clinico-pathological correlations.

    PubMed Central

    Bakheit, A M; Kennedy, P G; Behan, P O

    1990-01-01

    Three new cases of limbic encephalitis in association with malignancy are reported. The literature on this condition is reviewed and the clinical, laboratory and histopathological features of cases proven at necropsy are correlated. The possible pathogenic mechanism of this disorder is discussed. PMID:1963440

  7. Functional neuroanatomy of the central noradrenergic system.

    PubMed

    Szabadi, Elemer

    2013-08-01

    The central noradrenergic neurone, like the peripheral sympathetic neurone, is characterized by a diffusely arborizing terminal axonal network. The central neurones aggregate in distinct brainstem nuclei, of which the locus coeruleus (LC) is the most prominent. LC neurones project widely to most areas of the neuraxis, where they mediate dual effects: neuronal excitation by α₁-adrenoceptors and inhibition by α₂-adrenoceptors. The LC plays an important role in physiological regulatory networks. In the sleep/arousal network the LC promotes wakefulness, via excitatory projections to the cerebral cortex and other wakefulness-promoting nuclei, and inhibitory projections to sleep-promoting nuclei. The LC, together with other pontine noradrenergic nuclei, modulates autonomic functions by excitatory projections to preganglionic sympathetic, and inhibitory projections to preganglionic parasympathetic neurones. The LC also modulates the acute effects of light on physiological functions ('photomodulation'): stimulation of arousal and sympathetic activity by light via the LC opposes the inhibitory effects of light mediated by the ventrolateral preoptic nucleus on arousal and by the paraventricular nucleus on sympathetic activity. Photostimulation of arousal by light via the LC may enable diurnal animals to function during daytime. LC neurones degenerate early and progressively in Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease, leading to cognitive impairment, depression and sleep disturbance.

  8. Noradrenergic Stimulation Impairs Memory Generalization in Women.

    PubMed

    Kluen, Lisa Marieke; Agorastos, Agorastos; Wiedemann, Klaus; Schwabe, Lars

    2017-03-02

    Memory generalization is essential for adaptive decision-making and action. Our ability to generalize across past experiences relies on medial-temporal lobe structures, known to be highly sensitive to stress. Recent evidence suggests that stressful events may indeed interfere with memory generalization. Yet, the mechanisms involved in this generalization impairment are unknown. We tested here whether a pharmacological elevation of major stress mediators, noradrenaline, and glucocorticoids is sufficient to disrupt memory generalization. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, healthy men and women received orally a placebo, hydrocortisone, the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine that leads to increased noradrenergic stimulation, or both drugs, before they completed an associative learning task probing memory generalization. Drugs left learning performance intact. Yohimbine, however, led to a striking generalization impairment in women, but not in men. Hydrocortisone, in turn, had no effect on memory generalization, neither in men nor in women. The present findings indicate that increased noradrenergic activity, but not cortisol, is sufficient to disrupt memory generalization in a sex-specific manner, with relevant implications for stress-related mental disorders characterized by generalization deficits.

  9. Evidence for alterations in central noradrenergic signaling in irritable bowel syndrome*, **

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Steven; Suyenobu, Brandall; Naliboff, Bruce D.; Bueller, Joshua; Stains, Jean; Wong, Heng; Mandelkern, Mark; Fitzgerald, Leah; Ohning, Gordon; Gupta, Arpana; Labus, Jennifer S.; Tillisch, Kirsten; Mayer, Emeran A.

    2014-01-01

    Background/aims Alterations in noradrenergic (NE) signaling have been implicated in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and adrenergic receptors are potential treatment targets. Methods To characterize central NE signaling in IBS, 11 patients and 11 healthy controls (HCs) were studied 3 times during an auditory oddball vigilance task after double-blind ingestion of the α2-adrenoreceptor (α2AR) antagonist yohimbine (YOH), the α2AR agonist clonidine (CLO), or placebo (PLA). Regional cerebral glucose metabolism was measured with [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Measures of anxiety, early-life trauma, plasma NE and blood pressure were acquired. Results Patients had higher plasma NE levels than HCs before and after ingestion of all drugs (all p <0.05). YOH increased plasma NE and more anxiety in patients than in HCs. After YOH, NE levels directly correlated with drug-induced increases in anxiety in IBS patients (r=0.61), but not in HCs. IBS patients showed less YOH-mediated reduction of activity in a central arousal circuit, consistent with fewer functional presynaptic α2AR. In HCs, but not in patients, activation of amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) was inversely correlated with activation of anterior mid cingulate cortex (aMCC), and state anxiety covaried directly with activity in limbic and right frontotemporal cortices, but indirectly with activity in the left frontotemporal cortex. YOH-mediated reduction of activity in brainstem and amygdala inversely correlated with early life trauma. Conclusions IBS patients showed evidence for increased noradrenergic activity consistent with downregulation of presynaptic inhibitory α2ARs. Activity within central arousal circuits was biased toward greater excitability and reduced corticolimbic inhibition in IBS. Early life trauma may be one mediator of these abnormalities. PMID:22917679

  10. GABAergic synchronization in the limbic system and its role in the generation of epileptiform activity

    PubMed Central

    Avoli, Massimo; de Curtis, Marco

    2016-01-01

    GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult forebrain, where it activates ionotropic type A and metabotropic type B receptors. Early studies have shown that GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition controls neuronal excitability and thus the occurrence of seizures. However, more complex, and at times unexpected, mechanisms of GABAergic signaling have been identified during epileptiform discharges over the last few years. Here, we will review experimental data that point at the paradoxical role played by GABAA receptor-mediated mechanisms in synchronizing neuronal networks, and in particular those of limbic structures such as the hippocampus, the entorhinal and perirhinal cortices, or the amygdala. After having summarized the fundamental characteristics of GABAA receptor-mediated mechanisms, we will analyze their role in the generation of network oscillations and their contribution to epileptiform synchronization. Whether and how GABAA receptors influence the interaction between limbic networks leading to ictogenesis will be also reviewed. Finally, we will consider the role of altered inhibition in the human epileptic brain along with the ability of GABAA receptor-mediated conductances to generate synchronous depolarizing events that may lead to ictogenesis in human epileptic disorders as well. PMID:21802488

  11. Chlordiazepoxide-induced released responding in extinction and punishment-conflict procedures is not altered by neonatal forebrain norepinephrine depletion.

    PubMed

    Bialik, R J; Pappas, B A; Pusztay, W

    1982-02-01

    The effects of chlordiazepoxide (CDZ) in extinction and punishment-conflict tasks were examined in rats after neonatal systemic administration of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to deplete forebrain norepinephrine (NE). At about 70 days of age the rats were water deprived and trained for three days to drink in a novel apparatus. On the fourth day (test day) drinking was either extinguished by elimination of water from the drinking tube or punished by lick-contingent shock. Just prior to this test session half of the vehicle and half of the 6-OHDA treated rats were given an injection of CDZ (8 mg/kg IP). Both the injection of CDZ and forebrain NE depletion prolonged responding during extinction and reduced the suppressant effects of punishment in male rats, and these effects were of similar magnitude. Furthermore, CDZ was as effective in neonatal 6-OHDA treated male rats as in vehicle treated rats indicating that decreased transmission is ascending NE fibers caused by CDZ is not solely responsible for its behavioral effects in extinction and conflict tasks. Rather, these effects may involve cooperative mediation by both noradrenergic and serotonergic forebrain terminals. Unexpectedly, CDZ's anti-extinction effect was absent in female rats and its anti-conflict effect observed only in NE depleted females.

  12. Low dose naltrexone administration in morphine dependent rats attenuates withdrawal-induced norepinephrine efflux in forebrain.

    PubMed

    Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J; Qian, Yaping; Sterling, Robert C; Page, Michelle E

    2008-05-15

    , animals were transcardially perfused and the brains were removed for verification of probe placement. Low dose naltrexone pre-treatment significantly attenuated withdrawal-induced increases of extracellular norepinephrine in the BNST, with a smaller effect in the FC. These findings suggest that alterations in norepinephrine release associated with withdrawal may be attenuated in forebrain targets of noradrenergic brainstem neurons that may underlie reduced behavioral signs of withdrawal following low dose naltrexone administration.

  13. Descending motor pathways and the spinal motor system - Limbic and non-limbic components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holstege, Gert

    1991-01-01

    Research on descending motor pathways to caudal brainstem and spinal cord in the spinal motor system is reviewed. Particular attention is given to somatic and autonomic motoneurons in the spinal cord and brainstem, local projections to motoneurons, bulbospinal interneurons projecting to motoneurons, descending pathways of somatic motor control systems, and descending pathways involved in limbic motor control systems.

  14. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic System and Memory.

    PubMed

    Blake, M G; Boccia, M M

    2017-02-18

    Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons constitute a way station for many ascending and descending pathways. These cholinergic neurons have a role in eliciting cortical activation and arousal. It is well established that they are mainly involved in cognitive processes requiring increased levels of arousal, attentive states and/or cortical activation with desynchronized activity in the EEG. These cholinergic neurons are modulated by several afferents of different neurotransmitter systems. Of particular importance within the cortical targets of basal forebrain neurons is the hippocampal cortex. The septohippocampal pathway is a bidirectional pathway constituting the main septal efferent system, which is widely known to be implicated in every memory process investigated. The present work aims to review the main neurotransmitter systems involved in modulating cognitive processes related to learning and memory through modulation of basal forebrain neurons.

  15. Basal forebrain projections to the lateral habenula modulate aggression reward

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Sam A.; Heshmati, Mitra; Flanigan, Meghan; Christoffel, Dan J.; Guise, Kevin; Pfau, Madeline L.; Aleyasin, Hossein; Menard, Caroline; Zhang, Hongxing; Hodes, Georgia E.; Bregman, Dana; Khibnik, Lena; Tai, Jonathan; Rebusi, Nicole; Krawitz, Brian; Chaudhury, Dipesh; Walsh, Jessica J.; Han, Ming-Hu; Shapiro, Matt L.; Russo, Scott J.

    2016-01-01

    Maladaptive aggressive behavior is associated with a number of neuropsychiatric disorders1 and is thought to partly result from inappropriate activation of brain reward systems in response to aggressive or violent social stimuli2. Nuclei within the ventromedial hypothalamus3–5, extended amygdala6 and limbic7 circuits are known to encode initiation of aggression; however, little is known about the neural mechanisms that directly modulate the motivational component of aggressive behavior8. To address this, we established a mouse model to measure the valence of aggressive inter-male social interaction with a smaller subordinate intruder as reinforcement for the development of conditioned place preference (CPP). Aggressors (AGG) develop a CPP, while non-aggressors (NON) develop a conditioned place aversion (CPA), to the intruder-paired context. Further, we identify a functional GABAergic projection from the basal forebrain (BF) to the lateral habenula (lHb) that bi-directionally controls the valence of aggressive interactions. Circuit-specific silencing of GABAergic BF-lHb terminals of AGG with halorhodopsin (NpHR3.0) increases lHb neuronal firing and abolishes CPP to the intruder-paired context. Activation of GABAergic BF-lHb terminals of NON with channelrhodopsin (ChR2) decreases lHb neuronal firing and promotes CPP to the intruder-paired context. Lastly, we show that altering inhibitory transmission at BF-lHb terminals does not control the initiation of aggressive behavior. These results demonstrate that the BF-lHb circuit plays a critical role in regulating the valence of inter-male aggressive behavior and provide novel mechanistic insight into the neural circuits modulating aggression reward processing. PMID:27357796

  16. Ontogenetic noradrenergic lesion alters histaminergic activity in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Przemyslaw; Jochem, Jerzy; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna; Josko, Jadwiga; Noras, Lukasz; Kostrzewa, Richard M; Brus, Ryszard

    2008-04-01

    To determine whether noradrenergic nerves might have a modulatory role on the sensitivity or reactivity of histaminergic receptor systems in brain, behavioral effects of the respective histamine H1, H2 and H3 antagonists S(+)chlorpheniramine, cimetidine and thioperimide in control adult rats were compared to the effects in adult rats that had been lesioned as neonates with the noradrenergic neurotoxin DSP-4. On the 1st and 3rd days after birth rat pups were treated with either saline or DSP-4 (50 mg/kg sc), then returned to their home cages with the dam. At 8 weeks when rats were tested, S(+)chlorpheniramine (10 mg/kg ip) was found to increase locomotor activity in intact and DSP-4 lesioned rats, while cimetidine (5 mg/kg, ip) and thioperimide (5 mg/kg, ip) increased activity several-fold solely in the DSP-4 group. Exploratory activity, nociceptive activity, and irritability were little altered by the histamine antagonists, although oral activity was increased by thioperimide in intact and lesioned rats, and by cimetidine or S(+)chlorpheniramine in DSP-4 rats. High performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was used to determine that DSP-4 produced a 90% reduction in frontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus, with a 90% elevation of NE in cerebellum--reflecting reactive sprouting of noradrenergic fibers consequent to lesion of noradrenergic tracts projecting to proximal brain regions. These findings indicate that perinatal noradrenergic fiber lesioning in rat brain is associated with an altered behavioral spectrum by histamine H1, H2 and H3 receptor antagonists, thereby implicating histaminergic systems as modulators of noradrenergic systems in brain.

  17. Limbic but not non-limbic kindling impairs conditioned fear and promotes plasticity of NPY and its Y2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Botterill, J J; Guskjolen, A J; Marks, W N; Caruncho, H J; Kalynchuk, L E

    2015-11-01

    Epileptic seizures negatively affect cognition. However, the mechanisms that contribute to cognitive impairments after seizures are largely unknown. Here, we examined the effects of long-term kindling (i.e., 99 stimulations) of limbic (basolateral amygdala, dorsal hippocampus) and non-limbic (caudate nucleus) brain sites on conditioned fear and hippocampal plasticity. We first showed that kindling had no effect on acquisition of a hippocampal-dependent trace fear-conditioning task but limbic kindling impaired the retrieval of these fear memories. To determine the relationship between memory and hippocampal neuronal activity, we examined the expression of Fos protein 90 min after memory retrieval (i.e., 4 days after the last kindling stimulation). We found that limbic kindling, but not non-limbic kindling, decreased Fos expression in the granule cell layer, hilus, CA3 pyramidal cell layer, and CA1 pyramidal cell layer. Next, to investigate a mechanism that could contribute to dampen hippocampal neuronal activity in limbic-kindled rats, we focused on the endogenous anticonvulsant neuropeptide Y (NPY), which is expressed in a subset of GABAergic interneurons and can prevent glutamate release through interactions with its Y2 receptor. We found that limbic kindling significantly decreased the number of NPY-immunoreactive cells in several hippocampal subfields despite minimal staining of the neurodegenerative marker Fluoro-Jade B. However, we also noted that limbic kindling enhanced NPY immunoreactivity throughout the mossy fiber pathway. In these same regions, we observed limbic kindling-induced de novo expression of the NPY Y2 receptor. These novel findings demonstrate the site-specific effects of kindling on cognition and NPY plasticity, and they provide evidence that altered hippocampal NPY after limbic seizures coincides with dampened neural activity and cognitive impairments.

  18. Physical Exercise Affects Attentional Orienting Behavior through Noradrenergic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Andrea M.; Buttolph, Thomas; Green, John T.; Bucci, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRs), a commonly-used animal model of ADHD, exhibit little habituation of the orienting response to repeated presentations of a non-reinforced visual stimulus. However, SHRs that have access to a running wheel for 5, 10, or 21 days exhibit robust habituation that is indistinguishable from normo-active rats. Two days of exercise, in comparison, was not sufficient to affect habituation. Here we tested the hypothesis that the effect of exercise on orienting behavior in SHRs is mediated by changes in noradrenergic function. In Experiment 1, we found that 5, 10, or 21 days of access to a running wheel, but not 2 days, significantly reduced levels of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) in medial prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 2, we tested for a causal relationship between changes in noradrenergic function and orienting behavior by blocking noradrenergic receptors during exercise. Rats that received propranolol (beta adrenergic/noradrenergic receptor blocker) during 10 days of exercise failed to exhibit an exercise-induced reduction in orienting behavior. The results inform a growing literature regarding the effects of exercise on behavior and the potential use of exercise as a treatment for mental disorders. PMID:26030434

  19. Alpha-2 noradrenergic receptor activation inhibits the hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih ) in neurons of the ventral tegmental area

    PubMed Central

    Inyushin, Mikhail U.; Arencibia-Albite, Francisco; Vázquez-Torres, Rafael; Vélez-Hernández, María E.; Jiménez-Rivera, Carlos A.

    2010-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is the source of dopaminergic projections innervating cortical structures and ventral forebrain. Dysfunction of this mesocorticolimbic system is critically involved in psychiatric disorders such as addiction and schizophrenia. Changes in VTA dopamine (DA) neuronal activity can alter neurotransmitter release at target regions which modify information processing in the reward circuit. Here we studied the effect of α-2 noradrenergic receptor activation on the hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih ) in DA neurons of the rat VTA. Brain slice preparations using whole-cell current and voltage-clamp techniques were employed. Clonidine and UK14304 (α-2 receptor selective agonists) were found to decrease Ih amplitude and to slow its rate of activation indicating a negative shift in the current’s voltage dependence. Two non-subtype-selective α-2 receptor antagonists, yohimbine and RS79948, prevented the effects of α-2 receptor activation. RX821002, a noradrenergic antagonist specific for α-2A and α-2D did not prevent Ih inhibition. This result suggests that clonidine might be acting via an α-2C subtype since this receptor is the most abundant variant in the VTA. Analysis of a second messenger system associated with the α-2 receptor revealed that Ih inhibition is independent of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and resulted from the activation of protein kinase C. It is suggested that the α-2 mediated hyperpolarizing shift in Ih voltage dependence can facilitate the transition from pacemaker firing to afferent-driven burst activity. This transition may play a key role on the changes in synaptic plasticity that occurs in the mesocorticolimbic system under pathological conditions. PMID:20122999

  20. Pre-frontal control of closed-loop limbic neurostimulation by rodents using a brain-computer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widge, Alik S.; Moritz, Chet T.

    2014-04-01

    Objective. There is great interest in closed-loop neurostimulators that sense and respond to a patient's brain state. Such systems may have value for neurological and psychiatric illnesses where symptoms have high intraday variability. Animal models of closed-loop stimulators would aid preclinical testing. We therefore sought to demonstrate that rodents can directly control a closed-loop limbic neurostimulator via a brain-computer interface (BCI). Approach. We trained rats to use an auditory BCI controlled by single units in prefrontal cortex (PFC). The BCI controlled electrical stimulation in the medial forebrain bundle, a limbic structure involved in reward-seeking. Rigorous offline analyses were performed to confirm volitional control of the neurostimulator. Main results. All animals successfully learned to use the BCI and neurostimulator, with closed-loop control of this challenging task demonstrated at 80% of PFC recording locations. Analysis across sessions and animals confirmed statistically robust BCI control and specific, rapid modulation of PFC activity. Significance. Our results provide a preliminary demonstration of a method for emotion-regulating closed-loop neurostimulation. They further suggest that activity in PFC can be used to control a BCI without pre-training on a predicate task. This offers the potential for BCI-based treatments in refractory neurological and mental illness.

  1. Constrained spherical deconvolution analysis of the limbic network in human, with emphasis on a direct cerebello-limbic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Arrigo, Alessandro; Mormina, Enricomaria; Anastasi, Giuseppe Pio; Gaeta, Michele; Calamuneri, Alessandro; Quartarone, Angelo; De Salvo, Simona; Bruschetta, Daniele; Rizzo, Giuseppina; Trimarchi, Fabio; Milardi, Demetrio

    2014-01-01

    The limbic system is part of an intricate network which is involved in several functions like memory and emotion. Traditionally the role of the cerebellum was considered mainly associated to motion control; however several evidences are raising about a role of the cerebellum in learning skills, emotions control, mnemonic and behavioral processes involving also connections with limbic system. In 15 normal subjects we studied limbic connections by probabilistic Constrained Spherical Deconvolution (CSD) tractography. The main result of our work was to prove for the first time in human brain the existence of a direct cerebello-limbic pathway which was previously hypothesized but never demonstrated. We also extended our analysis to the other limbic connections including cingulate fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, uncinated fasciculus, anterior thalamic connections and fornix. Although these pathways have been already described in the tractographic literature we provided reconstruction, quantitative analysis and Fractional Anisotropy (FA) right-left symmetry comparison using probabilistic CSD tractography that is known to provide a potential improvement compared to previously used Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) techniques. The demonstration of the existence of cerebello-limbic pathway could constitute an important step in the knowledge of the anatomic substrate of non-motor cerebellar functions. Finally the CSD statistical data about limbic connections in healthy subjects could be potentially useful in the diagnosis of pathological disorders damaging this system. PMID:25538606

  2. A2 noradrenergic neurons regulate forced swim test immobility.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hyungwoo; Kerman, Ilan A

    2016-10-15

    The Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat is a widely used animal model of depression, which is characterized by dysregulation of noradrenergic signaling. We previously demonstrated that WKY rats show a unique behavioral profile on the forced swim test (FST), characterized by high levels of immobility upon initial exposure and a greater learning-like response by further increasing immobility upon re-exposure than the genetically related Wistar rats. In the current study we aimed to determine whether altered activation of brainstem noradrenergic cell groups contributes to this behavioral profile. We exposed WKY and Wistar rats, to either 5min of forced swim or to the standard two-day FST (i.e. 15min forced swim on Day 1, followed by 5min on Day 2). We then stained their brains for FOS/tyrosine hydroxylase double-immunocytochemistry to determine potential differences in the activation of the brainstem noradrenergic cell groups. We detected a relative hyperactivation in the locus coeruleus of WKY rats when compared to Wistars in response to both one- and two-day forced swim. In contrast, within the A2 noradrenergic cell group, WKY rats exhibited diminished levels of FOS across both days of the FST, suggesting their lesser activation. We followed up these observations by selectively lesioning the A2 neurons, using anti-dopamine-β-hydroxylase-conjugated saporin, in Wistar rats, which resulted in increased FST immobility on both days of the test. Together these data indicate that the A2 noradrenergic cell group regulates FST behavior, and that its hypoactivation may contribute to the unique behavioral phenotype of WKY rats.

  3. Forebrain neurogenesis: From embryo to adult

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Daniel; Picketts, David; Slack, Ruth S.; Schuurmans, Carol

    2017-01-01

    A satellite symposium to the Canadian Developmental Biology Conference 2016 was held on March 16–17, 2016 in Banff, Alberta, Canada, entitled Forebrain Neurogenesis: From embryo to adult. The Forebrain Neurogenesis symposium was a focused, high-intensity meeting, bringing together the top Canadian and international researchers in the field. This symposium reported the latest breaking news, along with ‘state of the art’ techniques to answer fundamental questions in developmental neurobiology. Topics covered ranged from stem cell regulation to neurocircuitry development, culminating with a session focused on neuropsychiatric disorders. Understanding the underlying causes of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is of great interest as diagnoses of these conditions are climbing at alarming rates. For instance, in 2012, the Centers for Disease Control reported that the prevalence rate of ASD in the U.S. was 1 in 88; while more recent data indicate that the number is as high as 1 in 68 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention MMWR Surveillance Summaries. Vol. 63. No. 2). Similarly, the incidence of ASD is on the rise in Canada, increasing from 1 in 150 in 2000 to 1 in 63 in 2012 in southeastern Ontario (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). Currently very little is known regarding the deficits underlying these neurodevelopmental conditions. Moreover, the development of effective therapies is further limited by major gaps in our understanding of the fundamental processes that regulate forebrain development and adult neurogenesis. The Forebrain Neurogenesis satellite symposium was thus timely, and it played a key role in advancing research in this important field, while also fostering collaborations between international leaders, and inspiring young researchers.

  4. Noradrenergic modulation of space exploration in visual neglect.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Paresh A; Parton, Andrew D; Greenwood, Richard; Husain, Masud

    2006-01-01

    Visual neglect after stroke is often associated with a failure to explore contralesional space. Here, we show that guanfacine, a noradrenergic agonist that modulates dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, improves leftward space exploration in selected right-hemisphere patients with neglect. The positive effects of guanfacine were associated with extended ability to maintain attention on task. The results suggest that neuropharmacological targeting of intact frontal areas might be one way to enhance cognitive function after damage to posterior brain regions in selected individuals.

  5. Noradrenergic regulation of fear and drug-associated memory reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Otis, James M; Werner, Craig T; Mueller, Devin

    2015-03-01

    Emotional and traumatic experiences lead to the development of particularly strong memories that can drive neuropsychiatric disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and drug addiction. Disruption of these memories would therefore serve as a powerful treatment option, and targeting the pathologic emotional, but not declarative, component of a memory would be ideal for clinical intervention. Research reveals that after retrieval of a consolidated memory, the memory can be destabilized, and must then be reconsolidated through synaptic plasticity to allow subsequent retrieval. Disruption of reconsolidation-related plasticity would therefore impair specific, reactivated memories. Noradrenergic signaling strengthens synaptic plasticity and is essential for encoding the emotional components of memory. Consistent with this, investigations have now revealed that noradrenergic signaling is a critical mechanism for reconsolidation of emotional memories in rodent and human models. Here, we discuss these investigations and promising clinical trials indicating that disruption of noradrenergic signaling during reconsolidation may abolish the pathologic emotional, but not declarative, component of memories allowing alleviation of neuropsychiatric disorders including PTSD and drug addiction.

  6. A Basal Forebrain Site Coordinates the Modulation of Endocrine and Behavioral Stress Responses via Divergent Neural Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Shane B.; Emmons, Eric B.; Anderson, Rachel M.; Glanz, Ryan M.; Romig-Martin, Sara A.; Narayanan, Nandakumar S.; LaLumiere, Ryan T.

    2016-01-01

    The bed nuclei of the stria terminalis (BST) are critically important for integrating stress-related signals between the limbic forebrain and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) effector neurons in the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVH). Nevertheless, the circuitry underlying BST control over the stress axis and its role in depression-related behaviors has remained obscure. Utilizing optogenetic approaches in rats, we have identified a novel role for the anteroventral subdivision of BST in the coordinated inhibition of both HPA output and passive coping behaviors during acute inescapable (tail suspension, TS) stress. Follow-up experiments probed axonal pathways emanating from the anteroventral BST which accounted for separable endocrine and behavioral functions subserved by this cell group. The PVH and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray were recipients of GABAergic outputs from the anteroventral BST that were necessary to restrain stress-induced HPA activation and passive coping behavior, respectively, during TS and forced swim tests. In contrast to other BST subdivisions implicated in anxiety-like responses, these results direct attention to the anteroventral BST as a nodal point in a stress-modulatory network for coordinating neuroendocrine and behavioral coping responses, wherein impairment could account for core features of stress-related mood disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Dysregulation of the neural pathways modulating stress-adaptive behaviors is implicated in stress-related psychiatric illness. While aversive situations activate a network of limbic forebrain regions thought to mediate such changes, little is known about how this information is integrated to orchestrate complex stress responses. Here we identify novel roles for the anteroventral bed nuclei of the stria terminalis in inhibiting both stress hormone output and passive coping behavior via divergent projections to regions of the hypothalamus and midbrain. Inhibition of these projections

  7. Nicotine alters limbic function in adolescent rat by a 5-HT1A receptor mechanism.

    PubMed

    Dao, Jasmin M; McQuown, Susan C; Loughlin, Sandra E; Belluzzi, James D; Leslie, Frances M

    2011-06-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that adolescent smoking is associated with health risk behaviors, including high-risk sexual activity and illicit drug use. Using rat as an animal model, we evaluated the behavioral and biochemical effects of a 4-day, low-dose nicotine pretreatment (60 μg/kg; intravenous) during adolescence and adulthood. Nicotine pretreatment significantly increased initial acquisition of cocaine self-administration, quinpirole-induced locomotor activity, and penile erection in adolescent rats, aged postnatal day (P)32. These effects were long lasting, remaining evident 10 days after the last nicotine treatment, and were observed when nicotine pretreatment was administered during early adolescence (P28-31), but not late adolescence (P38-41) or adulthood (P86-89). Neurochemical analyses of c-fos mRNA expression, and of monoamine transmitter and transporter levels, showed that forebrain limbic systems are continuing to develop during early adolescence, and that this maturation is critically altered by brief nicotine exposure. Nicotine selectively increased c-fos mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens shell and basolateral amygdala in adolescent, but not adult animals, and altered serotonin markers in these regions as well as the prefrontal cortex. Nicotine enhancement of cocaine self-administration and quinpirole-induced locomotor activity was blocked by co-administration of WAY 100 635 (N-{2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl] ethyl}-N-(2-pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide), a selective serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor antagonist. Early adolescent pretreatment with the mixed autoreceptor/heteroceptor 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, but not the autoreceptor-selective agonist, S-15535, also enhanced quinpirole-induced locomotor activation. Nicotine enhancement of quinpirole-induced penile erection was not blocked by WAY 100 635 nor mimicked by 8-OH-DPAT. These findings indicate that early adolescent nicotine exposure uniquely alters limbic

  8. Improvement of the noradrenergic symptom cluster following treatment with milnacipran.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Siegfried; Meshkat, Diana; Kutzelnigg, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Depression has a major impact on social functioning. Decreased concentration, mental and physical slowing, loss of energy, lassitude, tiredness, and reduced self-care are all symptoms related to reduced noradrenergic activity. Depressed mood; loss of interest or pleasure; sleep disturbances; and feelings of worthlessness, pessimism, and anxiety are related to reduced activity of both serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission. The importance of noradrenergic neurotransmission in social functioning is supported by studies with the specific norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor reboxetine. In healthy volunteers, reboxetine increases cooperative social behavior and social drive. A placebo-controlled study in depressed patients comparing reboxetine with the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine showed significantly greater improvement in social adaptation with reboxetine. Two recent studies have examined the effect of the serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor milnacipran on social adaptation. A study in depressed patients found that at the end of 8 weeks of treatment with milnacipran, 42.2% patients were in remission on the Social Adaptation Self-evaluation Scale (SASS). Another study in depressed workers or homemakers found that mean depression scores were significantly reduced after 2 weeks, whereas the SASS scores were significantly improved after 4 weeks. A preliminary study comparing depressed patients treated with milnacipran or the SSRI paroxetine showed that milnacipran treatment resulted in a greater number of patients in social remission. The available data thus suggest that milnacipran may improve social functioning, with a possibly greater effect than the SSRI paroxetine. These preliminary data suggest further evaluation of social dysfunction and its treatment outcome in future trials of milnacipran.

  9. The bilaterian forebrain: an evolutionary chimaera.

    PubMed

    Tosches, Maria Antonietta; Arendt, Detlev

    2013-12-01

    The insect, annelid and vertebrate forebrains harbour two major centres of output control, a sensory-neurosecretory centre releasing hormones and a primordial locomotor centre that controls the initiation of muscular body movements. In vertebrates, both reside in the hypothalamus. Here, we review recent comparative neurodevelopmental evidence indicating that these centres evolved from separate condensations of neurons on opposite body sides ('apical nervous system' versus 'blastoporal nervous system') and that their developmental specification involved distinct regulatory networks (apical six3 and rx versus mediolateral nk and pax gene-dependent patterning). In bilaterian ancestors, both systems approached each other and became closely intermingled, physically, functionally and developmentally. Our 'chimeric brain hypothesis' sheds new light on the vast success and rapid diversification of bilaterian animals in the Cambrian and revises our understanding of brain architecture.

  10. Clonidine and Cortical Plasticity: Possible Evidence for Noradrenergic Involvement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-31

    D 616 CLONIDINE AND CORTICAL PLASTICITY POSSIBLE EVIDENCE / FOR NORADRENERGIC IN..(U) BROWIN UNIV PROVIDENCE RICENTER FOR NEURAL SCIENCE S B NELSON...plasticity in kitten visual cortex, we monocularly deprived kittens while administering the at-2 adrenergic agonist clonidine (CLON). To avoid bias in...Distribution/ AvailabilitY Codes Avail and/or Dist Special I. S N 0102- LF. 014- 6601 SECuRITY CLASSIVrCATION OF TMIS PA*S St’e DOI@ MAIN Clonidine and Cortical

  11. Interaction of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons with the glucocorticoid system in stress regulation and cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Saswati; Jeon, Won Kyung; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Han, Jung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    A substantial number of studies on basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons (BFCN) have provided compelling evidence for their role in the etiology of stress, cognitive aging, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and other neurodegenerative diseases. BFCN project to a broad range of cortical sites and limbic structures, including the hippocampus, and are involved in stress and cognition. In particular, the hippocampus, the primary target tissue of the glucocorticoid stress hormones, is associated with cognitive function in tandem with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation. The present review summarizes glucocorticoid and HPA axis research to date in an effort to establish the manner in which stress affects the release of acetylcholine (ACh), glucocorticoids, and their receptor in the context of cognitive processes. We attempt to provide the molecular interactive link between the glucocorticoids and cholinergic system that contributes to BFCN degeneration in stress-induced acceleration of cognitive decline in aging and AD. We also discuss the importance of animal models in facilitating such studies for pharmacological use, to which could help decipher disease states and propose leads for pharmacological intervention. PMID:25883567

  12. Interaction of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons with the glucocorticoid system in stress regulation and cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Paul, Saswati; Jeon, Won Kyung; Bizon, Jennifer L; Han, Jung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    A substantial number of studies on basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic neurons (BFCN) have provided compelling evidence for their role in the etiology of stress, cognitive aging, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and other neurodegenerative diseases. BFCN project to a broad range of cortical sites and limbic structures, including the hippocampus, and are involved in stress and cognition. In particular, the hippocampus, the primary target tissue of the glucocorticoid stress hormones, is associated with cognitive function in tandem with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation. The present review summarizes glucocorticoid and HPA axis research to date in an effort to establish the manner in which stress affects the release of acetylcholine (ACh), glucocorticoids, and their receptor in the context of cognitive processes. We attempt to provide the molecular interactive link between the glucocorticoids and cholinergic system that contributes to BFCN degeneration in stress-induced acceleration of cognitive decline in aging and AD. We also discuss the importance of animal models in facilitating such studies for pharmacological use, to which could help decipher disease states and propose leads for pharmacological intervention.

  13. Amphetamine and cocaine induce drug-specific activation of the c-fos gene in striosome-matrix compartments and limbic subdivisions of the striatum.

    PubMed Central

    Graybiel, A M; Moratalla, R; Robertson, H A

    1990-01-01

    Amphetamine and cocaine are stimulant drugs that act on central monoaminergic neurons to produce both acute psychomotor activation and long-lasting behavioral effects including addiction and psychosis. Here we report that single doses of these drugs induce rapid expression of the nuclear proto-oncogene c-fos in the forebrain and particularly in the striatum, an extrapyramidal structure implicated in addiction and in long-term drug-induced changes in motor function. The two drugs induce strikingly different patterns of c-fos expression in the striosome-matrix compartments and limbic subdivisions of the striatum, and their effects are pharmacologically distinct, although both are sensitive to dopamine receptor blockade. We propose that differential activation of immediate-early genes by psychostimulants may be an early step in drug-specific molecular cascades contributing to acute and long-lasting psychostimulant-induced changes in behavior. Images PMID:2118661

  14. Genomic Perspectives of Transcriptional Regulation in Forebrain Development

    PubMed Central

    Nord, Alex S.; Pattabiraman, Kartik; Visel, Axel; Rubenstein, John L. R.

    2015-01-01

    The forebrain is the seat of higher order brain functions, and many human neuropsychiatric disorders are due to genetic defects affecting forebrain development, making it imperative to understand the underlying genetic circuitry. Recent progress now makes it possible to begin fully elucidating the genomic regulatory mechanisms that control forebrain gene expression. Herein, we discuss the current knowledge of how transcription factors drive gene expression programs through their interactions with cis-acting genomic elements, such as enhancers; how analyses of chromatin and DNA modifications provide insights into gene expression states; and how these approaches yield insights into the evolution of the human brain. PMID:25569346

  15. The memory function of noradrenergic activity in non-REM sleep.

    PubMed

    Gais, Steffen; Rasch, Björn; Dahmen, Johannes C; Sara, Susan; Born, Jan

    2011-09-01

    There is a long-standing assumption that low noradrenergic activity during sleep reflects mainly the low arousal during this brain state. Nevertheless, recent research has demonstrated that the locus coeruleus, which is the main source of cortical noradrenaline, displays discrete periods of intense firing during non-REM sleep, without any signs of awakening. This transient locus coeruleus activation during sleep seems to occur in response to preceding learning-related episodes. In the present study, we manipulate noradrenergic activity during sleep in humans with either the α2-autoreceptor agonist clonidine or the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor reboxetine. We show that reducing noradrenergic activity during sleep, but not during wakefulness, impairs subsequent memory performance in an odor recognition task. Increasing noradrenergic availability during sleep, in contrast, enhances memory retention. We conclude that noradrenergic activity during non-REM sleep interacts with other sleep-related mechanisms to functionally contribute to off-line memory consolidation.

  16. Locus coeruleus kappa-opioid receptors modulate reinstatement of cocaine place preference through a noradrenergic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Al-Hasani, Ream; McCall, Jordan G; Foshage, Audra M; Bruchas, Michael R

    2013-11-01

    Activation of kappa-opioid receptors (KORs) in monoamine circuits results in dysphoria-like behaviors and stress-induced reinstatement of drug seeking in both conditioned place preference (CPP) and self-administration models. Noradrenergic (NA) receptor systems have also been implicated in similar behaviors. Dynorphinergic projections terminate within the locus coeruleus (LC), a primary source of norepinephrine in the forebrain, suggesting a possible link between the NA and dynorphin/kappa opioid systems, yet the implications of these putative interactions have not been investigated. We isolated the necessity of KORs in the LC in kappa opioid agonist (U50,488)-induced reinstatement of cocaine CPP by blocking KORs in the LC with NorBNI (KOR antagonist). KOR-induced reinstatement was significantly attenuated in mice injected with NorBNI in the LC. To determine the sufficiency of KORs in the LC on U50,488-induced reinstatement of cocaine CPP, we virally re-expressed KORs in the LC of KOR knockout mice. We found that KORs expression in the LC alone was sufficient to partially rescue KOR-induced reinstatement. Next we assessed the role of NA signaling in KOR-induced reinstatement of cocaine CPP in the presence and absence of a α2-agonist (clonidine), β-adrenergic receptor antagonist (propranolol), and β(1)- and β(2)-antagonist (betaxolol and ICI-118,551 HCl). Both the blockade of postsynaptic β(1)-adrenergic receptors and the activation of presynaptic inhibitory adrenergic autoreceptors selectively potentiated the magnitude of KOR-induced reinstatement of cocaine CPP but not cocaine-primed CPP reinstatement. Finally, viral restoration of KORs in the LC together with β-adrenergic receptor blockade did not potentiate KOR-induced reinstatement to cocaine CPP, suggesting that adrenergic receptor interactions occur at KOR-expressing regions external to the LC. These results identify a previously unknown interaction between KORs and NA systems and suggest a NA

  17. Atomoxetine modulates spontaneous and sensory-evoked discharge of locus coeruleus noradrenergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bari, A.; Aston-Jones, G.

    2012-01-01

    Atomoxetine (ATM) is a potent norepinephrine (NE) uptake inhibitor and increases both NE and dopamine synaptic levels in prefrontal cortex, where it is thought to exert its beneficial effects on attention and impulsivity. At the behavioral level, ATM has been shown to cause improvements on measures of executive functions, such as response inhibition, working memory and attentional set shifting across different species. However, the exact mechanism of action for ATM’s effects on cognition is still not clear. One possible target for the cognitive enhancing effects of ATM is the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC), the only source of NE to key forebrain areas such as cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Although it is known that ATM increases NE availability overall by blocking reuptake of NE, the effects of this agent on impulse activity of LC neurons have not been reported. Here, the effect of ATM (0.1 – 1 mg/kg, ip) on NE-LC neurons was investigated by recording extracellular activity of LC neurons in isoflurane-anesthetized rats. ATM caused a significant decrease of the tonic activity of LC single-units, although leaving intact the sensory-evoked excitatory component of LC phasic response. Moreover, the magnitude of the inhibitory component of LC response to paw stimulation was increased after 1 mg/kg of ATM and its duration was prolonged at 0.3 mg/kg. Together, these effects of ATM produced an increase in the phasic-to-tonic ratio of LC phasic response to sensory stimulation. ATM also modulated the average sensory-evoked local field potential (LFP) and spike-field coherence in LC depending on the dose tested. The lower dose (0.1 mg/kg) significantly decreased early positive and negative components of the sensory-evoked LFP response. Higher doses (0.3–1 mg/kg) initially increased and then decreased the amplitude of components of the evoked fields, whereas the spike-field coherence was enhanced by 1 mg/kg ATM across frequency bands. Finally, coherence between LC

  18. Angiotensin II-noradrenergic interactions in renovascular hypertensive rats.

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, J B; Robertson, D; Jackson, E K

    1987-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that interactions of endogenous angiotensin II (AII) with the noradrenergic neuroeffector junction are important in renin-dependent hypertension. In the in situ blood-perfused rat mesentery, in normal rats exogenous AII potentiated mesenteric vascular responses to periarterial (sympathetic) nerve stimulation (PNS) more than vascular responses to exogenous norepinephrine (NE). In 2-kidney-1-clip (2K-1C) rats with renovascular hypertension mesenteric vascular responses to PNS and NE were greater than in sham-operated rats, and renovascular hypertension mimicked the effects of exogenous AII with respect to enhancing responses to PNS more than responses to NE. In 2K-1C rats, but not in sham-operated rats, 1-Sar-8-Ile-AII markedly suppressed vascular responses to PNS, without influencing responses to NE. Finally, 1-Sar-8-Ile-AII attenuated sympathetic nerve stimulation-induced neuronal spillover of NE in 2K-1C rats, but not in sham-operated rats. These data indicate that renovascular hypertension enhances noradrenergic neurotransmission, and that this enhancement is mediated in part by AII-induced facilitation of NE release. PMID:3301900

  19. Histamine excites noradrenergic neurons in locus coeruleus in rats.

    PubMed

    Korotkova, Tatiana M; Sergeeva, Olga A; Ponomarenko, Alexei A; Haas, Helmut L

    2005-07-01

    Histamine is implicated in the control of many brain functions, in particular the control of arousal. Histaminergic neurons send dense projections through the entire brain, including the locus coeruleus (LC)--the main noradrenergic (NAergic) nucleus. In this study, we have examined the effect of bath-applied histamine on cells in the LC by single-unit recordings in slices and the expression of histamine receptors in this area by single-cell RT-PCR. Histamine (10 microM) increased the firing of NAergic cells to 130+/-9% of control, 100 microM to 256+/-58% of control. This excitation was unaffected by blocking synaptic transmission. Histamine-mediated excitation was blocked by an H1 receptor antagonist, mepyramine, in 78% of cells and by cimetidine, an H2 receptor antagonist, in 42% of cells, but not by the H3 receptor antagonist, thioperamide. RT-PCR revealed that mRNA for the H1 receptor was expressed in 77% of isolated LC neurons, mRNA for the H2 receptor in 41% of LC neurons and H3 receptors in 29%. These findings underline the coordination between aminergic systems and suggest that the arousal induced by the histamine system could involve excitation of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus.

  20. Expression and role of Roundabout-1 in embryonic Xenopus forebrain.

    PubMed

    Connor, R M; Key, B

    2002-09-01

    The receptor Roundabout-1 (Robo1) and its ligand Slit are known to influence axon guidance and central nervous system (CNS) patterning in both vertebrate and nonvertebrate systems. Although Robo-Slit interactions mediate axon guidance in the Drosophila CNS, their role in establishing the early axon scaffold in the embryonic vertebrate brain remains unclear. We report here the identification and expression of a Xenopus Robo1 orthologue that is highly homologous to mammalian Robo1. By using overexpression studies and immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques, we have investigated the role of Robo1 in the development of a subset of neurons and axon tracts in the Xenopus forebrain. Robo1 is expressed in forebrain nuclei and in neuroepithelial cells underlying the main axon tracts. Misexpression of Robo1 led to aberrant development of axon tracts as well as the ectopic differentiation of forebrain neurons. These results implicate Robo1 in both neuronal differentiation and axon guidance in embryonic vertebrate forebrain.

  1. Understanding the links between vestibular and limbic systems regulating emotions

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, Archana; Jinu, K. V.; Sailesh, Kumar Sai; Mishra, Soumya; Reddy, Udaya Kumar; Mukkadan, Joseph Kurien

    2017-01-01

    Vestibular system, which consists of structures in the inner ear and brainstem, plays a vital role is body balance and patient well-being. In recent years, modulating this system by vestibular stimulation techniques are reported to be effective in stress relief and possibly patient's emotional well-being. Emotions refer to an aroused state involving intense feeling, autonomic activation, and related change in behavior, which accompany many of our conscious experiences. The limbic system is primarily involved in the regulation of emotions. Considering the extensive networks between vestibular and limbic system, it is likely that vestibular stimulation techniques may be useful in influencing emotions. Hence, we review here, the possible mechanisms through which vestibular system can influence emotions and highlight the necessary knowledge gaps, which warrants further research to develop vestibular stimulation techniques as a means to treat health conditions associated with emotional disturbances. PMID:28250668

  2. Mosaic Subventricular Origins of Forebrain Oligodendrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Azim, Kasum; Berninger, Benedikt; Raineteau, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    In the perinatal as well as the adult CNS, the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the forebrain is the largest and most active source of neural stem cells (NSCs) that generates neurons and oligodendrocytes (OLs), the myelin forming cells of the CNS. Recent advances in the field are beginning to shed light regarding SVZ heterogeneity, with the existence of spatially segregated microdomains that are intrinsically biased to generate phenotypically distinct neuronal populations. Although most research has focused on this regionalization in the context of neurogenesis, newer findings underline that this also applies for the genesis of OLs under the control of specific patterning molecules. In this mini review, we discuss the origins as well as the mechanisms that induce and maintain SVZ regionalization. These come in the flavor of specific signaling ligands and subsequent initiation of transcriptional networks that provide a basis for subdividing the SVZ into distinct lineage-specific microdomains. We further emphasize canonical Wnts and FGF2 as essential signaling pathways for the regional genesis of OL progenitors from NSCs of the dorsal SVZ. This aspect of NSC biology, which has so far received little attention, may unveil new avenues for appropriately recruiting NSCs in demyelinating diseases. PMID:27047329

  3. Cortical deactivation induced by subcortical network dysfunction in limbic seizures

    PubMed Central

    Englot, Dario J.; Modi, Badri; Mishra, Asht M.; DeSalvo, Matthew; Hyder, Fahmeed; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2009-01-01

    Normal human consciousness may be impaired by two possible routes: direct reduced function in widespread cortical regions, or indirect disruption of subcortical activating systems. The route through which temporal lobe limbic seizures impair consciousness is not known. We recently developed an animal model which, like human limbic seizures, exhibits neocortical deactivation including cortical slow waves and reduced cortical cerebral blood flow (CBF). We now find through functional MRI (fMRI) that electrically-stimulated hippocampal seizures in rats cause increased activity in subcortical structures including the septal area and mediodorsal thalamus, along with reduced activity in frontal, cingulate, and retrosplenial cortex. Direct recordings from the hippocampus, septum, and medial thalamus demonstrated fast poly-spike activity associated with increased neuronal firing and CBF, while frontal cortex showed slow oscillations with decreased neuronal firing and CBF. Stimulation of septal area, but not hippocampus or medial thalamus, in the absence of a seizure resulted in cortical deactivation with slow oscillations and behavioral arrest, resembling changes seen during limbic seizures. Transecting the fornix, the major route from hippocampus to subcortical structures, abolished the negative cortical and behavioral effects of seizures. Cortical slow oscillations and behavioral arrest could be reconstituted in fornix-lesioned animals by inducing synchronous activity in the hippocampus and septal area, implying involvement of a downstream region converged upon by both structures. These findings suggest that limbic seizures may cause neocortical deactivation indirectly, through impaired subcortical function. If confirmed, subcortical networks may represent a target for therapies aimed at preserving consciousness in human temporal lobe seizures. PMID:19828814

  4. Disgust and fear recognition in paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Sprengelmeyer, Reiner; Atkinson, Anthony P; Sprengelmeyer, Anke; Mair-Walther, Johanna; Jacobi, Christian; Wildemann, Brigitte; Dittrich, Winand H; Hacke, Werner

    2010-05-01

    Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (PNLE) affects limbic portions of the brain associated with recognition of social signals of emotions. Yet it is not known whether this perceptual ability is impaired in individuals with PNLE. We therefore conducted a single case study to explore possible impairments in recognising facially, vocally and bodily expressed emotions, using standardised emotion recognition tests. Facial expression recognition was tested with two forced-choice emotion-labelling tasks using static faces with either prototypical or morphed blends of basic emotions. Recognition of vocally and bodily expressed emotions was also tested with forced-choice labelling tasks, one based on prosodic cues, the other on whole-body movement cues. We found a deficit in fear and disgust recognition from both face and voice, while recognition of bodily expressed emotions was unaffected. These findings are consistent with data from previous studies demonstrating critical roles for certain brain regions - particularly the amygdala and insular cortex - in processing facially and vocally displayed basic emotions, and furthermore, suggest that recognition of bodily expressed emotions may not depend on neural structures involved in facial and vocal emotion recognition. Impaired facial and vocal emotion recognition may form a further neuropsychological marker of limbic encephalitis, in addition to the already well-described mnestic deficits.

  5. The mRNA expression and histological integrity in rat forebrain motor and sensory regions are minimally affected by acrylamide exposure through drinking water.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, John F; Latendresse, John R; Delongchamp, Robert R; Warbritton, Alan R; Thomas, Monzy; Divine, Becky; Doerge, Daniel R

    2009-11-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether alterations in the gene expression or overt histological signs of neurotoxicity in selected regions of the forebrain might occur from acrylamide exposure via drinking water. Gene expression at the mRNA level was evaluated by cDNA array and/or RT-PCR analysis in the striatum, substantia nigra and parietal cortex of rat after a 2-week acrylamide exposure. The highest dose tested (maximally tolerated) of approximately 44 mg/kg/day resulted in a significant decreased body weight, sluggishness, and locomotor activity reduction. These physiological effects were not accompanied by prominent changes in gene expression in the forebrain. All the expression changes seen in the 1200 genes that were evaluated in the three brain regions were < or =1.5-fold, and most not significant. Very few, if any, statistically significant changes were seen in mRNA levels of the more than 50 genes directly related to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, GABAergic or glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems in the striatum, substantia nigra or parietal cortex. All the expression changes observed in genes related to dopaminergic function were less than 1.5-fold and not statistically significant and the 5HT1b receptor was the only serotonin-related gene affected. Therefore, gene expression changes were few and modest in basal ganglia and sensory cortex at a time when the behavioral manifestations of acrylamide toxicity had become prominent. No histological evidence of axonal, dendritic or neuronal cell body damage was found in the forebrain due to the acrylamide exposure. As well, microglial activation was not present. These findings are consistent with the absence of expression changes in genes related to changes in neuroinflammation or neurotoxicity. Over all, these data suggest that oral ingestion of acrylamide in drinking water or food, even at maximally tolerable levels, induced neither marked changes in gene expression nor neurotoxicity in the motor and

  6. The mRNA expression and histological integrity in rat forebrain motor and sensory regions are minimally affected by acrylamide exposure through drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, John F.; Latendresse, John R.; Delongchamp, Robert R.; Warbritton, Alan R.; Thomas, Monzy; Divine, Becky; Doerge, Daniel R.

    2009-11-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether alterations in the gene expression or overt histological signs of neurotoxicity in selected regions of the forebrain might occur from acrylamide exposure via drinking water. Gene expression at the mRNA level was evaluated by cDNA array and/or RT-PCR analysis in the striatum, substantia nigra and parietal cortex of rat after a 2-week acrylamide exposure. The highest dose tested (maximally tolerated) of approximately 44 mg/kg/day resulted in a significant decreased body weight, sluggishness, and locomotor activity reduction. These physiological effects were not accompanied by prominent changes in gene expression in the forebrain. All the expression changes seen in the 1200 genes that were evaluated in the three brain regions were <= 1.5-fold, and most not significant. Very few, if any, statistically significant changes were seen in mRNA levels of the more than 50 genes directly related to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, GABAergic or glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems in the striatum, substantia nigra or parietal cortex. All the expression changes observed in genes related to dopaminergic function were less than 1.5-fold and not statistically significant and the 5HT1b receptor was the only serotonin-related gene affected. Therefore, gene expression changes were few and modest in basal ganglia and sensory cortex at a time when the behavioral manifestations of acrylamide toxicity had become prominent. No histological evidence of axonal, dendritic or neuronal cell body damage was found in the forebrain due to the acrylamide exposure. As well, microglial activation was not present. These findings are consistent with the absence of expression changes in genes related to changes in neuroinflammation or neurotoxicity. Over all, these data suggest that oral ingestion of acrylamide in drinking water or food, even at maximally tolerable levels, induced neither marked changes in gene expression nor neurotoxicity in the motor and

  7. Behavioral models in mice. Implication of the alpha noradrenergic system.

    PubMed

    Hascoët, M; Bourin, M; Bradwejn, J

    1991-01-01

    1. The mechanism of action of drugs might change according to the test used. Several noradrenergic drugs were tested in order to understand their implication in the mobility tests. 2. It was found that clonidine, an Alpha 2 agonist, acted differently according to the test used. It provoked sedation in spontaneous activity test, and anti-immobility effects in the other tests. 3. Tail suspension test is able to show the double acting of clonidine. 4. Idazoxan might act either as an alpha 2 antagonist or as partial alpha 2 agonist. TST shown the unexpected partial alpha agonist effect of the molecule. 5. Forced swimming test is more specific for predicting antidepressant activity than tail suspension test which is close to a spontaneous activity model.

  8. Noradrenergic antidepressants increase cortical dopamine: potential use in augmentation strategies.

    PubMed

    Masana, Mercè; Castañé, Anna; Santana, Noemí; Bortolozzi, Analía; Artigas, Francesc

    2012-09-01

    Most antidepressant treatments, based on serotonin (5-HT) and/or norepinephrine (NE) transporter blockade, show limited efficacy and slow onset of action, requiring the use of augmentation strategies. Here we report on a novel antidepressant strategy to selectively increase DA function in prefrontal cortex (PFC) without the potential tolerance problems associated to DA transporter blockade. This approach is based on previous observations indicating that extracellular DA in rat medial PFC (mPFC) - but not in nucleus accumbens (NAc) - arises from noradrenergic terminals and is sensitive to noradrenergic drugs. A low dose of reboxetine (3 mg/kg i.p.; NE reuptake inhibitor) non-significantly increased extracellular DA in mPFC. Interestingly, its combined administration with 5 mg/kg s.c. mirtazapine (non-selective α₂-adrenoceptor antagonist) increased extracellular DA in mPFC (264 ± 28%), but not in NAc. Extracellular NE (but not 5-HT) in mPFC was also enhanced by the combined treatment (472 ± 70%). Repeated (×3) reboxetine + mirtazapine administration produced a moderate additional increase in mPFC DA and markedly reduced the immobility time (-51%) in the forced-swim test. Neurochemical and behavioral effects of the reboxetine + mirtazapine combination persisted in rats pretreated with citalopram (3 mg/kg, s.c.), suggesting its potential usefulness to augment SSRI effects. In situ hybridization c-fos studies were performed to examine the brain areas involved in the above antidepressant-like effects, showing changes in c-fos expression in hippocampal and cortical areas. BDNF expression was also increased in the hippocampal formation. Overall, these results indicate a synergistic effect of the reboxetine + mirtazapine combination to increase DA and NE function in mPFC and to evoke robust antidepressant-like responses.

  9. Intracranial Metastatic Disease Spares the Limbic Circuit: A Review of 697 Metastatic Lesions in 107 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, James C.; Herskovic, Arnold M.; Gielda, Benjamin T.; Hughes, Frank F.; Hoeppner, Thomas; Turian, Julius; Abrams, Ross A.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: We report the incidence of metastatic involvement of the limbic circuit in a retrospective review of patients treated at our institution. This review was performed to assess the feasibility of selectively sparing the limbic system during whole-brain radiotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation. Methods and Materials: We identified 697 intracranial metastases in 107 patients after reviewing contrast-enhanced CT and/or MR image sets for each patient. Lesions were localized to the limbic circuit or to the rest of the brain/brain stem. Patients were categorized by tumor histology (e.g., non-small-cell lung cancer, small-cell lung cancer, breast cancer, and other) and by total number of intracranial metastases (1-3, oligometastatic; 4 or more, nonoligometastatic). Results: Thirty-six limbic metastases (5.2% of all metastases) were identified in 22 patients who had a median of 16.5 metastases/patient (limbic metastases accounted for 9.9% of their lesions). Sixteen metastases (2.29%) involved the hippocampus, and 20 (2.86%) involved the rest of the limbic circuit; 86.2% of limbic metastases occurred in nonoligometastatic patients, and 13.8% occurred in oligometastatic patients. The incidence of limbic metastases by histologic subtype was similar. The incidence of limbic metastases in oligometastatic patients was 4.9% (5/103): 0.97%, hippocampus; 3.9%, remainder of the limbic circuit. One of 53 oligometastatic patients (1.9%) had hippocampal metastases, while 4/53 (7.5%) had other limbic metastases. Conclusions: Metastatic involvement of the limbic circuit is uncommon and limited primarily to patients with nonoligometastatic disease, supporting our hypothesis that it is reasonable to selectively exclude or reduce the dose to the limbic circuit when treating patients with prophylactic cranial irradiation or whole-brain radiotherapy for oligometastatic disease not involving these structures.

  10. Evolution of vertebrate forebrain development: how many different mechanisms?

    PubMed Central

    FOLEY, ANN C.; STERN, CLAUDIO D.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past 50 years and more, many models have been proposed to explain how the nervous system is initially induced and how it becomes subdivided into gross regions such as forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain and spinal cord. Among these models is the 2-signal model of Nieuwkoop & Nigtevecht (1954), who suggested that an initial signal (‘activation’) from the organiser both neuralises and specifies the forebrain, while later signals (‘transformation’) from the same region progressively caudalise portions of this initial territory. An opposing idea emerged from the work of Otto Mangold (1933) and other members of the Spemann laboratory: 2 or more distinct organisers, emitting different signals, were proposed to be responsible for inducing the head, trunk and tail regions. Since then, evidence has accumulated that supports one or the other model, but it has been very difficult to distinguish between them. Recently, a considerable body of work from mouse embryos has been interpreted as favouring the latter model, and as suggesting that a ‘head organiser’, required for the induction of the forebrain, is spatially separate from the classic organiser (Hensen's node). An extraembryonic tissue, the ‘anterior visceral endoderm’ (AVE), was proposed to be the source of forebrain-inducing signals. It is difficult to find tissues that are directly equivalent embryologically or functionally to the AVE in other vertebrates, which led some (e.g. Kessel, 1998) to propose that mammals have evolved a new way of patterning the head. We will present evidence from the chick embryo showing that the hypoblast is embryologically and functionally equivalent to the mouse AVE. Like the latter, the hypoblast also plays a role in head development. However, it does not act like a true organiser. It induces pre-neural and pre-forebrain markers, but only transiently. Further development of neural and forebrain phenotypes requires additional signals not provided by the hypoblast. In

  11. A review of the adverse effects and safety of noradrenergic antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Whiskey, Eromona; Taylor, David

    2013-08-01

    There are a variety of noradrenergic antidepressants available, most of which act by inhibiting neuronal noradrenaline re-uptake, although few drugs are specific for this action. Where drugs have numerous actions the adverse effects of noradrenaline reuptake may be difficult to isolate, although in this respect the adverse effects of reboxetine, a specific noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor, are illuminating. Noradrenergic antidepressants typically cause minor changes in blood and heart rate, sweating and insomnia. Other pharmacological actions shown by non-specific antidepressants may act to worsen or mitigate these adverse effects. Noradrenergic drugs are less likely than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to cause sexual dysfunction but more likely to cause urinary hesitancy. Doubts remain over the relative propensity for antidepressants with different modes of action to cause diabetes and hyponatraemia. Noradrenergic actions do not seem to confer a risk of death in overdose.

  12. Neurotoxic effects of DSP-4 on the central noradrenergic system in male zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Susanna A; Harding, Cheryl F

    2008-04-09

    When administered systemically, the noradrenergic neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) appears to target the noradrenergic innervation originating in the locus coeruleus causing long-term decrements in noradrenergic function. In songbirds, DSP-4-treatment decreased female-directed singing by males and copulation solicitation responses of females to male songs. However, DSP-4 treatment in songbirds did not lower measures of NE function in the brain to the same extent as it does in mammals. The current study had two goals: determining if two DSP-4 treatments 10 days apart would cause significant decrements in noradrenergic function in male zebra finches and determining if, as in other species, the noradrenergic innervation of midbrain and cortical areas would be profoundly affected while hypothalamic areas were spared. Dopamine-beta-hydroxylase immunoreactivity (DBH-ir) was quantified in thirteen brain regions (five vocal control nuclei, one auditory nucleus, two hypothalamic nuclei, and five additional areas that demonstrated high DBH labeling in controls). Within 20 days, DSP-4 treatment profoundly reduced the number of DBH-ir cells in both the locus coeruleus and ventral subcoeruleus. Unlike a previous study, DBH labeling delineated four out of five vocal control nuclei and an auditory nucleus. As expected, DSP-4 treatment significantly decreased DBH labeling in all areas examined in the mesencephalon and telencephalon without significantly affecting DBH-ir in hypothalamic areas. This double treatment regime appears to be much more effective in decreasing noradrenergic function in songbirds than the single treatment typically used.

  13. Evidence for evolutionary specialization in human limbic structures

    PubMed Central

    Barger, Nicole; Hanson, Kari L.; Teffer, Kate; Schenker-Ahmed, Natalie M.; Semendeferi, Katerina

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, functional and evolutionary research has highlighted the important contribution emotion processing makes to complex human social cognition. As such, it may be asked whether neural structures involved in emotion processing, commonly referred to as limbic structures, have been impacted in human brain evolution. To address this question, we performed an extensive evolutionary analysis of multiple limbic structures using modern phylogenetic tools. For this analysis, we combined new volumetric data for the hominoid (human and ape) amygdala and 4 amygdaloid nuclei, hippocampus, and striatum, collected using stereological methods in complete histological series, with previously published datasets on the amygdala, orbital and medial frontal cortex, and insula, as well as a non-limbic structure, the dorsal frontal cortex, for contrast. We performed a parallel analysis using large published datasets including many anthropoid species (human, ape, and monkey), but fewer hominoids, for the amygdala and 2 amygdaloid subdivisions, hippocampus, schizocortex, striatum, and septal nuclei. To address evolutionary change, we compared observed human values to values predicted from regressions run through (a) non-human hominoids and (b) non-human anthropoids, assessing phylogenetic influence using phylogenetic generalized least squares regression. Compared with other hominoids, the volumes of the hippocampus, the lateral nucleus of the amygdala, and the orbital frontal cortex were, respectively, 50, 37, and 11% greater in humans than predicted for an ape of human hemisphere volume, while the medial and dorsal frontal cortex were, respectively, 26 and 29% significantly smaller. Compared with other anthropoids, only human values for the striatum fell significantly below predicted values. Overall, the data present support for the idea that regions involved in emotion processing are not necessarily conserved or regressive, but may even be enhanced in recent human evolution

  14. Brainstem and limbic encephalitis with paraneoplastic neuromyelitis optica.

    PubMed

    Moussawi, Khaled; Lin, David J; Matiello, Marcelo; Chew, Sheena; Morganstern, Daniel; Vaitkevicius, Henrikas

    2016-01-01

    The spectrum of disorders associated with anti-neuromyelitis optica (NMO) antibody is being extended to include infrequent instances associated with cancer. We describe a patient with brainstem and limbic encephalitis from NMO-immunoglobulin G in serum and cerebrospinal fluid in the context of newly diagnosed breast cancer. The neurological features markedly improved with excision of her breast cancer and immune suppressive therapy. This case further broadens the NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD) by an association between NMOSD and cancer and raises the question of coincidental occurrence and the appropriate circumstances to search for a tumor in certain instances of NMO.

  15. Antagonism of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors Alters Synaptic ERK Phosphorylation in the Rat Forebrain.

    PubMed

    Mao, Li-Min; Wang, Henry H; Wang, John Q

    2016-12-28

    Acetylcholine (ACh) is a key transmitter in the mesocorticolimbic circuit. By interacting with muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChR) enriched in the circuit, ACh actively regulates various neuronal and synaptic activities. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is one of members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family and is subject to the regulation by dopamine receptors, although the regulation of ERKs by limbic mAChRs is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of mAChRs in the regulation of ERK phosphorylation (activation) in the mesocorticolimbic system of adult rat brains in vivo. We targeted a sub-pool of ERKs at synaptic sites. We found that a systemic injection of the mAChR antagonist scopolamine increased phosphorylation of synaptic ERKs in the striatum (caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Increases in ERK phosphorylation in both forebrain regions were rapid and transient. Notably, pretreatment with a dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) antagonist SCH23390 blocked the scopolamine-stimulated ERK phosphorylation in these brain regions, while a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist eticlopride did not. Scopolamine and SCH23390 did not change the amount of total ERK proteins. These results demonstrate that mAChRs inhibit synaptic ERK phosphorylation in striatal and mPFC neurons under normal conditions. Blockade of this inhibitory mAChR tone leads to the upregulation of ERK phosphorylation likely through a mechanism involving the level of D1R activity.

  16. Dynamic expression of MEIS1 homeoprotein in E14.5 forebrain and differentiated forebrain-derived neural stem cells.

    PubMed

    Barber, Benjamin A; Liyanage, Vichithra R B; Zachariah, Robby M; Olson, Carl O; Bailey, Melissa A G; Rastegar, Mojgan

    2013-10-01

    Central nervous system development is controlled by highly conserved homeoprotein transcription factors including HOX and TALE (Three Amino acid Loop Extension). TALE proteins are primarily known as HOX-cofactors and play key roles in cell proliferation, differentiation and organogenesis. MEIS1 is a TALE member with established expression in the developing central nervous system. MEIS1 is essential for embryonic development and Meis1 knockout mice dies at embryonic day (E) 14.5. However, Meis1/MEIS1 expression in the devolving forebrain, at this critical time-point has not been studied. Here, for the first time we characterize the region-specific expression of MEIS1 in E14.5 mouse forebrain, filling the gap of MEIS1 expression profile between E12.5 and E16.5. Previously, we reported MEIS1 transcriptional regulatory role in neuronal differentiation and established forebrain-derived neural stem cells (NSC) for gene therapy application of neuronal genes. Here, we show the dynamic expression of Meis1/MEIS1 during the differentiation of forebrain-derived NSC toward a glial lineage. Our results show that Meis1/MEIS1 expression is induced during NSC differentiation and is expressed in both differentiated neurons and astrocytes. Confirming these results, we detected MEIS1 expression in primary cultures of in vivo differentiated cortical neurons and astrocytes. We further demonstrate Meis1/MEIS1 expression relative to other TALE family members in the forebrain-derived NSC in the absence of Hox genes. Our data provide evidence that forebrain-derived NSC can be used as an accessible in vitro model to study the expression and function of TALE proteins, supporting their potential role in modulating NSC self-renewal and differentiation.

  17. Drugs of abuse specifically sensitize noradrenergic and serotonergic neurons via a non-dopaminergic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lanteri, Christophe; Salomon, Lucas; Torrens, Yvette; Glowinski, Jacques; Tassin, Jean-Pol

    2008-06-01

    A challenge in drug dependence is to delineate long-term neurochemical modifications induced by drugs of abuse. Repeated d-amphetamine was recently shown to disrupt a mutual regulatory link between noradrenergic and serotonergic neurons, thus inducing long-term increased responses to d-amphetamine and para-chloroamphetamine, respectively. We show here that such a sensitization of noradrenergic and serotonergic neurons also occurs following repeated treatment with cocaine, morphine, or alcohol, three compounds belonging to main groups of addictive substances. In all cases, this sensitization is prevented by alpha 1b-adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors blockade, indicating the critical role of these receptors on long-term effects of drugs of abuse. However, repeated treatments with two non-addictive antidepressants, venlafaxine, and clorimipramine, which nevertheless inhibit noradrenergic and serotonergic reuptake, do not induce noradrenergic and serotonergic neurons sensitization. Similarly, this sensitization does not occur following repeated treatments with a specific inhibitor of dopamine (DA) reuptake, GBR12783. Moreover, we show that the effects of SCH23390, a D1 receptor antagonist known to inhibit development of d-amphetamine behavioral sensitization, are due to its 5-HT2C receptor agonist property. SCH23390 blocks amphetamine-induced release of norepinephrine and RS102221, a 5-HT2C antagonist, can reverse this inhibition as well as inhibition of noradrenergic sensitization and development of behavioral sensitization induced by repeated d-amphetamine. We propose that noradrenergic/serotonergic uncoupling is a common neurochemical consequence of repeated consumption of drugs of abuse, unrelated with DA release. Our data also suggest that compounds able to restore the link between noradrenergic and serotonergic modulatory systems could represent important therapeutic targets for investigation.

  18. Norepinephrine deficiency in Parkinson's disease: the case for noradrenergic enhancement.

    PubMed

    Espay, Alberto J; LeWitt, Peter A; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2014-12-01

    The dramatic response of most motor and some nonmotor symptoms to dopaminergic therapies has contributed to maintaining the long-established identity of Parkinson's disease (PD) as primarily a nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) deficiency syndrome. However, DA neurotransmission may be neither the first nor the major neurotransmitter casualty in the neurodegenerative sequence of PD. Growing evidence supports earlier norepinephrine (NE) deficiency resulting from selective degeneration of neurons of the locus coeruleus and sympathetic ganglia. Dopaminergic replacement therapy therefore would seem to neglect some of the motor, behavioral, cognitive, and autonomic impairments that are directly or indirectly associated with the marked deficiency of NE in the brain and elsewhere. Therapeutic strategies to enhance NE neurotransmission have undergone only limited pharmacological testing. Currently, these approaches include selective NE reuptake inhibition, presynaptic α2 -adrenergic receptor blockade, and an NE prodrug, the artificial amino acid L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine. In addition to reducing the consequences of deficient noradrenergic signaling, enhancement strate gies have the potential for augmenting the effects of dopaminergic therapies in PD. Furthermore, early recognition of the various clinical manifestations associated with NE deficiency, which may precede development of motor symptoms, could provide a window of opportunity for neuroprotective interventions.

  19. Chronic stress disrupts neural coherence between cortico-limbic structures

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, João Filipe; Dias, Nuno Sérgio; Correia, Mariana; Gama-Pereira, Filipa; Sardinha, Vanessa Morais; Lima, Ana; Oliveira, Ana Filipa; Jacinto, Luís Ricardo; Ferreira, Daniela Silva; Silva, Ana Maria; Reis, Joana Santos; Cerqueira, João José; Sousa, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    Chronic stress impairs cognitive function, namely on tasks that rely on the integrity of cortico-limbic networks. To unravel the functional impact of progressive stress in cortico-limbic networks we measured neural activity and spectral coherences between the ventral hippocampus (vHIP) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in rats subjected to short term stress (STS) and chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). CUS exposure consistently disrupted the spectral coherence between both areas for a wide range of frequencies, whereas STS exposure failed to trigger such effect. The chronic stress-induced coherence decrease correlated inversely with the vHIP power spectrum, but not with the mPFC power spectrum, which supports the view that hippocampal dysfunction is the primary event after stress exposure. Importantly, we additionally show that the variations in vHIP-to-mPFC coherence and power spectrum in the vHIP correlated with stress-induced behavioral deficits in a spatial reference memory task. Altogether, these findings result in an innovative readout to measure, and follow, the functional events that underlie the stress-induced reference memory impairments. PMID:23390414

  20. Compulsive sexual behavior: Prefrontal and limbic volume and interactions

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Casper; Morris, Laurel S.; Kvamme, Timo L.; Hall, Paula; Birchard, Thaddeus

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Compulsive sexual behaviors (CSB) are relatively common and associated with significant personal and social dysfunction. The underlying neurobiology is still poorly understood. The present study examines brain volumes and resting state functional connectivity in CSB compared with matched healthy volunteers (HV). Methods Structural MRI (MPRAGE) data were collected in 92 subjects (23 CSB males and 69 age‐matched male HV) and analyzed using voxel‐based morphometry. Resting state functional MRI data using multi‐echo planar sequence and independent components analysis (ME‐ICA) were collected in 68 subjects (23 CSB subjects and 45 age‐matched HV). Results CSB subjects showed greater left amygdala gray matter volumes (small volume corrected, Bonferroni adjusted P < 0.01) and reduced resting state functional connectivity between the left amygdala seed and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (whole brain, cluster corrected FWE P < 0.05) compared with HV. Conclusions CSB is associated with elevated volumes in limbic regions relevant to motivational salience and emotion processing, and impaired functional connectivity between prefrontal control regulatory and limbic regions. Future studies should aim to assess longitudinal measures to investigate whether these findings are risk factors that predate the onset of the behaviors or are consequences of the behaviors. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1182–1190, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27787929

  1. Intrinsic Limbic and Paralimbic Networks Are Associated With Criminal Psychopathy

    PubMed Central

    Juárez, Michelle; Kiehl, Kent A.; Calhoun, Vince D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathy is a personality disorder associated with impairments in decision-making, empathy, and impulsivity. Recent brain imaging studies suggest that psychopathy is associated with abnormalities in limbic/paralimbic brain regions. To date, no studies have examined functional brain connectivity measures using independent component analyses (ICA) in adults with psychopathy. Here, we test hypotheses regarding paralimbic connectivity in adult incarcerated individuals stratified by psychopathy scores. Methods One hundred and two prison inmates were rated using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). FMRI data were collected while subjects performed an auditory target detection “oddball” task. FMRI data were analyzed using group ICA to identify functional networks responding to the oddball task correlating with psychopathy scores. Results Components demonstrating significant correlations with psychopathy included a default mode network, a frontoparietal component, and a visual/posterior cingulate component. Modulation trends correlated strongly with factor 2 (impulsivity) and total PCL-R scores in the frontoparietal and visual/posterior cingulate networks, and with factor 1 (affective) scores within the default mode network. The posterior cingulate region factored significantly in the modulation trends observed. Conclusion Consistent with the hypothesis of limbic/paralimbic abnormalities associated with psychopathy, modulation trends correlated strongly with PCL-R scores. There is strong evidence to implicate the posterior cingulate in aberrant functional connectivity associated with the manifestation of psychopathic symptoms. Future investigations comparing functional trends associated with the posterior cingulate in psychopathic subjects may provide further insight into the manifestation of this disorder. PMID:22431294

  2. Adult forebrain NMDA receptors gate social motivation and social memory.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Stephanie; Tsien, Joe Z

    2017-02-01

    Motivation to engage in social interaction is critical to ensure normal social behaviors, whereas dysregulation in social motivation can contribute to psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, autism, social anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While dopamine is well known to regulate motivation, its downstream targets are poorly understood. Given the fact that the dopamine 1 (D1) receptors are often physically coupled with the NMDA receptors, we hypothesize that the NMDA receptor activity in the adult forebrain principal neurons are crucial not only for learning and memory, but also for the proper gating of social motivation. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining sociability and social memory in inducible forebrain-specific NR1 knockout mice. These mice are ideal for exploring the role of the NR1 subunit in social behavior because the NR1 subunit can be selectively knocked out after the critical developmental period, in which NR1 is required for normal development. We found that the inducible deletion of the NMDA receptors prior to behavioral assays impaired, not only object and social recognition memory tests, but also resulted in profound deficits in social motivation. Mice with ablated NR1 subunits in the forebrain demonstrated significant decreases in sociability compared to their wild type counterparts. These results suggest that in addition to its crucial role in learning and memory, the NMDA receptors in the adult forebrain principal neurons gate social motivation, independent of neuronal development.

  3. Volume of the human septal forebrain region is a predictor of source memory accuracy.

    PubMed

    Butler, Tracy; Blackmon, Karen; Zaborszky, Laszlo; Wang, Xiuyuan; DuBois, Jonathan; Carlson, Chad; Barr, William B; French, Jacqueline; Devinsky, Orrin; Kuzniecky, Ruben; Halgren, Eric; Thesen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Septal nuclei, components of basal forebrain, are strongly and reciprocally connected with hippocampus, and have been shown in animals to play a critical role in memory. In humans, the septal forebrain has received little attention. To examine the role of human septal forebrain in memory, we acquired high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from 25 healthy subjects and calculated septal forebrain volume using recently developed probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps. We indexed memory with the California Verbal Learning Test-II. Linear regression showed that bilateral septal forebrain volume was a significant positive predictor of recognition memory accuracy. More specifically, larger septal forebrain volume was associated with the ability to recall item source/context accuracy. Results indicate specific involvement of septal forebrain in human source memory, and recall the need for additional research into the role of septal nuclei in memory and other impairments associated with human diseases.

  4. Development of axonal pathways in the human fetal fronto-limbic brain: histochemical characterization and diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Vasung, Lana; Huang, Hao; Jovanov-Milošević, Nataša; Pletikos, Mihovil; Mori, Susumu; Kostović, Ivica

    2010-10-01

    The development of cortical axonal pathways in the human brain begins during the transition between the embryonic and fetal period, happens in a series of sequential events, and leads to the establishment of major long trajectories by the neonatal period. We have correlated histochemical markers (acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry, antibody against synaptic protein SNAP-25 (SNAP-25-immunoreactivity) and neurofilament 200) with the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) database in order to make a reconstruction of the origin, growth pattern and termination of the pathways in the period between 8 and 34 postconceptual weeks (PCW). Histological sections revealed that the initial outgrowth and formation of joined trajectories of subcortico-frontal pathways (external capsule, cerebral stalk-internal capsule) and limbic bundles (fornix, stria terminalis, amygdaloid radiation) occur by 10 PCW. As early as 11 PCW, major afferent fibers invade the corticostriatal junction. At 13-14 PCW, axonal pathways from the thalamus and basal forebrain approach the deep moiety of the cortical plate, causing the first lamination. The period between 15 and 18 PCW is dominated by elaboration of the periventricular crossroads, sagittal strata and spread of fibers in the subplate and marginal zone. Tracing of fibers in the subplate with DTI is unsuccessful due to the isotropy of this zone. Penetration of the cortical plate occurs after 24-26 PCW. In conclusion, frontal axonal pathways form the periventricular crossroads, sagittal strata and 'waiting' compartments during the path-finding and penetration of the cortical plate. Histochemistry is advantageous in the demonstration of a growth pattern, whereas DTI is unique for demonstrating axonal trajectories. The complexity of fibers is the biological substrate of selective vulnerability of the fetal white matter.

  5. Neuropeptide S interacts with the basolateral amygdala noradrenergic system in facilitating object recognition memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Han, Ren-Wen; Xu, Hong-Jiao; Zhang, Rui-San; Wang, Pei; Chang, Min; Peng, Ya-Li; Deng, Ke-Yu; Wang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The noradrenergic activity in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) was reported to be involved in the regulation of object recognition memory. As the BLA expresses high density of receptors for Neuropeptide S (NPS), we investigated whether the BLA is involved in mediating NPS's effects on object recognition memory consolidation and whether such effects require noradrenergic activity. Intracerebroventricular infusion of NPS (1nmol) post training facilitated 24-h memory in a mouse novel object recognition task. The memory-enhancing effect of NPS could be blocked by the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol. Furthermore, post-training intra-BLA infusions of NPS (0.5nmol/side) improved 24-h memory for objects, which was impaired by co-administration of propranolol (0.5μg/side). Taken together, these results indicate that NPS interacts with the BLA noradrenergic system in improving object recognition memory during consolidation.

  6. Alcoholism and Dampened Temporal Limbic Activation to Emotional Faces

    PubMed Central

    Marinkovic, Ksenija; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Urban, Trinity; O’Reilly, Cara E.; Howard, Julie A.; Sawyer, Kayle; Harris, Gordon J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive chronic drinking is accompanied by a broad spectrum of emotional changes ranging from apathy and emotional flatness to deficits in comprehending emotional information, but their neural bases are poorly understood. Methods Emotional abnormalities associated with alcoholism were examined with functional magnetic resonance imaging in abstinent long-term alcoholic men in comparison to healthy demographically matched controls. Participants were presented with emotionally valenced words and photographs of faces during deep (semantic) and shallow (perceptual) encoding tasks followed by recognition. Results Overall, faces evoked stronger activation than words, with the expected material-specific laterality (left hemisphere for words, and right for faces) and depth of processing effects. However, whereas control participants showed stronger activation in the amygdala and hippocampus when viewing faces with emotional (relative to neutral) expressions, the alcoholics responded in an undifferentiated manner to all facial expressions. In the alcoholic participants, amygdala activity was inversely correlated with an increase in lateral prefrontal activity as a function of their behavioral deficits. Prefrontal modulation of emotional function as a compensation for the blunted amygdala activity during a socially relevant face appraisal task is in agreement with a distributed network engagement during emotional face processing. Conclusions Deficient activation of amygdala and hippocampus may underlie impaired processing of emotional faces associated with long-term alcoholism and may be a part of the wide array of behavioral problems including disinhibition, concurring with previously documented interpersonal difficulties in this population. Furthermore, the results suggest that alcoholics may rely on prefrontal rather than temporal limbic areas in order to compensate for reduced limbic responsivity and to maintain behavioral adequacy when faced with emotionally

  7. Purkinje cell loss and the noradrenergic system in the cerebellum of pcd mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Ghetti, B; Fuller, R W; Sawyer, B D; Hemrick-Luecke, S K; Schmidt, M J

    1981-12-01

    Purkinje cells in the cerebellum receive inhibitory noradrenergic input from the locus coeruleus. In pcd mutant mice all Purkinje cells degenerate by 45 days of age. The purpose of the present studies was to determine if the loss of these cerebellar neurons affects the amounts of norepinephrine in the cerebellum of mice 25-280 days of age. No significant changes in norepinephrine content were detected during or after Purkinje cell degeneration. However, since degeneration led to a reduction in cerebellar weight, the norepinephrine concentration was increased in pcd mutants. These results indicate that despite the loss of a major postsynaptic target (Purkinje cells), the cerebellar noradrenergic input remains stable.

  8. Abnormal development of the locus coeruleus in Ear2(Nr2f6)-deficient mice impairs the functionality of the forebrain clock and affects nociception

    PubMed Central

    Warnecke, Marei; Oster, Henrik; Revelli, Jean-Pierre; Alvarez-Bolado, Gonzalo; Eichele, Gregor

    2005-01-01

    The orphan nuclear receptor Ear2 (Nr2f6) is transiently expressed in the rostral part of the rhombic lip in which the locus coeruleus (LC) arises. LC development, regulated by a signaling cascade (Mash1 → Phox2b → Phox2a), is disrupted in Ear2-/- embryos as revealed by an approximately threefold reduction in the number of Phox2a- and Phox2b-expressing LC progenitor cells. Mash1 expression in the rhombic lip, however, is unaffected, placing Ear2 in between Mash1 and Phox2a/b. Dopamine-β-hydroxylase and tyrosine hydroxylase staining demonstrate that >70% of LC neurons are absent in the adult with agenesis affecting primarily the dorsal division of the LC. Normally, this division projects noradrenergic efferents to the cortex that appear to be diminished in Ear2-/- since the cortical concentration of noradrenaline is four times lower in these mice. The rostral region of the cortex is known to contain a circadian pacemaker regulating adaptability to light- and restricted food-driven entrainment. In situ hybridization establishes that the circadian expression pattern of the clock gene Period1 is abolished in the Ear2-/- forebrain. Behavioral experiments reveal that Ear2 mutants have a delayed entrainment to shifted light-dark cycles and adapt less efficiently to daytime feeding schedules. We propose that neurons in the dorsal division of LC contribute to the regulation of the forebrain clock, at least in part, through targeted release of noradrenaline into the cortical area. PMID:15741322

  9. Basal forebrain control of wakefulness and cortical rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Anaclet, Christelle; Pedersen, Nigel P.; Ferrari, Loris L.; Venner, Anne; Bass, Caroline E.; Arrigoni, Elda; Fuller, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Wakefulness, along with fast cortical rhythms and associated cognition, depend on the basal forebrain (BF). BF cholinergic cell loss in dementia and the sedative effect of anti-cholinergic drugs have long implicated these neurons as important for cognition and wakefulness. The BF also contains intermingled inhibitory GABAergic and excitatory glutamatergic cell groups whose exact neurobiological roles are unclear. Here we show that genetically targeted chemogenetic activation of BF cholinergic or glutamatergic neurons in behaving mice produced significant effects on state consolidation and/or the electroencephalogram but had no effect on total wake. Similar activation of BF GABAergic neurons produced sustained wakefulness and high-frequency cortical rhythms, whereas chemogenetic inhibition increased sleep. Our findings reveal a major contribution of BF GABAergic neurons to wakefulness and the fast cortical rhythms associated with cognition. These findings may be clinically applicable to manipulations aimed at increasing forebrain activation in dementia and the minimally conscious state. PMID:26524973

  10. Ascending connections to the forebrain in the Tegu lizard.

    PubMed

    Lohman, A H; van Woerden-Verkley, I

    1978-12-01

    The ascending connections to the striatum and the cortex of the Tegu lizard, Tupinambis nigropunctatus, were studied by means of anterograde fiber degeneration and retrograde axonal transport. The striatum receives projections by way of the dorsal peduncle of the lateral forebrain bundle from four dorsal thalamic nuclei: nucleus rotundus, nucleus reuniens, the posterior part of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus and nucleus dorsomedialis. The former three nuclei project to circumscribed areas of the dorsal striatum, whereas nucleus dorsomedialis has a distribution to the whole dorsal striatum. Other sources of origin to the striatum are the mesencephalic reticular formation, substantia nigra and nucleus cerebelli lateralis. With the exception of the latter afferentation all these projections are ipsilateral. The ascending connections to the pallium originate for the major part from nucleus dorsolateralis anterior of the dorsal thalamus. The fibers course in both the medial forebrain bundle and the dorsal peduncle of the lateral forebrain bundle and terminate ipsilaterally in the middle of the molecular layer of the small-celled part of the mediodorsal cortex and bilaterally above the intermediate region of the dorsal cortex. The latter area is reached also by fibers from the septal area. The large-celled part of the mediodorsal cortex receives projections from nucleus raphes superior and the corpus mammillare.

  11. Corelease of acetylcholine and GABA from cholinergic forebrain neurons

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Arpiar; Granger, Adam J; Sabatini, Bernardo L

    2015-01-01

    Neurotransmitter corelease is emerging as a common theme of central neuromodulatory systems. Though corelease of glutamate or GABA with acetylcholine has been reported within the cholinergic system, the full extent is unknown. To explore synaptic signaling of cholinergic forebrain neurons, we activated choline acetyltransferase expressing neurons using channelrhodopsin while recording post-synaptic currents (PSCs) in layer 1 interneurons. Surprisingly, we observed PSCs mediated by GABAA receptors in addition to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Based on PSC latency and pharmacological sensitivity, our results suggest monosynaptic release of both GABA and ACh. Anatomical analysis showed that forebrain cholinergic neurons express the GABA synthetic enzyme Gad2 and the vesicular GABA transporter (Slc32a1). We confirmed the direct release of GABA by knocking out Slc32a1 from cholinergic neurons. Our results identify GABA as an overlooked fast neurotransmitter utilized throughout the forebrain cholinergic system. GABA/ACh corelease may have major implications for modulation of cortical function by cholinergic neurons. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06412.001 PMID:25723967

  12. Shh and forebrain evolution in the blind cavefish Astyanax mexicanus.

    PubMed

    Rétaux, Sylvie; Pottin, Karen; Alunni, Alessandro

    2008-03-01

    The blind cavefish and its surface counterpart of the teleost species Astyanax mexicanus constitute an excellent model to study the evolution of morphological features. During adaptation to their lives in perpetual darkness, the cave population has lost eyes (and pigmentation), but has gained several constructive traits. Recently, the demonstration that an increase in Shh (Sonic Hedgehog) midline signalling was indirectly responsible for the loss of eyes in cavefish led to new ways to search for possible modifications in the forebrain of these cavefish, as this anterior-most region of the vertebrate central nervous system develops under close control of the powerful Shh morphogen. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in the understanding of forebrain and eye modifications in cavefish. These include major changes in cell death, cell proliferation and cell migration in various parts of the forebrain when compared with their surface counterparts with eyes. The outcome of these modifications, in terms of neuronal circuitry, morphological and behavioral adaptations are discussed.

  13. Basal forebrain degeneration precedes and predicts the cortical spread of Alzheimer's pathology

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Taylor W.; Nathan Spreng, R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Aisen, Paul; Petersen, Ronald; Jack, Clifford R.; Jagust, William; Trojanowki, John Q.; Toga, Arthur W.; Beckett, Laurel; Green, Robert C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Morris, John; Shaw, Leslie M.; Khachaturian, Zaven; Sorensen, Greg; Kuller, Lew; Raichle, Marc; Paul, Steven; Davies, Peter; Fillit, Howard; Hefti, Franz; Holtzman, Davie; Mesulam, M Marcel; Potter, William; Snyder, Peter; Schwartz, Adam; Montine, Tom; Thomas, Ronald G.; Donohue, Michael; Walter, Sarah; Gessert, Devon; Sather, Tamie; Jiminez, Gus; Harvey, Danielle; Bernstein, Matthew; Fox, Nick; Thompson, Paul; Schuff, Norbert; Borowski, Bret; Gunter, Jeff; Senjem, Matt; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Jones, David; Kantarci, Kejal; Ward, Chad; Koeppe, Robert A.; Foster, Norm; Reiman, Eric M.; Chen, Kewei; Mathis, Chet; Landau, Susan; Cairns, Nigel J.; Householder, Erin; Taylor-Reinwald, Lisa; Lee, Virginia; Korecka, Magdalena; Figurski, Michal; Crawford, Karen; Neu, Scott; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Potkin, Steven; Shen, Li; Faber, Kelley; Kim, Sungeun; Nho, Kwangsik; Thal, Leon; Buckholtz, Neil; Albert, Marylyn; Frank, Richard; Hsiao, John; Kaye, Jeffrey; Quinn, Joseph; Lind, Betty; Carter, Raina; Dolen, Sara; Schneider, Lon S.; Pawluczyk, Sonia; Beccera, Mauricio; Teodoro, Liberty; Spann, Bryan M.; Brewer, James; Vanderswag, Helen; Fleisher, Adam; Heidebrink, Judith L.; Lord, Joanne L.; Mason, Sara S.; Albers, Colleen S.; Knopman, David; Johnson, Kris; Doody, Rachelle S.; Villanueva-Meyer, Javier; Chowdhury, Munir; Rountree, Susan; Dang, Mimi; Stern, Yaakov; Honig, Lawrence S.; Bell, Karen L.; Ances, Beau; Carroll, Maria; Leon, Sue; Mintun, Mark A.; Schneider, Stacy; Oliver, Angela; Marson, Daniel; Griffith, Randall; Clark, David; Geldmacher, David; Brockington, John; Roberson, Erik; Grossman, Hillel; Mitsis, Effie; de Toledo-Morrell, Leyla; Shah, Raj C.; Duara, Ranjan; Varon, Daniel; Greig, Maria T.; Roberts, Peggy; Albert, Marilyn; Onyike, Chiadi; D'Agostino, Daniel; Kielb, Stephanie; Galvin, James E.; Cerbone, Brittany; Michel, Christina A.; Rusinek, Henry; de Leon, Mony J.; Glodzik, Lidia; De Santi, Susan; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Petrella, Jeffrey R.; Wong, Terence Z.; Arnold, Steven E.; Karlawish, Jason H.; Wolk, David; Smith, Charles D.; Jicha, Greg; Hardy, Peter; Sinha, Partha; Oates, Elizabeth; Conrad, Gary; Lopez, Oscar L.; Oakley, MaryAnn; Simpson, Donna M.; Porsteinsson, Anton P.; Goldstein, Bonnie S.; Martin, Kim; Makino, Kelly M.; Ismail, M. Saleem; Brand, Connie; Mulnard, Ruth A.; Thai, Gaby; Mc-Adams-Ortiz, Catherine; Womack, Kyle; Mathews, Dana; Quiceno, Mary; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; King, Richard; Weiner, Myron; Martin-Cook, Kristen; DeVous, Michael; Levey, Allan I.; Lah, James J.; Cellar, Janet S.; Burns, Jeffrey M.; Anderson, Heather S.; Swerdlow, Russell H.; Apostolova, Liana; Tingus, Kathleen; Woo, Ellen; Silverman, Daniel H. S.; Lu, Po H.; Bartzokis, George; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Parfitt, Francine; Kendall, Tracy; Johnson, Heather; Farlow, Martin R.; Hake, AnnMarie; Matthews, Brandy R.; Herring, Scott; Hunt, Cynthia; van Dyck, Christopher H.; Carson, Richard E.; MacAvoy, Martha G.; Chertkow, Howard; Bergman, Howard; Hosein, Chris; Black, Sandra; Stefanovic, Bojana; Caldwell, Curtis; Robin Hsiung, Ging-Yuek; Feldman, Howard; Mudge, Benita; Assaly, Michele; Kertesz, Andrew; Rogers, John; Bernick, Charles; Munic, Donna; Kerwin, Diana; Mesulam, Marek-Marsel; Lipowski, Kristine; Wu, Chuang-Kuo; Johnson, Nancy; Sadowsky, Carl; Martinez, Walter; Villena, Teresa; Turner, Raymond Scott; Johnson, Kathleen; Reynolds, Brigid; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Marshall, Gad; Frey, Meghan; Lane, Barton; Rosen, Allyson; Tinklenberg, Jared; Sabbagh, Marwan N.; Belden, Christine M.; Jacobson, Sandra A.; Sirrel, Sherye A.; Kowall, Neil; Killiany, Ronald; Budson, Andrew E.; Norbash, Alexander; Johnson, Patricia Lynn; Allard, Joanne; Lerner, Alan; Ogrocki, Paula; Hudson, Leon; Fletcher, Evan; Carmichael, Owen; Olichney, John; DeCarli, Charles; Kittur, Smita; Borrie, Michael; Lee, T.-Y.; Bartha, Rob; Johnson, Sterling; Asthana, Sanjay; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Potkin, Steven G.; Preda, Adrian; Nguyen, Dana; Tariot, Pierre; Reeder, Stephanie; Bates, Vernice; Capote, Horacio; Rainka, Michelle; Scharre, Douglas W.; Kataki, Maria; Adeli, Anahita; Zimmerman, Earl A.; Celmins, Dzintra; Brown, Alice D.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Blank, Karen; Anderson, Karen; Santulli, Robert B.; Kitzmiller, Tamar J.; Schwartz, Eben S.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Garg, Pradeep; Watkins, Franklin; Ott, Brian R.; Querfurth, Henry; Tremont, Geoffrey; Salloway, Stephen; Malloy, Paul; Correia, Stephen; Rosen, Howard J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Mintzer, Jacobo; Spicer, Kenneth; Bachman, David; Finger, Elizabether; Pasternak, Stephen; Rachinsky, Irina; Drost, Dick; Pomara, Nunzio; Hernando, Raymundo; Sarrael, Antero; Schultz, Susan K.; Boles Ponto, Laura L.; Shim, Hyungsub; Smith, Karen Elizabeth; Relkin, Norman; Chaing, Gloria; Raudin, Lisa; Smith, Amanda; Fargher, Kristin; Raj, Balebail Ashok; Neylan, Thomas; Grafman, Jordan; Davis, Melissa; Morrison, Rosemary; Hayes, Jacqueline; Finley, Shannon; Friedl, Karl; Fleischman, Debra; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; James, Olga; Massoglia, Dino; Fruehling, J. Jay; Harding, Sandra; Peskind, Elaine R.; Petrie, Eric C.; Li, Gail; Yesavage, Jerome A.; Taylor, Joy L.; Furst, Ansgar J.

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable debate whether Alzheimer's disease (AD) originates in basal forebrain or entorhinal cortex. Here we examined whether longitudinal decreases in basal forebrain and entorhinal cortex grey matter volume were interdependent and sequential. In a large cohort of age-matched older adults ranging from cognitively normal to AD, we demonstrate that basal forebrain volume predicts longitudinal entorhinal degeneration. Models of parallel degeneration or entorhinal origin received negligible support. We then integrated volumetric measures with an amyloid biomarker sensitive to pre-symptomatic AD pathology. Comparison between cognitively matched normal adult subgroups, delineated according to the amyloid biomarker, revealed abnormal degeneration in basal forebrain, but not entorhinal cortex. Abnormal degeneration in both basal forebrain and entorhinal cortex was only observed among prodromal (mildly amnestic) individuals. We provide evidence that basal forebrain pathology precedes and predicts both entorhinal pathology and memory impairment, challenging the widely held belief that AD has a cortical origin. PMID:27811848

  14. Immunohistochemical localization of the D1 dopamine receptor in rat brain reveals its axonal transport, pre- and postsynaptic localization, and prevalence in the basal ganglia, limbic system, and thalamic reticular nucleus.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Q; Zhou, D; Chase, K; Gusella, J F; Aronin, N; DiFiglia, M

    1992-01-01

    D1 dopamine receptor localization was examined by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal anti-peptide antibody which (i) immunoprecipitated a protein fragment encoded by a D1 receptor cDNA and (ii) on Western blots of solubilized striatal and hippocampal membranes recognized two proteins of approximately 50 kDa and 75 kDa, corresponding to reported sizes of D1 receptor proteins. Immunoreactivity overlapped with dopamine-containing pathways, patterns of D1 receptor binding, and mRNA expression. Staining was concentrated in prefrontal, cingulate, parietal, piriform, entorhinal, and hippocampal cortical areas and subcortically in the basal ganglia, amygdala, septal area, substantia inominata, thalamus, hypothalamus, and neurohypophysis. Prominent labeling was seen in the thalamic reticular nucleus, a region known to integrate ascending basal forebrain inputs with thalamocortical and corticothalamic pathways and in fiber bundles interconnecting limbic areas. In striatal neuropil, staining appeared in spines (heads and necks), at postsynaptic sites in dendrites, and in axon terminals; in the pars reticulata of the substantia nigra, labeling was prevalent in myelinated and unmyelinated axons and dendrites. These data provide direct evidence for the regional and subcellular distribution of D1 receptor protein in the brain and for its pre- and postsynaptic localization in the basal ganglia. The prominent immunoreactivity seen in the limbic system and thalamic reticular nucleus supports an important role for this receptor subtype in mediating integrative processes involved with learning, memory, and cognition. Images PMID:1281547

  15. Noradrenergic Control of Odor Recognition in a Nonassociative Olfactory Learning Task in the Mouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veyrac, Alexandra; Nguyen, Veronique; Marien, Marc; Didier, Anne; Jourdan, Francois

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of pharmacological modulations of the locus coeruleus noradrenergic system on odor recognition in the mouse. Mice exposed to a nonrewarded olfactory stimulation (training) were able to memorize this odor and to discriminate it from a new odor in a recall test performed 15 min later. At longer delays (30 or…

  16. Resilience to chronic stress is mediated by noradrenergic regulation of dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Isingrini, Elsa; Perret, Léa; Rainer, Quentin; Amilhon, Bénédicte; Guma, Elisa; Tanti, Arnaud; Martin, Garance; Robinson, Jennifer; Moquin, Luc; Marti, Fabio; Mechawar, Naguib; Williams, Sylvain; Gratton, Alain; Giros, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    Dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) help mediate stress susceptibility and resilience. However, upstream mechanisms controlling these neurons remain unknown. Noradrenergic (NE) neurons in the locus coeruleus, implicated in the pathophysiology of depression, have direct connections within the VTA. Here we demonstrate that NE neurons regulate vulnerability to social defeat through inhibitory control of VTA DA neurons.

  17. Restoring Spinal Noradrenergic Inhibitory Tone Attenuates Pain Hypersensitivity in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing; Chen, Li-Hua

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether restoring descending noradrenergic inhibitory tone can attenuate pain in a PD rat model, which was established by stereotaxic infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the bilateral striatum (CPu). PD rats developed thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity at the 4th week after surgery. HPLC analysis showed that NE content, but not dopamine or 5-HT, significantly decreased in lumbar spinal cord in PD rats. Additional noradrenergic depletion by injection of N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) aggravated pain hypersensitivity in PD rats. At the 5th week after injection of 6-OHDA, systemic treatment with pharmacological norepinephrine (NE) precursor droxidopa (L-DOPS) or α2 adrenoceptor agonist clonidine significantly attenuated thermal and mechanical pain hypersensitivity in PD rats. Furthermore, application of norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors duloxetine, but not 5-HT selective reuptake inhibitors sertraline, significantly inhibited thermal and mechanical pain hypersensitivity in PD rats. Systemic administration of Madopar (L-DOPA) or the D2/D3 agonist pramipexole slightly inhibited the thermal, but not mechanical, hypersensitivity in PD rats. Thus, our study revealed that impairment of descending noradrenergic system may play a key role in PD-associated pain and restoring spinal noradrenergic inhibitory tone may serve as a novel strategy to manage PD-associated pain. PMID:27747105

  18. Facilitation of Learning by Social-Emotional Feedback in Humans Is Beta-Noradrenergic-Dependent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihov, Yoan; Mayer, Simon; Musshoff, Frank; Maier, Wolfgang; Kendrick, Keith M.; Hurlemann, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive behavior in dynamic environments critically depends on the ability to learn rapidly and flexibly from the outcomes of prior choices. In social environments, facial expressions of emotion often serve as performance feedback and thereby guide declarative learning. Abundant evidence implicates beta-noradrenergic signaling in the modulatory…

  19. The Memory Function of Noradrenergic Activity in Non-REM Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gais, Steffen; Rasch, Bjorn; Dahmen, Johannes C.; Sara, Susan; Born, Jan

    2011-01-01

    There is a long-standing assumption that low noradrenergic activity during sleep reflects mainly the low arousal during this brain state. Nevertheless, recent research has demonstrated that the locus coeruleus, which is the main source of cortical noradrenaline, displays discrete periods of intense firing during non-REM sleep, without any signs of…

  20. Orphanin FQ/Nociceptin Interacts with the Basolateral Amygdala Noradrenergic System in Memory Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roozendaal, Benno; Lengvilas, Ray; McGaugh, James L.; Civelli, Olivier; Reinscheid, Rainer K.

    2007-01-01

    Extensive evidence indicates that the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) mediates hormonal and neurotransmitter effects on the consolidation of emotionally influenced memory and that such modulatory influences involve noradrenergic activation of the BLA. As the BLA also expresses a high density of receptors for orphanin FQ/nociceptin…

  1. Noradrenergic Action in Prefrontal Cortex in the Late Stage of Memory Consolidation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tronel, Sophie; Feenstra, Matthijs G. P.; Sara, Susan J.

    2004-01-01

    These experiments investigated the role of the noradrenergic system in the late stage of memory consolidation and in particular its action at beta receptors in the prelimbic region (PL) of the prefrontal cortex in the hours after training. Rats were trained in a rapidly acquired, appetitively motivated foraging task based on olfactory…

  2. Co-localization of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor with corticotropin-releasing factor-containing afferents in the noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus: implications for the cognitive limb of the stress response.

    PubMed

    R Wyrofsky, Ryan; Reyes, Beverly A S; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J

    2017-03-02

    The noradrenergic system has been shown to play a key role in the regulation of stress responses, arousal, mood, and emotional states. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a primary mediator of stress-induced activation of noradrenergic neurons in the nucleus locus coeruleus (LC). The endocannabinoid (eCB) system also plays a key role in modulating stress responses, acting as an "anti-stress" neuro-mediator. In the present study, we investigated the cellular sites for interactions between the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1r) and CRF in the LC. Immunofluorescence and high-resolution immunoelectron microscopy showed co-localization of CB1r and CRF in both the core and peri-LC areas. Semi-quantitative analysis revealed that 44% (208/468) of CRF-containing axon terminals in the core and 35% (104/294) in the peri-LC expressed CB1r, while 18% (85/468) of CRF-containing axon terminals in the core and 6.5% (19/294) in the peri-LC were presynaptic to CB1r-containing dendrites. In the LC core, CB1r + CRF axon terminals were more frequently of the symmetric (inhibitory) type; while in the peri-LC, a majority were of the asymmetric (excitatory) type. Triple label immunofluorescence results supported the ultrastructural analysis indicating that CB1r + CRF axon terminals contained either gamma amino butyric acid or glutamate. Finally, anterograde transport from the central nucleus of the amygdala revealed that CRF-amygdalar afferents projecting to the LC contain CB1r. Taken together, these results indicate that the eCB system is poised to directly modulate stress-integrative heterogeneous CRF afferents in the LC, some of which arise from limbic sources.

  3. The noradrenergic paradox: implications in the management of depression and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Alonso; Bruins, Robert; Katzman, Martin A; Blier, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Both major depressive disorder and the anxiety disorders are major causes of disability and markedly contribute to a significant global burden of the disease worldwide. In part because of the significant socioeconomic burden associated with these disorders, theories have been developed to specifically build clinical treatment approaches. One such theory, the monoaminergic hypothesis, has led to the development of several generations of selective and nonselective inhibitors of transporters of serotonin and norepinephrine, with the goal of augmenting monoaminergic transmission. These efforts have led to considerable success in the development of antidepressant therapeutics. However, there is a strong correlation between enhanced noradrenergic activity and fear and anxiety. Consequently, some physicians have expressed concerns that the same enhanced noradrenergic activity that alleviates depression could also promote anxiety. The fact that the serotonergic and noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors are successfully used in the treatment of anxiety and panic disorders seems paradoxical. This review was undertaken to determine if any clinical evidence exists to show that serotonergic and noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors can cause anxiety. The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched, and the results limited to randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies performed in nongeriatric adults and with clear outcome measures were reported. Based on these criteria, a total of 52 studies were examined. Patients in these studies suffered from depression or anxiety disorders (generalized and social anxiety disorders, panic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder). The large majority of these studies employed venlafaxine or duloxetine, and the remainder used tri-cyclic antidepressants, atomoxetine, or reboxetine. All the studies reported clinically significant alleviation of depressive and/or anxious symptoms by these therapeutics. In none of these

  4. The noradrenergic paradox: implications in the management of depression and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Alonso; Bruins, Robert; Katzman, Martin A; Blier, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Both major depressive disorder and the anxiety disorders are major causes of disability and markedly contribute to a significant global burden of the disease worldwide. In part because of the significant socioeconomic burden associated with these disorders, theories have been developed to specifically build clinical treatment approaches. One such theory, the monoaminergic hypothesis, has led to the development of several generations of selective and nonselective inhibitors of transporters of serotonin and norepinephrine, with the goal of augmenting monoaminergic transmission. These efforts have led to considerable success in the development of antidepressant therapeutics. However, there is a strong correlation between enhanced noradrenergic activity and fear and anxiety. Consequently, some physicians have expressed concerns that the same enhanced noradrenergic activity that alleviates depression could also promote anxiety. The fact that the serotonergic and noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors are successfully used in the treatment of anxiety and panic disorders seems paradoxical. This review was undertaken to determine if any clinical evidence exists to show that serotonergic and noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors can cause anxiety. The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched, and the results limited to randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies performed in nongeriatric adults and with clear outcome measures were reported. Based on these criteria, a total of 52 studies were examined. Patients in these studies suffered from depression or anxiety disorders (generalized and social anxiety disorders, panic disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder). The large majority of these studies employed venlafaxine or duloxetine, and the remainder used tri-cyclic antidepressants, atomoxetine, or reboxetine. All the studies reported clinically significant alleviation of depressive and/or anxious symptoms by these therapeutics. In none of these

  5. Treatment of limbic encephalitis with anti-glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) antibodies.

    PubMed

    Krastinova, E; Vigneron, M; Le Bras, P; Gasnault, J; Goujard, C

    2012-11-01

    We report a 72-year-old patient who developed acute limbic encephalitis initially considered of uncertain aetiology. Detailed information on clinical presentation, MRI appearance, antibody levels, cognitive impairment assessment, treatment and evolution of the patient is reported here. Since the early 2000s, many antibodies implied in central nervous system autoimmune disorders have been identified. Anti-glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) antibodies have been recently identified as associated with limbic encephalitis, as was the case in our patient.

  6. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging of the human limbic white matter

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Susumu; Aggarwal, Manisha

    2014-01-01

    The limbic system mediates memory, behavior, and emotional output in the human brain, and is implicated in the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease and a wide spectrum of related neurological disorders. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of structural components comprising the limbic system and their interconnections via white matter pathways in the human brain has helped define current understanding of the limbic model based on the classical circuit proposed by Papez. MRI techniques, including diffusion MR imaging, provide a non-invasive method to characterize white matter tracts of the limbic system, and investigate pathological changes that affect these pathways in clinical settings. This review focuses on delineation of the anatomy of major limbic tracts in the human brain, namely, the cingulum, the fornix and fimbria, and the stria terminalis, based on in vivo MRI contrasts. The detailed morphology and intricate trajectories of these pathways that can be identified using relaxometry-based and diffusion-weighted MRI provide an important anatomical reference for evaluation of clinical disorders commonly associated with limbic pathology. PMID:25505883

  7. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic System and Orexin Neurons: Effects on Attention

    PubMed Central

    Villano, Ines; Messina, Antonietta; Valenzano, Anna; Moscatelli, Fiorenzo; Esposito, Teresa; Monda, Vincenzo; Esposito, Maria; Precenzano, Francesco; Carotenuto, Marco; Viggiano, Andrea; Chieffi, Sergio; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Monda, Marcellino; Messina, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic system has an important role in attentive functions. The cholinergic system can be activated by different inputs, and in particular, by orexin neurons, whose cell bodies are located within the postero-lateral hypothalamus. Recently the orexin-producing neurons have been proved to promote arousal and attention through their projections to the BF. The aim of this review article is to summarize the evidence showing that the orexin system contributes to attentional processing by an increase in cortical acetylcholine release and in cortical neurons activity. PMID:28197081

  8. Localization of myocyte enhancer factor 2 in the rodent forebrain: regionally-specific cytoplasmic expression of MEF2A.

    PubMed

    Neely, M Diana; Robert, Elizabeth M; Baucum, Anthony J; Colbran, Roger J; Muly, E Chris; Deutch, Ariel Y

    2009-06-05

    The transcription factor myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) is expressed throughout the central nervous system, where four MEF2 isoforms play important roles in neuronal survival and differentiation and in synapse formation and maintenance. It is therefore somewhat surprising that there is a lack of detailed information on the localization of MEF2 isoforms in the mammalian brain. We have analyzed the regional, cellular, and subcellular expression of MEF2A and MEF2D in the rodent brain. These two MEF2 isoforms were co-expressed in virtually all neurons in the cortex and the striatum, but were not detected in astrocytes. MEF2A and MEF2D were localized to the nuclei of neurons in many forebrain areas, consistent with their roles as transcriptional regulators. However, in several subcortical sites we observed extensive cytoplasmic expression of MEF2A but not MEF2D. MEF2A was particularly enriched in processes of neurons in the lateral septum and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, as well as in several other limbic sites, including the central amygdala and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and thalamus. Ultrastructural examination similarly revealed MEF2A-ir in axons and dendrites as well as MEF2A-ir nuclei in the lateral septum and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis neurons. This study demonstrates for the first time extensive cytoplasmic localization of a MEF2 transcription factor in the mammalian brain in vivo. The extranuclear localization of MEF2A suggests novel roles for MEF2A in specific neuronal populations.

  9. Learning and the motivation to eat: Forebrain circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Petrovich, Gorica D.

    2011-01-01

    Appetite and eating are not only controlled by energy needs, but also by extrinsic factors that are not directly related to energy balance. Environmental signals that acquire motivational properties through associative learning—learned cues—can override homeostatic signals and stimulate eating in sated states, or inhibit eating in states of hunger. Such influences are important, as environmental factors are believed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to overeating and the rise in obesity in the developed world. Similarly, environmental and social factors contribute to the onset and maintenance of anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders through interactions with the individual genetic background. Nevertheless, how learning enables environmental signals to control feeding, and the underlying brain mechanisms are poorly understood. We developed two rodent models to study how learned cues are integrated with homeostatic signals within functional forebrain networks, and how these networks are modulated by experience. In one model, a cue previously paired with food when an animal was hungry induces eating in sated rats. In the other model, food-deprived rats inhibit feeding when presented with a cue that signals danger, a tone previously paired with footshocks. Here evidence will be reviewed that the forebrain network formed by the amygdala, lateral hypothalamus and medial prefrontal cortex mediates cue-driven feeding, while a parallel amygdalar circuitry mediates suppression of eating by the fear cue. Findings from the animal models may be relevant for understanding aspects of human appetite and eating, and maladaptive mechanisms that could lead to overeating and anorexia. PMID:21549730

  10. A cholinergic basal forebrain feeding circuit modulates appetite suppression.

    PubMed

    Herman, Alexander M; Ortiz-Guzman, Joshua; Kochukov, Mikhail; Herman, Isabella; Quast, Kathleen B; Patel, Jay M; Tepe, Burak; Carlson, Jeffrey C; Ung, Kevin; Selever, Jennifer; Tong, Qingchun; Arenkiel, Benjamin R

    2016-10-13

    Atypical food intake is a primary cause of obesity and other eating and metabolic disorders. Insight into the neural control of feeding has previously focused mainly on signalling mechanisms associated with the hypothalamus, the major centre in the brain that regulates body weight homeostasis. However, roles of non-canonical central nervous system signalling mechanisms in regulating feeding behaviour have been largely uncharacterized. Acetylcholine has long been proposed to influence feeding owing in part to the functional similarity between acetylcholine and nicotine, a known appetite suppressant. Nicotine is an exogenous agonist for acetylcholine receptors, suggesting that endogenous cholinergic signalling may play a part in normal physiological regulation of feeding. However, it remains unclear how cholinergic neurons in the brain regulate food intake. Here we report that cholinergic neurons of the mouse basal forebrain potently influence food intake and body weight. Impairment of cholinergic signalling increases food intake and results in severe obesity, whereas enhanced cholinergic signalling decreases food consumption. We found that cholinergic circuits modulate appetite suppression on downstream targets in the hypothalamus. Together our data reveal the cholinergic basal forebrain as a major modulatory centre underlying feeding behaviour.

  11. Learning and the motivation to eat: forebrain circuitry.

    PubMed

    Petrovich, Gorica D

    2011-09-26

    Appetite and eating are not only controlled by energy needs, but also by extrinsic factors that are not directly related to energy balance. Environmental signals that acquire motivational properties through associative learning-learned cues-can override homeostatic signals and stimulate eating in sated states, or inhibit eating in states of hunger. Such influences are important, as environmental factors are believed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to overeating and the rise in obesity in the developed world. Similarly, environmental and social factors contribute to the onset and maintenance of anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders through interactions with the individual genetic background. Nevertheless, how learning enables environmental signals to control feeding, and the underlying brain mechanisms are poorly understood. We developed two rodent models to study how learned cues are integrated with homeostatic signals within functional forebrain networks, and how these networks are modulated by experience. In one model, a cue previously paired with food when an animal was hungry induces eating in sated rats. In the other model, food-deprived rats inhibit feeding when presented with a cue that signals danger, a tone previously paired with footshocks. Here evidence will be reviewed that the forebrain network formed by the amygdala, lateral hypothalamus and medial prefrontal cortex mediates cue-driven feeding, while a parallel amygdalar circuitry mediates suppression of eating by the fear cue. Findings from the animal models may be relevant for understanding aspects of human appetite and eating, and maladaptive mechanisms that could lead to overeating and anorexia.

  12. Distribution of vasopressin in the forebrain of spotted hyenas.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Greta J; De Vries, Geert J; Villalba, Constanza; Weldele, Mary L; Place, Ned J; Coscia, Elizabeth M; Glickman, Steve E; Forger, Nancy G

    2006-09-01

    The extreme virilization of the female spotted hyena raises interesting questions with respect to sexual differentiation of the brain and behavior. Females are larger and more aggressive than adult, non-natal males and dominate them in social encounters; their external genitalia also are highly masculinized. In many vertebrates, the arginine vasopressin (VP) innervation of the forebrain, particularly that of the lateral septum, is associated with social behaviors such as aggression and dominance. Here, we used immunohistochemistry to examine the distribution of VP cells and fibers in the forebrains of adult spotted hyenas. We find the expected densely staining VP immunoreactive (VP-ir) neurons in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei, as well as an unusually extensive distribution of magnocelluar VP-ir neurons in accessory regions. A small number of VP-ir cell bodies are present in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis; however, there are extensive VP-ir fiber networks in presumed projection areas of these nuclei, for example, the subparaventricular zone and lateral septum, respectively. No significant sex differences were detected in the density of VP-ir fibers in any area examined. In the lateral septum, however, marked variability was observed. Intact females exhibited a dense fiber network, as did two of the four males examined; the two other males had almost no VP-ir septal fibers. This contrasts with findings in many other vertebrate species, in which VP innervation of the lateral septum is consistently greater in males than in females.

  13. Noradrenergic blockade stabilizes prefrontal activity and enables fear extinction under stress.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Paul J; Giustino, Thomas F; Seemann, Jocelyn R; Maren, Stephen

    2015-07-14

    Stress-induced impairments in extinction learning are believed to sustain posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Noradrenergic signaling may contribute to extinction impairments by modulating medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuits involved in fear regulation. Here we demonstrate that aversive fear conditioning rapidly and persistently alters spontaneous single-unit activity in the prelimbic and infralimbic subdivisions of the mPFC in behaving rats. These conditioning-induced changes in mPFC firing were mitigated by systemic administration of propranolol (10 mg/kg, i.p.), a β-noradrenergic receptor antagonist. Moreover, propranolol administration dampened the stress-induced impairment in extinction observed when extinction training is delivered shortly after fear conditioning. These findings suggest that β-adrenoceptors mediate stress-induced changes in mPFC spike firing that contribute to extinction impairments. Propranolol may be a helpful adjunct to behavioral therapy for PTSD, particularly in patients who have recently experienced trauma.

  14. Noradrenergic lesioning with an anti-dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunotoxin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picklo, M. J.; Wiley, R. G.; Lappi, D. A.; Robertson, D.

    1994-01-01

    Sympathectomy has been achieved by a variety of methods but each has its limitations. These include lack of tissue specificity, incomplete lesioning, and the age range of susceptibility to the lesioning. To circumvent these drawbacks, an immunotoxin was constructed using a monoclonal antibody against the noradrenergic specific enzyme dopamine beta-hydroxylase (D beta H) coupled via a disulfide bond to saporin, a ribosomal inactivating protein. Three days after intravenous injection of the anti-D beta H immunotoxin (50 micrograms) into adult Sprague-Dawley rats, 66% of neurons in the superior cervical ganglia were chromatolytic. Superior cervical ganglia neurons were poisoned in 1 day old and 1 week old (86% of neurons) neonatal rats following subcutaneous injection of 3.75 and 15 micrograms, respectively. The anti-D beta H immunotoxin will be a useful tool in the study of the peripheral noradrenergic system in adult and neonatal animals.

  15. Orally administrated dipeptide Ser-Tyr efficiently stimulates noradrenergic turnover in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Takashi; Moriyasu, Kazuki; Nakahata, Akane; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Matsui, Toshiro; Furuya, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of orally administrated dipeptides containing Tyr (Y) on the metabolism of catecholamines in mouse brains. We found that among eight synthetic dipeptides whose sequences are present frequently in soy proteins, Ser-Tyr (SY), Ile-Tyr, and Tyr-Pro had the highest apparent permeability coefficients in monolayers of human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. When administrated orally, SY markedly increased tyrosine content in the cerebral cortex compared to the vehicle control, Ile-Tyr, Tyr-Pro, and Y alone. The oral administration of SY more effectively increased 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol, the principal metabolite of noradrenaline, in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus than did Ile-Tyr, Tyr-Pro, or Y alone. Central noradrenergic turnover was also markedly stimulated by SY administration. These in vivo observations strongly suggest that SY is more potent in boosting central catecholamine transmission, particularly the noradrenergic system, than Y alone or other dipeptides that include Y.

  16. Plasma Dopamine-Beta-Hydroxylase as an Index of Peripheral Noradrenergic Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-17

    ABSTRACT Tit le of Dissertation: Plasma Dopamine-Beta- Hydroxylase as an Index of Peripheral Noradrenergic Act iv i ty John P. A f f ron t i...Pharmacology Dopamine-Beta- Hydroxylase (DBH) (E .C . I .14.17.1) is the biosynthetic enzyme for norepinephrine and is released with the neurotransmitter dur...lu id DBH as an index of central non- adrenergic act ivi ty is addressed. PLASMA DOPAMINE-BETA- HYDROXYLASE ACTIVITY AS AN INDEX OF PERIPHERAL

  17. The role of brain noradrenergic system in the regulation of liver cytochrome P450 expression.

    PubMed

    Sadakierska-Chudy, Anna; Haduch, Anna; Rysz, Marta; Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Daniel, Władysława A

    2013-09-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of the brain noradrenergic system on the expression of cytochrome P450 in the liver. The experiment was carried out on male Wistar rats. Intracerebroventricular injection of the noradrenergic neurotoxin DSP-4 diminished noradrenaline level in the brain. Simultaneously, significant decreases in the serum concentration of the growth hormone, testosterone and the thyroid hormone thyroxine, as well as an increase in corticosterone level were observed. The concentrations of triiodothyronine and the cytokines interleukine 2 (IL-2) and 6 (IL-6) were not changed by DSP-4. The neurotoxin produced complex changes in the functioning of cytochrome P450. Significant decreases in the activity of liver CYP2C11 (measured as a rate of the 2α- and 16α-hydroxylation of testosterone) and CYP3A (measured as a rate of the 2β- and 6β-hydroxylation of testosterone) were found. In contrast, the activity of CYP1A (measured as a rate of caffeine metabolism) rose, while that of CYP2A (measured as a rate of the 7α-hydroxylation of testosterone), CYP2C6 (measured as a rate of the 7-hydroxylation of warfarin) and CYP2D (the 1'-hydroxylation of bufuralol) remained unchanged. The changes in the activity of CYP1A, CYP2C11 and CYP3A correlated positively with those in CYP protein levels and with the CYP mRNA levels of CYP1A1, CYP2C11 and CYP3A1/2 genes, respectively. The obtained results indicate an important role of the brain noradrenergic system in the neuroendocrine regulation of liver cytochrome P450 expression, which may be of significance in pathological states involving this system, or during pharmacotherapy with drugs affecting noradrenergic transmission.

  18. Histamine in the locus coeruleus promotes descending noradrenergic inhibition of neuropathic hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hong; Jin, Cong-Yu; Viisanen, Hanna; You, Hao-Jun; Pertovaara, Antti

    2014-12-01

    Among brain structures receiving efferent projections from the histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus is the pontine locus coeruleus (LC) involved in descending noradrenergic control of pain. Here we studied whether histamine in the LC is involved in descending regulation of neuropathic hypersensitivity. Peripheral neuropathy was induced by unilateral spinal nerve ligation in the rat with a chronic intracerebral and intrathecal catheter for drug administrations. Mechanical hypersensitivity in the injured limb was assessed by monofilaments. Heat nociception was assessed by determining radiant heat-induced paw flick. Histamine in the LC produced a dose-related (1-10μg) mechanical antihypersensitivity effect (maximum effect at 15min and duration of effect 30min), without influence on heat nociception. Pretreatment of LC with zolantidine (histamine H2 receptor antagonist), but not with pyrilamine (histamine H1 receptor antagonist), and spinal administration of atipamezole (an α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), prazosine (an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist) or bicuculline (a GABAA receptor antagonist) attenuated the antihypersensitivity effect of histamine. The histamine-induced antihypersensitivity effect was also reduced by pretreatment of LC with fadolmidine, an α2-adrenoceptor agonist inducing autoinhibition of noradrenergic cell bodies. Zolantidine or pyrilamine alone in the LC failed to influence pain behavior, while A-960656 (histamine H3 receptor antagonist) suppressed hypersensitivity. A plausible explanation for these findings is that histamine, due to excitatory action mediated by the histamine H2 receptor on noradrenergic cell bodies, promotes descending spinal α1/2-adrenoceptor-mediated inhibition of neuropathic hypersensitivity. Blocking the autoinhibitory histamine H3 receptor on histaminergic nerve terminals in the LC facilitates release of histamine and thereby, increases descending noradrenergic pain inhibition.

  19. Enhanced assymetrical noradrenergic transmission in the olfactory bulb of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Abramoff, Tamara; Guil, María J; Morales, Vanina P; Hope, Sandra I; Soria, Celeste; Bianciotti, Liliana G; Vatta, Marcelo S

    2013-10-01

    The ablation of olfactory bulb induces critical changes in dopamine, and monoamine oxidase activity in the brain stem. Growing evidence supports the participation of this telencephalic region in the regulation blood pressure and cardiovascular activity but little is known about its contribution to hypertension. We have previously reported that in the olfactory bulb of normotensive rats endothelins enhance noradrenergic activity by increasing tyrosine hydroxylase activity and norepinephrine release. In the present study we sought to establish the status of noradrenergic activity in the olfactory bulb of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. Different steps in norepinephrine transmission including tyrosine hydroxylase activity, neuronal norepinephrine release and uptake were assessed in the left and right olfactory bulb of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. Increased tyrosine hydroxylase activity, and decreased neuronal norepinephrine uptake were observed in the olfactory bulb of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. Furthermore the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and its phosphorylated forms were also augmented. Intriguingly, asymmetrical responses between the right and left olfactory bulb of normotensive and hypertensive rats were observed. Neuronal norepinephrine release was increased in the right but not in the left olfactory bulb of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats, whereas non asymmetrical differences were observed in normotensive animals. Present findings indicate that the olfactory bulb of hypertensive rats show an asymmetrical increase in norepinephrine activity. The observed changes in noradrenergic transmission may likely contribute to the onset and/or progression of hypertension in this animal model.

  20. NORADRENERGIC, BUT NOT CHOLINERGIC, DEAFFERENTATION OF PREFRONTAL CORTEX IMPAIRS ATTENTIONAL SET-SHIFTING

    PubMed Central

    McGAUGHY, J.; ROSS, R. S.; EICHENBAUM, H.

    2008-01-01

    Both norepinephrine and acetylcholine have been shown to be critically involved in mediating attention but there remains debate about whether they serve similar or unique functions. Much of what is known about the role of these neurochemicals in cognition is based on manipulations done at the level of the cell body but these findings are difficult to reconcile with data regarding the unique contribution of cortical subregions, e.g. the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, to attention. In the current study, we directly compared the effects of noradrenergic and cholinergic deafferentation of the rat medial prefrontal cortex, the homologue of primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, using an intradimensional/extradimensional attentional set shifting task, a task previously shown to be able to dissociate the function of the primate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex from orbitofrontal cortex. We found that noradrenergic, but not cholinergic, deafferentation produces specific impairments in the ability to shift attentional set. We also clarified the nature of the attentional deficits by assessing the ability of rats to disregard irrelevant stimuli. Noradrenergic lesions did not alter the ability of rats to ignore irrelevant stimuli, suggesting that the attentional deficit results from an overly focused attentional state that retards learning that a new stimulus dimension predicts reward. PMID:18355972

  1. A central neuropathic pain model by DSP-4 induced lesion of noradrenergic neurons: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Takashi; Kushikata, Tetsuya; Kudo, Mihoko; Kudo, Tsuyoshi; Hirota, Kazuyoshi

    2010-09-06

    Neuropathic pain models are classified as central and peripheral pain models. Although various peripheral neuropathic pain models are established, central pain models are based only on spinal cord injury. DSP-4 is a competitive inhibitor of norepinephrine uptake that selectively degenerates the locus coeruleus (LC)-noradrenergic neurons projection to the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. In the present study, we have tested whether lesion of LC-noradrenergic neurons by ip DSP-4 (0, 10, 30, 50 mg/kg, n=7 each) could provide a new central neuropathic pain model in rats using a hot-plate and tail-flick tests. DSP-4 significantly reduced the hot-plate latency and norepinephrine contents especially in the coerulean regions. However, DSP-4 did not change tail-flick latency. There are significant correlations of the latency in the hot-plate test with norepinephrine contents in the cerebral cortex (r=0.432, p=0.022), the hippocampus (r=0.465, p=0.013) and the pons (r=0.400, p=0.035) but not with those in the hypothalamus and the spinal cord. As response to hot-plate and tail-flick implies supra-spinal process and spinal reflex, respectively, central neuropathic pain may be facilitated by DSP-4 depleting LC-noradrenergic neurons although the present data are preliminary.

  2. Aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis after limbic kindling: Relationship to BDNF and hippocampal-dependent memory.

    PubMed

    Botterill, J J; Brymer, K J; Caruncho, H J; Kalynchuk, L E

    2015-06-01

    Seizures dramatically increase the number of adult generated neurons in the hippocampus. However, it is not known whether this effect depends on seizures that originate in specific brain regions or whether it is nonspecific to seizure activity regardless of origin. We used kindling of different brain sites to address this question. Rats received 99 kindling stimulations of the basolateral amygdala, dorsal hippocampus, or caudate nucleus over a 6-week period. After kindling, we counted the number of adult generated hippocampal neurons that were birth-dated with the proliferative marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to evaluate cell proliferation and survival under conditions of repeated seizures. Next, we counted the number of doublecortin immunoreactive (DCX-ir) cells and evaluated their dendritic complexity to determine if limbic and nonlimbic seizures have differential effects on neuronal maturation. We also quantified hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF) protein levels using an ELISA kit and assessed memory performance using a hippocampal-dependent fear conditioning paradigm. We found that limbic, but not nonlimbic, seizures dramatically increased hippocampal cell proliferation and the number of hilar-CA3 ectopic granule cells. Further, limbic kindling promoted dendritic outgrowth of DCX-ir cells and the number of DCX-ir cells containing basal dendrites. Limbic kindling also enhanced BDNF protein levels throughout the entire hippocampus and impaired the retrieval of fear memories. Collectively, our results suggest a relationship between limbic seizures, neurogenesis, BDNF protein, and cognition.

  3. Maternal sensitivity, infant limbic structure volume and functional connectivity: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Rifkin-Graboi, A; Kong, L; Sim, L W; Sanmugam, S; Broekman, B F P; Chen, H; Wong, E; Kwek, K; Saw, S-M; Chong, Y-S; Gluckman, P D; Fortier, M V; Pederson, D; Meaney, M J; Qiu, A

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying the profound parental effects on cognitive, emotional and social development in humans remain poorly understood. Studies with nonhuman models suggest variations in parental care affect the limbic system, influential to learning, autobiography and emotional regulation. In some research, nonoptimal care relates to decreases in neurogenesis, although other work suggests early-postnatal social adversity accelerates the maturation of limbic structures associated with emotional learning. We explored whether maternal sensitivity predicts human limbic system development and functional connectivity patterns in a small sample of human infants. When infants were 6 months of age, 20 mother–infant dyads attended a laboratory-based observational session and the infants underwent neuroimaging at the same age. After considering age at imaging, household income and postnatal maternal anxiety, regression analyses demonstrated significant indirect associations between maternal sensitivity and bilateral hippocampal volume at six months, with the majority of associations between sensitivity and the amygdala demonstrating similar indirect, but not significant results. Moreover, functional analyses revealed direct associations between maternal sensitivity and connectivity between the hippocampus and areas important for emotional regulation and socio-emotional functioning. Sensitivity additionally predicted indirect associations between limbic structures and regions related to autobiographical memory. Our volumetric results are consistent with research indicating accelerated limbic development in response to early social adversity, and in combination with our functional results, if replicated in a larger sample, may suggest that subtle, but important, variations in maternal care influence neuroanatomical trajectories important to future cognitive and emotional functioning. PMID:26506054

  4. [Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis with positive anti-RI antibodies and mediastinal seminoma].

    PubMed

    Launay, M; Bozzolo, E; Venissac, N; Delmont, E; Fredenrich, A; Thomas, P

    2008-01-01

    We report the case of a 49-year-old man who was admitted for progressive behaviorial disorders with frontal elements. There was no sensorial nor motor deficiency. Clinical examination revealed android obesity, cutaneous and mucous paleness, pubic and axillary depilation and gynecomastia. Encephalic MRI found a lesion of the left amygdalian region with high T2 intensity and low T1 intensity associated with gadolinium-enhancement. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed a lymphocytic meningitis. Panhypopituitarism was found on the endocrine investigations. Anti-RI antibodies were positive, leading to the diagnosis of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. The CT-scan showed a node of the lower part of the thymic area. Surgical resection revealed an ectopic mediastinal seminoma. The evolution consisted of paraneoplastic fever and crossed-syndrome with right hemiparesia and left common oculomotor nerve paralysis. Treatment was completed by two cycles of carboplatin, corticosteroids and substitutive opotherapy. Paraneoplastic fever disappeared, but behavioral disorders and palsy remain unchanged. The patient died two years later in a bedridden state. This case of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis associated with positive anti-RI antibodies and mediastinal seminoma is exceptional and has not to our knowledge been described in the literature. Cancers usually associated with anti-RI antibody are breast and lung cancer. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is not the classical clinical presentation, which usually is brainstem encephalitis. Hypothalamic involvement, uncommon in paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is mainly associated with positive antineuronal anti-Ma2 antibodies. Finally, the gadolinium enhancement on encephalic MRI is unusual in paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis.

  5. Limbic Encephalitis: Potential Impact of Adaptive Autoimmune Inflammation on Neuronal Circuits of the Amygdala.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Nico; Budde, Thomas; Stork, Oliver; Meuth, Sven G

    2015-01-01

    Limbic encephalitis is characterized by adaptive autoimmune inflammation of the gray matter structures of the limbic system. It has recently been identified as a major cause of temporal lobe epilepsy accompanied by progressive declarative - mainly episodic - -memory disturbance as well as a variety of rather poorly defined emotional and behavioral changes. While autoimmune inflammation of the hippocampus is likely to be responsible for declarative memory disturbance, consequences of autoimmune inflammation of the amygdala are largely unknown. The amygdala is central for the generation of adequate homoeostatic behavioral responses to emotionally significant external stimuli following processing in a variety of parallel neuronal circuits. Here, we hypothesize that adaptive cellular and humoral autoimmunity may target and modulate distinct inhibitory or excitatory neuronal networks within the amygdala, and thereby strongly impact processing of emotional stimuli and corresponding behavioral responses. This may explain some of the rather poorly understood neuropsychiatric symptoms in limbic encephalitis.

  6. Dynamic behaviour of human neuroepithelial cells in the developing forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Lakshmi; Bershteyn, Marina; Paredes, Mercedes F.; Kriegstein, Arnold R.

    2017-01-01

    To understand how diverse progenitor cells contribute to human neocortex development, we examined forebrain progenitor behaviour using timelapse imaging. Here we find that cell cycle dynamics of human neuroepithelial (NE) cells differ from radial glial (RG) cells in both primary tissue and in stem cell-derived organoids. NE cells undergoing proliferative, symmetric divisions retract their basal processes, and both daughter cells regrow a new process following cytokinesis. The mitotic retraction of the basal process is recapitulated by NE cells in cerebral organoids generated from human-induced pluripotent stem cells. In contrast, RG cells undergoing vertical cleavage retain their basal fibres throughout mitosis, both in primary tissue and in older organoids. Our findings highlight developmentally regulated changes in mitotic behaviour that may relate to the role of RG cells to provide a stable scaffold for neuronal migration, and suggest that the transition in mitotic dynamics can be studied in organoid models. PMID:28139695

  7. The dopaminergic projection system, basal forebrain macrosystems, and conditioned stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Zahm, Daniel S.

    2011-01-01

    This review begins with a description of some problems that in recent years have beset an influential circuit model of fear-conditioning and goes on to look at neuroanatomy that might subserve conditioning viewed in a broader perspective, including not only fear, but also appetitive, conditioning. The paper then focuses on basal forebrain functional-anatomical systems, or macrosystems, as they have come to be called, which Lennart Heimer and colleagues described beginning in the 1970’s. Yet more specific attention is then given to the relationships of the dorsal and ventral striatopallidal systems and extended amygdala with the dopaminergic mesotelencephalic projection systems, culminating with the hypothesis that all macrosystems contribute to behavioral conditioning. PMID:18204412

  8. Basal Forebrain Atrophy Contributes to Allocentric Navigation Impairment in Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Kerbler, Georg M; Nedelska, Zuzana; Fripp, Jurgen; Laczó, Jan; Vyhnalek, Martin; Lisý, Jiří; Hamlin, Adam S; Rose, Stephen; Hort, Jakub; Coulson, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    The basal forebrain degenerates in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and this process is believed to contribute to the cognitive decline observed in AD patients. Impairment in spatial navigation is an early feature of the disease but whether basal forebrain dysfunction in AD is responsible for the impaired navigation skills of AD patients is not known. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between basal forebrain volume and performance in real space as well as computer-based navigation paradigms in an elderly cohort comprising cognitively normal controls, subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and those with AD. We also tested whether basal forebrain volume could predict the participants' ability to perform allocentric- vs. egocentric-based navigation tasks. The basal forebrain volume was calculated from 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and navigation skills were assessed using the human analog of the Morris water maze employing allocentric, egocentric, and mixed allo/egocentric real space as well as computerized tests. When considering the entire sample, we found that basal forebrain volume correlated with spatial accuracy in allocentric (cued) and mixed allo/egocentric navigation tasks but not the egocentric (uncued) task, demonstrating an important role of the basal forebrain in mediating cue-based spatial navigation capacity. Regression analysis revealed that, although hippocampal volume reflected navigation performance across the entire sample, basal forebrain volume contributed to mixed allo/egocentric navigation performance in the AD group, whereas hippocampal volume did not. This suggests that atrophy of the basal forebrain contributes to aspects of navigation impairment in AD that are independent of hippocampal atrophy.

  9. Forebrain neurogenesis after focal Ischemic and traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kernie, Steven G; Parent, Jack M

    2010-02-01

    Neural stem cells persist in the adult mammalian forebrain and are a potential source of neurons for repair after brain injury. The two main areas of persistent neurogenesis, the subventricular zone (SVZ)-olfactory bulb pathway and hippocampal dentate gyrus, are stimulated by brain insults such as stroke or trauma. Here we focus on the effects of focal cerebral ischemia on SVZ neural progenitor cells in experimental stroke, and the influence of mechanical injury on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Stroke potently stimulates forebrain SVZ cell proliferation and neurogenesis. SVZ neuroblasts are induced to migrate to the injured striatum, and to a lesser extent to the peri-infarct cortex. Controversy exists as to the types of neurons that are generated in the injured striatum, and whether adult-born neurons contribute to functional restoration remains uncertain. Advances in understanding the regulation of SVZ neurogenesis in general, and stroke-induced neurogenesis in particular, may lead to improved integration and survival of adult-born neurons at sites of injury. Dentate gyrus cell proliferation and neurogenesis similarly increase after experimental TBI. However, pre-existing neuroblasts in the dentate gyrus are vulnerable to traumatic insults, which appear to stimulate neural stem cells in the SGZ to proliferate and replace them, leading to increased numbers of new granule cells. Interventions that stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis appear to improve cognitive recovery after experimental TBI. Transgenic methods to conditionally label or ablate neural stem cells are beginning to further address critical questions regarding underlying mechanisms and functional significance of neurogenesis after stroke or TBI. Future therapies should be aimed at directing appropriate neuronal replacement after ischemic or traumatic injury while suppressing aberrant integration that may contribute to co-morbidities such as epilepsy or

  10. Opsoclonus-myoclonus and anti-Hu positive limbic encephalitis in a patient with neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Morales La Madrid, Andres; Rubin, Charles M; Kohrman, Michael; Pytel, Peter; Cohn, Susan L

    2012-03-01

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is seen in 2-3% of children with neuroblastoma and is believed to be caused by an autoimmune process elicited by the tumor. Although long-term neurologic sequelae are common in children with OMS, limbic encephalitis has not previously been reported. We report a child who developed limbic encephalitis associated with anti-Hu antibodies, 6 years after her initial diagnosis of neuroblastoma and OMS. This case demonstrates that patients with neuroblastoma and OMS are at risk for developing new paraneoplastic symptoms years after their original diagnosis and emphasizes the need for careful long-term follow-up.

  11. Action of the noradrenergic system on adult-born cells is required for olfactory learning in mice.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Melissa M; Bath, Kevin; Kuczewski, Nicola; Sacquet, Joëlle; Didier, Anne; Mandairon, Nathalie

    2012-03-14

    We have previously shown that an experience-driven improvement in olfactory discrimination (perceptual learning) requires the addition of newborn neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB). Despite this advance, the mechanisms which govern the selective survival of newborn OB neurons following learning remain largely unknown. We propose that activity of the noradrenergic system is a critical mediator providing a top-down signal to control the selective survival of newly born cells and support perceptual learning. In adult mice, we used pharmacological means to manipulate the noradrenergic system and neurogenesis and to assess their individual and additive effects on behavioral performance on a perceptual learning task. We then looked at the effects of these manipulations on regional survival of adult-born cells in the OB. Finally, using confocal imaging and electrophysiology, we investigated potential mechanisms by which noradrenaline could directly influence the survival of adult-born cells. Consistent with our hypotheses, direct manipulation of noradrenergic transmission significantly effect on adult-born cell survival and perceptual learning. Specifically, learning required both the presence of adult-born cell and noradrenaline. Finally, we provide a mechanistic link between these effects by showing that adult-born neurons receive noradrenergic projections and are responsive to noradrenaline. Based upon these data we argue that noradrenergic transmission is a key mechanism selecting adult-born neurons during learning and demonstrate that top-down neuromodulation acts on adult-born neuron survival to modulate learning performance.

  12. Early life stress modulates oxytocin effects on limbic system during acute psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Simone; Pestke, Karin; Feeser, Melanie; Aust, Sabine; Weigand, Anne; Wang, Jue; Wingenfeld, Katja; Pruessner, Jens C; La Marca, Roberto; Böker, Heinz; Bajbouj, Malek

    2014-11-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is associated with altered stress responsivity, structural and functional brain changes and an increased risk for the development of psychopathological conditions in later life. Due to its behavioral and physiological effects, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is a useful tool to investigate stress responsivity, even though the neurobiological underpinnings of its effects are still unknown. Here we investigate the effects of OXT on cortisol stress response and neural activity during psychosocial stress. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects with and without a history of ELS, we found attenuated hormonal reactivity and significantly reduced limbic deactivation after OXT administration in subjects without a history of ELS. Subjects who experienced ELS showed both blunted stress reactivity and limbic deactivation during stress. Furthermore, in these subjects OXT had opposite effects with increased hormonal reactivity and increased limbic deactivation. Our results might implicate that reduced limbic deactivation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsivity during psychosocial stress are markers for biological resilience after ELS. Effects of OXT in subjects with a history of maltreatment could therefore be considered detrimental and suggest careful consideration of OXT administration in such individuals.

  13. Fronto-limbic effective connectivity as possible predictor of antidepressant response to SSRI administration.

    PubMed

    Vai, Benedetta; Bulgarelli, Chiara; Godlewska, Beata R; Cowen, Philip J; Benedetti, Francesco; Harmer, Catherine J

    2016-12-01

    The timely selection of the optimal treatment for depressed patients is critical to improve remission rates. The detection of pre-treatment variables able to predict differential treatment response may provide novel approaches for treatment selection. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) modulate the fronto-limbic functional response and connectivity, an effect preceding the overt clinical antidepressant effects. Here we investigated whether the cortico-limbic connectivity associated with emotional bias measured before SSRI administration predicts the efficacy of antidepressant treatment in MDD patients. fMRI and Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) were combined to study if effective connectivity might differentiate healthy controls (HC) and patients affected by major depression who later responded (RMDD, n=21), or failed to respond (nRMDD, n=12), to 6 weeks of escitalopram administration. Sixteen DCMs exploring connectivity between anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), Amygdala (Amy), and fusiform gyrus (FG) were constructed. Analyses revealed that nRMDD had reduced endogenous connectivity from Amy to VLPFC and to ACC, with an increased connectivity and modulation of the ACC to Amy connectivity when processing of fearful emotional stimuli compared to HC. RMDD and HC did not significantly differ among themselves. Pre-treatment effective connectivity in fronto-limbic circuitry could be an important factor affecting antidepressant response, and highlight the mechanisms which may be involved in recovery from depression. These results suggest that fronto-limbic connectivity might provide a neural biomarker to predict the clinical outcome to SSRIs administration in major depression.

  14. Baseline frontostriatal-limbic connectivity predicts reward-based memory formation.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Janne M; Dayan, Eran; Hummel, Friedhelm C; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2014-12-01

    Reward mediates the acquisition and long-term retention of procedural skills in humans. Yet, learning under rewarded conditions is highly variable across individuals and the mechanisms that determine interindividual variability in rewarded learning are not known. We postulated that baseline functional connectivity in a large-scale frontostriatal-limbic network could predict subsequent interindividual variability in rewarded learning. Resting-state functional MRI was acquired in two groups of subjects (n = 30) who then trained on a visuomotor procedural learning task with or without reward feedback. We then tested whether baseline functional connectivity within the frontostriatal-limbic network predicted memory strength measured immediately, 24 h and 1 month after training in both groups. We found that connectivity in the frontostriatal-limbic network predicted interindividual variability in the rewarded but not in the unrewarded learning group. Prediction was strongest for long-term memory. Similar links between connectivity and reward-based memory were absent in two control networks, a fronto-parieto-temporal language network and the dorsal attention network. The results indicate that baseline functional connectivity within the frontostriatal-limbic network successfully predicts long-term retention of rewarded learning.

  15. Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome and limbic encephalitis associated with GABAB receptor antibodies in CSF.

    PubMed

    DeFelipe-Mimbrera, Alicia; Masjuan, Jaime; Corral, Íñigo; Villar, Luisa Maria; Graus, Francesc; García-Barragán, Nuria

    2014-07-15

    We report a case of a woman who had two consecutive autoimmune neurological disorders, including an opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) and limbic encephalitis (LE), with positive titers of GABAB receptor antibodies. The patient never developed seizures or had an underlying tumor after 4 years of follow-up.

  16. The Sensory Impact of Nicotine on Noradrenergic and Dopaminergic Neurons of the Nicotine Reward - Addiction Neurocircuitry.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jed E; Dehkordi, Ozra; Manaye, Kebreten F; Millis, Richard M; Cianaki, Salman Ameri; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni

    2016-04-01

    The sensory experience of smoking is a key component of nicotine addiction known to result, in part, from stimulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at peripheral sensory nerve endings. Such stimulation of nAChRs is followed by activation of neurons at multiple sites in the mesocorticolimbic reward pathways. However, the neurochemical profiles of CNS cells that mediate the peripheral sensory impact of nicotine remain unknown. In the present study in mice, we first used c-Fos immunohistochemistry to identify CNS cells stimulated by nicotine (NIC, 40 μg/kg, IP) and by a peripherally-acting analog of nicotine, nicotine pyrrolidine methiodide (NIC-PM, 30 μg/kg, IP). Sequential double-labelling was then performed to determine whether noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurons of the nicotine reward-addiction circuitry were primary targets of NIC and NIC-PM. Double-labelling of NIC and/or NIC-PM activated c-Fos immunoreactive cells with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) showed no apparent c-Fos expression by the dopaminergic cells of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). With the exception of sparse numbers of TH immunoreactive D11 cells, dopamine-containing neurons in other areas of the reward-addiction circuitry, namely periaqueductal gray, and dorsal raphe, were also devoid of c-Fos immunoreactivity. Noradrenergic neurons of locus coeruleus (LC), known to innervate VTA, were activated by both NIC and NIC-PM. These results demonstrate that noradrenergic neurons of LC are among the first structures that are stimulated by single acute IP injection of NIC and NIC-PM. Dopaminergic neurons of VTA and other CNS sites, did not respond to acute IP administration of NIC or NIC-PM by induction of c-Fos.

  17. Behavioral reactivity to a noradrenergic challenge after chronic oral methylphenidate (ritalin) in rats.

    PubMed

    Leblanc-Duchin, Denise; Taukulis, Harald K

    2004-12-01

    Methylphenidate (Ritalin) is routinely used for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is a psychomotor stimulant with pharmacodynamics similar to those established for cocaine and amphetamine with primary activation of the noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems. Long-term exposure to psychostimulants including methylphenidate (MPD) is believed to result in enduring functional changes along both these pathways and various behaviors mediated by these systems may be affected. In the present experiment, the effects of intermittent oral administration of methylphenidate (10 mg/kg) to rats over a 4-week period were subsequently (after a drug washout interval) assessed in three animal models sensitive to noradrenergic manipulation: the elevated plus-maze, predator odor avoidance, and social interaction tests. The behaviors of methylphenidate-experienced animals were compared with untreated controls. Thirty minutes prior to testing, half the animals with each of these histories received an injection of yohimbine hydrochloride (2.0 mg/kg), an alpha2-adrenoreceptor blocker intended to evoke noradrenergic system activation, while the remainder received a saline injection. Yohimbine was expected to reduce both exploration of novel stimuli and interaction with conspecifics, and it was predicted that methylphenidate would potentiate these effects. Relative to saline-tested controls, rats that received both the methylphenidate treatment and the yohimbine challenge exhibited the least exploration in the predator odor test and the lowest duration of interaction with an unfamiliar conspecific partner in the social interaction test. The behavior patterns observed in this group of rats suggest heightened emotionality and defensiveness that are typically seen when rats are administered drugs known to be anxiogenic in human subjects. In the plus-maze, exploratory locomotor activities remained unaltered by either drug while yohimbine decreased risk

  18. Activation of histamine H3 receptors inhibits renal noradrenergic neurotransmission in anesthetized dogs.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, T; Tamai, I; Matsumura, Y

    2001-05-01

    To investigate the possible involvement of histamine H(3) receptors in renal noradrenergic neurotransmission, effects of (R)alpha-methylhistamine (R-HA), a selective H3-receptor agonist, and thioperamide (Thiop), a selective H3-receptor antagonist, on renal nerve stimulation (RNS)-induced changes in renal function and norepinephrine (NE) overflow in anesthetized dogs were examined. RNS (0.5-2.0 Hz) produced significant decreases in urine flow and urinary sodium excretion and increases in NE overflow rate (NEOR), without affecting renal hemodynamics. When R-HA (1 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) was infused intravenously, mean arterial pressure and heart rate were significantly decreased, and there was a tendency to reduce basal values of urine flow and urinary sodium excretion. During R-HA infusion, RNS-induced antidiuretic action and increases in NEOR were markedly attenuated. Thiop infusion (5 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) did not affect basal hemodynamic and excretory parameters. Thiop infusion caused RNS-induced antidiuretic action and increases in NEOR similar to the basal condition. When R-HA was administered concomitantly with Thiop infusion, R-HA failed to attenuate the RNS-induced antidiuretic action and increases in NEOR. However, in the presence of pyrilamine (a selective H1-receptor antagonist) or cimetidine (a selective H2-receptor antagonist) infusion, R-HA attenuated the RNS-induced actions, similarly to the case without these antagonists. Thus functional histamine H3 receptors, possibly located on renal noradrenergic nerve endings, may play the role of inhibitory modulators of renal noradrenergic neurotransmission.

  19. Prenatal drug exposures sensitize noradrenergic circuits to subsequent disruption by chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, Theodore A; Skavicus, Samantha; Seidler, Frederic J

    2015-12-02

    We examined whether nicotine or dexamethasone, common prenatal drug exposures, sensitize the developing brain to chlorpyrifos. We gave nicotine to pregnant rats throughout gestation at a dose (3mg/kg/day) producing plasma levels typical of smokers; offspring were then given chlorpyrifos on postnatal days 1-4, at a dose (1mg/kg) that produces minimally-detectable inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity. In a parallel study, we administered dexamethasone to pregnant rats on gestational days 17-19 at a standard therapeutic dose (0.2mg/kg) used in the management of preterm labor, followed by postnatal chlorpyrifos. We evaluated cerebellar noradrenergic projections, a known target for each agent, and contrasted the effects with those in the cerebral cortex. Either drug augmented the effect of chlorpyrifos, evidenced by deficits in cerebellar β-adrenergic receptors; the receptor effects were not due to increased systemic toxicity or cholinesterase inhibition, nor to altered chlorpyrifos pharmacokinetics. Further, the deficits were not secondary adaptations to presynaptic hyperinnervation/hyperactivity, as there were significant deficits in presynaptic norepinephrine levels that would serve to augment the functional consequence of receptor deficits. The pretreatments also altered development of cerebrocortical noradrenergic circuits, but with a different overall pattern, reflecting the dissimilar developmental stages of the regions at the time of exposure. However, in each case the net effects represented a change in the developmental trajectory of noradrenergic circuits, rather than simply a continuation of an initial injury. Our results point to the ability of prenatal drug exposure to create a subpopulation with heightened vulnerability to environmental neurotoxicants.

  20. Activation of noradrenergic neurons projecting to the diencephalon following central administration of histamine is mediated by H1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, A E; Lookingland, K J; Moore, K E

    1994-02-28

    The effect of histamine on the activity of noradrenergic neurons terminating in discrete regions of the diencephalon was examined in male rats. Noradrenergic neuronal activity was estimated by measuring the concentration of norepinephrine and its metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol [MHPG] in the medial zona incerta [MZI] and in the dorsomedial [DMN], periventricular [PeVN] and medial preoptic hypothalamic nuclei [MPN]. The intracerebroventricular administration of histamine effected a time-related increase in MHPG concentrations in the MZI, DMN, PeVN and MPN; these effects were blocked by the H1 antagonist mepyramine but not the H2 antagonist zolantidine. Neither mepyramine nor zolantidine affected basal MHPG concentrations in any of the brain regions examined. These results indicate that central administration of histamine increases the activity of noradrenergic neurons projecting to the diencephalon via an action at H1 but not H2 receptors.

  1. Roof plate mediated morphogenesis of the forebrain: New players join the game.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sandeep; Sen, Jonaki

    2016-05-15

    The roof plate is a crucial signaling center located at the dorsal midline of the developing central nervous system (CNS) along its rostro-caudal axis. By virtue of secreting multiple signaling molecules, it regulates diverse processes such as specification of dorsal fate, proliferation and axon guidance. In the forebrain, the roof plate is not only involved in patterning but is also involved in the division of the single forebrain vesicle into the two cerebral hemispheres, the failure of which leads to certain forms of holoprosencephaly. Although several molecular players such as Fgfs, BMPs, Wnts and Shh have been identified as crucial regulators of development of the forebrain, little is known about how they interact to bring about the morphological changes associated with the division of the forebrain vesicle into the cerebral hemispheres. Recent studies have now identified the dorsal mesenchyme as an additional source of signaling cues, which is likely to influence the division of the forebrain vesicle into cerebral hemispheres. In this review, we discuss the current understanding about the molecular mechanisms of roof plate mediated patterning and morphogenesis of the forebrain including some recently identified factors that influence this process and also highlight the gaps in our knowledge that remain.

  2. From pluripotency to forebrain patterning: an in vitro journey astride embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Giuseppe; Bertacchi, Michele; Carucci, Nicoletta; Augusti-Tocco, Gabriella; Biagioni, Stefano; Cremisi, Federico

    2014-08-01

    Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have been used extensively as in vitro models of neural development and disease, with special efforts towards their conversion into forebrain progenitors and neurons. The forebrain is the most complex brain region, giving rise to several fundamental structures, such as the cerebral cortex, the hypothalamus, and the retina. Due to the multiplicity of signaling pathways playing different roles at distinct times of embryonic development, the specification and patterning of forebrain has been difficult to study in vivo. Research performed on ESCs in vitro has provided a large body of evidence to complement work in model organisms, but these studies have often been focused more on cell type production than on cell fate regulation. In this review, we systematically reassess the current literature in the field of forebrain development in mouse and human ESCs with a focus on the molecular mechanisms of early cell fate decisions, taking into consideration the specific culture conditions, exogenous and endogenous molecular cues as described in the original studies. The resulting model of early forebrain induction and patterning provides a useful framework for further studies aimed at reconstructing forebrain development in vitro for basic research or therapy.

  3. Pharmacologic reduction of CNS noradrenergic activity in PTSD: the case for clonidine and prazosin.

    PubMed

    Boehnlein, James K; Kinzie, J David

    2007-03-01

    This article reviews the neurobiologic rationale for and presents clinical guidance concerning the use of medications that reduce central nervous system noradrenergic activity in the treatment of intrusive symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. The authors reviewed neurobiological studies, nonclinical studies using animal models, clinical case reports, open-label drug studies, and blinded, placebo-controlled drug studies. This review of the basic science and clinical literature, and the authors' clinical experience with culturally and demographically diverse populations, indicate that clonidine and prazosin can play a useful role in treating sleep disturbance and hyperarousal in posttraumatic stress disorder, with minimal adverse effects and low financial cost.

  4. Autoradiographic analysis of alpha 1-noradrenergic receptors in the human brain postmortem. Effect of suicide

    SciTech Connect

    Gross-Isseroff, R.; Dillon, K.A.; Fieldust, S.J.; Biegon, A. )

    1990-11-01

    In vitro quantitative autoradiography of alpha 1-noradrenergic receptors, using tritiated prazosin as a ligand, was performed on 24 human brains postmortem. Twelve brains were obtained from suicide victims and 12 from matched controls. We found significant lower binding to alpha 1 receptors in several brain regions of the suicide group as compared with matched controls. This decrease in receptor density was evident in portions of the prefrontal cortex, as well as the temporal cortex and in the caudate nucleus. Age, sex, presence of alcohol, and time of death to autopsy did not affect prazosin binding, in our sample, as measured by autoradiography.

  5. Noradrenergic interactions via autonomic nervous system: a promising target for extinction-based exposure therapy?

    PubMed

    Calişkan, Gürsel; Albrecht, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Fearful associations can be replaced by neutral associations through repetitive exposure of an individual to the fearful situation without the aversive component. Recently, Peña and colleagues (Peña DF, Engineer ND, McIntyre CK. Biol Psychiatry 73: 1071-1077, 2013) demonstrated that pairing activation of noradrenergic (NA) pathways through vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) with extinction learning accelerates consolidation of extinction memories in rats. Their findings stress the importance of activating the NA system through VNS in treatment of anxiety disorders such as PTSD or phobia.

  6. Network and pharmacological mechanisms leading to epileptiform synchronization in the limbic system in vitro.

    PubMed

    Avoli, Massimo; D'Antuono, Margherita; Louvel, Jacques; Köhling, Rüdiger; Biagini, Giuseppe; Pumain, René; D'Arcangelo, Giovanna; Tancredi, Virginia

    2002-10-01

    Seizures in patients presenting with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy result from the interaction among neuronal networks in limbic structures such as the hippocampus, amygdala and entorhinal cortex. Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, one of the most common forms of partial epilepsy in adulthood, is generally accompanied by a pattern of brain damage known as mesial temporal sclerosis. Limbic seizures can be mimicked in vitro using preparations of combined hippocampus-entorhinal cortex slices perfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing convulsants or nominally zero Mg(2+), in order to produce epileptiform synchronization. Here, we summarize experimental evidence obtained in such slices from rodents. These data indicate that in control animals: (i) prolonged, NMDA receptor-dependent epileptiform discharges, resembling electrographic limbic seizures, originate in the entorhinal cortex from where they propagate to the hippocampus via the perforant path-dentate gyrus route; (ii) the initiation and maintenance of these ictal discharges is paradoxically contributed by GABA (mainly type A) receptor-mediated mechanisms; and (iii) CA3 outputs, which relay a continuous pattern of interictal discharge at approximately 1Hz, control rather than sustain ictal discharge generation in entorhinal cortex. Recent work indicates that such a control is weakened in the pilocarpine model of epilepsy (presumably as a result of CA3 cell damage). In addition, in these experiments electrographic seizure activity spreads directly to the CA1-subiculum regions through the temporoammonic pathway. Studies reviewed here indicate that these changes in network interactions, along with other mechanisms of synaptic plasticity (e.g. axonal sprouting, decreased activation of interneurons, upregulation of bursting neurons) can confer to the epileptic, damaged limbic system, the ability to produce recurrent limbic seizures as seen in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

  7. The anatomy of extended limbic pathways in Asperger syndrome: a preliminary diffusion tensor imaging tractography study.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, Luca; Catani, Marco; Ameis, Stephanie; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Murphy, Clodagh; Robertson, Dene; Deeley, Quinton; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Declan G M

    2009-08-15

    It has been suggested that people with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) have altered development (and connectivity) of limbic circuits. However, direct evidence of anatomical differences specific to white matter pathways underlying social behaviour and emotions in ASD is lacking. We used Diffusion Tensor Imaging Tractography to compare, in vivo, the microstructural integrity and age-related differences in the extended limbic pathways between subjects with Asperger syndrome and healthy controls. Twenty-four males with Asperger syndrome (mean age 23+/-12 years, age range: 9-54 years) and 42 age-matched male controls (mean age 25+/-10 years, age range: 9-54 years) were studied. We quantified tract-specific diffusivity measurements as indirect indexes of microstructural integrity (e.g. fractional anisotropy, FA; mean diffusivity, MD) and tract volume (e.g. number of streamlines) of the main limbic tracts. The dissected limbic pathways included the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior frontal occipital fasciculus, uncinate, cingulum and fornix. There were no significant between-group differences in FA and MD. However, compared to healthy controls, individuals with Asperger syndrome had a significantly higher number of streamlines in the right (p=.003) and left (p=.03) cingulum, and in the right (p=.03) and left (p=.04) inferior longitudinal fasciculus. In contrast, people with Asperger syndrome had a significantly lower number of streamlines in the right uncinate (p=.02). Within each group there were significant age-related differences in MD and number of streamlines, but not FA. However, the only significant age-related between-group difference was in mean diffusivity of the left uncinate fasciculus (Z(obs)=2.05) (p=.02). Our preliminary findings suggest that people with Asperger syndrome have significant differences in the anatomy, and maturation, of some (but not all) limbic tracts.

  8. Common modulation of limbic network activation underlies musical emotions as they unfold.

    PubMed

    Singer, Neomi; Jacoby, Nori; Lin, Tamar; Raz, Gal; Shpigelman, Lavi; Gilam, Gadi; Granot, Roni Y; Hendler, Talma

    2016-11-01

    Music is a powerful means for communicating emotions among individuals. Here we reveal that this continuous stream of affective information is commonly represented in the brains of different listeners and that particular musical attributes mediate this link. We examined participants' brain responses to two naturalistic musical pieces using functional Magnetic Resonance imaging (fMRI). Following scanning, as participants listened to the musical pieces for a second time, they continuously indicated their emotional experience on scales of valence and arousal. These continuous reports were used along with a detailed annotation of the musical features, to predict a novel index of Dynamic Common Activation (DCA) derived from ten large-scale data-driven functional networks. We found an association between the unfolding music-induced emotionality and the DCA modulation within a vast network of limbic regions. The limbic-DCA modulation further corresponded with continuous changes in two temporal musical features: beat-strength and tempo. Remarkably, this "collective limbic sensitivity" to temporal features was found to mediate the link between limbic-DCA and the reported emotionality. An additional association with the emotional experience was found in a left fronto-parietal network, but only among a sub-group of participants with a high level of musical experience (>5years). These findings may indicate two processing-levels underlying the unfolding of common music emotionality; (1) a widely shared core-affective process that is confined to a limbic network and mediated by temporal regularities in music and (2) an experience based process that is rooted in a left fronto-parietal network that may involve functioning of the 'mirror-neuron system'.

  9. Forebrain commissures and visual memory: a new approach.

    PubMed

    Doty, R W; Ringo, J L; Lewine, J D

    1988-08-01

    The primary purpose of these exploratory experiments was to determine: (1) whether the forebrain commissures can provide full accessibility of the mnemonic store to either hemisphere when the taks involves memory for 'events' (images) rather than, as in essentially all previous tests on split-brain animals, memory for 'rules' (discrimination habits); and (2) whether the anterior commissure (AC) alone is capable of such function. Macaques, with optic chiasm transected to allow limitation of direct visual input to one or the other hemisphere, were trained on tasks requiring recognition of previously viewed photographic slides. For one task, delayed-matching-to-sample (DMTS), the animal was presented with a 'sample' image, and then 0-15s later was required to choose that image in preference to a second image concurrently displayed. On the other task, running recognition (RR), a series of images was presented, some of which were repetitions of images previously seen in that session, and the animal was required to signal its recognition of these repetitions. For either task the initial presentation could be made to one eye and hemisphere, and subsequent recognition required of the other. In such circumstance, if all forebrain commissures were divided, such interhemispheric recognition was no longer possible. For the DMTS task if either the AC or 5 mm of the splenium of the corpus callosum were available, interhemispheric recognition was basically equivalent to that using the same eye and hemisphere. However, interhemispheric accuracy with the RR task, while well above chance levels, was consistently inferior to that achieved intrahemispherically when complex scenes or objects were viewed. This is probably a consequence mostly of the differing visual fields of the two eyes, since interhemispheric accuracy was greatly improved by use of images having approximately identical right and left halves. No consistent hemispheric specialization nor difference in direction of

  10. Probing forebrain to hindbrain circuit functions in Xenopus.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Darcy B; Elliott, Taffeta M; Evans, Ben J; Hall, Ian C; Leininger, Elizabeth C; Rhodes, Heather J; Yamaguchi, Ayako; Zornik, Erik

    2017-01-01

    The vertebrate hindbrain includes neural circuits that govern essential functions including breathing, blood pressure and heart rate. Hindbrain circuits also participate in generating rhythmic motor patterns for vocalization. In most tetrapods, sound production is powered by expiration and the circuitry underlying vocalization and respiration must be linked. Perception and arousal are also linked; acoustic features of social communication sounds-for example, a baby's cry-can drive autonomic responses. The close links between autonomic functions that are essential for life and vocal expression have been a major in vivo experimental challenge. Xenopus provides an opportunity to address this challenge using an ex vivo preparation: an isolated brain that generates vocal and breathing patterns. The isolated brain allows identification and manipulation of hindbrain vocal circuits as well as their activation by forebrain circuits that receive sensory input, initiate motor patterns and control arousal. Advances in imaging technologies, coupled to the production of Xenopus lines expressing genetically encoded calcium sensors, provide powerful tools for imaging neuronal patterns in the entire fictively behaving brain, a goal of the BRAIN Initiative. Comparisons of neural circuit activity across species (comparative neuromics) with distinctive vocal patterns can identify conserved features, and thereby reveal essential functional components.

  11. Evolution and development of interhemispheric connections in the vertebrate forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Suárez, Rodrigo; Gobius, Ilan; Richards, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    Axonal connections between the left and right sides of the brain are crucial for bilateral integration of lateralized sensory, motor, and associative functions. Throughout vertebrate species, forebrain commissures share a conserved developmental plan, a similar position relative to each other within the brain and similar patterns of connectivity. However, major events in the evolution of the vertebrate brain, such as the expansion of the telencephalon in tetrapods and the origin of the six-layered isocortex in mammals, resulted in the emergence and diversification of new commissural routes. These new interhemispheric connections include the pallial commissure, which appeared in the ancestors of tetrapods and connects the left and right sides of the medial pallium (hippocampus in mammals), and the corpus callosum, which is exclusive to eutherian (placental) mammals and connects both isocortical hemispheres. A comparative analysis of commissural systems in vertebrates reveals that the emergence of new commissural routes may have involved co-option of developmental mechanisms and anatomical substrates of preexistent commissural pathways. One of the embryonic regions of interest for studying these processes is the commissural plate, a portion of the early telencephalic midline that provides molecular specification and a cellular scaffold for the development of commissural axons. Further investigations into these embryonic processes in carefully selected species will provide insights not only into the mechanisms driving commissural evolution, but also regarding more general biological problems such as the role of developmental plasticity in evolutionary change. PMID:25071525

  12. Forebrain neurocircuitry associated with human reflex cardiovascular control

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, J. Kevin; Goswami, Ruma

    2015-01-01

    Physiological homeostasis depends upon adequate integration and responsiveness of sensory information with the autonomic nervous system to affect rapid and effective adjustments in end organ control. Dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system leads to cardiovascular disability with consequences as severe as sudden death. The neural pathways involved in reflexive autonomic control are dependent upon brainstem nuclei but these receive modulatory inputs from higher centers in the midbrain and cortex. Neuroimaging technologies have allowed closer study of the cortical circuitry related to autonomic cardiovascular adjustments to many stressors in awake humans and have exposed many forebrain sites that associate strongly with cardiovascular arousal during stress including the medial prefrontal cortex, insula cortex, anterior cingulate, amygdala and hippocampus. Using a comparative approach, this review will consider the cortical autonomic circuitry in rodents and primates with a major emphasis on more recent neuroimaging studies in awake humans. A challenge with neuroimaging studies is their interpretation in view of multiple sensory, perceptual, emotive and/or reflexive components of autonomic responses. This review will focus on those responses related to non-volitional baroreflex control of blood pressure and also on the coordinated responses to non-fatiguing, non-painful volitional exercise with particular emphasis on the medial prefrontal cortex and the insula cortex. PMID:26388780

  13. Basal forebrain dynamics during nonassociative and associative olfactory learning.

    PubMed

    Devore, Sasha; Pender-Morris, Nathaniel; Dean, Owen; Smith, David; Linster, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    Cholinergic and GABAergic projections from the horizontal diagonal band (HDB) and medial preoptic area (MCPO) of the basal forebrain to the olfactory system are associated with odor discrimination and odor learning, as well as modulation of neural responses in olfactory structures. Whereas pharmacological and lesion studies give insights into the functional role of these modulatory inputs on a slow timescale, the response dynamics of neurons in the HDB/MCPO during olfactory behaviors have not been investigated. In this study we examined how these neurons respond during two olfactory behaviors: spontaneous investigation of odorants and odor-reward association learning. We observe rich heterogeneity in the response dynamics of individual HDB/MCPO neurons, with a substantial fraction of neurons exhibiting task-related modulation. HDB/MCPO neurons show both rapid and transient responses during bouts of odor investigation and slow, long-lasting modulation of overall response rate based on behavioral demands. Specifically, baseline rates were higher during the acquisition phase of an odor-reward association than during spontaneous investigation or the recall phase of an odor reward association. Our results suggest that modulatory projections from the HDB/MCPO are poised to influence olfactory processing on multiple timescales, from hundreds of milliseconds to minutes, and are therefore capable of rapidly setting olfactory network dynamics during odor processing and learning.

  14. Unique spatiotemporal requirements for intraflagellar transport genes during forebrain development

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ching-Fang; Cionni, Megan; Brugmann, Samantha A.

    2017-01-01

    Primary cilia are organelles extended from virtually all cells and are required for the proper regulation of a number of canonical developmental pathways. The role in cortical development of proteins important for ciliary form and function is a relatively understudied area. Here we have taken a genetic approach to define the role in forebrain development of three intraflagellar transport proteins known to be important for primary cilia function. We have genetically ablated Kif3a, Ift88, and Ttc21b in a series of specific spatiotemporal domains. The resulting phenotypes allow us to draw several conclusions. First, we conclude that the Ttc21b cortical phenotype is not due to the activity of Ttc21b within the brain itself. Secondly, some of the most striking phenotypes are from ablations in the neural crest cells and the adjacent surface ectoderm indicating that cilia transduce critical tissue—tissue interactions in the developing embryonic head. Finally, we note striking differences in phenotypes from ablations only one embryonic day apart, indicating very discrete spatiotemporal requirements for these three genes in cortical development. PMID:28291836

  15. Habituation and extinction of fear recruit overlapping forebrain structures.

    PubMed

    Furlong, Teri M; Richardson, Rick; McNally, Gavan P

    2016-02-01

    Establishing the neurocircuitry involved in inhibiting fear is important for understanding and treating anxiety disorders. To date, extinction procedures have been predominately used to examine the inhibition of learned fear, where fear is reduced to a conditioned stimulus (CS) by presenting it in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). However, learned fear can also be reduced by habituation procedures where the US is presented in the absence of the CS. Here we used expression of the activity marker c-Fos in rats to compare the recruitment of several forebrain structures following fear habituation and extinction. Following fear conditioning where a tone CS was paired with a loud noise US, fear was then reduced the following day by either presentation of the CS or US alone (i.e. CS extinction or US habituation, respectively). This extinction and habituation training recruited several common structures, including infralimbic cortex, basolateral amygdala, midline thalamus and medial hypothalamus (orexin neurons). Moreover, this overlap was shared when examining the neural correlates of the expression of habituation and extinction, with common recruitment of infralimbic cortex and midline thalamus. However, there were also important differences. Specifically, acquisition of habituation was associated with greater recruitment of prelimbic cortex whereas expression of habituation was associated with greater recruitment of paraventricular thalamus. There was also less recruitment of central amygdala for habituation compared to extinction in the retention phase. These findings indicate that largely overlapping neurocircuitries underlie habituation and fear extinction and imply common mechanisms for reducing fear across different inhibitory treatments.

  16. Basal forebrain dynamics during nonassociative and associative olfactory learning

    PubMed Central

    Devore, Sasha; Pender-Morris, Nathaniel; Dean, Owen; Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    Cholinergic and GABAergic projections from the horizontal diagonal band (HDB) and medial preoptic area (MCPO) of the basal forebrain to the olfactory system are associated with odor discrimination and odor learning, as well as modulation of neural responses in olfactory structures. Whereas pharmacological and lesion studies give insights into the functional role of these modulatory inputs on a slow timescale, the response dynamics of neurons in the HDB/MCPO during olfactory behaviors have not been investigated. In this study we examined how these neurons respond during two olfactory behaviors: spontaneous investigation of odorants and odor-reward association learning. We observe rich heterogeneity in the response dynamics of individual HDB/MCPO neurons, with a substantial fraction of neurons exhibiting task-related modulation. HDB/MCPO neurons show both rapid and transient responses during bouts of odor investigation and slow, long-lasting modulation of overall response rate based on behavioral demands. Specifically, baseline rates were higher during the acquisition phase of an odor-reward association than during spontaneous investigation or the recall phase of an odor reward association. Our results suggest that modulatory projections from the HDB/MCPO are poised to influence olfactory processing on multiple timescales, from hundreds of milliseconds to minutes, and are therefore capable of rapidly setting olfactory network dynamics during odor processing and learning. PMID:26561601

  17. Adherent neural stem (NS) cells from fetal and adult forebrain.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Steven M; Conti, Luciano; Sun, Yirui; Goffredo, Donato; Smith, Austin

    2006-07-01

    Stable in vitro propagation of central nervous system (CNS) stem cells would offer expanded opportunities to dissect basic molecular, cellular, and developmental processes and to model neurodegenerative disease. CNS stem cells could also provide a source of material for drug discovery assays and cell replacement therapies. We have recently reported the generation of adherent, symmetrically expandable, neural stem (NS) cell lines derived both from mouse and human embryonic stem cells and from fetal forebrain (Conti L, Pollard SM, Gorba T, Reitano E, Toselli M, Biella G, Sun Y, Sanzone S, Ying QL, Cattaneo E, Smith A. 2005. Niche-independent symmetrical self-renewal of a mammalian tissue stem cell. PLoS Biol 3(9):e283). These NS cells retain neuronal and glial differentiation potential after prolonged passaging and are transplantable. NS cells are likely to comprise the resident stem cell population within heterogeneous neurosphere cultures. Here we demonstrate that similar NS cell cultures can be established from the adult mouse brain. We also characterize the growth factor requirements for NS cell derivation and self-renewal. We discuss our current understanding of the relationship of NS cell lines to physiological progenitor cells of fetal and adult CNS.

  18. Noradrenergic-Dopaminergic Interactions Due to DSP-4-MPTP Neurotoxin Treatments: Iron Connection.

    PubMed

    Archer, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    The investigations of noradrenergic lesions and dopaminergic lesions have established particular profiles of functional deficits and accompanying alterations of biomarkers in brain regions and circuits. In the present account, the focus of these lesions is directed toward the effects upon dopaminergic neurotransmission and expression that are associated with the movement disorders and psychosis-like behavior. In this context, it was established that noradrenergic denervation, through administration of the selective noradrenaline (NA) neurotoxin, DSP-4, should be performed prior to the depletion of dopamine (DA) with the selective neurotoxin, MPTP. Employing this regime, it was shown that (i) following DSP-4 (50 mg/kg) pretreatment of C57/Bl6 mice, both the functional and neurochemical (DA loss) effects of MPTP (2 × 20 and 2 × 40 mg/kg) were markedly exacerbated, and (ii) following postnatal iron (Fe(2+), 7.5 mg/kg, on postnatal days 19-12), pretreatment with DSP-4 followed by the lower 2 × 20 mg/kg MPTP dose induced even greater losses of motor behavior and striatal DA. As yet, the combination of NA-DA depletions, and even more so Fe(2+)-NA-DA depletion, has been considered to present a movement disorder aspect although studies exploring cognitive domains are lacking. With intrusion of iron overload into this formula, the likelihood of neuropsychiatric disorder, as well, unfolds.

  19. Concurrent glucocorticoid and noradrenergic activity shifts instrumental behavior from goal-directed to habitual control.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, Lars; Tegenthoff, Martin; Höffken, Oliver; Wolf, Oliver T

    2010-06-16

    Stress modulates instrumental action in favor of habitual stimulus-response processes that are insensitive to changes in outcome value and at the expense of goal-directed action-outcome processes. The neuroendocrine mechanism underlying this phenomenon is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that concurrent glucocorticoid and noradrenergic activity bias instrumental behavior toward habitual performance. To this end, healthy men and women received hydrocortisone, the alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine or both orally before they were trained in two instrumental actions leading to two distinct food outcomes. After training, one of the outcomes was devalued by inviting participants to eat that food to satiety. A subsequent extinction test revealed whether instrumental performance was goal-directed or habitual. Participants that received hydrocortisone or yohimbine alone decreased responding to the devalued action in the extinction test, i.e., they behaved goal-directed. The combined administration of hydrocortisone and yohimbine, however, rendered participants' behavior insensitive to changes in the value of the goal (i.e., habitual). These findings demonstrate that the concerted action of glucocorticoids and noradrenergic activity shifts instrumental behavior from goal-directed to habitual control.

  20. Noradrenergic refinement of glutamatergic neuronal circuits in the lateral superior olivary nucleus before hearing onset.

    PubMed

    Hirao, Kenzo; Eto, Kei; Nakahata, Yoshihisa; Ishibashi, Hitoshi; Nagai, Taku; Nabekura, Junichi

    2015-09-01

    Neuronal circuit plasticity during development is fundamental for precise network formation. Pioneering studies of the developmental visual cortex indicated that noradrenaline (NA) is crucial for ocular dominance plasticity during the critical period in the visual cortex. Recent research demonstrated tonotopic map formation by NA during the critical period in the auditory system, indicating that NA also contributes to synaptic plasticity in this system. The lateral superior olive (LSO) in the auditory system receives glutamatergic input from the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) and undergoes circuit remodeling during postnatal development. LSO is innervated by noradrenergic afferents and is therefore a suitable model to study the function of NA in refinement of neuronal circuits. Chemical lesions of the noradrenergic system and chronic inhibition of α2-adrenoceptors in vivo during postnatal development in mice disrupted functional elimination and strengthening of VCN-LSO afferents. This was potentially mediated by activation of presynaptic α2-adrenoceptors and inhibition of glutamate release because NA presynaptically suppressed excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) through α2-adrenoceptors during the first two postnatal weeks in an in vitro study. Furthermore, NA and α2-adrenoceptor agonist induced long-term suppression of EPSCs and decreased glutamate release. These results suggest that NA has a critical role in synaptic refinement of the VCN-LSO glutamatergic pathway through failure of synaptic transmission. Because of the ubiquitous distribution of NA afferents and the extensive expression of α2-adrenoceptors throughout the immature brain, this phenomenon might be widespread in the developing central nervous system.

  1. Blood--brain barrier sodium/potassium pump: modulation by central noradrenergic innervation.

    PubMed

    Harik, S I

    1986-06-01

    The active transport of Na+ and K+ across the blood--brain barrier by the membrane-bound enzyme Na+/K+-activated ATPase of brain microvessel endothelial cells has a major role in the maintenance of brain water and electrolyte homeostasis. To test whether the putative noradrenergic innervation of cerebral microvessels from the nucleus locus ceruleus contributes to the regulation of Na+/K+-ATPase activity of the blood--brain barrier, specific [3H]ouabain-binding studies were performed on cerebral microvessels and crude cortical membranes obtained from Wistar rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the nucleus locus ceruleus. Such lesion depleted norepinephrine by about 90% in the ipsilateral cerebral cortex without affecting the contralateral cortex. [3H]Ouabain binding to membranes of cerebral cortex and the cerebral microvessels was specific and saturable. The maximal ouabain-binding capacity in microvessels of the ipsilateral, norepinephrine-depleted, cerebral cortex was reduced by about 40%, without change in the affinity of binding. [3H]Ouabain binding to crude membrane fractions of the cerebral cortex was not significantly affected by locus ceruleus lesion. The results suggest that Na+/K+-ATPase activity of cerebral microvessels, and the consequent transport of Na+ and K+ across the blood--brain barrier, is modulated by noradrenergic innervation from the locus ceruleus.

  2. Both a Nicotinic Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) and a Noradrenergic SNP Modulate Working Memory Performance when Attention Is Manipulated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Pamela M.; Sundararajan, Ramya; Lin, Ming-Kuan; Kumar, Reshma; Fryxell, Karl J.; Parasuraman, Raja

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relation between the two systems of visuospatial attention and working memory by examining the effect of normal variation in cholinergic and noradrenergic genes on working memory performance under attentional manipulation. We previously reported that working memory for location was impaired following large location precues,…

  3. Glutamate input to noradrenergic neurons plays an essential role in the development of morphine dependence and psychomotor sensitization.

    PubMed

    Parkitna, Jan Rodriguez; Solecki, Wojciech; Gołembiowska, Krystyna; Tokarski, Krzysztof; Kubik, Jakub; Gołda, Sławomir; Novak, Martin; Parlato, Rosanna; Hess, Grzegorz; Sprengel, Rolf; Przewłocki, Ryszard

    2012-11-01

    The brain's noradrenergic system is involved in the development of behaviours induced by drugs of abuse, e.g. dependence and withdrawal, and also reward or psychomotor effects. To investigate how noradrenergic system activity is controlled in the context associated with drug-induced behaviours, we generated a Cre/loxP mouse model in which the essential glutamate NMDA receptor subunit NR1 is ablated in cells expressing dopamine β-hydroxylase (Dbh). As a result, the noradrenergic cells in NR1DbhCre mice lack the NMDA receptor-dependent component of excitatory post-synaptic currents. The mutant mice displayed no obvious behavioural alterations, had unchanged noradrenaline content and mild increase in dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens. Interestingly, NR1DbhCre animals did not develop morphine-induced psychomotor sensitization. However, when the morphine injections were preceded by treatment with RX821002, an antagonist of α2-adrenergic receptors, the development of sensitization was restored. Conversely, pretreatment with clonidine, an agonist of α2-adrenergic receptors, blocked development of sensitization in wild-type mice. We also found that while the development of tolerance to morphine was normal in mutant mice, withdrawal symptoms were attenuated. These data reveal that NMDA receptors on noradrenergic neurons regulate development of opiate dependence and psychomotor sensitization, by controlling drug-induced noradrenaline signalling.

  4. Effects of the noradrenergic neurotoxin DSP-4 on the expression of α1-adrenoceptor subtypes after antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Kreiner, Grzegorz; Zelek-Molik, Agnieszka; Kowalska, Marta; Bielawski, Adam; Antkiewicz-Michaluk, Lucyna; Nalepa, Irena

    2011-01-01

    We have previously reported that chronic imipramine and electroconvulsive treatments increase the α(1A)-adrenoceptor (but not the α(1B) subtype) mRNA level and the receptor density in the rat cerebral cortex. Furthermore, we have also shown that chronic treatment with citalopram does not affect the expression of either the α(1A)- or the α(1B)-adrenoceptor, indicating that the previously observed up-regulation of α(1A)-adrenoceptor may depend on the noradrenergic component of the pharmacological mechanism of action of these antidepressants. Here, we report that previous noradrenergic depletion with DSP-4 (50 mg/kg) (a neurotoxin selective for the noradrenergic nerve terminals) significantly attenuated the increase of α(1A)-adrenoceptor mRNA induced by a 14-day treatment with imipramine (IMI, 20 mg/kg, ip) and abolished the effect of electroconvulsive shock (ECS, 150 mA, 0.5 s) in the prefrontal cortex of the rat brain. The changes in the receptor protein expression (as reflected by its density) that were induced by IMI and ECS treatments were differently modulated by DSP-4 lesioning, and only the ECS-induced increase in α(1A)-adrenoceptor level was abolished. This study provides further evidence corroborating our initial hypothesis that the noradrenergic component of the action of antidepressant agents plays an essential role in the modulation of α(1A)-adrenoceptor in the rat cerebral cortex.

  5. Glucocorticoids interact with noradrenergic activation at encoding to enhance long-term memory for emotional material in women.

    PubMed

    Segal, S K; Simon, R; McFarlin, S; Alkire, M; Desai, A; Cahill, L F

    2014-09-26

    Evidence from the animal literature suggests that post-training glucocorticoids (GCs) interact with noradrenergic activation at acquisition to enhance memory consolidation for emotional stimuli. While there is evidence that GCs enhance memory for emotional material in humans, the extent to which this depends on noradrenergic activation at encoding has not been explored. In this study, 20-mg hydrocortisone was administered to healthy young women (18-35 yrs old) in a double-blind fashion 10 min prior to viewing a series of emotional and neutral images. Saliva samples were taken at baseline, 10 min after drug or placebo administration, immediately after viewing the images, 10, 20, and 30 min after viewing the images. Participants returned 1 week later for a surprise recall test. Results suggest that, hydrocortisone administration resulted in emotional memory enhancement only in participants who displayed an increase in endogenous noradrenergic activation, measured via salivary alpha-amylase at encoding. These results support findings in the animal literature, and suggest that GC-induced memory enhancement relies on noradrenergic activation at encoding in women.

  6. Limbic, associative, and motor territories within the targets for deep brain stimulation: potential clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Sudhyadhom, Atchar; Bova, Frank J; Foote, Kelly D; Rosado, Christian A; Kirsch-Darrow, Lindsey; Okun, Michael S

    2007-07-01

    The use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) has recently been expanding for the treatment of many neurologic disorders such as Parkinson disease, dystonia, essential tremor, Tourette's syndrome, cluster headache, epilepsy, depression, and obsessive compulsive disorder. The target structures for DBS include specific segregated territories within limbic, associative, or motor regions of very small subnuclei. In this review, we summarize current clinical techniques for DBS, the cognitive/mood/motor outcomes, and the relevant neuroanatomy with respect to functional territories within specific brain targets. Future development of new techniques and technology that may include a more direct visualization of "motor" territories within target structures may prove useful for avoiding side effects that may result from stimulation of associative and limbic regions. Alternatively, newer procedures may choose and specifically target non-motor territories for chronic electrical stimulation.

  7. A Primary Role for Nucleus Accumbens and Related Limbic Network in Vocal Tics.

    PubMed

    McCairn, Kevin W; Nagai, Yuji; Hori, Yukiko; Ninomiya, Taihei; Kikuchi, Erika; Lee, Ju-Young; Suhara, Tetsuya; Iriki, Atsushi; Minamimoto, Takafumi; Takada, Masahiko; Isoda, Masaki; Matsumoto, Masayuki

    2016-01-20

    Inappropriate vocal expressions, e.g., vocal tics in Tourette syndrome, severely impact quality of life. Neural mechanisms underlying vocal tics remain unexplored because no established animal model representing the condition exists. We report that unilateral disinhibition of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) generates vocal tics in monkeys. Whole-brain PET imaging identified prominent, bilateral limbic cortico-subcortical activation. Local field potentials (LFPs) developed abnormal spikes in the NAc and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Vocalization could occur without obvious LFP spikes, however, when phase-phase coupling of alpha oscillations were accentuated between the NAc, ACC, and the primary motor cortex. These findings contrasted with myoclonic motor tics induced by disinhibition of the dorsolateral putamen, where PET activity was confined to the ipsilateral sensorimotor system and LFP spikes always preceded motor tics. We propose that vocal tics emerge as a consequence of dysrhythmic alpha coupling between critical nodes in the limbic and motor networks. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  8. Gut-brain peptides in corticostriatal-limbic circuitry and alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Vadnie, Chelsea A.; Park, Jun Hyun; Abdel Gawad, Noha; Ho, Ada Man Choi; Hinton, David J.; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2014-01-01

    Peptides synthesized in endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract and neurons are traditionally considered regulators of metabolism, energy intake, and appetite. However, recent work has demonstrated that many of these peptides act on corticostriatal-limbic circuitry and, in turn, regulate addictive behaviors. Given that alcohol is a source of energy and an addictive substance, it is not surprising that increasing evidence supports a role for gut-brain peptides specifically in alcohol use disorders (AUD). In this review, we discuss the effects of several gut-brain peptides on alcohol-related behaviors and the potential mechanisms by which these gut-brain peptides may interfere with alcohol-induced changes in corticostriatal-limbic circuitry. This review provides a summary of current knowledge on gut-brain peptides focusing on five peptides: neurotensin, glucagon-like peptide 1, ghrelin, substance P, and neuropeptide Y. Our review will be helpful to develop novel therapeutic targets for AUD. PMID:25278825

  9. The Limbic-Prefrontal Network Modulated by Electroacupuncture at CV4 and CV12

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jiliang; Wang, Xiaoling; Liu, Hesheng; Wang, Yin; Zhou, Kehua; Hong, Yang; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lei; Xue, Chao; Song, Ming; Liu, Baoyan; Zhu, Bing

    2012-01-01

    fMRI studies showed that acupuncture could induce hemodynamic changes in brain networks. Many of these studies focused on whether specific acupoints could activate specific brain regions and were often limited to manual acupuncture at acupoints on the limbs. In this fMRI study, we investigated acupuncture's modulation effects on brain functional networks by electroacupuncture (EA) at acupoints on the midline of abdomen. Acupoints Guanyuan (CV4) and Zhongwan (CV12) were stimulated in 21 healthy volunteers. The needling sensations, brain activation, and functional connectivity were studied. We found that the limbic-prefrontal functional network was deactivated by EA at CV4 and CV12. More importantly, the local functional connectivity was significantly changed during EA stimulation, and the change persisted during the period after the stimulation. Although minor differences existed, both acupoints similarly modulated the limbic-prefrontal functional network, which is overlapped with the functional circuits associated with emotional and cognitive regulation. PMID:22291848

  10. Optogenetic stimulation of cholinergic brainstem neurons during focal limbic seizures: Effects on cortical physiology.

    PubMed

    Furman, Moran; Zhan, Qiong; McCafferty, Cian; Lerner, Benjamin A; Motelow, Joshua E; Meng, Jin; Ma, Chanthia; Buchanan, Gordon F; Witten, Ilana B; Deisseroth, Karl; Cardin, Jessica A; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2015-12-01

    Focal temporal lobe seizures often cause impaired cortical function and loss of consciousness. Recent work suggests that the mechanism for depressed cortical function during focal seizures may depend on decreased subcortical cholinergic arousal, which leads to a sleep-like state of cortical slow-wave activity. To test this hypothesis, we sought to directly activate subcortical cholinergic neurons during focal limbic seizures to determine the effects on cortical function. Here we used an optogenetic approach to selectively stimulate cholinergic brainstem neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus during focal limbic seizures induced in a lightly anesthetized rat model. We found an increase in cortical gamma activity and a decrease in delta activity in response to cholinergic stimulation. These findings support the mechanistic role of reduced subcortical cholinergic arousal in causing cortical dysfunction during seizures. Through further work, electrical or optogenetic stimulation of subcortical arousal networks may ultimately lead to new treatments aimed at preventing cortical dysfunction during seizures.

  11. Diurnal cortisol amplitude and fronto-limbic activity in response to stressful stimuli.

    PubMed

    Cunningham-Bussel, Amy C; Root, James C; Butler, Tracy; Tuescher, Oliver; Pan, Hong; Epstein, Jane; Weisholtz, Daniel S; Pavony, Michelle; Silverman, Michael E; Goldstein, Martin S; Altemus, Margaret; Cloitre, Marylene; Ledoux, Joseph; McEwen, Bruce; Stern, Emily; Silbersweig, David

    2009-06-01

    The development and exacerbation of many psychiatric and neurologic conditions are associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis as measured by aberrant levels of cortisol secretion. Here we report on the relationship between the amplitude of diurnal cortisol secretion, measured across 3 typical days in 18 healthy individuals, and blood oxygen level dependant (BOLD) response in limbic fear/stress circuits, elicited by in-scanner presentation of emotionally negative stimuli, specifically, images of the World Trade Center (WTC) attack. Results indicate that subjects who secrete a greater amplitude of cortisol diurnally demonstrate less brain activation in limbic regions, including the amygdala and hippocampus/parahippocampus, and hypothalamus during exposure to traumatic WTC-related images. Such initial findings can begin to link our understanding, in humans, of the relationship between the diurnal amplitude of a hormone integral to the stress response, and those neuroanatomical regions that are implicated as both modulating and being modulated by that response.

  12. Visualization of the medial forebrain bundle using diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Hana, Ardian; Hana, Anisa; Dooms, Georges; Boecher-Schwarz, Hans; Hertel, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging is a technique that enables physicians the portrayal of white matter tracts in vivo. We used this technique in order to depict the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) in 15 consecutive patients between 2012 and 2015. Men and women of all ages were included. There were six women and nine men. The mean age was 58.6 years (39-77). Nine patients were candidates for an eventual deep brain stimulation. Eight of them suffered from Parkinson's disease and one had multiple sclerosis. The remaining six patients suffered from different lesions which were situated in the frontal lobe. These were 2 metastasis, 2 meningiomas, 1 cerebral bleeding, and 1 glioblastoma. We used a 3DT1-sequence for the navigation. Furthermore T2- and DTI- sequences were performed. The FOV was 200 × 200 mm(2), slice thickness 2 mm, and an acquisition matrix of 96 × 96 yielding nearly isotropic voxels of 2 × 2 × 2 mm. 3-Tesla-MRI was carried out strictly axial using 32 gradient directions and one b0-image. We used Echo-Planar-Imaging (EPI) and ASSET parallel imaging with an acceleration factor of 2. b-value was 800 s/mm(2). The maximal angle was 50°. Additional scanning time was < 9 min. We were able to visualize the MFB in 12 of our patients bilaterally and in the remaining three patients we depicted the MFB on one side. It was the contralateral side of the lesion. These were 2 meningiomas and one metastasis. Portrayal of the MFB is possible for everyday routine for neurosurgical interventions. As part of the reward circuitry it might be of substantial importance for neurosurgeons during deep brain stimulation in patients with psychiatric disorders. Surgery in this part of the brain should always take the preservation of this white matter tract into account.

  13. Association of basal forebrain volumes and cognition in normal aging.

    PubMed

    Wolf, D; Grothe, M; Fischer, F U; Heinsen, H; Kilimann, I; Teipel, S; Fellgiebel, A

    2014-01-01

    The basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS) is known to undergo moderate neurodegenerative alterations during normal aging and severe atrophy in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been suggested that functional and structural alterations of the BFCS mediate cognitive performance in normal aging and AD. But, it is still unclear to what extend age-associated cognitive decline can be related to BFCS in normal aging. We analyzed the relationship between BFCS volume and cognition using MRI and a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery in a cohort of 43 healthy elderly subjects spanning the age range from 60 to 85 years. Most notably, we found significant associations between general intelligence and BFCS volumes, specifically within areas corresponding to posterior nuclei of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (Ch4p) and the nucleus subputaminalis (NSP). Associations between specific cognitive domains and BFCS volumes were less pronounced. Supplementary analyses demonstrated that especially the volume of NSP but also the volume of Ch4p was related to the volume of widespread temporal, frontal, and parietal gray and white matter regions. Volumes of these gray and white matter regions were also related to general intelligence. Higher volumes of Ch4p and NSP may enhance the effectiveness of acetylcholine supply in related gray and white matter regions underlying general intelligence and hence explain the observed association between the volume of Ch4p as well as NSP and general intelligence. Since general intelligence is known to attenuate the degree of age-associated cognitive decline and the risk of developing late-onset AD, the BFCS might, besides the specific contribution to the pathophysiology in AD, constitute a mechanism of brain resilience in normal aging.

  14. Visualization of the medial forebrain bundle using diffusion tensor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hana, Ardian; Hana, Anisa; Dooms, Georges; Boecher-Schwarz, Hans; Hertel, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging is a technique that enables physicians the portrayal of white matter tracts in vivo. We used this technique in order to depict the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) in 15 consecutive patients between 2012 and 2015. Men and women of all ages were included. There were six women and nine men. The mean age was 58.6 years (39–77). Nine patients were candidates for an eventual deep brain stimulation. Eight of them suffered from Parkinson‘s disease and one had multiple sclerosis. The remaining six patients suffered from different lesions which were situated in the frontal lobe. These were 2 metastasis, 2 meningiomas, 1 cerebral bleeding, and 1 glioblastoma. We used a 3DT1-sequence for the navigation. Furthermore T2- and DTI- sequences were performed. The FOV was 200 × 200 mm2, slice thickness 2 mm, and an acquisition matrix of 96 × 96 yielding nearly isotropic voxels of 2 × 2 × 2 mm. 3-Tesla-MRI was carried out strictly axial using 32 gradient directions and one b0-image. We used Echo-Planar-Imaging (EPI) and ASSET parallel imaging with an acceleration factor of 2. b-value was 800 s/mm2. The maximal angle was 50°. Additional scanning time was < 9 min. We were able to visualize the MFB in 12 of our patients bilaterally and in the remaining three patients we depicted the MFB on one side. It was the contralateral side of the lesion. These were 2 meningiomas and one metastasis. Portrayal of the MFB is possible for everyday routine for neurosurgical interventions. As part of the reward circuitry it might be of substantial importance for neurosurgeons during deep brain stimulation in patients with psychiatric disorders. Surgery in this part of the brain should always take the preservation of this white matter tract into account. PMID:26581828

  15. The metabolic effects of limbic leucotomy in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Sawle, G V; Lees, A J; Hymas, N F; Brooks, D J; Frackowiak, R S

    1993-01-01

    Regional cerebral oxygen metabolism was measured before and after limbic leucotomy in a patient with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, obsessive compulsive disorder, and obsessional slowness. The preoperative scan showed hypermetabolism in the caudate nuclei, which normalised after operation. It is proposed that the beneficial effects of this operation on both tics and obsessive compulsive behaviour are mediated by disruption of abnormal neural activity in basal ganglia-thalamocortical loops. Images PMID:8410025

  16. Methylphenidate attenuates limbic brain inhibition after cocaine-cues exposure in cocaine abusers.

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.; Fowler, J.S.; Pradhan, K.; Jayne, M.; Logan, J.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Alia-Klein, N.; Wong, C.T.

    2010-07-01

    Dopamine (phasic release) is implicated in conditioned responses. Imaging studies in cocaine abusers show decreases in striatal dopamine levels, which we hypothesize may enhance conditioned responses since tonic dopamine levels modulate phasic dopamine release. To test this we assessed the effects of increasing tonic dopamine levels (using oral methylphenidate) on brain activation induced by cocaine-cues in cocaine abusers. Brain metabolism (marker of brain function) was measured with PET and {sup 18}FDG in 24 active cocaine abusers tested four times; twice watching a Neutral video (nature scenes) and twice watching a Cocaine-cues video; each video was preceded once by placebo and once by methylphenidate (20 mg). The Cocaine-cues video increased craving to the same extent with placebo (68%) and with methylphenidate (64%). In contrast, SPM analysis of metabolic images revealed that differences between Neutral versus Cocaine-cues conditions were greater with placebo than methylphenidate; whereas with placebo the Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism (p<0.005) in left limbic regions (insula, orbitofrontal, accumbens) and right parahippocampus, with methylphenidate it only decreased in auditory and visual regions, which also occurred with placebo. Decreases in metabolism in these regions were not associated with craving; in contrast the voxel-wise SPM analysis identified significant correlations with craving in anterior orbitofrontal cortex (p<0.005), amygdala, striatum and middle insula (p<0.05). This suggests that methylphenidate's attenuation of brain reactivity to Cocaine-cues is distinct from that involved in craving. Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism in limbic regions (reflects activity over 30 minutes), which contrasts with activations reported by fMRI studies (reflects activity over 2-5 minutes) that may reflect long-lasting limbic inhibition following activation. Studies to evaluate the clinical significance of methylphenidate's blunting of cue-induced limbic

  17. Methylphenidate attenuates limbic brain inhibition after cocaine-cues exposure in cocaine abusers.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Tomasi, Dardo; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S; Pradhan, Kith; Jayne, Millard; Logan, Jean; Goldstein, Rita Z; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Wong, Christopher

    2010-07-09

    Dopamine (phasic release) is implicated in conditioned responses. Imaging studies in cocaine abusers show decreases in striatal dopamine levels, which we hypothesize may enhance conditioned responses since tonic dopamine levels modulate phasic dopamine release. To test this we assessed the effects of increasing tonic dopamine levels (using oral methylphenidate) on brain activation induced by cocaine-cues in cocaine abusers. Brain metabolism (marker of brain function) was measured with PET and (18)FDG in 24 active cocaine abusers tested four times; twice watching a Neutral video (nature scenes) and twice watching a Cocaine-cues video; each video was preceded once by placebo and once by methylphenidate (20 mg). The Cocaine-cues video increased craving to the same extent with placebo (68%) and with methylphenidate (64%). In contrast, SPM analysis of metabolic images revealed that differences between Neutral versus Cocaine-cues conditions were greater with placebo than methylphenidate; whereas with placebo the Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism (p<0.005) in left limbic regions (insula, orbitofrontal, accumbens) and right parahippocampus, with methylphenidate it only decreased in auditory and visual regions, which also occurred with placebo. Decreases in metabolism in these regions were not associated with craving; in contrast the voxel-wise SPM analysis identified significant correlations with craving in anterior orbitofrontal cortex (p<0.005), amygdala, striatum and middle insula (p<0.05). This suggests that methylphenidate's attenuation of brain reactivity to Cocaine-cues is distinct from that involved in craving. Cocaine-cues decreased metabolism in limbic regions (reflects activity over 30 minutes), which contrasts with activations reported by fMRI studies (reflects activity over 2-5 minutes) that may reflect long-lasting limbic inhibition following activation. Studies to evaluate the clinical significance of methylphenidate's blunting of cue-induced limbic

  18. Brain atrophy in primary progressive aphasia involves the cholinergic basal forebrain and Ayala’s nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Teipel, Stefan J.; Flatz, Wilhelm; Ackl, Nibal; Grothe, Michel; Kilimann, Ingo; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Grinberg, Lea; Amaro, Edson; Kljajevic, Vanja; Alho, Eduardo; Knels, Christina; Ebert, Anne; Heinsen, Helmut; Danek, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is characterized by left hemispheric frontotemporal cortical atrophy. Evidence from anatomical studies suggests that the nucleus subputaminalis (NSP), a subnucleus of the cholinergic basal forebrain, may be involved in the pathological process of PPA. Therefore, we studied the pattern of cortical and basal forebrain atrophy in 10 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PPA and 18 healthy age-matched controls using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We determined the cholinergic basal forebrain nuclei according to Mesulam’s nomenclature and the NSP in MRI reference space based on histological sections and the MRI scan of a post-mortem brain in cranio. Using voxel-based analysis, we found left hemispheric cortical atrophy in PPA patients compared with controls, including prefrontal, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobe areas. We detected cholinergic basal forebrain atrophy in left predominant localizations of Ch4p, Ch4am, Ch4al, Ch3 and NSP. For the first time, we have described the pattern of basal forebrain atrophy in PPA and confirmed the involvement of NSP that had been predicted based on theoretical considerations. Our findings may enhance understanding of the role of cholinergic degeneration for the regional specificity of the cortical destruction leading to the syndrome of PPA. PMID:24434193

  19. Orexin A-induced enhancement of attentional processing in rats: role of basal forebrain neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zajo, Kristin N.; Fadel, Jim R.; Burk, Joshua A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Orexins are neuropeptides released in multiple brain regions from neurons that originate within the lateral hypothalamus and contiguous perfornical area. The basal forebrain, a structure implicated in attentional processing, receives orexinergic inputs. Our previous work demonstrated that administration of an orexin-1 receptor antagonist, SB-334867, systemically or via infusion directly into the basal forebrain, can disrupt performance in a task that places explicit demands on attentional processing. Objectives Given that the orexin-1 receptor binds orexin A with high affinity, we tested whether orexin A could enhance attention in rats. Methods Attentional performance was assessed using a task that required discrimination of variable duration visual signals from trials when no signal was presented. We also tested whether infusions of orexin A into the lateral ventricle could attenuate deficits following lesions of medial prefrontal cortical cholinergic projections that arise from the basal forebrain. Results Infusions of orexin A into the basal forebrain attenuated distracter-induced decreases in attentional performance. Orexin A attenuated deficits in lesioned animals when a visual distracter was presented. Conclusion The present results support the view that orexin A can enhance attentional performance via actions in the basal forebrain and may be beneficial for some conditions characterized by attentional dysfunction due to disruption of cortical cholinergic inputs. PMID:26534765

  20. Prosomeric map of the lamprey forebrain based on calretinin immunocytochemistry, Nissl stain, and ancillary markers.

    PubMed

    Pombal, M A; Puelles, L

    1999-11-22

    The structural organization of the lamprey extratelencephalic forebrain is re-examined from the perspective of the prosomeric segmental paradigm. The question asked was whether the prosomeric forebrain model used for gnathostomes is of material advantage for interpreting subdivisions in the lamprey forebrain. To this aim, the main longitudinal and transverse landmarks recognized by the prosomeric model in other vertebrates were identified in Nissl-stained lamprey material. Lines of cytoarchitectural discontinuity and contours of migrated neuronal groups were mapped in a two-dimensional sagittal representation and were also classified according to their radial position. Immunocytochemical mapping of calretinin expression in adjacent sections served to define particular structural units better, in particular, the dorsal thalamus. These data were complemented by numerous other chemoarchitectonic observations obtained with ancillary markers, which identified additional specific formations, subdivisions, or boundaries. Emphasis was placed on studying whether such chemically defined neuronal groups showed boundaries aligned with the postulated inter- or intraprosomeric boundaries. The course of diverse axonal tracts was studied also with regard to their prosomeric topography. This analysis showed that the full prosomeric model applies straightforwardly to the lamprey forebrain. This finding implies that a common segmental and longitudinal organization of the neural tube may be primitive for all vertebrates. Interesting novel aspects appear in the interpretation of the lamprey pretectum, the dorsal and ventral thalami, and the hypothalamus. The topologic continuity of the prosomeric forebrain regions with evaginated or non-evaginated portions of the telencephalon was also examined.

  1. Brain tissue properties differentiate between motor and limbic basal ganglia circuits

    PubMed Central

    Accolla, Ettore A; Dukart, Juergen; Helms, Gunther; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Kherif, Ferath; Lutti, Antoine; Chowdhury, Rumana; Hetzer, Stefan; Haynes, John-Dylan; Kühn, Andrea A; Draganski, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Despite advances in understanding basic organizational principles of the human basal ganglia, accurate in vivo assessment of their anatomical properties is essential to improve early diagnosis in disorders with corticosubcortical pathology and optimize target planning in deep brain stimulation. Main goal of this study was the detailed topological characterization of limbic, associative, and motor subdivisions of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in relation to corresponding corticosubcortical circuits. To this aim, we used magnetic resonance imaging and investigated independently anatomical connectivity via white matter tracts next to brain tissue properties. On the basis of probabilistic diffusion tractography we identified STN subregions with predominantly motor, associative, and limbic connectivity. We then computed for each of the nonoverlapping STN subregions the covariance between local brain tissue properties and the rest of the brain using high-resolution maps of magnetization transfer (MT) saturation and longitudinal (R1) and transverse relaxation rate (R2*). The demonstrated spatial distribution pattern of covariance between brain tissue properties linked to myelin (R1 and MT) and iron (R2*) content clearly segregates between motor and limbic basal ganglia circuits. We interpret the demonstrated covariance pattern as evidence for shared tissue properties within a functional circuit, which is closely linked to its function. Our findings open new possibilities for investigation of changes in the established covariance pattern aiming at accurate diagnosis of basal ganglia disorders and prediction of treatment outcome. PMID:24777915

  2. Limbic irritability and chaotic neural response during conflicting stroop task in the patients with unipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Bob, P; Susta, M; Procházková-Vecerová, A; Kukleta, M; Pavlát, J; Jagla, F; Raboch, J

    2006-01-01

    According to recent findings activation of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is related to detecting cognitive conflict. This conflict related activation elicits autonomic responses which can be assessed by psychophysiological measures such as heart rate variability calculated as beat to beat R-R intervals (RRI). Recent findings in neuroscience also suggest that cognitive conflict is related to specific nonlinear chaotic changes of the signal generated by neural systems. The present study used Stroop word-color test as an experimental approach to psychophysiological study of cognitive conflict in connection with RRI measurement, psychometric measurement of limbic irritability (LSCL-33), depression (BDI-II) and calculation of largest Lyapunov exponents in nonlinear data analysis of RRI time series. Significant correlation 0.61 between largest Lyapunov exponents and LSCL-33 found in this study indicate that a defect of neural inhibition during conflicting Stroop task is closely related to limbic irritability. Because limbic irritability is probably closely related to epileptiform abnormalities in the temporolimbic structures, this result might represent useful instrument for indication of anticonvulsant treatment in depressive patients who are resistant to antidepressant medication.

  3. Restoring Conscious Arousal During Focal Limbic Seizures with Deep Brain Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kundishora, Adam J; Gummadavelli, Abhijeet; Ma, Chanthia; Liu, Mengran; McCafferty, Cian; Schiff, Nicholas D; Willie, Jon T; Gross, Robert E; Gerrard, Jason; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2016-03-03

    Impaired consciousness occurs suddenly and unpredictably in people with epilepsy, markedly worsening quality of life and increasing risk of mortality. Focal seizures with impaired consciousness are the most common form of epilepsy and are refractory to all current medical and surgical therapies in about one-sixth of cases. Restoring consciousness during and following seizures would be potentially transformative for these individuals. Here, we investigate deep brain stimulation to improve level of conscious arousal in a rat model of focal limbic seizures. We found that dual-site stimulation of the central lateral nucleus of the intralaminar thalamus (CL) and the pontine nucleus oralis (PnO) bilaterally during focal limbic seizures restored normal-appearing cortical electrophysiology and markedly improved behavioral arousal. In contrast, single-site bilateral stimulation of CL or PnO alone was insufficient to achieve the same result. These findings support the "network inhibition hypothesis" that focal limbic seizures impair consciousness through widespread inhibition of subcortical arousal. Driving subcortical arousal function would be a novel therapeutic approach to some forms of refractory epilepsy and may be compatible with devices already in use for responsive neurostimulation. Multisite deep brain stimulation of subcortical arousal structures may benefit not only patients with epilepsy but also those with other disorders of consciousness.

  4. Effects of isomers of apomorphines on dopamine receptors in striatal and limbic tissue of rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Kula, N.S.; Baldessarini, R.J.; Bromley, S.; Neumeyer, J.L.

    1985-09-16

    The optical isomers of apomorphine (APO) and N-propylnorapomorphine (NPA) were interacted with three biochemical indices of dopamine (Da) receptors in extrapyramidal and limbic preparations of rat brain tissues. There were consistent isomeric preferences for the R(-) configuration of both DA analogs in stimulation adenylate cyclase (D-1 sites) and in competing for high affinity binding of /sup 3/H-spiroperidol (D-2 sites) and of /sup 3/H-ADTN (DA agonist binding sites) in striatal tissue, with lesser isomeric differences in the limbic tissue. The S(+) apomorphines did not inhibit stimulation of adenylate cyclase by DA. The tendency for greater activity of higher apparent affinity of R(-) apomorphines in striatum may reflect the evidently greater abundance of receptor sites in that region. There were only small regional differences in interactions of the apomorphine isomers with all three receptor sites, except for a strong preference of (-)NPA for striatal D-2 sites. These results do not parallel our recent observations indicating potent and selective antidopaminergic actions of S(+) apomorphines in the rat limbic system. They suggest caution in assuming close parallels between current biochemical functional, especially behavioral, methods of evaluating dopamine receptors of mammalian brain.

  5. Ilex paraguariensis Promotes Orofacial Pain Relief After Formalin Injection: Involvement of Noradrenergic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Eudislaine Fonseca; de Oliveira, Simone Kobe; Nardi, Viviane Koepp; Gelinski, Tathiana Carla; Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Maraschin, Marcelo; Nardi, Geisson Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Drinking mate or chimarrão, a hot infusion of Ilex paraguariensis (ILEX) leaves, is a common habit in Southern South America that has a social and almost ritualistic role. It has been used as a stimulant beverage in South America and analgesic in regions of Argentina for treatment of headache and others painful inflammatory conditions such as arthritis and rheumatism. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacological activity of I. paraguariensis infusion (ILEX) on orofacial nociception model induced by formalin, and study its mechanism of action. Materials and Methods: The analgesic effect of ILEX was assessed through writhing test, paw formalin test, paw edema induced by carrageenan, and orofacial pain induced by formalin. To study the action mechanism of ILEX, opioidergic, dopaminergic, nitrergic, and adrenergic pathways were investigated. Results: The high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of ILEX infusion revealed caffeine and theobromine. The treatment with ILEX reduced the number of writhing. However, it was effective neither in the formalin paw test nor in the paw edema induced by carrageenan. Different from formalin paw test, ILEX was able to reduce the orofacial reactivity to formalin in 31.8% (70.4 ± 2.5 s; first phase), and 20% (127.3 ± 18.9 s; second phase). The analgesic effect of ILEX results from the modulation of noradrenergic pathways since prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, 0.15 mg/kg; intraperitoneal) reversed the analgesic effect of ILEX. Conclusions: The present report demonstrates that analgesic effect of ILEX in orofacial formalin test is due mainly to modulation of noradrenergic pathways. SUMMARY Ilex paraguariensis (ILEX) has been used as a stimulant beverage in South America and analgesic in regions of Argentina for the treatment of headache and others painful inflammatory conditions such arthritis and rheumatism.The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacological activity of ILEX on

  6. Opposing regulation of dopaminergic activity and exploratory motor behavior by forebrain and brainstem cholinergic circuits.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jyoti C; Rossignol, Elsa; Rice, Margaret E; Machold, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine transmission is critical for exploratory motor behaviour. A key regulator is acetylcholine; forebrain acetylcholine regulates striatal dopamine release, whereas brainstem cholinergic inputs regulate the transition of dopamine neurons from tonic to burst firing modes. How these sources of cholinergic activity combine to control dopamine efflux and exploratory motor behaviour is unclear. Here we show that mice lacking total forebrain acetylcholine exhibit enhanced frequency-dependent striatal dopamine release and are hyperactive in a novel environment, whereas mice lacking rostral brainstem acetylcholine are hypoactive. Exploratory motor behaviour is normalized by the removal of both cholinergic sources. Involvement of dopamine in the exploratory motor phenotypes observed in these mutants is indicated by their altered sensitivity to the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist raclopride. These results support a model in which forebrain and brainstem cholinergic systems act in tandem to regulate striatal dopamine signalling for proper control of motor activity.

  7. LEVOMILNACIPRAN--A SUCCESSOR OF MILNACIPRAN WITH A HIGHER NORADRENERGIC SELECTIVITY.

    PubMed

    Zadka, Łukasz; Dziwota, Ewelina; Olajossy, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    A new antidepressant, levomilnacipran, is the levorotatory enantiomer of milnacipran. The drug belongs to selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) and has the highest noradrenergic selectivity of all members of this group of antidepressants. Clinical trials have confirmed the effectiveness of levomilnacipran in the treatment of depression. The drug was placed on the US market in the form of prolonged-release capsules, which greatly simplifies the treatment of psychiatric patients. The safety of the drug is also higher than the safety of a racemate, resulting in a beneficial impact on the therapeutic effect. In this paper we present current information on the pharmacological and clinical properties of the newest antidepressant--levomilnacipran.

  8. Stress-related noradrenergic activity prompts large-scale neural network reconfiguration.

    PubMed

    Hermans, Erno J; van Marle, Hein J F; Ossewaarde, Lindsey; Henckens, Marloes J A G; Qin, Shaozheng; van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Schoots, Vincent C; Cousijn, Helena; Rijpkema, Mark; Oostenveld, Robert; Fernández, Guillén

    2011-11-25

    Acute stress shifts the brain into a state that fosters rapid defense mechanisms. Stress-related neuromodulators are thought to trigger this change by altering properties of large-scale neural populations throughout the brain. We investigated this brain-state shift in humans. During exposure to a fear-related acute stressor, responsiveness and interconnectivity within a network including cortical (frontoinsular, dorsal anterior cingulate, inferotemporal, and temporoparietal) and subcortical (amygdala, thalamus, hypothalamus, and midbrain) regions increased as a function of stress response magnitudes. β-adrenergic receptor blockade, but not cortisol synthesis inhibition, diminished this increase. Thus, our findings reveal that noradrenergic activation during acute stress results in prolonged coupling within a distributed network that integrates information exchange between regions involved in autonomic-neuroendocrine control and vigilant attentional reorienting.

  9. Coordinated forms of noradrenergic plasticity in the locus coeruleus and primary auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Ana Raquel O.; Froemke, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    The cerebral cortex is plastic and represents the world according to the significance of sensory stimuli. However, cortical networks are embodied within complex circuits including neuromodulatory systems such as the noradrenergic locus coeruleus, providing information about internal state and behavioral relevance. While norepinephrine is important for cortical plasticity, it is unknown how modulatory neurons themselves respond to changes of sensory input. Here we examine how locus coeruleus neurons are modified by experience, and the consequences of locus coeruleus plasticity on cortical representations and sensory perception. We made whole-cell recordings from rat locus coeruleus and primary auditory cortex (AI), pairing sounds with locus coeruleus activation. Although initially unresponsive, locus coeruleus neurons developed and maintained auditory responses afterwards. Locus coeruleus plasticity induced changes in AI responses lasting at least hours and improved auditory perception for days to weeks. Our results demonstrate that locus coeruleus is highly plastic, leading to substantial changes in regulation of brain state by norepinephrine. PMID:26301326

  10. Close Vicinity of PrP Expressing Cells (FDC) with Noradrenergic Fibers in Healthy Sheep Spleen

    PubMed Central

    Lezmi, S.; Hunsmann, G.; Baron, T.

    2001-01-01

    In naturally and experimentally occurring scrapie in sheep, prions invade the immune system and replicate in lymphoid organs. Here we analysed immunohistochemically, in seven spleens of 6-month-old healthy sheep, the nature of the cells expressing prion protein (PrP) potentially supporting prion replication, as well as their relationship with autonomic innervation. PrP was identified using either RB1 rabbit antiserum or 4F2 monoclonal antibody directed against AA 108–123 portion of the bovine and AA 79–92 of human prion protein respectively. Using double labelling analysis, we demonstrated that PrPc is expressed by follicular dendritic cells using a specific monoclonal antibody (CNA42). We also showed the close vicinity of these PrP expressing cells with noradrenergic fibers, using a polyclonal tyrosine hydroxylase antibody. Our results may help the study of the cellular requirements for the possible neuroinvasion from the spleen. PMID:11785673

  11. Organization of the avian basal forebrain: chemical anatomy in the parrot (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Roberts, Todd Freeman; Hall, William Sterling; Brauth, Steven Earle

    2002-12-23

    Hodological, electrophysiological, and ablation studies indicate a role for the basal forebrain in telencephalic vocal control; however, to date the organization of the basal forebrain has not been extensively studied in any nonmammal or nonhuman vocal learning species. To this end the chemical anatomy of the avian basal forebrain was investigated in a vocal learning parrot, the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). Immunological and histological stains, including choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholinesterase, tyrosine hydroxylase, dopamine and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP)-32, the calcium binding proteins calbindin D-28k and parvalbumin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, iron, substance P, methionine enkephalin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphotase diaphorase, and arginine vasotocin were used in the present study. We conclude that the ventral paleostriatum (cf. Kitt and Brauth [1981] Neuroscience 6:1551-1566) and adjacent archistriatal regions can be subdivided into several distinct subareas that are chemically comparable to mammalian basal forebrain structures. The nucleus accumbens is histochemically separable into core and shell regions. The nucleus taeniae (TN) is theorized to be homologous to the medial amygdaloid nucleus. The archistriatum pars ventrolateralis (Avl; comparable to the pigeon archistriatum pars dorsalis) is theorized to be a possible homologue of the central amygdaloid nucleus. The TN and Avl are histochemically continuous with the medial aspects of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the ventromedial striatum, forming an avian analogue of the extended amygdala. The apparent counterpart in budgerigars of the mammalian nucleus basalis of Meynert consists of a field of cholinergic neurons spanning the basal forebrain. The budgerigar septal region is theorized to be homologous as a field to the mammalian septum. Our results are discussed with regard to both the evolution of the basal forebrain and its role in vocal

  12. Effects of hypocretin (orexin) neuronal loss on sleep and extracellular adenosine levels in the basal forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Murillo-Rodriguez, Eric; Liu, Meng; Blanco-Centurion, Carlos; Shiromani, Priyattam J.

    2009-01-01

    Neurons containing the neuropeptide hypocretin (orexin) are localized only in the lateral hypothalamus from where they innervate multiple regions implicated in arousal, including the basal forebrain. HCRT activation of downstream arousal neurons is likely to stimulate release of endogenous factors. One such factor is adenosine (AD), which in the basal forebrain increases with waking and decreases with sleep, and is hypothesized to regulate the waxing and waning of sleep drive. Does loss of HCRT neurons affect AD levels in the basal forebrain? Is the increased sleep that accompanies HCRT loss a consequence of higher AD levels in the basal forebrain? In the present study, we investigate these questions by lesioning the HCRT neurons (hypocretin-2-saporin) and measuring sleep and extracellular levels of AD in the basal forebrain. In separate groups of rats, the neurotoxin HCRT2-SAP or saline were administered locally to the lateral hypothalamus and 80 days later AD and sleep were assessed. Rats given the neurotoxin had a 94% loss of the HCRT neurons. These rats awake less at night, and had more REM sleep, which is consistent with a HCRT hypofunction. These rats also had more sleep after brief periods of sleep deprivation. However, in the lesioned rats, AD levels did not increase with 6h sleep deprivation, whereas such an increase in AD occurred in rats without lesion of the HCRT neurons. These findings indicate that AD levels do not increase with waking in rats with a HCRT lesion, and that the increased sleep in these rats occurs independently of AD levels in the basal forebrain. PMID:18783368

  13. Noradrenergic regulation of plasticity marker expression in the adult rodent piriform cortex.

    PubMed

    Vadodaria, Krishna C; Yanpallewar, Sudhirkumar U; Vadhvani, Mayur; Toshniwal, Devyani; Liles, L Cameron; Rommelfanger, Karen S; Weinshenker, David; Vaidya, Vidita A

    2017-02-23

    The adult rodent piriform cortex has been reported to harbor immature neurons that express markers associated with neurodevelopment and plasticity, namely polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM) and doublecortin (DCX). We characterized the expression of PSA-NCAM and DCX across the rostrocaudal axis of the rat piriform cortex and observed higher numbers of PSA-NCAM and DCX positive cells in the posterior subdivision. As observed in the rat piriform cortex, Nestin-GFP reporter mice also revealed a similar gradient of GFP-positive cells with an increasing rostro-caudal gradient of expression. Given the extensive noradrenergic innervation of the piriform cortex and its role in regulating piriform cortex function and synaptic plasticity, we addressed the influence of norepinephrine (NE) on piriform cortex plasticity marker expression. Depletion of NE by treatment with the noradrenergic neurotoxin DSP-4 significantly increased the number of DCX and PSA-NCAM immunopositive cells in the piriform cortex of adult rats. Similarly, DSP-4 treated Nestin-GFP reporter mice revealed a robust induction of GFP-positive cells within the piriform cortex following NE depletion. Genetic loss of NE in dopamine β-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh -/-) mice phenocopied the effects of DSP-4, with an increase noted in PSA-NCAM and DCX positive cells in the piriform cortex. Further, chronic α2-adrenergic receptor stimulation with the agonist guanabenz increased PSA-NCAM and DCX positive cells in the piriform cortex of adult rats and GFP-positive cells in the piriform cortex of Nestin-GFP mice. By contrast, chronic α2-adrenergic receptor blockade with the antagonist yohimbine reduced PSA-NCAM and DCX positive cells in the piriform cortex of adult rats. Our results provide novel evidence for a role of NE in regulating the expression of plasticity markers, including PSA-NCAM, DCX, and nestin, within the adult mouse and rat piriform cortex.

  14. Role of noradrenergic pathways in sneeze-induced urethral continence reflex in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaiho, Yasuhiro; Kamo, Izumi; Chancellor, Michael B; Arai, Yoichi; de Groat, William C; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2007-02-01

    To clarify the role of noradrenergic pathways in preventing stress urinary incontinence (SUI) during sneezing, we investigated the effect of the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor nisoxetine and alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists phentolamine (nonspecific blocker) and prazosin (alpha(1)-receptor-selective blocker) on the neurally evoked urethral continence reflex induced by sneezing in rats. The amplitude of urethral pressure responses during sneezing (A-URS), urethral baseline pressure (UBP) at the midurethra, and sneeze-induced leak point pressure (S-LPP) were measured in normal female adult rats and rats with SUI induced by vaginal distention (VD). In normal rats, intrathecal (it) phentolamine (0.02 nmol) and prazosin (0.02 nmol) decreased A-URS by 11.9 and 15.7%, respectively, without affecting UBP. In both normal and VD rats, intravenous (iv) application of nisoxetine (1 mg/kg) increased A-URS by 17.2 and 18.3% and UBP by 23.7 and 32.7%, respectively. Phentolamine or prazosin (both it) eliminated nisoxetine-induced increases in A-URS, but not the increases in UBP, which were, however, suppressed by iv phentolamine (5 mg/kg) or prazosin (1 mg/kg). Sneezing induced fluid leakage from the urethral orifice in VD rats, but not in normal rats. In VD rats, S-LPP was increased by 30.2% by iv nisoxetine. Application of phentolamine and prazosin (both it) decreased S-LPP by 15.7 and 20.6%, respectively, and nisoxetine induced increases in S-LPP to 13.2 and 12.3%, respectively. These results indicate that activation of the noradrenergic system by a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor can prevent SUI via alpha(1-)adrenoceptors by enhancing the sneeze-induced active urethral closure mechanism at the spinal level and augmenting UBP at the periphery.

  15. CXCR4 and NMDA Receptors Are Functionally Coupled in Rat Hippocampal Noradrenergic and Glutamatergic Nerve Endings.

    PubMed

    Di Prisco, Silvia; Olivero, Guendalina; Merega, Elisa; Bonfiglio, Tommaso; Marchi, Mario; Pittaluga, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Previous studies had shown that the HIV-1 capsidic glycoprotein gp120 (strain IIIB) modulates presynaptic release-regulating NMDA receptors on noradrenergic and glutamatergic terminals. This study aims to assess whether the chemokine CXC4 receptors (CXCR4s) has a role in the gp120-mediated effects. The effect of CXCL12, the endogenous ligand at CXCR4, on the NMDA-mediated releasing activity was therefore investigated. Rat hippocampal synaptosomes were preloaded with [(3)H]noradrenaline ([(3)H]NA) or [(3)H]D-aspartate ([(3)H]D-Asp) and acutely exposed to CXCL12, to NMDA or to both agonists. CXCL12, inactive on its own, facilitated the NMDA-evoked tritium release. The NMDA antagonist MK-801 abolished the NMDA/CXCL12-evoked tritium release of both radiolabelled tracers, while the CXCR4 antagonist AMD 3100 halved it, suggesting that rat hippocampal nerve endings possess presynaptic release-regulating CXCR4 receptors colocalized with NMDA receptors. Accordingly, Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of CXCR4 proteins in synaptosomal plasmamembranes. In both synaptosomal preparations, CXCL12-induced facilitation of NMDA-mediated release was dependent upon PLC-mediated src-induced events leading to mobilization of Ca(2+) from intraterminal IP3-sensitive stores Finally, the gp120-induced facilitation of NMDA-mediated release of [(3)H]NA and [(3)H]D-Asp was prevented by AMD 3100. We propose that CXCR4s are functionally coupled to NMDA receptors in rat hippocampal noradrenergic and glutamatergic terminals and account for the gp120-induced modulation of the NMDA-mediated central effects. The NMDA/CXCR4 cross-talk could have a role in the neuropsychiatric symptoms often observed in HIV-1 positive patients.

  16. Inferior frontal gyrus preserves working memory and emotional learning under conditions of impaired noradrenergic signaling

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Benjamin; Androsch, Lucas; Jahn, Ralph T.; Alich, Therese; Striepens, Nadine; Markett, Sebastian; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René

    2013-01-01

    Compensation has been widely applied to explain neuroimaging findings in neuropsychiatric patients. Functional compensation is often invoked when patients display equal performance and increased neural activity in comparison to healthy controls. According to the compensatory hypothesis increased activity allows the brain to maintain cognitive performance despite underlying neuropathological changes. Due to methodological and pathology-related issues, however, the functional relevance of the increased activity and the specific brain regions involved in the compensatory response remain unclear. An experimental approach that allows a transient induction of compensatory responses in the healthy brain could help to overcome these issues. To this end we used the non-selective beta-blocker propranolol to pharmacologically induce sub-optimal noradrenergic signaling in healthy participants. In two independent functional MRI (fMRI) experiments participants received either placebo or propranolol before they underwent a cognitive challenge (Experiment 1: working memory; Experiment 2: emotional learning: Pavlovian fear conditioning). In Experiment 1 propranolol had no effects on working memory performance, but evoked stronger activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). In Experiment 2 propranolol produced no effects on emotional memory formation, but evoked stronger activity in the right IFG. The present finding that sub-optimal beta-adrenergic signaling did not disrupt performance and concomitantly increased IFG activity is consistent with, and extends, current perspectives on functional compensation. Together, our findings suggest that under conditions of impaired noradrenergic signaling, heightened activity in brain regions located within the cognitive control network, particularly the IFG, may reflect compensatory operations subserving the maintenance of behavioral performance. PMID:24381546

  17. Short-term ethanol exposure causes imbalanced neurotrophic factor allocation in the basal forebrain cholinergic system: a novel insight into understanding the initial processes of alcohol addiction.

    PubMed

    Miki, Takanori; Kusaka, Takashi; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Ohta, Ken-ichi; Suzuki, Shingo; Warita, Katsuhiko; Jamal, Mostofa; Wang, Zhi-Yu; Ueki, Masaaki; Liu, Jun-Qian; Yakura, Tomiko; Tamai, Motoki; Sumitani, Kazunori; Hosomi, Naohisa; Takeuchi, Yoshiki

    2014-02-01

    Alcohol ingestion affects both motor and cognitive functions. One brain system that is influenced by ethanol is the basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic projection system, which projects to diverse neocortical and limbic areas. The BF is associated with memory and cognitive function. Our primary interest is the examination of how regions that receive BF cholinergic projections are influenced by short-term ethanol exposure through alterations in the mRNA levels of neurotrophic factors [nerve growth factor/TrkA, brain-derived neurotrophic factor/TrkB, and glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)/GDNF family receptor α1]. Male BALB/C mice were fed a liquid diet containing 5 % (v/v) ethanol. Pair-fed control mice were maintained on an identical liquid diet, except that the ethanol was isocalorically substituted with sucrose. Mice exhibiting signs of ethanol intoxication (stages 1-2) were used for real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses. Among the BF cholinergic projection regions, decreased levels of GDNF mRNA and increased levels of TrkB mRNA were observed in the basal nucleus, and increased levels of TrkB mRNA were observed in the cerebral cortex. There were no significant alterations in the levels of expression of relevant neurotrophic factors in the septal nucleus and hippocampus. Given that neurotrophic factors function in retrograde/anterograde or autocrine/paracrine mechanisms and that BF cholinergic projection regions are neuroanatomically connected, these findings suggested that an imbalanced allocation of neurotrophic factor ligands and receptors is an initial phenomenon in alcohol addiction. The exact mechanisms underlying this phenomenon in the BF cholinergic system are unknown. However, our results provide a novel notion for the understanding of the initial processes in alcohol addiction.

  18. Intrathecal immunoglobulin A and G antibodies to synapsin in a patient with limbic encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Piepgras, Johannes; Höltje, Markus; Otto, Carolin; Harms, Hendrik; Satapathy, Annyesha; Cesca, Fabrizia; Benfenati, Fabio; Gitler, Daniel; Pich, Andreas; Zander, Johannes-Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To report on the identification of intrathecally synthesized immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to synapsin, a synaptic vesicle-associated protein, in a patient with limbic encephalitis. Methods: Methods included clinical characterization, indirect immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation, mass spectrometry, immunoblots of wild-type and synapsin I/II/III knockout mice, and cell-based assays with synapsin Ia, Ib, IIa, and IIb plasmids. Results: A 69-year-old man presented with confusion, disorientation, seizures, and left hippocampal hyperintensities on MRI. CSF examinations revealed an intrathecal IgA and IgG synthesis. Except for IgG antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channels in CSF, screening for known neuronal autoantibodies in serum and CSF was negative. However, indirect immunofluorescence using the patient's CSF showed binding of IgA to mouse hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebellum. Immunoprecipitation with CSF IgA followed by mass spectrometry identified synapsin as autoantigenic target. Knockout tissues and cell-based assays confirmed that IgA and IgG in the patient's CSF and serum reacted with synapsin Ia, Ib, and IIa. Calculation of antibody indices proved intrathecal synthesis of anti-synapsin IgA and IgG. The patient responded clinically to immunotherapy but developed left hippocampal atrophy. CSF IgA or IgG of the patient did not bind to live, unfixed, and nonpermeabilized mouse hippocampal neurons, compatible with synapsin being an intracellular antigen. Conclusions: This report identifies isoforms of the synaptic vesicle-associated protein synapsin as targets of intrathecally produced IgA and IgG antibodies in a patient with limbic encephalitis. Future studies should clarify the prevalence and pathogenic relevance of anti-synapsin antibodies in limbic encephalitis. PMID:26587554

  19. Fgf19 regulated by Hh signaling is required for zebrafish forebrain development.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Ayumi; Nakayama, Yoshiaki; Konishi, Morichika; Itoh, Nobuyuki

    2005-12-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling plays important roles in brain development. Fgf3 and Fgf8 are crucial for the formation of the forebrain and hindbrain. Fgf8 is also required for the midbrain to form. Here, we identified zebrafish Fgf19 and examined its roles in brain development by knocking down Fgf19 function. We found that Fgf19 expressed in the forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain was involved in cell proliferation and cell survival during embryonic brain development. Fgf19 was also essential for development of the ventral telencephalon and diencephalon. Regional specification is linked to cell type specification. Fgf19 was also essential for the specification of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons and oligodendrocytes generated in the ventral telencephalon and diencephalon. The cross talk between Fgf and Hh signaling is critical for brain development. In the forebrain, Fgf19 expression was down-regulated on inhibition of Hh but not of Fgf3/Fgf8, and overexpression of Fgf19 rescued partially the phenotype on inhibition of Hh. The present findings indicate that Fgf19 signaling is crucial for forebrain development by interacting with Hh and provide new insights into the roles of Fgf signaling in brain development.

  20. Eph/Ephrin signalling maintains eye field segregation from adjacent neural plate territories during forebrain morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cavodeassi, Florencia; Ivanovitch, Kenzo; Wilson, Stephen W.

    2013-01-01

    During forebrain morphogenesis, there is extensive reorganisation of the cells destined to form the eyes, telencephalon and diencephalon. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate region-specific behaviours and that maintain the coherence of cell populations undergoing specific morphogenetic processes. In this study, we show that the activity of the Eph/Ephrin signalling pathway maintains segregation between the prospective eyes and adjacent regions of the anterior neural plate during the early stages of forebrain morphogenesis in zebrafish. Several Ephrins and Ephs are expressed in complementary domains in the prospective forebrain and combinatorial abrogation of their activity results in incomplete segregation of the eyes and telencephalon and in defective evagination of the optic vesicles. Conversely, expression of exogenous Ephs or Ephrins in regions of the prospective forebrain where they are not usually expressed changes the adhesion properties of the cells, resulting in segregation to the wrong domain without changing their regional fate. The failure of eye morphogenesis in rx3 mutants is accompanied by a loss of complementary expression of Ephs and Ephrins, suggesting that this pathway is activated downstream of the regional fate specification machinery to establish boundaries between domains undergoing different programmes of morphogenesis. PMID:24026122

  1. TrkA Gene Ablation in Basal Forebrain Results in Dysfunction of the Cholinergic Circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Ortiz, Efrain; Yui, Daishi; Song, Dongli; Li, Yun; Rubenstein, John L.; Reichardt, Louis F.; Parada, Luis F.

    2012-01-01

    Dysfunction of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) is an early pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Numerous studies have indicated that nerve growth factor (NGF) supports survival and phenotypic differentiation of BFCNs. Consistent with a potential link to AD pathogenesis, TrkA, a NGF receptor, is expressed in cholinergic forebrain neuronal populations including those in basal forebrain (BF) and striatum, and is markedly reduced in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) without dementia and early-stage AD. To investigate the role of TrkA in the development, connectivity, and function of the BF cholinergic system and its contribution to AD pathology, we have generated a forebrain-specific conditional TrkA knockout mouse line. Our findings show a key role for TrkA signaling in establishing the BF cholinergic circuitry through the ERK pathway, and demonstrate that the normal developmental increase of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression becomes critically dependent on TrkA signaling before neuronal connections are established. Moreover, the anatomical and physiological deficits caused by lack of TrkA signaling in BFCNs have selective impact on cognitive activity. These data demonstrate that TrkA loss results in cholinergic BF dysfunction and cognitive decline that is reminiscent of MCI and early AD. PMID:22442072

  2. Identification of the optic recess region as a morphogenetic entity in the zebrafish forebrain.

    PubMed

    Affaticati, Pierre; Yamamoto, Kei; Rizzi, Barbara; Bureau, Charlotte; Peyriéras, Nadine; Pasqualini, Catherine; Demarque, Michaël; Vernier, Philippe

    2015-03-04

    Regionalization is a critical, highly conserved step in the development of the vertebrate brain. Discrepancies exist in how regionalization of the anterior vertebrate forebrain is conceived since the "preoptic area" is proposed to be a part of the telencephalon in tetrapods but not in teleost fish. To gain insight into this complex morphogenesis, formation of the anterior forebrain was analyzed in 3D over time in zebrafish embryos, combining visualization of proliferation and differentiation markers, with that of developmental genes. We found that the region containing the preoptic area behaves as a coherent morphogenetic entity, organized around the optic recess and located between telencephalon and hypothalamus. This optic recess region (ORR) makes clear borders with its neighbor areas and expresses a specific set of genes (dlx2a, sim1a and otpb). We thus propose that the anterior forebrain (secondary prosencephalon) in teleosts contains three morphogenetic entities (telencephalon, ORR and hypothalamus), instead of two (telencephalon and hypothalamus). The ORR in teleosts could correspond to "telencephalic stalk area" and "alar hypothalamus" in tetrapods, resolving current inconsistencies in the comparison of basal forebrain among vertebrates.

  3. Extensive Lesions of Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Neurons Do Not Impair Spatial Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuckovich, Joseph A.; Semel, Mara E.; Baxter, Mark G.

    2004-01-01

    A recent study suggests that lesions to all major areas of the cholinergic basal forebrain in the rat (medial septum, horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca, and nucleus basalis magnocellularis) impair a spatial working memory task. However, this experiment used a surgical technique that may have damaged cerebellar Purkinje cells. The…

  4. Basal forebrain moderates the magnitude of task-dependent amygdala functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Knodt, Annchen R.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2015-01-01

    Animal studies reveal that the amygdala promotes attention and emotional memory, in part, by driving activity in downstream target regions including the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus. Prior work has demonstrated that the amygdala influences these regions directly through monosynaptic glutamatergic signaling, and indirectly by driving activity of the cholinergic basal forebrain and subsequent downstream acetylcholine release. Yet to date, no work has addressed the functional relevance of the cholinergic basal forebrain in facilitating signaling from the amygdala in humans. We set out to determine how blood oxygen level-dependent signal within the amygdala and cholinergic basal forebrain interact to predict neural responses within downstream targets. Here, we use functional connectivity analyses to demonstrate that the cholinergic basal forebrain moderates increased amygdala connectivity with both the PFC and the hippocampus during the processing of biologically salient stimuli in humans. We further demonstrate that functional variation within the choline transporter gene predicts the magnitude of this modulatory effect. Collectively, our results provide novel evidence for the importance of cholinergic signaling in modulating neural pathways supporting arousal, attention and memory in humans. Further, our results may shed light on prior association studies linking functional variation within the choline transporter gene and diagnoses of major depression and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:24847112

  5. Exercise-Induced Noradrenergic Activation Enhances Memory Consolidation in Both Normal Aging and Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Sabrina K.; Cotman, Carl W.; Cahill, Lawrence F.

    2013-01-01

    Post-trial pharmacological activation of the noradrenergic system can facilitate memory consolidation. Because exercise activates the locus coeruleus and increases brain norepinephrine release, we hypothesized that post-trial exercise could function as a natural stimulus to enhance memory consolidation. We investigated this in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and cognitively normal elderly individuals by examining the effects of an acute bout of post-learning, aerobic exercise (6 minutes at 70% VO2 max on a stationary bicycle) on memory for some emotional images. Exercise significantly elevated endogenous norepinephrine (measured via the biomarker, salivary alpha-amylase) in both aMCI patients and controls. Additionally, exercise retrogradely enhanced memory in both aMCI patients and controls. Acute exercise that activates the noradrenergic system may serve as a beneficial, natural, and practical therapeutic intervention for cognitive decline in the aging population. PMID:22914593

  6. Exercise-induced noradrenergic activation enhances memory consolidation in both normal aging and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Segal, Sabrina K; Cotman, Carl W; Cahill, Lawrence F

    2012-01-01

    Post-trial pharmacological activation of the noradrenergic system can facilitate memory consolidation. Because exercise activates the locus coeruleus and increases brain norepinephrine release, we hypothesized that post-trial exercise could function as a natural stimulus to enhance memory consolidation. We investigated this in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and cognitively normal elderly individuals by examining the effects of an acute bout of post-learning, aerobic exercise (6 minutes at 70% VO2 max on a stationary bicycle) on memory for some emotional images. Exercise significantly elevated endogenous norepinephrine (measured via the biomarker, salivary alpha-amylase) in both aMCI patients and controls. Additionally, exercise retrogradely enhanced memory in both aMCI patients and controls. Acute exercise that activates the noradrenergic system may serve as a beneficial, natural, and practical therapeutic intervention for cognitive decline in the aging population.

  7. [A case of acute limbic encephalitis with cerebral salt wasting syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nishio, Motonobu; Nishitani, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman presented with psychiatric symptoms. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed pleocytosis and increased protein. The patient was diagnosed with limbic encephalitis on the basis of the clinical course. However, remarkable hyponatremia was noted throughout the clinical course, leading to a diagnosis of cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS). The hyponatremia was alleviated by supplementation with sodium and water. The findings seen in this case indicate that differentiation between syndrome of inappropriate of antidiuretic hormone and CSWS is important in cases of hyponatremia accompanied by central nervous system disease.

  8. The prefrontal-limbic system: development, neuroanatomy, function, and implications for socioemotional development.

    PubMed

    Braun, Katharina

    2011-12-01

    The knowledge that neonatal emotional experience and associated learning processes are critical in the maturation of prefronto-limbic circuits emphasizes the importance of preterm and neonatal care. The further improvement of care and intervention strategies requires a deeper understanding of epigenetic mechanisms mediating experience-induced synaptic reorganization underlying the emergence of emotional and cognitive behavioral traits. Interdisciplinary research efforts are needed in which pediatricians and developmental biologists and psychologists merge their knowledge, concepts, and methodology. The hope is that the translational relevance of research efforts can be improved through a greater interaction between basic and clinical scientists.

  9. Ultrastructural evidence for synaptic contacts between cortical noradrenergic afferents and endocannabinoid-synthesizing post-synaptic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Beverly A. S.; Heldt, Nathan A.; Mackie, Ken; Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are involved in a myriad of physiological processes that are mediated through the activation of cannabinoid receptors, which are ubiquitously distributed within the nervous system. One neurochemical target at which cannabinoids interact to have global effects on behavior is brain noradrenergic circuitry. We, and others, have previously shown that CB type 1 receptors (CB1r) are positioned to pre-synaptically modulate norepinephrine (NE) release in the rat frontal cortex (FC). Diacylglycerol lipase (DGL) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). While DGL-α is expressed in the FC in the rat brain, it is not known whether noradrenergic afferents target neurons expressing synthesizing enzymes for the endocannabinoid, 2-AG. In the present study, we employed high-resolution neuroanatomical approaches to better define cellular sites for interactions between noradrenergic afferents and FC neurons expressing DGL-α. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed close appositions between processes containing the norepinephrine transporter (NET) or dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DβH) and cortical neurons expressing DGL-α-immunoreactivity. Ultrastructural analysis using immunogold-silver labeling for DGL-α and immunoperoxidase labeling for NET or DβH confirmed that NET-labeled axon terminals were directly apposed to FC somata and dendritic processes that exhibited DGL-α-immunoreactivity. Finally, tissue sections were processed for immunohistochemical detection of DGL-α , CB1r and DβH. Triple label immunofluorescence revealed that CB1r and DβH were co-localized in common cellular profiles and these were in close association with DGL-α. Taken together, these data provide anatomical evidence for direct synaptic associations between noradrenergic afferents and cortical neurons exhibiting endocannabinoid synthesizing machinery. PMID:26162236

  10. Central noradrenergic lesion induced by DSP-4 impairs the acquisition of avoidance reactions and prevents molecular changes in the amygdala.

    PubMed

    Radwanska, Kasia; Nikolaev, Evgenij; Kaczmarek, Leszek

    2010-10-01

    The noradrenergic system plays and an important modulatory role in memory consolidation of emotionally arousing tasks. However, the molecular cascades regulated in the brain by norepinephrine and involved in memory formation are still largely unknown. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of the noradrenergic system on the acquisition of a highly emotionally arousing task-two-way active avoidance training-and its molecular and cellular substrates. The selective norepinephrine neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2 bromobenzylamine (DSP-4, 50mg/kg) was used. DSP-4-treated rats were trained in a shuttle box to avoid a footshock signaled by an auditory stimulus. Immunohistochemical mapping of the neuronal plasticity-related molecules c-Fos protein and the activated form of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (phosphorylated ERK [pERK]) was then employed. We found that DSP-4 treatment depleted the expression of the norepinephrine marker dopamine -hydroxylase (DBH) in the locus coeruleus and its projection area, the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, confirming locus coeruleus noradrenergic lesion in the experimental animals. Furthermore, DSP-4 treatment impaired the acquisition of the avoidance reaction. We also found that acquisition of the active avoidance reaction induced c-Fos expression and ERK activation in the amygdala and piriform cortex. This upregulation was prevented by DSP-4 treatment. Thus, our data suggest that the noradrenergic system is involved in the acquisition of the active avoidance reaction by regulating ERK pathway activity and c-Fos expression in the amygdala and piriform cortex.

  11. Differential sensitivity of intranuclear and systemic oxytocin release to central noradrenergic receptor stimulation during mid- and late gestation in rats.

    PubMed

    Lipschitz, David L; Crowley, William R; Bealer, Steven L

    2004-09-01

    A number of changes occur in the oxytocin (OT) system during gestation, such as increases in hypothalamic OT mRNA, increased neural lobe and systemic OT, and morphological and electrophysiological changes in OT-containing magnocellular neurons, suggestive of altered neuronal sensitivity, which may be mediated by ovarian steroids. Because central norepinephrine (NE) and histamine (HA) are potent stimulators of OT release during parturition and lactation, the present study investigated the effects of central noradrenergic and histaminergic receptor activation on systemic (NE, HA) and intranuclear (NE) OT release in pregnant rats and in ovariectomized rats treated with ovarian steroids. Plasma OT levels in late gestation were significantly higher compared with all other groups, and neither adrenergic nor histaminergic receptor blockade decreased these elevated levels. Furthermore, the alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine, but not histamine, stimulated systemic OT release to a significantly greater extent in late gestation than in midpregnant, ovariectomized, or steroid-treated females. Although basal extracellular OT levels in the paraventricular nucleus, as measured with microdialysis, were unchanged during pregnancy or steroid treatment, noradrenergic receptor stimulation of intranuclear OT release was significantly elevated in midgestation females compared with all other groups. These studies indicate that sensitivity of intranuclear and systemic OT release to noradrenergic receptor activation differentially varies during the course of gestation.

  12. A1 noradrenergic neurons lesions reduce natriuresis and hypertensive responses to hypernatremia in rats.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Elaine Fernanda; Freiria-Oliveira, André Henrique; Custódio, Carlos Henrique Xavier; Ghedini, Paulo César; Bataus, Luiz Artur Mendes; Colombari, Eduardo; de Castro, Carlos Henrique; Colugnati, Diego Basile; Rosa, Daniel Alves; Cravo, Sergio L D; Pedrino, Gustavo Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Noradrenergic neurons in the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM; A1 group) contribute to cardiovascular regulation. The present study assessed whether specific lesions in the A1 group altered the cardiovascular responses that were evoked by hypertonic saline (HS) infusion in non-anesthetized rats. Male Wistar rats (280-340 g) received nanoinjections of antidopamine-β-hydroxylase-saporin (A1 lesion, 0.105 ng.nL(-1)) or free saporin (sham, 0.021 ng.nL(-1)) into their CVLMs. Two weeks later, the rats were anesthetized (2% halothane in O2) and their femoral artery and vein were catheterized and led to exit subcutaneously between the scapulae. On the following day, the animals were submitted to HS infusion (3 M NaCl, 1.8 ml • kg(-1), b.wt., for longer than 1 min). In the sham-group (n = 8), HS induced a sustained pressor response (ΔMAP: 35±3.6 and 11±1.8 mmHg, for 10 and 90 min after HS infusion, respectively; P<0.05 vs. baseline). Ten min after HS infusion, the pressor responses of the anti-DβH-saporin-treated rats (n = 11)were significantly smaller(ΔMAP: 18±1.4 mmHg; P<0.05 vs. baseline and vs. sham group), and at 90 min, their blood pressures reached baseline values (2±1.6 mmHg). Compared to the sham group, the natriuresis that was induced by HS was reduced in the lesioned group 60 min after the challenge (196±5.5 mM vs. 262±7.6 mM, respectively; P<0.05). In addition, A1-lesioned rats excreted only 47% of their sodium 90 min after HS infusion, while sham animals excreted 80% of their sodium. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed a substantial destruction of the A1 cell group in the CVLM of rats that had been nanoinjected withanti-DβH-saporin. These results suggest that medullary noradrenergic A1 neurons are involved in the excitatory neural pathway that regulates hypertensive and natriuretic responses to acute changes in the composition of body fluid.

  13. Neuregulin 1 represses limbic epileptogenesis through ErbB4 in parvalbumin-expressing interneurons.

    PubMed

    Tan, Guo-He; Liu, Yuan-Yuan; Hu, Xiao-Ling; Yin, Dong-Min; Mei, Lin; Xiong, Zhi-Qi

    2011-12-11

    Epilepsy is a common and refractory neurological disorder, but the neuronal regulatory mechanisms of epileptogenesis remain largely unclear. Activity-dependent transcription of genes for neurotrophins such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to promote epileptogenesis; however, little is known about factors that may act as intrinsic, homeostatic or counterbalancing mechanisms. Using rodent models, here we show that limbic seizure activity upregulated NRG1-ErbB4 signaling and that epileptogenesis was inhibited by infusing NRG1 intracerebrally but exacerbated by neutralizing endogenous NRG1 with soluble ErbB4 extracellular domain, by inhibiting ErbB4 activation or by deleting the Erbb4 gene. Furthermore, specific depletion of ErbB4 in parvalbumin-expressing interneurons abolished NRG1-mediated inhibition of epileptogenesis and promoted kindling progression, resulting in increased spontaneous seizures and exuberant mossy fiber sprouting. In contrast, depleting ErbB4 in CaMKIIα-positive pyramidal neurons had no effect. Thus, NRG1-induced activation of ErbB4 in parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory interneurons may serve as a critical endogenous negative-feedback mechanism to suppress limbic epileptogenesis.

  14. Striatal-Limbic Activation is Associated with Intensity of Anticipatory Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongyu; Spence, Jeffrey S.; Devous, Michael D.; Briggs, Richard W.; Goyal, Aman; Xiao, Hong; Yadav, Hardik; Adinoff, Bryon

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety experienced in anticipation of impending aversive events induces striatal-limbic activation. However, previous functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) studies of anticipatory anxiety have utilized post-test measures of anxiety, making a direct association between neural activation and distress problematic. This paradigm was designed to assess the BOLD response to an aversive conditioned stimulus while simultaneously measuring subjective anxiety. Fifteen male healthy subjects (45.5±8.5 years old) were studied. A high threat conditioned stimulus (CS) was paired with either an unpredictable, highly aversive (painful) or a non-aversive (non-painful) unconditioned stimulus and compared to a low threat CS paired with a predictable, non-aversive stimulus. Neural response was assessed with fMRI, and subjective anxiety (1 to 4) was recorded upon the presentation of each CS. High subjective ratings of real-time anticipatory anxiety (2, 3, and 4), relative to low anticipatory anxiety (1), elicited increased activation in the bilateral striatum, bilateral orbital frontal cortex, left anterior insula, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and decreased activation in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). The amplitude of BOLD signal change generally paralleled the subjective rating of anxiety. Real-time measures of anticipatory anxiety confirm previous reports, using post-test measures of anxiety, of striatal-limbic activation during anticipatory anxiety while simultaneously demonstrating an increase in BOLD response in parallel with heightened anxiety. PMID:23137803

  15. Disruption of TrkB-mediated phospholipase Cgamma signaling inhibits limbic epileptogenesis.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao Ping; Pan, Enhui; Sciarretta, Carla; Minichiello, Liliana; McNamara, James O

    2010-05-05

    The BDNF receptor, TrkB, is critical to limbic epileptogenesis, but the responsible downstream signaling pathways are unknown. We hypothesized that TrkB-dependent activation of phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1) signaling is the key pathway and tested this in trkB(PLC/PLC) mice carrying a mutation (Y816F) that uncouples TrkB from PLCgamma1. Biochemical measures revealed activation of both TrkB and PLCgamma1 in hippocampi in the pilocarpine and kindling models in wild-type mice. PLCgamma1 activation was decreased in hippocampi isolated from trkB(PLC/PLC) compared with control mice. Epileptogenesis assessed by development of kindling was inhibited in trkB(PLC/PLC) compared with control mice. Long-term potentiation of the mossy fiber-CA3 pyramid synapse was impaired in slices of trkB(PLC/PLC) mice. We conclude that TrkB-dependent activation of PLCgamma1 signaling is an important molecular mechanism of limbic epileptogenesis. Elucidating signaling pathways activated by a cell membrane receptor in animal models of CNS disorders promises to reveal novel targets for specific and effective therapeutic intervention.

  16. Diffusion tensor imaging in Alzheimer's disease: insights into the limbic-diencephalic network and methodological considerations

    PubMed Central

    Acosta-Cabronero, Julio; Nestor, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Glucose hypometabolism and gray matter atrophy are well known consequences of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Studies using these measures have shown that the earliest clinical stages, in which memory impairment is a relatively isolated feature, are associated with degeneration in an apparently remote group of areas—mesial temporal lobe (MTL), diencephalic structures such as anterior thalamus and mammillary bodies, and posterior cingulate. These sites are thought to be strongly anatomically inter-connected via a limbic-diencephalic network. Diffusion tensor imaging or DTI—an imaging technique capable of probing white matter tissue microstructure—has recently confirmed degeneration of the white matter connections of the limbic-diencephalic network in AD by way of an unbiased analysis strategy known as tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). The present review contextualizes the relevance of these findings, in which the fornix is likely to play a fundamental role in linking MTL and diencephalon. An interesting by-product of this work has been in showing that alterations in diffusion behavior are complex in AD—while early studies tended to focus on fractional anisotropy, recent work has highlighted that this measure is not the most sensitive to early changes. Finally, this review will discuss in detail several technical aspects of DTI both in terms of image acquisition and TBSS analysis as both of these factors have important implications to ensure reliable observations are made that inform understanding of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25324775

  17. Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Antibody Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis Associated with Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Alcantara, Marion; Bennani, Omar; Verdure, Pierre; Leprêtre, Stéphane; Tilly, Hervé; Jardin, Fabrice

    2013-01-01

    Among paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS) associated with malignant hemopathies, there are few reports of PNS of the central nervous system and most of them are associated with lymphomas. Limbic encephalitis is a rare neurological syndrome classically diagnosed in the context of PNS. We report the case of a 81-year-old man who presented with a relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with minimal maturation. He was admitted for confusion with unfavorable evolution as he presented a rapidly progressive dementia resulting in death. A brain magnetic resonance imaging, performed 2 months after the onset, was considered normal. An electroencephalogram showed non-specific bilateral slow waves. We received the results of the blood screening of neuronal autoanti-bodies after the patient's death and detected the presence of anti-voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) antibodies at 102 pmol/l (normal at <30 pmol/l). Other etiologic studies, including the screening for another cause of rapidly progressive dementia, were negative. To our knowledge, this is the first case of anti-VGKC paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis related to AML. PMID:23898271

  18. Disruption of TrkB-mediated PLCγ signaling inhibits limbic epileptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    He, XP; Pan, E; Sciarretta, C; Minichiello, L; McNamara, JO

    2010-01-01

    The BDNF receptor, TrkB, is critical to limbic epileptogenesis, but the responsible downstream signaling pathways are unknown. We hypothesized that TrkB-dependent activation of PLCγ1 signaling is the key pathway and tested this in trkBPLC/PLC mice carrying a mutation (Y816F) that uncouples TrkB from PLCγ1. Biochemical measures revealed activation of both TrkB and PLCγ1 in hippocampi in the pilocarpine and kindling models in WT mice. PLCγ1 activation was decreased in hippocampi isolated from trkBPLC/PLC compared to control mice. Epileptogenesis assessed by development of kindling was inhibited in trkBPLC/PLC compared to control mice. Long-term potentiation of the mossy fiber-CA3 pyramid synapse was impaired in slices of trkBPLC/PLC mice. We conclude that TrkB-dependent activation of PLCγ1 signaling is an important molecular mechanism of limbic epileptogenesis. Elucidating signaling pathways activated by a cell membrane receptor in animal models of CNS disorders promises to reveal novel targets for specific and effective therapeutic intervention. PMID:20445044

  19. Structural Plasticity of Dentate Granule Cell Mossy Fibers During the Development of Limbic Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Danzer, Steve C.; He, Xiaoping; Loepke, Andreas W.; McNamara, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Altered granule cell≫CA3 pyramidal cell synaptic connectivity may contribute to the development of limbic epilepsy. To explore this possibility, granule cell giant mossy fiber bouton plasticity was examined in the kindling and pilocarpine models of epilepsy using green fluorescent protein-expressing transgenic mice. These studies revealed significant increases in the frequency of giant boutons with satellite boutons 2 days and 1 month after pilocarpine status epilepticus, and increases in giant bouton area at 1 month. Similar increases in giant bouton area were observed shortly after kindling. Finally, both models exhibited plasticity of mossy fiber giant bouton filopodia, which contact GABAergic interneurons mediating feedforward inhibition of CA3 pyramids. In the kindling model, however, all changes were fleeting, having resolved by 1 month after the last evoked seizure. Together, these findings demonstrate striking structural plasticity of granule cell mossy fiber synaptic terminal structure in two distinct models of adult limbic epileptogenesis. We suggest that these plasticities modify local connectivities between individual mossy fiber terminals and their targets, inhibitory interneurons, and CA3 pyramidal cells potentially altering the balance of excitation and inhibition during the development of epilepsy. PMID:19294647

  20. The role of the medial temporal limbic system in processing emotions in voice and music.

    PubMed

    Frühholz, Sascha; Trost, Wiebke; Grandjean, Didier

    2014-12-01

    Subcortical brain structures of the limbic system, such as the amygdala, are thought to decode the emotional value of sensory information. Recent neuroimaging studies, as well as lesion studies in patients, have shown that the amygdala is sensitive to emotions in voice and music. Similarly, the hippocampus, another part of the temporal limbic system (TLS), is responsive to vocal and musical emotions, but its specific roles in emotional processing from music and especially from voices have been largely neglected. Here we review recent research on vocal and musical emotions, and outline commonalities and differences in the neural processing of emotions in the TLS in terms of emotional valence, emotional intensity and arousal, as well as in terms of acoustic and structural features of voices and music. We summarize the findings in a neural framework including several subcortical and cortical functional pathways between the auditory system and the TLS. This framework proposes that some vocal expressions might already receive a fast emotional evaluation via a subcortical pathway to the amygdala, whereas cortical pathways to the TLS are thought to be equally used for vocal and musical emotions. While the amygdala might be specifically involved in a coarse decoding of the emotional value of voices and music, the hippocampus might process more complex vocal and musical emotions, and might have an important role especially for the decoding of musical emotions by providing memory-based and contextual associations.

  1. Morphological brain measures of cortico-limbic inhibition related to resilience.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Arpana; Love, Aubrey; Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Labus, Jennifer S; Bhatt, Ravi; Chang, Lin; Tillisch, Kirsten; Naliboff, Bruce; Mayer, Emeran A

    2016-12-28

    Resilience is the ability to adequately adapt and respond to homeostatic perturbations. Although resilience has been associated with positive health outcomes, the neuro-biological basis of resilience is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to identify associations between regional brain morphology and trait resilience with a focus on resilience-related morphological differences in brain regions involved in cortico-limbic inhibition. The relationship between resilience and measures of affect were also investigated. Forty-eight healthy subjects completed structural MRI scans. Self-reported resilience was measured using the Connor and Davidson Resilience Scale. Segmentation and regional parcellation of images was performed to yield a total of 165 regions. Gray matter volume (GMV), cortical thickness, surface area, and mean curvature were calculated for each region. Regression models were used to identify associations between morphology of regions belonging to executive control and emotional arousal brain networks and trait resilience (total and subscales) while controlling for age, sex, and total GMV. Correlations were also conducted between resilience scores and affect scores. Significant associations were found between GM changes in hypothesized brain regions (subparietal sulcus, intraparietal sulcus, amygdala, anterior mid cingulate cortex, and subgenual cingulate cortex) and resilience scores. There were significant positive correlations between resilience and positive affect and negative correlations with negative affect. Resilience was associated with brain morphology of regions involved in cognitive and affective processes related to cortico-limbic inhibition. Brain signatures associated with resilience may be a biomarker of vulnerability to disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Limbic Tract Integrity Contributes to Pattern Separation Performance Across the Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Ilana J; Huffman, Derek J; Stark, Craig E L

    2015-09-01

    Accurate memory for discrete events is thought to rely on pattern separation to orthogonalize the representations of similar events. Previously, we reported that a behavioral index of pattern separation was correlated with activity in the hippocampus (dentate gyrus, CA3) and with integrity of the perforant path, which provides input to the hippocampus. If the hippocampus operates as part of a broader neural network, however, pattern separation would likely also relate to integrity of limbic tracts (fornix, cingulum bundle, and uncinate fasciculus) that connect the hippocampus to distributed brain regions. In this study, healthy adults (20-89 years) underwent diffusion tensor imaging and completed the Behavioral Pattern Separation Task-Object Version (BPS-O) and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). After controlling for global effects of brain aging, exploratory skeleton-wise and targeted tractography analyses revealed that fornix integrity (fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and radial diffusivity; but not mode) was significantly related to pattern separation (measured using BPS-O and RAVLT tasks), but not to recognition memory. These data suggest that hippocampal disconnection, via individual- and age-related differences in limbic tract integrity, contributes to pattern separation performance. Extending our earlier work, these results also support the notion that pattern separation relies on broad neural networks interconnecting the hippocampus.

  3. Correlations between Limbic White Matter and Cognitive Function in Temporal-Lobe Epilepsy, Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Ryan P. D.; Concha, Luis; Snyder, Thomas J.; Beaulieu, Christian; Gross, Donald William

    2014-01-01

    The limbic system is presumed to have a central role in cognitive performance, in particular memory. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between limbic white matter microstructure and neuropsychological function in temporal-lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Twenty-one adult TLE patients, including 7 non-lesional (nlTLE) and 14 with unilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (uTLE), were studied with both DTI and hippocampal T2 relaxometry. Correlations were performed between fractional anisotropy (FA) of the bilateral fornix and cingulum, hippocampal T2, neuropsychological tests. Positive correlations were observed in the whole group for the left fornix and processing speed index. In contrast, memory tests did not show significant correlations with DTI findings. Subgroup analysis demonstrated an association between the left fornix and processing speed in nlTLE but not uTLE. No correlations were observed between hippocampal T2 and test scores in either the TLE group as a whole or after subgroup analysis. Our findings suggest that integrity of the left fornix specifically is an important anatomical correlate of cognitive function in TLE patients, in particular patients with nlTLE. PMID:25071551

  4. Diffusion tensor imaging tractography and reliability analysis for limbic and paralimbic white matter tracts.

    PubMed

    Malykhin, Nikolai; Concha, Luis; Seres, Peter; Beaulieu, Christian; Coupland, Nicholas J

    2008-11-30

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides the opportunity to study white matter tracts in vivo. The goal was to estimate the reliability of DTI tractography for the analysis of limbic and paralimbic white matter. Normative data from 24 healthy subjects and reliability data from four healthy and four depressed subjects were acquired at 1.5 Tesla, using twice-refocused spin-echo, echoplanar DTI and Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) DTI sequences. Fiber tracking was performed using the Fiber Assignment by Continuous Tracking algorithm. Fractional Anisotropy (FA), trace Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and tract volumes were calculated. The inter-rater (and intra-rater) intraclass correlation coefficients for FA values were as follows: rostral cingulum 0.89 (0.87), dorsal cingulum 0.85 (0.90), parahippocampal cingulum 0.85 (0.95), uncinate fasciculus 0.85 (0.87), medial prefrontal white matter 0.97 (0.99), ventromedial prefrontal white matter 0.92 (0.93), crus of fornix 0.80 (0.81). The reported DTI protocol provides a reliable method to analyze limbic and paralimbic white matter tracts relevant to psychiatric disorders.

  5. Neurodevelopmental marker for limbic maldevelopment in antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy

    PubMed Central

    Raine, Adrian; Lee, Lydia; Yang, Yaling; Colletti, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Background Antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy have been hypothesised to have a neurodevelopmental basis, but this proposition has not been formally tested. Aims This study tests the hypothesis that individuals with cavum septum pellucidum (CSP), a marker of limbic neural maldevelopment, will show higher levels of psychopathy and antisocial personality. Method Cavum septum pellucidum was assessed using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging in a community sample. Those with CSP (n = 19) were compared with those lacking CSP (n = 68) on antisocial personality, psychopathy and criminal offending. Results Those with CSP had significantly higher levels of antisocial personality, psychopathy, arrests and convictions compared with controls. The pervasiveness of this association was indicated by the fact that those lacking a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, but who were charged or convicted for an offence, had a more extensive CSP than non-antisocial controls. Results could not be attributed to prior trauma exposure, head injury, demographic factors or comorbid psychiatric conditions. Conclusions Our findings appear to be the first to provide evidence for a neurodevelopmental brain abnormality in those with antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, and support the hypothesis that early maldevelopment of limbic and septal structures predisposes to the spectrum of antisocial behaviours. PMID:20807962

  6. Neurophysiological responses to stressful motion and anti-motion sickness drugs as mediated by the limbic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. L.; Odell, S.

    1982-01-01

    Performance is characterized in terms of attention and memory, categorizing extrinsic mechanism mediated by ACTH, norepinephrine and dopamine, and intrinsic mechanisms as cholinergic. The cholinergic role in memory and performance was viewed from within the limbic system and related to volitional influences of frontal cortical afferents and behavioral responses of hypothalamic and reticular system efferents. The inhibitory influence of the hippocampus on the autonomic and hormonal responses mediated through the hypothalamus, pituitary, and brain stem are correlated with the actions of such anti-motion sickness drugs as scopolamine and amphetamine. These drugs appear to exert their effects on motion sickness symptomatology through diverse though synergistic neurochemical mechanisms involving the septohippocampal pathway and other limbic system structures. The particular impact of the limbic system on an animal's behavioral and hormonal responses to stress is influenced by ACTH, cortisol, scopolamine, and amphetamine.

  7. Disturbed Mental Imagery of Affected Body-Parts in Patients with Hysterical Conversion Paraplegia Correlates with Pathological Limbic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Saj, Arnaud; Raz, Noa; Levin, Netta; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Arzy, Shahar

    2014-01-01

    Patients with conversion disorder generally suffer from a severe neurological deficit which cannot be attributed to a structural neurological damage. In two patients with acute conversion paraplegia, investigation with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) showed that the insular cortex, a limbic-related cortex involved in body-representation and subjective emotional experience, was activated not only during attempt to move the paralytic body-parts, but also during mental imagery of their movements. In addition, mental rotation of affected body-parts was found to be disturbed, as compared to unaffected body parts or external objects. fMRI during mental rotation of the paralytic body-part showed an activation of another limbic related region, the anterior cingulate cortex. These data suggest that conversion paraplegia is associated with pathological activity in limbic structures involved in body representation and a deficit in mental processing of the affected body-parts. PMID:24961768

  8. The inhibition of the dorsal paragigantocellular reticular nucleus induces waking and the activation of all adrenergic and noradrenergic neurons: a combined pharmacological and functional neuroanatomical study.

    PubMed

    Clément, Olivier; Valencia Garcia, Sara; Libourel, Paul-Antoine; Arthaud, Sébastien; Fort, Patrice; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé

    2014-01-01

    GABAergic neurons specifically active during paradoxical sleep (PS) localized in the dorsal paragigantocellular reticular nucleus (DPGi) are known to be responsible for the cessation of activity of the noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus during PS. In the present study, we therefore sought to determine the role of the DPGi in PS onset and maintenance and in the inhibition of the LC noradrenergic neurons during this state. The effect of the inactivation of DPGi neurons on the sleep-waking cycle was examined in rats by microinjection of muscimol, a GABAA agonist, or clonidine, an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist. Combining immunostaining of the different populations of wake-inducing neurons with that of c-FOS, we then determined whether muscimol inhibition of the DPGi specifically induces the activation of the noradrenergic neurons of the LC. Slow wave sleep and PS were abolished during 3 and 5 h after muscimol injection in the DPGi, respectively. The application of clonidine in the DPGi specifically induced a significant decrease in PS quantities and delayed PS appearance compared to NaCl. We further surprisingly found out that more than 75% of the noradrenergic and adrenergic neurons of all adrenergic and noradrenergic cell groups are activated after muscimol treatment in contrast to the other wake active systems significantly less activated. These results suggest that, in addition to its already know inhibition of LC noradrenergic neurons during PS, the DPGi might inhibit the activity of noradrenergic and adrenergic neurons from all groups during PS, but also to a minor extent during SWS and waking.

  9. Statins Promote Long-Term Recovery after Ischemic Stroke by Reconnecting Noradrenergic Neuronal Circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyoung Joo; Cheon, So Young; Kim, Gyung Whan

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase (statins), widely used to lower cholesterol in coronary heart and vascular disease, are effective drugs in reducing the risk of stroke and improving its outcome in the long term. After ischemic stroke, cardiac autonomic dysfunction and psychological problems are common complications related to deficits in the noradrenergic (NA) system. This study investigated the effects of statins on the recovery of NA neuron circuitry and its function after transient focal cerebral ischemia (tFCI). Using the wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) transgene technique combined with the recombinant adenoviral vector system, NA-specific neuronal pathways were labeled, and were identified in the locus coeruleus (LC), where NA neurons originate. NA circuitry in the atorvastatin-treated group recovered faster than in the vehicle-treated group. The damaged NA circuitry was partly reorganized with the gradual recovery of autonomic dysfunction and neurobehavioral deficit. Newly proliferated cells might contribute to reorganizing NA neurons and lead anatomic and functional recovery of NA neurons. Statins may be implicated to play facilitating roles in the recovery of the NA neuron and its function. PMID:26448880

  10. A noradrenergic sensitive endogenous clock is present in the rat pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Wongchitrat, Prapimpun; Felder-Schmittbuhl, Marie-Paule; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Simonneaux, Valérie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence of endogenous oscillations of Per1, Per2, Bmal1 and Rev-erbα genes in rat pineal explants and to investigate their regulation by adrenergic ligands. Our results show a significant and sustained rhythm of Per2,Bmal1 and Rev-erbα gene expression for up to 48 h in cultured pineal gland with a pattern similar to that observed in vivo. By contrast, the rhythms of Per1 and Aa-nat, the rate-limiting enzyme for melatonin synthesis, were strongly attenuated after 24 h in culture. Addition of the exogenous adrenergic agonist isoproterenol on cultured pineal glands induced a short-term increase in mRNA levels of Per1 and Aa-nat, but not those of Per2,Bmal1 and Rev-erbα. This study demonstrates that the rat pineal gland hosts a circadian oscillator as evidenced by the sustained, noradrenergic-independent, endogenous oscillations of Per2, Bmal1 and Rev-erbα mRNA levels in cultured tissues. Only expression of Per1 was stimulated by adrenergic ligands suggesting that, in vivo, the adrenergic input could synchronize the pineal clock by acting selectively on Per1.

  11. CRH engagement of the locus coeruleus noradrenergic system mediates stress-induced anxiety

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Jordan G.; Al-Hasani, Ream; Siuda, Edward R.; Hong, Daniel Y.; Norris, Aaron J.; Ford, Christopher P.; Bruchas, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The locus coeruleus noradrenergic (LC-NE) system is one of the first systems engaged following a stressful event. While numerous groups have demonstrated that LC-NE neurons are activated by many different stressors, the underlying neural circuitry and the role of this activity in generating stress-induced anxiety has not been elucidated. Using a combination of in vivo chemogenetics, optogenetics, and retrograde tracing we determine that increased tonic activity of the LC-NE system is necessary and sufficient for stress-induced anxiety and aversion. Selective inhibition of LC-NE neurons during stress prevents subsequent anxiety-like behavior. Exogenously increasing tonic, but not phasic, activity of LC-NE neurons is alone sufficient for anxiety-like and aversive behavior. Furthermore, endogenous corticotropin releasing hormone+ (CRH+) LC inputs from the amygdala increase tonic LC activity, inducing anxiety-like behaviors. These studies position the LC-NE system as a critical mediator of acute stress-induced anxiety and offer a potential intervention for preventing stress-related affective disorders. PMID:26212712

  12. CRH Engagement of the Locus Coeruleus Noradrenergic System Mediates Stress-Induced Anxiety.

    PubMed

    McCall, Jordan G; Al-Hasani, Ream; Siuda, Edward R; Hong, Daniel Y; Norris, Aaron J; Ford, Christopher P; Bruchas, Michael R

    2015-08-05

    The locus coeruleus noradrenergic (LC-NE) system is one of the first systems engaged following a stressful event. While numerous groups have demonstrated that LC-NE neurons are activated by many different stressors, the underlying neural circuitry and the role of this activity in generating stress-induced anxiety has not been elucidated. Using a combination of in vivo chemogenetics, optogenetics, and retrograde tracing, we determine that increased tonic activity of the LC-NE system is necessary and sufficient for stress-induced anxiety and aversion. Selective inhibition of LC-NE neurons during stress prevents subsequent anxiety-like behavior. Exogenously increasing tonic, but not phasic, activity of LC-NE neurons is alone sufficient for anxiety-like and aversive behavior. Furthermore, endogenous corticotropin-releasing hormone(+) (CRH(+)) LC inputs from the amygdala increase tonic LC activity, inducing anxiety-like behaviors. These studies position the LC-NE system as a critical mediator of acute stress-induced anxiety and offer a potential intervention for preventing stress-related affective disorders.

  13. Noradrenergic System in Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease A Target for Therapy.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Cristy; Fahimi, Atoossa; Das, Devsmita; Mojabi, Fatemeh S; Ponnusamy, Ravikumar; Salehi, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Locus coeruleus (LC) neurons in the brainstem send extensive noradrenergic (NE)-ergic terminals to the majority of brain regions, particularly those involved in cognitive function. Both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down syndrome (DS) are characterized by similar pathology including significant LC degeneration and dysfunction of the NE-ergic system. Extensive loss of NE-ergic terminals has been linked to alterations in brain regions vital for cognition, mood, and executive function. While the mechanisms by which NE-ergic abnormalities contribute to cognitive dysfunction are not fully understood, emergent evidence suggests that rescue of NE-ergic system can attenuate neuropathology and cognitive decline in both AD and DS. Therapeutic strategies to enhance NE neurotransmission have undergone limited testing. Among those deployed to date are NE reuptake inhibitors, presynaptic α-adrenergic receptor antagonists, NE prodrugs, and β-adrenergic agonists. Here we examine alterations in the NE-ergic system in AD and DS and suggest that NE-ergic system rescue is a plausible treatment strategy for targeting cognitive decline in both disorders.

  14. Noradrenergic function in generalized anxiety disorder, major depressive disorder, and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Sevy, S; Papadimitriou, G N; Surmont, D W; Goldman, S; Mendlewicz, J

    1989-01-15

    Plasma norepinephrine (NE), free 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenethylene glycol (MHPG), and binding of tritiated yohimbine to platelet membranes were measured in 14 patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), who were matched for age and sex with 14 patients with unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD) and 14 normal subjects. Plasma NE and MHPG levels were increased and the number of alpha2-adrenoreceptors (Bmax) was decreased in GAD patients compared with MDD and normal subjects. No differences were found between MDD patients and normal subjects for plasma NE, MHPG, and alpha2-adrenoreceptor binding. Plasma NE and MHPG were significantly correlated in MDD patients and tended toward a significant positive correlation in GAD patients. Plasma MHPG and affinity of binding platelet alpha2-adrenoreceptors (Kd) were significantly correlated in normal subjects. Thus, noradrenergic activity seems to be increased in patients with GAD, but not in patients with MDD. In GAD patients, higher levels of catecholamines may lead to a down-regulation of presynaptic alpha2-adrenoreceptors.

  15. Noradrenergic and Serotonergic Mechanisms in the Neurobiology of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Krystal, John H.; Neumeister, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized mainly by symptoms of re-experiencing, avoidance and hyperarousal as a consequence of catastrophic and traumatic events that are distinguished from ordinary stressful life events. Although extensive research has already been done, the etiology of PTSD remains unclear. Research on the impact of trauma on neurobiological systems can be expected to inform the development of treatments that are directed specifically to symptoms of PTSD. During the past 25 years there has been a dramatic increase in the knowledge about noradrenergic and serotonergic mechanisms in stress response, PTSD and more recently in resilience and this knowledge has justified the use of antidepressants with monoaminergic mechanisms of action for patients with PTSD. Nevertheless, available treatments of PTSD are only to some extent effective and enhanced understanding of the neurobiology of PTSD may lead to the development of improved treatments for these patients. In the present review, we aim to close existing gaps between basic research in psychopathology, neurobiology and treatment development with the ultimate goal to translate basic research into clinically relevant findings which may directly benefit patients with PTSD. PMID:19332037

  16. Transdermal neuromodulation of noradrenergic activity suppresses psychophysiological and biochemical stress responses in humans

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, William J.; Boasso, Alyssa M.; Mortimore, Hailey M.; Silva, Rhonda S.; Charlesworth, Jonathan D.; Marlin, Michelle A.; Aebersold, Kirsten; Aven, Linh; Wetmore, Daniel Z.; Pal, Sumon K.

    2015-01-01

    We engineered a transdermal neuromodulation approach that targets peripheral (cranial and spinal) nerves and utilizes their afferent pathways as signaling conduits to influence brain function. We investigated the effects of this transdermal electrical neurosignaling (TEN) method on sympathetic physiology under different experimental conditions. The TEN method involved delivering high-frequency pulsed electrical currents to ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the right trigeminal nerve and cervical spinal nerve afferents. Under resting conditions, TEN significantly suppressed basal sympathetic tone compared to sham as indicated by functional infrared thermography of facial temperatures. In a different experiment, subjects treated with TEN reported significantly lower levels of tension and anxiety on the Profile of Mood States scale compared to sham. In a third experiment when subjects were experimentally stressed TEN produced a significant suppression of heart rate variability, galvanic skin conductance, and salivary α-amylase levels compared to sham. Collectively these observations demonstrate TEN can dampen basal sympathetic tone and attenuate sympathetic activity in response to acute stress induction. Our physiological and biochemical observations are consistent with the hypothesis that TEN modulates noradrenergic signaling to suppress sympathetic activity. We conclude that dampening sympathetic activity in such a manner represents a promising approach to managing daily stress. PMID:26353920

  17. Triphenyl phosphate enhances adipogenic differentiation, glucose uptake and lipolysis via endocrine and noradrenergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cano-Sancho, German; Smith, Anna; La Merrill, Michele A

    2017-04-01

    The use of triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) as a flame retardant or plasticizer has increased during the last decade, resulting in widespread human exposure without commensurate toxicity assessment. The main objectives of this study were to assess the in vitro effect of TPhP and its metabolite diphenyl phosphate (DPhP) on the adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, as well as glucose uptake and lipolysis in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. TPhP increased pre-adipocyte proliferation and subsequent adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, coinciding with increased transcription in the CEBP and PPARG pathway. Treatment of mature adipocytes with TPhP increased the basal- and insulin stimulated- uptake of the glucose analog 2-[N (-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa1, 3-diazol-4-yl) amino]-2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-NBDG). This effect was ablated by inhibition of PI3K, a member of the insulin signaling pathway. DPhP had no significant effect on cell proliferation and, compared to TPhP, a weaker effect on adipogenic differentiation and on 2-NBDG uptake. Both TPhP and DPhT significantly enhanced the isoproterenol-induced lipolysis, most likely by increasing the expression of lipolytic genes during and after differentiation. This study suggests that TPhP increases adipogenic differentiation, glucose uptake, and lipolysis in 3T3-L1 cells through endocrine and noradrenergic mechanisms.

  18. Dopaminergic and Noradrenergic Contributions to Functionality in ADHD: The Role of Methylphenidate

    PubMed Central

    Engert, Veronika; Pruessner, Jens C

    2008-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a childhood psychiatric condition characterized by severe impulsiveness, inattention and overactivity. Methylphenidate (MPH), a psychostimulant affecting both the dopaminergic and the noradrenergic systems, is one of the most frequently prescribed treatments for ADHD. Despite the widespread use of MPH and its proven effectiveness, its precise neurochemical mechanisms of action are under debate. For the most part, MPH’s influence on subcortical dopamine neurotransmission is thought to play a crucial role in its behavioral and cognitive effects. In their hypothesis of biphasic MPH action, Seeman and Madras [42, 43] suggest that therapeutic doses of MPH elevate tonic dopamine while inhibiting phasic transmitter release in subcortical structures, leading to reduced postsynaptic receptor stimulation and psychomotor activation in response to salient stimuli. Volkow and colleagues [56] suggest that by amplifying a weak striatal dopamine signal, MPH increases the perception of a stimulus or task as salient. The enhanced interest for the task is thought to increase attention and improve performance. Recent animal studies have however shown that when administered at doses producing clinically relevant drug plasma levels and enhancing cognitive function, MPH preferentially activates dopamine and noradrenaline efflux within the prefrontal cortex relative to the subcortical structures [5]. Overall, we suggest that the delineated theories of MPH therapeutic action should not be discussed as exclusive. Studies are outlined that allow integrating the different findings and models. PMID:19587853

  19. Noradrenergic Modulation of Intrinsic and Synaptic Properties of Lumbar Motoneurons in the Neonatal Rat Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Tartas, Maylis; Morin, France; Barrière, Grégory; Goillandeau, Michel; Lacaille, Jean-Claude; Cazalets, Jean-René; Bertrand, Sandrine S.

    2009-01-01

    Although it is known that noradrenaline (NA) powerfully controls spinal motor networks, few data are available regarding the noradrenergic (NAergic) modulation of intrinsic and synaptic properties of neurons in motor networks. Our work explores the cellular basis of NAergic modulation in the rat motor spinal cord. We first show that lumbar motoneurons express the three classes of adrenergic receptors at birth. Using patch-clamp recordings in the newborn rat spinal cord preparation, we characterized the effects of NA and of specific agonists of the three classes of adrenoreceptors on motoneuron membrane properties. NA increases the motoneuron excitability partly via the inhibition of a KIR like current. Methoxamine (α1), clonidine (α2) and isoproterenol (β) differentially modulate the motoneuron membrane potential but also increase motoneuron excitability, these effects being respectively inhibited by the antagonists prazosin (α1), yohimbine (α2) and propranolol (β). We show that the glutamatergic synaptic drive arising from the T13-L2 network is enhanced in motoneurons by NA, methoxamine and isoproterenol. On the other hand, NA, isoproterenol and clonidine inhibit both the frequency and amplitude of miniature glutamatergic EPSCs while methoxamine increases their frequency. The T13-L2 synaptic drive is thereby differentially modulated from the other glutamatergic synapses converging onto motoneurons and enhanced by presynaptic α1 and β receptor activation. Our data thus show that the NAergic system exerts a powerful and complex neuromodulation of lumbar motor networks in the neonatal rat spinal cord. PMID:20300468

  20. Functional differentiation of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation in a biophysical model of olfactory bulb granule cells

    PubMed Central

    Linster, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Olfactory bulb granule cells are modulated by both acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE), but the effects of these neuromodulators have not been clearly distinguished. We used detailed biophysical simulations of granule cells, both alone and embedded in a microcircuit with mitral cells, to measure and distinguish the effects of ACh and NE on cellular and microcircuit function. Cholinergic and noradrenergic modulatory effects on granule cells were based on data obtained from slice experiments; specifically, ACh reduced the conductance densities of the potassium M current and the calcium-dependent potassium current, whereas NE nonmonotonically regulated the conductance density of an ohmic potassium current. We report that the effects of ACh and NE on granule cell physiology are distinct and functionally complementary to one another. ACh strongly regulates granule cell firing rates and afterpotentials, whereas NE bidirectionally regulates subthreshold membrane potentials. When combined, NE can regulate the ACh-induced expression of afterdepolarizing potentials and persistent firing. In a microcircuit simulation developed to investigate the effects of granule cell neuromodulation on mitral cell firing properties, ACh increased spike synchronization among mitral cells, whereas NE modulated the signal-to-noise ratio. Coapplication of ACh and NE both functionally improved the signal-to-noise ratio and enhanced spike synchronization among mitral cells. In summary, our computational results support distinct and complementary roles for ACh and NE in modulating olfactory bulb circuitry and suggest that NE may play a role in the regulation of cholinergic function. PMID:26334007

  1. Functional differentiation of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation in a biophysical model of olfactory bulb granule cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoshi; Linster, Christiane; Cleland, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    Olfactory bulb granule cells are modulated by both acetylcholine (ACh) and norepinephrine (NE), but the effects of these neuromodulators have not been clearly distinguished. We used detailed biophysical simulations of granule cells, both alone and embedded in a microcircuit with mitral cells, to measure and distinguish the effects of ACh and NE on cellular and microcircuit function. Cholinergic and noradrenergic modulatory effects on granule cells were based on data obtained from slice experiments; specifically, ACh reduced the conductance densities of the potassium M current and the calcium-dependent potassium current, whereas NE nonmonotonically regulated the conductance density of an ohmic potassium current. We report that the effects of ACh and NE on granule cell physiology are distinct and functionally complementary to one another. ACh strongly regulates granule cell firing rates and afterpotentials, whereas NE bidirectionally regulates subthreshold membrane potentials. When combined, NE can regulate the ACh-induced expression of afterdepolarizing potentials and persistent firing. In a microcircuit simulation developed to investigate the effects of granule cell neuromodulation on mitral cell firing properties, ACh increased spike synchronization among mitral cells, whereas NE modulated the signal-to-noise ratio. Coapplication of ACh and NE both functionally improved the signal-to-noise ratio and enhanced spike synchronization among mitral cells. In summary, our computational results support distinct and complementary roles for ACh and NE in modulating olfactory bulb circuitry and suggest that NE may play a role in the regulation of cholinergic function.

  2. The mechanism of noradrenergic alpha 1 excitatory modulation of pontine reticular formation neurons.

    PubMed

    Stevens, D R; McCarley, R W; Greene, R W

    1994-11-01

    The alpha 1 adrenergic receptor occurs in all major divisions of the CNS and is thought to play a role in all behaviors influenced by norepinephrine (NE). In the medial pontine reticular formation (mPRF), the proposed site of adrenergic enhancement of startle responses (Davis, 1984), alpha 1 agonists excite most neurons (Gerber et al., 1990). We here report that alpha 1 excitation results from a reduction of a voltage- and calcium-dependent potassium current, not previously recognized as ligand-modulated. The calcium sensitivity is suggested by its antagonism with Mg2+, Cd2+, Ba2+, low concentrations of tetraethylammonium, and charybdotoxin. The voltage sensitivity of this conductance falls within the membrane potential range critical to action potential generation. Based on this voltage sensitivity, the change in repetitive firing characteristics may be predicted according to a mathematical model of the mPRF neuronal electrophysiology. The predicted response to a 50% decrease in the phenylephrine (PE)-sensitive conductance is similar to the observed responses, with respect to both the current response under voltage-clamp conditions and alterations of the AHP and frequency/current curve. In contrast, modeling a reduction of a voltage-insensitive leak current predicts none of these changes. Thus, the noradrenergic reduction of this current depolarizes the membrane, increases the likelihood of an initial response to depolarizing input, and increases firing rate during sustained depolarization in a manner consistent with an NE role as an excitatory neuromodulator of the mPRF.

  3. [Disorders of neurogenesis of cortical and subcortical structures in rat brain limbic system during fetal alcohol syndrome formation].

    PubMed

    Svanidze, I K; Museridze, D P; Didimova, E V; Sanikidze, T V; Gegenava, L G; Gvinadze, N N

    2012-01-01

    Disorders of neurogenesis of cortical and subcortical structures in rat brain limbic system were studied in the offspring of rats that received ethanol during pregnancy. The methods used included the staining of histological sections with cresyl violet, in vitro culture, and electron paramagnetic resonance. Prenatal alcohol intoxication was shown to induce the disturbances in proliferative activity of granular layer cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, neuron- and glioblast migration, enhancement of free NO and lipoperoxide production and cell death. This resulted in the changes in the number of neurons in cortical and subcortical structures of rat brain limbic system and in fetal alcohol syndrome formation.

  4. Neuronal amyloid-β accumulation within cholinergic basal forebrain in ageing and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Baker-Nigh, Alaina; Vahedi, Shahrooz; Davis, Elena Goetz; Weintraub, Sandra; Bigio, Eileen H; Klein, William L; Geula, Changiz

    2015-06-01

    The mechanisms that contribute to selective vulnerability of the magnocellular basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, are not fully understood. Because age is the primary risk factor for Alzheimer's disease, mechanisms of interest must include age-related alterations in protein expression, cell type-specific markers and pathology. The present study explored the extent and characteristics of intraneuronal amyloid-β accumulation, particularly of the fibrillogenic 42-amino acid isoform, within basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in normal young, normal aged and Alzheimer's disease brains as a potential contributor to the selective vulnerability of these neurons using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Amyloid-β1-42 immunoreactivity was observed in the entire cholinergic neuronal population regardless of age or Alzheimer's disease diagnosis. The magnitude of this accumulation as revealed by optical density measures was significantly greater than that in cortical pyramidal neurons, and magnocellular neurons in the globus pallidus did not demonstrate a similar extent of amyloid immunoreactivity. Immunoblot analysis with a panel of amyloid-β antibodies confirmed accumulation of high concentration of amyloid-β in basal forebrain early in adult life. There was no age- or Alzheimer-related alteration in total amyloid-β content within this region. In contrast, an increase in the large molecular weight soluble oligomer species was observed with a highly oligomer-specific antibody in aged and Alzheimer brains when compared with the young. Similarly, intermediate molecular weight oligomeric species displayed an increase in aged and Alzheimer brains when compared with the young using two amyloid-β42 antibodies. Compared to cortical homogenates, small molecular weight oligomeric species were lower and intermediate species were enriched in basal forebrain in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. Regional and age

  5. Lack of the murine homeobox gene Hesx1 leads to a posterior transformation of the anterior forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Andoniadou, Cynthia L.; Signore, Massimo; Sajedi, Ezat; Gaston-Massuet, Carles; Kelberman, Daniel; Burns, Alan J.; Itasaki, Nobue; Dattani, Mehul; Martinez-Barbera, Juan Pedro

    2008-01-01

    The homeobox gene Hesx1 is an essential repressor that is required within the anterior neural plate for normal forebrain development in mouse and humans. Combining genetic cell labelling and marker analyses, we demonstrate that the absence of Hesx1 leads to a posterior transformation of the anterior forebrain (AFB) during mouse development. Our data suggest that the mechanism underlying this transformation is the ectopic activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling within the Hesx1 expression domain in the AFB. When ectopically expressed in the developing mouse embryo, Hesx1 alone cannot alter the normal fate of posterior neural tissue. However, conditional expression of Hesx1 within the AFB can rescue the forebrain defects observed in the Hesx1 mutants. The results presented here provide new insights into the function of Hesx1 in forebrain formation. PMID:17360769

  6. Differential effects of light and feeding on circadian organization of peripheral clocks in a forebrain Bmal1 mutant.

    PubMed

    Izumo, Mariko; Pejchal, Martina; Schook, Andrew C; Lange, Ryan P; Walisser, Jacqueline A; Sato, Takashi R; Wang, Xiaozhong; Bradfield, Christopher A; Takahashi, Joseph S

    2014-12-19

    In order to assess the contribution of a central clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) to circadian behavior and the organization of peripheral clocks, we generated forebrain/SCN-specific Bmal1 knockout mice by using floxed Bmal1 and pan-neuronal Cre lines. The forebrain knockout mice showed >90% deletion of BMAL1 in the SCN and exhibited an immediate and complete loss of circadian behavior in constant conditions. Circadian rhythms in peripheral tissues persisted but became desynchronized and damped in constant darkness. The loss of synchrony was rescued by light/dark cycles and partially by restricted feeding (only in the liver and kidney but not in the other tissues) in a distinct manner. These results suggest that the forebrain/SCN is essential for internal temporal order of robust circadian programs in peripheral clocks, and that individual peripheral clocks are affected differently by light and feeding in the absence of a functional oscillator in the forebrain.

  7. Development of glucocorticoid receptor regulation in the rat forebrain: Implications for adverse effects of glucocorticoids in preterm infants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Glucocorticoids are the consensus treatment to avoid respiratory distress in preterm infants but there is accumulating evidence that these agents evoke long-term neurobehavioral deficits. Earlier, we showed that the developing rat forebrain is far more sensitive to glucocorticoi...

  8. Limbic encephalitis associated with anti-NH2-terminal of α-enolase antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Kishitani, Toru; Matsunaga, Akiko; Ikawa, Masamichi; Hayashi, Kouji; Yamamura, Osamu; Hamano, Tadanori; Watanabe, Osamu; Tanaka, Keiko; Nakamoto, Yasunari; Yoneda, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Several types of autoantibodies have been reported in autoimmune limbic encephalitis (LE), such as antibodies against the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex including leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1). We recently reported a patient with autoimmune LE and serum anti-NH2-terminal of α-enolase (NAE) antibodies, a specific diagnostic marker for Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE), who was diagnosed with HE based on the presence of antithyroid antibodies and responsiveness to immunotherapy. This case suggests that LE patients with antibodies to both the thyroid and NAE could be diagnosed with HE and respond to immunotherapy. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinicoimmunological features and efficacy of immunotherapy in LE associated with anti-NAE antibodies to determine whether the LE is a clinical subtype of HE. We examined serum anti-NAE antibodies in 78 LE patients with limbic abnormality on magnetic resonance imaging and suspected HE based on positivity for antithyroid antibodies. Nineteen of the 78 patients had anti-NAE antibodies; however, 5 were excluded because they were double positive for antibodies to the VGKC complex including LGI1. No antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), contactin-associated protein 2 (Caspr2), γ-aminobutyric acid-B receptor (GABABR), or α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) were detected in the 19 patients. Among the remaining 14 who were positive only for anti-NAE antibodies, the median age was 62.5 (20–83) years, 9 (64%) were women, and 8 (57%) showed acute onset, with less than 2 weeks between onset and admission. Consciousness disturbance (71%) and memory disturbance (64%) were frequently observed, followed by psychiatric symptoms (50%) and seizures (43%). The frequency of these symptoms significantly differed between the acute- and subacute-onset groups. Abnormalities in cerebrospinal fluid and electroencephalogram were commonly observed (92

  9. The ancestral role of nodal signalling in breaking L/R symmetry in the vertebrate forebrain.

    PubMed

    Lagadec, Ronan; Laguerre, Laurent; Menuet, Arnaud; Amara, Anis; Rocancourt, Claire; Péricard, Pierre; Godard, Benoît G; Rodicio, Maria Celina; Rodriguez-Moldes, Isabel; Mayeur, Hélène; Rougemont, Quentin; Mazan, Sylvie; Boutet, Agnès

    2015-03-30

    Left-right asymmetries in the epithalamic region of the brain are widespread across vertebrates, but their magnitude and laterality varies among species. Whether these differences reflect independent origins of forebrain asymmetries or taxa-specific diversifications of an ancient vertebrate feature remains unknown. Here we show that the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula and the lampreys Petromyzon marinus and Lampetra planeri exhibit conserved molecular asymmetries between the left and right developing habenulae. Long-term pharmacological treatments in these species show that nodal signalling is essential to their generation, rather than their directionality as in teleosts. Moreover, in contrast to zebrafish, habenular left-right differences are observed in the absence of overt asymmetry of the adjacent pineal field. These data support an ancient origin of epithalamic asymmetry, and suggest that a nodal-dependent asymmetry programme operated in the forebrain of ancestral vertebrates before evolving into a variable trait in bony fish.

  10. Receptors for GRP/bombesin-like peptides in the rat forebrain

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, S.S.; Moody, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    Binding sites in the rat forebrain were characterized using ( SVI-Tyr4)bombesin as a receptor probe. Pharmacology experiments indicate that gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) and the GRP fragments GRP as well as Ac-GRP inhibited radiolabeled (Tyr4)bombesin binding with high affinity. Biochemistry experiments indicated that heat, N-ethyl maleimide or trypsin greatly reduced radiolabeled (Tyr4)bombesin binding. Also, autoradiographic studies indicated that highest grain densities were present in the stria terminalis, periventricular and suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, dorsomedial and rhomboid thalamus, dentate gyrus, hippocampus and medial amygdaloid nucleus. The data suggest that CNS protein receptors, which are discretely distributed in the rat forebrain, may mediate the action of endogenous GRP/bombesin-like peptides.

  11. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) overexpression in the forebrain results in learning and memory impairments.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Carla; Angelucci, Andrea; D'Antoni, Angela; Dobrossy, Mate D; Dunnett, Stephen B; Berardi, Nicoletta; Brambilla, Riccardo

    2009-03-01

    In this study we analyzed the effect on behavior of a chronic exposure to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), by analysing a mouse line overexpressing BDNF under the alphaCaMKII promoter, which drives the transgene expression exclusively to principal neurons of the forebrain. BDNF transgenic mice and their WT littermates were examined with a battery of behavioral tests, in order to evaluate motor coordination, learning, short and long-term memory formation. Our results demonstrate that chronic BDNF overexpression in the central nervous system (CNS) causes learning deficits and short-term memory impairments, both in spatial and instrumental learning tasks. This observation suggests that a widespread increase in BDNF in forebrain networks may result in adverse effects on learning and memory formation.

  12. Nerve growth factor corrects developmental impairments of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in the trisomy 16 mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Corsi, P; Coyle, J T

    1991-01-01

    The trisomy 16 (Ts16) mouse, which shares genetic and phenotypic homologies with Down syndrome, exhibits impaired development of the basal forebrain cholinergic system. Basal forebrains obtained from Ts16 and euploid littermate fetuses at 15 days of gestation were dissociated and cultured in completely defined medium, with cholinergic neurons identified by choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity. The Ts16 cultures exhibited fewer ChAT-immunoreactive neurons, which were smaller and emitted shorter, smoother, and more simplified neurites than those from euploid littermates. Whereas the addition of beta-nerve growth factor (100 ng/ml) augmented the specific activity of ChAT and neuritic extension for both Ts16 and euploid cholinergic neurons, only Ts16 cultures exhibited an increase in the number and size of ChAT-immunoreactive neurons. Furthermore, Ts16 ChAT-immunoreactive neurites formed varicosities only in the presence of beta-nerve growth factor. Images PMID:2000385

  13. Clonally Related Forebrain Interneurons Disperse Broadly across Both Functional Areas and Structural Boundaries.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Christian; Jaglin, Xavier H; Cobbs, Lucy V; Bandler, Rachel C; Streicher, Carmen; Cepko, Constance L; Hippenmeyer, Simon; Fishell, Gord

    2015-09-02

    The medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) gives rise to the majority of mouse forebrain interneurons. Here, we examine the lineage relationship among MGE-derived interneurons using a replication-defective retroviral library containing a highly diverse set of DNA barcodes. Recovering the barcodes from the mature progeny of infected progenitor cells enabled us to unambiguously determine their respective lineal relationship. We found that clonal dispersion occurs across large areas of the brain and is not restricted by anatomical divisions. As such, sibling interneurons can populate the cortex, hippocampus striatum, and globus pallidus. The majority of interneurons appeared to be generated from asymmetric divisions of MGE progenitor cells, followed by symmetric divisions within the subventricular zone. Altogether, our findings uncover that lineage relationships do not appear to determine interneuron allocation to particular regions. As such, it is likely that clonally related interneurons have considerable flexibility as to the particular forebrain circuits to which they can contribute.

  14. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons in the forebrain of the trout: organization, cellular features and innervation.

    PubMed

    Anadón, Ramón; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel; González, Agustín

    We studied the segmental distribution and cellular features of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) neurons in the forebrain of trout. Large differences in cell size, general morphology, and complexity of cell processes were observed between TH-ir nuclei of different regions, and a new type of complex spiny TH-ir neurons in the ventral telencephalon is described for the first time. The distribution of TH-ir fibers was also analyzed and discussed.

  15. Time course of ischemia/reperfusion-induced oxidative modification of neural proteins in rat forebrain.

    PubMed

    Lehotský, J; Murín, R; Strapková, A; Uríková, A; Tatarková, Z; Kaplán, P

    2004-12-01

    Time course of oxidative modification of forebrain neural proteins was investigated in the rat model of global and partial cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Animals were subjected to 4-vessel occlusion for 15 min (global ischemia). After the end of ischemia and at different reperfusion times (2, 24 and 48 h), lipoperoxidation-dependent and direct oxidative modification neural protein markers were measured in the forebrain total membrane fraction (tissue homogenate). Ischemia itself causes significant changes only in levels of tryptophan and bityrosine fluorescence when compared to controls. All tested parameters of protein modification altered significantly and were maximal at later reperfusion stage. Content of carbonyl group in re-flow period steadily increased and culminated at 48 h of reperfusion. The highest increase in the fluorescence of bityrosines was detected after 24 h of reperfusion and was statistically significant to both sham operated and ischemic groups. The changes in fluorescence intensity of tryptophan decreased during a reperfusion time dependent manner. Formation of lysine conjugates with lipoperoxidation end-products significantly increased only at later stages of reperfusion. Total forebrain membranes from animals subjected to 3-vessel occlusion model to 15 min (partial ischemia) show no altered content of oxidatively modified proteins compared to controls. Restoration of blood flow for 24 h significantly decreased only fluorescence of aromatic tryptophan. Partial forebrain ischemia/reperfusion resulted in no detectable significant changes in oxidative products formation in extracerebral tissues (liver and kidney) homogenates. Our results suggest that global ischemia/reperfusion initiates both the lipoperoxidation-dependent and direct oxidative modifications of neural proteins. The findings support the view that spatial and temporal injury at later stages of ischemic insult at least partially involves oxidative stress-induced amino acid

  16. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in forebrain neurones contributes to osmoregulatory mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Dine, Julien; Ducourneau, Vincent R R; Fénelon, Valérie S; Fossat, Pascal; Amadio, Aurélie; Eder, Matthias; Israel, Jean-Marc; Oliet, Stéphane H R; Voisin, Daniel L

    2014-01-01

    Vasopressin secretion from the magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) is crucial for body fluid homeostasis. Osmotic regulation of MNC activity involves the concerted modulation of intrinsic mechanosensitive ion channels, taurine release from local astrocytes as well as excitatory inputs derived from osmosensitive forebrain regions. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK) are mitogen-activated protein kinases that transduce extracellular stimuli into intracellular post-translational and transcriptional responses, leading to changes in intrinsic neuronal properties and synaptic function. Here, we investigated whether ERK activation (i.e. phosphorylation) plays a role in the functioning of forebrain osmoregulatory networks. We found that within 10 min after intraperitoneal injections of hypertonic saline (3 m, 6 m) in rats, many phosphoERK-immunopositive neurones were observed in osmosensitive forebrain regions, including the MNC containing supraoptic nuclei. The intensity of ERK labelling was dose-dependent. Reciprocally, slow intragastric infusions of water that lower osmolality reduced basal ERK phosphorylation. In the supraoptic nucleus, ERK phosphorylation predominated in vasopressin neurones vs. oxytocin neurones and was absent from astrocytes. Western blot experiments confirmed that phosphoERK expression in the supraoptic nucleus was dose dependent. Intracerebroventricular administration of the ERK phosphorylation inhibitor U 0126 before a hyperosmotic challenge reduced the number of both phosphoERK-immunopositive neurones and Fos expressing neurones in osmosensitive forebrain regions. Blockade of ERK phosphorylation also reduced hypertonically induced depolarization and an increase in firing of the supraoptic MNCs recorded in vitro. It finally reduced hypertonically induced vasopressin release in the bloodstream. Altogether, these findings identify ERK phosphorylation as a new element contributing to the osmoregulatory mechanisms of

  17. Forebrain CRHR1 deficiency attenuates chronic stress-induced cognitive deficits and dendritic remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Yuncai; Wolf, Miriam; Wagner, Klaus V.; Liebl, Claudia; Scharf, Sebastian H.; Harbich, Daniela; Mayer, Bianca; Wurst, Wolfgang; Holsboer, Florian; Deussing, Jan M.; Baram, Tallie Z.; Müller, Marianne B.; Schmidt, Mathias V.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic stress evokes profound structural and molecular changes in the hippocampus, which may underlie spatial memory deficits. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and CRH receptor 1 (CRHR1) mediate some of the rapid effects of stress on dendritic spine morphology and modulate learning and memory, thus providing a potential molecular basis for impaired synaptic plasticity and spatial memory by repeated stress exposure. Using adult male mice with CRHR1 conditionally inactivated in the forebrain regions, we investigated the role of CRH-CRHR1 signaling in the effects of chronic social defeat stress on spatial memory, the dendritic morphology of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons, and the hippocampal expression of nectin-3, a synaptic cell adhesion molecule important in synaptic remodeling. In chronically stressed wild-type mice, spatial memory was disrupted, and the complexity of apical dendrites of CA3 neurons reduced. In contrast, stressed mice with forebrain CRHR1 deficiency exhibited normal dendritic morphology of CA3 neurons and mild impairments in spatial memory. Additionally, we showed that the expression of nectin-3 in the CA3 area was regulated by chronic stress in a CRHR1-dependent fashion and associated with spatial memory and dendritic complexity. Moreover, forebrain CRHR1 deficiency prevented the down-regulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor expression by chronic stress but induced increased body weight gain during persistent stress exposure. These findings underscore the important role of forebrain CRH-CRHR1 signaling in modulating chronic stress-induced cognitive, structural and molecular adaptations, with implications for stress-related psychiatric disorders. PMID:21296667

  18. Ablation of ferroptosis regulator glutathione peroxidase 4 in forebrain neurons promotes cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Hambright, William Sealy; Fonseca, Rene Solano; Chen, Liuji; Na, Ren; Ran, Qitao

    2017-02-01

    Synaptic loss and neuron death are the underlying cause of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the modalities of cell death in those diseases remain unclear. Ferroptosis, a newly identified oxidative cell death mechanism triggered by massive lipid peroxidation, is implicated in the degeneration of neurons populations such as spinal motor neurons and midbrain neurons. Here, we investigated whether neurons in forebrain regions (cerebral cortex and hippocampus) that are severely afflicted in AD patients might be vulnerable to ferroptosis. To this end, we generated Gpx4BIKO mouse, a mouse model with conditional deletion in forebrain neurons of glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4), a key regulator of ferroptosis, and showed that treatment with tamoxifen led to deletion of Gpx4 primarily in forebrain neurons of adult Gpx4BIKO mice. Starting at 12 weeks after tamoxifen treatment, Gpx4BIKO mice exhibited significant deficits in spatial learning and memory function versus Control mice as determined by the Morris water maze task. Further examinations revealed that the cognitively impaired Gpx4BIKO mice exhibited hippocampal neurodegeneration. Notably, markers associated with ferroptosis, such as elevated lipid peroxidation, ERK activation and augmented neuroinflammation, were observed in Gpx4BIKO mice. We also showed that Gpx4BIKO mice fed a diet deficient in vitamin E, a lipid soluble antioxidant with anti-ferroptosis activity, had an expedited rate of hippocampal neurodegeneration and behavior dysfunction, and that treatment with a small-molecule ferroptosis inhibitor ameliorated neurodegeneration in those mice. Taken together, our results indicate that forebrain neurons are susceptible to ferroptosis, suggesting that ferroptosis may be an important neurodegenerative mechanism in diseases such as AD.

  19. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling is altered in the forebrain of Engrailed-2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Zunino, G; Messina, A; Sgadò, P; Baj, G; Casarosa, S; Bozzi, Y

    2016-06-02

    Engrailed-2 (En2), a homeodomain transcription factor involved in regionalization and patterning of the midbrain and hindbrain regions has been associated to autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). En2 knockout (En2(-/-)) mice show ASD-like features accompanied by a significant loss of GABAergic subpopulations in the hippocampus and neocortex. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a crucial factor for the postnatal development of forebrain GABAergic neurons, and altered GABA signaling has been hypothesized to underlie the symptoms of ASD. Here we sought to determine whether interneuron loss in the En2(-/-) forebrain might be related to altered expression of BDNF and its signaling receptors. We first evaluated the expression of different BDNF mRNA isoforms in the neocortex and hippocampus of wild-type (WT) and En2(-/-) mice. Quantitative RT-PCR showed a marked down-regulation of several splicing variants of BDNF mRNA in the neocortex but not hippocampus of adult En2(-/-) mice, as compared to WT controls. Accordingly, levels of mature BDNF protein were lower in the neocortex but not hippocampus of En2(-/-) mice, as compared to WT. Increased levels of phosphorylated TrkB and decreased levels of p75 receptor were also detected in the neocortex of mutant mice. Accordingly, the expression of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and RhoA, two genes regulated via p75 was significantly altered in forebrain areas of mutant mice. These data indicate that BDNF signaling alterations might be involved in the anatomical changes observed in the En2(-/-) forebrain and suggest a pathogenic role of altered BDNF signaling in this mouse model of ASD.

  20. L-Theanine intake increases threshold for limbic seizures but decreases threshold for generalized seizures.

    PubMed

    Schallier, Anneleen; Vermoesen, Katia; Loyens, Ellen; Van Liefferinge, Joeri; Michotte, Yvette; Smolders, Ilse; Massie, Ann

    2013-03-01

    L-Theanine, an ethylamide derivate of glutamate found in abundance in green tea, has been shown to exert beneficial actions in animal models for several neurological disorders. We here investigated for the first time the effect of L-theanine intake on seizure susceptibility using acute pilocarpine and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) mouse models for studying, respectively, limbic seizures or primarily generalized seizures. Moreover, we studied the effect of l-theanine intake on extracellular hippocampal and cortical glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels, using in vivo microdialysis. Feeding mice with a 4% L-theanine solution significantly decreased their susceptibility to pilocarpine-induced seizures whereas susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizures was increased. The latter effect was linked to decreased extracellular GABA concentrations in frontal cortex.

  1. Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis in a Male with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Sauri, Tamara; Izquierdo, Àngel; Ramió-Torrentà, LLuis; Sanchez-Montañez, Àngel; Bosch-Barrera, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    Background Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis (PLE) is a rare syndrome characterized by memory impairment, symptoms of hypothalamic dysfunction, and seizures. It commonly precedes the diagnosis of cancer. Small-cell lung cancer is the neoplasm that is most frequently reported as the etiology underlying PLE. Case Report This report describes a male patient who presented with neurologic symptoms consistent with anterograde amnesia, apathy, and disorientation. MRI revealed diffuse hyperintensities located predominantly in the medial bitemporal lobes, basal ganglia, frontal lobes, and leptomeninges on fluid attenuated inversion recovery images, suggesting PLE. Study of the primary tumor revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. The patient was treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, which resulted in his neurologic symptoms gradually improving. Conclusions PLE might be a rare debut of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Treatment of the primary tumor may improve the neurologic symptoms. PMID:25628742

  2. Limbic encephalitis. A rare presentation of the small-cell lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    den Hollander, A M; van Hulst, A M; Meerwaldt, J D; Haasjes, J G

    1989-11-01

    Two patients with an acute organic brain syndrome and accompanying neurological symptoms are described. Extensive work up showed that both patients suffered from small-cell lung cancer. Cerebral metastases were absent. Following chemotherapy and radiotherapy to the primary tumor one of the two patients showed a complete remission of psychiatric symptoms for one year. A paraneoplastic origin of this syndrome, in the literature known as limbic encephalitis, is postulated. The exact cause of this syndrome is yet unknown. Recent research reveals data indicating an immunological pathogenesis. The major clinical importance of this (neuro)-psychiatric syndrome is that its appearance may serve as a warning sign for an occult malignancy; furthermore, effective treatment of the primary malignancy can reverse the encephalitis. Thus antitumor therapy can result in a prolonged survival and considerably improved quality of life.

  3. Brain limbic system-based intelligent controller application to lane change manoeuvre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Changwon; Langari, Reza

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents the application of a novel neuromorphic control strategy for lane change manoeuvres in the highway environment. The lateral dynamics of a vehicle with and without wind disturbance are derived and utilised to implement a control strategy based on the brain limbic system. To show the robustness of the proposed controller, several disturbance conditions including wind, uncertainty in the cornering stiffness, and changes in the vehicle mass are investigated. To demonstrate the performance of the suggested strategy, simulation results of the proposed method are compared with the human driver model-based control scheme, which has been discussed in the literature. The simulation results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed controller in energy efficiency, driving comfort, and robustness.

  4. Interaction of some limbic structures which exert inhibitory effect on corticosterone secretion.

    PubMed

    Suárez, M; Perassi, N I

    1990-12-01

    The interaction between limbic structures which exert inhibitory influence on corticosterone secretion was investigated in the rat. The following experiments were performed: 1) electrical stimulation at mammillary medial nucleus (MMN) in rats with lesioned anterodrosal thalami nucleus (ADTN) or intermediate tegmental area; 2) electrical stimulation at ADTN in rats with lesioned retrosplenial cortex (RC). Bilateral stimulation at MMN in ADTN or RC-lesioned rats produces an increase in plasma corticosterone concentration. In animals with lesioned RC, values of plasma corticosterone after stimulation at ADTN were higher than before stimulation. Taking into consideration that electrical stimulation of MMN or ADTN in intact rats produces a decrease in plasma corticosterone concentration, these studies demonstrate that MMN and ADTN exert inhibitory influence on corticoadrenal activity only when their projection areas remain intact.

  5. [Following sensory neuropathy, anti-Hu antibody-positive paraneoplastic neurological syndrome presenting with limbic encephalitis occurs after complete remission].

    PubMed

    Fukami, Yuki; Umemura, Toshitaka; Shimono, Tetufumi; Yokoi, Takamasa; Kamijo, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Toshimasa

    2013-01-01

    Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is a rare neurological disorder that frequently precedes the detection of malignancy. We report the case of a 68-year-old male with small-cell lung cancer who developed paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis associated with presence of the anti-Hu antibody, after achieving complete remission of the tumor by chemotherapy. The patient visited our hospital because of progressive sensory disturbance of the distal extremities at 65 years of age. Though paraneoplastic sensory neuropathy was suspected, we could not find any tumor and he did not improve with steroids or immunoglobulin therapy. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed large mediastinal lymphadenopathy. He was subsequently diagnosed with small cell lung cancer at one year and three months after the neurological symptoms occurred. As his serum analysis was positive for the anti-Hu antibody, we diagnosed paraneoplastic sensory neuropathy. The lung cancer disappeared with chemotherapy, but he had developed short-term memory loss six months later. Brain fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging showed an abnormal high-intensity lesion in the left medial temporal lobe including the hippocampus. We therefore made the diagnosis of paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis following subacute sensory neuropathy associated with the anti-Hu antibody. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient presenting with paraneoplastic neurological syndrome in which limbic encephalitis developed after tumor disappearance. So we must recognize the possibility of neurological symptoms occurring during remission. As the mechanism of pathogenesis, delayed neuronal cell damage due to immune responses against the tumor is implicated.

  6. Time-lapse live imaging of clonally related neural progenitor cells in the developing zebrafish forebrain.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhiqiang; Wagle, Mahendra; Guo, Su

    2011-04-06

    Precise patterns of division, migration and differentiation of neural progenitor cells are crucial for proper brain development and function. To understand the behavior of neural progenitor cells in the complex in vivo environment, time-lapse live imaging of neural progenitor cells in an intact brain is critically required. In this video, we exploit the unique features of zebrafish embryos to visualize the development of forebrain neural progenitor cells in vivo. We use electroporation to genetically and sparsely label individual neural progenitor cells. Briefly, DNA constructs coding for fluorescent markers were injected into the forebrain ventricle of 22 hours post fertilization (hpf) zebrafish embryos and electric pulses were delivered immediately. Six hours later, the electroporated zebrafish embryos were mounted with low melting point agarose in glass bottom culture dishes. Fluorescently labeled neural progenitor cells were then imaged for 36 hours with fixed intervals under a confocal microscope using water dipping objective lens. The present method provides a way to gain insights into the in vivo development of forebrain neural progenitor cells and can be applied to other parts of the central nervous system of the zebrafish embryo.

  7. The neuroprotective mechanism of ampicillin in a mouse model of transient forebrain ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-Eon; Cho, Kyung-Ok; Choi, Yun-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Ampicillin, a β-lactam antibiotic, dose-dependently protects neurons against ischemic brain injury. The present study was performed to investigate the neuroprotective mechanism of ampicillin in a mouse model of transient global forebrain ischemia. Male C57BL/6 mice were anesthetized with halothane and subjected to bilateral common carotid artery occlusion for 40 min. Before transient forebrain ischemia, ampicillin (200 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) or penicillin G (6,000 U/kg or 20,000 U/kg, i.p.) was administered daily for 5 days. The pretreatment with ampicillin but not with penicillin G signifi cantly attenuated neuronal damage in the hippocampal CA1 subfield. Mechanistically, the increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) following forebrain ischemia was also attenuated by ampicillin treatment. In addition, the ampicillin treatment reversed increased immunoreactivities to glial fibrillary acidic protein and isolectin B4, markers of astrocytes and microglia, respectively. Furthermore, the ampicillin treatment significantly increased the level of glutamate transporter-1, and dihydrokainic acid (DHK, 10 mg/kg, i.p.), an inhibitor of glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1), reversed the neuroprotective effect of ampicillin. Taken together, these data indicate that ampicillin provides neuroprotection against ischemia-reperfusion brain injury, possibly through inducing the GLT-1 protein and inhibiting the activity of MMP in the mouse hippocampus. PMID:26937215

  8. Characterization of forebrain neurons derived from late-onset Huntington's disease human embryonic stem cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Niclis, Jonathan C.; Pinar, Anita; Haynes, John M.; Alsanie, Walaa; Jenny, Robert; Dottori, Mirella; Cram, David S.

    2012-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in exon 1 of the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Recently, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines carrying atypical and aggressive (CAG60+) HD variants have been generated and exhibit disparate molecular pathologies. Here we investigate two human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines carrying CAG37 and CAG51 typical late-onset repeat expansions in comparison to wildtype control lines during undifferentiated states and throughout forebrain neuronal differentiation. Pluripotent HD lines demonstrate growth, viability, pluripotent gene expression, mitochondrial activity and forebrain specification that is indistinguishable from control lines. Expression profiles of crucial genes known to be dysregulated in HD remain unperturbed in the presence of mutant protein and throughout differentiation; however, elevated glutamate-evoked responses were observed in HD CAG51 neurons. These findings suggest typical late-onset HD mutations do not alter pluripotent parameters or the capacity to generate forebrain neurons, but that such progeny may recapitulate hallmarks observed in established HD model systems. Such HD models will help further our understanding of the cascade of pathological events leading to disease onset and progression, while simultaneously facilitating the identification of candidate HD therapeutics. PMID:23576953

  9. Forebrain neuropeptide regulation of pair association and behavior in cooperating cleaner fish.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Sónia C; Grutter, Alexandra S; Paula, José R; André, Gonçalo I; Messias, João P; Gozdowska, Magdalena; Kulczykowska, Ewa; Soares, Marta C

    2015-06-01

    Animals establish privileged relationships with specific partners, which are treated differently from other conspecifics, and contribute to behavioral variation. However, there is limited information on the underlying physiological mechanisms involved in the establishment of these privileged ties and their relationship to individual cooperation levels. The Indo-Pacific bluestreak cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus often forages in mixed-sex pairs when cleaning fish clients. Intra-couple conflicts often arise during a joint client inspection, which may alter the overall quality of cleaning service provided. Here we tested two hypotheses: a) whether intra-pair association (i.e. association index), measured with joint interspecific cleaning and intraspecific behavior, is correlated with neuroendocrine mechanisms involving forebrain neuropeptides arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT) and b) whether these neuropeptide level shifts relate to an individual's interspecific service quality. We found that partner support (number of cleaning interactions and tactile stimulation) received by male cleaners increased with association index. When cleaners inspected clients alone, cleaners' cheating decreased with association index for females but not males. AVT levels did not differ according to sex or association level. Forebrain IT levels increased with association index for males, whereas no relationship was found for females. Finally, cleaner cheating varied between sex and forebrain IT levels. Findings indicate that variation in pairs' relationships influences male and female cleaner fish differently and contributes to the variation of brain neuropeptide levels, which is linked to distinct cooperative outcomes.

  10. Forebrain neuroanatomy of the neonatal and juvenile dolphin (T. truncatus and S. coeruloalba)

    PubMed Central

    Parolisi, Roberta; Peruffo, Antonella; Messina, Silvia; Panin, Mattia; Montelli, Stefano; Giurisato, Maristella; Cozzi, Bruno; Bonfanti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of dolphin functional neuroanatomy mostly derives from post-mortem studies and non-invasive approaches (i.e., magnetic resonance imaging), due to limitations in experimentation on cetaceans. As a consequence the availability of well-preserved tissues for histology is scarce, and detailed histological analyses are referred mainly to adults. Here we studied the neonatal/juvenile brain in two species of dolphins, the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), with special reference to forebrain regions. We analyzed cell density in subcortical nuclei, white/gray matter ratio, and myelination in selected regions at different anterior–posterior levels of the whole dolphin brain at different ages, to better define forebrain neuroanatomy and the developmental stage of the dolphin brain around birth. The analyses were extended to the periventricular germinal layer and the cerebellum, whose delayed genesis of the granule cell layer is a hallmark of postnatal development in the mammalian nervous system. Our results establish an atlas of the young dolphin forebrain and, on the basis of occurrence/absence of delayed neurogenic layers, confirm the stage of advanced brain maturation in these animals with respect to most terrestrial mammals. PMID:26594155

  11. Forebrain neuroanatomy of the neonatal and juvenile dolphin (T. truncatus and S. coeruloalba).

    PubMed

    Parolisi, Roberta; Peruffo, Antonella; Messina, Silvia; Panin, Mattia; Montelli, Stefano; Giurisato, Maristella; Cozzi, Bruno; Bonfanti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of dolphin functional neuroanatomy mostly derives from post-mortem studies and non-invasive approaches (i.e., magnetic resonance imaging), due to limitations in experimentation on cetaceans. As a consequence the availability of well-preserved tissues for histology is scarce, and detailed histological analyses are referred mainly to adults. Here we studied the neonatal/juvenile brain in two species of dolphins, the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and the striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), with special reference to forebrain regions. We analyzed cell density in subcortical nuclei, white/gray matter ratio, and myelination in selected regions at different anterior-posterior levels of the whole dolphin brain at different ages, to better define forebrain neuroanatomy and the developmental stage of the dolphin brain around birth. The analyses were extended to the periventricular germinal layer and the cerebellum, whose delayed genesis of the granule cell layer is a hallmark of postnatal development in the mammalian nervous system. Our results establish an atlas of the young dolphin forebrain and, on the basis of occurrence/absence of delayed neurogenic layers, confirm the stage of advanced brain maturation in these animals with respect to most terrestrial mammals.

  12. CBP regulates the differentiation of interneurons from ventral forebrain neural precursors during murine development.

    PubMed

    Tsui, David; Voronova, Anastassia; Gallagher, Denis; Kaplan, David R; Miller, Freda D; Wang, Jing

    2014-01-15

    The mechanisms that regulate appropriate genesis and differentiation of interneurons in the developing mammalian brain are of significant interest not only because interneurons play key roles in the establishment of neural circuitry, but also because when they are deficient, this can cause epilepsy. In this regard, one genetic syndrome that is associated with deficits in neural development and epilepsy is Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (RTS), where the transcriptional activator and histone acetyltransferase CBP is mutated and haploinsufficient. Here, we have asked whether CBP is necessary for the appropriate genesis and differentiation of interneurons in the murine forebrain, since this could provide an explanation for the epilepsy that is associated with RTS. We show that CBP is expressed in neural precursors within the embryonic medial ganglionic eminence (MGE), an area that generates the vast majority of interneurons for the cortex. Using primary cultures of MGE precursors, we show that knockdown of CBP causes deficits in differentiation of these precursors into interneurons and oligodendrocytes, and that overexpression of CBP is by itself sufficient to enhance interneuron genesis. Moreover, we show that levels of the neurotransmitter synthesis enzyme GAD67, which is expressed in inhibitory interneurons, are decreased in the dorsal and ventral forebrain of neonatal CBP(+/-) mice, indicating that CBP plays a role in regulating interneuron development in vivo. Thus, CBP normally acts to ensure the differentiation of appropriate numbers of forebrain interneurons, and when its levels are decreased, this causes deficits in interneuron development, providing a potential explanation for the epilepsy seen in individuals with RTS.

  13. The integrity of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons depends on expression of Nkx2-1

    PubMed Central

    Magno, Lorenza; Kretz, Oliver; Bert, Bettina; Ersözlü, Sara; Vogt, Johannes; Fink, Heidrun; Kimura, Shioko; Vogt, Angelika; Monyer, Hannah; Nitsch, Robert; Naumann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor Nkx2-1 belongs to the homeobox-encoding family of proteins that have essential functions in prenatal brain development. Nkx2-1 is required for the specification of cortical interneurons and several neuronal subtypes of the ventral forebrain. Moreover, this transcription factor is involved in migratory processes by regulating the expression of guidance molecules. Interestingly, Nkx2-1 expression was recently detected in the mouse brain at postnatal stages. Using two transgenic mouse lines that allow prenatal or postnatal cell type-specific deletion of Nkx2-1, we show that continuous expression of the transcription factor is essential for the maturation and maintenance of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons in mice. Notably, prenatal deletion of Nkx2-1 in GAD67-expressing neurons leads to a nearly complete loss of cholinergic neurons and parvalbumin-containing GABAergic neurons in the basal forebrain. We also show that postnatal mutation of Nkx2-1 in choline acetyltransferase-expressing cells causes a striking reduction in their number. These degenerative changes are accompanied by partial denervation of their target structures and results in a discrete impairment of spatial memory. PMID:22098391

  14. Electrophysiological correlates of the limbic-motor interactions in various behavioral states in rats.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewska, A; Kasicki, S; Zagrodzka, J

    1997-08-01

    Depth electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded from basolateral amygdala (BLA), ventral subiculum (VSB), n. accumbens (ACC) and subpallidal area (SPL) in freely moving rats, during locomotor tasks with various types of reinforcement in order to compare the strength of limbic-motor interactions in selected behavioral situations. For all EEG signals multichannel coherences (ordinary, multiple and partial) were calculated using autoregression model. Partial coherences indicate the level of synchronization between two signals, thus they were assumed to indicate the strength of direct connection between the structures from which these signals have been recorded. The partial coherences were calculated for six selected frequency bands and the strength of connections within the BLA-VSB-ACC-SPL circuit was estimated for two different behavioral situations and compared. It was found that the strength of connections is sensitive to changes in both motor and emotional aspects of behavioral situation: the strength of BLA-VSB, VSB-ACC, and ACC-SPL depended on motor demands of behavioral task; these of BLA-VSB increased in the highest frequency bands in all emotionally engaging situations when compared with well trained locomotive; the strength of ACC-SPL increased in situations when automatic stereotyped motor behavior was induced by biologically important stimuli, while it decreased or did not change in the motor tasks demanding more precise and quickly adjustable movements. The results are discussed according to the motor-limbic integration model of proposed by Mogenson and show the dynamics of its connections in relation to the motivational-emotional context of the task.

  15. Effect of low doses of methamphetamine on rat limbic-related neurotensin systems.

    PubMed

    Alburges, Mario E; Hoonakker, Amanda J; Cordova, Nathaniel M; Robson, Christina M; McFadden, Lisa M; Martin, Amber L; Hanson, Glen R

    2015-08-01

    Administration of methamphetamine (METH) alters limbic-related (LR) neurotensin (NT) systems. Thus, through a D1-receptor mechanism, noncontingent high doses (5-15 mg kg(-1)), and likely self-administration, of METH appears to reduce NT release causing its accumulation and an elevation of NT-like immunoreactivity (NTLI) in limbic-related NT pathways. For comparison, we tested the effect of low doses of METH, that are more like those used in therapy, on NTLI in the core and shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAc and NAs), prefrontal cortex (PFC), ventral tegmental area (VTA), the lateral habenula (Hb) and basolateral amygdala (Amyg). METH at the dose of 0.25 mg kg(-1) in particular, but not 1.00 mg kg(-1), decreased NTLI concentration in all of the LR structures studied, except for the prefrontal cortex; however, these effects were rapid and brief being observed at 5 h but not at 24 h after treatment. In all of the LR areas where NTLI levels were reduced after the low dose of METH, the effect was blocked by pretreatment with either a D1 or a D2 antagonist. Thus, opposite to high doses like those associated with abuse, the therapeutic-like low-dose METH treatment induced reduction in NT tissue levels likely reflected an increase in NT release and a short-term depletion of the levels of this neuropeptide in LR structures, manifesting features comparable to the response of basal ganglia NT systems to similar low doses of METH.

  16. The time-course of cortico-limbic neural responses to air hunger.

    PubMed

    Binks, Andrew P; Evans, Karleyton C; Reed, Jeffrey D; Moosavi, Shakeeb H; Banzett, Robert B

    2014-12-01

    Several studies have mapped brain regions associated with acute dyspnea perception. However, the time-course of brain activity during sustained dyspnea is unknown. Our objective was to determine the time-course of neural activity when dyspnea is sustained. Eight healthy subjects underwent brain blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic imaging (BOLD-fMRI) during mechanical ventilation with constant mild hypercapnia (∼ 45 mm Hg). Subjects rated dyspnea (air hunger) via visual analog scale (VAS). Tidal volume (V(T)) was alternated every 90 s between high VT (0.96 ± 0.23 L) that provided respiratory comfort (12 ± 6% full scale) and low V(T) (0.48 ± 0.08 L) which evoked air hunger (56 ± 11% full scale). BOLD signal was extracted from a priori brain regions and combined with VAS data to determine air hunger related neural time-course. Air hunger onset was associated with BOLD signal increases that followed two distinct temporal profiles within sub-regions of the anterior insula, anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices (cortico-limbic circuitry): (1) fast, BOLD signal peak <30s and (2) slow, BOLD signal peak >40s. BOLD signal during air hunger offset followed fast and slow temporal profiles symmetrical, but inverse (signal decreases) to the time-courses of air hunger onset. We conclude that differential cortico-limbic circuit elements have unique contributions to dyspnea sensation over time. We suggest that previously unidentified sub-regions are responsible for either the acute awareness or maintenance of dyspnea. These data enhance interpretation of previous studies and inform hypotheses for future dyspnea research.

  17. Acupuncture, the limbic system, and the anticorrelated networks of the brain.

    PubMed

    Hui, Kathleen K S; Marina, Ovidiu; Liu, Jing; Rosen, Bruce R; Kwong, Kenneth K

    2010-10-28

    The study of the mechanism of acupuncture action was revolutionized by the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Over the past decade, our fMRI studies of healthy subjects have contributed substantially to elucidating the central effect of acupuncture on the human brain. These studies have shown that acupuncture stimulation, when associated with sensations comprising deqi, evokes deactivation of a limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network, which encompasses the limbic system, as well as activation of somatosensory brain regions. These networks closely match the default mode network and the anti-correlated task-positive network described in the literature. We have also shown that the effect of acupuncture on the brain is integrated at multiple levels, down to the brainstem and cerebellum. Our studies support the hypothesis that the effect of acupuncture on the brain goes beyond the effect of attention on the default mode network or the somatosensory stimulation of acupuncture needling. The amygdala and hypothalamus, in particular, show decreased activation during acupuncture stimulation that is not commonly associated with default mode network activity. At the same time, our research shows that acupuncture stimulation needs to be done carefully, limiting stimulation when the resulting sensations are very strong or when sharp pain is elicited. When acupuncture induced sharp pain, our studies show that the deactivation was attenuated or reversed in direction. Our results suggest that acupuncture mobilizes the functionally anti-correlated networks of the brain to mediate its actions, and that the effect is dependent on the psychophysical response. In this work we also discuss multiple avenues of future research, including the role of neurotransmitters, the effect of different acupuncture techniques, and the potential clinical application of our research findings to disease states including chronic pain, major depression, schizophrenia, autism, and Alzheimer

  18. Chronic myofascial temporomandibular pain is associated with neural abnormalities in the trigeminal and limbic systems

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yoshi F.; Goddard, Greg; Mackey, Sean C.

    2010-01-01

    Myofascial pain of the temporomandibular region (M-TMD) is a common, but poorly understood chronic disorder. It is unknown whether the condition is a peripheral problem, or a disorder of the central nervous system (CNS). To investigate possible CNS substrates of M-TMD, we compared the brain morphology of 15 women with M-TMD to 15 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. High-resolution structural brain and brainstem scans were carried out using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and data were analyzed using a voxel-based morphometry approach. The M-TMD group evidenced decreased or increased gray matter volume compared to controls in several areas of the trigeminothalamocortical pathway, including brainstem trigeminal sensory nuclei, the thalamus, and the primary somatosensory cortex. In addition, M-TMD individuals showed increased gray matter volume compared to controls in limbic regions such as the posterior putamen, globus pallidus, and anterior insula. Within the M-TMD group, jaw pain, pain tolerance, and pain duration were differentially associated with brain and brainstem gray matter volume. Self-reported pain severity was associated with increased gray matter in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex and posterior cingulate. Sensitivity to pressure algometry was associated with decreased gray matter in the pons, corresponding to the trigeminal sensory nuclei. Longer pain duration was associated with greater gray matter in the posterior cingulate, hippocampus, midbrain, and cerebellum. The pattern of gray matter abnormality found in M-TMD individuals suggests the involvement of trigeminal and limbic system dysregulation, as well as potential somatotopic reorganization in the putamen, thalamus, and somatosensory cortex. PMID:20236763

  19. Reduced limbic metabolism and fronto-cortical volume in rats vulnerable to alcohol addiction

    PubMed Central

    Gozzi, Alessandro; Agosta, Federica; Massi, Maurizio; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Bifone, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is associated with long-term reductions in fronto-cortical volume and limbic metabolism. However, an unanswered question in alcohol research is whether these alterations are the sole consequence of chronic alcohol use, or contain heritable contributions reflecting biological propensity toward ethanol addiction. Animal models of genetic predisposition to alcohol dependence can be used to investigate the role of inborn brain abnormalities in the aetiology of alcoholism. Here we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in e Marchigian Sardinian (msP) alcohol-preferring rats to assess the presence of inherited structural or functional brain alterations. Alcohol-naïve msP (N=22) and control rats (N=26) were subjected to basal cerebral blood volume (bCBV) mapping followed by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of gray matter and tract-based spatial statistics mapping of white matter fractional anisotropy. msP rats exhibited significantly reduced bCBV, an established marker of resting brain function, in focal cortico-limbic and thalamic areas, together with reduced gray matter volume in the thalamus, ventral tegmental area, insular and cingulate cortex. No statistically significant differences in fractional anisotropy were observed between groups. These findings highlight the presence of inborn gray matter and metabolic abnormalities in alcohol-naïve msP rats, the localization and sign of which are remarkably similar to those mapped in abstinent alcoholics and subjects at high risk for alcohol dependence. Collectively, these results point for a significant role of heritable neurofunctional brain alterations in biological propensity toward ethanol addiction, and support the translational use of advanced imaging methods to describe the circuital determinants of vulnerability to drug addiction. PMID:23261637

  20. Intrathecal reboxetine suppresses evoked and ongoing neuropathic pain behaviours by restoring spinal noradrenergic inhibitory tone.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Sam; Hickey, Louise; Donaldson, Lucy F; Lumb, Bridget M; Pickering, Anthony E

    2015-02-01

    The descending noradrenergic (NAergic) projection to the spinal cord forms part of an endogenous analgesic system. After nerve injury, a localised failure in this compensatory system has been implicated as a permissive factor in the development of neuropathic sensitisation. We investigated whether restoring descending NAergic tone with intrathecal reboxetine can oppose the development of the neuropathic pain phenotype after tibial nerve transection (TNT). Rats had a lumbar intrathecal catheter implanted at the time of nerve injury for administration of reboxetine (10 μg) in both acute and chronic dosing experiments. In acute dosing experiments, both intrathecal and systemic (30 mg/kg) reboxetine partially reversed mechanical allodynia. This antiallodynic effect of intrathecal reboxetine was blocked by prior administration of yohimbine (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, 30 μg) but not by prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, 30 μg) or propranolol (β-adrenoceptor antagonist, 100 μg). Chronic intrathecal reboxetine (10 μg, intrathecally, twice daily for 2 weeks) suppressed the development of cold and mechanical allodynia. Nerve-injured animals demonstrated a place preference for intrathecal reboxetine, suggesting that it also reduced spontaneous pain. In contrast, an equivalent antiallodynic dose of systemic reboxetine (30 mg/kg) was aversive in both naive and TNT rats. On cessation of chronic intrathecal reboxetine, there was a gradual development of allodynic sensitisation that was indistinguishable from control TNT animals by 7 days after the end of dosing. Our results suggest that pharmacological restoration of spinal NAergic tone with intrathecal reboxetine can suppress both allodynia and spontaneous pain in the TNT model.

  1. Transcription factor activating protein 2 beta (TFAP2B) mediates noradrenergic neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Ikram, Fakhera; Ackermann, Sandra; Kahlert, Yvonne; Volland, Ruth; Roels, Frederik; Engesser, Anne; Hertwig, Falk; Kocak, Hayriye; Hero, Barbara; Dreidax, Daniel; Henrich, Kai-Oliver; Berthold, Frank; Nürnberg, Peter; Westermann, Frank; Fischer, Matthias

    2016-02-01

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonal pediatric tumor that originates from the developing sympathetic nervous system and shows a broad range of clinical behavior, ranging from fatal progression to differentiation into benign ganglioneuroma. In experimental neuroblastoma systems, retinoic acid (RA) effectively induces neuronal differentiation, and RA treatment has been therefore integrated in current therapies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying differentiation are still poorly understood. We here investigated the role of transcription factor activating protein 2 beta (TFAP2B), a key factor in sympathetic nervous system development, in neuroblastoma pathogenesis and differentiation. Microarray analyses of primary neuroblastomas (n = 649) demonstrated that low TFAP2B expression was significantly associated with unfavorable prognostic markers as well as adverse patient outcome. We also found that low TFAP2B expression was strongly associated with CpG methylation of the TFAP2B locus in primary neuroblastomas (n = 105) and demethylation with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine resulted in induction of TFAP2B expression in vitro, suggesting that TFAP2B is silenced by genomic methylation. Tetracycline inducible re-expression of TFAP2B in IMR-32 and SH-EP neuroblastoma cells significantly impaired proliferation and cell cycle progression. In IMR-32 cells, TFAP2B induced neuronal differentiation, which was accompanied by up-regulation of the catecholamine biosynthesizing enzyme genes DBH and TH, and down-regulation of MYCN and REST, a master repressor of neuronal genes. By contrast, knockdown of TFAP2B by lentiviral transduction of shRNAs abrogated RA-induced neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2)c neuroblastoma cells almost completely. Taken together, our results suggest that TFAP2B is playing a vital role in retaining RA responsiveness and mediating noradrenergic neuronal differentiation in neuroblastoma.

  2. The effect of noradrenergic attenuation by clonidine on inhibition in the stop signal task.

    PubMed

    Logemann, H N Alexander; Böcker, Koen B E; Deschamps, Peter K H; Kemner, Chantal; Kenemans, J Leon

    2013-09-01

    Understanding the neuropharmacology of inhibition is of importance to fuel optimal treatment for disorders such as Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of noradrenergic antagonism by clonidine on behavioral-performance and brain-activity indices of inhibition. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, crossover design was implemented. Male (N=21) participants performed in a visual stop signal task while EEG was recorded under clonidine in one session and under placebo in another. We expected that 100 μg clonidine would have a negative effect on EEG indices of inhibition, the Stop N2 and Stop P3. Furthermore, we expected that clonidine would negatively affect the behavioral measure of inhibition, the stop signal reaction time (SSRT). Behavioral analyses were performed on data of 17 participants, EEG analyses on a subset (N=13). Performance data suggested that clonidine negatively affected attention (response variability, omissions) without affecting inhibition as indexed by SSRT. Electrophysiological data show that clonidine reduced the Stop P3, but not the Stop N2, indicating a partial negative effect on inhibition. Results show that it is unlikely that the Stop P3 reduction was related to the effect of clonidine on lapses of attention and on peripheral cardiovascular functioning. In conclusion, the current dose of clonidine had a negative effect on attention and a partial effect on inhibitory control. This inhibitory effect was restricted to the dorsal region of the prefrontal cortex (presumably the superior frontal gyrus) as opposed to the ventral region of the prefrontal cortex (right inferior frontal gyrus).

  3. Noradrenergic and GABAB Receptor Activation Differentially Modulate Inputs to the Premotor Nucleus RA in Zebra Finches

    PubMed Central

    Sizemore, Max; Perkel, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Neuromodulators can rapidly modify neural circuits, altering behavior. Songbirds provide an excellent system for studying the role of neuromodulation in modifying circuits that underlie behavior because song learning and production are mediated by a discrete set of interconnected nuclei. We examined the neuromodulatory effects of noradrenergic and GABAB receptor activation on synaptic inputs to the premotor robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) in zebra finches using whole cell voltage-clamp recording in vitro. In adults, norepinephrine strongly reduced input from the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN) but only slightly reduced the input from nucleus HVC (proper name), the excitatory input from axon collaterals of other RA neurons, and input from GABAergic interneurons. The effect of norepinephrine was mimicked by the α2 adrenoceptor agonist UK14,304 and blocked by the α2 antagonist yohimbine. Conversely, the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen strongly decreased HVC, collateral, and GABAergic inputs to RA neurons while causing little reduction in the LMAN input. In juveniles undergoing song learning, norepinephrine reduced the LMAN input, caused only a small reduction in the HVC input, and greatly reduced the collateral and GABAergic inputs. Baclofen caused similar results in juvenile and adult birds, reducing HVC, collateral, and GABAergic inputs significantly more than the LMAN input. Significant increases in paired-pulse ratio accompanied all reductions in synaptic transmission, suggesting a presynaptic locus. The reduction in the LMAN input by norepinephrine may be important for mediating changes in song elicited by different social contexts and is well-placed to play a role in song learning. PMID:18463188

  4. Ablation of the central noradrenergic neurons for unraveling their roles in stress and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Itoi, Keiichi

    2008-01-01

    Despite considerable evidence suggesting the relationship between the central noradrenergic (NA) system and fear/anxiety states, previous animal studies have not demonstrated sheer involvement of the locus coeruleus (LC) in mediating fear or anxiety. Following the negative results of 6-hydroexydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced LC ablation in fear-conditioning studies, most researchers dared not approach this problem using the ablation strategy. The results obtained by a limited number of endeavors, conducted later, were not consistent with the idea of LC being related to anxiety, either, with the exception of the study by Lapiz and colleagues. Since methodological problems were recognized in the neurotoxin-induced NA ablation, employed in previous studies, a novel mouse model was developed in which the LC-NA neurons were ablated selectively and thoroughly by the immunotoxin-mediated cellular targeting. The use of this model clearly demonstrated that the LC was part of the anxiety circuitry. The reason for the discrepancy between the latest study and previous ones is not clear, but it may be due either to the difference in the experimental paradigms or to the different methods for LC ablation. In any case, our findings have shed light on the LC as a locus pertaining to anxiety behavior, and may help link the apparently inconsistent results in previous studies. In addition, the novel method for the LC cell targeting, presented here may provide a potential means for studying the physiological roles of the LC including sleep/wakefulness, as well as its possible involvement in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety disorders, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

  5. Glucocorticoid effects on memory retrieval require concurrent noradrenergic activity in the hippocampus and basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Roozendaal, Benno; Hahn, Emily L; Nathan, Sheila V; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; McGaugh, James L

    2004-09-15

    Previous findings indicate that administration of abeta-adrenoceptor antagonist systemically blocks glucocorticoid impairment of memory retrieval. Here, we report that beta-adrenoceptor activation in the hippocampus and the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) is implicated in the impairing effects of glucocorticoids on memory retrieval. The specific glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonist 11beta,17beta-dihydroxy-6,21-dimethyl-17alpha-pregna-4,6-trien-20yn-3-one (RU 28362) (15 ng) infused into the hippocampus of male Sprague Dawley rats 60 min before water maze retention testing, 24 hr after training, impaired probe trial retention performance, as assessed by quadrant search time and initial latency to cross the platform location. Because we found previously that RU 28362 infused into the hippocampus does not affect water maze acquisition or immediate recall, the findings suggest that the GR agonist-induced retention impairment was attributable to a selective influence on long-term memory retrieval. Likewise, systemic injections of the beta1-adrenoceptor partial agonist xamoterol (3.0 or 10.0 mg/kg, s.c.) 60 min before the probe trial dose-dependently impaired retention performance. The beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol (2.0 mg/kg) administered subcutaneously before retention testing did not affect retention performance alone, but blocked the memory retrieval impairment induced by concurrent intrahippocampal infusions of RU 28362. Pretest infusions of the beta1-adrenoceptor antagonist atenolol into either the hippocampus (1.25 microg in 0.5 microl) or the BLA (0.5 microg in 0.2 microl) also prevented the GR agonist-induced memory retrieval impairment. These findings suggest that glucocorticoids impair retrieval of long-term spatial memory by facilitating noradrenergic mechanisms in the hippocampus, and additionally, that norepinephrine-mediated BLA activity is critical in enabling hippocampal glucocorticoid effects on memory retrieval.

  6. Corticotropin releasing factor dose-dependently modulates excitatory synaptic transmission in the noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Prouty, Eric W; Waterhouse, Barry D; Chandler, Daniel J

    2017-03-01

    The noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus (LC) is critically involved in the stress response and receives afferent input from a number of corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) containing structures. Several in vivo and in vitro studies in rat have shown that CRF robustly increases the firing rate of LC neurons in a dose-dependent manner. While it is known that these increases are dependent on CRF receptor subtype 1 and mediated by effects of cAMP intracellular signaling cascades on potassium conductance, the impact of CRF on synaptic transmission within LC has not been clarified. In the present study, we used whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology to assess how varying concentrations of bath-applied CRF affect AMPA-receptor dependent spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic currents (sEPSCs). Compared to vehicle, 10, 25, and 100 nm CRF had no significant effects on any sEPSC parameters. Fifty nanomolar CRF, however, significantly increased sEPSC amplitude, half-width, and charge transfer, while these measures were significantly decreased by 200 nm CRF. These observations suggest that stress may differentially affect ongoing excitatory synaptic transmission in LC depending on how much CRF is released from presynaptic terminals. Combined with the well-documented effects of CRF on membrane properties and spontaneous LC discharge, these observations may help explain how stress and CRF release are able to modulate the signal to noise ratio of LC neurons. These findings have implications for how stress affects the fidelity of signal transmission and information flow through LC and how it might impact norepinephrine release in the CNS.

  7. Interacting noradrenergic and corticosteroid systems shift human brain activation patterns during encoding.

    PubMed

    van Stegeren, Anda H; Roozendaal, Benno; Kindt, Merel; Wolf, Oliver T; Joëls, Marian

    2010-01-01

    Emotionally arousing experiences are usually well retained, an effect that depends on the release of adrenal stress hormones. Animal studies have shown that corticosterone and noradrenaline - representing the two main stress hormone systems - act in concert to enhance memory formation by actions involving the amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Here we test whether interactions between these two stress hormone systems also affect human memory formation as well as the associated pattern of brain activation. To this end, forty-eight male human subjects received hydrocortisone, yohimbine or both before presentation of emotional and neutral pictures. Activity in the amygdala, hippocampus and PFC was monitored with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) during encoding of these stimuli, when hormonal levels were elevated. Memory performance was tested 1 week later. We investigated whether an increased level of one of the two hormone systems would lead to differential effects compared to the combined application of the drugs on brain activation and memory performance. We report that the application of cortisol led to an overall enhancing effect on recognition memory, with no significant additional effect of yohimbine. However, during encoding the brain switched from amygdala/hippocampus activation with either hormone alone, to a strong deactivation of prefrontal areas under the influence of the combination of both exogenous hormones. Although we did not find evidence that exogenous stimulation of the noradrenergic and corticosteroid systems led to significant interaction effects on memory performance in this experiment, we conclude that stress hormone levels during encoding did differentially determine the activation pattern of the brain circuits here involved.

  8. Serotonergic and noradrenergic lesions suppress the enhancing effect of maternal exercise during pregnancy on learning and memory in rat pups.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, M M; Emami-Abarghoie, M; Safari, M; Sadighi-Moghaddam, B; Vafaei, A A; Bandegi, A R; Rashidy-Pour, A

    2008-02-19

    The beneficial effects of exercise on learning and memory are well documented but the effects of prenatal exposure to maternal exercise on offspring are not clear yet. Using a two-trial-per-day Morris water maze for five consecutive days, succeeded by a probe trial 2 days later we showed that maternal voluntary exercise (wheel running) by pregnant rats increased the acquisition phase of the pups' learning. Maternal forced swimming by pregnant rats increased both acquisition and retention phases of the pups' learning. Also we found that the rat pups whose mother was submitted to forced-swimming during pregnancy had significantly higher brain, liver, heart and kidney weights compared with their sedentary counterparts. On the other hand we estimated the cell number of different regions of the hippocampus in the rat pups. We found that both exercise models during pregnancy increased the cell number in cornus ammonis subregion 1 (CA1) and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in rat pups. To determine the role that noradrenergic and serotonergic neurotransmission and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors hold in mediation of the maternal exercise in offspring, we used N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4), p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) and MK-801 to eliminate or block the above systems, respectively. Blocking the NMDA receptors, significantly abolished learning and memory in rat pups from all three experimental groups. Elimination of noradrenergic or serotonergic input did not significantly attenuate the learning and memory in rat pups whose mothers were sedentary, while it significantly reversed the positive effects of maternal exercise during pregnancy on rat pups' learning and memory. The presented results suggest that noradrenergic and serotonergic systems in offspring brain seem to have a crucial specific role in mediating the effects of maternal physical activity during pregnancy on rat pups' cognitive function in both models of voluntary and forced exercise.

  9. Effect of Intrathecal Administration of Serotoninergic and Noradrenergic Drugs on Postural Performance in Rabbits With Spinal Cord Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Lyalka, V. F.; Musienko, P. E.; Orlovsky, G. N.; Grillner, S.; Deliagina, T. G.

    2008-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that extensive spinal lesions at T12 in the rabbit [ventral hemisection (VHS) or 3/4-section that spares one ventral quadrant (VQ)] severely damaged the postural system. When tested on the platform periodically tilted in the frontal plane, VHS and VQ animals typically were not able to perform postural corrective movements by their hindlimbs, although EMG responses (correctly or incorrectly phased) could be observed. We attempted to restore postural control in VHS and VQ rabbits by applying serotoninergic and noradrenergic drugs to the spinal cord below the lesion through the intrathecal cannula. It was found that serotonin and quipazine (5-HT1,2,3 agonist) did not re-establish postural corrective movements. However, when applied during a 10-day period after lesion, these drugs produced a twofold increase of the proportion of correct EMG responses to tilts. It was also found that methoxamine (α1 noradrenergic agonist), as well as the mixture of methoxamine and quipazine, did not re-establish postural corrective movements and did not increase the proportion of correct EMG responses. Serotonin (at later stages) and methoxamine induced periodical bursting in EMGs, suggesting activation of spinal rhythm-generating networks. Appearance of bursting seems to perturb normal operation of postural mechanisms, as suggested by methoxamine-induced abolishment of postural effects of quipazine. When applied in an intact animal, none of the tested drugs affected the value of postural corrections or evoked periodical bursting. We conclude that activation of the serotoninergic system (but not the noradrenergic one) causes selective enhancement of spinal postural reflexes during the earlier postlesion period. PMID:18497353

  10. Central noradrenergic depletion by DSP-4 prevents stress-induced memory impairments in the object recognition task.

    PubMed

    Scullion, G A; Kendall, D A; Sunter, D; Marsden, C A; Pardon, M-C

    2009-12-01

    Environmental stress produces adverse affects on memory in humans and rodents. Increased noradrenergic neurotransmission is a major component of the response to stress and noradrenaline (NA) plays an important role in modulating processes involved in learning and memory. The present study investigated the effect of NA depletion on stress-induced changes on memory performance in the mouse. Central NA depletion was induced using the selective neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2 bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) and verified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A novel cage stress procedure involving exposure to a new clean cage for 1 h per day, 4 days per week for 4 weeks, was used to produce stress-induced memory deficits measured using the object recognition task. 50 mg/kg DSP-4 produced large and sustained reductions in NA levels in the frontal cortex and hippocampus measured 24 h, 1 week and 5 weeks after treatment. Four weeks of exposure to novel cage stress induced a memory deficit in the object recognition task which was prevented by DSP-4 pre-treatment (50 mg/kg 1 week before the commencement of stress).These findings indicate that chronic environmental stress adversely affects recognition memory and that this effect is, in part, mediated by the noradrenergic stress response. The implication of these findings is that drugs targeting the noradrenergic system to reduce over-activity may be beneficial in the treatment of stress-related mental disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder or anxiety in which memory is affected.

  11. Aging and aerobic fitness affect the contribution of noradrenergic sympathetic nerves to the rapid cutaneous vasodilator response to local heating.

    PubMed

    Tew, Garry A; Saxton, John M; Klonizakis, Markos; Moss, James; Ruddock, Alan D; Hodges, Gary J

    2011-05-01

    Sedentary aging results in a diminished rapid cutaneous vasodilator response to local heating. We investigated whether this diminished response was due to altered contributions of noradrenergic sympathetic nerves by assessing 1) the age-related decline and 2) the effect of aerobic fitness. Using laser-Doppler flowmetry, we measured skin blood flow (SkBF) in young (24 ± 1 yr) and older (64 ± 1 yr) endurance-trained and sedentary men (n = 7 per group) at baseline and during 35 min of local skin heating to 42°C at 1) untreated forearm sites, 2) forearm sites treated with bretylium tosylate (BT), which prevents neurotransmitter release from noradrenergic sympathetic nerves, and 3) forearm sites treated with yohimbine + propranolol (YP), which antagonizes α- and β-adrenergic receptors. SkBF was converted to cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC = SkBF/mean arterial pressure) and normalized to maximal CVC (%CVC(max)) achieved by skin heating to 44°C. Pharmacological agents were administered using microdialysis. In the young trained group, the rapid vasodilator response was reduced at BT and YP sites (P < 0.05); by contrast, in the young sedentary and older trained groups, YP had no effect (P > 0.05), but BT did (P > 0.05). Neither BT nor YP affected the rapid vasodilator response in the older sedentary group (P > 0.05). These data suggest that the age-related reduction in the rapid vasodilator response is due to an impairment of sympathetic-dependent mechanisms, which can be partly attenuated with habitual aerobic exercise. Rapid vasodilation involves noradrenergic neurotransmitters in young trained men and nonadrenergic sympathetic cotransmitters (e.g., neuropeptide Y) in young sedentary and older trained men, possibly as a compensatory mechanism. Finally, in older sedentary men, the rapid vasodilation appears not to involve the sympathetic system.

  12. Noradrenergic stimulation modulates activation of extinction-related brain regions and enhances contextual extinction learning without affecting renewal

    PubMed Central

    Lissek, Silke; Glaubitz, Benjamin; Güntürkün, Onur; Tegenthoff, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Renewal in extinction learning describes the recovery of an extinguished response if the extinction context differs from the context present during acquisition and recall. Attention may have a role in contextual modulation of behavior and contribute to the renewal effect, while noradrenaline (NA) is involved in attentional processing. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study we investigated the role of the noradrenergic system for behavioral and brain activation correlates of contextual extinction and renewal, with a particular focus upon hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), which have crucial roles in processing of renewal. Healthy human volunteers received a single dose of the NA reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine prior to extinction learning. During extinction of previously acquired cue-outcome associations, cues were presented in a novel context (ABA) or in the acquisition context (AAA). In recall, all cues were again presented in the acquisition context. Atomoxetine participants (ATO) showed significantly faster extinction compared to placebo (PLAC). However, atomoxetine did not affect renewal. Hippocampal activation was higher in ATO during extinction and recall, as was ventromedial PFC activation, except for ABA recall. Moreover, ATO showed stronger recruitment of insula, anterior cingulate, and dorsolateral/orbitofrontal PFC. Across groups, cingulate, hippocampus and vmPFC activity during ABA extinction correlated with recall performance, suggesting high relevance of these regions for processing the renewal effect. In summary, the noradrenergic system appears to be involved in the modification of established associations during extinction learning and thus has a role in behavioral flexibility. The assignment of an association to a context and the subsequent decision on an adequate response, however, presumably operate largely independently of noradrenergic mechanisms. PMID:25745389

  13. Functional Connectome Analysis of Dopamine Neuron Glutamatergic Connections in Forebrain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Mingote, Susana; Chuhma, Nao; Kusnoor, Sheila V.; Field, Bianca; Deutch, Ariel Y.

    2015-01-01

    In the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a subpopulation of dopamine neurons express vesicular glutamate transporter 2 and make glutamatergic connections to nucleus accumbens (NAc) and olfactory tubercle (OT) neurons. However, their glutamatergic connections across the forebrain have not been explored systematically. To visualize dopamine neuron forebrain projections and to enable photostimulation of their axons independent of transmitter status, we virally transfected VTA neurons with channelrhodopsin-2 fused to enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (ChR2-EYFP) and used DATIREScre mice to restrict expression to dopamine neurons. ChR2-EYFP-expressing neurons almost invariably stained for tyrosine hydroxylase, identifying them as dopaminergic. Dopamine neuron axons visualized by ChR2-EYFP fluorescence projected most densely to the striatum, moderately to the amygdala and entorhinal cortex (ERC), sparsely to prefrontal and cingulate cortices, and rarely to the hippocampus. Guided by ChR2-EYFP fluorescence, we recorded systematically from putative principal neurons in target areas and determined the incidence and strength of glutamatergic connections by activating all dopamine neuron terminals impinging on recorded neurons with wide-field photostimulation. This revealed strong glutamatergic connections in the NAc, OT, and ERC; moderate strength connections in the central amygdala; and weak connections in the cingulate cortex. No glutamatergic connections were found in the dorsal striatum, hippocampus, basolateral amygdala, or prefrontal cortex. These results indicate that VTA dopamine neurons elicit widespread, but regionally distinct, glutamatergic signals in the forebrain and begin to define the dopamine neuron excitatory functional connectome. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Dopamine neurons are important for the control of motivated behavior and are involved in the pathophysiology of several major neuropsychiatric disorders. Recent studies have shown that some ventral midbrain

  14. PROJECTIONS FROM THE RAT CUNEIFORM NUCLEUS TO THE A7, A6 (LOCUS COERULEUS), AND A5 PONTINE NORADRENERGIC CELL GROUPS

    PubMed Central

    Bajic, Dusica; Proudfit, Herbert K.

    2013-01-01

    Stimulation of neurons in the cuneiform nucleus (CnF) produces antinociception and cardiovascular responses that could be mediated, in part, by noradrenergic neurons that innervate the spinal cord dorsal horn. The present study determined the projections of neurons in the CnF to the pontine noradrenergic neurons in the A5, A6 (locus coeruleus), and A7 cell groups that are known to project to the spinal cord. Injections of the anterograde tracer, biotinylated dextran amine in the CnF of Sasco Sprague-Dawley rats labeled axons located near noradrenergic neurons that were visualized by processing tissue sections for tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactivity. Anterogradely-labeled axons were more dense on the side ipsilateral to the BDA deposit. Both A7 and A5 cell groups received dense projections from neurons in the CnF, whereas locus coeruleus received only a sparse projection. Highly varicose anterogradely-labeled axons from the CnF were found in close apposition to dendrites and somata of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in pontine tegmentum. Although definitive evidence for direct pathways from CnF neurons to the pontine noradrenergic cell groups requires ultrastructural analysis, the results of the present studies provide presumptive evidence of direct projections from neurons in the CnF to the pontine noradrenergic neurons of the A7, locus coeruleus, and A5 cell groups. These results support the suggestion that the analgesia and cardiovascular responses produced by stimulation of neurons in the CnF may be mediated, in part, by pontine noradrenergic neurons. PMID:23524296

  15. Modulation of learning and memory by the targeted deletion of the circadian clock gene Bmal1 in forebrain circuits.

    PubMed

    Snider, Kaitlin H; Dziema, Heather; Aten, Sydney; Loeser, Jacob; Norona, Frances E; Hoyt, Kari; Obrietan, Karl

    2016-07-15

    A large body of literature has shown that the disruption of circadian clock timing has profound effects on mood, memory and complex thinking. Central to this time keeping process is the master circadian pacemaker located within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Of note, within the central nervous system, clock timing is not exclusive to the SCN, but rather, ancillary oscillatory capacity has been detected in a wide range of cell types and brain regions, including forebrain circuits that underlie complex cognitive processes. These observations raise questions about the hierarchical and functional relationship between the SCN and forebrain oscillators, and, relatedly, about the underlying clock-gated synaptic circuitry that modulates cognition. Here, we utilized a clock knockout strategy in which the essential circadian timing gene Bmal1 was selectively deleted from excitatory forebrain neurons, whilst the SCN clock remained intact, to test the role of forebrain clock timing in learning, memory, anxiety, and behavioral despair. With this model system, we observed numerous effects on hippocampus-dependent measures of cognition. Mice lacking forebrain Bmal1 exhibited deficits in both acquisition and recall on the Barnes maze. Notably, loss of forebrain Bmal1 abrogated time-of-day dependent novel object location memory. However, the loss of Bmal1 did not alter performance on the elevated plus maze, open field assay, and tail suspension test, indicating that this phenotype specifically impairs cognition but not affect. Together, these data suggest that forebrain clock timing plays a critical role in shaping the efficiency of learning and memory retrieval over the circadian day.

  16. Effects of lesioning noradrenergic neurones in the locus coeruleus on conditioned and unconditioned aversive behaviour in the rat.

    PubMed

    Neophytou, S I; Aspley, S; Butler, S; Beckett, S; Marsden, C A

    2001-08-01

    1. The brain noradrenergic system may have a role in anxiety disorder. This study has examined the effect of bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the noradrenergic neurones in the locus coeruleus (LC) of male Lister hooded rats on behaviour produced by unconditioned and conditioned aversive stimuli. 2. The 6-hydroxydopamine (4 microg) lesions markedly reduced the noradrenaline content of the locus coeruleus hypothalamus, frontal cortex and the periaqueductal grey area without altering the levels of either dopamine or 5-hydroxytryptamine measured 14 days after administration. 3. Exposure to ultrasound (20 kHz at 98 dB for 60 sec), an unconditioned aversive stimulus, induced a defence response in the rats characterised by an increase in activity (running and jumping) followed by a period of inactivity (freezing). 4. Lesioning of the LC significantly attenuated the duration of freezing but was without effect on the active phase of the response. A similar reduction in freezing behaviour was seen with LC lesions when rats were exposed (3 hours after the acquisition) to the contextual cue of the conditioned emotion response paradigm. 5. These findings confirm that the locus coeruleus is involved in the regulation of fear-related behaviour in the rat both in an unconditioned and a conditioned model. Furthermore the results indicate that noradrenaline modifies defence behaviour rather than being the principle activating mechanism.

  17. DSP-4, a noradrenergic neurotoxin, produces sex-specific effects on pairing and courtship behavior in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Vahaba, Daniel M; Lacey, William H; Tomaszycki, Michelle L

    2013-09-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) is involved in a variety of behaviors across vertebrate species. In songbirds, NE is involved in singing and auditory perception, fundamental components of pair formation. Mechanisms of pairing remain poorly understood in avian species. NE is likely involved given its role in vocal communication and perception. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DSP-4 treatments (a noradrenergic neurotoxin that decreases NE) decreases singing in males, song perception in females and pairing in both sexes using a naturalistic paradigm. Females were tested for preferences of either control or DSP-4 males in a two-choice paradigm using live males. Both sexes were then tested for courtship and pair formation in aviaries. In the two-choice paradigm, control females showed a significant preference for control males over DSP-4 males, whereas DSP-4 females showed no such preference. In the aviary tests, DSP-4 males engaged in less courtship behavior, showed decreased pairing behaviors and increased pair latencies compared to control males. In females, DSP-4 treatments did not alter courtship or pairing behavior. Lower neural densities of noradrenergic fibers in song, auditory, and affiliative regions were observed in DSP-4 animals of both sexes. Furthermore, DBH-ir densities in these regions explained variations in courtship and pairing behaviors, as well as pairing status. Our results extend previous findings to naturalistic contexts, provide evidence that DBH-ir densities in specific regions correlate with pairing-related behaviors, and inform us of sex differences in the role of NE in pairing.

  18. Cholinergic, but not dopaminergic or noradrenergic, enhancement sharpens visual spatial perception in humans.

    PubMed

    Gratton, Caterina; Yousef, Sahar; Aarts, Esther; Wallace, Deanna L; D'Esposito, Mark; Silver, Michael A

    2017-03-23

    unknown. Here we demonstrate that cholinergic enhancement improves detection of a target flanked by distractors, consistent with sharpened visuospatial perceptual representations. Furthermore, while most pharmacological studies focus on a single neurotransmitter, many neuromodulators can have related effects on cognition and perception. Thus, we also demonstrate that enhancing noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems does not systematically improve visuospatial perception or alter its tuning. Our results link visuospatial tuning effects of acetylcholine at the neuronal and perceptual levels and provide insights into the connection between cholinergic signaling and visual attention.

  19. Vocal matching and intensity of begging calls are associated with a forebrain song circuit in a generalist brood parasite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wan-Chun; Rivers, James W; White, David J

    2016-06-01

    Vocalizations produced by developing young early in life have simple acoustic features and are thought to be innate. Complex forms of early vocal learning are less likely to evolve in young altricial songbirds because the forebrain vocal-learning circuit is underdeveloped during the period when early vocalizations are produced. However, selective pressure experienced in early postnatal life may lead to early vocal learning that is likely controlled by a simpler brain circuit. We found the food begging calls produced by fledglings of the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), a generalist avian brood parasite, induced the expression of several immediate early genes and early circuit innervation in a forebrain vocal-motor pathway that is later used for vocal imitation. The forebrain neural activity was correlated with vocal intensity and variability of begging calls that appears to allow cowbirds to vocally match host nestmates. The begging-induced forebrain circuits we observed in fledgling cowbirds were not detected in nonparasitic passerines, including species that are close relatives to the cowbird. The involvement of forebrain vocal circuits during fledgling begging and its association with vocal learning plasticity may be an adaptation that provides young generalist brood parasites with a flexible signaling strategy to procure food from a wide range of heterospecific host parents.

  20. POSTSYNAPTIC TARGETS OF GABAERGIC BASAL FOREBRAIN PROJECTIONS TO THE BASOLATERAL AMYGDALA

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, A. J.; Muller, J. F.; Mascagni, F.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the basolateral amygdala, like the neocortex and hippocampus, receives GABAergic inputs from the basal forebrain in addition to the well-established cholinergic inputs. Since the neuronal targets of these inputs have yet to be determined, it is difficult to predict the functional significance of this innervation. The present study addressed this question in the rat by employing anterograde tract tracing combined with immunohistochemistry at the light and electron microscopic levels of analysis. Amygdalopetal axons from the basal forebrain mainly targeted the basolateral nucleus (BL) of the amygdala. The morphology of these axons was heterogeneous and included GABAergic axons that contained vesicular GABA transporter protein (VGAT). These axons, designated type 1, exhibited distinctive large axonal varicosities that were typically clustered along the length of the axon. Type 1 axons formed multiple contacts with the cell bodies and dendrites of parvalbumin-containing (PV+) interneurons, but relatively few contacts with calretinin-containing and somatostatin-containing interneurons. At the ultrastructural level of analysis, the large terminals of type 1 axons exhibited numerous mitochondria and were densely packed with synaptic vesicles. Individual terminals formed broad symmetrical synapses with BL PV+ interneurons, and often formed additional symmetrical synapses with BL pyramidal cells. Some solitary type 1 terminals formed symmetrical synapses solely with BL pyramidal cells. These results suggest that GABAergic neurons of the basal forebrain provide indirect disinhibition, as well as direct inhibition, of BL pyramidal neurons. The possible involvement of these circuits in rhythmic oscillations related to emotional learning, attention, and arousal is discussed. PMID:21435381

  1. Regulatory interactions of stress and reward on rat forebrain opioidergic and GABAergic circuitry.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, A M; Herman, J P; Ulrich-Lai, Y M

    2011-03-01

    Palatable food intake reduces stress responses, suggesting that individuals may consume such ?comfort? food as self-medication for stress relief. The mechanism by which palatable foods provide stress relief is not known, but likely lies at the intersection of forebrain reward and stress regulatory circuits. Forebrain opioidergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid ergic signaling is critical for both reward and stress regulation, suggesting that these systems are prime candidates for mediating stress relief by palatable foods. Thus, the present study (1) determines how palatable ?comfort? food alters stress-induced changes in the mRNA expression of inhibitory neurotransmitters in reward and stress neurocircuitry and (2) identifies candidate brain regions that may underlie comfort food-mediated stress reduction. We used a model of palatable ?snacking? in combination with a model of chronic variable stress followed by in situ hybridization to determine forebrain levels of pro-opioid and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) mRNA. The data identify regions within the extended amygdala, striatum, and hypothalamus as potential regions for mediating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis buffering following palatable snacking. Specifically, palatable snacking alone decreased pro-enkephalin-A (ENK) mRNA expression in the anterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the nucleus accumbens, and decreased GAD65 mRNA in the posterior BST. Chronic stress alone increased ENK mRNA in the hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and hippocampus; increased dynorphin mRNA in the nucleus accumbens; increased GAD65 mRNA in the anterior hypothalamus and BST; and decreased GAD65 mRNA in the dorsal hypothalamus. Importantly, palatable food intake prevented stress-induced gene expression changes in subregions of the hypothalamus, BST, and nucleus accumbens. Overall, these data suggest that complex interactions exist between brain reward and stress pathways and that palatable snacking can

  2. Neurotrophic Factors Rescue Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons and Improve Performance on a Spatial Learning Test

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Shang; Danandeh, Andalib; Baratta, Janie; Lin, Ching-Yi; Yu, Jen; Robertson, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether animals sustaining experimental damage to the basal forebrain cholinergic system would benefit from treatment with exogenous neurotrophic factors. Specifically, we set out to determine whether neurotrophic factors would rescue damaged cholinergic neurons and improve behavioral performance on a spatial learning and memory task. Adult rats received bilateral injections of either saline (controls) or 192 IgG-saporin to damage basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs). Two weeks later, animals received implants of an Alzet mini-pump connected to cannulae implanted bilaterally in the lateral ventricles. Animals received infusions of nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3), a combination of NGF and NT3, or a saline control over a 4-week period. Compared to saline-treated controls, animals sustaining saporin-induced damage to BFCNs took significantly more trials to learn a delayed match to position task and also performed more poorly on subsequent tests, with increasing delays between test runs. In contrast, animals infused with neurotrophins after saporin treatment performed significantly better than animals receiving saline infusions; no differences were detected for performance scores among animals infused with NGF, NT3, or a combination of NGF and NT3. Studies of ChAT immunnocytochemical labeling of BFCNs revealed a reduction in the numbers of ChAT-positive neurons in septum, nucleus of diagonal band, and nucleus basalis in animals treated with saporin followed by saline infusions, whereas animals treated with infusions of NGF, NT3 or a combination of NGF and NT3 showed only modest reductions in ChAT-positive neurons. Together, these data support the notion that administration of neurotrophic factors can rescue basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and improve learning and memory performance in rats. PMID:24017996

  3. Neurotrophic factors rescue basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and improve performance on a spatial learning test.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Shang; Danandeh, Andalib; Baratta, Janie; Lin, Ching-Yi; Yu, Jen; Robertson, Richard T

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated whether animals sustaining experimental damage to the basal forebrain cholinergic system would benefit from treatment with exogenous neurotrophic factors. Specifically, we set out to determine whether neurotrophic factors would rescue damaged cholinergic neurons and improve behavioral performance on a spatial learning and memory task. Adult rats received bilateral injections of either saline (controls) or 192 IgG-saporin to damage basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs). Two weeks later, animals received implants of an Alzet mini-pump connected to cannulae implanted bilaterally in the lateral ventricles. Animals received infusions of nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3), a combination of NGF and NT3, or a saline control over a 4-week period. Compared to saline-treated controls, animals sustaining saporin-induced damage to BFCNs took significantly more trials to learn a delayed match to position task and also performed more poorly on subsequent tests, with increasing delays between test runs. In contrast, animals infused with neurotrophins after saporin treatment performed significantly better than animals receiving saline infusions; no differences were detected for performance scores among animals infused with NGF, NT3, or a combination of NGF and NT3. Studies of ChAT immunnocytochemical labeling of BFCNs revealed a reduction in the numbers of ChAT-positive neurons in septum, nucleus of diagonal band, and nucleus basalis in animals treated with saporin followed by saline infusions, whereas animals treated with infusions of NGF, NT3 or a combination of NGF and NT3 showed only modest reductions in ChAT-positive neurons. Together, these data support the notion that administration of neurotrophic factors can rescue basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and improve learning and memory performance in rats.

  4. Midline signaling and evolution of the forebrain in chordates: a focus on the lamprey Hedgehog case.

    PubMed

    Rétaux, Sylvie; Kano, Shungo

    2010-07-01

    Lampreys are agnathans (vertebrates without jaws). They occupy a key phylogenetic position in the emergence of novelties and in the diversification of morphology at the dawn of vertebrates. We have used lampreys to investigate the possibility that embryonic midline signaling systems have been a driving force for the evolution of the forebrain in vertebrates. We have focused on Sonic Hedgehog/Hedgehog (Shh/Hh) signaling. In this article, we first review and summarize our recent work on the comparative analysis of embryonic expression patterns for Shh/Hh, together with Fgf8 (fibroblast growth factor 8) and Wnt (wingless-Int) pathway components, in the embryonic lamprey forebrain. Comparison with nonvertebrate chordates on one hand, and jawed vertebrates on the other hand, shows that these morphogens/growth factors acquired new expression domains in the most rostral part of the neural tube in lampreys compared to nonvertebrate chordates, and in jawed vertebrates compared to lampreys. These data are consistent with the idea that changes in Shh, Fgf8 or Wnt signaling in the course of evolution have been instrumental for the emergence and diversification of the telencephalon, a part of the forebrain that is unique to vertebrates. We have then used comparative genomics on Shh/Hh loci to identify commonalities and differences in noncoding regulatory sequences across species and phyla. Conserved noncoding elements (CNEs) can be detected in lamprey Hh introns, even though they display unique structural features and need adjustments of parameters used for in silico alignments to be detected, because of lamprey-specific properties of the genome. The data also show conservation of a ventral midline enhancer located in Shh/Hh intron 2 of all chordates, the very species which possess a notochord and a floor plate, but not in earlier emerged deuterostomes or protostomes. These findings exemplify how the Shh/Hh locus is one of the best loci to study genome evolution with regards to

  5. Regional glucose utilization and blood flow following graded forebrain ischemia in the rat: correlation with neuropathology

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, M.D.; Graham, D.I.; Busto, R.

    1985-10-01

    Regional patterns of cerebral glucose utilization (rCMRglc) and blood flow (rCBF) were examined in the early recovery period following transient forebrain ischemia in order to correlate early postischemic physiological events with regionally selective patterns of ischemic neuropathology. Wistar rats were subjected to 30 or 60 minutes of graded forebrain ischemia by a method combining unilateral occlusion of the common carotid artery with moderate elevation of intracranial pressure and mild hypotension; this procedure results in a high-grade ischemic deficit affecting chiefly the lateral neocortex, striatum, and hippocampus ipsilateral to the carotid occlusion. Simultaneous measurements of rCMRglc and rCBF made in regional tissue samples after 2 and 4 hours of postischemic recirculation using a double-tracer radioisotopic strategy revealed a disproportionately high level of glucose metabolism relative to blood flow in the early postischemic striatum, owing to the resumption of nearly normal rCMRglc in the face of depressed flow. In contrast, the neocortex, which had been equally ischemic, showed parallel depressions of both metabolism and blood flow during early recovery. Light microscopy at 4 and 8 hours after recovery revealed the striatum to be the predominant locus of ischemic neuronal alterations, whereas neocortical lesions were much less prominent in extent and severity at this time. The resumption of normal levels of metabolism in the setting of a disproportionate depression of rCBF in the early postischemic period may accentuate the process of neuronal injury initiated by ischemia and may contribute to the genesis of neuronal necrosis in selectively vulnerable areas of the forebrain.

  6. HVC lesions modify immediate early gene expression in auditory forebrain regions of female songbirds.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Kathleen S; Kleitz-Nelson, Hayley K; Ball, Gregory F

    2013-04-01

    It is well established that auditory forebrain regions of oscine birds are essential for the encoding of species-typical songs and are, therefore, vital for recognition of song during sociosexual interactions. Regions such as the caudal medial nidopallium (NCM) and the caudal medial mesopallium (CMM) are involved in perceptual processing of song and the formation of auditory memories. There is an additional telencephalic nucleus, however, that has also been implicated in species recognition. This nucleus is HVC, a prominent nucleus that sits at the apex of the song system, and is well known for its critical role in song learning and song production in male songbirds. Here, we explore the functional relationship between auditory forebrain regions (i.e., NCM and CMM) and HVC in female canaries (Serinus canaria). We lesion HVC and examine immediate early gene responses to conspecific song presentation within CMM and NCM to explore whether HVC can modulate auditory responses within these forebrain regions. Our results reveal robust deficits in ZENK-ir in CMM and NCM of HVC-lesioned females when compared with control- and sham-lesioned females, indicating that functional connections exists between HVC and NCM/CMM. Although these connected regions have been implicated in song learning and production in males, they likely serve distinct functions in female songbirds that face the task of song recognition rather than song production. Identifying functional connections between HVC and auditory regions involved in song perception is an essential step toward developing a comprehensive understanding of the neural basis of song recognition.

  7. Infanticide in Limbic (?) Psychotic Trigger Reaction in a man with jacksonian and petit mal (?) seizures: "kindling" by traumatic experiences.

    PubMed

    Pontius, A A

    1990-12-01

    A tenth case (a subtype of complex partial seizures) is proposed as a Limbic (?) Psychotic Trigger Reaction. Upon crying, an infant girl was hit fatally by her devoted father while he was off anticonvulsants prescribed for Jacksonian and petit mal (?) seizures with "porencephalic cyst involving motor cortex and limbic system." Crying revived traumatic memories of frequently repeated ("kindling") experiences of his mother crying when hit by his father, in turn sometimes hit by patient while helping the mother. Hitting also had been helpful (cognitive mismatch between helpful and harmful hitting) during the victim's accidental choking 11 days earlier. This had occurred on the same day his distant mother died. Two days later he attempted suicide with anticonvulsants. Symptoms of the well remembered, unmotivated infanticide included flat affect, olfactory and command hallucinations, and delusions of grandeur (his mother leaving him millions and power).

  8. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) exposure could modify the dopaminergic system in several limbic brain regions.

    PubMed

    Salgado, R; López-Doval, S; Pereiro, N; Lafuente, A

    2016-01-05

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is the most representative of a rising class of persistent organic pollutants perfluorochemicals. In the present study, its neurotoxicity was examined using adult male rats orally treated with 0.5; 1.0; 3.0 and 6.0 mg of PFOS/kg/day for 28 days. At the end of the treatment, the dopamine concentration and its metabolism expressed like the ratio 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC)/dopamine and homovanillic acid (HVA)/dopamine were measured in the amygdala, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Gene and protein expression of the dopamine receptors D1 and D2 were also determined in these limbic areas. The obtained results suggest that: (1) PFOS can alter the dopamine system by modifying its neuronal activity and/or its D1 and D2 receptors in the studied brain regions; (2) the dopamine concentration and metabolism seem to be more sensitive against PFOS toxicity in the hippocampus than in the other analyzed brain areas; (3) the inhibited gene and protein expression of the D1 receptors induced by PFOS in the amygdala could be related to several changes in the HPA axis activity, and lastly; (4) the observed alterations on the dopamine system induced by PFOS could be a possible neurotoxicity mechanism of PFOS, leading to many neurological diseases.

  9. Early neuronal responses in right limbic structures mediate harmony incongruity processing in musical experts.

    PubMed

    James, Clara E; Britz, Juliane; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Hauert, Claude-Alain; Michel, Christoph M

    2008-10-01

    In western tonal music, musical phrases end with an explicit harmonic consequent which is highly expected. As such expectation is a consequence of musical background, cerebral processing of incongruities of musical grammar might be a function of expertise. We hypothesized that a subtle incongruity of standard closure should evoke a profound and rapid reaction in an expert's brain. If such a reaction is due to neuroplasticity as a consequence of musical training, it should be correlated with distinctive activations in sensory, motor and/or cognitive function related brain areas in response to the incongruent closure. Using event related potential (ERP) source imaging, we determined the temporal dynamics of neuronal activity in highly trained pianists and musical laymen in response to syntactic harmonic incongruities in expressive music, which were easily detected by the experts but not by the laymen. Our results revealed that closure incongruity evokes a selective early response in musical experts, characterized by a strong, right lateralized negative ERP component. Statistical source analysis could demonstrate putative contribution to the generation of this component in right temporal-limbic areas, encompassing hippocampal complex and amygdala, and in right insula. Its early onset (approximately 200 ms) preceded responses in frontal areas that may reflect more conscious processing. These results go beyond previous work demonstrating that musical training can change activity of sensory and motor areas during musical or audio-motor tasks, and suggest that functional plasticity in right medial-temporal structures and insula also modulates processing of subtle harmonic incongruities.

  10. Chemosensory danger detection in the human brain: Body odor communicating aggression modulates limbic system activation.

    PubMed

    Mutic, Smiljana; Brünner, Yvonne F; Rodriguez-Raecke, Rea; Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica

    2017-02-28

    Although the sense of smell is involved in numerous survival functions, the processing of body odor emitted by dangerous individuals is far from understood. The aim of the study was to explore how human fight chemosignals communicating aggression can alter brain activation related to an attentional bias and danger detection. While the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was seen involved in processing threat-related emotional information, danger detection and error evaluation, it still remains unknown whether human chemosignals communicating aggression can potentially modulate this activation. In the fMRI experiment, healthy male and female normosmic odor recipients (n=18) completed a higher-order processing task (emotional Stroop task with the word categories anger, anxiety, happiness and neutral) while exposed to aggression and exercise chemosignals (collected from a different group of healthy male donors; n=16). Our results provide first evidence that aggression chemosignals induce a time-sensitive attentional bias in chemosensory danger detection and modulate limbic system activation. During exposure to aggression chemosignals compared to exercise chemosignals, functional imaging data indicates an enhancement of thalamus, hypothalamus and insula activation (p<.05, FWE-corrected). Together with the thalamus, the ACC was seen activated in response to threat-related words (p<.001). Chemosensory priming and habituation to body odor signals are discussed.

  11. Effects of adrenal cortex hormones on limbic structures: some experimental and clinical correlations related to depression.

    PubMed Central

    Dubrovsky, B

    1993-01-01

    Cushing's disorder and depression present overlapping although not identical psychological symptomatology. In turn, a subset of patients with affective disorders present with hypercortisolemia and disturbances, specifically disinhibition, of the hypothalamic hypophysio adrenal axis (HHAA). Memory disturbances, in particular, biasing toward negative contents, overlapping sleep abnormalities (marked reduction of stages 3 and 4) increased fatigue and loss of energy, attentional deficits and irritability, are just part of the common symptomatology presented by patients with both Cushing's disorder and depression. All of these behavioral manifestations are known to be affected by adrenal steroid hormones. There is consensus that hippocampal structures are a main target for adrenal steroid hormones; hence, these neural regions are some of the most likely mediators of the effects of corticoadrenal steroids on behavior. This paper proposes that an imbalance of adrenal steroids and their metabolites may play a fundamental role in the psychophysiopathology of Cushing's and depressive disorders. The imbalance of these hormones, especially at limbic sites, could distort mood and memory content affecting cognition based on recollection and present experiences. Reestablishing an adrenal balance could therefore be considered as a therapeutic aid in a subset of depressive disorders. PMID:8461280

  12. Spatial learning-related changes in metabolic activity of limbic structures at different posttask delays.

    PubMed

    Méndez-López, M; Méndez, M; Sampedro-Piquero, P; Arias, J L

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the functional contribution of brain limbic system regions at different moments after the acquisition of a short-term spatial memory task performed in the Morris water maze. Adult male Wistar rats were submitted to a matching-to-sample procedure with a hidden platform. The trials were made up of two daily identical visits to the platform, sample (swim-1) and retention (swim-2). To study oxidative metabolic activity, we applied cytochrome oxidase (COx) histochemistry. Densitometric measurements were taken at 1.5, 6, 24, and 48 hr posttask. An untrained group was added to explore the COx changes not specific to the learning process. The brain regions studied showed a different pattern of metabolic activity at different time points after the spatial memory task. Specifically, a significant increase of COx was found in the septal dentate gyrus, anteromedial thalamus, medial mammillary nucleus, and entorhinal cortex at early moments after learning. The entorhinal cortex maintained an increase of COx at later stages of the posttask period. In addition, an increase of COx activity was found in the supramammillary nucleus and the retrosplenial, perirhinal, and parietal cortices a long time after learning. These findings suggest that diencephalic and cortical regions are involved in this spatial learning and contribute at different moments to process this information.

  13. Increased Functional Activation of Limbic Brain Regions during Negative Emotional Processing in Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sophie L.; Veggeberg, Rosanna; Lemme, Jordan; Hodkinson, Duncan J.; Scrivani, Steven; Burstein, Rami; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2016-01-01

    Pain is both an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience. This is highly relevant in migraine where cortical hyperexcitability in response to sensory stimuli (including pain, light, and sound) has been extensively reported. However, migraine may feature a more general enhanced response to aversive stimuli rather than being sensory-specific. To this end we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess neural activation in migraineurs interictaly in response to emotional visual stimuli from the International Affective Picture System. Migraineurs, compared to healthy controls, demonstrated increased neural activity in response to negative emotional stimuli. Most notably in regions overlapping in their involvement in both nociceptive and emotional processing including the posterior cingulate, caudate, amygdala, and thalamus (cluster corrected, p < 0.01). In contrast, migraineurs and healthy controls displayed no and minimal differences in response to positive and neutral emotional stimuli, respectively. These findings support the notion that migraine may feature more generalized altered cerebral processing of aversive/negative stimuli, rather than exclusively to sensory stimuli. A generalized hypersensitivity to aversive stimuli may be an inherent feature of migraine, or a consequential alteration developed over the duration of the disease. This proposed cortical-limbic hypersensitivity may form an important part of the migraine pathophysiology, including psychological comorbidity, and may represent an innate sensitivity to aversive stimuli that underpins attack triggers, attack persistence and (potentially) gradual headache chronification. PMID:27507939

  14. Cannabinoid modulation of prefrontal-limbic activation during fear extinction learning and recall in humans.

    PubMed

    Rabinak, Christine A; Angstadt, Mike; Lyons, Maryssa; Mori, Shoko; Milad, Mohammed R; Liberzon, Israel; Phan, K Luan

    2014-09-01

    Pre-extinction administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) facilitates recall of extinction in healthy humans, and evidence from animal studies suggest that this likely occurs via enhancement of the cannabinoid system within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus (HIPP), brain structures critical to fear extinction. However, the effect of cannabinoids on the underlying neural circuitry of extinction memory recall in humans has not been demonstrated. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design (N=14/group) coupled with a standard Pavlovian fear extinction paradigm and an acute pharmacological challenge with oral dronabinol (synthetic THC) in healthy adult volunteers. We examined the effects of THC on vmPFC and HIPP activation when tested for recall of extinction learning 24 h after extinction learning. Compared to subjects who received placebo, participants who received THC showed increased vmPFC and HIPP activation to a previously extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS+E) during extinction memory recall. This study provides the first evidence that pre-extinction administration of THC modulates prefrontal-limbic circuits during fear extinction in humans and prompts future investigation to test if cannabinoid agonists can rescue or correct the impaired behavioral and neural function during extinction recall in patients with PTSD. Ultimately, the cannabinoid system may serve as a promising target for innovative intervention strategies (e.g. pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based therapy) in PTSD and other fear learning-related disorders.

  15. Interaction between basal ganglia and limbic circuits in learning and memory processes.

    PubMed

    Calabresi, Paolo; Picconi, Barbara; Tozzi, Alessandro; Ghiglieri, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampus and striatum play distinctive roles in memory processes since declarative and non-declarative memory systems may act independently. However, hippocampus and striatum can also be engaged to function in parallel as part of a dynamic system to integrate previous experience and adjust behavioral responses. In these structures the formation, storage, and retrieval of memory require a synaptic mechanism that is able to integrate multiple signals and to translate them into persistent molecular traces at both the corticostriatal and hippocampal/limbic synapses. The best cellular candidate for this complex synthesis is represented by long-term potentiation (LTP). A common feature of LTP expressed in these two memory systems is the critical requirement of convergence and coincidence of glutamatergic and dopaminergic inputs to the dendritic spines of the neurons expressing this form of synaptic plasticity. In experimental models of Parkinson's disease abnormal accumulation of α-synuclein affects these two memory systems by altering two major synaptic mechanisms underlying cognitive functions in cholinergic striatal neurons, likely implicated in basal ganglia dependent operative memory, and in the CA1 hippocampal region, playing a central function in episodic/declarative memory processes.

  16. Aberrant supplementary motor complex and limbic activity during motor preparation in motor conversion disorder.

    PubMed

    Voon, Valerie; Brezing, Christina; Gallea, Cecile; Hallett, Mark

    2011-11-01

    Conversion disorder (CD) is characterized by unexplained neurological symptoms presumed related to psychological issues. The main hypotheses to explain conversion paralysis, characterized by a lack of movement, include impairments in either motor intention or disruption of motor execution, and further, that hyperactive self-monitoring, limbic processing or top-down regulation from higher order frontal regions may interfere with motor execution. We have recently shown that CD with positive abnormal or excessive motor symptoms was associated with greater amygdala activity to arousing stimuli along with greater functional connectivity between the amygdala and supplementary motor area. Here we studied patients with such symptoms focusing on motor initiation. Subjects performed either an internally or externally generated 2-button action selection task in a functional MRI study. Eleven CD patients without major depression and 11 age- and gender-matched normal volunteers were assessed. During both internally and externally generated movement, conversion disorder patients relative to normal volunteers had lower left supplementary motor area (SMA) (implicated in motor initiation) and higher right amygdala, left anterior insula, and bilateral posterior cingulate activity (implicated in assigning emotional salience). These findings were confirmed in a subgroup analysis of patients with tremor symptoms. During internally versus externally generated action in CD patients, the left SMA had lower functional connectivity with bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. We propose a theory in which previously mapped conversion motor representations may in an arousing context hijack the voluntary action selection system, which is both hypoactive and functionally disconnected from prefrontal top-down regulation.

  17. Citicoline Affects Appetite and Cortico-Limbic Responses to Images of High Calorie Foods

    PubMed Central

    Killgore, William D. S.; Ross, Amy J.; Kamiya, Toshi; Kawada, Yoko; Renshaw, Perry F.; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Cytidine-5’-diphosphocholine (citicoline) has a variety of cognitive enhancing, neuroprotective, and neuroregenerative properties. In cocaine-addicted individuals, citicoline has been shown to increase brain dopamine levels and reduce cravings. The effects of this compound on appetite, food cravings, and brain responses to food are unknown. We compared the effects of treatment with citicoline (500 mg/day versus 2000 mg/day) for six weeks on changes in appetite ratings, weight, and cortico-limbic responses to images of high calorie foods using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). After six weeks, there was no significant change in weight status, although significant declines in appetite ratings were observed for the 2000 mg/day group. The higher dose group also showed significant increases in functional brain responses to food stimuli within the amygdala, insula, and lateral orbitofrontal cortex. Increased activation in these regions correlated with declines in appetite ratings. These preliminary findings suggest a potential usefulness of citicoline in modulating appetite, but further research is warranted. PMID:19260039

  18. Mutation of Semaphorin-6A disrupts limbic and cortical connectivity and models neurodevelopmental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Rünker, Annette E; O'Tuathaigh, Colm; Dunleavy, Mark; Morris, Derek W; Little, Graham E; Corvin, Aiden P; Gill, Michael; Henshall, David C; Waddington, John L; Mitchell, Kevin J

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism are characterised by cellular disorganisation and dysconnectivity across the brain and can be caused by mutations in genes that control neurodevelopmental processes. To examine how neurodevelopmental defects can affect brain function and behaviour, we have comprehensively investigated the consequences of mutation of one such gene, Semaphorin-6A, on cellular organisation, axonal projection patterns, behaviour and physiology in mice. These analyses reveal a spectrum of widespread but subtle anatomical defects in Sema6A mutants, notably in limbic and cortical cellular organisation, lamination and connectivity. These mutants display concomitant alterations in the electroencephalogram and hyper-exploratory behaviour, which are characteristic of models of psychosis and reversible by the antipsychotic clozapine. They also show altered social interaction and deficits in object recognition and working memory. Mice with mutations in Sema6A or the interacting genes may thus represent a highly informative model for how neurodevelopmental defects can lead to anatomical dysconnectivity, resulting, either directly or through reactive mechanisms, in dysfunction at the level of neuronal networks with associated behavioural phenotypes of relevance to psychiatric disorders. The biological data presented here also make these genes plausible candidates to explain human linkage findings for schizophrenia and autism.

  19. Repeated interactions with females elevate metabolic capacity in the limbic system of male rats.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Jon T; Gonzalez-Lima, F; Gupta, Ajay; Crews, David

    2002-05-17

    The effect of heterosexual social experience on brain metabolic capacity was investigated by measuring the activity of cytochrome oxidase, a rate-limiting enzyme in oxidative metabolism. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were kept naïve or allowed to copulate with receptive females three (3 F males) or 16 times (16 F males). Throughout the vomeronasal system and other limbic areas, 16 F males had elevated metabolic capacity relative to naïve and 3 F males, whereas no significant differences in brain metabolism were found between 3 F and naïve males. Behavioral differences were also found between 3 F and 16 F males. In a second experiment, we assessed differences in brain metabolism between sexually active and inactive males given only one opportunity to copulate and found no significant difference in neural metabolism between these males. This suggests that the differences found in the first experiment were primarily driven by differences in repeated experience rather than by sexual performance between 16 F and 3 F males. We speculate that these changes in brain metabolic capacity could be related to immediate early gene expression during copulation and could underlie the long-term behavioral changes accompanying heterosexual social experience.

  20. Atypical nucleus accumbens morphology in psychopathy: another limbic piece in the puzzle.

    PubMed

    Boccardi, Marina; Bocchetta, Martina; Aronen, Hannu J; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila; Vaurio, Olli; Thompson, Paul M; Tiihonen, Jari; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathy has been associated with increased putamen and striatum volumes. The nucleus accumbens - a key structure in reversal learning, less effective in psychopathy - has not yet received specific attention. Moreover, basal ganglia morphology has never been explored. We examined the morphology of the caudate, putamen and accumbens, manually segmented from magnetic resonance images of 26 offenders (age: 32.5 ± 8.4) with medium-high psychopathy (mean PCL-R=30 ± 5) and 25 healthy controls (age: 34.6 ± 10.8). Local differences were statistically modeled using a surface-based radial distance mapping method (p<0.05; multiple comparisons correction through permutation tests). In psychopathy, the caudate and putamen had normal global volume, but different morphology, significant after correction for multiple comparisons, for the right dorsal putamen (permutation test: p=0.02). The volume of the nucleus accumbens was 13% smaller in psychopathy (p corrected for multiple comparisons <0.006). The atypical morphology consisted of predominant anterior hypotrophy bilaterally (10-30%). Caudate and putamen local morphology displayed negative correlation with the lifestyle factor of the PCL-R (permutation test: p=0.05 and 0.03). From these data, psychopathy appears to be associated with an atypical striatal morphology, with highly significant global and local differences of the accumbens. This is consistent with the clinical syndrome and with theories of limbic involvement.

  1. Characterizing the Input-Output Function of the Olfactory-Limbic Pathway in the Guinea Pig.

    PubMed

    Breschi, Gian Luca; Ciliberto, Carlo; Nieus, Thierry; Rosasco, Lorenzo; Taverna, Stefano; Chiappalone, Michela; Pasquale, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the neuroscientific community is taking more and more advantage of the continuous interaction between engineers and computational neuroscientists in order to develop neuroprostheses aimed at replacing damaged brain areas with artificial devices. To this end, a technological effort is required to develop neural network models which can be fed with the recorded electrophysiological patterns to yield the correct brain stimulation to recover the desired functions. In this paper we present a machine learning approach to derive the input-output function of the olfactory-limbic pathway in the in vitro whole brain of guinea pig, less complex and more controllable than an in vivo system. We first experimentally characterized the neuronal pathway by delivering different sets of electrical stimuli from the lateral olfactory tract (LOT) and by recording the corresponding responses in the lateral entorhinal cortex (l-ERC). As a second step, we used information theory to evaluate how much information output features carry about the input. Finally we used the acquired data to learn the LOT-l-ERC "I/O function," by means of the kernel regularized least squares method, able to predict l-ERC responses on the basis of LOT stimulation features. Our modeling approach can be further exploited for brain prostheses applications.

  2. CHOLINERGIC AND NORADRENERGIC MODULATION OF LONG-TERM EXPLICIT MEMORY ARE ALTERED BY CHRONIC LOW-LEVEL LEAD EXPOSURE. (U915393)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent evidence suggests that septohippocampal cholinergic activity is suppressed in rats exposed to low levels of lead (Pb). As a result, noradrenergic activity may be elevated due to compensatory sympathetic sprouting. Therefore, the goals of this study were to (a) determine...

  3. An olfactory-limbic model of multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome: Possible relationships to kindling and affective spectrum disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, I.R.; Miller, C.S.; Schwartz, G.E. )

    1992-08-01

    This paper reviews the clinical and experimental literature on patients with multiple adverse responses to chemicals (Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome-MCS) and develops a model for MCS based on olfactory-limbic system dysfunction that overlaps in part with Post's kindling model for affective disorders. MCS encompasses a broad range of chronic polysymptomatic conditions and complaints whose triggers are reported to include low levels of common indoor and outdoor environmental chemicals, such as pesticides and solvents. Other investigators have found evidence of increased prevalence of depression, anxiety, and somatization disorders in MCS patients and have concluded that their psychiatric conditions account for the clinical picture. However, none of these studies has presented any data on the effects of chemicals on symptoms or on objective measures of nervous system function. Synthesis of the MCS literature with large bodies of research in neurotoxicology, occupational medicine, and biological psychiatry, suggests that the phenomenology of MCS patients overlaps that of affective spectrum disorders and that both involve dysfunction of the limbic pathways. Animal studies demonstrate that intermittent repeated low level environmental chemical exposures, including pesticides, cause limbic kindling. Kindling (full or partial) is one central nervous system mechanism that could amplify reactivity to low levels of inhaled and ingested chemicals and initiate persistent affective, cognitive, and somatic symptomatology in both occupational and nonoccupational settings. As in animal studies, inescapable and novel stressors could cross-sensitize with chemical exposures in some individuals to generate adverse responses on a neurochemical basis. The olfactory-limbic model raises testable neurobiological hypotheses that could increase understanding of the multifactorial etiology of MCS and of certain overlapping affective spectrum disorders. 170 refs.

  4. Different patterns of local field potentials from limbic DBS targets in patients with major depressive and obsessive compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Neumann, W-J; Huebl, J; Brücke, C; Gabriëls, L; Bajbouj, M; Merkl, A; Schneider, G-H; Nuttin, B; Brown, P; Kühn, A A

    2014-11-01

    The role of distinct limbic areas in emotion regulation has been largely inferred from neuroimaging studies. Recently, the opportunity for intracranial recordings from limbic areas has arisen in patients undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) for neuropsychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder (MDD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we test the hypothesis that distinct temporal patterns of local field potential (LFP) activity in the human limbic system reflect disease state and symptom severity in MDD and OCD patients. To this end, we recorded LFPs via implanted DBS electrodes from the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BNST area) in 12 patients (5 OCD, 7 MDD) and from the subgenual cingulate cortex in 7 MDD patients (CG25 area). We found a distinct pattern of oscillatory activity with significantly higher α-power in MDD compared with OCD in the BNST area (broad α-band 8-14 Hz; P<0.01) and a similar level of α-activity in the CG25 area as in the BNST area in MDD patients. The mean α-power correlated with severity of depressive symptoms as assessed by the Beck depression inventory in MDD (n=14, r=0.55, P=0.042) but not with severity of obsessive compulsive symptoms in OCD. Here we show larger α-band activity in MDD patients compared with OCD recorded from intracranial DBS targets. Our results suggest that α-activity in the limbic system may be a signature of symptom severity in MDD and may serve as a potential state biomarker for closed loop DBS in MDD.

  5. Noradrenergic regulation of hypothalamic cells that produce growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin and the effect of altered adiposity in sheep.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, J; Manley, T R; Yue, Q; Namavar, M R; Clarke, I J

    2005-06-01

    The growth hormone (GH) axis is sensitive to alteration in body weight and there is evidence that central noradrenergic systems regulate neurones that produce growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SRIF). This study reports semiquantitative estimates of the noradrenergic input to neuroendocrine GHRH and SRIF neurones in the sheep of different body weights. We also studied the effects of altered body weight on expression of dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), the enzyme that produces noradrenalin from dopamine. Ovariectomised ewes were made Lean (39.6 +/- 2.6 kg; Mean +/- SEM) by dietary restriction, whereas Normally Fed animals (61.2 +/- 0.8 kg) were maintained on a regular diet. Brains were perfused for immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation. The Mean +/- SEM number of GHRH-immunoreactive (-IR) cells was lower in Normally Fed (65 +/- 7) than in Lean (115 +/- 14) animals, whereas the number of SRIF-IR cells was similar in the two groups (Normally Fed, 196 +/- 17; Lean 230 +/- 21). Confocal microscopic analysis revealed that the percentage of GHRH-IR cells (Normally Fed 36 +/- 1.5% versus Lean 32 +/- 4.6%) and percentage of SRIF-IR cells (Normally Fed 30 +/- 40.4% versus Lean 32 +/- 2.3%) contacted by noradrenergic fibres did not change with body weight. FluoroGold retrograde tracer injections confirmed that noradrenergic projections to the arcuate nucleus are from ventrolateral medulla and noradrenergic projections to periventricular nucleus arise from the ventrolateral medulla, nucleus of solitary tract, locus coeruleus (LC) and the parabrachial nucleus (PBN). DBH expressing cells were identified using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridisation and the level of expression (silver grains/cell) quantified by image analysis. The number of DBH cells was similar in Normally Fed and Lean animals, but the level of expression/cell was lower (P < 0.02) in the PBN and LC of Lean animals. These results provide an anatomical basis for the

  6. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury with Social Defeat Stress Alters Anxiety, Contextual Fear Extinction, and Limbic Monoamines in Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Daniel R.; Olson, Dawne; Meyer, Danielle L.; Scholl, Jamie L.; Watt, Michael J.; Manzerra, Pasquale; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) produces symptoms similar to those typifying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in humans. We sought to determine whether a rodent model of stress concurrent with mTBI produces characteristics of PTSD such as impaired contextual fear extinction, while also examining concurrent alterations to limbic monoamine activity in brain regions relevant to fear and anxiety states. Male rats were exposed to social stress or control conditions immediately prior to mTBI induction, and 6 days later were tested either for anxiety-like behavior using the elevated plus maze (EPM), or for contextual fear conditioning and extinction. Brains were collected 24 h after EPM testing, and tissue from various limbic regions analyzed for content of monoamines, their precursors and metabolites using HPLC with electrochemical detection. Either social defeat or mTBI alone decreased time spent in open arms of the EPM, indicating greater anxiety-like behavior. However, this effect was enhanced by the combination of treatments. Further, rats exposed to both social defeat and mTBI exhibited greater freezing within extinction sessions compared to all other groups, suggesting impaired contextual fear extinction. Social defeat combined with mTBI also had greater effects on limbic monoamines than either insult alone, particularly with respect to serotonergic effects associated with anxiety and fear learning. The results suggest social stress concurrent with mTBI produces provides a relevant animal model for studying the prevention and treatment of post-concussive psychobiological outcomes. PMID:27147992

  7. Limbic brain responses in mothers with post-traumatic stress disorder and comorbid dissociation to video clips of their children.

    PubMed

    Moser, Dominik Andreas; Aue, Tatjana; Wang, Zhishun; Rusconi Serpa, Sandra; Favez, Nicolas; Peterson, Bradley Scott; Schechter, Daniel Scott

    2013-09-01

    Maternal dissociative symptoms which can be comorbid with interpersonal violence-related post-traumatic stress disorder (IPV-PTSD) have been linked to decreased sensitivity and responsiveness to children's emotional communication. This study examined the influence of dissociation on neural activation independently of IPV-PTSD symptom severity when mothers watch video-stimuli of their children during stressful and non-stressful mother-child interactions. Based on previous observations in related fields, we hypothesized that more severe comorbid dissociation in IPV-PTSD would be associated with lower limbic system activation and greater neural activity in regions of the emotion regulation circuit such as the medial prefrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Twenty mothers (of children aged 12-42 months), with and without IPV-PTSD watched epochs showing their child during separation and play while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Multiple regression indicated that when mothers diagnosed with IPV-PTSD watched their children during separation compared to play, dissociative symptom severity was indeed linked to lowered activation within the limbic system, while greater IPV-PTSD symptom severity was associated with heightened limbic activity. Concerning emotion regulation areas, there was activation associated to dissociation in the right dlPFC. Our results are likely a neural correlate of affected mothers' reduced capacity for sensitive responsiveness to their young child following exposure to interpersonal stress, situations that are common in day-to-day parenting.

  8. Small-Cell Lung Cancer with Positive Anti-NMDAR and Anti-AMPAR Antibodies Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 66-year-old woman, with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis, treated 6 months earlier for bladder neoplasia. The patient presented to the emergency room with rapidly increasing symptoms, noninfectious cerebral spinal fluid associated with positive anti-NMDAR (as well as in serum) and positive AMPAR antibodies in the serum. Four months later, the patient was diagnosed with a small-cell lung cancer for which chemotherapy and radiotherapy was commenced. Simultaneously, endoscopic surgical treatment was undertaken for an in situ relapse of the bladder neoplasm. After the completion of 3 cycles of chemotherapy her neurological status temporarily worsened. The cerebral MRI did not show signs of encephalitis such as increased T2/FLAIR signal intensity in the mesial temporal lobes and limbic systems. No specific treatment was prescribed. Limbic encephalitis can be associated with malignant tumors such as lung carcinoma. Several cases reported in the literature have shown cognitive improvement after tumoral therapy. Regarding our experience, significant progress was achieved through immuno-modulatory treatment. A transitory deterioration of the cognitive process was perceived during the chemotherapy sessions. PMID:28070431

  9. A unique combination of autoimmune limbic encephalitis, type 1 diabetes, and Stiff person syndrome associated with GAD-65 antibody.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Chandra Mohan; Pandey, Rajendra Kumar; Kumawat, Banshi Lal; Khandelwal, Dinesh; Gandhi, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies to GAD-65 have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, limbic encephalitis and Stiff person syndrome, however these diseases rarely occur concurrently. We intend to present a rare case of 35 year old female who was recently diagnosed as having type 1 diabetes presented with 1½ month history of recurrent seizures, subacute onset gait ataxia, dysathria, psychiatric disturbance and cognitive decline. No tumor was found on imaging and the classic paraneoplastic panel was negative. Cerebrospinal fluid and blood was positive for GAD-65 antibodies. Patient showed significant improvement with immunomodulatory therapy. Association of GAD-65 antibodies has been found with various disorders including type 1 diabetes, limbic encephalitis, Stiff person syndrome, cerebellar ataxia and palatal myoclonus. This case presents with unique combination of type 1 diabetes, Stiff person syndrome and limbic encephalitis associated with GAD-65 antibodies that is responsive to immunotherapy. It also highlights the emerging concept of autoimmunity in the causation of various disorders and there associations.

  10. Adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behavior and ethanol intake and impairs fear extinction in adulthood: Possible role of disrupted noradrenergic signaling.

    PubMed

    Skelly, M J; Chappell, A E; Carter, E; Weiner, J L

    2015-10-01

    Alcohol use disorder, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly comorbid, and exposure to chronic stress during adolescence may increase the incidence of these conditions in adulthood. Efforts to identify the common stress-related mechanisms driving these disorders have been hampered, in part, by a lack of reliable preclinical models that replicate their comorbid symptomatology. Prior work by us, and others, has shown that adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behaviors and voluntary ethanol consumption in adult male Long-Evans rats. Here we examined whether social isolation also produces deficiencies in extinction of conditioned fear, a hallmark symptom of PTSD. Additionally, as disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to alcoholism, we examined the effect of anxiolytic medications that target noradrenergic signaling on ethanol intake following adolescent social isolation. Our results confirm and extend previous findings that adolescent social isolation increases anxiety-like behavior and enhances ethanol intake and preference in adulthood. Additionally, social isolation is associated with a significant deficit in the extinction of conditioned fear and a marked increase in the ability of noradrenergic therapeutics to decrease ethanol intake. These results suggest that adolescent social isolation not only leads to persistent increases in anxiety-like behaviors and ethanol consumption, but also disrupts fear extinction, and as such may be a useful preclinical model of stress-related psychopathology. Our data also suggest that disrupted noradrenergic signaling may contribute to escalated ethanol drinking following social isolation, thus further highlighting the potential utility of noradrenergic therapeutics in treating the deleterious behavioral sequelae associated with early life stress.

  11. The selective neurotoxin DSP-4 impairs the noradrenergic projections from the locus coeruleus to the inferior colliculus in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hormigo, Sebastián; Horta Júnior, José de Anchieta de Castro e; Gómez-Nieto, Ricardo; López, Dolores E.

    2012-01-01

    The inferior colliculus (IC) and the locus coeruleus (LC) are two midbrain nuclei that integrate multimodal information and play a major role in novelty detection to elicit an orienting response. Despite the reciprocal connections between these two structures, the projection pattern and target areas of the LC within the subdivisions of the rat IC are still unknown. Here, we used tract-tracing approaches combined with immunohistochemistry, densitometry, and confocal microscopy (CM) analysis to describe a projection from the LC to the IC. Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) injections into the LC showed that the LC-IC projection is mainly ipsilateral (90%) and reaches, to a major extent, the dorsal and lateral part of the IC and the intercollicular commissure. Additionally, some LC fibers extend into the central nucleus of the IC. The neurochemical nature of this projection is noradrenergic, given that tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH) colocalize with the BDA-labeled fibers from the LC. To determine the total field of the LC innervations in the IC, we destroyed the LC neurons and fibers using a highly selective neurotoxin, DSP-4, and then studied the distribution and density of TH- and DBH-immunolabeled axons in the IC. In the DSP-4 treated animals, the number of axonal fibers immunolabeled for TH and DBH were deeply decreased throughout the entire rostrocaudal extent of the IC and its subdivisions compared to controls. Our densitometry results showed that the IC receives up to 97% of its noradrenergic innervations from the LC neurons and only 3% from non-coeruleus neurons. Our results also indicate that TH immunoreactivity in the IC was less impaired than the immunoreactivity for DBH after DSP-4 administration. This is consistent with the existence of an important dopaminergic projection from the substantia nigra to the IC. In conclusion, our study demonstrates and quantifies the noradrenergic projection from the LC to the IC and its

  12. The selective neurotoxin DSP-4 impairs the noradrenergic projections from the locus coeruleus to the inferior colliculus in rats.

    PubMed

    Hormigo, Sebastián; Horta Júnior, José de Anchieta de Castro E; Gómez-Nieto, Ricardo; López, Dolores E

    2012-01-01

    The inferior colliculus (IC) and the locus coeruleus (LC) are two midbrain nuclei that integrate multimodal information and play a major role in novelty detection to elicit an orienting response. Despite the reciprocal connections between these two structures, the projection pattern and target areas of the LC within the subdivisions of the rat IC are still unknown. Here, we used tract-tracing approaches combined with immunohistochemistry, densitometry, and confocal microscopy (CM) analysis to describe a projection from the LC to the IC. Biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) injections into the LC showed that the LC-IC projection is mainly ipsilateral (90%) and reaches, to a major extent, the dorsal and lateral part of the IC and the intercollicular commissure. Additionally, some LC fibers extend into the central nucleus of the IC. The neurochemical nature of this projection is noradrenergic, given that tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH) colocalize with the BDA-labeled fibers from the LC. To determine the total field of the LC innervations in the IC, we destroyed the LC neurons and fibers using a highly selective neurotoxin, DSP-4, and then studied the distribution and density of TH- and DBH-immunolabeled axons in the IC. In the DSP-4 treated animals, the number of axonal fibers immunolabeled for TH and DBH were deeply decreased throughout the entire rostrocaudal extent of the IC and its subdivisions compared to controls. Our densitometry results showed that the IC receives up to 97% of its noradrenergic innervations from the LC neurons and only 3% from non-coeruleus neurons. Our results also indicate that TH immunoreactivity in the IC was less impaired than the immunoreactivity for DBH after DSP-4 administration. This is consistent with the existence of an important dopaminergic projection from the substantia nigra to the IC. In conclusion, our study demonstrates and quantifies the noradrenergic projection from the LC to the IC and its

  13. Antinociceptive effects of neurotropin in a rat model of central neuropathic pain: DSP-4 induced noradrenergic lesion.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Takashi; Kushikata, Tetsuya; Kudo, Mihoko; Kudo, Tsuyoshi; Hirota, Kazuyoshi

    2011-09-26

    Neurotropin is a nonprotein extract isolated from inflamed skin of rabbits inoculated with vaccinia virus, and used for treatment of neuropathic pain. In the present study, we have determined whether neurotropin could exert antinociceptive action using the central neuropathic pain model that we recently established. Rats were randomly allocated to 3 groups: Sham group (n=20), DSP-4 [N-(-2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine] group (50mg/kg ip, n=18), and DSP-4+5,7-DHT [5,7-dihydroxytryptamine] group (ip DSP-4 50mg/kg+icv 5,7-DHT 200μg, n=18). In Sham, DSP-4 and DSP-4+5,7-DHT groups, the effects of ip neurotropin (100NU/Kg) on hot-plate latency in rats with no lesion, noradrenergic neuron depletion and both noradrenergic and serotonergic neuronal depletion were studied, respectively. Rats in each group were subdivided equally to 2 subgroups: saline and neurotropin. After completion of the hot-plate tests, each rat was decapitated, the cerebral cortex was dissected from its internal structure for measurement of norepinephrine contents. Hot-plate latency significantly decreased by ∼40% 10 days after ip DSP-4 or after ip DSP-4 and 5,7-DHT. Norepinephrine contents in DSP-4 treated rats (55.6±6.3ng/ng tissue) and DSP-4+5,7-DHT treated rats (35.3±6.3ng/ng tissue) were significantly lower than those in intact rats (131.6±5.7ng/ng tissue, p<0.01). Neurotropin significantly increased the area under the curve (AUC) of the hot-plate latency in the DSP-4 and DSP-4+5,7-DHT groups but not in the Sham group. There was a significant correlation between AUC and norepinephrine contents in saline subgroup (p<0.01, r=0.597) but not in neurotropin subgroup in DSP-4 group. Neurotropin exerted an antinociceptive effect in DSP-4 induced central neuropathic pain. The present data suggest neuronal pathways other than descending inhibitory noradrenergic and serotonergic systems may be involved in neurotropin mediated antinociception.

  14. Fine-Tuning Circadian Rhythms: The Importance of Bmal1 Expression in the Ventral Forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Mieda, Michihiro; Hasegawa, Emi; Kessaris, Nicoletta; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Although, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus acts as the central clock in mammals, the circadian expression of clock genes has been demonstrated not only in the SCN, but also in peripheral tissues and brain regions outside the SCN. However, the physiological roles of extra-SCN circadian clocks in the brain remain largely elusive. In response, we generated Nkx2.1-Bmal1−/− mice in which Bmal1, an essential clock component, was genetically deleted specifically in the ventral forebrain, including the preoptic area, nucleus of the diagonal band, and most of the hypothalamus except the SCN. In these mice, as expected, PER2::LUC oscillation was drastically attenuated in the explants of mediobasal hypothalamus, whereas it was maintained in those of the SCN. Although, Nkx2.1-Bmal1−/− mice were rhythmic and nocturnal, they showed altered patterns of locomotor activity during the night in a 12:12-h light:dark cycle and during subjective night in constant darkness. Control mice were more active during the first half than the second half of the dark phase or subjective night, whereas Nkx2.1-Bmal1−/− mice showed the opposite pattern of locomotor activity. Temporal patterns of sleep-wakefulness and feeding also changed accordingly. Such results suggest that along with mechanisms in the SCN, local Bmal1–dependent clocks in the ventral forebrain are critical for generating precise temporal patterns of circadian behaviors. PMID:28232786

  15. Agmatine protection against chlorpromazine-induced forebrain cortex injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Dejanovic, Bratislav; Stevanovic, Ivana; Ninkovic, Milica; Stojanovic, Ivana; Lavrnja, Irena; Radicevic, Tatjana; Pavlovic, Milos

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether agmatine (AGM) provides protection against oxidative stress induced by treatment with chlorpromazine (CPZ) in Wistar rats. In addition, the role of reactive oxygen species and efficiency of antioxidant protection in the brain homogenates of forebrain cortexes prepared 48 h after treatment were investigated. Chlorpromazine was applied intraperitoneally (i.p.) in single dose of 38.7 mg/kg body weight (BW) The second group was treated with both CPZ and AGM (75 mg/kg BW). The control group was treated with 0.9% saline solution in the same manner. All tested compounds were administered i.p. in a single dose. Rats were sacrificed by decapitation 48 h after treatment Treatment with AGM significantly attenuated the oxidative stress parameters and restored antioxidant capacity in the forebrain cortex. The data indicated that i.p. administered AGM exerted antioxidant action in CPZ-treated animals. Moreover, reactive astrocytes and microglia may contribute to secondary nerve-cell damage and participate in the balance of destructive vs. protective actions involved in the pathogenesis after poisoning.

  16. Forebrain-selective AMPA-receptor antagonism guided by TARP γ-8 as an antiepileptic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kato, Akihiko S; Burris, Kevin D; Gardinier, Kevin M; Gernert, Douglas L; Porter, Warren J; Reel, Jon; Ding, Chunjin; Tu, Yuan; Schober, Douglas A; Lee, Matthew R; Heinz, Beverly A; Fitch, Thomas E; Gleason, Scott D; Catlow, John T; Yu, Hong; Fitzjohn, Stephen M; Pasqui, Francesca; Wang, He; Qian, Yuewei; Sher, Emanuele; Zwart, Ruud; Wafford, Keith A; Rasmussen, Kurt; Ornstein, Paul L; Isaac, John T R; Nisenbaum, Eric S; Bredt, David S; Witkin, Jeffrey M

    2016-12-01

    Pharmacological manipulation of specific neural circuits to optimize therapeutic index is an unrealized goal in neurology and psychiatry. AMPA receptors are important for excitatory synaptic transmission, and their antagonists are antiepileptic. Although efficacious, AMPA-receptor antagonists, including perampanel (Fycompa), the only approved antagonist for epilepsy, induce dizziness and motor impairment. We hypothesized that blockade of forebrain AMPA receptors without blocking cerebellar AMPA receptors would be antiepileptic and devoid of motor impairment. Taking advantage of an AMPA receptor auxiliary protein, TARP γ-8, which is selectively expressed in the forebrain and modulates the pharmacological properties of AMPA receptors, we discovered that LY3130481 selectively antagonized recombinant and native AMPA receptors containing γ-8, but not γ-2 (cerebellum) or other TARP members. Two amino acid residues unique to γ-8 determined this selectivity. We also observed antagonism of AMPA receptors expressed in hippocampal, but not cerebellar, tissue from an patient with epilepsy. Corresponding to this selective activity, LY3130481 prevented multiple seizure types in rats and mice and without motor side effects. These findings demonstrate the first rationally discovered molecule targeting specific neural circuitries for therapeutic advantage.

  17. Conservation of spatial memory function in the pallial forebrain of reptiles and ray-finned fishes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Fernando; López, J Carlos; Vargas, J Pedro; Gómez, Yolanda; Broglio, Cristina; Salas, Cosme

    2002-04-01

    The hippocampus of mammals and birds is critical for spatial memory. Neuroanatomical evidence indicates that the medial cortex (MC) of reptiles and the lateral pallium (LP) of ray-finned fishes could be homologous to the hippocampus of mammals and birds. In this work, we studied the effects of lesions to the MC of turtles and to the LP of goldfish in spatial memory. Lesioned animals were trained in place, and cue maze tasks and crucial probe and transfer tests were performed. In experiment 1, MC-lesioned turtles in the place task failed to locate the goal during trials in which new start positions were used, whereas sham animals navigated directly to the goal independently of start location. In contrast, no deficit was observed in cue learning. In experiment 2, LP lesion produced a dramatic impairment in goldfish trained in the place task, whereas medial and dorsal pallium lesions did not decrease accuracy. In addition, none of these pallial lesions produced deficits in cue learning. These results indicate that lesions to the MC of turtles and to the LP of goldfish, like hippocampal lesions in mammals and birds, selectively impair map-like memory representations of the environmental space. Thus, the forebrain structures of reptiles and teleost fish neuroanatomically equivalent to the mammalian and avian hippocampus also share a central role in spatial cognition. Present results suggest that the presence of a hippocampus-dependent spatial memory system is a primitive feature of the vertebrate forebrain that has been conserved through evolution.

  18. Interruption of a basal ganglia-forebrain circuit prevents plasticity of learned vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brainard, Michael S.; Doupe, Allison J.

    2000-04-01

    Birdsong, like speech, is a learned vocal behaviour that relies greatly on hearing; in both songbirds and humans the removal of auditory feedback by deafening leads to a gradual deterioration of adult vocal production. Here we investigate the neural mechanisms that contribute to the processing of auditory feedback during the maintenance of song in adult zebra finches. We show that the deleterious effects on song production that normally follow deafening can be prevented by a second insult to the nervous system-the lesion of a basal ganglia-forebrain circuit. The results suggest that the removal of auditory feedback leads to the generation of an instructive signal that actively drives non-adaptive changes in song; they also suggest that this instructive signal is generated within (or conveyed through) the basal ganglia-forebrain pathway. Our findings provide evidence that cortical-basal ganglia circuits may participate in the evaluation of sensory feedback during calibration of motor performance, and demonstrate that damage to such circuits can have little effect on previously learned behaviour while conspicuously disrupting the capacity to adaptively modify that behaviour.

  19. Damage, Repair, and Mutagenesis in Nuclear Genes after Mouse Forebrain Ischemia–Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Philip K.; Hsu, Chung Y.; Dizdaroglu, Miral; Floyd, Robert A.; Kow, Yoke W.; Karakaya, Asuman; Rabow, Lois E.; Cui, Jian-K.

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether oxidative stress after cerebral ischemia–reperfusion affects genetic stability in the brain, we studied mutagenesis after forebrain ischemia–reperfusion in Big Blue transgenic mice (male C57BL/6 strain) containing a reporter lacI gene, which allows detection of mutation frequency. The frequency of mutation in this reporter lacI gene increased from 1.5 to 7.7 (per 100,000) in cortical DNA after 30 min of forebrain ischemia and 8 hr of reperfusion and remained elevated at 24 hr reperfusion. Eight DNA lesions that are characteristic of DNA damage mediated by free radicals were detected. Four mutagenic lesions (2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine, 8-hydroxyadenine, 5-hydroxycytosine, and 8-hydroxyguanine) examined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and one corresponding 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine by a method of HPLC with electrochemical detection increased in cortical DNA two- to fourfold (p < 0.05) during 10–20 min of reperfusion. The damage to γ-actin and DNA polymerase-β genes was detected within 20 min of reperfusion based on the presence of formamidopyrimidine DNA N-glycosylase-sensitive sites. These genes became resistant to the glycosylase within 4–6 hr of reperfusion, suggesting a reduction in DNA damage and presence of DNA repair in nuclear genes. These results suggest that nuclear genes could be targets of free radicals. PMID:8824320

  20. Quality of life: the bridge from the cholinergic basal forebrain to cognitive science and bioethics.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Peter J

    2006-01-01

    Our paper on loss of neurons in the Nucleus Basalis of Meynert (now considered part of the cholinergic basal forebrain) in Alzheimer disease (AD) stimulated scientific interest in this little studied brain region. Our subsequent studies associated pathology in the basal forebrain with other dementias, such as Parkinson's disease, and with neurotransmitter receptor changes, such as in nicotinic receptors. We and many others worked to develop medications to treat AD through cholinergic mechanisms and eventually four cholinesterase inhibitors were approved. However the effect sizes of currently available drugs are modest and ethical issues in conducting research in dementia are challenging. In Cleveland we came to focus on the goals of improving quality of life and the importance on non-pharmacological approaches to treatment. International efforts were organized to improve the efficiency of drug development and to focus on important cultural and pharmacoeconomic issues. Eventually I became concerned about the very way we conceive AD and related concepts like MCI (mild cognitive impairment). As the hundredth anniversary of the first case approaches I am helping to organize meetings to reflect deeply on what we have learned and how to imagine creating a more positive future for persons affected by what I used to call AD.

  1. Song environment affects singing effort and vasotocin immunoreactivity in the forebrain of male Lincoln's sparrows.

    PubMed

    Sewall, Kendra B; Dankoski, Elyse C; Sockman, Keith W

    2010-08-01

    Male songbirds often establish territories and attract mates by singing, and some song features can reflect the singer's condition or quality. The quality of the song environment can change, so male songbirds should benefit from assessing the competitiveness of the song environment and appropriately adjusting their own singing behavior and the neural substrates by which song is controlled. In a wide range of taxa, social modulation of behavior is partly mediated by the arginine vasopressin or vasotocin (AVP/AVT) systems. To examine the modulation of singing behavior in response to the quality of the song environment, we compared the song output of laboratory-housed male Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii) exposed to 1 week of chronic playback of songs categorized as either high or low quality, based on song length, complexity, and trill performance. To explore the neural basis of any facultative shifts in behavior, we also quantified the subjects' AVT immunoreactivity (AVT-IR) in three forebrain regions that regulate sociosexual behavior: the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTm), the lateral septum (LS), and the preoptic area. We found that high-quality songs increased singing effort and reduced AVT-IR in the BSTm and LS, relative to low-quality songs. The effect of the quality of the song environment on both singing effort and forebrain AVT-IR raises the hypothesis that AVT within these brain regions plays a role in the modulation of behavior in response to competition that individual males may assess from the prevailing song environment.

  2. Agmatine protection against chlorpromazine-induced forebrain cortex injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Stevanovic, Ivana; Ninkovic, Milica; Stojanovic, Ivana; Lavrnja, Irena; Radicevic, Tatjana; Pavlovic, Milos

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether agmatine (AGM) provides protection against oxidative stress induced by treatment with chlorpromazine (CPZ) in Wistar rats. In addition, the role of reactive oxygen species and efficiency of antioxidant protection in the brain homogenates of forebrain cortexes prepared 48 h after treatment were investigated. Chlorpromazine was applied intraperitoneally (i.p.) in single dose of 38.7 mg/kg body weight (BW) The second group was treated with both CPZ and AGM (75 mg/kg BW). The control group was treated with 0.9% saline solution in the same manner. All tested compounds were administered i.p. in a single dose. Rats were sacrificed by decapitation 48 h after treatment Treatment with AGM significantly attenuated the oxidative stress parameters and restored antioxidant capacity in the forebrain cortex. The data indicated that i.p. administered AGM exerted antioxidant action in CPZ-treated animals. Moreover, reactive astrocytes and microglia may contribute to secondary nerve-cell damage and participate in the balance of destructive vs. protective actions involved in the pathogenesis after poisoning. PMID:27051340

  3. Loss of Lrp2 in zebrafish disrupts pronephric tubular clearance but not forebrain development

    PubMed Central

    Kur, Esther; Christa, Anna; Veth, Kerry N.; Gajera, Chandresh R.; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.; Zhang, Jingjing; Willer, Jason R.; Gregg, Ronald G.; Abdelilah-Seyfried, Salim; Bachmann, Sebastian; Link, Brian A.; Hammes, Annette; Willnow, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 2 (LRP2) is a multifunctional cell surface receptor conserved from nematodes to humans. In mammals, it acts as regulator of sonic hedgehog and bone morphogenetic protein pathways in patterning of the embryonic forebrain and as a clearance receptor in the adult kidney. Little is known about activities of this LRP in other phyla. Here, we extend the functional elucidation of LRP2 to zebrafish as model organism of receptor (dys)function. We demonstrate that expression of Lrp2 in embryonic and larval fish recapitulates the patterns seen in mammalian brain and kidney. Furthermore, we studied the consequence of receptor deficiencies in lrp2 and in lrp2b, a homologue unique to fish, using ENU mutagenesis or morpholino knockdown. While receptor-deficient zebrafish suffer from overt renal resorption deficiency, their brain development proceeds normally, suggesting evolutionary conservation of receptor functions in pronephric duct clearance but not in patterning of the teleost forebrain. PMID:21455927

  4. Effects of cholecystokinin and bombesin on the expression of preprosomatostatin-encoding genes in goldfish forebrain.

    PubMed

    Canosa, Luis Fabián; Peter, Richard E

    2004-09-15

    It was previously demonstrated that both cholecystokinin (CCK) and bombesin (BBS) stimulate growth hormone (GH) secretion in goldfish. Both peptides induce satiety and it was speculated that they integrate satiation and the postprandial increase in GH circulating levels. In the present paper we investigated the effects of CCK and BBS on the forebrain expression of the somatostatin gene family in goldfish to analyze if somatostatin peptides may be part of the effector mechanisms of CCK and BBS. We found that peripherally as well as centrally administered CCK decreases mRNA levels of preprosomatostatin (PSS)-I that encodes for SRIF-14, having no effects on PSS-II and PSS-III, which encode for gSRIF-28 and [Pro2] SRIF-14, respectively. In addition, a direct action on the pituitary to stimulate GH release, this inhibition of PSS-I expression provides a possible mechanism for CCK to increase postprandial GH levels. On the other hand, BBS inhibits the forebrain expression of PSS-I and PSS-II but does not affect PSS-III regardless of the route of administration. We conclude that this could be the most likely mechanism of action of BBS to increase GH secretion, since there are few BBS-immunoreactive (IR) fibers and BBS binding sites in the anterior pituitary of goldfish.

  5. Influence of AMPA/kainate receptors on extracellular 5-hydroxytryptamine in rat midbrain raphe and forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Rui; Ma, Zhiyuan; Auerbach, Sidney B

    1997-01-01

    The regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release by excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors was examined by use of microdialysis in the CNS of freely behaving rats. Extracellular 5-HT was measured in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), median raphe nucleus (MRN), nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus, frontal cortex, dorsal and ventral hippocampus. Local infusion of kainate produced increases in extracellular 5-HT in the DRN and MRN. Kainate infusion into forebrain sites had a less potent effect. In further studies of the DRN and nucleus accumbens, kainate-induced increases in extracellular 5-HT were blocked by the EAA receptor antagonists, kynurenate and 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX). The effect of infusing kainate into the DRN or nucleus accumbens was attenuated or abolished by tetrodotoxin (TTX), suggesting that the increase in extracellular 5-HT is dependent on 5-HT neuronal activity. In contrast, ibotenate-induced lesion of intrinsic neurones did not attenuate the effect of infusing kainate into the nucleus accumbens. Thus, the effect of kainate in the nucleus accumbens does not depend on intrinsic neurones. Infusion of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolaproprionate (AMPA) into the DRN and nucleus accumbens induced nonsignificant changes in extracellular 5-HT. Cyclothiazide and diazoxide, which attenuate receptor desensitization, greatly enhanced the effect of AMPA on 5-HT in the DRN, but not in the nucleus accumbens. In conclusion, AMPA/kainate receptors regulate 5-HT in the raphe and in forebrain sites. PMID:9283707

  6. Generation and Behavioral Characterization of β-catenin Forebrain-Specific Conditional Knock-Out Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Todd D.; O'Donnell, Kelley C.; Picchini, Alyssa M.; Dow, Eliot R.; Chen, Guang; Manji, Husseini K.

    2009-01-01

    The canonical Wnt pathway and β-catenin have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. We generated forebrain-specific CRE-mediated conditional β-catenin knockout mice to begin exploring the behavioral implications of decreased Wnt pathway signaling in the central nervous system. In situ hybridization revealed a progressive knockout of β-catenin that began between 2 and 4 weeks of age, and by 12 weeks resulted in considerably decreased β-catenin expression in regions of the forebrain, including the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. A significant decrease in protein levels of β-catenin in these brain regions was observed by western blot. Behavioral characterization of these mice in several tests (including the forced swim test, tail suspension test (TST), learned helplessness, response and sensitization to stimulants, and light/dark box among other tests) revealed relatively circumscribed alterations. In the TST, knockout mice spent significantly less time struggling (a depression-like phenotype). However, knockout mice did not differ from their wild-type littermates in the other behavioral tests of mood-related or anxiety-related behaviors. These results suggest that a considerable β-catenin reserve exists, and that a 50-70% β-catenin reduction in circumscribed brain regions is only capable of inducing subtle behavioral changes. Alternatively, regulating β-catenin may modulate drug effects rather than being a model of mood disorder pathophysiology per se. PMID:18299155

  7. Hippocampal noradrenergic activation is necessary for object recognition memory consolidation and can promote BDNF increase and memory persistence.

    PubMed

    Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B; da Silva de Vargas, Liane; Gayer, Mateus Cristofari; Roehrs, Rafael; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Previously we showed that activation of the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract (NTS)-Nucleus Paragigantocellularis (PGi)-Locus coeruleus (LC) pathway, which theoretically culminates with norepinephrine (NE) release in dorsal hippocampus (CA1 region) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) is necessary for the consolidation of object recognition (OR) memory. Here we show that, while the microinjection of the beta-noradrenergic receptor blocker timolol into CA1 impairs OR memory consolidation, the microinjection of norepinephrine (NE) promotes the persistence of this type of memory. Further, we show that OR consolidation is attended by an increase of norepinephrine (NE) levels and of the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampus, which are impaired by inactivation of the NTS-PGi-LC pathway by the infusion of muscimol into the NTS.

  8. Reduced Serotonin Receptor Subtypes in a Limbic and a Neocortical Region in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Oblak, Adrian; Gibbs, Terrell T.; Blatt, Gene J.

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a behaviorally defined, neurological disorder with symptom onset before the age of three. Abnormalities in social-emotional behaviors are a core deficit in autism and are characterized by impaired reciprocal social interaction, lack of facial expressions, and the inability to recognize familiar faces. The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and fusiform gyrus (FG) are two regions within an extensive limbic-cortical network that contribute to social-emotional behaviors. Evidence indicates that changes in brains of individuals with autism begin prenatally. Serotonin (5HT) is one of the earliest expressed neurotransmitters, and plays an important role in synaptogenesis, neurite outgrowth, and neuronal migration. Abnormalities in 5HT systems have been implicated in several psychiatric disorders including autism, as evidenced by immunology, imaging, genetics, pharmacotherapy, and neuropathology. Although information is known regarding peripheral 5HT in autism, there is emerging evidence that 5HT systems in the CNS, including various 5HT receptor subtypes and transporters, are affected in autism. The present study demonstrated significant reductions in 5HT1A receptor binding density in superficial and deep layers of the PCC and FG, and in the density of 5HT2A receptors in superficial layers of the PCC and FG. Significant reduction in the density of serotonin transporters (5-HTT) was also found in the deep layers of the FG, but normal levels were demonstrated in both layers of the PCC and superficial layers of the FG. These studies provide potential substrates for decreased 5-HT modulation/innervation in the autism brain, and implicate two 5-HT receptor subtypes as potential neuromarkers for novel or existing pharmacotherapies. PMID:23894004

  9. GABA content within medial prefrontal cortex predicts the variability of fronto-limbic effective connectivity.

    PubMed

    Delli Pizzi, Stefano; Chiacchieretta, Piero; Mantini, Dante; Bubbico, Giovanna; Edden, Richard A; Onofrj, Marco; Ferretti, Antonio; Bonanni, Laura

    2017-04-06

    The amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuit plays a key role in social behavior. The amygdala and mPFC are bidirectionally connected, functionally and anatomically, via the uncinate fasciculus. Recent evidence suggests that GABA-ergic neurotransmission within the mPFC could be central to the regulation of amygdala activity related to emotions and anxiety processing. However, the functional and neurochemical interactions within amygdala-mPFC circuits are unclear. In the current study, multimodal magnetic resonance imaging techniques were combined to investigate effective connectivity within the amygdala-mPFC network and its relationship with mPFC neurotransmission in 22 healthy subjects aged between 41 and 88 years. Effective connectivity in the amygdala-mPFC circuit was assessed on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data using spectral dynamic causal modelling. State and trait anxiety were also assessed. The mPFC was shown to be the target of incoming outputs from the amygdalae and the source of exciting inputs to the limbic system. The amygdalae were reciprocally connected by excitatory projections. About half of the variance relating to the strength of top-down endogenous connection between right amygdala and mPFC was explained by mPFC GABA levels. State anxiety was correlated with the strength of the endogenous connections between right amygdala and mPFC. We suggest that mPFC GABA content predicts variability in the effective connectivity within the mPFC-amygdala circuit, providing new insights on emotional physiology and the underlying functional and neurochemical interactions.

  10. Activation pattern of the limbic system following spatial learning under stress.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Inna; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2008-02-01

    Anatomical evidence suggests an interplay between the dorsal CA1 of the hippocampus (CA1), the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the entorhinal cortex (EC), but their specific interactions in the context of emotional memory remain obscure. Here, we sought to elucidate the activation pattern in these areas following spatial learning under different stress conditions in the Morris water maze, using cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) activation as a marker. Stress levels were manipulated by maintaining the water maze at one of two different temperatures: lower stress (warm water) or higher stress (cold water). Three groups of animals were tested under each condition: a Learning group, trained in the water maze with a hidden escape platform; a No-Platform group, subjected to the maze without an escape platform; and a Naïve group. To evaluate the quality of the spatial memory formed, we also tested long-term memory retention of the initial location of the platform following an interference procedure (reversal training). In the CA1 and EC, we found different CREB activation patterns for the lower- and higher-stress groups. By contrast, in the BLA a similar pattern of activation was detected under both stress levels. The data reveal a difference in the sensitivity of the memory to interference, with reversal training interference affecting the memory of the initial platform location only under the higher-stress condition. The results suggest that stress-dependent alterations in limbic system activation patterns underlie differences in the quality of the memory formed.

  11. fMRI neurofeedback of amygdala response to aversive stimuli enhances prefrontal-limbic brain connectivity.

    PubMed

    Paret, Christian; Ruf, Matthias; Gerchen, Martin Fungisai; Kluetsch, Rosemarie; Demirakca, Traute; Jungkunz, Martin; Bertsch, Katja; Schmahl, Christian; Ende, Gabriele

    2016-01-15

    Down-regulation of the amygdala with real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI NF) potentially allows targeting brain circuits of emotion processing and may involve prefrontal-limbic networks underlying effective emotion regulation. Little research has been dedicated to the effect of rtfMRI NF on the functional connectivity of the amygdala and connectivity patterns in amygdala down-regulation with neurofeedback have not been addressed yet. Using psychophysiological interaction analysis of fMRI data, we present evidence that voluntary amygdala down-regulation by rtfMRI NF while viewing aversive pictures was associated with increased connectivity of the right amygdala with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in healthy subjects (N=16). In contrast, a control group (N=16) receiving sham feedback did not alter amygdala connectivity (Group×Condition t-contrast: p<.05 at cluster-level). Task-dependent increases in amygdala-vmPFC connectivity were predicted by picture arousal (β=.59, p<.05). A dynamic causal modeling analysis with Bayesian model selection aimed at further characterizing the underlying causal structure and favored a bottom-up model assuming predominant information flow from the amygdala to the vmPFC (xp=.90). The results were complemented by the observation of task-dependent alterations in functional connectivity of the vmPFC with the visual cortex and the ventrolateral PFC in the experimental group (Condition t-contrast: p<.05 at cluster-level). Taken together, the results underscore the potential of amygdala fMRI neurofeedback to influence functional connectivity in key networks of emotion processing and regulation. This may be beneficial for patients suffering from severe emotion dysregulation by improving neural self-regulation.

  12. Orbitofrontal and limbic signatures of empathic concern and intentional harm in the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Baez, Sandra; Morales, Juan P; Slachevsky, Andrea; Torralva, Teresa; Matus, Cristian; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2016-02-01

    Perceiving and evaluating intentional harms in an interpersonal context engages both cognitive and emotional domains. This process involves inference of intentions, moral judgment, and, crucially, empathy towards others' suffering. This latter skill is notably impaired in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). However, the relationship between regional brain atrophy in bvFTD and deficits in the above-mentioned abilities is not well understood. The present study investigated how gray matter (GM) atrophy in bvFTD patients correlates with the perception and evaluation of harmful actions (attribution of intentionality, evaluation of harmful behavior, empathic concern, and moral judgment). First, we compared the behavioral performance of 26 bvFTD patients and 23 healthy controls on an experimental task (ET) indexing intentionality, empathy, and moral cognition during evaluation of harmful actions. Second, we compared GM volume in patients and controls using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Third, we examined brain regions where atrophy might be associated with specific impairments in the patient group. Finally, we explored whether the patients' deficits in intentionality comprehension and empathic concern could be partially explained by regional GM atrophy or impairments in other relevant factors, such as executive functions (EFs). In bvFTD patients, atrophy of limbic structures (amygdala and anterior paracingulate cortex--APC) was related to impairments in intentionality comprehension, while atrophy of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) was associated with empathic concern deficits. Intentionality comprehension impairments were predicted by EFs and orbitofrontal atrophy predicted deficits in empathic concern. Thus, although the perception and evaluation of harmful actions are variously compromised in bvFTD, deficits in empathic concern may be central to this syndrome as they are associated with one of the earliest atrophied region. More generally, our results

  13. GABAB receptor antibodies in limbic encephalitis and anti-GAD–associated neurologic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Boronat, A.; Sabater, L.; Saiz, A.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: γ-Aminobutyric acid-B receptor antibodies (GABABR-ab) were recently described in 15 patients with limbic encephalitis (LE), associated with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) or with concurrent glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies. We analyzed the frequency of GABABR-ab in 147 patients with LE or neurologic syndromes associated with GAD-ab. Methods: We examined the presence of GABABR-ab in 70 patients with LE (33 paraneoplastic with onconeural antibodies, 18 paraneoplastic without onconeural antibodies [5 with Gad-ab], and 19 idiopathic with either GAD-ab [5 patients] or seronegative) and 77 patients with GAD-ab-associated neurologic syndromes other than LE (29 stiff-person syndrome, 28 cerebellar ataxia, 14 epilepsy, and 6 with diverse paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes). GABABR-ab were analyzed in serum or CSF by indirect immunofluorescence on HEK293 cells transfected with GABAB1 and GABAB2 receptor subunits. Results: GABABR-ab were detected in 10 of the 70 patients with LE (14%). Eight had SCLC and 2 were idiopathic. One of the 8 patients with LE with SCLC had an additional onconeural antibody (Hu) and 2 GAD-ab. GABABR-ab were identified in 7 (70%) of the 10 patients with LE and SCLC without onconeural antibodies. GABABR-ab antibodies were not found in patients with GAD-ab and stiff-person syndrome, idiopathic cerebellar ataxia, or epilepsy. However, one patient with GAD-ab, paraneoplastic cerebellar ataxia, and anaplastic carcinoid of the thymus also presented GABABR-ab. Conclusions: GABABR-ab are the most common antibodies found in LE associated with SCLC previously considered “seronegative.” In patients with GAD-ab, the frequency of GABABR-ab is low and only observed in the context of cancer. PMID:21357831

  14. Development of a novel rat mutant with spontaneous limbic-like seizures.

    PubMed Central

    Amano, S.; Ihara, N.; Uemura, S.; Yokoyama, M.; Ikeda, M.; Serikawa, T.; Sasahara, M.; Kataoka, H.; Hayase, Y.; Hazama, F.

    1996-01-01

    A new epileptic rat mutant with spontaneous seizures was developed by successive mating and selection from an inherited cataract rat. The procedures for developing the mutant and the symptomatology, electroencephalographic correlates, and neuropathology of the mutant are reported. It is possible that this rat stain will provide a useful animal model for human temporal lobe epilepsy. The seizures of the rat usually begin with face and head myoclonus, followed by rearing, and generalized clonic and tonic convulsions, all of which are symptomatologically the same as limbic seizures. Electrographic recording during generalized convulsive seizures demonstrated that sustained spike discharges emerged at the hippocampus and then propagated to the neocortex. Seizures occurred spontaneously without any artificial stimuli. Furthermore, external stimuli such as auditory, flashing light, or vestibular stimulations could not elicit epileptic attacks. Almost all of the male animals had generalized convulsions, mostly from 5 months after birth, and the frequency of the seizures increased with aging. Generalized convulsions developed in approximately 20% of the female rats. Microdysgenesis, such as abnormal neuronal clustering, neuronal disarrangement, or interruption of pyramidal neurons in the hippocampal formation, was found in the young rats that had not yet had generalized seizures. This microdysgenesis, which is though to be genetically programmed, was very interesting from the aspect of the relationship between structural abnormalities and epileptogenesis in this mutant. In addition to microdysgenesis, there was sprouting of mossy fibers into the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus in those adult rats that had repeated generalized convulsions. An increase of glial-fibrillary-acidic-protein-positive astrocytes with thickened and numerous processes, ie, astrogliosis, was also found in the cerebral cortex, amygdala region, and hippocampus of these adult animals. Judging

  15. Cannabinoid modulation of prefrontal-limbic activation during fear extinction learning and recall in humans

    PubMed Central

    Rabinak, Christine A.; Angstadt, Mike; Lyons, Maryssa; Mori, Shoko; Milad, Mohammed R.; Liberzon, Israel; Phan, K. Luan

    2013-01-01

    Pre-extinction administration of ∆9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) facilitates recall of extinction in healthy humans, and evidence from animal studies suggest that this likely involves via enhancement of the cannabinoid system within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and hippocampus (HIPP), brain structures critical to fear extinction. However, the effect of cannabinoids on the underlying neural circuitry of extinction memory recall in humans has not been demonstrated. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design (N=14/group) coupled with a standard Pavlovian fear extinction paradigm and an acute pharmacological challenge with oral dronabinol (synthetic THC) in healthy adult volunteers. We examined the effects of THC on vmPFC and HIPP activation when tested for recall of extinction learning 24 hours after extinction learning. Compared to subjects who received placebo, participants who received THC showed increased vmPFC and HIPP activation to a previously extinguished conditioned stimulus (CS+E) during extinction memory recall. This study provides the first evidence that pre-extinction administration of THC modulates prefrontal-limbic circuits during fear extinction in humans and prompts future investigation to test if cannabinoid agonists can rescue or correct the impaired behavioral and neural function during extinction recall in patients with PTSD. Ultimately, the cannabinoid system may serve as a promising target for innovative intervention strategies (e.g. pharmacological enhancement of exposure-based therapy) in PTSD and other fear learning-related disorders. PMID:24055595

  16. Trait anxiety modulates fronto-limbic processing of emotional interference in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Holtmann, Jana; Herbort, Maike C; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Soch, Joram; Richter, Sylvia; Walter, Henrik; Roepke, Stefan; Schott, Björn H

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of cognitive alterations in borderline personality disorder (BPD) have yielded conflicting results. Given that a core feature of BPD is affective instability, which is characterized by emotional hyperreactivity and deficits in emotion regulation, it seems conceivable that short-lasting emotional distress might exert temporary detrimental effects on cognitive performance. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how task-irrelevant emotional stimuli (fearful faces) affect performance and fronto-limbic neural activity patterns during attention-demanding cognitive processing in 16 female, unmedicated BPD patients relative to 24 age-matched healthy controls. In a modified flanker task, emotionally negative, socially salient pictures (fearful vs. neutral faces) were presented as distracters in the background. Patients, but not controls, showed an atypical response pattern of the right amygdala with increased activation during emotional interference in the (difficult) incongruent flanker condition, but emotion-related amygdala deactivation in the congruent condition. A direct comparison of the emotional conditions between the two groups revealed that the strongest diagnosis-related differences could be observed in the dorsal and, to a lesser extent, also in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (dACC, rACC) where patients exhibited an increased neural response to emotional relative to neutral distracters. Moreover, in the incongruent condition, both the dACC and rACC fMRI responses during emotional interference were negatively correlated with trait anxiety in the patients, but not in the healthy controls. As higher trait anxiety was also associated with longer reaction times (RTs) in the BPD patients, we suggest that in BPD patients the ACC might mediate compensatory cognitive processes during emotional interference and that such neurocognitive compensation that can be adversely affected by high levels of anxiety.

  17. Endogenous cannabinoid release within prefrontal-limbic pathways affects memory consolidation of emotional training.

    PubMed

    Morena, Maria; Roozendaal, Benno; Trezza, Viviana; Ratano, Patrizia; Peloso, Andrea; Hauer, Daniela; Atsak, Piray; Trabace, Luigia; Cuomo, Vincenzo; McGaugh, James L; Schelling, Gustav; Campolongo, Patrizia

    2014-12-23

    Previous studies have provided extensive evidence that administration of cannabinoid drugs after training modulates the consolidation of memory for an aversive experience. The present experiments investigated whether the memory consolidation is regulated by endogenously released cannabinoids. The experiments first examined whether the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) are released by aversive training. Inhibitory avoidance training with higher footshock intensity produced increased levels of AEA in the amygdala, hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) shortly after training in comparison with levels assessed in rats trained with lower footshock intensity or unshocked controls exposed only to the training apparatus. In contrast, 2-AG levels were not significantly elevated. The additional finding that posttraining infusions of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597, which selectively increases AEA levels at active synapses, administered into the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA), hippocampus, or mPFC enhanced memory strongly suggests that the endogenously released AEA modulates memory consolidation. Moreover, in support of the view that this emotional training-associated increase in endocannabinoid neurotransmission, and its effects on memory enhancement, depends on the integrity of functional interactions between these different brain regions, we found that disruption of BLA activity blocked the training-induced increases in AEA levels as well as the memory enhancement produced by URB597 administered into the hippocampus or mPFC. Thus, the findings provide evidence that emotionally arousing training increases AEA levels within prefrontal-limbic circuits and strongly suggest that this cannabinoid activation regulates emotional arousal effects on memory consolidation.

  18. Adolescent cannabis exposure alters opiate intake and opioid limbic neuronal populations in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ellgren, Maria; Spano, Sabrina M; Hurd, Yasmin L

    2007-03-01

    Cannabis use is a hypothesized gateway to subsequent abuse of other drugs such as heroin. We currently assessed whether Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure during adolescence modulates opiate reinforcement and opioid neural systems in adulthood. Long-Evan male rats received THC (1.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.)) or vehicle every third day during postnatal days (PNDs) 28-49. Heroin self-administration behavior (fixed ratio-1; 3-h sessions) was studied from young adulthood (PND 57) into full adults (PND 102). THC-pretreated rats showed an upward shift throughout the heroin self-administration acquisition (30 microg/kg/infusion) phase, whereas control animals maintained the same pattern once stable intake was obtained. Heightened opiate sensitivity in THC animals was also evidenced by higher heroin consumption during the maintenance phase (30 and 60 microg/kg/infusion) and greater responding for moderate-low heroin doses (dose-response curve: 7.5, 15, 30, 60, and 100 microg/kg/injection). Specific disturbance of the endogenous opioid system was also apparent in the brain of adults with adolescent THC exposure. Striatal preproenkephalin mRNA expression was exclusively increased in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell; the relative elevation of preproenkephalin mRNA in the THC rats was maintained even after heroin self-administration. Moreover, mu opioid receptor (muOR) GTP-coupling was potentiated in mesolimbic and nigrostriatal brainstem regions in THC-pretreated animals. muOR function in the NAc shell was specifically correlated to heroin intake. The current findings support the gateway hypothesis demonstrating that adolescence cannabis exposure has an enduring impact on hedonic processing resulting in enhanced opiate intake, possibly as a consequence of alterations in limbic opioid neuronal populations.

  19. Electroconvulsive therapy and structural neuroplasticity in neocortical, limbic and paralimbic cortex

    PubMed Central

    Pirnia, T; Joshi, S H; Leaver, A M; Vasavada, M; Njau, S; Woods, R P; Espinoza, R; Narr, K L

    2016-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a highly effective and rapidly acting treatment for severe depression. To understand the biological bases of therapeutic response, we examined variations in cortical thickness from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in 29 patients scanned at three time points during an ECT treatment index series and in 29 controls at two time points. Changes in thickness across time and with symptom improvement were evaluated at high spatial resolution across the cortex and within discrete cortical regions of interest. Patients showed increased thickness over the course of ECT in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), inferior and superior temporal, parahippocampal, entorhinal and fusiform cortex and in distributed prefrontal areas. No changes across time occurred in controls. In temporal and fusiform regions showing significant ECT effects, thickness differed between patients and controls at baseline and change in thickness related to therapeutic response in patients. In the ACC, these relationships occurred in treatment responders only, and thickness measured soon after treatment initiation predicted the overall ECT response. ECT leads to widespread neuroplasticity in neocortical, limbic and paralimbic regions and changes relate to the extent of antidepressant response. Variations in ACC thickness, which discriminate treatment responders and predict response early in the course of ECT, may represent a biomarker of overall clinical outcome. Because post-mortem studies show focal reductions in glial density and neuronal size in patients with severe depression, ECT-related increases in thickness may be attributable to neuroplastic processes affecting the size and/or density of neurons and glia and their connections. PMID:27271858

  20. Chromogranin A immunoreactivity in human cerebrospinal fluid: properties, relationship to noradrenergic neuronal activity, and variation in neurologic disease.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, D T; Cervenka, J H; Stone, R A; Parmer, R J; Franco-Bourland, R E; Madrazo, I; Langlais, P J

    1993-10-01

    Although measurement of chromogranin A in the bloodstream is of value in sympathoadrenal investigations, little is systematically known about chromogranin A in cerebrospinal fluid, despite substantial knowledge about its occurrence and distribution in brain. We therefore applied a homologous human chromogranin A radioimmunoassay to cerebrospinal fluid, in order to evaluate the properties and stability of cerebrospinal fluid chomogranin A, as well as its relationship to central noradrenergic neuronal activity, to peripheral (plasma) chromogranin A, and to disease states such as hypertension, renal failure and Parkinsonism. Authentic, physically stable chromogranin A immunoreactivity was found in cerebrospinal fluid (at 37-146 ng/ml; mean, 87.0 +/- 6.0 ng/ml in healthy subjects), and several lines of evidence (including 3.39 +/- 0.27-fold higher chromogranin A in cerebrospinal fluid than in plasma) indicated that it originated from a local central nervous system source, rather than the periphery. Cerebrospinal fluid chromogranin A values were not influenced by administration of effective antihypertensive doses of clonidine or propranolol, and were not related to the cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of norepinephrine, methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol, or dopamine-beta-hydroxylase; thus, cerebrospinal fluid chromogranin A was not closely linked to biochemical or pharmacologic indices of central noradrenergic neuronal activity. Cerebrospinal fluid chromogranin A was not changed (P > 0.1) in essential hypertension (84.2 +/- 14.0 ng/ml) or renal failure (72.2 +/- 13.4 ng/ml), despite a marked (7.1-fold; P < 0.001) increase in plasma chromogranin A in renal failure, and a modest (1.5-fold; P = 0.004) increase in plasma chromogranin A in essential hypertension.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Role of nucleus of the solitary tract noradrenergic neurons in post-stress cardiovascular and hormonal control in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Bundzikova-Osacka, Jana; Ghosal, Sriparna; Packard, Benjamin A.; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.; Herman, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress causes hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity and cardiovascular dyshomeostasis. Noradrenergic neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) are considered to play a role in these changes. Here, we tested the hypothesis that NTS noradrenergic A2 neurons are required for cardiovascular and HPA axis responses to both acute and chronic stress. Adult male rats received bilateral microinjection into the NTS of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to lesion A2 neurons [cardiovascular study, n= 5; HPA study, n= 5], or vehicle [cardiovascular study, n= 6; HPA study, n= 4]. Rats were exposed to acute restraint stress followed by 14 days of chronic variable stress (CVS). On the last day of testing, rats were placed in a novel elevated plus maze (EPM) to test post-CVS stress responses. Lesions of NTS A2 neurons reduced the tachycardic response to acute restraint, confirming that A2 neurons promote sympathetic activation following acute stress. In addition, CVS increased the ratio of low frequency to high frequency power for heart rate variability, indicative of sympathovagal imbalance, and this effect was significantly attenuated by 6-OHDA lesion. Lesions of NTS A2 neurons reduced acute restraint-induced corticosterone secretion, but did not affect the corticosterone response to the EPM, indicating that A2 neurons promote acute HPA axis responses, but are not involved in CVS-mediated HPA axis sensitization. Collectively, these data indicate that A2 neurons promote both cardiovascular and HPA axis responses to acute stress. Moreover, A2 catecholaminergic neurons may contribute to the potentially deleterious enhancement of sympathetic drive following chronic stress. PMID:25765732

  2. Targeting the Noradrenergic System in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prazosin Trials.

    PubMed

    De Berardis, Domenico; Marini, Stefano; Serroni, Nicola; Iasevoli, Felice; Tomasetti, Carmine; de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Mazza, Monica; Tempesta, Daniela; Valchera, Alessandro; Fornaro, Michele; Pompili, Maurizio; Sepede, Gianna; Vellante, Federica; Orsolini, Laura; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder that may develop after exposure to a life-threatening trauma. As veterans and armed forces may deal with diverse health problems compared with civilians, they have a greater risk for psychiatric disorders, including PTSD, than civilians, even if the disorder may be also frequent in the general population. PTSD is associated with significant comorbidity, especially with mood disorders and substance abuse. Moreover, the suicide risk is higher in PTSD patients than in the general population. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs), atypical antipsychotics and benzodiazepines are commonly employed in the management of PTSD, but often these treatments fail or are discontinued due to adverse effects. It has been demonstrated that high noradrenergic activity may be associated with hyperarousal, trauma nightmares and sleep disturbances in PTSD subjects, probably through the stimulation of α -1 adrenergic receptors in the brain prefrontal cortex. The α -1 adrenoreceptor antagonist prazosin decreases noradrenaline effects at brain α-1 adrenoreceptors and may be a promising agent in the treatment of PTSD, as some studies have found it effective and well tolerated. Therefore, the present review is aimed to examine the role of noradrenergic system in the pathophysiology of PTSD. Moreover, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of prazosin in PTSD patients. Meta-analysis was used to combine data from multiple studies and better estimate the effect of prazosin on specific outcomes. We found prazosin to be significantly more efficacious than placebo in reducing distressing dreams in PTSD patients, even though our results should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of studies included in our quantitative synthesis.

  3. Local and Global Resting State Activity in the Noradrenergic and Dopaminergic Pathway Modulated by Reboxetine and Amisulpride in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Wiegers, Maike; Walter, Martin; Abler, Birgit; Graf, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various psychiatric populations are currently investigated with resting state fMRI, with the aim of individualizing diagnostics and treatment options and improving treatment outcomes. Many of these studies are conducted in large naturalistic samples, providing rich insights regarding disease-related neural alterations, but with the common psychopharmacological medication limiting interpretations of the results. We therefore investigated the effects of common noradrenergic and anti-dopaminergic medications on local and global resting state activity (rs-activity) in healthy volunteers to further the understanding of the respective effects independent from disease-related alterations. Methods: Within a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, we investigated 19 healthy male subjects by resting state fMRI after the intake of reboxetine (4mg/d), amisulpride (200mg/d), and placebo for 7 days each. Treatment-related differences in local and global rs-activity were measured by the fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC). Results: fALFF revealed alterations of local rs-activity within regions of the core noradrenergic pathway, including the locus coeruleus under reboxetine, correlated with its plasma levels. Moreover, reboxetine led to increased rs-FC between regions within this pathway, i.e. the locus coeruleus, tectum, thalamus, and amygdala. Amisulpride modulated local rs-activity of regions within the dopaminergic pathway, with the altered signal in the putamen correlating with amisulpride plasma levels. Correspondingly, amisulpride increased rs-FC between regions of the dopaminergic pathway comprising the substantia nigra and putamen. Conclusion: Our data provide evidence of how psychopharmacological agents alter local and global rs-activity within the respective neuroanatomical pathways in healthy subjects, which may help with interpreting data in psychiatric

  4. Serotonergic and noradrenergic systems are implicated in the antidepressant-like effect of ursolic acid in mice.

    PubMed

    Colla, André R S; Oliveira, Agatha; Pazini, Francis L; Rosa, Julia M; Manosso, Luana M; Cunha, Mauricio P; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2014-09-01

    Ursolic acid (UA) is a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid that exerts antidepressant-like effects in the tail suspension test (TST) and in the forced swimming test, and this effect was reported to be mediated by the dopaminergic system. Many studies show that currently available antidepressant agents have effects on multiple neurotransmitter systems which account for their efficacy. Therefore, this study was aimed at investigating the possible involvement of the serotonergic, noradrenergic, glutamatergic and opioid systems in the antidepressant-like effect of UA. To this end, several pharmacological agents were administered to verify their ability to influence the antidepressant-like responses elicited by UA in the TST in mice. The open-field test was used to assess the locomotor activity. The results show that the pre-treatment of mice with ρ-chlorophenylalanine (100mg/kg, i.p., 4 days) or α-methyl-ρ-tyrosine (100mg/kg, i.p.) but not with N-methyl-d-aspartate (0.1 pmol/mouse, i.c.v.) or naloxone (1mg/kg, i.p.), was able to prevent the antidepressant-like effect of UA (0.1mg/kg, p.o.). Sub-effective doses of fluoxetine (5mg/kg, p.o.) or reboxetine (2mg/kg, p.o.), but not ketamine (0.1mg/kg, i.p.) or MK-801 (0.001 mg/kg, p.o.), was capable of potentiating the effect of a sub-effective dose of UA (0.001 mg/kg, p.o.) in the TST. None of the treatments affected locomotor activity. Altogether, the results show an involvement of the serotonergic and noradrenergic systems, but not the glutamatergic or opioid systems, in the antidepressant-like effect of UA.

  5. Noradrenergic modulation of masseter muscle activity during natural rapid eye movement sleep requires glutamatergic signalling at the trigeminal motor nucleus.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Peter B; Mir, Saba; Peever, John H

    2014-08-15

    Noradrenergic neurotransmission in the brainstem is closely coupled to changes in muscle activity across the sleep-wake cycle, and noradrenaline is considered to be a key excitatory neuromodulator that reinforces the arousal-related stimulus on motoneurons to drive movement. However, it is unknown if α-1 noradrenoceptor activation increases motoneuron responsiveness to excitatory glutamate (AMPA) receptor-mediated inputs during natural behaviour. We studied the effects of noradrenaline on AMPA receptor-mediated motor activity at the motoneuron level in freely behaving rats, particularly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, a period during which both AMPA receptor-triggered muscle twitches and periods of muscle quiescence in which AMPA drive is silent are exhibited. Male rats were subjected to electromyography and electroencephalography recording to monitor sleep and waking behaviour. The implantation of a cannula into the trigeminal motor nucleus of the brainstem allowed us to perfuse noradrenergic and glutamatergic drugs by reverse microdialysis, and thus to use masseter muscle activity as an index of motoneuronal output. We found that endogenous excitation of both α-1 noradrenoceptor and AMPA receptors during waking are coupled to motor activity; however, REM sleep exhibits an absence of endogenous α-1 noradrenoceptor activity. Importantly, exogenous α-1 noradrenoceptor stimulation cannot reverse the muscle twitch suppression induced by AMPA receptor blockade and nor can it elevate muscle activity during quiet REM, a phase when endogenous AMPA receptor activity is subthreshold. We conclude that the presence of an endogenous glutamatergic drive is necessary for noradrenaline to trigger muscle activity at the level of the motoneuron in an animal behaving naturally.

  6. The LIM-homeobox gene Lhx8 is required for the development of many cholinergic neurons in the mouse forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yangu; Marín, Oscar; Hermesz, Edit; Powell, Aaron; Flames, Nuria; Palkovits, Miklós; Rubenstein, John L. R.; Westphal, Heiner

    2003-01-01

    Forebrain cholinergic neurons play important roles as striatal local circuit neurons and basal telencephalic projection neurons. The genetic mechanisms that control development of these neurons suggest that most of them are derived from the basal telencephalon where Lhx8, a LIM-homeobox gene, is expressed. Here we report that mice with a null mutation of Lhx8 are deficient in the development of forebrain cholinergic neurons. Lhx8 mutants lack the nucleus basalis, a major source of the cholinergic input to the cerebral cortex. In addition, the number of cholinergic neurons is reduced in several other areas of the subcortical forebrain in Lhx8 mutants, including the caudate-putamen, medial septal nucleus, nucleus of the diagonal band, and magnocellular preoptic nucleus. Although cholinergic neurons are not formed, initial steps in their specification appear to be preserved, as indicated by a presence of cells expressing a truncated Lhx8 mRNA and mRNA of the homeobox gene Gbx1. These results provide genetic evidence supporting an important role for Lhx8 in development of cholinergic neurons in the forebrain. PMID:12855770

  7. Forebrain influences on brainstem and spinal mechanisms of copulatory behavior: a current perspective on Frank Beach's contribution.

    PubMed

    Rose, J D

    1990-01-01

    In a 1967 Physiological Reviews paper, Frank Beach put forth four propositions regarding forebrain and hormonal control of brainstem-spinal mechanisms of copulatory behavior. Simply stated, he proposed that: 1) the forebrain exerted an inhibitory control over species-typical copulatory reflexes through descending effects on brainstem-spinal mechanisms and 2) gonadal hormones influence these reflexes largely by actions on forebrain control processes rather than by direct effects on the brainstem or spinal cord. This theoretical scheme was of great heuristic significance during the subsequent two decades of research, which has largely supported and delineated in greater mechanistic detail the processes Beach hypothesized to exist. This subsequent research has also shown the central nervous system actions of gonadal hormones to be more widespread and complex than Beach proposed. Some of these recent research findings are presented, with emphasis on neurophysiological studies which have identified hormone-induced functional changes in forebrain and brainstem neurons. It is proposed that these functional changes may represent a mechanism for the behavior-controlling actions of hormones that were hypothesized by Beach.

  8. Hyperglycemia enhances excessive superoxide anion radical generation, oxidative stress, early inflammation, and endothelial injury in forebrain ischemia/reperfusion rats.

    PubMed

    Tsuruta, Ryosuke; Fujita, Motoki; Ono, Takeru; Koda, Yoichi; Koga, Yasutaka; Yamamoto, Takahiro; Nanba, Masahiro; Shitara, Masaki; Kasaoka, Shunji; Maruyama, Ikuro; Yuasa, Makoto; Maekawa, Tsuyoshi

    2010-01-14

    The aim of this study was to confirm the effect of acute hyperglycemia on the superoxide anion radical (O(2)(-)) generation, using a novel electrochemical O(2)(-) sensor in forebrain ischemia/reperfusion rats. Fourteen male Wistar rats were allocated to a normoglycemia group (n= 7) and a hyperglycemia group (n=7). Hyperglycemia was induced by intravenous infusion of glucose solution. Forebrain ischemia was induced by bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion with hemorrhagic hypotension for 10 min and then was reperfused. The generated O(2)(-) was measured as the current produced, which was integrated as a quantified partial value of electricity (Q), in the jugular vein using the O(2)(-) sensor. The reacted O(2)(-) current and the Q began to increase gradually during the forebrain ischemia in both groups. These values increased remarkably just after reperfusion in the normoglycemia group and were further increased significantly in the hyperglycemia group after the reperfusion. Concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in the brain and plasma, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the plasma in the hyperglycemia group were significantly higher than those in the normoglycemia group. Brain and plasma MDA, HMGB1, and ICAM-1 were correlated with a sum of Q during ischemia and after reperfusion. In conclusion, acute transient hyperglycemia enhanced the O(2)(-) generation in blood and exacerbated oxidative stress, early inflammation, and endothelial injury after the forebrain ischemia/reperfusion in the rats.

  9. Differential effects of light and feeding on circadian organization of peripheral clocks in a forebrain Bmal1 mutant

    PubMed Central

    Izumo, Mariko; Pejchal, Martina; Schook, Andrew C; Lange, Ryan P; Walisser, Jacqueline A; Sato, Takashi R; Wang, Xiaozhong; Bradfield, Christopher A; Takahashi, Joseph S

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the contribution of a central clock in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) to circadian behavior and the organization of peripheral clocks, we generated forebrain/SCN-specific Bmal1 knockout mice by using floxed Bmal1 and pan-neuronal Cre lines. The forebrain knockout mice showed >90% deletion of BMAL1 in the SCN and exhibited an immediate and complete loss of circadian behavior in constant conditions. Circadian rhythms in peripheral tissues persisted but became desynchronized and damped in constant darkness. The loss of synchrony was rescued by light/dark cycles and partially by restricted feeding (only in the liver and kidney but not in the other tissues) in a distinct manner. These results suggest that the forebrain/SCN is essential for internal temporal order of robust circadian programs in peripheral clocks, and that individual peripheral clocks are affected differently by light and feeding in the absence of a functional oscillator in the forebrain. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04617.001 PMID:25525750

  10. Immediate post-defeat infusions of the noradrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol impair the consolidation of conditioned defeat in male Syrian hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Cloe Luckett; Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Solomon, Matia B.; Norvelle, Alisa; Parent, Marise B.; Huhman, Kim. L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Social defeat occurs when an animal is attacked and subjugated by an aggressive conspecific. Following social defeat, male Syrian hamsters fail to display species-typical territorial aggression and instead exhibit submissive or defensive behaviors even when in the presence of a non-aggressive intruder. We have termed this phenomenon conditioned defeat (CD). The mechanisms underlying CD are not fully understood, but data from our lab suggest that at least some of the mechanisms are similar to those that mediate classical fear conditioning. The goal of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that noradrenergic signaling promotes the consolidation of CD, as in classical fear conditioning, by determining whether CD is disrupted by post-training blockade of noradrenergic activity. In Experiment 1, we determined whether systemic infusions of the noradrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol (0, 1.0, 10, or 20 mg/kg) given immediately after a 15 min defeat by a resident aggressor would impair CD tested 48h later. Hamsters that were given immediate post-training infusions of propranolol (1.0, but not 10 or 20 mg/kg) showed significantly less submissive behavior than those given vehicle infusions supporting the hypothesis that there is noradrenergic modulation of social defeat consolidation. In Experiment 2, we demonstrated that propranolol (1.0 mg/kg) given immediately, but not 4 or 24h, after defeat impaired CD tested 48h after defeat indicating that the window within which the memory for social defeat is susceptible to beta-adrenergic modulation is temporary. In Experiment 3, we examined whether central blockade of noradrenergic receptors could recapitulate the effect of systemic injections by giving an intracerebroventricular infusion of propranolol immediately after defeat and examining the effect on CD 24 h later. Centrally administered propranolol (20 μg/3μl but not 2 μg/3μl) was also effective in dose-dependently reducing consolidation of CD

  11. Immediate post-defeat infusions of the noradrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol impair the consolidation of conditioned defeat in male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Gray, Cloe Luckett; Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L; Solomon, Matia B; Norvelle, Alisa; Parent, Marise B; Huhman, Kim L

    2015-12-01

    Social defeat occurs when an animal is attacked and subjugated by an aggressive conspecific. Following social defeat, male Syrian hamsters fail to display species-typical territorial aggression and instead exhibit submissive or defensive behaviors even when in the presence of a non-aggressive intruder. We have termed this phenomenon conditioned defeat (CD). The mechanisms underlying CD are not fully understood, but data from our lab suggest that at least some of the mechanisms are similar to those that mediate classical fear conditioning. The goal of the present experiment was to test the hypothesis that noradrenergic signaling promotes the consolidation of CD, as in classical fear conditioning, by determining whether CD is disrupted by post-training blockade of noradrenergic activity. In Experiment 1, we determined whether systemic infusions of the noradrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol (0, 1.0, 10, or 20mg/kg) given immediately after a 15 min defeat by a resident aggressor would impair CD tested 48 h later. Hamsters that were given immediate post-training infusions of propranolol (1.0, but not 10 or 20mg/kg) showed significantly less submissive behavior than did those given vehicle infusions supporting the hypothesis that there is noradrenergic modulation of the consolidation of a social defeat experience. In Experiment 2, we demonstrated that propranolol (1.0mg/kg) given immediately, but not 4 or 24h, after defeat impaired CD tested 48 h after defeat indicating that the window within which the memory for social defeat is susceptible to beta-adrenergic modulation is temporary. In Experiment 3, we examined whether central blockade of noradrenergic receptors could recapitulate the effect of systemic injections by giving an intracerebroventricular infusion of propranolol immediately after defeat and examining the effect on CD 24h later. Centrally administered propranolol (20 μg/3 μl but not 2 μg/3 μl) was also effective in dose-dependently reducing

  12. Hippocampal Sclerosis but Not Normal Aging or Alzheimer Disease Is Associated With TDP-43 Pathology in the Basal Forebrain of Aged Persons.

    PubMed

    Cykowski, Matthew D; Takei, Hidehiro; Van Eldik, Linda J; Schmitt, Frederick A; Jicha, Gregory A; Powell, Suzanne Z; Nelson, Peter T

    2016-05-01

    Transactivating responsive sequence (TAR) DNA-binding protein 43-kDa (TDP-43) pathology has been described in various brain diseases, but the full anatomical distribution and clinical and biological implications of that pathology are incompletely characterized. Here, we describe TDP-43 neuropathology in the basal forebrain, hypothalamus, and adjacent nuclei in 98 individuals (mean age, 86 years; median final mini-mental state examination score, 27). On examination blinded to clinical and pathologic diagnoses, we identified TDP-43 pathology that most frequently involved the ventromedial basal forebrain in 19 individuals (19.4%). As expected, many of these brains had comorbid pathologies including those of Alzheimer disease (AD), Lewy body disease (LBD), and/or hippocampal sclerosis of aging (HS-Aging). The basal forebrain TDP-43 pathology was strongly associated with comorbid HS-Aging (odds ratio = 6.8, p = 0.001), whereas there was no significant association between basal forebrain TDP-43 pathology and either AD or LBD neuropathology. In this sample, there were some cases with apparent preclinical TDP-43 pathology in the basal forebrain that may indicate that this is an early affected area in HS-Aging. We conclude that TDP-43 pathology in the basal forebrain is strongly associated with HS-Aging. These results raise questions about a specific pathogenetic relationship between basal forebrain TDP-43 and non-HS-Aging comorbid diseases (AD and LBD).

  13. Impaired White Matter Connections of the Limbic System Networks Associated with Impaired Emotional Memory in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoshu; Wang, Haibao; Tian, Yanghua; Zhou, Shanshan; Li, Xiaohu; Wang, Kai; Yu, Yongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Discrepancies persist regarding retainment of emotional enhancement of memory (EEM) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients.In addition, the neural mechanisms are still poorly understood, little is known about emotional memory related changes in white matter (WM). Objective: To observe whether EEM is absent in amnestic MCI (aMCI) and AD patients, and to investigate if emotional memory is associated with WM connections and gray matters (GM) of the limbic system networks. Methods: Twenty-one AD patients, 20 aMCI patients and 25 normal controls participated in emotional picture recognition tests and MRI scanning. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methods were used to determine white and gray matter changes of patients. Fourteen regions of interest (ROI) of WM and 20 ROIs of GM were then selected for the correlation analyses with behavioral scores. Results: The EEM effect was lost in AD patients. Both white and gray matter of the limbic system networks were impaired in AD patients. Significant correlations or tendencies between the bilateral uncinate fasciculus, corpus callosum (genu and body), left cingulum bundle, left parahippocampal WM and the recognition sensitivity of emotional valence pictures, and significant correlations or tendencies between the splenium of corpus callosum, left cingulum bundle, left crus of fornix and stria terminalis and the recognition sensitivity of EEM were found. The volume of left amygdala, bilateral insula, medial frontal lobe, anterior and middle cingulum gyrus were positively correlated with the recognition sensitivity of emotional photos, and the right precuneus was positively correlated with the negative EEM effect. However, the affected brain areas of aMCI patients were more localized, and aMCI patients benefited only from positive stimuli. Conclusion: There are impairments of the limbic system networks of AD patients. Damaged WM connections

  14. A locus on mouse Ch10 influences susceptibility to limbic seizure severity: fine mapping and in silico candidate gene analysis

    PubMed Central

    Winawer, Melodie R.; Klassen, Tara L.; Teed, Sarah; Shipman, Marissa; Leung, Emily H.; Palmer, Abraham A.

    2014-01-01

    Identification of genes contributing to mouse seizure susceptibility can reveal novel genes or pathways that provide insight into human epilepsy. Using mouse chromosome substitution strains and interval-specific congenic strains (ISCS), we previously identified an interval conferring pilocarpine-induced limbic seizure susceptibility on distal mouse Chromosome 10 (Ch10). We narrowed the region by generating subcongenics with smaller A/J Ch10 segments on a C57BL/6J (B6) background and tested them with pilocarpine. We also tested pilocarpine susceptible congenics for 6Hz ECT, another model of limbic seizure susceptibility, to determine whether the susceptibility locus might have a broad effect on neuronal hyperexcitability across more than one mode of limbic seizure induction. ISCS Line 1, which contained the distal 2.7 Mb segment from A/J (starting at rs29382217), was more susceptible to both pilocarpine and ECT. Line 2, which was a subcongenic of Line1 (starting at rs13480828), was not susceptible; thus defining a 1.0 Mb critical region that was unique to Line1. Bioinformatic approaches identified 52 human orthologues within the unique Line 1 susceptibility region, the majority syntenic to human Ch12. Applying an epilepsy network analysis of known and suspected excitability genes and examination of interstrain genomic and brain expression differences revealed novel candidates within the region. These include Stat2, which plays a role in hippocampal GABA receptor expression after status epilepticus, and novel candidates Pan2, Cdk2, Gls2, and Cs, which are involved in neural cell differentiation, cellular remodeling, and embryonic development. Our strategy may facilitate discovery of novel human epilepsy genes. PMID:24373497

  15. Whole-Brain Monosynaptic Afferent Inputs to Basal Forebrain Cholinergic System

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rongfeng; Jin, Sen; He, Xiaobin; Xu, Fuqiang; Hu, Ji

    2016-01-01

    The basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS) robustly modulates many important behaviors, such as arousal, attention, learning and memory, through heavy projections to cortex and hippocampus. However, the presynaptic partners governing BFCS activity still remain poorly understood. Here, we utilized a recently developed rabies virus-based cell-type-specific retrograde tracing system to map the whole-brain afferent inputs of the BFCS. We found that the BFCS receives inputs from multiple cortical areas, such as orbital frontal cortex, motor cortex, and insular cortex, and that the BFCS also receives dense inputs from several subcortical nuclei related to motivation and stress, including lateral septum, central amygdala, paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus, dorsal raphe, and parabrachial nucleus. Interestingly, we found that the BFCS receives inputs from the olfactory areas and the entorhinal–hippocampal system. These results greatly expand our knowledge about the connectivity of the mouse BFCS and provided important preliminary indications for future exploration of circuit function. PMID:27777554

  16. Calcium Imaging of Basal Forebrain Activity during Innate and Learned Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Thomas C.; Pinto, Lucas; Brock, Julien R.; Dan, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) plays crucial roles in arousal, attention, and memory, and its impairment is associated with a variety of cognitive deficits. The BF consists of cholinergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic neurons. Electrical or optogenetic stimulation of BF cholinergic neurons enhances cortical processing and behavioral performance, but the natural activity of these cells during behavior is only beginning to be characterized. Even less is known about GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. Here, we performed microendoscopic calcium imaging of BF neurons as mice engaged in spontaneous behaviors in their home cages (innate) or performed a go/no-go auditory discrimination task (learned). Cholinergic neurons were consistently excited during movement, including running and licking, but GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons exhibited diverse responses. All cell types were activated by overt punishment, either inside or outside of the discrimination task. These findings reveal functional similarities and distinctions between BF cell types during both spontaneous and task-related behaviors. PMID:27242444

  17. Neuronal ensemble bursting in the basal forebrain encodes salience irrespective of valence

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Chieh; Nicolelis, Miguel A.L.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Both reward- and punishment-related stimuli are motivationally salient and attract the attention of animals. However, it remains unclear how motivational salience is processed in the brain. Here we show that both reward- and punishment-predicting stimuli elicited robust bursting of many non-cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) neurons in behaving rats. The same BF neurons also responded with similar bursting to primary reinforcement of both valences. Reinforcement responses were modulated by expectation, with surprising reinforcement eliciting stronger BF bursting. We further demonstrate that BF burst firing predicted successful detection of near-threshold stimuli. Together, our results point to the existence of a salience-encoding system independent of stimulus valence. We propose that the encoding of motivational salience by ensemble bursting of non-cholinergic BF neurons may improve behavioral performance by affecting the activity of widespread cortical circuits, and therefore represents a novel candidate mechanism for top-down attention. PMID:18614035

  18. Behavioral activation by CRF: evidence for the involvement of the ventral forebrain.

    PubMed

    Tazi, A; Swerdlow, N R; LeMoal, M; Rivier, J; Vale, W; Koob, G F

    1987-07-06

    Rats injected intracerebroventricularly with corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) at the level of the lateral ventricle or cisterna magna showed a dose-dependent increase in locomotor activity. The increase in locomotor activity from injections of CRF into the cisterna magna was blocked by a cold cream plug in the cerebral aqueduct. An identical plug failed to block the increase in locomotor activity produced by CRF injected into the lateral ventricle. Intracerebral injections of CRF produced a site specific increase in locomotor activity with the largest increases observed from CRF injected into the substantia innominata/lateral preoptic area. Results suggest that the locomotor activating effects of CRF may be due to an activation of CRF receptors in the ventral forebrain, a region rich in CRF cell bodies and projections.

  19. Neuronal ensemble bursting in the basal forebrain encodes salience irrespective of valence.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Chieh; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2008-07-10

    Both reward- and punishment-related stimuli are motivationally salient and attract the attention of animals. However, it remains unclear how motivational salience is processed in the brain. Here, we show that both reward- and punishment-predicting stimuli elicited robust bursting of many noncholinergic basal forebrain (BF) neurons in behaving rats. The same BF neurons also responded with similar bursting to primary reinforcement of both valences. Reinforcement responses were modulated by expectation, with surprising reinforcement eliciting stronger BF bursting. We further demonstrate that BF burst firing predicted successful detection of near-threshold stimuli. Together, our results point to the existence of a salience-encoding system independent of stimulus valence. We propose that the encoding of motivational salience by ensemble bursting of noncholinergic BF neurons may improve behavioral performance by affecting the activity of widespread cortical circuits and therefore represents a novel candidate mechanism for top-down attention.

  20. Grhl2 is required in non-neural tissues for neural progenitor survival and forebrain development

    PubMed Central

    Menke, Chelsea; Cionni, Megan; Siggers, Trevor; Bulyk, Martha L.; Beier, David R.; Stottmann, Rolf W.

    2015-01-01

    Grainyhead-like genes are part of a highly conserved gene family that play a number of roles in ectoderm development and maintenance in mammals. Here we identify a novel allele of Grhl2, cleft-face 3 (clft3), in a mouse line recovered from an ENU mutagenesis screen for organogenesis defects. Homozygous clft3 mutants have a number of phenotypes in common with other alleles of Grhl2. We note a significant effect of genetic background on the clft3 phenotype. One of these is a reduction in size of the telencephalon where we find abnormal patterns of neural progenitor mitosis and apoptosis in mutant brains. Interestingly, Grhl2 is not expressed in the developing forebrain, suggesting this is a survival factor for neural progenitors exerting a paracrine effect on the neural tissue from the overlying ectoderm where Grhl2 is highly expressed. PMID:26177923

  1. GRK5 Deficiency Leads to Selective Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neuronal Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    He, Minchao; Singh, Prabhakar; Cheng, Shaowu; Zhang, Qiang; Peng, Wei; Ding, XueFeng; Li, Longxuan; Liu, Jun; Premont, Richard T.; Morgan, Dave; Burns, Jeffery M.; Swerdlow, Russell H.; Suo, William Z.

    2016-01-01

    Why certain diseases primarily affect one specific neuronal subtype rather than another is a puzzle whose solution underlies the development of specific therapies. Selective basal forebrain cholinergic (BFC) neurodegeneration participates in cognitive impairment in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), yet the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we report the first recapitulation of the selective BFC neuronal loss that is typical of human AD in a mouse model termed GAP. We created GAP mice by crossing Tg2576 mice that over-express the Swedish mutant human β-amyloid precursor protein gene with G protein-coupled receptor kinase-5 (GRK5) knockout mice. This doubly defective mouse displayed significant BFC neuronal loss at 18 months of age, which was not observed in either of the singly defective parent strains or in the wild type. Along with other supporting evidence, we propose that GRK5 deficiency selectively renders BFC neurons more vulnerable to degeneration. PMID:27193825

  2. Neuroprotective role of Z-ligustilide against forebrain ischemic injury in ICR mice.

    PubMed

    Kuang, X; Yao, Y; Du, J R; Liu, Y X; Wang, C Y; Qian, Z M

    2006-08-02

    Radix Angelica sinensis, known as Danggui in Chinese, has been used to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in Traditional Chinese Medicine for a long time. Modern phytochemical studies showed that Z-ligustilide (LIG) is the main lipophilic component of Danggui. In this study, we examined whether LIG could protect ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury by minimizing oxidative stress and anti-apoptosis. Transient forebrain cerebral ischemia (FCI) was induced by the bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion for 30 min. LIG was intraperitoneally injected to ICR mice at the beginning of reperfusion. As determined via 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining at 24 h following ischemia, the infarction volume in the FCI mice treated without LIG (22.1 +/- 2.6%) was significantly higher than that in the FCI mice treated with 5 mg/kg (11.8 +/- 5.2%) and 20 mg/kg (2.60 +/- 1.5%) LIG (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). LIG treatment significantly decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and increased the activities of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the ischemic brain tissues (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01 vs. FCI group). In addition, LIG provided a great increase in Bcl-2 expression as well as a significant decrease in Bax and caspase-3 immunoreactivities in the ischemic cortex. The findings demonstrated that LIG could significantly protect the brain from damage induced by transient forebrain cerebral ischemia. The antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties of LIG may contribute to the neuroprotective potential of LIG in cerebral ischemic damage.

  3. Stress or no stress: mineralocorticoid receptors in the forebrain regulate behavioral adaptation.

    PubMed

    ter Horst, J P; van der Mark, M H; Arp, M; Berger, S; de Kloet, E R; Oitzl, M S

    2012-07-01

    Corticosteroid effects on cognitive abilities during behavioral adaptation to stress are mediated by two types of receptors. While the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is mainly involved in the consolidation of memory, the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mediates appraisal and initial responses to novelty. Recent findings in humans and mice suggest that under stress, the MR might be involved in the use of different learning strategies. Here, we used male mice lacking the MR in the forebrain (MR(CaMKCre)), which were subjected to 5-10 min acute restraint stress, followed 30 min later by training trials on the circular hole board. Mice had to locate an exit hole using extra- and intra-maze cues. We assessed performance and the use of spatial and stimulus-response strategies. Non-stressed MR(CaMKCre) mice showed delayed learning as compared to control littermates. Prior stress impaired performance in controls, but did not further deteriorate learning in MR(CaMKCre) mice. When stressed, 20-30% of both MR(CaMKCre) and control mice switched from a spatial to a stimulus-response strategy, which rescued performance in MR(CaMKCre) mice. Furthermore, MR(CaMKCre) mice showed increased GR mRNA expression in all CA areas of the hippocampus and an altered basal and stress-induced corticosterone secretion, which supports their role in the modulation of neuroendocrine activity. In conclusion, our data provide evidence for the critical role of MR in the fast formation of spatial memory. In the absence of forebrain MR spatial learning performance was under basal circumstances impaired, while after stress further deterioration of performance was rescued by switching behavior increasingly to a stimulus-response strategy.

  4. A novel anxiogenic role for the delta opioid receptor expressed in GABAergic forebrain neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Paul Chu Sin; Keyworth, Helen L.; Martin-Garcia, Elena; Charbogne, Pauline; Darcq, Emmanuel; Bailey, Alexis; Filliol, Dominique; Matifas, Audrey; Ouagazzal, Abdel-Mouttalib; Gaveriaux-Ruff, Claire; Befort, Katia; Maldonado, Rafael; Kitchen, Ian; Kieffer, Brigitte L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The delta opioid receptor (DOR) is broadly expressed throughout the nervous system and regulates chronic pain, emotional responses, motivation and memory. Neural circuits underlying DOR activities have been poorly explored by genetic approaches. Here we used conditional mouse mutagenesis to elucidate receptor function in GABAergic neurons of the forebrain. Methods We characterized DOR distribution in the brain of Dlx5/6-CreXOprd1fl/fl (Dlx-DOR) mice, and tested main central DOR functions through behavioral testing. Results DORs proteins were strongly deleted in olfactory bulb and striatum, and remained intact in cortex and basolateral amygdala. Olfactory perception, circadian activity and despair-like behaviors were unchanged. In contrast, locomotor stimulant effects of SNC80 (DOR agonist) and SKF81297 (D1 agonist) were abolished and increased, respectively. Furthermore, Dlx-DOR mice showed lower levels of anxiety in the elevated plus-maze, opposing the known high anxiety in constitutive DOR knockout animals. Also Dlx-DOR mice reached the food more rapidly in a novelty suppressed feeding (NSF) task, despite their lower motivation for food reward observed in an operant paradigm. Finally, c-fos staining after NSF was strongly reduced in amygdala, concordant with the low anxiety phenotype of Dlx-DOR mice. Conclusion Here we demonstrate that DORs expressed in the forebrain mediate the described locomotor effect of SNC80 and inhibit D1-stimulated hyperactivity. Our data also reveal an unanticipated anxiogenic role for this particular DOR subpopulation, with a potential novel adaptive role. DORs therefore exert dual anxiolytic/anxiogenic roles in emotional responses, which may both have implications in the area of anxiety disorders. PMID:25444168

  5. Adolescent Intermittent Alcohol Exposure: Deficits in Object Recognition Memory and Forebrain Cholinergic Markers.

    PubMed

    Swartzwelder, H Scott; Acheson, Shawn K; Miller, Kelsey M; Sexton, Hannah G; Liu, Wen; Crews, Fulton T; Risher, Mary-Louise

    2015-01-01

    The long-term effects of intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence (AIE) are of intensive interest and investigation. The effects of AIE on learning and memory and the neural functions that drive them are of particular interest as clinical findings suggest enduring deficits in those cognitive domains in humans after ethanol abuse during adolescence. Although studies of such deficits after AIE hold much promise for identifying mechanisms and therapeutic interventions, the findings are sparse and inconclusive. The present results identify a specific deficit in memory function after AIE and establish a possible neural mechanism of that deficit that may be of translational significance. Male rats (starting at PND-30) received exposure to AIE (5g/kg, i.g.) or vehicle and were allowed to mature into adulthood. At PND-71, one group of animals was assessed using the spatial-temporal object recognition (stOR) test to evaluate memory function. A separate group of animals was used to assess the density of cholinergic neurons in forebrain areas Ch1-4 using immunohistochemistry. AIE exposed animals manifested deficits in the temporal component of the stOR task relative to controls, and a significant decrease in the number of ChAT labeled neurons in forebrain areas Ch1-4. These findings add to the growing literature indicating long-lasting neural and behavioral effects of AIE that persist into adulthood and indicate that memory-related deficits after AIE depend upon the tasks employed, and possibly their degree of complexity. Finally, the parallel finding of diminished cholinergic neuron density suggests a possible mechanism underlying the effects of AIE on memory and hippocampal function as well as possible therapeutic or preventive strategies for AIE.

  6. Forebrain neuronal specific ablation of p53 gene provide protection in a cortical ischemic stroke model

    PubMed Central

    Filichia, Emily; Shen, Hui; Zhou, Xiaofei; Qi, Xin; Jin, Kevin; Greig, Nigel; Hoffer, Barry; Luo, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral ischemic injury involves death of multiple cell types at the ischemic sites. As a key regulator of cell death, the p53 gene has been implicated in the regulation of cell loss in stroke. Less focal damage is found in stroke animals pre-treated with a p53 inhibitor or in traditional p53 knockout (ko) mice. However, whether the p53 gene plays a direct role in regulating neuronal cell death is unknown. In this study, in contrast to the global inhibition of p53 function by pharmacological inhibitors and in traditional p53 ko mice, we utilized a neuronal specific conditional ko mouse line (CamcreTRP53 loxP/loxP) to achieve forebrain neuronal specific deletion of p53 and examined the role of the p53 gene in ischemia-induced cell death in neurons. Expression of p53 after stroke is examined using immunohistochemical method and outcome of stroke is examined by analysis of infarction size and behavioral deficits caused by stroke. Our data showed that p53 expression is upregulated in the ischemic region in neuronal cells in wildtype (wt) mice but not in CamcreTRP53 loxP/loxP ko mice. Deletion of the p53 gene in forebrain neurons results in a decreased infarction area in ko mice. Locomotor behavior, measured in automated activity chambers, showed that CamcreTRP53 loxP/loxP ko mice have less locomotor deficits compared to wt mice after MCAo. We conclude that manipulation of p53 expression in neurons may lead to unique therapeutic development in stroke. PMID:25779964

  7. Immunohistochemical organization of the forebrain in the white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus.

    PubMed

    Piñuela, Carmen; Northcutt, R Glenn

    2007-01-01

    The distribution of substance P (SP), leucine-enkephalin (LENK), serotonin (5HT), dopamine (DA), and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was examined in the forebrain of the white sturgeon in order to evaluate several anatomical hypotheses based on cytoarchitectonics, and to gain a better understanding of the evolution of the forebrain in ray-finned fishes. The subpallium of the telencephalon has the highest concentration of the neuropeptides SP and LENK, allowing the pallial-subpallial border to be easily distinguished. The distribution of dopamine is similar to that of serotonin in the subpallium, fibers positive for these transmitters are particularly dense in the dorsal and ventral divisions of the subpallium. In addition, a small population of DA- and 5HT-positive cell bodies--which appear to be unique to sturgeons--was identified at the level of the anterior commissure. The internal granular layer of the olfactory bulbs had large numbers of TH-positive cell bodies and fibers, as did the rostral subpallium. The occurrence of cell bodies positive for LENK in the dorsal nucleus of the rostral subpallium supports the hypothesis that this nucleus is homologous to the striatum in other vertebrates. This is further reinforced by the apparent origin of an ascending dopaminergic pathway from cells in the posterior tubercle that are likely homologous to the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra in land vertebrates. Finally, the differential distribution of SP and TH in the pallium supports the hypothesis that the pallium, or area dorsalis, can be divided medially into a rostral division (Dm), a caudal division (Dp) that is the main pallial target of secondary olfactory projections, and a narrow lateral division (Dd+Dl) immediately adjacent to the attachment of the tela choroidea along the entire rostrocaudal length of the telencephalic hemisphere.

  8. Forebrain and brain stem neural circuits contribute to altered sympathetic responses to heating in senescent rats.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Michael J; Fels, Richard J

    2003-11-01

    Acute heating in young rats increases visceral sympathetic nerve discharge (SND); however, renal and splanchnic SND responses to hyperthermia are attenuated in senescent compared with young Fischer 344 (F344) rats (Kenney MJ and Fels RJ. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 283: R513-R520, 2002). Central mechanisms by which aging alters visceral SND responses to heating are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that forebrain neural circuits are involved in suppressing sympathoexcitatory responses to heating in chloralose-anesthetized, senescent F344 rats. Renal and splanchnic SND responses to increased (38 degrees C-41 degrees C) internal temperature were determined in midbrain-transected (MT) and sham-MT young (3-mo-old), mature (12-mo-old), and senescent (24-mo-old) F344 rats and in cervical-transected (CT) and sham-CT senescent rats. Renal SND remained unchanged during heating in MT and sham-MT senescent rats but was increased in CT senescent rats. Splanchnic SND responses to heating were higher in MT vs. sham-MT senescent rats and in CT vs. MT senescent rats. SND responses to heating were similar in MT and sham-MT young and mature rats. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was increased during heating in MT but not in sham-MT senescent rats, whereas heating-induced increases in MAP were higher in sham-MT vs. MT young rats. These data suggest that in senescent rats suppression of splanchnic SND to heating involves forebrain and brain stem neural circuits, whereas renal suppression is mediated solely by brain stem neural circuits. These results support the concept that aging alters the functional organization of pathways regulating SND and arterial blood pressure responses to acute heating.

  9. Decisional impulsivity and the associative-limbic subthalamic nucleus in obsessive-compulsive disorder: stimulation and connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Droux, Fabien; Morris, Laurel; Chabardes, Stephan; Bougerol, Thierry; David, Olivier; Krack, Paul; Polosan, Mircea

    2017-01-01

    Why do we make hasty decisions for short-term gain? Rapid decision-making with limited accumulation of evidence and delay discounting are forms of decisional impulsivity. The subthalamic nucleus is implicated in inhibitory function but its role in decisional impulsivity is less well-understood. Here we assess decisional impulsivity in subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder who have undergone deep brain stimulation of the limbic and associative subthalamic nucleus. We show that stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is causally implicated in increasing decisional impulsivity with less accumulation of evidence during probabilistic uncertainty and in enhancing delay discounting. Subthalamic stimulation shifts evidence accumulation in subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder towards a functional less cautious style closer to that of healthy controls emphasizing its adaptive nature. Thus, subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder on subthalamic stimulation may be less likely to check for evidence (e.g. checking that the stove is on) with no difference in subjective confidence (or doubt). In a separate study, we replicate in humans (154 healthy controls) using resting state functional connectivity, tracing studies conducted in non-human primates dissociating limbic, associative and motor frontal hyper-direct connectivity with anterior and posterior subregions of the subthalamic nucleus. We show lateralization of functional connectivity of bilateral ventral striatum to right anterior ventromedial subthalamic nucleus consistent with previous observations of lateralization of emotionally evoked activity to right ventral subthalamic nucleus. We use a multi-echo sequence with independent components analysis, which has been shown to have enhanced signal-to-noise ratio, thus optimizing visualization of small subcortical structures. These findings in healthy controls converge with the effective contacts in obsessive compulsive disorder patients localized within the

  10. A controlled study of Tourette syndrome. VII. Summary: a common genetic disorder causing disinhibition of the limbic system.

    PubMed Central

    Comings, D E

    1987-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is one of the most common genetic disorders affecting man. Approximately one in 100 individuals manifests one or more of the aspects of the TS gene. This series of papers has emphasized that although motor and vocal tics are the hallmark of TS, the complete range of behavioral problems is much broader. This spectrum of behavior can be explained on the basis of the TS gene causing an imbalance of the mesencephalic-mesolimbic dopamine pathways, resulting in disinhibition of the limbic system. PMID:3314491

  11. Decisional impulsivity and the associative-limbic subthalamic nucleus in obsessive-compulsive disorder: stimulation and connectivity.

    PubMed

    Voon, Valerie; Droux, Fabien; Morris, Laurel; Chabardes, Stephan; Bougerol, Thierry; David, Olivier; Krack, Paul; Polosan, Mircea

    2017-02-01

    Why do we make hasty decisions for short-term gain? Rapid decision-making with limited accumulation of evidence and delay discounting are forms of decisional impulsivity. The subthalamic nucleus is implicated in inhibitory function but its role in decisional impulsivity is less well-understood. Here we assess decisional impulsivity in subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder who have undergone deep brain stimulation of the limbic and associative subthalamic nucleus. We show that stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is causally implicated in increasing decisional impulsivity with less accumulation of evidence during probabilistic uncertainty and in enhancing delay discounting. Subthalamic stimulation shifts evidence accumulation in subjects with obsessive-compulsive disorder towards a functional less cautious style closer to that of healthy controls emphasizing its adaptive nature. Thus, subjects with obsessive compulsive disorder on subthalamic stimulation may be less likely to check for evidence (e.g. checking that the stove is on) with no difference in subjective confidence (or doubt). In a separate study, we replicate in humans (154 healthy controls) using resting state functional connectivity, tracing studies conducted in non-human primates dissociating limbic, associative and motor frontal hyper-direct connectivity with anterior and posterior subregions of the subthalamic nucleus. We show lateralization of functional connectivity of bilateral ventral striatum to right anterior ventromedial subthalamic nucleus consistent with previous observations of lateralization of emotionally evoked activity to right ventral subthalamic nucleus. We use a multi-echo sequence with independent components analysis, which has been shown to have enhanced signal-to-noise ratio, thus optimizing visualization of small subcortical structures. These findings in healthy controls converge with the effective contacts in obsessive compulsive disorder patients localized within the

  12. Functional recovery of locus coeruleus noradrenergic neurons after DSP-4 lesion: effects on dopamine levels and neuroleptic induced-parkinsonian symptoms in rats.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, J; Schmidt, W J

    2004-01-01

    Noradrenaline has been shown to control dopamine turnover and release in rat brain. Noradrenergic lesion with N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) decreases dopamine release in the striatum and enhances catalepsy in experimental models of Parkinson's disease. However, in due course, sprouting of remaining noradrenergic axons, to compensate for the decreased noradrenaline is said to occur in specific brain regions. Though this is to some extent understood, the longstanding effects of noradrenergic lesion on dopaminergic neurons of the basal ganglia and in Parkinsonian behavior is not known. Here the question is addressed, whether locus coeruleus lesion with DSP-4 in rats alters dopamine concentration of the basal ganglia and influences Parkinsonian behavior in a long term (6 months). Parkinsonian behavior was assessed by catalepsy and activity cage after challenging with subthreshold dose of haloperidol (0.2 mg/kg), on 7, 30, 90, 120 and 180 days after DSP-4 lesion. The concentrations of noradrenaline and dopamine and its metabolites were estimated by HPLC. 6 months after DSP-4 lesion, increased concentration of noradrenaline was found in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Other regions remain unaffected. The concentration of dopamine remained unchanged. However, dopamine turnover appeared to be increased in prefrontal cortex and reduced in striatum and nucleus accumbens. Catalepsy and hypoactivity were observed in DSP-4 lesioned animals after haloperidol challenge on 7th, 30th and 60th day. Though dopamine turnover was reduced after 6 months in the striatum, haloperidol-induced catalepsy was not observed after 60 days. These results indicate a gradual functional recovery, perhaps hyperinnervation of noradrenergic neurons after DSP-4 treatment and the reversal of its effects on dopaminergic neurons and on Parkinsonian symptoms.

  13. Long-Term Effects of Acute Stress on the Prefrontal-Limbic System in the Healthy Adult

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Dongtao; Du, Xue; Zhang, Qinglin; Liu, Guangyuan; Qiu, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Most people are exposed to at least one traumatic event during the course of their lives, but large numbers of people do not develop posttraumatic stress disorders. Although previous studies have shown that repeated and chronic stress change the brain’s structure and function, few studies have focused on the long-term effects of acute stressful exposure in a nonclinical sample, especially the morphology and functional connectivity changes in brain regions implicated in emotional reactivity and emotion regulation. Forty-one months after the 5/12 Wenchuan earthquake, we investigated the effects of trauma exposure on the structure and functional connectivity of the brains of trauma-exposed healthy individuals compared with healthy controls matched for age, sex, and education. We then used machine-learning algorithms with the brain structural features to distinguish between the two groups at an individual level. In the trauma-exposed healthy individuals, our results showed greater gray matter density in prefrontal-limbic brain systems, including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus, than in the controls. Further analysis showed stronger amygdala-hippocampus functional connectivity in the trauma-exposed healthy compared to the controls. Our findings revealed that survival of traumatic experiences, without developing PTSD, was associated with greater gray matter density in the prefrontal-limbic systems related to emotional regulation. PMID:28045980

  14. A single high dose of dexamethasone affects the phosphorylation state of glutamate AMPA receptors in the human limbic system

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, M W; Leal, R B; Guarnieri, R; Schwarzbold, M L; Hoeller, A; Diaz, A P; Boos, G L; Lin, K; Linhares, M N; Nunes, J C; Quevedo, J; Bortolotto, Z A; Markowitsch, H J; Lightman, S L; Walz, R

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) released during stress response exert feedforward effects in the whole brain, but particularly in the limbic circuits that modulates cognition, emotion and behavior. GC are the most commonly prescribed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant medication worldwide and pharmacological GC treatment has been paralleled by the high incidence of acute and chronic neuropsychiatric side effects, which reinforces the brain sensitivity for GC. Synapses can be bi-directionally modifiable via potentiation (long-term potentiation, LTP) or depotentiation (long-term depression, LTD) of synaptic transmission efficacy, and the phosphorylation state of Ser831 and Ser845 sites, in the GluA1 subunit of the glutamate AMPA receptors, are a critical event for these synaptic neuroplasticity events. Through a quasi-randomized controlled study, we show that a single high dexamethasone dose significantly reduces in a dose-dependent manner the levels of GluA1-Ser831 phosphorylation in the amygdala resected during surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy. This is the first report demonstrating GC effects on key markers of synaptic neuroplasticity in the human limbic system. The results contribute to understanding how GC affects the human brain under physiologic and pharmacologic conditions. PMID:27959333

  15. Amphetamine Withdrawal Differentially Increases the Expression of Organic Cation Transporter 3 and Serotonin Transporter in Limbic Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Rajeshwari R.; Scholl, Jamie L.; Watt, Michael J.; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.

    2016-01-01

    Amphetamine withdrawal increases anxiety and stress sensitivity related to blunted ventral hippocampus (vHipp) and enhances the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) serotonin responses. Extracellular serotonin levels are regulated by the serotonin transporter (SERT) and organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3), and vHipp OCT3 expression is enhanced during 24 hours of amphetamine withdrawal, while SERT expression is unaltered. Here, we tested whether OCT3 and SERT expression in the CeA is also affected during acute withdrawal to explain opposing regional alterations in limbic serotonergic neurotransmission and if respective changes continued with two weeks of withdrawal. We also determined whether changes in transporter expression were confined to these regions. Male rats received amphetamine or saline for two weeks followed by 24 hours or two weeks of withdrawal, with transporter expression measured using Western immunoblot. OCT3 and SERT expression increased in the CeA at both withdrawal timepoints. In the vHipp, OCT3 expression increased only at 24 hours of withdrawal, with an equivalent pattern seen in the dorsomedial hypothalamus. No changes were evident in any other regions sampled. These regionally specific changes in limbic OCT3 and SERT expression may partially contribute to the serotonergic imbalance and negative affect during amphetamine withdrawal. PMID:27478387

  16. Amphetamine Withdrawal Differentially Increases the Expression of Organic Cation Transporter 3 and Serotonin Transporter in Limbic Brain Regions.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Rajeshwari R; Scholl, Jamie L; Watt, Michael J; Renner, Kenneth J; Forster, Gina L

    2016-01-01

    Amphetamine withdrawal increases anxiety and stress sensitivity related to blunted ventral hippocampus (vHipp) and enhances the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) serotonin responses. Extracellular serotonin levels are regulated by the serotonin transporter (SERT) and organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3), and vHipp OCT3 expression is enhanced during 24 hours of amphetamine withdrawal, while SERT expression is unaltered. Here, we tested whether OCT3 and SERT expression in the CeA is also affected during acute withdrawal to explain opposing regional alterations in limbic serotonergic neurotransmission and if respective changes continued with two weeks of withdrawal. We also determined whether changes in transporter expression were confined to these regions. Male rats received amphetamine or saline for two weeks followed by 24 hours or two weeks of withdrawal, with transporter expression measured using Western immunoblot. OCT3 and SERT expression increased in the CeA at both withdrawal timepoints. In the vHipp, OCT3 expression increased only at 24 hours of withdrawal, with an equivalent pattern seen in the dorsomedial hypothalamus. No changes were evident in any other regions sampled. These regionally specific changes in limbic OCT3 and SERT expression may partially contribute to the serotonergic imbalance and negative affect during amphetamine withdrawal.

  17. Influence of oxygen tension on dopaminergic differentiation of human fetal stem cells of midbrain and forebrain origin.

    PubMed

    Krabbe, Christina; Bak, Sara Thornby; Jensen, Pia; von Linstow, Christian; Martínez Serrano, Alberto; Hansen, Claus; Meyer, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) constitute a promising source of cells for transplantation in Parkinson's disease (PD), but protocols for controlled dopaminergic differentiation are not yet available. Here we investigated the influence of oxygen on dopaminergic differentiation of human fetal NSCs derived from the midbrain and forebrain. Cells were differentiated for 10 days in vitro at low, physiological (3%) versus high, atmospheric (20%) oxygen tension. Low oxygen resulted in upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor and increased the proportion of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) cells in both types of cultures (midbrain: 9.1 ± 0.5 and 17.1 ± 0.4 (P<0.001); forebrain: 1.9 ± 0.4 and 3.9 ± 0.6 (P<0.01) percent of total cells). Regardless of oxygen levels, the content of TH-ir cells with mature neuronal morphologies was higher for midbrain as compared to forebrain cultures. Proliferative Ki67-ir cells were found in both types of cultures, but the relative proportion of these cells was significantly higher for forebrain NSCs cultured at low, as compared to high, oxygen tension. No such difference was detected for midbrain-derived cells. Western blot analysis revealed that low oxygen enhanced β-tubulin III and GFAP expression in both cultures. Up-regulation of β-tubulin III was most pronounced for midbrain cells, whereas GFAP expression was higher in forebrain as compared to midbrain cells. NSCs from both brain regions displayed less cell death when cultured at low oxygen tension. Following mictrotransplantation into mouse striatal slice cultures predifferentiated midbrain NSCs were found to proliferate and differentiate into substantial numbers of TH-ir neurons with mature neuronal morphologies, particularly at low oxygen. In contrast, predifferentiated forebrain NSCs microtransplanted using identical conditions displayed little proliferation and contained few TH-ir cells, all of which had an immature appearance. Our data may reflect differences

  18. Inhibition of A5 Neurons Facilitates the Occurrence of REM Sleep-Like Episodes in Urethane-Anesthetized Rats: A New Role for Noradrenergic A5 Neurons?

    PubMed

    Fenik, Victor B; Marchenko, Vitaliy; Davies, Richard O; Kubin, Leszek

    2012-01-01

    When rapid eye movement (REM) sleep occurs, noradrenergic cells become silent, with the abolition of activity in locus coeruleus (LC) neurons seen as a key event permissive for the occurrence of REM sleep. However, it is not known whether silencing of other than LC noradrenergic neurons contributes to the generation of REM sleep. In urethane-anesthetized rats, stereotyped REM sleep-like episodes can be repeatedly elicited by injections of the cholinergic agonist, carbachol, into a discrete region of the dorsomedial pons. We used this preparation to test whether inhibition of ventrolateral pontine noradrenergic A5 neurons only, or together with LC neurons, also can elicit REM sleep-like effects. To silence noradrenergic cells, we sequentially injected the α(2)-adrenergic agonist clonidine (20-40 nl, 0.75 mM) into both A5 regions and then the LC. In two rats, successful bilateral clonidine injections into the A5 region elicited the characteristic REM sleep-like episodes (hippocampal theta rhythm, suppression of hypoglossal nerve activity, reduced respiratory rate). In five rats, bilateral clonidine injections into the A5 region and then into one LC triggered REM sleep-like episodes, and in two rats injections into both A5 and then both LC were needed to elicit the effect. In contrast, in three rats, uni- or bilateral clonidine injections only into the LC had no effect, and clonidine injections placed in another six rats outside of the A5 and/or LC regions were without effect. The REM sleep-like episodes elicited by clonidine had similar magnitude of suppression of hypoglossal nerve activity (by 75%), similar pattern of hippocampal changes, and similar durations (2.5-5.3 min) to the episodes triggered in the same preparation by carbachol injections into the dorsomedial pontine reticular formation. Thus, silencing of A5 cells may importantly enable the occurrence of REM sleep-like episodes, at least under anesthesia. This is a new role for noradrenergic A5

  19. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunoreactivity in human cerebrospinal fluid: properties, relationship to central noradrenergic neuronal activity and variation in Parkinson's disease and congenital dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, D T; Cervenka, J H; Stone, R A; Levine, G L; Parmer, R J; Franco-Bourland, R E; Madrazo, I; Langlais, P J; Robertson, D; Biaggioni, I

    1994-02-01

    1. Dopamine beta-hydroxylase is stored and released with catecholamines by exocytosis from secretory vesicles in noradrenergic neurons and chromaffin cells. Although dopamine beta-hydroxylase enzymic activity is measurable in cerebrospinal fluid, such activity is unstable, and its relationship to central noradrenergic neuronal activity in humans is not clearly established. To explore the significance of cerebrospinal fluid dopamine beta-hydroxylase, we applied a homologous human dopamine beta-hydroxylase radioimmunoassay to cerebrospinal fluid, in order to characterize the properties and stability of cerebrospinal fluid dopamine beta-hydroxylase, as well as its relationship to central noradrenergic neuronal activity and its variation in disease states such as hypertension, renal failure, Parkinsonism and congenital dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency. 2. Authentic, physically stable dopamine beta-hydroxylase immunoreactivity was present in normal human cerebrospinal fluid at a concentration of 31.3 +/- 1.4 ng/ml (range: 18.5-52.5 ng/ml), but at a 283 +/- 27-fold lower concentration than that found in plasma. Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma dopamine beta-hydroxylase concentrations were correlated (r = 0.67, P = 0.001). Some degree of local central nervous system control of cerebrospinal fluid dopamine beta-hydroxylase was suggested by incomplete correlation with plasma dopamine beta-hydroxylase (with an especially marked dissociation in renal disease) as well as the lack of a ventricular/lumbar cerebrospinal dopamine beta-hydroxylase concentration gradient. 3. Cerebrospinal fluid dopamine beta-hydroxylase was not changed by the central alpha 2-agonist clonidine at a dose that diminished cerebrospinal fluid noradrenaline, nor did cerebrospinal fluid dopamine beta-hydroxylase correspond between subjects to cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of noradrenaline or methoxyhydroxyphenylglycol; thus, cerebrospinal fluid dopamine beta-hydroxylase concentration was not closely

  20. Reversal of noradrenergic depletion and lipid peroxidation in the pons after brain injury correlates with motor function recovery in rats.

    PubMed

    Bueno-Nava, Antonio; Montes, Sergio; DelaGarza-Montano, Paloma; Alfaro-Rodriguez, Alfonso; Ortiz, Ascencion; Gonzalez-Pina, Rigoberto

    2008-09-26

    Functional impairment after brain injury (BI) has been attributed to the inhibition of regions that are related to the injured site. Therefore, noradrenaline (NA) is thought to play a critical role in recovery from motor injury. However, the mechanism of this recovery process has not been completely elucidated. Moreover, the locus coeruleus (LC) projects from the pons through the rat sensorimotor cortex, and injury axotomizes LC fibers, depressing NA function. This was tested by measuring lipid peroxidation (LP) in the pons after sensorimotor cortex injury. Depression of function in the pons would be expected to alter areas receiving pontine efferents. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control (n=16), injured (n=10) and recovering (n=16), and they were evaluated using a beam-walking assay between 2 and 20 days after cortical injury. We performed measures of NA and LP in both sides of the pons and cerebellum. We found a decrease of NA in the pons and the cerebellum, and a concomitant increase in the motor deficit and LP in the pons of injured animals. Recovering rats had NA and LP levels that were very similar to those observed in control rats. These observations suggest that the mechanism of remote inhibition after BI involves lipid peroxidation, and that the NA decrease found in the cerebellum of injured animals is mediated by a noradrenergic depression in the pons, or in areas receiving NA projections from the pons.

  1. Role of noradrenergic and GABA-ergic inputs in pedunculopontine tegmentum for regulation of rapid eye movement sleep in rats.

    PubMed

    Pal, Dinesh; Mallick, Birendra Nath

    2006-07-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disturbance is associated with several psycho-behavioral disorders, hence, it is important to understand its neural mechanism of regulation. Although it was known that the noradrenergic (NA-ergic) neurons from locus coeruleus (LC) project to the pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPT), the role of noradrenaline (NA) alone and in association with GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, in PPT for REM sleep regulation was not known and was investigated in this study in freely moving normally behaving rats. Rats were surgically prepared for electrophysiological sleep-wake recording and simultaneous bilateral microinjections into PPT. 200nl of prazosin (alpha1-antagonist) or clonidine (alpha2-agonist) or propranolol (beta-antagonist) or combination of picrotoxin (GABA-A antagonist) and clonidine or vehicle (control) was microinjected bilaterally into PPT using a remote-controlled pump and the effects on REM sleep compared. Prazosin, clonidine and propranolol increased the total time spent in REM sleep whereas co-injection of picrotoxin and clonidine did not affect REM sleep. The results suggest that NA in PPT tonically inhibits REM sleep, possibly by acting on the cholinergic REM-ON neurons, while GABA inhibits the release of NA for REM sleep regulation. A model of neural connections explaining such regulation has been presented.

  2. The antidepressant-like effect of bacopaside I: possible involvement of the oxidative stress system and the noradrenergic system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojun; Liu, Fang; Yue, Rongcai; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jigang; Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Shoude; Wang, Rui; Shan, Lei; Zhang, Weidong

    2013-09-01

    In the present study, the antidepressant-like effect of bacopaside I, a saponin compound present in the Bacopa monniera plant, was evaluated by behavioral and neurochemical methods. Bacopaside I (50, 15 and 5 mg/kg) was given to mice via oral gavage for 7 successive days. The treatment significantly decreased the immobility time in mouse models of despair tests, but it did not influence locomotor activity. Neurochemical assays suggested that treatment by bacopaside I (50, 15 and 5 mg/kg) improved brain antioxidant activity to varying degrees after the behavioral despair test. Bacopaside I (15 and 5 mg/kg) significantly reversed reserpine-induced depressive-like behaviors, including low temperature and ptosis. Conversely, bacopaside I did not affect either brain MAO-A or MAO-B activity after the behavioral despair test in mice. Additionally, 5-hydroxytryptophan (a precursor of 5-serotonin) was not involved in the antidepressant-like effect of bacopaside I. These findings indicated that the antidepressant-like effect of bacopaside I might be related to both antioxidant activation and noradrenergic activation, although the exact mechanism remains to be further elucidated.

  3. Enhancement of noradrenergic neural transmission: an effective therapy of myasthenia gravis: a report on 52 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Lechin, F; van der Dijs, B; Pardey-Maldonado, B; John, E; Jimenez, V; Orozco, B; Baez, S; Lechin, M E

    2000-01-01

    Neurochemical, neuroautonomic and neuropharmacological assessments carried out on all our myasthenia gravis (MG) patients showed that they presented a neural sympathetic deficit plus excessive adrenal-sympathetic activity. These abnormalities were registered during the basal (supine-resting) state, as well as after several stress tests (orthostasis, exercise, oral glucose and buspirone). In addition, MG patients showed increased levels of free-serotonin (f5HT) in the plasma, supposedly associated with the increased platelet aggregability which we found in all MG patients. As the above trio of neurochemical disorders (low noradrenergic-activity + high adrenergic-activity + increased f-5HT plasma levels) is known to favor Th-1 immunosuppression + Th-2 predominance, we outlined a neuropharmacological strategy for reverting the above neurochemical disorder. This treatment provoked sudden (acute), and late sustained improvements. Acute effects have been attributed to the increase of alpha-1 activity at the spinal motoneuron level. Late improvements always paralleled a significant normalization of immunological disorders. Complete normalization was registered only in non-thymectomized MG patients.

  4. Loss of forebrain MTCH2 decreases mitochondria motility and calcium handling and impairs hippocampal-dependent cognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Antonella; Aloni, Etay; Korkotian, Eduard; Zaltsman, Yehudit; Oni-Biton, Efrat; Kuperman, Yael; Tsoory, Michael; Shachnai, Liat; Levin-Zaidman, Smadar; Brenner, Ori; Segal, Menahem; Gross, Atan

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial Carrier Homolog 2 (MTCH2) is a novel regulator of mitochondria metabolism, which was recently associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Here we demonstrate that deletion of forebrain MTCH2 increases mitochondria and whole-body energy metabolism, increases locomotor activity, but impairs motor coordination and balance. Importantly, mice deficient in forebrain MTCH2 display a deficit in hippocampus-dependent cognitive functions, including spatial memory, long term potentiation (LTP) and rates of spontaneous excitatory synaptic currents. Moreover, MTCH2-deficient hippocampal neurons display a deficit in mitochondria motility and calcium handling. Thus, MTCH2 is a critical player in neuronal cell biology, controlling mitochondria metabolism, motility and calcium buffering to regulate hippocampal-dependent cognitive functions. PMID:28276496

  5. The neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y2 receptors are largely dimeric in the kidney, but monomeric in the forebrain.

    PubMed

    Parker, S L; Parker, M S; Estes, A M; Wong, Y Y; Sah, R; Sweatman, T; Park, E A; Balasubramaniam, A; Sallee, F R

    2008-01-01

    The neuropeptide Y(NPY) Y2 receptors are detected largely as dimers in the clonal expressions in CHO cells and in particulates from rabbit kidney cortex. However, in two areas of the forebrain (rat or rabbit piriform cortex and hypothalamus), these receptors are found mainly as monomers. Evidence is presented that this difference relates to large levels of G proteins containing the Gi alpha -subunit in the forebrain areas. The predominant monomeric status of these Y2 receptors should also be physiologically linked to large synaptic inputs of the agonist NPY. The rabbit kidney and the human CHO cell-expressed Y2 dimers are converted by agonists to monomers in vitro at a similar rate in the presence of divalent cations.

  6. Rabbit forebrain cholinergic system: morphological characterization of nuclei and distribution of cholinergic terminals in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Varga, Csaba; Härtig, Wolfgang; Grosche, Jens; Keijser, Jan; Luiten, Paul G M; Seeger, Johannes; Brauer, Kurt; Harkany, Tibor

    2003-06-09

    Although the rabbit brain, in particular the basal forebrain cholinergic system, has become a common model for neuropathological changes associated with Alzheimer's disease, detailed neuroanatomical studies on the morphological organization of basal forebrain cholinergic nuclei and on their output pathways are still awaited. Therefore, we performed quantitative choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunocytochemistry to localize major cholinergic nuclei and to determine the number of respective cholinergic neurons in the rabbit forebrain. The density of ChAT-immunoreactive terminals in layer V of distinct neocortical territories and in hippocampal subfields was also measured. Another cholinergic marker, the low-affinity neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)), was also employed to identify subsets of cholinergic neurons. Double-immunofluorescence labeling of ChAT and p75(NTR), calbindin D-28k (CB), parvalbumin, calretinin, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), tyrosine hydroxylase, or substance P was used to elucidate the neuroanatomical borders of cholinergic nuclei and to analyze the neurochemical complexity of cholinergic cell populations. Cholinergic projection neurons with heterogeneous densities were found in the medial septum, vertical and horizontal diagonal bands of Broca, ventral pallidum, and magnocellular nucleus basalis (MBN)/substantia innominata (SI) complex; cholinergic interneurons were observed in the caudate nucleus, putamen, accumbens nucleus, and olfactory tubercule, whereas the globus pallidus was devoid of cholinergic nerve cells. Cholinergic interneurons were frequently present in the hippocampus and to a lesser extent in cerebral cortex. Cholinergic projection neurons, except those localized in SI, abundantly expressed p75(NTR), and a subset of cholinergic neurons in posterior MBN was immunoreactive for CB and nNOS. A strict laminar distribution pattern of cholinergic terminals was recorded both in the cerebral cortex and in CA1-CA3 and dentate gyrus

  7. Forebrain patterns of c-Fos and FosB induction during cancer-associated anorexia-cachexia in rat.

    PubMed

    Konsman, Jan Pieter; Blomqvist, Anders

    2005-05-01

    Forebrain structures are necessary for the initiation of food intake and its coupling to energy expenditure. The cancer-related anorexia-cachexia syndrome is typified by a prolonged increase in metabolic rate resulting in body weight loss which, paradoxically, is accompanied by reduced food intake. The aim of the present work was to study the forebrain expression of Fos proteins as activation markers and thus to identify potential neurobiological mechanisms favouring catabolic processes or modulating food intake in rats suffering from cancer-related anorexia-cachexia. Neurons in forebrain structures showing most pronounced induction of Fos proteins were further identified neurochemically. To provoke anorexia-cachexia, cultured Morris hepatoma 7777 cells were injected subcutaneously in Buffalo rats. This resulted in a slowly growing tumour inducing approximately 7% body weight loss and a 20% reduction in food intake when the tumour represented 1-2% of body mass. Anorexia-cachexia in these animals was found to be accompanied by Fos induction in several hypothalamic nuclei including the paraventricular and ventromedial hypothalamus, in the parastrial nucleus, the amygdala, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, ventral striatal structures and the piriform and somatosensory cortices. Neurochemical identification revealed that the vast majority of FosB-positive neurons in the nucleus accumbens, ventral caudate-putamen and other ventral striatal structures contained prodynorphin or proenkephalin mRNA. These findings indicate that forebrain structures that are part of neuronal networks modulating catabolic pathways and food ingestion are activated during tumour-associated anorexia-cachexia and may contribute to the lack of compensatory eating in response to weight loss characterizing this syndrome.

  8. Engrailed-2 (En2) deletion produces multiple neurodevelopmental defects in monoamine systems, forebrain structures and neurogenesis and behavior.

    PubMed

    Genestine, Matthieu; Lin, Lulu; Durens, Madel; Yan, Yan; Jiang, Yiqin; Prem, Smrithi; Bailoor, Kunal; Kelly, Brian; Sonsalla, Patricia K; Matteson, Paul G; Silverman, Jill; Crawley, Jacqueline N; Millonig, James H; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel

    2015-10-15

    Many genes involved in brain development have been associated with human neurodevelopmental disorders, but underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain undefined. Human genetic and mouse behavioral analyses suggest that ENGRAILED-2 (EN2) contributes to neurodevelopmental disorders, especially autism spectrum disorder. In mouse, En2 exhibits dynamic spatiotemporal expression in embryonic mid-hindbrain regions where monoamine neurons emerge. Considering their importance in neuropsychiatric disorders, we characterized monoamine systems in relation to forebrain neurogenesis in En2-knockout (En2-KO) mice. Transmitter levels of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine (NE) were dysregulated from Postnatal day 7 (P7) to P21 in En2-KO, though NE exhibited the greatest abnormalities. While NE levels were reduced ∼35% in forebrain, they were increased 40 -: 75% in hindbrain and cerebellum, and these patterns paralleled changes in locus coeruleus (LC) fiber innervation, respectively. Although En2 promoter was active in Embryonic day 14.5 -: 15.5 LC neurons, expression diminished thereafter and gene deletion did not alter brainstem NE neuron numbers. Significantly, in parallel with reduced NE levels, En2-KO forebrain regions exhibited reduced growth, particularly hippocampus, where P21 dentate gyrus granule neurons were decreased 16%, suggesting abnormal neurogenesis. Indeed, hippocampal neurogenic regions showed increased cell death (+77%) and unexpectedly, increased proliferation. Excess proliferation was restricted to early Sox2/Tbr2 progenitors whereas increased apoptosis occurred in differentiating (Dcx) neuroblasts, accompanied by reduced newborn neuron survival. Abnormal neurogenesis may reflect NE deficits because intra-hippocampal injections of β-adrenergic agonists reversed cell death. These studies suggest that disruption of hindbrain patterning genes can alter monoamine system development and thereby produce forebrain defects that are relevant to human

  9. Absence of Prenatal Forebrain Defects in the Dp(16)1Yey/+ Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Goodliffe, Joseph W.; Olmos-Serrano, Jose Luis; Aziz, Nadine M.; Pennings, Jeroen L.A.; Guedj, Faycal; Bianchi, Diana W.

    2016-01-01

    Studies in humans with Down syndrome (DS) show that alterations in fetal brain development are followed by postnatal deficits in neuronal numbers, synaptic plasticity, and cognitive and motor function. This same progression is replicated in several mouse models of DS. Dp(16)1Yey/+ (hereafter called Dp16) is a recently developed mouse model of DS in which the entire region of mouse chromosome 16 that is homologous to human chromosome 21 has been triplicated. As such, Dp16 mice may more closely reproduce neurodevelopmental changes occurring in humans with DS. Here, we present the first comprehensive cellular and behavioral study of the Dp16 forebrain from embryonic to adult stages. Unexpectedly, our results demonstrate that Dp16 mice do not have prenatal brain defects previously reported in human fetal neocortex and in the developing forebrains of other mouse models, including microcephaly, reduced neurogenesis, and abnormal cell proliferation. Nevertheless, we found impairments in postnatal developmental milestones, fewer inhibitory forebrain neurons, and deficits in motor and cognitive performance in Dp16 mice. Therefore, although this new model does not express prenatal morphological phenotypes associated with DS, abnormalities in the postnatal period appear sufficient to produce significant cognitive deficits in Dp16. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Down syndrome (DS) leads to intellectual disability. Several mouse models have increased our understanding of the neuropathology of DS and are currently being used to test therapeutic strategies. A new mouse model that contains an expanded number of DS-related genes, known as Dp(16)1Yey/+ (Dp16), has been generated recently. We sought to determine whether the extended triplication creates a better phenocopy of DS-related brain pathologies. We measured embryonic development, forebrain maturation, and perinatal/adult behavior and revealed an absence of prenatal phenotypes in Dp16 fetal brain, but specific cellular and behavioral

  10. Engrailed-2 (En2) deletion produces multiple neurodevelopmental defects in monoamine systems, forebrain structures and neurogenesis and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Genestine, Matthieu; Lin, Lulu; Durens, Madel; Yan, Yan; Jiang, Yiqin; Prem, Smrithi; Bailoor, Kunal; Kelly, Brian; Sonsalla, Patricia K.; Matteson, Paul G.; Silverman, Jill; Crawley, Jacqueline N.; Millonig, James H.; DiCicco-Bloom, Emanuel

    2015-01-01

    Many genes involved in brain development have been associated with human neurodevelopmental disorders, but underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain undefined. Human genetic and mouse behavioral analyses suggest that ENGRAILED-2 (EN2) contributes to neurodevelopmental disorders, especially autism spectrum disorder. In mouse, En2 exhibits dynamic spatiotemporal expression in embryonic mid-hindbrain regions where monoamine neurons emerge. Considering their importance in neuropsychiatric disorders, we characterized monoamine systems in relation to forebrain neurogenesis in En2-knockout (En2-KO) mice. Transmitter levels of serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine (NE) were dysregulated from Postnatal day 7 (P7) to P21 in En2-KO, though NE exhibited the greatest abnormalities. While NE levels were reduced ∼35% in forebrain, they were increased 40–75% in hindbrain and cerebellum, and these patterns paralleled changes in locus coeruleus (LC) fiber innervation, respectively. Although En2 promoter was active in Embryonic day 14.5–15.5 LC neurons, expression diminished thereafter and gene deletion did not alter brainstem NE neuron numbers. Significantly, in parallel with reduced NE levels, En2-KO forebrain regions exhibited reduced growth, particularly hippocampus, where P21 dentate gyrus granule neurons were decreased 16%, suggesting abnormal neurogenesis. Indeed, hippocampal neurogenic regions showed increased cell death (+77%) and unexpectedly, increased proliferation. Excess proliferation was restricted to early Sox2/Tbr2 progenitors whereas increased apoptosis occurred in differentiating (Dcx) neuroblasts, accompanied by reduced newborn neuron survival. Abnormal neurogenesis may reflect NE deficits because intra-hippocampal injections of β-adrenergic agonists reversed cell death. These studies suggest that disruption of hindbrain patterning genes can alter monoamine system development and thereby produce forebrain defects that are relevant to human

  11. The iron exporter ferroportin 1 is essential for development of the mouse embryo, forebrain patterning and neural tube closure

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jinzhe; McKean, David M.; Warrier, Sunita; Corbin, Joshua G.; Niswander, Lee; Zohn, Irene E.

    2010-01-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are some of the most common birth defects observed in humans. The incidence of NTDs can be reduced by peri-conceptional folic acid supplementation alone and reduced even further by supplementation with folic acid plus a multivitamin. Here, we present evidence that iron maybe an important nutrient necessary for normal development of the neural tube. Following implantation of the mouse embryo, ferroportin 1 (Fpn1) is essential for the transport of iron from the mother to the fetus and is expressed in the visceral endoderm, yolk sac and placenta. The flatiron (ffe) mutant mouse line harbors a hypomorphic mutation in Fpn1 and we have created an allelic series of Fpn1 mutations that result in graded developmental defects. A null mutation in the Fpn1 gene is embryonic lethal before gastrulation, hypomorphic Fpn1ffe/ffe mutants exhibit NTDs consisting of exencephaly, spina bifida and forebrain truncations, while Fpn1ffe/KI mutants exhibit even more severe NTDs. We show that Fpn1 is not required in the embryo proper but rather in the extra-embryonic visceral endoderm. Our data indicate that loss of Fpn1 results in abnormal morphogenesis of the anterior visceral endoderm (AVE). Defects in the development of the forebrain in Fpn1 mutants are compounded by defects in multiple signaling centers required for maintenance of the forebrain, including the anterior definitive endoderm (ADE), anterior mesendoderm (AME) and anterior neural ridge (ANR). Finally, we demonstrate that this loss of forebrain maintenance is due in part to the iron deficiency that results from the absence of fully functional Fpn1. PMID:20702562

  12. Vulnerability of mossy fiber targets in the rat hippocampus to forebrain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Hsu, M; Buzsáki, G

    1993-09-01

    Much of the work on forebrain ischemia in the hippocampus has focused on the phenomenon of delayed neuronal death in CA1. It is established that dentate granule cells and CA3 pyramidal cells are resistant to ischemia. However, much less is known about interneuronal involvement in CA3 or ischemic injury in the dentate hilus other than the fact that somatostatin neurons in the latter lose their immunoreactivity. We combined two sensitive methods--heat-shock protein (HSP72) immunocytochemistry and a newly developed Gallyas silver stain for demonstrating impaired cytoskeletal elements--to investigate the extent of ischemic damage to CA3 and the dentate hilus using the four-vessel-occlusion model for inducing forebrain ischemia. HSP72-like immunoreactivity was induced in neuronal populations previously shown to be vulnerable to ischemia. In addition, a distinct subset of interneurons in CA3 was also extremely sensitive to ischemia, even more so than the CA1 pyramidal cells. These neurons are located in the stratum lucidum of CA3 and possess a very high density of dendritic spines. In silver preparations, they were among the first to be impregnated as "dark" neurons, before CA1 pyramidal cells; microglial reaction was also initiated first in the stratum lucidum of CA3. Whereas CA1 damage was most prominent in the septal half of the hippocampus, hilar and CA3 interneuronal damage had a more extensive dorsoventral distribution. Our results also show a far greater extent of damage in hilar neurons than previously reported. At least four hilar cell types were consistently compromised: mossy cells, spiny fusiform cells, sparsely spiny fusiform cells, and long-spined multipolar cells. A common denominator of the injured neurons in CA3 and the hilus was the presence of spines on their dendrites, which in large part accounted for the far greater number of mossy fiber terminals they receive than their non-spiny neighbors. We suggest that the differential vulnerability of neuronal

  13. Hyperglycemia and hypercapnia suppress BDNF gene expression in vulnerable regions after transient forebrain ischemia in the rat.

    PubMed

    Uchino, H; Lindvall, O; Siesjö, B K; Kokaia, Z

    1997-12-01

    Preischemic hyperglycemia or superimposed hypercapnia exaggerates brain damage caused by transient forebrain ischemia. Because high regional levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein correlate with resistance to ischemic damage, we studied the expression of BDNF mRNA using in situ hybridization in rats subjected to 10 minutes of forebrain ischemia under normoglycemic, hyperglycemic, or hypercapnic conditions. Compared with normoglycemic animals, the increase of BDNF mRNA using in situ hybridization in rats subjected to 10 minutes of forebrain ischemia under normoglycemic, or hypercapnic conditions. Compared with normoglycemic animals, the increase of BDNF mRNA in dentate granule cells was attenuated and that in CA3 pyramidal neurons completely prevented in hyperglycemic rats. No ischemia-induced increases of BDNF mRNA levels in the hippocampal formation were detected in hypercapnic animals. Hyperglycemic and hypercapnic rats showed transiently decreased expression of BDNF mRNA levels in the cingulate cortex, which was not observed in normoglycemic animals. The results suggest that suppression of the BDNF gene might contribute to the increased vulnerability of the CA3 region and cingulate cortex in hyperglycemic and hypercapnic animals.

  14. A trans-Regulatory Code for the Forebrain Expression of Six3.2 in the Medaka Fish*

    PubMed Central

    Beccari, Leonardo; Marco-Ferreres, Raquel; Tabanera, Noemi; Manfredi, Anna; Souren, Marcel; Wittbrodt, Beate; Conte, Ivan; Wittbrodt, Jochen; Bovolenta, Paola

    2015-01-01

    A well integrated and hierarchically organized gene regulatory network is responsible for the progressive specification of the forebrain. The transcription factor Six3 is one of the central components of this network. As such, Six3 regulates several components of the network, but its upstream regulators are still poorly characterized. Here we have systematically identified such regulators, taking advantage of the detailed functional characterization of the regulatory region of the medaka fish Six3.2 ortholog and of a time/cost-effective trans-regulatory screening, which complemented and overcame the limitations of in silico prediction approaches. The candidates resulting from this search were validated with dose-response luciferase assays and expression pattern criteria. Reconfirmed candidates with a matching expression pattern were also tested with chromatin immunoprecipitation and functional studies. Our results confirm the previously proposed direct regulation of Pax6 and further demonstrate that Msx2 and Pbx1 are bona fide direct regulators of early Six3.2 distribution in distinct domains of the medaka fish forebrain. They also point to other transcription factors, including Tcf3, as additional regulators of different spatial-temporal domains of Six3.2 expression. The activity of these regulators is discussed in the context of the gene regulatory network proposed for the specification of the forebrain. PMID:26378230

  15. Absence of Prenatal Forebrain Defects in the Dp(16)1Yey/+ Mouse Model of Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Goodliffe, Joseph W; Olmos-Serrano, Jose Luis; Aziz, Nadine M; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Guedj, Faycal; Bianchi, Diana W; Haydar, Tarik F

    2016-03-09

    Studies in humans with Down syndrome (DS) show that alterations in fetal brain development are followed by postnatal deficits in neuronal numbers, synaptic plasticity, and cognitive and motor function. This same progression is replicated in several mouse models of DS. Dp(16)1Yey/+ (hereafter called Dp16) is a recently developed mouse model of DS in which the entire region of mouse chromosome 16 that is homologous to human chromosome 21 has been triplicated. As such, Dp16 mice may more closely reproduce neurodevelopmental changes occurring in humans with DS. Here, we present the first comprehensive cellular and behavioral study of the Dp16 forebrain from embryonic to adult stages. Unexpectedly, our results demonstrate that Dp16 mice do not have prenatal brain defects previously reported in human fetal neocortex and in the developing forebrains of other mouse models, including microcephaly, reduced neurogenesis, and abnormal cell proliferation. Nevertheless, we found impairments in postnatal developmental milestones, fewer inhibitory forebrain neurons, and deficits in motor and cognitive performance in Dp16 mice. Therefore, although this new model does not express prenatal morphological phenotypes associated with DS, abnormalities in the postnatal period appear sufficient to produce significant cognitive deficits in Dp16.

  16. Delayed neuronal death in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons after forebrain ischemia in hyperglycemic gerbils: amelioration by indomethacin.

    PubMed

    Kondo, F; Kondo, Y; Makino, H; Ogawa, N

    2000-01-17

    Hyperglycemia worsens ischemic-induced neuronal damage. Many reports argue the delayed neuronal cell death (DND) after forebrain ischemia in gerbils is due to apoptosis. We examined the effects of hyperglycemia and indomethacin on DND after forebrain ischemia in gerbils. Complete occlusion of both common carotid arteries was performed for 3.5 min followed by declamping and reperfusion. Blood glucose levels were maintained at 25-30 mmol/1 for 24 h after reperfusion in the hyperglycemic groups. We examined morphological changes consistent with DND using Nissel-stained sections and DNA fragmentation using TUNEL staining, at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96, 108, 120 h, and 7 days after reperfusion. DND was noted 96-120 h after ischemia in normoglycemic group. Hyperglycemia enhanced the development of DND at an earlier stage (48-84 h after ischemia). TUNEL positive neurons were detected 72-108 h after reperfusion in normoglycemic group, but very few TUNEL positive neurons were detected in hyperglycemic group at 36-48 h. Indomethacin reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells in normoglycemia and completely inhibited the appearance of TUNEL-positive cells under hyperglycemia. The number of viable neurons at 7 days after ischemia was markedly higher in indomethacin-treated groups than vehicle-treated group. Our results indicate that hyperglycemia worsens DND after forebrain ischemia in gerbils but such process is not associated with DNA fragmentation. Our results also showed that indomethacin provides a neuroprotective effect in normo- and hyperglycemic conditions.

  17. Astaxanthin limits fish oil-related oxidative insult in the anterior forebrain of Wistar rats: putative anxiolytic effects?

    PubMed

    Mattei, Rita; Polotow, Tatiana G; Vardaris, Cristina V; Guerra, Beatriz A; Leite, José Roberto; Otton, Rosemari; Barros, Marcelo P

    2011-09-01

    The habitual consumption of marine fish is largely associated to human mental health. Fish oil is particularly rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that are known to play a role in several neuronal and cognitive functions. In parallel, the orange-pinkish carotenoid astaxanthin (ASTA) is found in salmon and displays important antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Many neuronal dysfunctions and anomalous psychotic behavior (such as anxiety, depression, etc.) have been strongly related to the higher sensitivity of cathecolaminergic brain regions to oxidative stress. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the combined effect of ASTA and fish oil on the redox status in plasma and in the monoaminergic-rich anterior forebrain region of Wistar rats with possible correlations with the anxiolytic behavior. Upon fish oil supplementation, the downregulation of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities combined to increased "free" iron content resulted in higher levels of lipid and protein oxidation in the anterior forebrain of animals. Such harmful oxidative modifications were hindered by concomitant supplementation with ASTA despite ASTA-related antioxidant protection was mainly observed in plasma. Although it is clear that ASTA properly crosses the brain-blood barrier, our data also address a possible indirect role of ASTA in restoring basal oxidative conditions in anterior forebrain of animals: by improving GSH-based antioxidant capacity of plasma. Preliminary anxiolytic tests performed in the elevated plus maze are in alignment with our biochemical observations.

  18. Slit-Robo signals regulate pioneer axon pathfinding of the tract of the postoptic commissure in the mammalian forebrain.

    PubMed

    Ricaño-Cornejo, Itzel; Altick, Amy L; García-Peña, Claudia M; Nural, Hikmet Feyza; Echevarría, Diego; Miquelajáuregui, Amaya; Mastick, Grant S; Varela-Echavarría, Alfredo

    2011-10-01

    During early vertebrate forebrain development, pioneer axons establish a symmetrical scaffold descending longitudinally through the rostral forebrain, thus forming the tract of the postoptic commissure (TPOC). In mouse embryos, this tract begins to appear at embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5) as a bundle of axons tightly constrained at a specific dorsoventral level. We have characterized the participation of the Slit chemorepellants and their Robo receptors in the control of TPOC axon projection. In E9.5-E11.5 mouse embryos, Robo1 and Robo2 are expressed in the nucleus origin of the TPOC (nTPOC), and Slit expression domains flank the TPOC trajectory. These findings suggested that these proteins are important factors in the dorsoventral positioning of the TPOC axons. Consistently with this role, Slit2 inhibited TPOC axon growth in collagen gel cultures, and interfering with Robo function in cultured embryos induced projection errors in TPOC axons. Moreover, absence of both Slit1 and Slit2 or Robo1 and Robo2 in mutant mouse embryos revealed aberrant TPOC trajectories, resulting in abnormal spreading of the tract and misprojections into both ventral and dorsal tissues. These results reveal that Slit-Robo signaling regulates the dorsoventral position of this pioneer tract in the developing forebrain.

  19. Limbic encephalitis associated with anti-NH2-terminal of α-enolase antibodies: A clinical subtype of Hashimoto encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Kishitani, Toru; Matsunaga, Akiko; Ikawa, Masamichi; Hayashi, Kouji; Yamamura, Osamu; Hamano, Tadanori; Watanabe, Osamu; Tanaka, Keiko; Nakamoto, Yasunari; Yoneda, Makoto

    2017-03-01

    Several types of autoantibodies have been reported in autoimmune limbic encephalitis (LE), such as antibodies against the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex including leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1). We recently reported a patient with autoimmune LE and serum anti-NH2-terminal of α-enolase (NAE) antibodies, a specific diagnostic marker for Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE), who was diagnosed with HE based on the presence of antithyroid antibodies and responsiveness to immunotherapy. This case suggests that LE patients with antibodies to both the thyroid and NAE could be diagnosed with HE and respond to immunotherapy. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinicoimmunological features and efficacy of immunotherapy in LE associated with anti-NAE antibodies to determine whether the LE is a clinical subtype of HE.We examined serum anti-NAE antibodies in 78 LE patients with limbic abnormality on magnetic resonance imaging and suspected HE based on positivity for antithyroid antibodies. Nineteen of the 78 patients had anti-NAE antibodies; however, 5 were excluded because they were double positive for antibodies to the VGKC complex including LGI1. No antibodies against the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), contactin-associated protein 2 (Caspr2), γ-aminobutyric acid-B receptor (GABABR), or α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) were detected in the 19 patients. Among the remaining 14 who were positive only for anti-NAE antibodies, the median age was 62.5 (20-83) years, 9 (64%) were women, and 8 (57%) showed acute onset, with less than 2 weeks between onset and admission. Consciousness disturbance (71%) and memory disturbance (64%) were frequently observed, followed by psychiatric symptoms (50%) and seizures (43%). The frequency of these symptoms significantly differed between the acute- and subacute-onset groups. Abnormalities in cerebrospinal fluid and electroencephalogram were commonly observed (92% for both

  20. Birds have primate-like numbers of neurons in the forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Olkowicz, Seweryn; Kocourek, Martin; Lučan, Radek K.; Porteš, Michal; Fitch, W. Tecumseh; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Němec, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Some birds achieve primate-like levels of cognition, even though their brains tend to be much smaller in absolute size. This poses a fundamental problem in comparative and computational neuroscience, because small brains are expected to have a lower information-processing capacity. Using the isotropic fractionator to determine numbers of neurons in specific brain regions, here we show that the brains of parrots and songbirds contain on average twice as many neurons as primate brains of the same mass, indicating that avian brains have higher neuron packing densities than mammalian brains. Additionally, corvids and parrots have much higher proportions of brain neurons located in the pallial telencephalon compared with primates or other mammals and birds. Thus, large-brained parrots and corvids have forebrain neuron counts equal to or greater than primates with much larger brains. We suggest that the large numbers of neurons concentrated in high densities in the telencephalon substantially contribute to the neural basis of avian intelligence. PMID:27298365

  1. Longitudinal measures of cholinergic forebrain atrophy in the transition from healthy aging to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Grothe, Michel; Heinsen, Helmut; Teipel, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Recent evidence from cross-sectional in vivo imaging studies suggests that atrophy of the cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be distinguished from normal age-related degeneration even at predementia stages of the disease. Longitudinal study designs are needed to specify the dynamics of BF degeneration in the transition from normal aging to AD. We applied recently developed techniques for in vivo volumetry of the BF to serial magnetic resonance imaging scans of 82 initially healthy elderly individuals (60-93 years) and 50 patients with very mild AD (Clinical Dementia Rating score = 0.5) that were clinically followed over an average of 3 ± 1.5 years. BF atrophy rates were found to be significantly higher than rates of global brain shrinkage even in cognitively stable healthy elderly individuals. Compared with healthy control subjects, very mild AD patients showed reduced BF volumes at baseline and increased volume loss over time. Atrophy of the BF was more pronounced in progressive patients compared with those that remained stable. The cholinergic BF undergoes disproportionate degeneration in the aging process, which is further increased by the presence of AD.

  2. Establishment of a Long-Term Chick Forebrain Neuronal Culture on a Microelectrode Array Platform.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Serena Y; Huang, Ting; Wang, Zhonghai; Lin, Yongliang; Kindy, Mark; Xi, Tingfei; Gao, Bruce Z

    2015-01-01

    The biosensor system formed by culturing primary animal neurons on a microelectrode array (MEA) platform is drawing an increasing research interest for its power as a rapid, sensitive, functional neurotoxicity assessment, as well as for many other electrophysiological related research purposes. In this paper, we established a long-term chick forebrain neuron culture (C-FBN-C) on MEAs with a more than 5 month long lifespan and up to 5 month long stability in morphology and physiological function; characterized the C-FBN-C morphologically, functionally, and developmentally; partially compared its functional features with rodent counterpart; and discussed its pros and cons as a novel biosensor system in comparison to rodent counterpart and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Our results show that C-FBN-C on MEA platform 1) can be used as a biosensor of its own type in a wide spectrum of basic biomedical research; 2) is of value in comparative physiology in cross-species studies; and 3) may have potential to be used as an alternative, cost-effective approach to rodent counterpart within shared common functional domains (such as specific types of ligand-gated ion channel receptors and subtypes expressed in the cortical tissues of both species) in large-scale environmental neurotoxicant screening that would otherwise require millions of animals.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA toxicity in forebrain neurons causes apoptosis, neurodegeneration, and impaired behavior.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, Knut H; Moldestad, Olve; Eide, Lars; Carlsen, Harald; Nesse, Gaute; Storm, Johan F; Mansuy, Isabelle M; Bergersen, Linda H; Klungland, Arne

    2010-03-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction underlying changes in neurodegenerative diseases is often associated with apoptosis and a progressive loss of neurons, and damage to the mitochondrial genome is proposed to be involved in such pathologies. In the present study we designed a mouse model that allows us to specifically induce mitochondrial DNA toxicity in the forebrain neurons of adult mice. This is achieved by CaMKIIalpha-regulated inducible expression of a mutated version of the mitochondrial UNG DNA repair enzyme (mutUNG1). This enzyme is capable of removing thymine from the mitochondrial genome. We demonstrate that a continual generation of apyrimidinic sites causes apoptosis and neuronal death. These defects are associated with behavioral alterations characterized by increased locomotor activity, impaired cognitive abilities, and lack of anxietylike responses. In summary, whereas mitochondrial base substitution and deletions previously have been shown to correlate with premature and natural aging, respectively, we show that a high level of apyrimidinic sites lead to mitochondrial DNA cytotoxicity, which causes apoptosis, followed by neurodegeneration.

  4. BDNF +/− Mice Exhibit Deficits in Oligodendrocyte Lineage Cells of the Basal Forebrain

    PubMed Central

    VonDran, Melissa W.; Clinton-Luke, Patricia; Honeywell, Jean Z.; Dreyfus, Cheryl F.

    2009-01-01

    Previous work indicated that BDNF, through the trkB receptor, increases DNA synthesis in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) and differentiation of post-mitotic oligodendrocytes (OLGs) of the basal forebrain (BF). In the present studies, BDNF knockout animals were used to investigate BDNF’s effects on OLG lineage cells (OLCs) in vivo. OLCs of the BF were found to express the trkB receptor, suggesting they are responsive to BDNF. Immunohistochemistry using NG2 and CC1 antibodies was utilized to examine numbers of NG2+ OPCs and CC1+ post-mitotic BF OLGs. In the embryo (E17), BDNF −/− animals display reduced NG2+ cells. This reduction was also observed in BDNF +/− mice at E17 and at postnatal day 1 (P1), P14 and adult, suggesting that BDNF plays a role in OPC development. BDNF +/− mice do not exhibit deficits in numbers of CC1+ OLGs. However, myelin basic protein (MBP), myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG), and proteolipid protein (PLP) are reduced in BDNF +/− mice, suggesting that BDNF plays a role in differentiation. These data indicate that progenitor cells and myelin proteins may be affected in vivo by a decrease in BDNF. PMID:20091777

  5. Metabolic Mapping of Rat Forebrain and Midbrain During Delay and Trace Eyeblink Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Plakke, Bethany; Freeman, John H.; Poremba, Amy

    2012-01-01

    While the essential neural circuitry for delay eyeblink conditioning has been largely identified, much of the neural circuitry for trace conditioning has yet to be determined. The major difference between delay and trace conditioning is a time gap between the presentation of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US) during trace conditioning. It is this time gap, which accounts for the additional memory component and may require extra neural structures, including hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. A metabolic marker of energy use, radioactively labeled glucose analog, was used to compare differences in glucose analog uptake between delay, trace, and unpaired experimental groups (rats, Long-Evans), to identify possible new areas of involvement within forebrain and midbrain. Here, we identify increased 2-DG uptake for the delay group compared to the unpaired group in various areas including: the medial geniculate nuclei (MGN), the amygdala, cingulate cortex, auditory cortex, medial dorsal thalamus, and frontal cortices. For the trace group, compared to the unpaired group, there was an increase in 2-DG uptake for the medial orbital frontal cortex and the medial MGN. The trace group also exhibited more increases lateralized to the right hemisphere, opposite to the side of US delivery, in various areas including: CA1, subiculum, presubiculum, perirhinal cortex, ventral and dorsal MGN, and the basolateral and central amygdala. While some of these areas have been identified as important for delay or trace conditioning, some new structures have been identified such as the orbital frontal cortex for both delay and trace groups. PMID:19376256

  6. Transcriptional Networks Controlled by NKX2-1 in the Development of Forebrain GABAergic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Magnus; Flandin, Pierre; Silberberg, Shanni; Su-Feher, Linda; Price, James D; Hu, Jia Sheng; Kim, Carol; Visel, Axel; Nord, Alex S; Rubenstein, John L R

    2016-09-21

    The embryonic basal ganglia generates multiple projection neurons and interneuron subtypes from distinct progenitor domains. Combinatorial interactions of transcription factors and chromatin are thought to regulate gene expression. In the medial ganglionic eminence, the NKX2-1 transcription factor controls regional identity and, with LHX6, is necessary to specify pallidal projection neurons and forebrain interneurons. Here, we dissected the molecular functions of NKX2-1 by defining its chromosomal binding, regulation of gene expression, and epigenetic state. NKX2-1 binding at distal regulatory elements led to a repressed epigenetic state and transcriptional repression in the ventricular zone. Conversely, NKX2-1 is required to establish a permissive chromatin state and transcriptional activation in the sub-ventricular and mantle zones. Moreover, combinatorial binding of NKX2-1 and LHX6 promotes transcriptionally permissive chromatin and activates genes expressed in cortical migrating interneurons. Our integrated approach provides a foundation for elucidating transcriptional networks guiding the development of the MGE and its descendants.

  7. Specification of Region-Specific Neurons Including Forebrain Glutamatergic Neurons from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Martins-Taylor, Kristen; Wang, Xiaofang; Zhang, Zheng; Park, Jung Woo; Zhan, Shuning; Kronenberg, Mark S.; Lichtler, Alexander; Liu, Hui-Xia; Chen, Fang-Ping; Yue, Lixia; Li, Xue-Jun; Xu, Ren-He

    2010-01-01

    Background Directed differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) into functional, region-specific neural cells is a key step to realizing their therapeutic promise to treat various neural disorders, which awaits detailed elucidation. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed neural differentiation from various hiPSC lines generated by others and ourselves. Although heterogeneity in efficiency of neuroepithelial (NE) cell differentiation was observed among different hiPSC lines, the NE differentiation process resembles that from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) in morphology, timing, transcriptional profile, and requirement for FGF signaling. NE cells differentiated from hiPSC, like those from hESC, can also form rostral phenotypes by default, and form the midbrain or spinal progenitors upon caudalization by morphogens. The rostrocaudal neural progenitors can further mature to develop forebrain glutamatergic projection neurons, midbrain dopaminergic neurons, and spinal motor neurons, respectively. Typical ion channels and action potentials were recorded in the hiPSC-derived neurons. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that hiPSC, regardless of how they were derived, can differentiate into a spectrum of rostrocaudal neurons with functionality, which supports the considerable value of hiPSC for study and treatment of patient-specific neural disorders. PMID:20686615

  8. A ketogenic diet accelerates neurodegeneration in mice with induced mitochondrial DNA toxicity in the forebrain.

    PubMed

    Lauritzen, Knut H; Hasan-Olive, Md Mahdi; Regnell, Christine E; Kleppa, Liv; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Gjedde, Albert; Klungland, Arne; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Storm-Mathisen, Jon; Bergersen, Linda H

    2016-12-01

    Mitochondrial genome maintenance plays a central role in preserving brain health. We previously demonstrated accumulation of mitochondrial DNA damage and severe neurodegeneration in transgenic mice inducibly expressing a mutated mitochondrial DNA repair enzyme (mutUNG1) selectively in forebrain neurons. Here, we examine whether severe neurodegeneration in mutUNG1-expressing mice could be rescued by feeding the mice a ketogenic diet, which is known to have beneficial effects in several neurological disorders. The diet increased the levels of superoxide dismutase 2, and mitochondrial mass, enzymes, and regulators such as SIRT1 and FIS1, and appeared to downregulate N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor subunits NR2A/B and upregulate γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptor subunits α1. However, unexpectedly, the ketogenic diet aggravated neurodegeneration and mitochondrial deterioration. Electron microscopy showed structurally impaired mitochondria accumulating in neuronal perikarya. We propose that aggravation is caused by increased mitochondrial biogenesis of generally dysfunctional mitochondria. This study thereby questions the dogma that a ketogenic diet is unambiguously beneficial in mitochondrial disorders.

  9. Statistical learning of recurring sound patterns encodes auditory objects in songbird forebrain.

    PubMed

    Lu, Kai; Vicario, David S

    2014-10-07

    Auditory neurophysiology has demonstrated how basic acoustic features are mapped in the brain, but it is still not clear how multiple sound components are integrated over time and recognized as an object. We investigated the role of statistical learning in encoding the sequential features of complex sounds by recording neuronal responses bilaterally in the auditory forebrain of awake songbirds that were passively exposed to long sound streams. These streams contained sequential regularities, and were similar to streams used in human infants to demonstrate statistical learning for speech sounds. For stimulus patterns with contiguous transitions and with nonadjacent elements, single and multiunit responses reflected neuronal discrimination of the familiar patterns from novel patterns. In addition, discrimination of nonadjacent patterns was stronger in the right hemisphere than in the left, and may reflect an effect of top-down modulation that is lateralized. Responses to recurring patterns showed stimulus-specific adaptation, a sparsening of neural activity that may contribute to encoding invariants in the sound stream and that appears to increase coding efficiency for the familiar stimuli across the population of neurons recorded. As auditory information about the world must be received serially over time, recognition of complex auditory objects may depend on this type of mnemonic process to create and differentiate representations of recently heard sounds.

  10. NKCC1 controls GABAergic signaling and neuroblast migration in the postnatal forebrain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    From an early postnatal period and throughout life there is a continuous production of olfactory bulb (OB) interneurons originating from neuronal precursors in the subventricular zone. To reach the OB circuits, immature neuroblasts migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS). In the present study, we employed cultured postnatal mouse forebrain slices and used lentiviral vectors to label neuronal precursors with GFP and to manipulate the expression levels of the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter NKCC1. We investigated the role of this Cl- transporter in different stages of postnatal neurogenesis, including neuroblast migration and integration in the OB networks once they have reached the granule cell layer (GCL). We report that NKCC1 activity is necessary for maintaining normal migratory speed. Both pharmacological and genetic manipulations revealed that NKCC1 maintains high [Cl-]i and regulates the resting membrane potential of migratory neuroblasts whilst its functional expression is strongly reduced at the time cells reach the GCL. As in other developing systems, NKCC1 shapes GABAA-dependent signaling in the RMS neuroblasts. Also, we show that NKCC1 controls the migration of neuroblasts in the RMS. The present study indeed indicates that the latter effect results from a novel action of NKCC1 on the resting membrane potential, which is independent of GABAA-dependent signaling. All in all, our findings show that early stages of the postnatal recruitment of OB interneurons rely on precise, orchestrated mechanisms that depend on multiple actions of NKCC1. PMID:21284844

  11. Cocaine self-administration in mice with forebrain knock-down of trpc5 ion channels.

    PubMed

    Pomrenze, Matthew B; Baratta, Michael V; Rasmus, Kristin C; Cadle, Brian A; Nakamura, Shinya; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Cooper, Donald C

    2013-01-01

    Canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels are a family of non-selective cation channels that play a crucial role in modulating neuronal excitability due to their involvement in intracellular Ca2+ regulation and dendritic growth. TRPC5 channels a) are one of the two most prevalent TRPC channels in the adult rodent brain; b) are densely expressed in deep layer pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex (PFC); and c) modulate neuronal persistent activity necessary for working memory and attention. In order to evaluate the causal role of TRPC5 in motivation/reward-related behaviors, conditional forebrain TRPC5 knock-down (trpc5-KD) mice were generated and trained to nose-poke for intravenous cocaine. Here we present a data set containing the first 6 days of saline or cocaine self-administration in wild type (WT) and trpc5-KD mice. In addition, we also present a data set showing the dose-response to cocaine after both groups had achieved similar levels of cocaine self-administration. Compared to WT mice, trpc5-KD mice exhibited an apparent increase in self-administration on the first day of cocaine testing without prior operant training. There were no apparent differences between WT and trpc5-KD mice for saline responding on the first day of training. Both groups showed similar dose-response sensitivity to cocaine after several days of achieving similar levels of cocaine intake.

  12. Cocaine self-administration in mice with forebrain knock-down of trpc5 ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Donald C

    2013-01-01

    Canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels are a family of non-selective cation channels that play a crucial role in modulating neuronal excitability due to their involvement in intracellular Ca2+ regulation and dendritic growth. TRPC5 channels a) are one of the two most prevalent TRPC channels in the adult rodent brain; b) are densely expressed in deep layer pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex (PFC); and c) modulate neuronal persistent activity necessary for working memory and attention. In order to evaluate the causal role of TRPC5 in motivation/reward-related behaviors, conditional forebrain TRPC5 knock-down (trpc5-KD) mice were generated and trained to nose-poke for intravenous cocaine. Here we present a data set containing the first 6 days of saline or cocaine self-administration in wild type (WT) and trpc5-KD mice. In addition, we also present a data set showing the dose-response to cocaine after both groups had achieved similar levels of cocaine self-administration. Compared to WT mice, trpc5-KD mice exhibited an apparent increase in self-administration on the first day of cocaine testing without prior operant training. There were no apparent differences between WT and trpc5-KD mice for saline responding on the first day of training. Both groups showed similar dose-response sensitivity to cocaine after several days of achieving similar levels of cocaine intake. PMID:24358869

  13. Nicotine administration in the wake-promoting basal forebrain attenuates sleep-promoting effects of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rishi; Lodhi, Shafi; Sahota, Pradeep; Thakkar, Mahesh M

    2015-10-01

    Nicotine and alcohol co-abuse is highly prevalent, although the underlying causes are unclear. It has been suggested that nicotine enhances pleasurable effects of alcohol while reducing aversive effects. Recently, we reported that nicotine acts via the basal forebrain (BF) to activate nucleus accumbens and increase alcohol consumption. Does nicotine suppress alcohol-induced aversive effects via the BF? We hypothesized that nicotine may act via the BF to suppress sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. To test this hypothesis, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with sleep-recording electrodes and bilateral guides targeted toward the BF. Nicotine (75 pmol/500 nL/side) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF; 500 nL/side) was microinjected into the BF followed by intragastric alcohol (ACSF + EtOH and NiC + EtOH groups; 3 g/kg) or water (NiC + W and ACSF + W groups; 10 mL/kg) administration. On completion, rats were killed and processed to localize injection sites in the BF. The statistical analysis revealed a significant effect of treatment on sleep-wakefulness. While rats exposed to alcohol (ACSF + EtOH) displayed strong sleep promotion, nicotine pre-treatment in the BF (NiC + EtOH) attenuated alcohol-induced sleep and normalized sleep-wakefulness. These results suggest that nicotine acts via the BF to suppress the aversive, sleep-promoting effects of alcohol, further supporting the role of BF in alcohol-nicotine co-use.

  14. Cell type-specific long-range connections of basal forebrain circuit

    PubMed Central

    Do, Johnny Phong; Xu, Min; Lee, Seung-Hee; Chang, Wei-Cheng; Zhang, Siyu; Chung, Shinjae; Yung, Tyler J; Fan, Jiang Lan; Miyamichi, Kazunari; Luo, Liqun; Dan, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) plays key roles in multiple brain functions, including sleep-wake regulation, attention, and learning/memory, but the long-range connections mediating these functions remain poorly characterized. Here we performed whole-brain mapping of both inputs and outputs of four BF cell types – cholinergic, glutamatergic, and parvalbumin-positive (PV+) and somatostatin-positive (SOM+) GABAergic neurons – in the mouse brain. Using rabies virus -mediated monosynaptic retrograde tracing to label the inputs and adeno-associated virus to trace axonal projections, we identified numerous brain areas connected to the BF. The inputs to different cell types were qualitatively similar, but the output projections showed marked differences. The connections to glutamatergic and SOM+ neurons were strongly reciprocal, while those to cholinergic and PV+ neurons were more unidirectional. These results reveal the long-range wiring diagram of the BF circuit with highly convergent inputs and divergent outputs and point to both functional commonality and specialization of different BF cell types. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13214.001 PMID:27642784

  15. Transcriptional Networks Controlled by NKX2-1 in the Development of Forebrain GABAergic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Magnus; Flandin, Pierre; Silberberg, Shanni; Su-Feher, Linda; Price, James D.; Hu, Jia Sheng; Kim, Carol; Visel, Axel; Nord, Alex S.; Rubenstein, John L.R.

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY The embryonic basal ganglia generates multiple projection neurons and interneuron subtypes from distinct progenitor domains. Combinatorial interactions of transcription factors and chromatin are thought to regulate gene expression. In the medial ganglionic eminence, the NKX2-1 transcription factor controls regional identity and, with LHX6, is necessary to specify pallidal projection neurons and forebrain interneurons. Here, we dissected the molecular functions of NKX2-1 by defining its chromosomal binding, regulation of gene expression, and epigenetic state. NKX2-1 binding at distal regulatory elements led to a repressed epigenetic state and transcriptional repression in the ventricular zone. Conversely, NKX2-1 is required to establish a permissive chromatin state and transcriptional activation in the sub-ventricular and mantle zones. Moreover, combinatorial binding of NKX2-1 and LHX6 promotes transcriptionally permissive chromatin and activates genes expressed in cortical migrating interneurons. Our integrated approach provides a foundation for elucidating transcriptional networks guiding the development of the MGE and its descendants. PMID:27657450

  16. Fos immunoreactivity in the rat forebrain induced by electrical stimulation of the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray matter.

    PubMed

    Lim, Lee Wei; Temel, Yasin; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Blokland, Arjan; Steinbusch, Harry

    2009-10-01

    Electrical stimulation of the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dlPAG) matter induces panic- or fear-like responses with intense emotional distress and severe anxiety. In this study, we evoked panic-like behaviour by dlPAG stimulation and evaluated the effect on neuronal activation in different brain regions. The number of c-Fos immunoreactive (c-Fos-ir) cells was measured semi-quantitatively through series of stained rat brain sections. Our results demonstrate strong neural activation in the medial prefrontal cortex, orbital cortex, anterior olfactory nuclei, secondary motor cortex, and the somatosensory cortex. Moderate increases in the number of c-Fos-ir cells were detected in various regions, including the hypothalamus, amygdala, and striatum. Additionally, there was mild expression of c-Fos-ir cells in the hippocampus, thalamus, and habenula regions. In conclusion, we have shown that deep brain stimulation of the dlPAG produced a distinctive pattern of neuronal activation across forebrain regions as compared to the sham and control animals.

  17. Brainstem stimulation increases functional connectivity of basal forebrain-paralimbic network in isoflurane-anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Siveshigan; Liu, Xiping; Baracskay, Péter; Hudetz, Anthony G

    2014-09-01

    Brain states and cognitive-behavioral functions are precisely controlled by subcortical neuromodulatory networks. Manipulating key components of the ascending arousal system (AAS), via deep-brain stimulation, may help facilitate global arousal in anesthetized animals. Here we test the hypothesis that electrical stimulation of the oral part of the pontine reticular nucleus (PnO) under light isoflurane anesthesia, associated with loss of consciousness, leads to cortical desynchronization and specific changes in blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) functional connectivity (FC) of the brain. BOLD signals were acquired simultaneously with frontal epidural electroencephalogram before and after PnO stimulation. Whole-brain FC was mapped using correlation analysis with seeds in major centers of the AAS. PnO stimulation produced cortical desynchronization, a decrease in δ- and θ-band power, and an increase in approximate entropy. Significant increases in FC after PnO stimulation occurred between the left nucleus Basalis of Meynert (NBM) as seed and numerous regions of the paralimbic network. Smaller increases in FC were present between the central medial thalamic nucleus and retrosplenium seeds and the left caudate putamen and NBM. The results suggest that, during light anesthesia, PnO stimulation preferentially modulates basal forebrain-paralimbic networks. We speculate that this may be a reflection of disconnected awareness.

  18. Regulation of GABA and benzodiazepine receptors following neurotoxin-induced striatal and medial forebrain bundle lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, H.S.I.

    1985-01-01

    GABA, a major inhibitory transmitter, is used by many projection neurons of the striatum. To investigate the role of GABA in striatal function, the GABA receptor complex was studied after lesions of the striatum or the nigrostriatal neurons. Quantitative receptor autoradiography using thaw-mounted tissue slices was developed for the study of GABA and benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptors. With the technique established, binding to GABA and BDZ receptors after unilateral striatal kainate lesions was examined. Subsequently, changes in GABA and BDZ receptors were studied following the destruction of dopaminergic nigrostriatal cells by unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the medial forebrain bundle. In summary, quantitative receptor autoradiography allowed the detection of GABA and BDZ receptor changes in multiple small areas in each lesioned brain. This technique made it feasible to carry out kinetic saturation, and competition studies using less than 1 mg of tissue. The data suggest that dopamine is functionally inhibitory on striatopallidal neurons but is functionally excitatory on striatoentopeduncular and striatonigral cells which in turn inhibit the thalamus. This quantitative autoradiographic technique can be generalized to study other transmitter receptors and can be combined with 2-deoxyglucose uptake studies.

  19. Quantitative autoradiography of muscarinic and benzodiazepine receptors in the forebrain of the turtle, Pseudemys scripta

    SciTech Connect

    Schlegel, J.R.; Kriegstein, A.R.

    1987-11-22

    The distribution of muscarinic and benzodiazepine receptors was investigated in the turtle forebrain by the technique of in vitro receptor autoradiography. Muscarinic binding sites were labeled with 1 nM /sup 3/H-quinuclidinyl benzilate (/sup 3/H-QNB), and benzodiazepine sites were demonstrated with the aid of 1 nM /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam (/sup 3/H-FLU). Autoradiograms generated on /sup 3/H-Ultrofilm apposed to tissue slices revealed regionally specific distributions of muscarinic and benzodiazepine binding sites that are comparable with those for mammalian brain. Dense benzodiazepine binding was found in the anterior olfactory nucleus, the lateral and dorsal cortices, and the dorsal ventricular ridge (DVR), a structure with no clear mammalian homologue. Muscarinic binding sites were most dense in the striatum, accumbens, DVR, lateral geniculate, and the anterior olfactory nucleus. Cortical binding sites were studied in greater detail by quantitative analysis of autoradiograms generated by using emulsion-coated coverslips. Laminar gradients of binding were observed that were specific for each radioligand; /sup 3/H-QNB sites were most dense in the inner molecular layer in all cortical regions, whereas /sup 3/H-FLU binding was generally most concentrated in the outer molecular layer and was least dense through all layers in the dorsomedial cortex. Because pyramidal cells are arranged in register in turtle cortex, the laminar patterns of receptor binding may reflect different receptor density gradients along pyramidal cell dendrites.

  20. INTACT AND INJURED ENDOTHELIAL CELLS DIFFERENTIALLY MODULATE POSTNATAL MURINE FOREBRAIN NEURAL STEM CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Plane, Jennifer M.; Andjelkovic, Anuska V.; Keep, Richard F.; Parent, Jack M.

    2010-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) persist in the forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ) within a niche containing endothelial cells. Evidence suggests that endothelial cells stimulate NSC expansion and neurogenesis. Experimental stroke increases neurogenesis and angiogenesis, but how endothelial cells influence stroke-induced neurogenesis is unknown. We hypothesized intact or oxygen-glucose deprived (OGD) endothelial cells secrete factors that enhance neurogenesis. We co-cultured mouse SVZ neurospheres (NS) with endothelial cells, or differentiated NS in endothelial cell-conditioned medium (ECCM). NS also were expanded in ECCM from OGD-exposed (OGD-ECCM) endothelial cells to assess injury effects. ECCM significantly increased NS production. NS co-cultured with endothelial cells or ECCM generated more immature-appearing neurons and oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes with radial glial-like/reactive morphology than controls. OGD-ECCM stimulated neuroblast migration and yielded neurons with longer processes and more branching. These data indicate that intact and injured endothelial cells exert differing effects on NSCs, and suggest targets for stimulating regeneration after brain insults. PMID:19837162

  1. The amygdala and basal forebrain as a pathway for motivationally guided attention.

    PubMed

    Peck, Christopher J; Salzman, C Daniel

    2014-10-08

    Visual stimuli associated with rewards attract spatial attention. Neurophysiological mechanisms that mediate this process must register both the motivational significance and location of visual stimuli. Recent neurophysiological evidence indicates that the amygdala encodes information about both of these parameters. Furthermore, the firing rate of amygdala neurons predicts the allocation of spatial attention. One neural pathway through which the amygdala might influence attention involves the intimate and bidirectional connections between the amygdala and basal forebrain (BF), a brain area long implicated in attention. Neurons in the rhesus monkey amygdala and BF were therefore recorded simultaneously while subjects performed a detection task in which the stimulus-reward associations of visual stimuli modulated spatial attention. Neurons in BF were spatially selective for reward-predictive stimuli, much like the amygdala. The onset of reward-predictive signals in each brain area suggested different routes of processing for reward-predictive stimuli appearing in the ipsilateral and contralateral fields. Moreover, neurons in the amygdala, but not BF, tracked trial-to-trial fluctuations in spatial attention. These results suggest that the amygdala and BF could play distinct yet inter-related roles in influencing attention elicited by reward-predictive stimuli.

  2. Analeptic activity produced by TRH microinjection into basal forebrain area of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Horita, A.; Carino, M.A.; Lai, H.

    1986-03-05

    Earlier, Kalivas and Horita demonstrated that the analeptic effect of TRH was mediated in part by cholinergic neurons in the medial septum-diagonal band of Broca (MS-DBB). Since the MS-DBB constitutes part of the cholinergic basal forebrain system, the present study investigated whether the area designated as the n. basalis of Meynert (NBM) was also sensitive to TRH in producing an antipentobarbital effect. Saline or TRH (0.5 ..mu..l) was microinjected via bilateral stainless steel cannulae implanted stereotaxically into the NBM using the coordinates of Wenk et al. Accuracy of cannula placement was confirmed by histological examination. Rats treated with PB (40 mg/kg, i.p.) lost their righting reflex for 130 +/- 28 min. Intrabasalis injection of TRH (but not saline) in doses of 0.1-1.0 ..mu..g exerted analeptic activity as follows: 0.1 ..mu..g = 81 +/- 21 min; 0.5 ..mu..g = 65 +/- 19 min; 1.0 ..mu..g = 45 +/- 10 min. All of these doses exerted significant shortening of narcosis duration of pentobarbitalized rats. The analeptic effect of TRH was blocked by atropine pretreatment, indicating that it was mediated via cholinergic mechanisms. High affinity, sodium-dependent /sup 3/H-choline uptake by cortical synaptosomes prepared from these animals was also increased by TRH. These results suggest that the cholinergic neurons of NBM are highly sensitive to TRH and contributes to the analeptic effect of TRH.

  3. Increased innervation of forebrain targets by midbrain dopaminergic neurons in the absence of FGF-2.

    PubMed

    Rumpel, R; Baron, O; Ratzka, A; Schröder, M-L; Hohmann, M; Effenberg, A; Claus, P; Grothe, C

    2016-02-09

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) regulate development and maintenance, and reduce vulnerability of neurons. FGF-2 is essential for survival of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons and is responsible for their dysplasia and disease-related degeneration. We previously reported that FGF-2 is involved in adequate forebrain (FB) target innervation by these neurons in an organotypic co-culture model. It remains unclear, how this ex-vivo phenotype relates to the in vivo situation, and which FGF-related signaling pathway is involved in this process. Here, we demonstrate that lack of FGF-2 results in an increased volume of the striatal target area in mice. We further add evidence that the low molecular weight (LMW) FGF-2 isoform is responsible for this phenotype, as this isoform is predominantly expressed in the embryonic ventral midbrain (VM) as well as in postnatal striatum (STR) and known to act via canonical transmembrane FGF receptor (FGFR) activation. Additionally, we confirm that the phenotype with an enlarged FB-target area by DA neurons can be mimicked in an ex-vivo explant model by inhibiting the canonical FGFR signaling, which resulted in decreased extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, while AKT activation remained unchanged.

  4. Excitatory Hindbrain-Forebrain Communication Is Required for Cisplatin-Induced Anorexia and Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Alhadeff, Amber L; Holland, Ruby A; Zheng, Huiyuan; Rinaman, Linda; Grill, Harvey J; De Jonghe, Bart C

    2017-01-11

    Cisplatin chemotherapy is commonly used to treat cancer despite severe energy balance side effects. In rats, cisplatin activates nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) projections to the lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN) and calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) projections from the lPBN to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). We demonstrated previously that CeA glutamate receptor signaling mediates cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss. Here, we used neuroanatomical tracing, immunofluorescence, and confocal imaging to demonstrate that virtually all NTS→lPBN and lPBN→CeA CGRP projections coexpress vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), providing evidence that excitatory projections mediate cisplatin-induced energy balance dysregulation. To test whether lPBN→CeA projection neurons are required for cisplatin-induced anorexia and weight loss, we inhibited these neurons chemogenetically using a retrograde Cre-recombinase-expressing canine adenovirus-2 in combination with Cre-dependent inhibitory Designer Receptors Exclusive Activated by Designer Drugs (DREADDs) before cisplatin treatment. Inhibition of lPBN→CeA neurons attenuated cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss significantly. Using a similar approach, we additionally demonstrated that inhibition of NTS→lPBN neurons attenuated cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss significantly. Together, our data support the view that excitatory hindbrain-forebrain projections are necessary for cisplatin's untoward effects on energy intake, elucidating a key neuroanatomical circuit driving pathological anorexia and weight loss that accompanies chemotherapy treatment.

  5. MK-801 is neuroprotective but does not improve survival in severe forebrain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Von Lubitz, D K; McKenzie, R J; Lin, R C; Devlin, T M; Skolnick, P

    1993-03-16

    The effects of MK-801 on postischemic recovery, survival and neuronal preservation in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum were studied in Mongolian gerbils. The drug was administered 30 min prior to 20 of min forebrain ischemia induced by bilateral ligation of the carotids. Neurological recovery and survival were monitored for 7 days. At the end of the monitoring period neuronal damage was analyzed in the brains of the survivors in both groups. Treatment with MK-801 did not improve either neurological recovery or end-point survival. However, significant (P < 0.01) neuronal protection was observed in the hippocampi and striata of the drug treated animals while cortical neurons were not significantly protected. These findings demonstrate that protection against ischemic neuronal damage can be observed without concomitant improvement in either postischemic neurological recovery or survival. Protection of selectively vulnerable brain regions, often used as the predictor of the therapeutic potential of an agent, does not appear to correlate well with postischemic survival in this animal model of ischemia.

  6. Propagated but Topologically Distributed Forebrain Neurons Expressing Alpha-Synuclein in Aged Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Katsuo; Inoue, Ken-ichi; Kuroiwa, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Takada, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    In neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), alpha-synuclein (α-syn) accumulates to induce cell death and/or form a cytoplasmic inclusion called Lewy body (LB). This α-syn-related pathology is termed synucleinopathy. It remains unclear how α-syn accumulation expands during the progress of synucleinopathy in the human brain. In our study, we investigated the patterns of distribution and propagation of forebrain neurons expressing α-syn in aged macaques. It was found that the occurrence of α-syn-positive neurons proceeded topologically based on the midbrain dopamine pathways arising from the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area where they were primarily observed. In the nigrostriatal or mesolimbic dopamine pathway, the age-dependent increase in α-syn-positive neurons was evident in the striatum or the nucleus accumbens, respectively. Concerning the nigrostriatal pathway, a mediolateral or rostrocaudal gradient was seen in the substantia nigra or the striatum, respectively, and a compensatory increase in dopamine transporter occurred in the striatum regardless of the decreased dopamine level. In the mesocortical dopamine pathway, α-syn-positive neurons appeared in the prefrontal and then motor areas of the frontal lobe. Given that neither LB formation nor clinical phenotype manifestation was detected in any of the monkeys examined in the present study, aged macaques may be useful as a potential presymptomatic model for PD and LB-related neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27861638

  7. BDNF Overexpression in the Forebrain Rescues Huntington’s Disease Phenotypes in YAC128 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yuxiang; Hayden, Michael R.; Xu, Baoji

    2010-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is caused by an expansion of the polyglutamine tract at the amino-terminus of huntingtin. This mutation reduces levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the striatum, likely by inhibiting cortical Bdnf gene expression and anterograde transport of BDNF from the cerebral cortex to the striatum. Substantial evidence suggests that this reduction of striatal BDNF plays a crucial role in HD pathogenesis. Here we report that overexpression of BDNF in the forebrain rescues many disease phenotypes in YAC128 mice that express a full-length human huntingtin mutant with a 128-glutamine tract. The Bdnf transgene, under the control of the promoter for α subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, greatly increased BDNF levels in the cerebral cortex and striatum. BDNF overexpression in YAC128 mice prevented loss and atrophy of striatal neurons