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Sample records for limit fire hazard

  1. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    SciTech Connect

    R. Longwell; J. Keifer; S. Goodin

    2001-01-22

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  2. Cables and fire hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanelli, C.; Philbrick, S.; Beretta, G.

    1986-01-01

    Besides describing the experiments conducted to develop a nonflammable cable, this article discusses several considerations regarding other hazards which might result from cable fires, particularly the toxicity and opacity of the fumes emitted by the burning cable. In addition, this article examines the effects of using the Oxygen Index as a gauge of quality control during manufacture.

  3. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Richard C. Logan

    2002-03-28

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment; Vital U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  4. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Kubicek

    2001-09-07

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire or related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment. (3) Vital US. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. (5) Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  5. Hazards of conveyor belt fires

    SciTech Connect

    Perzak, F.J.; Litton, C.D.; Mura, K.E.; Lazzara, C.P.

    1995-12-31

    This report describes a US Bureau of Mines study on the hazards of large-scale conveyor belt fires in underground coal mines, as a function of both air velocity and distance from belt surface to gallery roof. The fire hazards considered were smoke obscuration, toxic effects of carbon monoxide (CO), and elevated air temperatures downstream of the fire. All of these hazards scale with the ratio of fire intensity to ventilation airflow. These hazards were all found to be greater at the lower belt-to-roof distance, owing to the greater fire intensities that resulted. The hazards of smoke obscuration and elevated CO levels were greater at lower air velocities. Smoke obscuration was found to be the earliest hazard, reaching critical levels before the stages of flame spread. Fire growth rates during rapid flame spread were much greater than rates measured during the early stages of flame spread. Fire growth rates during rapid flame spread were much greater than rates measured during the early stages of belt burning. Data were analyzed to determine the early-warning capability of fire sensors. Smoke sensors provided the earliest warning, followed closely by CO sensors. Thermal sensors did not exhibit any early warning capability.

  6. Fire Hazards Analysis for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-01-06

    This documents the Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area. The Interim Storage Cask, Rad-Vault, and NAC-1 Cask are analyzed for fire hazards and the 200 Area Interim Storage Area is assessed according to HNF-PRO-350 and the objectives of DOE Order 5480 7A. This FHA addresses the potential fire hazards associated with the Interim Storage Area (ISA) facility in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480 7A. It is intended to assess the risk from fire to ensure there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public and to ensure property damage potential from fire is within acceptable limits. This FHA will be in the form of a graded approach commensurate with the complexity of the structure or area and the associated fire hazards.

  7. 32 CFR 935.161 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire hazards. 935.161 Section 935.161 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Public Safety § 935.161 Fire hazards. (a) Each person engaged in a business or other activity on Wake Island shall, at his expense, provide and maintain (in an accessible location) fire...

  8. Reducing fire hazard: balancing costs and outcomes.

    Treesearch

    Valerie. Rapp

    2004-01-01

    Massive wildfires in recent years have given urgency to questions of how to reduce fire hazard in Western forests, how to finance the work, and how to use the wood, especially in forests crowded with small trees. Scientists have already developed tools that estimate fire hazard in a forest stand. But hazard is more difficult to estimate at a landscape scale, involving...

  9. Fire hazards evaluation for light duty utility arm system

    SciTech Connect

    HUCKFELDT, R.A.

    1999-02-24

    In accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A, Fire Protection, a Fire Hazards Analysis must be performed for all new facilities. LMHC Fire Protection has reviewed and approved the significant documentation leading up to the LDUA operation. This includes, but is not limited to, development criteria and drawings, Engineering Task Plan, Quality Assurance Program Plan, and Safety Program Plan. LMHC has provided an appropriate level of fire protection for this activity as documented.

  10. Southwestern Oregon's Biscuit Fire: An Analysis of Forest Resources, Fire Severity, and Fire Hazard

    Treesearch

    David L. Azuma; Glenn A. Christensen

    2005-01-01

    This study compares pre-fire field inventory data (collected from 1993 to 1997) in relation to post-fire mapped fire severity classes and the Fire and Fuels Extension of the Forest Vegetation Simulator growth and yield model measures of fire hazard for the portion of the Siskiyou National Forest in the 2002 Biscuit fire perimeter of southwestern Oregon. Post-fire...

  11. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  12. 32 CFR 935.161 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire hazards. 935.161 Section 935.161 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Public Safety § 935.161 Fire hazards. (a) Each person engaged in a business or other activity on Wake Island shall, at his expense, provide and maintain (in an accessible location)...

  13. 32 CFR 935.161 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire hazards. 935.161 Section 935.161 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Public Safety § 935.161 Fire hazards. (a) Each person engaged in a business or other activity on Wake Island shall, at his expense, provide and maintain (in an accessible location)...

  14. 32 CFR 935.161 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire hazards. 935.161 Section 935.161 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Public Safety § 935.161 Fire hazards. (a) Each person engaged in a business or other activity on Wake Island shall, at his expense, provide and maintain (in an accessible location)...

  15. 32 CFR 935.161 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire hazards. 935.161 Section 935.161 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Public Safety § 935.161 Fire hazards. (a) Each person engaged in a business or other activity on Wake Island shall, at his expense, provide and maintain (in an accessible location)...

  16. Electrical Sitchgear Building No. 5010-ESF Fire Hazards Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    N.M. Ruonavaara

    2001-05-08

    The purpose of this Fire Hazards Analysis Technical Report (hereinafter referred to as Technical Report) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas to ascertain whether the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) fire safety objectives are met. The objectives, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Change 2, Fire Safety, Section 4.2, establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire or related event; (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of the employees, the public, and the environment; (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding defined limits established by DOE; and (5) Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related event.

  17. Surface Fire Hazards Analysis Technical Report-Constructor Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    R.E. Flye

    2000-10-24

    The purpose of this Fire Hazards Analysis Technical Report (hereinafter referred to as Technical Report) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas to ascertain whether the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) fire safety objectives are met. The objectives identified in DOE Order 420.1, Change 2, Facility Safety, Section 4.2, establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public, or the environment; Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding defined limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  18. Repository Subsurface Preliminary Fire Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Richard C. Logan

    2001-07-30

    This fire hazard analysis identifies preliminary design and operations features, fire, and explosion hazards, and provides a reasonable basis to establish the design requirements of fire protection systems during development and emplacement phases of the subsurface repository. This document follows the Technical Work Plan (TWP) (CRWMS M&O 2001c) which was prepared in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''; Attachment 4 of AP-ESH-008, ''Hazards Analysis System''; and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''. The objective of this report is to establish the requirements that provide for facility nuclear safety and a proper level of personnel safety and property protection from the effects of fire and the adverse effects of fire-extinguishing agents.

  19. The Elimination of Fire Hazard Due to Back Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, Theodore; Freeman, Ira M

    1933-01-01

    A critical study was made of the operation of a type of back-fire arrester used to reduce the fire hazard of aircraft engines. A flame arrester consisting of a pack or plug of alternate flat and corrugated plates of thin metal was installed in the intake pipe of a gasoline engines; an auxiliary spark plug inserted in the intake manifold permitted the production of artificial back fires at will. It was found possible to design a plug which prevented all back fires from reaching the carburetor.

  20. Fire hazard analysis for the fuel supply shutdown storage buildings

    SciTech Connect

    REMAIZE, J.A.

    2000-09-27

    The purpose of a fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire and other perils within individual fire areas in a DOE facility in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE 5480.7A, Fire Protection, are met. This Fire Hazards Analysis was prepared as required by HNF-PRO-350, Fire Hazards Analysis Requirements, (Reference 7) for a portion of the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility.

  1. Solving Another Fire Hazard Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trunko, Michael E.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how rooftop grease containment systems can protect college roofs and prevent fires. Included are the rules and regulations for grease containment systems and tips for choosing a system. (GR)

  2. Solving Another Fire Hazard Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trunko, Michael E.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how rooftop grease containment systems can protect college roofs and prevent fires. Included are the rules and regulations for grease containment systems and tips for choosing a system. (GR)

  3. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; forest structure and fire hazard fact sheet 02: fire hazard

    Treesearch

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Fire hazard reflects the potential fire behavior and magnitude of effects as a function of fuel conditions. This fact sheet discusses crown fuels, surface fuels, and ground fuels and their contribution and involvement in wildland fire.Other publications in this series...

  4. 327 Building fire hazards analysis implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    BARILO, N.F.

    1999-05-10

    In March 1998, the 327 Building Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) (Reference 1) was approved by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-E) for implementation by B and W Hanford Company (BWC). The purpose of the FHA was to identify gaps in compliance with DOE Order 5480.7A (Reference 2) and Richland Operations Office Implementation Directive (RLID) 5480.7 (Reference 3), especially in regard to loss limitation. The FHA identified compliance gaps in five areas and provided nine recommendations (11 items) to bring the 327 Building into compliance. A status is provided for each recommendation in this document. BWHC will use this Implementation Plan to bring the 327 Building and its operation into compliance with DOE Order 5480.7A and IUD 5480.7.

  5. Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence

    Treesearch

    Sean A. Parks; Carol Miller; Lisa M. Holsinger; Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird

    2016-01-01

    Several aspects of wildland fire are moderated by site- and landscape-level vegetation changes caused by previous fire, thereby creating a dynamic where one fire exerts a regulatory control on subsequent fire. For example, wildland fire has been shown to regulate the size and severity of subsequent fire. However, wildland fire has the potential to influence...

  6. Fire Hazards of Windowless Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juillerat, Ernest E.

    1964-01-01

    In response to the fast growing prominence of windowless buildings due to potential or possible aesthetic, psychological, and economic advantages, this article was written to discuss--(1) effects of windowless construction on the life safety of building occupants, (2) the possible extents of fire damage to the building and its contents, and (3)…

  7. Fire Hazards of Windowless Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juillerat, Ernest E.

    1964-01-01

    In response to the fast growing prominence of windowless buildings due to potential or possible aesthetic, psychological, and economic advantages, this article was written to discuss--(1) effects of windowless construction on the life safety of building occupants, (2) the possible extents of fire damage to the building and its contents, and (3)…

  8. Fire hazards analysis of transuranic waste storage and assay facility

    SciTech Connect

    Busching, K.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    This document analyzes the fire hazards associated with operations at the Central Waste Complex. It provides the analysis and recommendations necessary to ensure compliance with applicable fire codes.

  9. 46 CFR 71.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hazards. 71.25-45 Section 71.25-45 Shipping COAST... Inspection § 71.25-45 Fire hazards. (a) At each annual inspection, the inspector shall examine the tank tons... fire hazard. (b) ...

  10. 46 CFR 189.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hazards. 189.25-45 Section 189.25-45 Shipping COAST... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-45 Fire hazards. At each inspection for certification and... that there is no accumulation of oil which might create a fire hazard. ...

  11. 46 CFR 91.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire hazards. 91.25-45 Section 91.25-45 Shipping COAST... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-45 Fire hazards. (a) At each inspection for certification and... that there is no accumulation of oil which might create a fire hazard. ...

  12. 46 CFR 91.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire hazards. 91.25-45 Section 91.25-45 Shipping COAST... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-45 Fire hazards. (a) At each inspection for certification and... that there is no accumulation of oil which might create a fire hazard....

  13. 46 CFR 71.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hazards. 71.25-45 Section 71.25-45 Shipping COAST... Inspection § 71.25-45 Fire hazards. (a) At each annual inspection, the inspector shall examine the tank tons... fire hazard. (b)...

  14. 46 CFR 189.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hazards. 189.25-45 Section 189.25-45 Shipping COAST... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-45 Fire hazards. At each inspection for certification and... that there is no accumulation of oil which might create a fire hazard....

  15. 46 CFR 91.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire hazards. 91.25-45 Section 91.25-45 Shipping COAST... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-45 Fire hazards. (a) At each inspection for certification and... that there is no accumulation of oil which might create a fire hazard....

  16. 46 CFR 71.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hazards. 71.25-45 Section 71.25-45 Shipping COAST... Inspection § 71.25-45 Fire hazards. (a) At each annual inspection, the inspector shall examine the tank tons... fire hazard. (b)...

  17. 46 CFR 189.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hazards. 189.25-45 Section 189.25-45 Shipping COAST... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-45 Fire hazards. At each inspection for certification and... that there is no accumulation of oil which might create a fire hazard....

  18. 46 CFR 189.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire hazards. 189.25-45 Section 189.25-45 Shipping COAST... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-45 Fire hazards. At each inspection for certification and... that there is no accumulation of oil which might create a fire hazard....

  19. 46 CFR 71.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire hazards. 71.25-45 Section 71.25-45 Shipping COAST... Inspection § 71.25-45 Fire hazards. (a) At each annual inspection, the inspector shall examine the tank tons... fire hazard. (b)...

  20. 46 CFR 91.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire hazards. 91.25-45 Section 91.25-45 Shipping COAST... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-45 Fire hazards. (a) At each inspection for certification and... that there is no accumulation of oil which might create a fire hazard....

  1. 46 CFR 91.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire hazards. 91.25-45 Section 91.25-45 Shipping COAST... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-45 Fire hazards. (a) At each inspection for certification and... that there is no accumulation of oil which might create a fire hazard....

  2. 46 CFR 71.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire hazards. 71.25-45 Section 71.25-45 Shipping COAST... Inspection § 71.25-45 Fire hazards. (a) At each annual inspection, the inspector shall examine the tank tons... fire hazard. (b)...

  3. 46 CFR 189.25-45 - Fire hazards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire hazards. 189.25-45 Section 189.25-45 Shipping COAST... CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-45 Fire hazards. At each inspection for certification and... that there is no accumulation of oil which might create a fire hazard....

  4. Fire hazards analysis for solid waste burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-09-28

    This document comprises the fire hazards analysis for the solid waste burial grounds, including TRU trenches, low-level burial grounds, radioactive mixed waste trenches, etc. It analyzes fire potential, and fire damage potential for these facilities. Fire scenarios may be utilized in future safety analysis work, or for increasing the understanding of where hazards may exist in the present operation.

  5. Fire Hazard Analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, B.H.

    1999-08-19

    This Fire Hazard Analysis assesses the risk from fire within individual fire areas in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility at the Hanford Site in relation to existing or proposed fire protection features to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE Order 5480.7A Fire Protection are met.

  6. Syncrude`s fire hazard index priorities risks

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, B.

    1997-05-01

    To quantify fire hazard risks within large production facilities and help establish priorities for additional fire controls, Syncrude Canada Ltd. created a fire hazard index, to identify high-priority risks. The fire hazard index scoring system assigns a number score to each facility or work area. The numerical score represents the composite fire risk associated with the area of concern. The resulting scores are used as a comparative tool to determine which fire risks receive top priority for additional controls and fire inspections/surveys. Unlike other fire hazard indices, the Syncrude index can be used for all facilities regardless of whether they handle flammable material. As a result, the potential fire hazard associated with vehicles, shops, offices, computer rooms, and mechanical equipment can be assessed. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. A method for mapping fire hazard and risk across multiple scales and its application in fire management

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Keane; Stacy A. Drury; Eva C. Karau; Paul F. Hessburg; Keith M. Reynolds

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents modeling methods for mapping fire hazard and fire risk using a research model called FIREHARM (FIRE Hazard and Risk Model) that computes common measures of fire behavior, fire danger, and fire effects to spatially portray fire hazard over space. FIREHARM can compute a measure of risk associated with the distribution of these measures over time using...

  8. Understanding of urban hazards, fire, and tsunamis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hays, Walter W.; ,

    1997-01-01

    Understanding of the causes and solutions of an urban area's (e.g., Los Angeles, San Diego, San Francisco, Oakland, Seattle, Portland, Anchorage, Salt Lake City, Memphis, St. Louis, Charleston, Boston, San Juan) vulnerability to earthquakes, fire, and tsunamis has increased significantly during the past 50 years, and during the current International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR). Vulnerability is caused by flaws in planning, siting, design, construction, and use. It is fundamentally dependent upon the hazard, built, and policy environments of the urban area. Reduction of vulnerability is directly related to the decision-making process that calls for the adoption and enforcement of risk management programs (e.g., mitigation, preparedness, emergency response, and recovery measures) that are designed to make the urban area resilient to earthquakes, fires, and, as appropriate, tsunamis.

  9. Evaluation of fire hazard inspection procedures in Butte County, California

    Treesearch

    William S. Folkman

    1967-01-01

    To assess effectiveness of fire hazard inspection procedures in securing compliance with fire safety requirements, effects of different types and combinations of contacts and timing were determined, and the production capacity of inspectors measured. It was demonstrated that fire law inspection is as much fire prevention education and engineering as it is law...

  10. Fire Hazards Analysis for the Inactive Equipment Storage Sprung Structure

    SciTech Connect

    MYOTT, C.F.

    2000-02-03

    The purpose of the analysis is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the fire protection objective of DOE Order 5480.1A are met. The order acknowledges a graded approach commensurate with the hazards involved.

  11. Fire-hazard control during coal handling

    SciTech Connect

    McGraw, M.G.

    1984-03-01

    The potential for serious power plant fires and explosions is growing along with the increased use of volatile, low-sulfur coal use and environmental regulations requiring closed conveyor systems for handling coal. The volume of coal handled and the range of physical characteristics in different coals intensifies the problem. Western coal produces more dust because it is more friable than eastern coal and is more prone to sponaneous combustion. Closed storage and handling systems increase the hazards of methane and carbon monoxide. The article described prevention, detection, and firefighting techniques, and notes that a variety of systems is needed to cover all the hazards. Human behavior and coordination are also essential ingredients. ll figures.

  12. Limiting the immediate and subsequent hazards associated with wildfires

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeGraff, Jerome V.; Cannon, Susan H.; Parise, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Similarly, our capability to limit impacts from post-fire debris flows is improving. Empirical models for estimating the probability of debris-flow occurrence, the volume of such an event, and mapping the inundated area, linked with improved definitions of the rainfall conditions that trigger debris flows, can be used to provide critical information for post-fire hazard mitigation and emergency-response planning.

  13. Chemical Safety Alert: Fire Hazard from Carbon Adsorption Deodorizing Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Activated carbon systems used to adsorb vapors for odor control may pose a fire hazard when used for certain types of substances, such as crude sulfate turpentine. Facilities should take precautions and proper procedures to avoid or mitigate these hazards.

  14. Phase 2 fire hazard analysis for the canister storage building

    SciTech Connect

    Sadanaga, C.T., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    The fire hazard analysis assesses the risk from fire in a facility to ascertain whether the fire protection policies are met. This document provides a preliminary FHA for the CSB facility. Open items have been noted in the document. A final FHA will be required at the completion of definitive design, prior to operation of the facility.

  15. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; forest structure and fire hazard fact sheet 01: forest structure and fire hazard overview

    Treesearch

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Many managers and policymakers guided by the National Environmental Policy Act process want to understand the scientific principles on which they can base fuel treatments for reducing the size and severity of wildfires. These Forest Structure and Fire Hazard fact sheets discuss how to estimate fire hazard, how to visualize fuel treatments, and how the role of...

  16. Potential Operating Room Fire Hazard of Bone Cement.

    PubMed

    Sibia, Udai S; Connors, Kevin; Dyckman, Sarah; Zahiri, Hamid R; George, Ivan; Park, Adrian E; MacDonald, James H

    Approximately 600 cases of operating room (OR) fires are reported annually. Despite extensive fire safety education and training, complete elimination of OR fires still has not been achieved. Each fire requires an ignition source, a fuel source, and an oxidizer. In this case report, we describe the potential fire hazard of bone cement in the OR. A total knee arthroplasty was performed with a standard medial parapatellar arthrotomy. Tourniquet control was used. After bone cement was applied to the prepared tibial surface, the surgeon used an electrocautery device to resect residual lateral meniscus tissue-and started a fire in the operative field. The surgeon suffocated the fire with a dry towel and prevented injury to the patient. We performed a PubMed search with a cross-reference search for relevant papers and found no case reports outlining bone cement as a potential fire hazard in the OR. To our knowledge, this is the first case report identifying bone cement as a fire hazard. OR fires related to bone cement can be eliminated by correctly assessing the setting time of the cement and avoiding application sites during electrocautery.

  17. Fire hazards analysis for W030 tank farm ventilation upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Huckfeldt, R.A.

    1996-07-17

    This Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) was prepared according to the requirements of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.7A,FIRE PROTECTION, 2-17-93. The purpose of this FHA is to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE 5480.7A are being met. This purpose is accomplished through a conservative comprehensive assessment of the risk from fire and other perils within individual fire areas of a DOE facility in relation to proposed fire protection. This FHA is based on conditions set forth within this document and is valid only under these conditions.

  18. Analysis of fire and explosion hazards of some hydrocarbon-air mixtures.

    PubMed

    Lizhong, Y; Weicheng, F; Xiaodong, Z; Qing'an, W

    2001-06-29

    Hazards caused by leakage of hydrocarbons have long been a problem. In this paper, the critical initiation energy and explosion limits of some hydrocarbon-air mixtures have been measured in confined (rectangle shock tube) and unconfined (plastic bag) condition tests. Two dimensionless parameters are suggested to compare the fire and explosion hazards of different hydrocarbons. Additionally, a series of experiments was performed to determine the influence of chemical additives on the fire and explosion hazards of some hydrocarbon-air mixtures in confined (rectangle shock tube) tests. These results relate directly to flammability and reactivity of hydrocarbon air mixtures. Such measurements are very important for hydrocarbon safety.

  19. A practical approach to fire hazard analysis for offshore structures.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Joel; Smith, Duncan

    2003-11-14

    Offshore quantitative risk assessments (QRA) have historically been complex and costly. For large offshore design projects, the level of detail required for a QRA is often not available until well into the detailed design phase of the project. In these cases, the QRA may be unable to provide timely hazard understanding. As a result, the risk reduction measures identified often come too late to allow for cost effective changes to be implemented. This forces project management to make a number of difficult or costly decisions. This paper demonstrates how a scenario-based approached to fire risk assessment can be effectively applied early in a project's development. The scenario or design basis fire approach calculates the consequence of a select number of credible fire scenarios, determines the potential impact on the platform process equipment, structural members, egress routes, safety systems, and determines the effectiveness of potential options for mitigation. The early provision of hazard data allows the project team to select an optimum design that is safe and will meet corporate or regulatory risk criteria later in the project cycle. The focus of this paper is on the application of the scenario-based approach to gas jet fires. This paper draws on recent experience in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and other areas to outline an approach to fire hazard analysis and fire hazard management for deep-water structures. The methods presented will include discussions from the recent June 2002 International Workshop for Fire Loading and Response.

  20. Expert system for mine supervising staff, fire hazard monitoring and fire-fighting

    SciTech Connect

    Dziurzynski, W.; Wasilewski, S.

    1999-07-01

    The paper presents the functions of an expert system designed for mine supervising staff responsible for fire hazard monitoring and fire-fighting. The essence of the system is to gather the complete data from hazard monitoring systems and the results of manual measurements made by ventilation staff in a common database. The database can be used for analysis and engineering calculation employed in mine ventilation supervision and also for the prevention against natural hazards, in particular fire and methane. Hardware and software tools developed within the framework of the system will also be used during rescue operation.

  1. [Fire and explosion hazard during oxygen use in operating rooms].

    PubMed

    Kalkman, C J; Romijn, C; van Rheineck Leyssius, A T

    2008-06-07

    In both 2006 and 2007 a large operating room fire occurred in the Netherlands. One patient died as a result of a sudden intense flash fire caused by a leaking oxygen connection. Smaller operating room fires can cause severe burn injuries and inhalation trauma in patients. An oxygen-enriched atmosphere is an important causative factor in most surgical fires. Inflammable substances and ignition sources, such as a diathermic knife or laser, may be present in the operating theatre and environs. The combination of these 3 components (fuel, oxygen and ignition) increases the risk of operation room fires. Prevention and control of this hazard depends on removal of one or more of the 3 components.

  2. Fire hazard considerations for composites in vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Rex B.

    1994-01-01

    Military ground vehicles fires are a significant cause of system loss, equipment damage, and crew injury in both combat and non-combat situations. During combat, the ability to successfully fight an internal fire, without losing fighting and mobility capabilities, is often the key to crew survival and mission success. In addition to enemy hits in combat, vehicle fires are initiated by electrical system failures, fuel line leaks, munitions mishaps and improper personnel actions. If not controlled, such fires can spread to other areas of the vehicle, causing extensive damage and the potential for personnel injury and death. The inherent fire safety characteristics (i.e. ignitability, compartments of these vehicles play a major roll in determining rather a newly started fire becomes a fizzle or a catastrophe. This paper addresses a systems approach to assuring optimum vehicle fire safety during the design phase of complex vehicle systems utilizing extensive uses of composites, plastic and related materials. It provides practical means for defining the potential fire hazard risks during a conceptual design phase, and criteria for the selection of composite materials based on its fire safety characteristics.

  3. Fire hazard analysis for Plutonium Finishing Plant complex

    SciTech Connect

    MCKINNIS, D.L.

    1999-02-23

    A fire hazards analysis (FHA) was performed for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Complex at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The scope of the FHA focuses on the nuclear facilities/structures in the Complex. The analysis was conducted in accordance with RLID 5480.7, [DOE Directive RLID 5480.7, 1/17/94] and DOE Order 5480.7A, ''Fire Protection'' [DOE Order 5480.7A, 2/17/93] and addresses each of the sixteen principle elements outlined in paragraph 9.a(3) of the Order. The elements are addressed in terms of the fire protection objectives stated in paragraph 4 of DOE 5480.7A. In addition, the FHA also complies with WHC-CM-4-41, Fire Protection Program Manual, Section 3.4 [1994] and WHC-SD-GN-FHA-30001, Rev. 0 [WHC, 1994]. Objectives of the FHA are to determine: (1) the fire hazards that expose the PFP facilities, or that are inherent in the building operations, (2) the adequacy of the fire safety features currently located in the PFP Complex, and (3) the degree of compliance of the facility with specific fire safety provisions in DOE orders, related engineering codes, and standards.

  4. Spatial patterning of fuels and fire hazard across a central U.S. deciduous forest region

    Treesearch

    Michael C. Stambaugh; Daniel C. Dey; Richard P. Guyette; Hong S. He; Joseph M. Marschall

    2011-01-01

    Information describing spatial and temporal variability of forest fuel conditions is essential to assessing overall fire hazard and risk. Limited information exists describing spatial characteristics of fuels in the eastern deciduous forest region, particularly in dry oak-dominated regions that historically burned relatively frequently. From an extensive fuels survey...

  5. Fire hazard and other safety concerns of PV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2011-09-01

    Photovoltaic modules are usually considered safe and reliable. But in case of grid-connected PV systems that are becoming very popular, the issue of fire safety of PV modules is becoming increasingly important due to the employed high voltages of 600 V to 1000 V. The two main factors i.e. open circuiting of the bypass diode and ground fault that are responsible for the fire in the PV systems have been discussed in detail along with numerous real life examples. Recommendations are provided for preventing the fire hazards such as having at least class C fire rated PV modules, proper bypass and blocking diodes and interestingly, having an ungrounded PV system.

  6. Hazards Management in Grand County, Colorado-Fire Fuels Characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Christopher; Lile, Elizabeth; Briggs, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The USGS Fire Science Initiative is designed to identify potential wildfire risks and related hazards and to mitigate their effects on people, property, and natural resources. The USGS Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC) plays an integral role in the fire science demonstration project targeting Grand County, Colo., which uses remote sensing imagery, other geospatial data, and advanced classification techniques to produce inventories and assessments of the current state of the ecosystem. The data gathered - extent of tree mortality and insect infestation, changes in fire fuels, susceptibility to post-fire effects, distribution of wildland-urban interface areas, etc. - will give much needed information to decisionmakers on the Federal, State, and local levels.

  7. LNG fires: a review of experimental results, models and hazard prediction challenges.

    PubMed

    Raj, Phani K

    2007-02-20

    A number of experimental investigations of LNG fires (of sizes 35 m diameter and smaller) were undertaken, world wide, during the 1970s and 1980s to study their physical and radiative characteristics. This paper reviews the published data from several of these tests including from the largest test to date, the 35 m, Montoir tests. Also reviewed in this paper is the state of the art in modeling LNG pool and vapor fires, including thermal radiation hazard modeling. The review is limited to considering the integral and semi-empirical models (solid flame and point source); CFD models are not reviewed. Several aspects of modeling LNG fires are reviewed including, the physical characteristics, such as the (visible) fire size and shape, tilt and drag in windy conditions, smoke production, radiant thermal output, etc., and the consideration of experimental data in the models. Comparisons of model results with experimental data are indicated and current deficiencies in modeling are discussed. The requirements in the US and European regulations related to LNG fire hazard assessment are reviewed, in brief, in the light of model inaccuracies, criteria for hazards to people and structures, and the effects of mitigating circumstances. The paper identifies: (i) critical parameters for which there exist no data, (ii) uncertainties and unknowns in modeling and (iii) deficiencies and gaps in current regulatory recipes for predicting hazards.

  8. 76 FR 70408 - Information Collection; Understanding Value Trade-Offs Regarding Fire Hazard Reduction Programs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Understanding Value Trade-Offs Regarding Fire Hazard Reduction... approved information collection, Understanding Value Trade-offs Regarding Fire Hazard Reduction Programs in...-offs Regarding Fire Hazard Reduction Programs in the Wildland-Urban Interface. OMB Number:...

  9. SYNTHESIS OF SAFETY ANALYSIS AND FIRE HAZARD ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-04-17

    Successful implementation of both the nuclear safety program and fire protection program is best accomplished using a coordinated process that relies on sound technical approaches. When systematically prepared, the documented safety analysis (DSA) and fire hazard analysis (FHA) can present a consistent technical basis that streamlines implementation. If not coordinated, the DSA and FHA can present inconsistent conclusions, which can create unnecessary confusion and can promulgate a negative safety perception. This paper will compare the scope, purpose, and analysis techniques for DSAs and FHAs. It will also consolidate several lessons-learned papers on this topic, which were prepared in the 1990s.

  10. Buses as fire hazards: a Swedish problem only? Suggestions for fire-prevention measures.

    PubMed

    Huss, Fredrik R M; Erlandsson, U; Sjöberg, F

    2004-01-01

    In Sweden, approximately 6% of all human transportation is made via buses. The Swedish Board of Accident Investigation and the Swedish Rescue Services Agency have pointed out repeatedly that buses are potential fire and burn hazards, not only when involved in collisions but also in other circumstances. The number of fire incidents is increasing, especially in newer buses. In conjunction with the Swedish Rescue Services Agency, we examined some of the recent bus fires in Sweden. We did not find any casualties, but the results of our study suggest that casualties as a result of bus fires are imminent unless preventive measures are taken. We also studied experiences from previous bus fires and suggest preventive measures.

  11. Fire hazard analysis for Project W-320 Tank 241-C-106 waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, J.C.

    1995-09-12

    This Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for Project W-320, `Tank 241-C-106 Waste Retrieval` addresses fire hazards or fire related concerns in accordance with DOE 5480.7A (DOE 1998), resulting from or related to the processes and equipment to be installed or modified under Project W-320 to ensure that there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public; the potential for the occurrence of a fire is minimized, process control and safety systems are not damaged by fire or related perils; and property damage from fire and related perils does not exceed an acceptable level.

  12. Fire hazard and other safety concerns of photovoltaic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Shiradkar, Narendra S.

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules are usually considered safe and reliable. But in case of grid-connected PV systems that are becoming popular, the issue of fire safety of PV modules is becoming increasingly important due to the employed high voltages of 600 to 1000 V. The two main factors, i.e., open circuiting of the dc circuit and of the bypass diodes and ground faults that are responsible for the fire in the PV systems, have been discussed in detail along with numerous real life examples. Recommendations are provided for preventing the fire hazards such as designing the PV array mounting system to minimize the chimney effect, having proper bypass and blocking diodes, and interestingly, having an ungrounded PV system.

  13. Fire hazard reduction of hollow glass microspheres in thermoplastic polyurethane composites.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Chuanmei; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Shaoxiang; Chen, Xilei

    2017-06-15

    Nowadays, reducing the fire hazard of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) is an important research direction in the fields of fire safety materials. In this article, hollow glass microsphere (HGM) was used to reduce the fire hazard of TPU in combustion process. The fire characteristics including smoke and heat production of TPU composites were evaluated using smoke density test (SDT) and cone calorimeter test (CCT). And the thermal decomposition and flammable properties were further studied using thermogravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry (TG-IR) and limiting oxygen index (LOI), etc. The SDT results showed that the luminous flux (LF) of TPU4 containing 2.00wt% HGM was up to 24% at the end of test without flame, which is much higher than that of TPU0 (5%). And, the CCT results indicated that 2.00wt% HGM could make the total smoke release (TSR) decrease from 1019m(2)/m(2) (TPU0) to 757m(2)/m(2) (TPU4), reduced by 26%. The TG-IR results confirmed that HGM could improve the thermal stability of composites and reduce the production of some toxic gases. The above results illustrated HGM had a good prospect in reducing the fire hazard for TPU. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A strategic assessment of crown fire hazard in Montana: potential effectiveness and costs of hazard reduction treatments.

    Treesearch

    Carl E. Fiedler; Charles E. Keegan; Christopher W. Woodall; Todd A. Morgan

    2004-01-01

    Estimates of crown fire hazard are presented for existing forest conditions in Montana by density class, structural class, forest type, and landownership. Three hazard reduction treatments were evaluated for their effectiveness in treating historically fire-adapted forests (ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.), Douglas-fir (...

  15. Thinning and prescribed fire and projected trends in wood product potential, financial return, and fire hazard in Montana.

    Treesearch

    R. James Barbour; Roger D. Fight; Glenn A. Christensen; Guy L. Pinjuv; Rao V. Nagubadi

    2004-01-01

    This work was undertaken under a joint fire science project "Assessing the need, costs, and potential benefits of prescribed fire and mechanical treatments to reduce fire hazard." This paper compares the future mix of timber products under two treatment scenarios for the state of Montana. We developed and demonstrated an analytical method that uses readily...

  16. Thinning and prescribed fire and projected trends in wood product potential, financial return, and fire hazard in New Mexico.

    Treesearch

    Roger D. Fight; R. James Barbour; Glenn Christensen; Guy L. Pinjuv; Rao V. Nagubadi

    2004-01-01

    This work was undertaken under a joint fire science project "Assessing the need, costs, and potential benefits of prescribed fire and mechanical treatments to reduce fire hazard." This paper compares the future mix of timber projects under two treatment scenarios for New Mexico.We developed and demonstrated an analytical method that uses readily available...

  17. Reduction of Fire Hazard in Materials for Irrigators and Water Collectors in Cooling Towers

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, N. V.; Konstantinova, N. I.; Gordon, E. P.; Poedintsev, E. A.

    2016-09-15

    A way of reducing the fire hazard of PVC film used to make cooling-tower irrigators and water collectors is examined. A new generation of fire retardant, nanostructured magnesium hydroxide, is used to impart fire retardant properties. The fabrication technology is optimized with a roller-calendering manufacturing technique, and the permissible ranges of fire hazard indicators for materials in irrigators and water collectors are determined.

  18. Fire hazards analysis for the uranium oxide (UO{sub 3}) facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.M.

    1994-12-06

    The Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) documents the deactivation end-point status of the UO{sub 3} complex fire hazards, fire protection and life safety systems. This FHA has been prepared for the Uranium Oxide Facility by Westinghouse Hanford Company in accordance with the criteria established in DOE 5480.7A, Fire Protection and RLID 5480.7, Fire Protection. The purpose of the Fire Hazards Analysis is to comprehensively and quantitatively assess the risk from a fire within individual fire areas in a Department of Energy facility so as to ascertain whether the objectives stated in DOE Order 5480.7, paragraph 4 are met. Particular attention has been paid to RLID 5480.7, Section 8.3, which specifies the criteria for deactivating fire protection in decommission and demolition facilities.

  19. VIIRS Unique Fires Compared to the NOAA Hazard Mapping System Fire Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruminski, M.; Liddick, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite provides radiometric measurements for automated fire detection. The baseline VIIRS Active Fire Product (AFP) is very similar to the collection 4 legacy fire detection algorithm developed for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on NASA's Terra and Aqua spacecraft and is expected to become operational and validated in the Fall of 2014. VIIRS (imagery and the AFP) will soon be incorporated into NESDIS' operational Hazard Mapping System (HMS) fire and smoke analysis. The HMS incorporates a wide variety of satellite data for use in fire detection, including GOES-East and GOES-West at least every 15 minutes, five NOAA and METOP polar orbiting satellites with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument and MODIS Aqua/Terra. The HMS utilizes the automated fire detections from each of the sensors which are then quality controlled by an analyst. The VIIRS AFP became available for evaluation with the HMS in the Spring of 2014. The AFP was compared with the final quality controlled HMS product over the contiguous US between 8 April and 8 June 2014, which is primarily the agricultural and prescribed fire season, in order to determine the number of VIIRS unique fires. In making the comparison, any VIIRS AFP fire that was within 4 km of an HMS fire would not be considered unique, due to navigational accuracy and the 4km nominal resolution of GOES. Any VIIRS fire that was within 2km of a power plant or a known false detect location was also not considered. Based on these criteria there were 5876 VIIRS AFP unique locations compared to 71,705 HMS detections, approximately 8 percent of the HMS total. These extra locations potentially represent additional emissions that could affect air quality. The geographic distribution resembled the burning pattern during this period with the majority over the

  20. Testing a basic assumption of shrubland fire management: Does the hazard of burning increase with the age of fuels?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moritz, Max A.; Keeley, Jon E.; Johnson, Edward A.; Schaffner, Andrew A.

    2004-01-01

    This year's catastrophic wildfires in southern California highlight the need for effective planning and management for fire-prone landscapes. Fire frequency analysis of several hundred wildfires over a broad expanse of California shrublands reveals that there is generally not, as is commonly assumed, a strong relationship between fuel age and fire probabilities. Instead, the hazard of burning in most locations increases only moderately with time since the last fire, and a marked age effect of fuels is observed only in limited areas. Results indicate a serious need for a re-evaluation of current fire management and policy, which is based largely on eliminating older stands of shrubland vegetation. In many shrubland ecosystems exposed to extreme fire weather, large and intense wildfires may need to be factored in as inevitable events.

  1. Utilization of geoinformation tools for the development of forest fire hazard mapping system: example of Pekan fire, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Ahmad Rodzi; Setiawan, Iwan; Mansor, Shattri; Shariff, Abdul Rashid Mohamed; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Nuruddin, Ahmed

    2009-12-01

    A study in modeling fire hazard assessment will be essential in establishing an effective forest fire management system especially in controlling and preventing peat fire. In this paper, we have used geographic information system (GIS), in combination with other geoinformation technologies such as remote sensing and computer modeling, for all aspects of wild land fire management. Identifying areas that have a high probability of burning is an important component of fire management planning. The development of spatially explicit GIS models has greatly facilitated this process by allowing managers to map and analyze variables contributing to fire occurrence across large, unique geographic units. Using the model and its associated software engine, the fire hazard map was produced. Extensive avenue programming scripts were written to provide additional capabilities in the development of these interfaces to meet the full complement of operational software considering various users requirements. The system developed not only possesses user friendly step by step operations to deliver the fire vulnerability mapping but also allows authorized users to edit, add or modify parameters whenever necessary. Results from the model can support fire hazard mapping in the forest and enhance alert system function by simulating and visualizing forest fire and helps for contingency planning.

  2. Potential biomass and logs from fire-hazard-reduction treatments in Southwest Oregon and Northern California

    Treesearch

    R. James Barbour; Jeremy Fried; Peter J. Daugherty; Glenn Christensen; Roger. Fight

    2008-01-01

    The FIA BioSum model was used to simulate three fire-hazard-reduction policies in an area comprising northern California, southwestern Oregon, and the east slopes of the Cascade Mountains in Oregon. The policy scenarios, all subject to a stand-scale fire-hazard-reduction effectiveness constraint, included maximize torching index improvement (Max TI), maximize net...

  3. 75 FR 32960 - Hazardous Fire Risk Reduction, East Bay Hills, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Hazardous Fire Risk Reduction, East Bay Hills, CA AGENCY... of fire hazard. These projects would affect approximately 980 acres of the Wildland-Urban...

  4. 78 FR 28892 - Hazardous Fire Risk Reduction, East Bay Hills, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Hazardous Fire Risk Reduction, East Bay Hills, CA AGENCY... to reduce the risk of fire hazard. These projects would affect approximately 998 acres of...

  5. Modeling hazardous fire potential within a completed fuel treatment network in the northern Sierra Nevada

    Treesearch

    Brandon M. Collins; Heather A. Kramer; Kurt Menning; Colin Dillingham; David Saah; Peter A. Stine; Scott L. Stephens

    2013-01-01

    We built on previous work by performing a more in-depth examination of a completed landscape fuel treatment network. Our specific objectives were: (1) model hazardous fire potential with and without the treatment network, (2) project hazardous fire potential over several decades to assess fuel treatment network longevity, and (3) assess fuel treatment effectiveness and...

  6. 75 FR 221 - Airworthiness Directives; Fire Fighting Enterprises Limited Portable Halon 1211 Fire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...-01-03] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Fire Fighting Enterprises Limited Portable Halon 1211 Fire Extinguishers as Installed on Various Transport Airplanes, Small Airplanes, and Rotorcraft AGENCY... the required specification, have been supplied to the aviation industry for use in fire...

  7. Evaluation of silvicultural treatments and biomass use for reducing fire hazard in western states

    Treesearch

    Kenneth E. Skog; R. James Barbour; Karen L. Abt; E.M. (Ted) Bilek; Frank Burch; Roger D. Fight; Robert J. Hugget; Patrick D. Miles; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; Wayne D. Shepperd

    2006-01-01

    Several analyses have shown that fire hazard is a concern for substantial areas of forestland, shrubland, grassland, and range in the western United States. In response, broadscale management strategies, such as the National Fire Plan, established actions to reduce the threat of undesirable fire. Available budgets are insufficient to pay for vegetative management on...

  8. Ignorance and Hazards in Academe: The Dilemma of Fire Safety in American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crnkovich, John J.; Dye, Charles M.

    An examination was made of five major campus fires between 1971 and 1983 in an attempt to better understand the fire hazards associated with the operation of a modern U.S. college or university campus. Overall research revealed a general lack of interest in campus fire safety by colleges and universities in the United States and Canada. Analysis…

  9. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR THE FUEL SUPPLY SYSTEM - ESF PACKAGE 1E

    SciTech Connect

    N.M. Ruonavaara

    1995-04-12

    The purpose of the fire hazards analysis is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas in accordance with US. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.7h (Reference 4.4.7.4). This document will assess the fire hazard risk within the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) fuel supply system, Package 1E, and evaluate whether the following objectives are met: (1) Ensure that property damage from fire and related perils do not exceed an acceptable level. (2) Provide input to the facility Safety Analysis Report (SAR).

  10. Fire and explosion hazards to flora and fauna from explosives.

    PubMed

    Merrifield, R

    2000-06-30

    Deliberate or accidental initiation of explosives can produce a range of potentially damaging fire and explosion effects. Quantification of the consequences of such effects upon the surroundings, particularly on people and structures, has always been of paramount importance. Information on the effects on flora and fauna, however, is limited, with probably the weakest area lying with fragmentation of buildings and their effects on different small mammals. Information has been used here to gain an appreciation of the likely magnitude of the potential fire and explosion effects on flora and fauna. This is based on a number of broad assumptions and a variety of data sources including World War II bomb damage, experiments performed with animals 30-40 years ago, and more recent field trials on building break-up under explosive loading.

  11. Experimental Studies on the Flammability and Fire Hazards of Photovoltaic Modules

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hong-Yun; Zhou, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Li-Zhong; Zhang, Tao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Many of the photovoltaic (PV) systems on buildings are of sufficiently high voltages, with potential to cause or promote fires. However, research about photovoltaic fires is insufficient. This paper focuses on the flammability and fire hazards of photovoltaic modules. Bench-scale experiments based on polycrystalline silicon PV modules have been conducted using a cone calorimeter. Several parameters including ignition time (tig), mass loss, heat release rate (HRR), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, were investigated. The fire behaviours, fire hazards and toxicity of gases released by PV modules are assessed based on experimental results. The results show that PV modules under tests are inflammable with the critical heat flux of 26 kW/m2. This work will lead to better understanding on photovoltaic fires and how to help authorities determine the appropriate fire safety provisions for controlling photovoltaic fires. PMID:28793434

  12. Experimental Studies on the Flammability and Fire Hazards of Photovoltaic Modules.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong-Yun; Zhou, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Li-Zhong; Zhang, Tao-Lin

    2015-07-09

    Many of the photovoltaic (PV) systems on buildings are of sufficiently high voltages, with potential to cause or promote fires. However, research about photovoltaic fires is insufficient. This paper focuses on the flammability and fire hazards of photovoltaic modules. Bench-scale experiments based on polycrystalline silicon PV modules have been conducted using a cone calorimeter. Several parameters including ignition time (tig), mass loss, heat release rate (HRR), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO₂) concentration, were investigated. The fire behaviours, fire hazards and toxicity of gases released by PV modules are assessed based on experimental results. The results show that PV modules under tests are inflammable with the critical heat flux of 26 kW/m². This work will lead to better understanding on photovoltaic fires and how to help authorities determine the appropriate fire safety provisions for controlling photovoltaic fires.

  13. Fire hazard after prescribed burning in a gorse shrubland: implications for fuel management.

    PubMed

    Marino, Eva; Guijarro, Mercedes; Hernando, Carmen; Madrigal, Javier; Díez, Carmen

    2011-03-01

    Prescribed burning is commonly used to prevent accumulation of biomass in fire-prone shrubland in NW Spain. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the efficacy of the technique in reducing fire hazard in these ecosystems. Fire hazard in burned shrubland areas will depend on the initial capacity of woody vegetation to recover and on the fine ground fuels existing after fire. To explore the effect that time since burning has on fire hazard, experimental tests were performed with two fuel complexes (fine ground fuels and regenerated shrubs) resulting from previous prescribed burnings conducted in a gorse shrubland (Ulex europaeus L.) one, three and five years earlier. A point-ignition source was used in burning experiments to assess ignition and initial propagation success separately for each fuel complex. The effect of wind speed was also studied for shrub fuels, and several flammability parameters were measured. Results showed that both ignition and initial propagation success of fine ground fuels mainly depended on fuel depth and were independent of time since burning, although flammability parameters indicated higher fire hazard three years after burning. In contrast, time since burning increased ignition and initial propagation success of regenerated shrub fuels, as well as the flammability parameters assessed, but wind speed had no significant effect. The combination of results of fire hazard for fine ground fuels and regenerated shrubs according to the variation in relative coverage of each fuel type after prescribed burning enabled an assessment of integrated fire hazard in treated areas. The present results suggest that prescribed burning is a very effective technique to reduce fire hazard in the study area, but that fire hazard will be significantly increased by the third year after burning. These results are valuable for fire prevention and fuel management planning in gorse shrubland areas.

  14. Comparison of the Hazard Mapping System (HMS) fire product to ground-based fire records in Georgia, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xuefei; Yu, Chao; Tian, Di; Ruminski, Mark; Robertson, Kevin; Waller, Lance A.; Liu, Yang

    2016-03-01

    Biomass burning has a significant and adverse impact on air quality, climate change, and various ecosystems. The Hazard Mapping System (HMS) detects fires using data from multiple satellite sensors in order to maximize its fire detection rate. However, to date, the detection rate of the HMS fire product for small fires has not been well studied, especially using ground-based fire records. This paper utilizes the 2011 fire information compiled from ground observations and burn authorizations in Georgia to assess the comprehensiveness of the HMS active fire product. The results show that detection rates of the hybrid HMS increase substantially by integrating multiple satellite instruments. The detection rate increases dramatically from 3% to 80% with an increase in fire size from less than 0.02 km2 to larger than 2 km2, resulting in detection of approximately 12% of all recorded fires which represent approximately 57% of the total area burned. The spatial pattern of detection rates reveals that grid cells with high detection rates are generally located in areas where large fires occur frequently. The seasonal analysis shows that overall detection rates in winter and spring (12% and 13%, respectively) are higher than those in summer and fall (3% and 6%, respectively), mainly because of higher percentages of large fires (>0.19 km2) that occurred in winter and spring. The land cover analysis shows that detection rates are 2-7 percentage points higher in land cover types that are prone to large fires such as forestland and shrub land.

  15. Reduction of fire hazards on large mining equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Maria I. De Rosa

    2008-09-15

    Although standards and regulations are in place to prevent large mining equipment fires, recent analyses of mine accident data show that mining equipment fires still occur with alarming frequency and grave consequences, particularly at all surface mines and in underground metal/nonmetal mines. Recently technological advances in fire protection, combined with the statistical data on equipment fires, led NIOSH to reinvestigate this and to improve operator safety. NIOSH demonstrated that newly developed technologies, such as dual cab fire inerting systems and engine compartment fire barriers, can greatly enhance operator safety and lessen the damage of property during large mobile equipment fires. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  16. North Portal Fuel Storage System Fire Hazard Analysis-ESF Surface Design Package ID

    SciTech Connect

    N.M. Ruonavaara

    1995-01-18

    The purpose of the fire hazard analysis is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire within the individual fire areas. This document will only assess the fire hazard analysis within the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Design Package ID, which includes the fuel storage system area of the North Portal facility, and evaluate whether the following objectives are met: 1.1.1--This analysis, performed in accordance with the requirements of this document, will satisfy the requirements for a fire hazard analysis in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.7A. 1.1.2--Ensure that property damage from fire and related perils does not exceed an acceptable level. 1.1.3--Provide input to the ESF Basis For Design (BFD) Document. 1.1.4 Provide input to the facility Safety Analysis Report (SAR) (Paragraph 3.8).

  17. Fire hazards at the urban-wildland interface: what the public expects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cortner, Hanna J.; Gardner, Philip D.; Taylor, Jonathan G.

    1990-01-01

    Urban-wildland issues have become among the most contentious and problematic issues for forest managers. Using data drawn from surveys conducted by the authors and others, this article discusses how public knowledge and perceptions of fire policies and fire hazards change over time, the kinds of policy responses homeowners prefer as a way of preventing fire hazards at the urban-wildland interface, and how citizens view their own obligations as participants in interface issues. These data show that public attitudes toward fire have changed significantly over the past two decades and that educating the public about fire and the managers' use of fire can have positive effects on behavior. Yet, modifying the individual's behavior in regard to interface fire risks must also deal with important issues of individual incentives, the distribution of costs, and unanticipated policy impacts.

  18. An evaluation of the relative fire hazards of jet A and jet B for commercial flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, R. R.; Hacker, P. T.

    1973-01-01

    The relative fire hazards of Jet A and Jet B aircraft fuels are evaluated. The evaluation is based on a consideration of the presence of and/or the generation of flammable mixtures in fuel systems, the ignition characteristics, and the flame propagation rates for the two fuel types. Three distinct aircraft operating regimes where fuel type may be a factor in fire hazards are considered. These are: (1) ground handling and refueling, (2) flight, and (3) crash. The evaluation indicates that the overall fire hazards for Jet A are less than for Jet B fuel.

  19. Hazard analysis on one-room building fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Deming; Feng, Changgen

    1998-12-01

    First, a calculation method for available safety egress time (shortly called ASET) and requirement safety egress time (shortly called RSET) in a one-room building fire is proposed and a model for predicting the death number caused by the fire is established in this paper. Then, numerical simulations are performed, and the following laws are discovered: (1) At the beginning of the fire, the smoke layer falls slowly; as the fire develops, it falls rapidly. (2) The hypotheses on the fire source, the combustion properties of the combustibles, and the width of the exit and the person number in the room are important factors which affect the death number in the fire.

  20. Defining fire and wilderness objectives: Applying limits of acceptable change

    Treesearch

    David N. Cole

    1995-01-01

    The Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) planning process was developed to help define objectives for recreation management in wilderness. This process can be applied to fire in wilderness if its conceptual foundation is broadened. LAC would lead decision makers to identify a compromise between the goal of allowing fire to play its natural role in wilderness and various...

  1. Fuels planning: Managing forest structure to reduce fire hazard

    Treesearch

    David L. Peterson; Morris C. Johnson; James K. Agee; Theresa B. Jain; Donald McKenzie; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt

    2003-01-01

    Prior to the 20th century, low intensity fires burned regularly in most arid to semiarid forest ecosystems, with ignitions caused by lightning and humans (e.g., Baisan and Swetnam 1997, Allen et al. 2002, Hessl et al. 2004). Low intensity fires controlled regeneration of fire sensitive (e.g., grand fir [Abies grandis]) species (Arno and Allison-Bunnell 2002), promoted...

  2. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 83-194-1779, Dade County Fire Department, Miami, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Salisbury, S.A.

    1987-02-01

    An investigation was made of potential exposures to hazardous wastes (solvents) used for starting practice fires at the Dade County Fire Department aircraft fire training facility at Opa-Locka Airport, Dade County, Florida. Used solvents donated by waste handlers or local industries had been used to start practice fires. Laboratory analysis of the soil and ground water samples taken from the burn pits revealed the presence of several common industrial solvents. The only suspected carcinogen identified was dichlorobenzene. Other potential carcinogens identified included methylene chlroide and perchloroethylene. The author recommends that the practice of using unknown solvents to help start practice fires be eliminated.

  3. 75 FR 44275 - Hazardous Fire Risk Reduction, East Bay Hills, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Hazardous Fire Risk Reduction, East Bay Hills, CA AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice of extension of comment period. SUMMARY:...

  4. Experimental Study of Fire Hazards of Thermal-Insulation Material in Diesel Locomotive: Aluminum-Polyurethane.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Taolin; Zhou, Xiaodong; Yang, Lizhong

    2016-03-05

    This work investigated experimentally and theoretically the fire hazards of thermal-insulation materials used in diesel locomotives under different radiation heat fluxes. Based on the experimental results, the critical heat flux for ignition was determined to be 6.15 kW/m² and 16.39 kW/m² for pure polyurethane and aluminum-polyurethane respectively. A theoretical model was established for both to predict the fire behaviors under different circumstances. The fire behavior of the materials was evaluated based on the flashover and the total heat release rate (HRR). The fire hazards levels were classified based on different experimental results. It was found that the fire resistance performance of aluminum-polyurethane is much better than that of pure-polyurethane under various external heat fluxes. The concentration of toxic pyrolysis volatiles generated from aluminum-polyurethane materials is much higher than that of pure polyurethane materials, especially when the heat flux is below 50 kW/m². The hazard index HI during peak width time was proposed based on the comprehensive impact of time and concentrations. The predicted HI in this model coincides with the existed N-gas and FED models which are generally used to evaluate the fire gas hazard in previous researches. The integrated model named HNF was proposed as well to estimate the fire hazards of materials by interpolation and weighted average calculation.

  5. Experimental Study of Fire Hazards of Thermal-Insulation Material in Diesel Locomotive: Aluminum-Polyurethane

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Taolin; Zhou, Xiaodong; Yang, Lizhong

    2016-01-01

    This work investigated experimentally and theoretically the fire hazards of thermal-insulation materials used in diesel locomotives under different radiation heat fluxes. Based on the experimental results, the critical heat flux for ignition was determined to be 6.15 kW/m2 and 16.39 kW/m2 for pure polyurethane and aluminum-polyurethane respectively. A theoretical model was established for both to predict the fire behaviors under different circumstances. The fire behavior of the materials was evaluated based on the flashover and the total heat release rate (HRR). The fire hazards levels were classified based on different experimental results. It was found that the fire resistance performance of aluminum-polyurethane is much better than that of pure-polyurethane under various external heat fluxes. The concentration of toxic pyrolysis volatiles generated from aluminum-polyurethane materials is much higher than that of pure polyurethane materials, especially when the heat flux is below 50 kW/m2. The hazard index HI during peak width time was proposed based on the comprehensive impact of time and concentrations. The predicted HI in this model coincides with the existed N-gas and FED models which are generally used to evaluate the fire gas hazard in previous researches. The integrated model named HNF was proposed as well to estimate the fire hazards of materials by interpolation and weighted average calculation. PMID:28773295

  6. Managing forest structure and fire hazard--a tool for planners.

    Treesearch

    M.C. Johnson; D.L. Peterson; C.L. Raymond

    2006-01-01

    Fire planners and other resource managers need to examine a range of potential fuel and vegetation treatments to select options that will lead to desired outcomes for fire hazard and natural resource conditions. A new approach to this issue integrates concepts and tools from silviculture and fuel science to quantify outcomes for a large number of treatment options in...

  7. Coarse woody debris: Managing benefits and fire hazard in the recovering forest

    Treesearch

    James K. Brown; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; Kylie A. Kramer

    2003-01-01

    Management of coarse woody debris following fire requires consideration of its positive and negative values. The ecological benefits of coarse woody debris and fire hazard considerations are summarized. This paper presents recommendations for desired ranges of coarse woody debris. Example simulations illustrate changes in debris over time and with varying management....

  8. Follow-up evaluation of fire hazard inspection procedures...Butte County, California

    Treesearch

    William S. Folkman

    1968-01-01

    A study made in 1966 in Butte County, Calif., to assess the effectiveness of fire hazard inspection procedures was repeated in 1967. Purpose of the inspections is to secure compliance with fire safety requirements. The observed drop in number of violations suggests a carryover effect in 1967 from the first study. In many cases, personal contact was still necessary to...

  9. 24 CFR 242.33 - Covenant for malpractice, fire, and other hazard insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Covenant for malpractice, fire, and... HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Mortgage Requirements § 242.33 Covenant for malpractice, fire, and other hazard insurance. The mortgage shall contain a covenant binding the...

  10. 24 CFR 242.33 - Covenant for malpractice, fire, and other hazard insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Covenant for malpractice, fire, and... HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Mortgage Requirements § 242.33 Covenant for malpractice, fire, and other hazard insurance. The mortgage shall contain a covenant binding the...

  11. 24 CFR 242.33 - Covenant for malpractice, fire, and other hazard insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Covenant for malpractice, fire, and... HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Mortgage Requirements § 242.33 Covenant for malpractice, fire, and other hazard insurance. The mortgage shall contain a covenant binding the...

  12. 24 CFR 242.33 - Covenant for malpractice, fire, and other hazard insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Covenant for malpractice, fire, and... HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Mortgage Requirements § 242.33 Covenant for malpractice, fire, and other hazard insurance. The mortgage shall contain a covenant binding the...

  13. 24 CFR 242.33 - Covenant for malpractice, fire, and other hazard insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Covenant for malpractice, fire, and... HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Mortgage Requirements § 242.33 Covenant for malpractice, fire, and other hazard insurance. The mortgage shall contain a covenant binding the...

  14. Evaluating fuel complexes for fire hazard mitigation planning in the southeastern United States

    Treesearch

    Anne G. Andreu; Dan Shea; Bernard R. Parresol; Roger D. Ottmar

    2012-01-01

    Fire hazard mitigation planning requires an accurate accounting of fuel complexes to predict potential fire behavior and effects of treatment alternatives. In the southeastern United States, rapid vegetation growth coupled with complex land use history and forest management options requires a dynamic approach to fuel characterization. In this study we assessed...

  15. Fabrication of low-fire-hazard flexible poly (vinyl chloride) via reutilization of heavy metal biosorbents.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ye-Tang; Wang, De-Yi

    2017-10-05

    As a naturally abundant biopolymer, chitosan is considered to be a suitable adsorbent for stannate (SnO3(2-)) in tin plating wastewater. However, mass transfer of the adsorbent and its recycling remain challenging problems. Though flexible poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) is highly flammable due to the addition of plasticizers, the traditional flame retardant, antimony trioxide (Sb2O3), is potentially harmful. In this study, chitosan was anchored onto the surface of PVC resin to adsorb SnO3(2-) from wastewater. Thereafter, tin-doped chitosan-coated PVC resin was readily recycled and processed into a flexible PVC composite (modified fPVC). The limiting oxygen index value of the modified fPVC increased to 33.1%, and the peak heat release rate decreased to 161kW/m(2). In addition to reducing fire hazards, this approach also decreased the content of harmful hydrogen chloride gas released during the combustion of modified fPVC. Meanwhile, the tensile properties of modified fPVC were enhanced compared with those of the Sb2O3-treated sample. These results indicated the synthesis of an eco-friendly Sb2O3-free flexible PVC composite that poses a low fire hazard. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fire managers field guide: hazardous fuels management in subtropical pine flatwoods and tropical pine rocklands

    Treesearch

    Joseph J. O’Brien; Kathryn A. Mordecai; Leslie Wolcott

    2010-01-01

    This publication is a field guide to tactics and techniques for dealing with hazardous fuels in subtropical pine flatwoods and tropical pine rocklands. The guide covers prescribed fire, mechanical, chemical, and other means for reducing and managing wildland fuels in these systems. Also, a list of exotic plants that contribute to hazardous fuel problems is included...

  17. Reducing fire hazard in ponderosa pine thinning slash by mechanical crushing

    Treesearch

    John R. Dell; Franklin R. Ward

    1969-01-01

    Precommercial thinning in ponderosa pine stands in the Western United States is a growing practice. Thinning slash can, however, be a serious fire hazard in dry areas. Crushing and compacting this slash may be one way of reducing the hazard. Three types of mechanical crushers were tested on the Deschutes National Forest, Oregon. Results indicate that at least one of...

  18. Preliminary fire hazard analysis for the PUTDR and TRU trenches in the Solid Waste Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Gaschott, L.J.

    1995-06-16

    This document represents the Preliminary Fire Hazards Analysis for the Pilot Unvented TRU Drum Retrieval effort and for the Transuranic drum trenches in the low level burial grounds. The FHA was developed in accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A to address major hazards inherent in the facility.

  19. Paying our way: thinking strategically to offset the cost of reducing fire hazard in western forests.

    Treesearch

    Rhonda Mazza

    2008-01-01

    The fire hazard in many western forests is unacceptably high, posing risks to human health and property, wildlife habitat, and air and water quality. Cost is an inhibiting factor for reducing hazardous fuel, given the amount of acreage needing treatment. Thinning overly dense forests is one way to reduce fuel loads. Much of the product removed during these treatments...

  20. Wildland fire as a self-regulating mechanism: the role of previous burns and weather in limiting fire progression.

    PubMed

    Parks, Sean A; Holsinger, Lisa M; Miller, Carol; Nelson, Cara R

    2015-09-01

    Theory suggests that natural fire regimes can result in landscapes that are both self-regulating and resilient to fire. For example, because fires consume fuel, they may create barriers to the spread of future fires, thereby regulating fire size. Top-down controls such as weather, however, can weaken this effect. While empirical examples demonstrating this pattern-process feedback between vegetation and fire exist, they have been geographically limited or did not consider the influence of time between fires and weather. The availability of remotely sensed data identifying fire activity over the last four decades provides an opportunity to explicitly quantify-the ability of wildland fire to limit the progression of subsequent fire. Furthermore, advances in fire progression mapping now allow an evaluation of how daily weather as a top-down control modifies this effect. In this study, we evaluated the ability of wildland fire to create barriers that limit the spread of subsequent fire along a gradient representing time between fires in four large study areas in the western United States. Using fire progression maps in conjunction with weather station data, we also evaluated the influence of daily weather. Results indicate that wildland fire does limit subsequent fire spread in all four study areas, but this effect decays over time; wildland fire no longer limits subsequent fire spread 6-18 years after fire, depending on the study area. We also found that the ability of fire to regulate, subsequent fire progression was substantially reduced under extreme conditions compared to moderate weather conditions in all four study areas. This study increases understanding of the spatial feedbacks that can lead to self-regulating landscapes as well as the effects of top-down controls, such as weather, on these feedbacks. Our results will be useful to managers who seek to restore natural fire regimes or to exploit recent burns when managing fire.

  1. Evaluating fuel complexes for fire hazard mitigation planning in the southeastern United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Andreu, Anne G.; Shea, Dan; Parresol, Bernard, R.; Ottmar, Roger, D.

    2012-01-01

    Fire hazard mitigation planning requires an accurate accounting of fuel complexes to predict potential fire behavior and effects of treatment alternatives. In the southeastern United States, rapid vegetation growth coupled with complex land use history and forest management options requires a dynamic approach to fuel characterization. In this study we assessed potential surface fire behavior with the Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS), a tool which uses inventoried fuelbed inputs to predict fire behavior. Using inventory data from 629 plots established in the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain, South Carolina, we constructed FCCS fuelbeds representing median fuel characteristics by major forest type and age class. With a dry fuel moisture scenario and 6.4 km h{sub 1} midflame wind speed, the FCCS predicted moderate to high potential fire hazard for the majority of the fuelbeds under study. To explore fire hazard under potential future fuel conditions, we developed fuelbeds representing the range of quantitative inventorydata for fuelbed components that drive surface fire behavior algorithms and adjusted shrub species composition to represent 30% and 60% relative cover of highly flammable shrub species. Results indicate that the primary drivers of surface fire behavior vary by forest type, age and surface fire behavior rating. Litter tends to be a primary or secondary driver in most forest types. In comparison to other surface fire contributors, reducing shrub loading results in reduced flame lengths most consistently across forest types. FCCS fuelbeds and the results from this project can be used for fire hazard mitigation planning throughout the southern Atlantic Coastal Plain where similar forest types occur. The approach of building simulated fuelbeds across the range of available surface fuel data produces sets of incrementally different fuel characteristics that can be applied to any dynamic forest types in which surface fuel conditions change rapidly.

  2. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 84-484-1754, Detroit Fire Fighters, Detroit, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.E.; Melius, J.M.

    1986-12-01

    In response to a request from the International Association of Fire Fighters on behalf of the Detroit Fire Fighters Association, Detroit, Michigan, a health hazard evaluation was made of respiratory symptoms and skin irritation in fire fighters involved in a large fire and explosion at a warehouse. Over 200 fire fighters from fire-fighting organizations in three communities were involved in the incident. Site runoff water contained chlordane and malathion in low parts per million; other samples were negative. Nose and throat irritation, cough, and shortness of breath were experienced by a large proportion of fire fighters following the fire, and in 14, 15, and 17 percent, respectively, symptoms persisted over 2 months. Symptoms were significantly associated with time spent at the scene and time spent in heavy smoke. Pulmonary function tests were abnormal in 14 cases, ten due to obstructive lung disease, three to restrictive lung disease, and one to a combination. The authors conclude that better protective equipment is needed for fire fighters at chemical fires. Recommendations include development of a hazardous-materials response team, and implementation of a routine medical surveillance program.

  3. Determination of the fire hazards of mine materials using a radiant panel

    PubMed Central

    Harteis, S.P.; Litton, C.D.; Thomas, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a laboratory-scale method to rank the ignition and fire hazards of commonly used underground mine materials and to eliminate the need for the expensive large-scale tests that are currently being used. A radiant-panel apparatus was used to determine the materials’ relevant thermal characteristics: time to ignition, critical heat flux for ignition, heat of gasification, and mass-loss rate. Three thermal parameters, TRP, TP1 and TP4, were derived from the data, then developed and subsequently used to rank the combined ignition and fire hazards of the combustible materials from low hazard to high hazard. The results compared favorably with the thermal and ignition hazards of similar materials reported in the literature and support this approach as a simpler one for quantifying these combustible hazards. PMID:26877552

  4. Using stand-level optimization to reduce crown fire hazard

    Treesearch

    David H. Graetz; John Sessions; Steven L. Garman

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability to generate prescriptions for a wide variety of stands when the goal is to reduce crown fire potential. Forest managers charged with reducing crown fire potential while providing for commodity and ecological production have been hampered by the complexity of possible management options. A program called Stand-Level Optimization with...

  5. HAZARDS OF THERMAL EXPANSION FOR RADIOLOGICAL CONTAINER ENGULFED IN FIRE

    SciTech Connect

    Donna Post Guillen

    2013-05-01

    Fire accidents pose a serious threat to nuclear facilities. It is imperative that transport casks or shielded containers designed to transport/contain radiological materials have the ability to withstand a hypothetical fire. A numerical simulation was performed for a shielded container constructed of stainless steel and lead engulfed in a hypothetical fire as outlined by 10 CFR §71.73. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the thermal response of the container during and after the fire. The thermal model shows that after 30 minutes of fire, the stainless steel will maintain its integrity and not melt. However, the lead shielding will melt since its temperature exceeds the melting point. Due to the method of construction of the container under consideration, ample void space must be provided to allow for thermal expansion of the lead upon heating and melting, so as to not overstress the weldment.

  6. An emergency-adaptive routing scheme for wireless sensor networks for building fire hazard monitoring.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yuanyuan; Xiong, Naixue; Park, Jong Hyuk; Zheng, Guilin

    2010-01-01

    Fire hazard monitoring and evacuation for building environments is a novel application area for the deployment of wireless sensor networks. In this context, adaptive routing is essential in order to ensure safe and timely data delivery in building evacuation and fire fighting resource applications. Existing routing mechanisms for wireless sensor networks are not well suited for building fires, especially as they do not consider critical and dynamic network scenarios. In this paper, an emergency-adaptive, real-time and robust routing protocol is presented for emergency situations such as building fire hazard applications. The protocol adapts to handle dynamic emergency scenarios and works well with the routing hole problem. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that our protocol provides a real-time routing mechanism that is well suited for dynamic emergency scenarios in building fires when compared with other related work.

  7. An Emergency-Adaptive Routing Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks for Building Fire Hazard Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yuanyuan; Xiong, Naixue; Park, Jong Hyuk; Zheng, Guilin

    2010-01-01

    Fire hazard monitoring and evacuation for building environments is a novel application area for the deployment of wireless sensor networks. In this context, adaptive routing is essential in order to ensure safe and timely data delivery in building evacuation and fire fighting resource applications. Existing routing mechanisms for wireless sensor networks are not well suited for building fires, especially as they do not consider critical and dynamic network scenarios. In this paper, an emergency-adaptive, real-time and robust routing protocol is presented for emergency situations such as building fire hazard applications. The protocol adapts to handle dynamic emergency scenarios and works well with the routing hole problem. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that our protocol provides a real-time routing mechanism that is well suited for dynamic emergency scenarios in building fires when compared with other related work. PMID:22219706

  8. An Emergency-Adaptive Routing Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks for Building Fire Hazard Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yuanyuan; Sreenan, Cormac J.; Sitanayah, Lanny; Xiong, Naixue; Park, Jong Hyuk; Zheng, Guilin

    2011-01-01

    Fire hazard monitoring and evacuation for building environments is a novel application area for the deployment of wireless sensor networks. In this context, adaptive routing is essential in order to ensure safe and timely data delivery in building evacuation and fire fighting resource applications. Existing routing mechanisms for wireless sensor networks are not well suited for building fires, especially as they do not consider critical and dynamic network scenarios. In this paper, an emergency-adaptive, real-time and robust routing protocol is presented for emergency situations such as building fire hazard applications. The protocol adapts to handle dynamic emergency scenarios and works well with the routing hole problem. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that our protocol provides a real-time routing mechanism that is well suited for dynamic emergency scenarios in building fires when compared with other related work. PMID:22163774

  9. An emergency-adaptive routing scheme for wireless sensor networks for building fire hazard monitoring.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yuanyuan; Sreenan, Cormac J; Sitanayah, Lanny; Xiong, Naixue; Park, Jong Hyuk; Zheng, Guilin

    2011-01-01

    Fire hazard monitoring and evacuation for building environments is a novel application area for the deployment of wireless sensor networks. In this context, adaptive routing is essential in order to ensure safe and timely data delivery in building evacuation and fire fighting resource applications. Existing routing mechanisms for wireless sensor networks are not well suited for building fires, especially as they do not consider critical and dynamic network scenarios. In this paper, an emergency-adaptive, real-time and robust routing protocol is presented for emergency situations such as building fire hazard applications. The protocol adapts to handle dynamic emergency scenarios and works well with the routing hole problem. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that our protocol provides a real-time routing mechanism that is well suited for dynamic emergency scenarios in building fires when compared with other related work.

  10. An assessment of the crash fire hazard of liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The crash fire hazards of liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft relative to those of mission equivalent aircraft fueled either with conventional fuel or with liquefied methane were evaluated. The aircraft evaluated were based on Lockheed Corporation design for 400 passenger, Mach 0.85, 5500 n. mile aircraft. Four crash scenarios were considered ranging from a minor incident causing some loss of fuel system integrity to a catastrophic crash. Major tasks included a review of hazardous properties of the alternate fuels and of historic crash fire data; a comparative hazard evluation for each of the three fuels under four crash scenarios a comprehensive review and analysis and an identification of areas further development work. The conclusion was that the crash fire hazards are not significantly different when compared in general for the three fuels, although some fuels showed minor advantages in one respect or another.

  11. Fire Hazards from Combustible Ammunition, Methodology Development. Phase I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    Sliepcevich, C. M. , "Bending of Wind-Blown Flames from Liquid Pools", Fire Technology 2(2), May 1966. Welker, J. R. and Sliepcevich, C. M...34Burning Rates and Heat Trans- fer from Wind-Blown Flames", Fire Technology 2^(3), August 1966. 82 ^^.aR0-07^0-8^𔃺-6 (A13) cos6 e r \\p y...Con- vective Heat", Fire Technology 4(2), May 1968. 118 type and employed Irtran 2* as the window material. Irtran 2 is uni- formly transparent

  12. Landslide hazard and forest fires - the relevance of geology for landslide type and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Steeger, Tomas M.; Wiatr, Thomas; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Reicherter, Klaus

    2010-05-01

    Current research indicates an increasing number of forest fires incidents and burned areas for Europe in the future (e.g. Moriondo et al., 2006). Besides economical and environmental impacts they can cause future "secondary" hazards like landslides, debris flows and flash floods. There are many past and current studies investigating effects of erosion and landslide phenomena like debris flows in burned areas (s. Shakesby & Doerr, 2006). The influence of the geological framework is often neglected in these studies. Furthermore, deep seated landslides and slumps are only hypothetically described (Swanson, 1981). To study the relevance of geology and to observe the processes, areas in Attica and the western Peloponnese in Greece burned by the catastrophic wildfires of 2007 and 2009 were investigated. The Tertiary Flysch units and the Neogene deposits in the Pyrgos area of the western Peloponnese are generally a landslide prone area. The slopes in the area show the typical morphological features of a landslide landscape. This is not only true for the in 2007 burned areas but also for unburned areas even in some kilometre distance. Large rotational slides with 20 m and higher main scarps interact and build up complex staircase landslide cascades. Even so vegetation indicates for the unburned areas currently a low activity. In contrary in the burned areas even 2 years after the fires many recent effects from landslides can be observed, like slope failures, cliff break ups, road failures, destroyed retention walls and cracks in houses. While the shallow landslides show a very high dynamic, also older larger landslides are developing or reactivating. As the changes in landslide activity are limited to the burned areas, it is reasonable that the changes in the hydrological conditions like Swanson (1981) predicted due to the destroyed vegetation are the main trigger mechanism for the new and reactivated landslides. An increased availability of water at the sliding plane and

  13. Tracking Flooding, Drought, Fire and other Natural Hazards with GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Famiglietti, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    While the NASA GRACE mission has proven adept at tracking rates of ice sheet melting, ocean mass rise, and groundwater depletion, its contributions to understanding regional flooding, drought and fire have received less attention. In this presentation we review the status of GRACE efforts to characterize regional flood potential, quantification of drought parameters, and the occurrence of fire. Examples are used to demonstrate how the use of GRACE data can improve early warning times, or can enhance existing operational methodologies.

  14. Complexed metals in hazardous waste: Limitations of conventional chemical oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Diel, B.N.; Kuchynka, D.J.; Borchert, J.

    1994-12-31

    In the management of hazardous waste, more is known regarding the treatment of metals than about the fixation, destruction and/or immobilization of any other hazardous constituent group. Metals are the only hazardous constituents which cannot be destroyed, and so must be converted to their least soluble and/or reactive form to prevent reentry into the environment. The occurrence of complexed metals, e.g., metallocyanides, and/or chelated metals, e.g., M{center_dot}EDTA in hazardous waste streams presents formidable challenges to conventional waste treatment practices. This paper presents the results of extensive research into the destruction (chemical oxidation) of metallocyanides and metal-chelates, defines the utility and limitations of conventional chemical oxidation approaches, illustrates some of the waste management difficulties presented by such species, and presents preliminary data on the UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} photodecomposition of chelated metals.

  15. Cargo Fire Hazards and Hazard Control for the Supplement Fuel Supply Assembly (SFSA).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    spilled as a result of the fuel hose failure. Fire water from the supply ship can be used to disperse the spilled fuel so that a boat can be dispatched...aided by agitating the spill. This agitation can be accomplished with the use of fire water monitor nozzles on a utili- ty/fire boat to be discussed...in the next section. Fire water nozzles available for the craft used to fill the Dracones can also be used for spill control purposes should a spill

  16. Identification of Process Hazards and Accident Scenarios for Site 300 B-Division Firing Areas, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, H; Johnson, G

    2001-05-04

    This report describes a hazard and accident analysis conducted for Site 300 operations to support update of the ''Site 300 B-Division Firing Areas Safety Analysis Report'' (SAR) [LLNL 1997]. A significant change since the previous SAR is the construction and the new Contained Firing Facility (CFF). Therefore, this hazard and accident analysis focused on the hazards associated with bunker operations to ensure that the hazards at CFF are properly characterized in the updated SAR. Hazard tables were created to cover both the CFF and the existing bunkers with ''open air'' firing tables.

  17. Fire Hazard Analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying facility (CVD) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    SINGH, G.

    2000-09-06

    The CVDF is a nonreactor nuclear facility that will process the Spent Nuclear Fuels (SNF) presently stored in the 105-KE and 105-KW SNF storage basins. Multi-canister overpacks (MCOs) will be loaded (filled) with K Basin fuel transported to the CVDF. The MCOs will be processed at the CVDF to remove free water from the fuel cells (packages). Following processing at the CVDF, the MCOs will be transported to the CSB for interim storage until a long-term storage solution can be implemented. This operation is expected to start in November 2000. A Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is required for all new facilities and all nonreactor nuclear facilities, in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.7A, Fire Protection. This FHA has been prepared in accordance with DOE 5480.7A and HNF-PRO-350, Fire Hazard Analysis Requirements. Additionally, requirements or criteria contained in DOE, Richland Operations Office (RL) RL Implementing Directive (RLID) 5480.7, Fire Protection, or other DOE documentation are cited, as applicable. This FHA comprehensively assesses the risk of fire at the CVDF to ascertain whether the specific objectives of DOE 5480.7A are met. These specific fire protection objectives are: (1) Minimize the potential for the occurrence of a fire. (2) Ensure that fire does not cause an onsite or offsite release of radiological and other hazardous material that will threaten the public health and safety or the environment. (3) Establish requirements that will provide an acceptable degree of life safety to DOE and contractor personnel and ensure that there are no undue hazards to the public from fire and its effects in DOE facilities. (4) Ensure that vital DOE programs will not suffer unacceptable delays as a result of fire and related perils. (5) Ensure that property damage from fire and related perils does not exceed an acceptable level. (6) Ensure that process control and safety systems are not damaged by fire or related perils. This FHA is based on the

  18. Gaseous emissions and toxic hazards associated with plastics in fire situations: A literature review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junod, T. L.

    1976-01-01

    The hazards of plastics in fire situations, the gases emitted, the factors influencing the nature of these emissions, the characteristics of toxic gases, and the results of laboratory studies, are discussed. The literature pertaining to the pyrolysis and oxidation of plastics was reviewed. An effort was made to define the state of the art for determining the toxic gases emitted by plastics under fire conditions. Recommendations are made and research needs defined as a result of this review.

  19. Chemically Induced Fires in Aircraft Electrical Circuitry by Glycol/ Water Solutions. Hazard Analysis and Elimination Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-29

    DISCLOSURE# DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A APPROVED FOR PUBLIC REL-EASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED, AD-AO08 896 CHEMICALLY INDUCED FIRES IN AIRCRAFT ELECTRICAL...January 1975 DISTRIBUTED BY: National Technical InfermatieM Service U. S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FZM-6345 12 9 04. 29 JANUARY 1975 Cf.) -- CHEMICALLY ...DYNAMICS FZM-6345 Fort Worth Division 29 JANUARY 1975 TITLE * CHEMICALLY INDUCED FIRES IN AIRCRAFT ELECTRICAL CIRCUITRY BY GLYCOL/WATER SOLUTIONS - HAZARD

  20. Fuel treatment guidebook: illustrating treatment effects on fire hazard

    Treesearch

    Morris Johnson; David L. Peterson; Crystal Raymond

    2009-01-01

    The Guide to Fuel Treatments (Johnson and others 2007) analyzes potential fuel treatments and the potential effects of those treatments for dry forest lands in the Western United States. The guide examines low- to mid-elevation dry forest stands with high stem densities and heavy ladder fuels, which are currently common due to fire exclusion and various land management...

  1. Linking vegetation patterns to potential smoke production and fire hazard

    Treesearch

    Roger D. Ottmar; Ernesto Alvarado

    2004-01-01

    During the past 80 years, various disturbances (such as wildfire and wind events) and management actions (including fire exclusion, logging, and domestic livestock grazing) have significantly modified the composition and structure of forests and ranges across the western United States. The resulting fuel loadings directly influence potential smoke production from...

  2. Parents of preschool fire setters: perceptions of the child-play fire hazard.

    PubMed

    Pollack-Nelson, Carol; Faranda, Donna M; Porth, Don; Lim, Nicholas K

    2006-09-01

    The present study sought to learn about risk perceptions held by parents of preschool fire-setters. A 41-item survey was distributed to 60 parents whose children, aged 6 years and younger, had previously set fires and who were involved in intervention programmes throughout the US. Most parents did not think their children would play with matches/lighters, or knew how to use these items, although some had witnessed their children playing with matches/lighters previously. Most parents reported having taken precautions to keep matches/lighters out of reach and also educating their children about fire. Regardless, children not only set fires, but in 40% of cases climbed to access the match/lighter. Parents' perceptions of their children's proclivity for fire play were not consistent with their actual fire-play behaviour. Parents underestimated the likelihood that their children would play with matches/lighters. Although most reportedly undertook preventative measures aimed at thwarting fire play, these strategies were ineffective. Traditionally relied upon precautionary techniques, such as storing lighters out of reach and discussing the dangers of fire, were not sufficient to stem interest and resultant fire play.

  3. Realistic Safe-Separation Distance Determination for Mass Fire Hazards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-25

    the safe separation distance calculated using the heat flux based method for 11.6 million pounds of Hazard Division ( HD ) 1.3 propellant in the VAB...determined for the 4.44 million pounds of the same HD 1.3 propellant for the Space Shuttle Program. If the weight-based approach had been used for the 11.6...presents an overview of how safe-separation distances are currently determined for various hazard divisions ( HDs ), with emphasis on HD 1.1 and HD 1.3. It

  4. Mitigating wildland fire hazard using complex network centrality measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Lucia; Russo, Paola; Siettos, Constantinos I.

    2016-12-01

    We show how to distribute firebreaks in heterogeneous forest landscapes in the presence of strong wind using complex network centrality measures. The proposed framework is essentially a two-tire one: at the inner part a state-of- the-art Cellular Automata model is used to compute the weights of the underlying lattice network while at the outer part the allocation of the fire breaks is scheduled in terms of a hierarchy of centralities which influence the most the spread of fire. For illustration purposes we applied the proposed framework to a real-case wildfire that broke up in Spetses Island, Greece in 1990. We evaluate the scheme against the benchmark of random allocation of firebreaks under the weather conditions of the real incident i.e. in the presence of relatively strong winds.

  5. A life cycle hazard assessment (LCHA) framework to address fire hazards at the wildland-urban interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindquist, Eric; Pierce, Jen; Wuerzer, Thomas; Glenn, Nancy; Dialani, Jijay; Gibble, Katie; Frazier, Tim; Strand, Eva

    2015-04-01

    The stages of planning for and responding to natural hazards, such as wildfires and related events, are often conducted as discrete (and often not connected) efforts. Disaster response often takes precedence, exhausting agency and stakeholder resources, and the planning stages are conducted by different agencies or entities with different and often competing agendas and jurisdictions. The result is that evaluation after a disaster can be minimal or even non-existent as resources are expended and interest moves on to the next event. Natural disasters and hazards, however, have a tendency to cascade and multiply: wildfires impact the vulnerability of hillslopes, for example, which may result in landslides, flooding and debris flows long after the initial event has occurred. Connecting decisions across multiple events and time scales is ignored, yet these connections could lead to better policy making at all stages of disaster risk reduction. Considering this situation, we present an adapted life cycle analysis (LCA) approach to examine fire-related hazards at the Wildland-Urban Interface in the American West. The LCHA focuses on the temporal integration of : 1) the 'pre-fire' set of physical conditions (e.g. fuel loads) and human conditions (e.g. hazard awareness), 2) the 'fire event', focusing on computational analysis of the communication patterns and responsibility for response to the event, and 3) the 'post-event' analysis of the landscape susceptibility to fire-related debris flows. The approach of the LCHA follows other models used by governmental agencies to prepare for disasters through 1) preparation and prevention, 2) response and 3) recovery. As an overlay are the diverse agencies and policies associated with these stages and their respective resource and management decisions over time. LCAs have evolved from a business-centric consideration of the environmental impact of a specific product over the products life. This approach takes several phases to end

  6. Reintroducing fire into the Blacks Mountain Research Natural Area: effects on fire hazard

    Treesearch

    Carl N. Skinner

    2005-01-01

    Frequent, low-intensity, surface fires were an integral ecological process in the Blacks Mountain Experimental Forest (BMEF) prior to the 20th Century. With rare exception, fires have been successfully excluded from BMEF since the early 1900s. The Blacks Mountain Research Natural Area (BMRNA) covers approximately 521 acres of BMEF in 5 compartments of approximately 100...

  7. Human-caused fires limit rainfall in tropical Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosca, M. G., Jr.

    2015-12-01

    It is well established that smoke particles modify clouds, which in turn affects climate. However, no studies have quantified the temporal dynamics of aerosol-cloud interactions with direct observations. Here, for the first time, we use temporally-offset satellite observations from northern Africa between 2006 and 2010 to quantitatively measure the effect of fire aerosols on convective cloud dynamics. We attribute a reduction in cloud fraction during periods of high aerosol optical depths to a smoke-driven inhibition of convection. We find that higher smoke burdens limit upward vertical motion, increase surface pressure, and increase low-level divergence -- meteorological indicators of convective suppression. The resulting decrease in rainfall is substantial and may increase human ignitions during the dry season. These results are corroborated by climate simulations that show a smoke-driven increase in regionally averaged shortwave tropospheric heating and decrease in convective precipitation during the fire season. Our results suggest that, in tropical regions, anthropogenic fire initiates a positive feedback loop where increased aerosol emissions limit convection, dry the surface and enable increased fire activity via human ignition.

  8. PEACETIME RADIATION HAZARDS IN THE FIRE SERVICE, BASIC COURSE, INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERNDT, WILLIAM; AND OTHERS

    THE 12 TEACHING GUIDES INCLUDED ARE CORRELATED WITH THE "RESOURCE MANUAL" (VT 001 337), "STUDY GUIDE" (VT 001 878), AND A SET OF TWENTY-TWO 20- BY 28-INCH CHARTS (OE84022) DESIGNED TO BE PRESENTED TO FIREMEN IN A 15-HOUR COURSE AS A PART OF THEIR BASIC FIRE TRAINING. THEY ARE CONCERNED WITH HAZARDS RESULTING FROM THE PRESENCE OF RADIOACTIVE…

  9. PEACETIME RADIATION HAZARDS IN THE FIRE SERVICE, BASIC COURSE, STUDY GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC.

    THE ASSIGNMENT SHEETS INCLUDED ARE CORRELATED WITH THE INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE (VT 002 117), THE RESOURCE MANUAL (VT 001 337), AND A SET OF TWENTY-TWO 20- BY 28-INCH CHARTS (OE 84002). THE MATERIAL IS DESIGNED TO BE PRESENTED TO FIREMEN IN A 15-HOUR COURSE AS A PART OF THEIR BASIC FIRE TRAINING AND IS CONCERNED WITH THE HAZARDS RESULTING FROM THE…

  10. PEACETIME RADIATION HAZARDS IN THE FIRE SERVICE, BASIC COURSE, STUDY GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC.

    THE ASSIGNMENT SHEETS INCLUDED ARE CORRELATED WITH THE INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE (VT 002 117), THE RESOURCE MANUAL (VT 001 337), AND A SET OF TWENTY-TWO 20- BY 28-INCH CHARTS (OE 84002). THE MATERIAL IS DESIGNED TO BE PRESENTED TO FIREMEN IN A 15-HOUR COURSE AS A PART OF THEIR BASIC FIRE TRAINING AND IS CONCERNED WITH THE HAZARDS RESULTING FROM THE…

  11. PEACETIME RADIATION HAZARDS IN THE FIRE SERVICE, BASIC COURSE, RESOURCE MANUAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERNDT, WILLIAM

    FOR USE BY FIREMEN AND OTHER EMERGENCY PERSONNEL WHO MAY HAVE TO DEAL WITH FIRES OR SIMILAR EMERGENCIES INVOLVING RADIATION HAZARDS, THIS MANUAL IS CORRELATED WITH THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR THE 15-HOUR COURSE -- (1) AN INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE (VT 002 117), (2) A STUDENT STUDY GUIDE (VT 001 878), AND (3) A SET OF TWENTY-TWO 20- BY…

  12. PEACETIME RADIATION HAZARDS IN THE FIRE SERVICE, BASIC COURSE, RESOURCE MANUAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERNDT, WILLIAM

    FOR USE BY FIREMEN AND OTHER EMERGENCY PERSONNEL WHO MAY HAVE TO DEAL WITH FIRES OR SIMILAR EMERGENCIES INVOLVING RADIATION HAZARDS, THIS MANUAL IS CORRELATED WITH THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS FOR THE 15-HOUR COURSE -- (1) AN INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE (VT 002 117), (2) A STUDENT STUDY GUIDE (VT 001 878), AND (3) A SET OF TWENTY-TWO 20- BY…

  13. Beyond reducing fire hazard: fuel treatment impacts on overstory tree survival

    Treesearch

    Brandon M. Collins; Adrian J. Das; John J. Battles; Danny L. Fry; Kevin D. Krasnow; Scott L. Stephens

    2014-01-01

    Fuel treatment implementation in dry forest types throughout the western United States is likely to increase in pace and scale in response to increasing incidence of large wildfires. While it is clear that properly implemented fuel treatments are effective at reducing hazardous fire potential, there are ancillary ecological effects that can impact forest...

  14. Influence of long-term storage on fire hazard properties of metal nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyrmakova, O. S.; Sechin, A. I.; Nazarenko, O. B.

    2017-08-01

    The production and application of nanomaterials is rapidly expanding. Therefore the problem of their properties change during long-term storage becomes essential. The properties of metal nanopowders after long-term storage under ambient conditions were studied and the results are presented in this work. The aluminum, iron, zinc, and copper nanopowders produced by the method of electrical explosion of wires were investigated in this work. The investigation was carried out by X-ray and thermal analysis. The estimation of the flame propagation velocity in the bulk layer of nanopowders was carried out. The characteristics of the nanopowders of nanometals studied are given in terms of their fire hazard. The results can be used for diagnostic of fire hazard of nanomaterials and protection of the enterprises against fire and explosion.

  15. From leaves to landscape: A multiscale approach to assess fire hazard in wildland-urban interface areas.

    PubMed

    Ghermandi, Luciana; Beletzky, Natacha A; de Torres Curth, Mónica I; Oddi, Facundo J

    2016-12-01

    The overlapping zone between urbanization and wildland vegetation, known as the wildland urban interface (WUI), is often at high risk of wildfire. Human activities increase the likelihood of wildfires, which can have disastrous consequences for property and land use, and can pose a serious threat to lives. Fire hazard assessments depend strongly on the spatial scale of analysis. We assessed the fire hazard in a WUI area of a Patagonian city by working at three scales: landscape, community and species. Fire is a complex phenomenon, so we used a large number of variables that correlate a priori with the fire hazard. Consequently, we analyzed environmental variables together with fuel load and leaf flammability variables and integrated all the information in a fire hazard map with four fire hazard categories. The Nothofagus dombeyi forest had the highest fire hazard while grasslands had the lowest. Our work highlights the vulnerability of the wildland-urban interface to fire in this region and our suggested methodology could be applied in other wildland-urban interface areas. Particularly in high hazard areas, our work could help in spatial delimitation policies, urban planning and development of plans for the protection of human lives and assets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fire and Explosion Hazards Expected in a Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Rasool, Shireen R.; Al-Dahhan, Wedad; Al-Zuhairi, Ali Jassim; Hussein, Falah; Rodda, Kabrena E.; Yousif, Emad

    2016-08-15

    Scientists at universities across Iraq are actively working to report actual incidents and accidents occurring in their laboratories, as well as structural improvements made to improve safety and security, to raise awareness and encourage openness, leading to widespread adoption of robust Chemical Safety and Security (CSS) practices. This manuscript is the fifth in a series of five case studies describing laboratory incidents, accidents, and laboratory improvements. In this study, we summarize unsafe practices involving the improper installation of a Gas Chromatograph (GC) at an Iraqi university which, if not corrected, could have resulted in a dangerous fire and explosion. We summarize the identified infractions and highlight lessons learned. By openly sharing the experiences at the university involved, we hope to minimize the possibility of another researcher being injured due to similarly unsafe practices in the future.

  17. The potential for LiDAR technology to map fire fuel hazard over large areas of Australian forest.

    PubMed

    Price, Owen F; Gordon, Christopher E

    2016-10-01

    Fuel load is a primary determinant of fire spread in Australian forests. In east Australian forests, litter and canopy fuel loads and hence fire hazard are thought to be highest at and beyond steady-state fuel loads 15-20 years post-fire. Current methods used to predict fuel loads often rely on course-scale vegetation maps and simple time-since-fire relationships which mask fine-scale processes influencing fuel loads. Here we use Light Detecting and Remote Sensing technology (LiDAR) and field surveys to quantify post-fire mid-story and crown canopy fuel accumulation and fire hazard in Dry Sclerophyll Forests of the Sydney Basin (Australia) at fine spatial-scales (20 × 20 m cell resolution). Fuel cover was quantified in three strata important for crown fire propagation (0.5-4 m, 4-15 m, >15 m) over a 144 km(2) area subject to varying fire fuel ages. Our results show that 1) LiDAR provided a precise measurement of fuel cover in each strata and a less precise but still useful predictor of surface fuels, 2) cover varied greatly within a mapped vegetation class of the same fuel age, particularly for elevated fuel, 3) time-since-fire was a poor predictor of fuel cover and crown fire hazard because fuel loads important for crown fire propagation were variable over a range of fire fuel ages between 2 and 38 years post-fire, and 4) fuel loads and fire hazard can be high in the years immediately following fire. Our results show the benefits of spatially and temporally specific in situ fuel sampling methods such as LiDAR, and are widely applicable for fire management actions which aim to decrease human and environmental losses due to wildfire.

  18. Enclosure fire hazard analysis using relative energy release criteria. [burning rate and combustion control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coulbert, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    A method for predicting the probable course of fire development in an enclosure is presented. This fire modeling approach uses a graphic plot of five fire development constraints, the relative energy release criteria (RERC), to bound the heat release rates in an enclosure as a function of time. The five RERC are flame spread rate, fuel surface area, ventilation, enclosure volume, and total fuel load. They may be calculated versus time based on the specified or empirical conditions describing the specific enclosure, the fuel type and load, and the ventilation. The calculation of these five criteria, using the common basis of energy release rates versus time, provides a unifying framework for the utilization of available experimental data from all phases of fire development. The plot of these criteria reveals the probable fire development envelope and indicates which fire constraint will be controlling during a criteria time period. Examples of RERC application to fire characterization and control and to hazard analysis are presented along with recommendations for the further development of the concept.

  19. Data for fire hazard assessment of selected non-halogenated and halogenated fire retardants: Report of Test FR 3983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R. H.; Babrauskas, V.; Levin, B. C.; Paabo, M.

    1991-10-01

    Five plastic materials, with and without fire retardants, were studied to compare the fire hazards of non-halogenated fire retardant additives with halogenated flame retardents. The plastic materials were identified by the sponsors as unsaturated polyesters, thermoplastic high density, low density and cross-linked low density polyethylenes, polypropylene, flexible and rigid poly(vinyl chlorides), and cross-linked and thermoplastic ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. The non-halogenated fire retardants tested were aluminum hydroxide, also known as alumina trihydrate, sodium alumino-carbonate, and magnesium hydroxide. The halogenated flame retardants were chlorine or bromine/antimony oxides. The plastics were studied using the Cone Calorimeter and the cup furnace smoke toxicity method (high density polyethylene only). The Cone Calorimeter provided data on mass consumed; time to ignition; peak rate and peak time of heat release; total heat release; effective heat of combustion; average yields of CO, CO2, HCl, and HBr; and average smoke obscuration. The concentrations of toxic gases generated in the cup furnace smoke toxicity method were used to predict the toxic potency of the mixed thermal decomposition products. The data from the Cone Calorimeter indicate that the non-halogenated fire retardants were, in most of the tested plastic formulations, more effective than the halogenated flame retardants in increasing the time to ignition. The non-halogenated fire retardants were also more effective in reducing the mass consumed, peak rate of heat release, total heat released, and effective smoke produced. The use of halogenated flame retardants increased smoke production and CO yields and, additionally, produced the known acid gases and toxic irritants, HCl and HBr, in measureable quantities.

  20. Fire hazards analysis for the Center for National Security and Arms Control (CNSAC) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Klamerus, E.W.; Ross, S.B.

    1993-07-01

    This Fire Hazards Analysis is sponsored by Plant Engineering and is prepared to support the Safety Assessment for the CNSAC Facility. This is a preliminary fire hazards analysis of a yet to be constructed facility and is based upon the current building design and the current understanding of the potential occupancy hazards. The governing occupancy for this building is personnel offices. The CNSAC facility will be dedicated primarily to two activities: (1) arms control and verification technology and (2) intelligence. This report supplements the Safety Assessment for the CNSAC facility and follows the guidance of DOE Memorandum EH-31.3 and meets the objectives of paragraph 4 of DOE Order 5480.7A, ``Fire Protection.`` This analysis demonstrates that under ``worst case`` assumptions a fire in the CNSAC facility will result in consequences which are below DOE offsite guidelines for accident conditions. This report is based upon preliminary design information and any major changes to the building design may require additional analyses.

  1. Strata-based forest fuel classification for wild fire hazard assessment using terrestrial LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Zhu, Xuan; Yebra, Marta; Harris, Sarah; Tapper, Nigel

    2016-10-01

    Fuel structural characteristics affect fire behavior including fire intensity, spread rate, flame structure, and duration, therefore, quantifying forest fuel structure has significance in understanding fire behavior as well as providing information for fire management activities (e.g., planned burns, suppression, fuel hazard assessment, and fuel treatment). This paper presents a method of forest fuel strata classification with an integration between terrestrial light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and geographic information system for automatically assessing forest fuel structural characteristics (e.g., fuel horizontal continuity and vertical arrangement). The accuracy of fuel description derived from terrestrial LiDAR scanning (TLS) data was assessed by field measured surface fuel depth and fuel percentage covers at distinct vertical layers. The comparison of TLS-derived depth and percentage cover at surface fuel layer with the field measurements produced root mean square error values of 1.1 cm and 5.4%, respectively. TLS-derived percentage cover explained 92% of the variation in percentage cover at all fuel layers of the entire dataset. The outcome indicated TLS-derived fuel characteristics are strongly consistent with field measured values. TLS can be used to efficiently and consistently classify forest vertical layers to provide more precise information for forest fuel hazard assessment and surface fuel load estimation in order to assist forest fuels management and fire-related operational activities. It can also be beneficial for mapping forest habitat, wildlife conservation, and ecosystem management.

  2. [Hazard evaluation modeling of particulate matters emitted by coal-fired boilers and case analysis].

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-Ting; Du, Qian; Gao, Jian-Min; Bian, Xin; Wang, Zhi-Pu; Dong, He-Ming; Han, Qiang; Cao, Yang

    2014-02-01

    In order to evaluate the hazard of PM2.5 emitted by various boilers, in this paper, segmentation of particulate matters with sizes of below 2. 5 microm was performed based on their formation mechanisms and hazard level to human beings and environment. Meanwhile, taking into account the mass concentration, number concentration, enrichment factor of Hg, and content of Hg element in different coal ashes, a comprehensive model aimed at evaluating hazard of PM2.5 emitted by coal-fired boilers was established in this paper. Finally, through utilizing filed experimental data of previous literatures, a case analysis of the evaluation model was conducted, and the concept of hazard reduction coefficient was proposed, which can be used to evaluate the performance of dust removers.

  3. Is timing of prescribed fire critical for limiting post-fire erosion? Lessons from Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakesby, Richard A.; Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Walsh, Rory P. D.; Ferreira, António J. D.; Urbanek, Emilia; Stoof, Cathelijne R.

    2010-05-01

    The rapid increase in fire activity in parts of the Mediterranean from the 1960s onwards led to a rise in interest in the application of prescribed fire as a method of reducing fuel loads and thereby limiting the likelihood of the occurrence of severe wildfires and the size of the areas affected. The ‘windows of opportunity' for carrying out controlled burning are restricted to comparatively brief periods during the autumn through to late spring when wind direction and strength, air temperature and humidity, and fuel load moisture contents are judged to be appropriate. Given that the most erosive rainfall events are often in the autumn to early winter, delaying prescribed fire until later in the winter might be seen as having advantages in reducing post-fire erosional losses of ash, sediment and nutrients, particularly in wetter regions, as on the Atlantic fringe of the Mediterranean. Burning in late winter or spring might be expected to limit the chances of early post-fire heavy and erosive rainfall events. This would allow good vegetation recovery throughout spring and summer before the intense rainfall events likely to occur from the autumn onwards. As part of the EU-funded DESIRE project investigating ways of mitigating the detrimental effects of wildfire on land degradation, a small (9 ha), steep catchment comprising mainly scrub vegetation with encroaching pines in central Portugal was subjected to experimental fire. Although scheduled for autumn-early winter, delay of burning until February 20th 2009 proved necessary because of persistent rainfall and ground conditions too wet for burning. Sediment losses were monitored before and after the burn at the hillslope scale using a series of sediment fences. These comprise geotextile material supported against a frame made of steel bars forming a trap for sediment eroded from upslope. Knowing the contributing areas for eroded material reaching the fences enables erosion rates to be determined. Early results

  4. Historical and future emission of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from gas-fired combustion in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yifeng; Nie, Lei; Zhou, Zhen; Tian, Hezhong; Yan, Jing; Wu, Xiaoqing; Cheng, Linglong

    2017-07-01

    The consumption of natural gas in Beijing has increased in the past decade due to energy structure adjustments and air pollution abatement. In this study, an integrated emission inventory of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emitted from gas-fired combustion in Beijing was developed for the period from 2000 to 2014 using a technology-based approach. Future emission trends were projected through 2030 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. We found that emissions of primary HAPs exhibited an increasing trend with the rapid increase in natural gas consumption. Our estimates indicated that the total emissions of NO X , particulate matter (PM)10, PM2.5, CO, VOCs, SO2, black carbon, Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, and benzo[a]pyrene from gas-fired combustion in Beijing were approximately 22,422 t, 1042 t, 781 t, 19,097 t, 653 t, 82 t, 19 t, 0.6 kg, 0.1 kg, 43 kg, 52 kg, 0.3 kg, 0.03 kg, 4.3 kg, 0.6 kg, 216 μg, and 242 g, respectively, in 2014. To mitigate the associated air pollution and health risks caused by gas-fired combustion, stricter emission standards must be established. Additionally, combustion optimization and flue gas purification system could be used for lowering NO X emissions from gas-fired combustion, and gas-fired facilities should be continuously monitored based on emission limits. Graphical abstract Spatial distribution and typical live photos of gas-fired boiler in Beijing.

  5. Fire and explosion hazards related to the industrial use of potassium and sodium methoxides.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Q; Acheson, B; Turcotte, R; Janès, A; Marlair, G

    2013-04-15

    Sodium and potassium methoxides are used as an intermediary for a variety of products in several industrial applications. For example, current production of so called "1G-biodiesel" relies on processing a catalytic reaction called "transesterification". This reaction transforms lipid resources from biomass materials into fatty acid methyl and ethyl esters. 1-G biodiesel processes imply the use of methanol, caustic potash (KOH), and caustic soda (NaOH) for which the hazards are well characterized. The more recent introduction of the direct catalysts CH3OK and CH3ONa may potentially introduce new process hazards. From an examination of existing MSDSs concerning these products, it appears that no consensus currently exists on their intrinsic hazardous properties. Recently, l'Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques (France) and the Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory (Canada) have embarked upon a joint effort to better characterize the thermal hazards associated with these catalysts. This work employs the more conventional tests for water reactivity as an ignition source, fire and dust explosion hazards, using isothermal nano-calorimetry, isothermal basket tests, the Fire Propagation Apparatus and a standard 20 L sphere, respectively. It was found that these chemicals can become self-reactive close to room temperature under specific conditions and can generate explosible dusts. Copyright © 2013 Crown. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment of oil spill fire hazards with chemical dispersants: a case history

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, S.

    1982-10-01

    Federal contingency plans include the use of chemical dispersants to ameliorate hazardous situations caused by spills of flammable or explosive petroleum products. The closing of the Williamsburg Bridge in New York City, when a gasoline tanker exploded and sank under it, was nearly overshadowed by the leakage of 7 750 000 L (2 000 000 gal) of gasoline from a storage facility in Boston. The threat to a densely populated neighborhood of six-family tenement houses and a large racetrack that stabled hundreds of Thoroughbred horses led to the use of a chemical dispersant to neutralize the fire hazard. Favorable results by fire departments in recent years, as a result of training, have established dispersants as the method of choice to handle nonburning spill incidents. Even though the teams that responded to several such emergencies of course held the protection of life and property as paramount, no toxicological environmental effects were noted during subsequent observations.

  7. Workplace fire-not a misfortune, but an avoidable occupational hazard in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Eun; Kim, Myoung-Hee

    2015-02-01

    In this article, we argue that workplace fire should be understood within an occupational safety and health context. We selected two cases of fire and explosion with the greatest numbers of fatalities from the annual lists of the "Worst Manslaughter Companies of the Year" in Korea. Through review of information from major media, government, courts, and workers' advocacy organizations, we found that these incidents resulted from violations of basic safety rules by the companies, and that the penalties imposed on them were light. In addition, precarious workers were more vulnerable to such risk, and self-regulation did not work even in large corporations. Like other types of occupational hazards, explosions and fires can be prevented, but prevention requires that occupational safety and health regulations be thoroughly enforced and that heavy penalties be imposed in order to eliminate any incentives for regulatory violations.

  8. Estimating Woody Biomass Supply From Thinning Treatments to Reduce Fire Hazard in the U.S. West

    Treesearch

    Kenneth E. Skog; R. James Barbour

    2006-01-01

    This paper identifies timberland areas in 12 western states where thinning treatments (1) are judged to be needed to reduce fire hazard and (2) may “pay for themselves” at a scale to make investment in forest product processing a realistic option. A web-based tool - Fuel Treatment Evaluator 3.0 - is used to select high-fire-hazard timberland plots from the Forest...

  9. A growing fire hazard concern in communities: home oxygen therapy and continued smoking habits.

    PubMed

    Galligan, Catherine J; Markkanen, Pia K; Fantasia, Linda M; Gore, Rebecca J; Sama, Susan R; Quinn, Margaret M

    2015-02-01

    The Safe Home Care Project investigated both qualitatively and quantitatively a range of occupational safety and health hazards, as well as injury and illness prevention practices, among home care aides in Massachusetts. This article reports on a hazard identified by aides during the study's initial focus groups: smoking by home care clients on long-term oxygen therapy. Following the qualitative phase we conducted a cross-sectional survey among 1,249 aides and found that medical oxygen was present in 9 percent of aide visits (314 of aides' 3,484 recent client visits) and that 25 percent of clients on oxygen therapy were described as smokers. Based on our findings, the Board of Health in a local town conducted a pilot study to address fire hazards related to medical oxygen. Medical oxygen combined with smoking or other sources of ignition is a serious fire and explosion hazard that threatens not only workers who visit homes but also communities. © 2015 SAGE Publications.

  10. A Survey of Vegetation and Wildland Fire Hazards on the Nevada Test Site, September 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Nevada, Bechtel

    2004-09-01

    In the spring of 2004 a survey was conducted by Bechtel Nevada Ecological Services on the Nevada Test Site to characterize vegetation resources and climatic components of the environment that contribute to wildland fires. The field surveyed assessed 211 sites along major Nevada Test Site corridors for the abundance of native perennial and annual species and invasive weeds. The abundance of fine-textured (grasses and herbs) and coarse-textured (woody) biomass was visually estimated on numerical scales ranging from one to five. Wildland fires are costly to control and to mitigate once they occur. Revegetation of burned areas is very slow without reseeding or transplanting with native species and other rehabilitation efforts. Untreated areas become much more vulnerable to future fires once invasive species, rather than native species, colonize a burned area.The annual assessment of wildland fire hazards on the Nevada Test Site is scheduled to be implemented each spring in the near future with results being reported directly to the U.S. Department of Energy and the Bechtel Nevada Fire Marshal.

  11. Hazard Science in Support of Community Resiliency: The Response of the Multi Hazards Demonstration Project to the 2009 Station Fire in Los Angeles County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, L. M.; Bawden, G. W.; Bowers, J.; Cannon, S.; Cox, D. A.; Fisher, R.; Keeley, J.; Perry, S. C.; Plumlee, G. S.; Wood, N. J.

    2009-12-01

    The “Station” fire, the largest fire in the history of Los Angeles County in southern California, began on August 26, 2009 and as of the abstract deadline had burned over 150,000 acres of the Angeles National Forest. This fire creates both a demand and an opportunity for hazards science to be used by the communities directly hit by the fire, as well as those downstream of possible postfire impacts. The Multi Hazards Demonstration Project of the USGS is deploying several types of scientific response, including 1) evaluation of potential debris-flow hazards and associated risk, 2) monitoring physical conditions in burned areas and the hydrologic response to rainstorms, 3) increased streamflow monitoring, 4) ash analysis and ground water contamination, 5) ecosystem response and endangered species rescue, 6) lidar data acquisition for evaluations of biomass loss, detailed mapping of the physical processes that lead to debris-flow generation, and other geologic investigations. The Multi Hazards Demonstration Project is working with the southern California community to use the resulting information to better manage the social consequences of the fire and its secondary hazards. In particular, we are working with Los Angeles County to determine what information they need to prioritize recovery efforts. For instance, maps of hazards specific to debris flow potential can help identify the highest priority areas for debris flow mitigation efforts. These same maps together with ecosystem studies will help land managers determine whether individuals from endangered species should be removed to zoos or other refuges during the rainy months. The ash analysis will help water managers prevent contamination to water supplies. Plans are just beginning for a public information campaign with Los Angeles County about the risk posed by potential debris flows that should be underway in December. Activities from the fire response will support the development of the Wildfire Scenario in

  12. Interim guidelines for protecting fire-fighting personnel from multiple hazards at nuclear plant sites: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, A.R.; Bloom, C.W.

    1989-07-01

    This report provides interim guidelines for reducing the impact to fire fighting and other supporting emergency response personnel from the multiple hazards of radiation, heat stress, and trauma when fighting a fire in a United States commercial nuclear power plant. Interim guidelines are provided for fire brigade composition, training, equipment, procedures, strategies, heat stress and trauma. In addition, task definitions are provided to evaluate and further enhance the interim guidelines over the long term. 19 refs.

  13. Vulnerability Methodology and Protective Measures for Aircraft Fire and Explosion Hazards. Volume 2. Aircraft Engine Nacelle Fire Test Programs. Part 1. Fire Detection, Fire Extinguishment and Surface Ignition Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    injection method , has a negative margin of fifty (50) degrees ( 975 minus 1025). MIL-H—5606 has a zero margin, ie, the HIT is equal to but not less...Development of "Standard" Fires in F~16 Simulator 54 6.2.1 Selection of Fuel Flow Rate 54 6.2.2 "Standard" F-16 Nacelle Simulator Fire Test 55 6.3...variables which affect the hazard of accidental fire in an engine compartment are complex: 0 The fuel type, its temperature and pressure, and its method of

  14. Limitations imposed on fire PRA methods as the result of incomplete and uncertain fire event data.

    SciTech Connect

    Nowlen, Steven Patrick; Hyslop, J. S.

    2010-04-01

    Fire probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods utilize data and insights gained from actual fire events in a variety of ways. For example, fire occurrence frequencies, manual fire fighting effectiveness and timing, and the distribution of fire events by fire source and plant location are all based directly on the historical experience base. Other factors are either derived indirectly or supported qualitatively based on insights from the event data. These factors include the general nature and intensity of plant fires, insights into operator performance, and insights into fire growth and damage behaviors. This paper will discuss the potential methodology improvements that could be realized if more complete fire event reporting information were available. Areas that could benefit from more complete event reporting that will be discussed in the paper include fire event frequency analysis, analysis of fire detection and suppression system performance including incipient detection systems, analysis of manual fire fighting performance, treatment of fire growth from incipient stages to fully-involved fires, operator response to fire events, the impact of smoke on plant operations and equipment, and the impact of fire-induced cable failures on plant electrical circuits.

  15. Explosion hazards of oil shale dusts: Limits, pressures, and ignitability

    SciTech Connect

    Cashdollar, K.L.; Conti, R.S.; Hertzberg, M.

    1984-04-01

    The Bureau of Mines, under a cooperative agreement with the Colorado Mining Association, has investigated the explosion hazards of fine oil shale dust. Six grades of dust of varying oil assay (from 20 to 55 gal/ton) but with similar size distributions were studied in a 20-L explosibility chamber and in a 1.2-L ignitability furnace. Lean limits of flammability, maximum explosion pressures, and maximum rates of pressure rise were measured in the 20-L chamber and thermal autoignition temperatures were measured in the 1.2-L furnace. Electrical spark ignition measurements were made in both systems. For comparison with the oil shales, Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal, gilsonite, sulfide ore, and anthracite coal were also tested. The lean limits of flammability vary inversely with oil assay and all grades of shale dust with oil assays of 20 to 24 gal/ton or greater are capable of generating dust explosions at concentrations above their respective lean limits. Even the 50 gal/ton shale dust is less flammable than Pittsburgh bituminous coal. In terms of electrical ignitability, the shales are at least an order of magnitude less ignitable than the coal. The shale dust clouds are, however, somewhat more easily ignited thermally than the coal. Microscopic observations of the various grades of dust were made in order to determine whether the particle size variable could be isolated and studied independently of kerogen content of the shale dust. The implications of preliminary data, which suggest that those two variables are not readily separable, are also considered.

  16. The Hazard Mapping System (HMS)-a Multiplatform Remote Sensing Approach to Fire and Smoke Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibler, J.; Ruminski, M. G.

    2003-12-01

    The HMS is a multiplatform remote sensing approach to detecting fires and smoke over the US and adjacent areas of Canada and Mexico that has been in place since June 2002. This system is an integral part of the National Environmental Satellite and Data Information Service (NESDIS) near realtime hazard detection and mitigation efforts. The system utilizes NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES), Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on NASA's Terra and Aqua spacecraft. Automated detection algorithms are employed for each of the satellites for the fire detects while smoke is added by a satellite image analyst. In June 2003 the HMS underwent an upgrade. A number of features were added for users of the products generated on the HMS. Sectors covering Alaska and Hawaii were added. The use of Geographic Information System (GIS) shape files for smoke analysis is a new feature. Shape files show the progression and time of a single smoke plume as each analysis is drawn and then updated. The analyst now has the ability to view GOES, POES, and MODIS data in a single loop. This allows the fire analyst the ability to easily confirm a fire in three different data sets. The upgraded HMS has faster satellite looping and gives the analyst the ability to design a false color image for a particular region. The GOES satellites provide a relatively coarse 4 km infrared resolution at satellite subpoint for thermal fire detection but provide the advantage of a rapid update cycle. GOES imagery is updated every 15 minutes utilizing both GOES-10 and GOES-12. POES imagery from NOAA-15, NOAA-16 and NOAA-17 and MODIS from Terra and Aqua are employed with each satellite providing twice per day coverage (more frequent over Alaska). While the frequency of imagery is much less than with GOES the higher resolution of these satellites (1 km along the suborbital track) allows for detection of

  17. Population exposure to hazardous air quality due to the 2015 fires in Equatorial Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippa, P.; Castruccio, S.; Archer-Nicholls, S.; Lebron, G. B.; Kuwata, M.; Thota, A.; Sumin, S.; Butt, E.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2016-11-01

    Vegetation and peatland fires cause poor air quality and thousands of premature deaths across densely populated regions in Equatorial Asia. Strong El-Niño and positive Indian Ocean Dipole conditions are associated with an increase in the frequency and intensity of wildfires in Indonesia and Borneo, enhancing population exposure to hazardous concentrations of smoke and air pollutants. Here we investigate the impact on air quality and population exposure of wildfires in Equatorial Asia during Fall 2015, which were the largest over the past two decades. We performed high-resolution simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry based on a new fire emission product. The model captures the spatio-temporal variability of extreme pollution episodes relative to space- and ground-based observations and allows for identification of pollution sources and transport over Equatorial Asia. We calculate that high particulate matter concentrations from fires during Fall 2015 were responsible for persistent exposure of 69 million people to unhealthy air quality conditions. Short-term exposure to this pollution may have caused 11,880 (6,153–17,270) excess mortalities. Results from this research provide decision-relevant information to policy makers regarding the impact of land use changes and human driven deforestation on fire frequency and population exposure to degraded air quality.

  18. Population exposure to hazardous air quality due to the 2015 fires in Equatorial Asia.

    PubMed

    Crippa, P; Castruccio, S; Archer-Nicholls, S; Lebron, G B; Kuwata, M; Thota, A; Sumin, S; Butt, E; Wiedinmyer, C; Spracklen, D V

    2016-11-16

    Vegetation and peatland fires cause poor air quality and thousands of premature deaths across densely populated regions in Equatorial Asia. Strong El-Niño and positive Indian Ocean Dipole conditions are associated with an increase in the frequency and intensity of wildfires in Indonesia and Borneo, enhancing population exposure to hazardous concentrations of smoke and air pollutants. Here we investigate the impact on air quality and population exposure of wildfires in Equatorial Asia during Fall 2015, which were the largest over the past two decades. We performed high-resolution simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry based on a new fire emission product. The model captures the spatio-temporal variability of extreme pollution episodes relative to space- and ground-based observations and allows for identification of pollution sources and transport over Equatorial Asia. We calculate that high particulate matter concentrations from fires during Fall 2015 were responsible for persistent exposure of 69 million people to unhealthy air quality conditions. Short-term exposure to this pollution may have caused 11,880 (6,153-17,270) excess mortalities. Results from this research provide decision-relevant information to policy makers regarding the impact of land use changes and human driven deforestation on fire frequency and population exposure to degraded air quality.

  19. Population exposure to hazardous air quality due to the 2015 fires in Equatorial Asia

    PubMed Central

    Crippa, P.; Castruccio, S.; Archer-Nicholls, S.; Lebron, G. B.; Kuwata, M.; Thota, A.; Sumin, S.; Butt, E.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    Vegetation and peatland fires cause poor air quality and thousands of premature deaths across densely populated regions in Equatorial Asia. Strong El-Niño and positive Indian Ocean Dipole conditions are associated with an increase in the frequency and intensity of wildfires in Indonesia and Borneo, enhancing population exposure to hazardous concentrations of smoke and air pollutants. Here we investigate the impact on air quality and population exposure of wildfires in Equatorial Asia during Fall 2015, which were the largest over the past two decades. We performed high-resolution simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry based on a new fire emission product. The model captures the spatio-temporal variability of extreme pollution episodes relative to space- and ground-based observations and allows for identification of pollution sources and transport over Equatorial Asia. We calculate that high particulate matter concentrations from fires during Fall 2015 were responsible for persistent exposure of 69 million people to unhealthy air quality conditions. Short-term exposure to this pollution may have caused 11,880 (6,153–17,270) excess mortalities. Results from this research provide decision-relevant information to policy makers regarding the impact of land use changes and human driven deforestation on fire frequency and population exposure to degraded air quality. PMID:27848989

  20. Understory vegetation response in longleaf pine forests to fire and fire surrogate treatments for wildfire hazard reduction and ecological restoration

    Treesearch

    Dale G. Brockway; Kenneth W Outcalt

    2005-01-01

    The principal objective is to quantify the responses of the understory plant community to fire and fire surrogate treatments, specifically plant species composition, foliar cover, species richness, diversity, and evenness changes resulting from (1) fire exclusion in the untreated control, (2) prescribed fire, (3) thinning, (4) thinning plus prescribed fire, and (5)...

  1. The evolution of toxic effluents in fires and the assessment of toxic hazard.

    PubMed

    Purser, D A

    1992-12-01

    Toxic hazard in fire depends upon three factors: the fire growth curve (mass loss rate of materials, kg/min) and volume dispersal (kg/m3), the yields of toxic products (e.g. kg CO/kg fuel burned) and the toxic potency of the products (exposure dose needed to cause toxic effects, e.g. lethal dose of CO in ppm.min). The first and second sets of data are obtainable from large-scale tests or small-scale tests and mathematical modelling, the third and some information on the second are derived from toxicity studies of combustion products in small-scale tests or of individual fire gases. Small-scale toxicity test data on materials expressed as lethal mass loss exposure doses (LCt50 g min m-3) can be used in Fractional Effective Dose (FED) hazard assessments, providing the decomposition conditions of the test reproduce those in the fire being examined; principally either non-flaming oxidative, early well-ventilated flaming, or vitiated post-flashover. Although bioassays are needed for a full toxicity assessment, it is now possible to predict the toxic potency of materials to some extent from analytical data alone. The suitability of the small-scale test decomposition conditions are determined in terms of non-flaming or flaming behaviour, temperature (or radiant flux), CO2/CO ratio and oxygen concentration. Existing small-scale test methods provide reasonable models for materials under non-flaming oxidative and early flaming conditions, although the data base for the latter is poor. Only the DIN 53436 method is able to model vitiated post-flashover decomposition conditions, but data for this condition are almost non-existent.

  2. Emergency assessment of post-fire debris-flow hazards for the 2013 Springs Fire, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staley, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire can significantly alter the hydrologic response of a watershed to the extent that even modest rainstorms can produce dangerous flash floods and debris flows. In this report, empirical models are used to predict the probability and magnitude of debris-flow occurrence in response to a 10-year rainstorm for the 2013 Springs fire in Ventura County, California. Overall, the models predict a relatively high probability (60–80 percent) of debris flow for 9 of the 99 drainage basins in the burn area in response to a 10-year recurrence interval design storm. Predictions of debris-flow volume suggest that debris flows may entrain a significant volume of material, with 28 of the 99 basins identified as having potential debris-flow volumes greater than 10,000 cubic meters. These results of the relative combined hazard analysis suggest there is a moderate likelihood of significant debris-flow hazard within and downstream of the burn area for nearby populations, infrastructure, wildlife, and water resources. Given these findings, we recommend that residents, emergency managers, and public works departments pay close attention to weather forecasts and National Weather Service-issued Debris Flow and Flash Flood Outlooks, Watches, and Warnings, and that residents adhere to any evacuation orders.

  3. Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 81-459-1603, the City of New York Fire Department, New York, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Tubbs, R.L.

    1985-07-01

    A noise survey of New York City Fire Department equipment was conducted in November, 1982. The evaluation was requested by the fire department to investigate selected noise sources found at the fire scene or on vehicles used to get to and from a fire scene. The author concludes that a potential for overexposure to noise does exist for the fire department personnel. Recommendations include limiting the use of warning devices as much as legally and practically possible, relocating warning devices away from fire personnel on the vehicle, and implementing a hearing conservation program.

  4. The limits on the usefulness of erosion hazard ratings

    Treesearch

    R. M. Rice; P. D. Gradek

    1984-01-01

    Although erosion-hazard ratings are often used to guide forest practices, those used in California from 1974 to 1982 have been inadequate for estimating erosion potential. To improve the erosion-hazard rating procedure, separate estimating equations were used for different situations. The ratings were partitioned according to yarding method, erosional process, and...

  5. A Study of Aircraft Fire Hazards Related to Natural Electrical Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, Frank L.; Gerstein, Melvin; Plumer, J. A.

    1960-01-01

    The problems of natural electrical phenomena as a fire hazard to aircraft are evaluated. Assessment of the hazard is made over the range of low level electrical discharges, such as static sparks, to high level discharges, such as lightning strikes to aircraft. In addition, some fundamental work is presented on the problem of flame propagation in aircraft fuel vent systems. This study consists of a laboratory investigation in five parts: (1) a study of the ignition energies and flame propagation rates of kerosene-air and JP-6-air foams, (2) a study of the rate of flame propagation of n-heptane, n-octane, n-nonane, and n-decane in aircraft vent ducts, (3) a study of the damage to aluminum, titanium, and stainless steel aircraft skin materials by lightning strikes, (4) a study of fuel ignition by lightning strikes to aircraft skins, and (5) a study of lightning induced flame propagation in an aircraft vent system.

  6. Quantify landslide exposure in areas with limited hazard information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicani, R.; Spilotro, G.; Van Westen, C. J.

    2012-04-01

    In Daunia region, located in the North-western part of Apulia (Southern Italy), landslides are the main source of damage to properties in the urban centers of the area, involving especially transportation system and the foundation stability of buildings. In the last 50 years, the growing demand for physical development of these unstable minor hillside and mountain centers has produced a very rapid expansion of built-up areas, often with poor planning of urban and territorial infrastructures, and invasion of the agricultural soil. Because of the expansion of the built-up towards not safe areas, human activities such as deforestation or excavation of slopes for road cuts and building sites, etc., have become important triggers for landslide occurrence. In the study area, the probability of occurrence of landslides is very difficult to predict, as well as the expected magnitude of events, due to the limited data availability on past landslide activity. Because the main limitations concern the availability of temporal data on landslides and triggering events (frequency), run-out distance and landslide magnitude, it was not possible to produce a reliable landslide hazard map and, consequently, a risk map. Given these limitations in data availability and details, a qualitative exposure map has been produced and combined with a landslide susceptibility map, both generated using a spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE) procedure in a GIS system, for obtaining the qualitative landslide risk map. The qualitative analysis has been provided the spatial distribution of the exposure level in the study area; this information could be used in a preliminary stage of regional planning. In order to have a better definition of the risk level in the Daunia territory, the quantification of the economic losses at municipal level was carried out. For transforming these information on economic consequences into landslide risk quantification, it was necessary to assume the temporal

  7. ERTS-1 imagery and high flight photographs as aids to fire hazard appraisal at the NASA San Pablo Reservoir test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    The identification of fire hazards at the San Pablo Reservoir Test Site in California using ERTS-1 data is discussed. It is stated that the two primary fire hazards in the area are caused by wild oat plants and eucalyptus trees. The types of imagery used in conducting the study are reported. Aerial photographs of specific areas are included to show the extent of the fire hazards.

  8. Global Change Impacts on Future Fire Regimes: Distinguishing Between Climate-limited vs Ignition-Limited Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeley, J. E.; Syphard, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    Global warming is expected to exacerbate fire impacts. Predicting how climates will impact future fire regimes requires an understanding of how temperature and precipitation interact to control fire activity. Inevitably this requires historical analyses that relate annual burning to climate variation. Within climatically homogeneous subregions, montane forested landscapes show strong relationships between annual fluctuations in temperature and precipitation with area burned, however, this is strongly seasonal dependent; e.g., winter temperatures have very little or no effect but spring and summer temperatures are critical. Climate models are needed that predict future seasonal temperature changes if we are to forecast future fire regimes in these forests. Climate does not appear to be a major determinant of fire activity on all landscapes. Lower elevations and lower latitudes show little or no increase in fire activity with hotter and drier conditions. On these landscapes climate is not usually limiting to fires but these vegetation types are ignition-limited, and because they are closely juxtaposed with human habitations fire regimes are more strongly controlled by other direct anthropogenic impacts. Predicting future fire regimes is not rocket science, it is far more complicated than that. Climate change is not relevant on some landscapes, but where climate is relevant the relationship will change due to direct climate effects on vegetation trajectories, as well as by feedback processes of fire effects on vegetation distribution, plus policy changes in how we manage ecosystems.

  9. Beyond reducing fire hazard: fuel treatment impacts on overstory tree survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Brandon M.; Das, Adrian J.; Battles, John J.; Fry, Danny L.; Krasnow, Kevin D.; Stephens, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Fuel treatment implementation in dry forest types throughout the western United States is likely to increase in pace and scale in response to increasing incidence of large wildfires. While it is clear that properly implemented fuel treatments are effective at reducing hazardous fire potential, there are ancillary ecological effects that can impact forest resilience either positively or negatively depending on the specific elements examined, as well as treatment type, timing, and intensity. In this study, we use overstory tree growth responses, measured seven years after the most common fuel treatments, to estimate forest health. Across the five species analyzed, observed mortality and future vulnerability were consistently low in the mechanical-only treatment. Fire-only was similar to the control for all species except Douglas-fir, while mechanical-plus-fire had high observed mortality and future vulnerability for white fir and sugar pine. Given that overstory trees largely dictate the function of forests and services they provide (e.g., wildlife habitat, carbon sequestration, soil stability) these results have implications for understanding longer-term impacts of common fuel treatments on forest resilience.

  10. Emergency assessment of post-fire debris-flow hazards for the 2013 Mountain fire, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staley, Dennis M.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Smoczyk, Greg M.; Reeves, Ryan R.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire dramatically alters the hydrologic response of a watershed such that even modest rainstorms can produce dangerous flash floods and debris flows. We use empirical models to predict the probability and magnitude of debris flow occurrence in response to a 10-year rainstorm for the 2013 Mountain fire near Palm Springs, California. Overall, the models predict a relatively high probability (60–100 percent) of debris flow for six of the drainage basins in the burn area in response to a 10-year recurrence interval design storm. Volumetric predictions suggest that debris flows that occur may entrain a significant volume of material, with 8 of the 14 basins identified as having potential debris-flow volumes greater than 100,000 cubic meters. These results suggest there is a high likelihood of significant debris-flow hazard within and downstream of the burn area for nearby populations, infrastructure, and wildlife and water resources. Given these findings, we recommend that residents, emergency managers, and public works departments pay close attention to weather forecasts and National Weather Service–issued Debris Flow and Flash Flood Outlooks, Watches and Warnings and that residents adhere to any evacuation orders.

  11. Observational evidence on the effects of mega-fires on the frequency of hydrogeomorphic hazards. The case of the Peloponnese fires of 2007 in Greece.

    PubMed

    Diakakis, M; Nikolopoulos, E I; Mavroulis, S; Vassilakis, E; Korakaki, E

    2017-08-15

    Even though rare, mega-fires raging during very dry and windy conditions, record catastrophic impacts on infrastructure, the environment and human life, as well as extremely high suppression and rehabilitation costs. Apart from the direct consequences, mega-fires induce long-term effects in the geomorphological and hydrological processes, influencing environmental factors that in turn can affect the occurrence of other natural hazards, such as floods and mass movement phenomena. This work focuses on the forest fire of 2007 in Peloponnese, Greece that to date corresponds to the largest fire in the country's record that burnt 1773km(2), causing 78 fatalities and very significant damages in property and infrastructure. Specifically, this work examines the occurrence of flood and mass movement phenomena, before and after this mega-fire and analyses different influencing factors to investigate the degree to which the 2007 fire and/or other parameters have affected their frequency. Observational evidence based on several data sources collected during the period 1989-2016 show that the 2007 fire has contributed to an increase of average flood and mass movement events frequency by approximately 3.3 and 5.6 times respectively. Fire affected areas record a substantial increase in the occurrence of both phenomena, presenting a noticeably stronger increase compared to neighbouring areas that have not been affected. Examination of the monthly occurrence of events showed an increase even in months of the year were rainfall intensity presented decreasing trends. Although no major land use changes has been identified and chlorophyll is shown to recover 2years after the fire incident, differences on the type of vegetation as tall forest has been substituted with lower vegetation are considered significant drivers for the observed increase in flood and mass movement frequency in the fire affected areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Post-Fire Debris-Flow Hazard Assessments at the U.S. Geological Survey - Recent Advances and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staley, D. M.; Kean, J. W.; Smoczyk, G. M.; Negri, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Wildfire can have profound effects on the hydrologic response of a watershed, and debris-flow activity is among the most destructive consequences of these effects. The continued high likelihood of catastrophic wildfires in the western U. S. and the encroachment of development into fire-prone areas have created the need to develop tools to identify and quantify the potential hazards posed by debris flows generated from burned watersheds. These tools are critically needed by Federal, State, and local agencies to mitigate the impacts of debris flows on people, their property, infrastructure and natural resources. Applied research at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Landslide Hazards Program is focused on providing timely, science-based assessments of post-fire debris-flow hazard. Formerly, post-fire debris-flow hazard assessments were disseminated by means of the USGS Open-File Report publication series, which included poster-sized maps that predicted the probability, volume, and combined hazard for given watersheds. Feedback from collaborators suggested that 1) the reports were not sufficiently timely for immediate post-fire use, 2) the static maps were difficult to use for site-specific assessments, and 3) individual assessments were often cost-prohibitive. Beginning in January 2014, the USGS has transitioned to a web-based method for disseminating post-fire debris-flow hazard assessments. This new platform addresses the primary concerns of our stakeholders in three ways. First, the turnaround time has been reduced from 1-2 months for a map and written report, to 3-4 days for a web-based map assessment. This allows response teams to incorporate the assessment results into their reports, which are urgently needed immediately after fires. Second, the new website is interactive and accompanied by downloadable geospatial data of predictions for several storm scenarios. These features permit casual (local residents) and power-users (GIS experts) to evaluate site

  13. Landscape-scale fuel treatment and wildfire impacts on carbon stocks and fire hazard in California spotted owl habitat

    Treesearch

    Lindsay A. Chiono; Danny L. Fry; Brandon M. Collins; Andrea H. Chatfield; Scott L. Stephens

    2017-01-01

    Forest managers are challenged with meeting numerous demands that often include wildlife habitat and carbon (C) sequestration. We used a probabilistic framework of wildfire occurrence to (1) estimate the potential for fuel treatments to reduce fire risk and hazard across the landscape and within protected California spotted owl (Strix occidentalis...

  14. Field Guide for Testing Existing Photovoltaic Systems for Ground Faults and Installing Equipment to Mitigate Fire Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, William; Basso, Thomas; Coddington, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Ground faults and arc faults are the two most common reasons for fires in photovoltaic (PV) arrays and methods exist that can mitigate the hazards. This report provides field procedures for testing PV arrays for ground faults, and for implementing high resolution ground fault and arc fault detectors in existing and new PV system designs.

  15. Understory Herbicide as a Treatment For Reducing Hazardous Fuels and Extreme Fire Behavior in Slash Pine Plantations

    Treesearch

    Patrick H. Brose; Dale Wade

    2002-01-01

    The 1998 wildfires in Florida sparked a serious debate about the accumulation of hazardous forest fuels and the merits of prescribed fire and alternatives for mitigating that problem. One such alternative is application of understory herbicides and anecdotal evidence suggests they may either exacerbate or lessen the fuel accumulation problem. In 1998, a study was...

  16. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 07: The "laws" of effective public education about fire hazards

    Treesearch

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Within the past 10 years, breakthrough research has identified factors that are most important for effectively communicating about wildland fire hazards. This fact sheet discusses seven "Laws" of effective public communication that should be considered in any state-of-the-art education campaign.

  17. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; forest structure and fire hazard fact sheet 05: fuel treatment principles for complex landscapes

    Treesearch

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Appropriate types of thinning and surface fuel treatments are clearly useful in reducing surface and crown fire hazards under a wide range of fuels and topographic situations. This paper provides well-established scientific principles and simulation tools that can be used to adjust fuel treatments to attain specific risk levels.

  18. Recent burning of boreal forests exceeds fire regime limits of the past 10,000 years.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ryan; Chipman, Melissa L; Higuera, Philip E; Stefanova, Ivanka; Brubaker, Linda B; Hu, Feng Sheng

    2013-08-06

    Wildfire activity in boreal forests is anticipated to increase dramatically, with far-reaching ecological and socioeconomic consequences. Paleorecords are indispensible for elucidating boreal fire regime dynamics under changing climate, because fire return intervals and successional cycles in these ecosystems occur over decadal to centennial timescales. We present charcoal records from 14 lakes in the Yukon Flats of interior Alaska, one of the most flammable ecoregions of the boreal forest biome, to infer causes and consequences of fire regime change over the past 10,000 y. Strong correspondence between charcoal-inferred and observational fire records shows the fidelity of sedimentary charcoal records as archives of past fire regimes. Fire frequency and area burned increased ∼6,000-3,000 y ago, probably as a result of elevated landscape flammability associated with increased Picea mariana in the regional vegetation. During the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; ∼1,000-500 cal B.P.), the period most similar to recent decades, warm and dry climatic conditions resulted in peak biomass burning, but severe fires favored less-flammable deciduous vegetation, such that fire frequency remained relatively stationary. These results suggest that boreal forests can sustain high-severity fire regimes for centuries under warm and dry conditions, with vegetation feedbacks modulating climate-fire linkages. The apparent limit to MCA burning has been surpassed by the regional fire regime of recent decades, which is characterized by exceptionally high fire frequency and biomass burning. This extreme combination suggests a transition to a unique regime of unprecedented fire activity. However, vegetation dynamics similar to feedbacks that occurred during the MCA may stabilize the fire regime, despite additional warming.

  19. Recent burning of boreal forests exceeds fire regime limits of the past 10,000 years

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Ryan; Chipman, Melissa L.; Higuera, Philip E.; Stefanova, Ivanka; Brubaker, Linda B.; Hu, Feng Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire activity in boreal forests is anticipated to increase dramatically, with far-reaching ecological and socioeconomic consequences. Paleorecords are indispensible for elucidating boreal fire regime dynamics under changing climate, because fire return intervals and successional cycles in these ecosystems occur over decadal to centennial timescales. We present charcoal records from 14 lakes in the Yukon Flats of interior Alaska, one of the most flammable ecoregions of the boreal forest biome, to infer causes and consequences of fire regime change over the past 10,000 y. Strong correspondence between charcoal-inferred and observational fire records shows the fidelity of sedimentary charcoal records as archives of past fire regimes. Fire frequency and area burned increased ∼6,000–3,000 y ago, probably as a result of elevated landscape flammability associated with increased Picea mariana in the regional vegetation. During the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; ∼1,000–500 cal B.P.), the period most similar to recent decades, warm and dry climatic conditions resulted in peak biomass burning, but severe fires favored less-flammable deciduous vegetation, such that fire frequency remained relatively stationary. These results suggest that boreal forests can sustain high-severity fire regimes for centuries under warm and dry conditions, with vegetation feedbacks modulating climate–fire linkages. The apparent limit to MCA burning has been surpassed by the regional fire regime of recent decades, which is characterized by exceptionally high fire frequency and biomass burning. This extreme combination suggests a transition to a unique regime of unprecedented fire activity. However, vegetation dynamics similar to feedbacks that occurred during the MCA may stabilize the fire regime, despite additional warming. PMID:23878258

  20. 76 FR 24975 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ...The United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) is proposing national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) from coal- and oil-fired electric utility steam generating units (EGUs) under Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act) section 112(d) and proposing revised new source performance standards (NSPS) for fossil fuel-fired EGUs under CAA section 111(b). The proposed NESHAP would protect air quality and promote public health by reducing emissions of the hazardous air pollutants (HAP) listed in CAA section 112(b). In addition, these proposed amendments to the NSPS are in response to a voluntary remand of a final rule. We also are proposing several minor amendments, technical clarifications, and corrections to existing NSPS provisions for fossil fuel-fired EGUs and large and small industrial-commercial-institutional steam generating units.

  1. Examination of the wind speed limit function in the Rothermel surface fire spread model

    Treesearch

    Patricia L. Andrews; Miguel G. Cruz; Richard C. Rothermel

    2013-01-01

    The Rothermel surface fire spread model includes a wind speed limit, above which predicted rate of spread is constant. Complete derivation of the wind limit as a function of reaction intensity is given, along with an alternate result based on a changed assumption. Evidence indicates that both the original and the revised wind limits are too restrictive. Wind limit is...

  2. Assessment of erosion hazard after recurrence fires with the RUSLE 3D MODEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecín-Arias, Daniel; Palencia, Covadonga; Fernández Raga, María

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this work is to calculate if there is more soil erosion after the recurrence of several forest fires on an area. To that end, it has been studied an area of 22 130 ha because has a high frequency of fires. This area is located in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. The assessment of erosion hazard was calculated in several times using Geographic Information Systems (GIS).The area have been divided into several plots according to the number of times they have been burnt in the past 15 years. Due to the complexity that has to make a detailed study of a so large field and that there are not information available anually, it is necessary to select the more interesting moments. In august 2012 it happened the most agressive and extensive fire of the area. So the study was focused on the erosion hazard for 2011 and 2014, because they are the date before and after from the fire of 2012 in which there are orthophotos available. RUSLE3D model (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) was used to calculate maps erosion losses. This model improves the traditional USLE (Wischmeier and D., 1965) because it studies the influence of the concavity / convexity (Renard et al., 1997), and improves the estimation of the slope factor LS (Renard et al., 1991). It is also one of the most commonly used models in literatura (Mitasova et al., 1996; Terranova et al., 2009). The tools used are free and accessible, using GIS "gvSIG" (http://www.gvsig.com/es) and the metadata were taken from Spatial Data Infrastructure of Spain webpage (IDEE, 2016). However the RUSLE model has many critics as some authors who suggest that only serves to carry out comparisons between areas, and not for the calculation of absolute soil loss data. These authors argue that in field measurements the actual recovered eroded soil can suppose about one-third of the values obtained with the model (Šúri et al., 2002). The study of the area shows that the error detected by the critics could come from

  3. Feasibility of methods and systems for reducng LNG tanker fire hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    In this program concepts for reducing fire hazards that may result from LNG tanker collisions are identified and their technical feasibility evaluated. Concepts considered include modifications to the shipborne LNG containers so that in the event of a container rupture less of the contents would spill and/or the contents would spill at a reduced rate. Changes in the cargo itself, including making the LNG into a gel, solidifying it, converting it to methanol, and adding flame suppressants are also evaluated. The relative effectiveness and the costs of implementing these methods in terms of increased cost of gas at the receiving terminal, are explained. The vulnerability of an LNG tanker and its crew to the thermal effects of a large pool fire caused by a collision spill is estimated and methods of protecting the crew are considered. It is shown that the protection of ship and crew so that further deterioration of a damaged ship might be ameliorated, would require the design and installation of extraordinary insulation systems and life support assistance for the crew. Methods of salvaging or disposing of cargo from a damaged and disabled ship are evaluated, and it is concluded that if the cargo cannot be transferred to another (empty) LNG tanker because of lack of availability, then the burning of the cargo at a location somewhat distant from the disabled tanker appears to be a promising approach. Finally, the likelihood of the vapors from a spill being ignited due to the frictional impact of the colliding ships was examined. It is found that the heating of metal sufficient to ignite flammable vapors would occur during a collision, but it is questionable whether flammable vapor and air will, in fact, come in contact with the hot metal surfaces.

  4. Welfare Returns and Temporary Time Limits: A Proportional Hazard Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Vicky N.; King, William C.; Iaci, Ross

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzes welfare returns for families who leave welfare for a "sit-out" period of 12 months in response to a temporary time limit requirement in Nevada. Findings reveal that relatively few families return for cash assistance after sitting out and that the majority who do return soon after their sit-out period is complete.…

  5. Welfare Returns and Temporary Time Limits: A Proportional Hazard Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Vicky N.; King, William C.; Iaci, Ross

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzes welfare returns for families who leave welfare for a "sit-out" period of 12 months in response to a temporary time limit requirement in Nevada. Findings reveal that relatively few families return for cash assistance after sitting out and that the majority who do return soon after their sit-out period is complete.…

  6. Hazard of CO₂ laser-induced airway fire in laryngeal surgery: experimental data of contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Stuermer, Konrad Johannes; Ayachi, Stefan; Gostian, Antoniu-O; Beutner, Dirk; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd

    2013-09-01

    In carbon dioxide (CO2) laser surgery of the larynx, the potentially dangerous combination of laser-induced heat in an oxygen-enriched atmosphere typically occurs when jet ventilation is used or due to an insufficiently blocked endotracheal tube. Until now, no limitations for safe oxygen concentrations or laser intervals have been established. The aim of this study was to investigate and quantify the factors that may contribute to an airway fire in laryngeal laser surgery. Fat, muscle and cartilage were irradiated with a CO2 laser at 2, 4, 6 and 8 W in five different oxygen concentrations with and without smoke exhaustion. The time to ignition was recorded for each different experimental setup. Fat burnt fastest, followed by cartilage and muscle. The elevation of laser energy or oxygen concentration reduced the time to inflammation of any tissue. The elevation of oxygen by 10 % increases the risk of inflammation more than the elevation of laser power by 2 W. Under smoke exhaustion, inflammation and burning occurred delayed or were even inhibited at lower oxygen concentrations. Lasing in more than 50 % oxygen is comparatively dangerous and can cause airway fire in less than 5 s, especially when laser energies of more than 5 W are applied. In equal or lower than 50 % oxygen, an irradiation interval of 5 s can be considered a comparatively safe time limit to prevent inflammation in laryngeal laser surgery. Smoke exhaustion should always be applied.

  7. Health-Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 85-150-1767, Warwick Fire Department, Warwick, Rhode Island

    SciTech Connect

    Keenlyside, R.A.; House, L.A.; Kent, G.; Durand, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    In answer to a request from the International Association of Fire Fighters (IAFF), an evaluation was made of health complaints noted by fire fighters exposed to plastic products and pesticides during two separate fires attended to by the Warwick Fire Department, located in Warwick, Rhode Island. Questionnaires were administered to 43 persons who were only present at the plastics fire and 46 who were only present at the pesticide fire and to 13 present at both fires. The men who fought the plastic products fire and the pesticide fire apparently experienced acute symptoms related to smoke and chemical inhalation during the fires, including headache, cough, sore throat, wheezing, shortness of breath, rash, dizziness, nausea, blurred vision, and numbness. The authors conclude that fire fighters at these two fires experienced acute irritant symptoms from smoke and chemical inhalation. The authors recommend use of protective clothing, use of protective equipment, prefire planning, implementation of medical surveillance for all fire fighters, and the proper cleanup of protective clothing and equipment after fires.

  8. Gas Chromatographic Determination of Fatty Acids in Oils with Regard to the Assessment of Fire Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartošová, Alica; Štefko, Tomáš

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the paper was to study and research the application of processing gas chromatographic method for the rapid and accurate determination of the composition of different types of oils, such as substances with the possibility of an adverse event spontaneous combustion or self-heating. Tendency to spontaneous combustion is chemically characterized mainly by the amount of unsaturated fatty acids, which have one or more double bonds in their molecule. Vegetable oils essentially consist of the following fatty acids: palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linoleic. For the needs of assessment, the fire hazard must be known, in which the double bond is present, as well as their number in a molecule. As an analytical method, GCMS was used for determination of oils content. Three types of oil were used - rapeseed, sunflower, and coconut oil. Owing to the occurrence of linoleic acid C18:2 (49.8 wt.%) and oleic acid C18:1 (43.3 wt.%) with double bonds, sunflower oil is the most prone to self-heating. The coconut and rapeseed oils contain double bond FAME in lesser amount, and their propensity to self-heating is relatively low.

  9. Expert System Development for Urban Fire Hazard Assessment. Study Case: Kendari City, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taridala, S.; Yudono, A.; Ramli, M. I.; Akil, A.

    2017-08-01

    Kendari City is a coastal urban region with the smallest area as well as the largest population in Southeast Sulawesi. Fires in Kendari City had rather frequently occurred and caused numerous material losses. This study aims to develop a model of urban fire risk and fire station site assessment. The model is developed using Expert Systems with the Geographic Information System (GIS). The high risk of fire area is the area which of high building density with combustible material, not crossed by arterial nor collector road. The fire station site should be appropriately close by high risk of fire area, located on arterial road and near with potential water resource.

  10. Rendering wastes obtained from gold analysis by the lead-fusion fire-assay method non-hazardous.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Fernanda Batalha; de Freitas Carvalho, Cornélio; Corrêa Netto Carvalho, Eduardo Lyse; Yoshida, Maria Irene; Gouvêa dos-Santos, Cláudio

    2012-11-15

    The classical method of melting lead by fire-assay (Pb-FA) is the most frequently used analytical technique in gold prospection. The crucible solid waste which is generated in this process is usually characterized by chemical and mineralogical composition, granulometric size distribution, and classified according to Brazilian Environmental Regulations. This study demonstrates how acid leaching can be used to remove lead from waste originally classified as hazardous by treatment with hydrochloric and nitric acids followed by chemical precipitation in sodium metasilicate solution. It is shown that for every 1000 kg of hazardous waste, 995.6 kg of non-harzardous waste can be recovered.

  11. Towards establishing practical multi-hazard bridge design limit states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Zach; Lee, George C.

    2013-09-01

    In the U.S., the current Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) Specifications for highway bridges is a reliability-based formulation that considers failure probabilities of bridge components due to the actions of typical dead load and frequent vehicular loads. Various extreme load effects, such as earthquake and vessel collision, are not considered on the same reliability-based platform. Since these extreme loads are time variables, combining them with frequent, nonextreme loads is a significant challenge. The number of design limit state equations based on these failure probabilities can be unrealistically large and unnecessary from the view point of practical applications. Based on the opinion of AASHTO State Bridge Engineers, many load combinations are insignificant in their states. This paper describes the formulation of a criterion to include only the necessary load combinations to establish the design limit states. This criterion is established by examining the total failure probabilities for all possible time-invariant and time varying load combinations and breaking them down into partial terms. Then, important load combinations can be readily determined quantitatively.

  12. Emergency assessment of postwildfire debris-flow hazards for the 2011 Motor Fire, Sierra and Stanislaus National Forests, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents an emergency assessment of potential debris-flow hazards from basins burned by the 2011 Motor fire in the Sierra and Stanislaus National Forests, Calif. Statistical-empirical models are used to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows that may be produced from burned drainage basins as a function of different measures of basin burned extent, gradient, and soil physical properties, and in response to a 30-minute-duration, 10-year-recurrence rainstorm. Debris-flow probability and volume estimates are then combined to form a relative hazard ranking for each basin. This assessment provides critical information for issuing warnings, locating and designing mitigation measures, and planning evacuation timing and routes within the first two years following the fire.

  13. Assessing the effect of pruning and thinning on crown fire hazard in young Atlantic maritime pine forests.

    PubMed

    Hevia, Andrea; Crabiffosse, Alejandra; Álvarez-González, Juan Gabriel; Ruiz-González, Ana Daria; Majada, Juan

    2017-09-26

    Management of fuel to minimize crown fire hazard is a key challenge in Atlantic forests, particularly for pine species. However, a better understanding of effectiveness of silvicultural treatments, especially forest pruning, for hazard reduction is required. Here we evaluate pruning and thinning as two essential silvicultural treatments for timber pine forests. Data came from a network of permanent plots of young maritime pine stands in northwestern Spain. Vertical profiles of canopy bulk density were estimated for field data and simulated scenarios of pruning and thinning using individual tree biomass equations. Analyses of variance were conducted to establish the influence of each silvicultural treatment on canopy fuel variables. Results confirm the important role of both pruning and thinning in the mitigation of crown fire hazard, and that the effectiveness of the treatments is related to their intensity. Finally, models to directly estimate the vertical profile of canopy bulk density (CBD) were fitted using the Weibull probability density function and usual stand variables as regressors. The models developed include variables sensitive to pruning and thinning interventions and provide useful information to prevent extreme fire behavior through effective silviculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fire safety. Explosion safety - Handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratov, Anatolii Nikolaevich

    The physicochemical principles underlying combustion and explosion processes are examined, and the main fire and explosion safety characteristics of materials are reviewed with particular reference to the ignition limits of combustible mixtures, the minimal oxygen content that constitutes an explosion hazard, and the flash point and ignition temperatures. Fire-fighting and explosion suppression methods and equipment are described. The discussion also covers the efficiency of fire prevention measures and safety engineering in fire fighting.

  15. The homeowner view of thinning methods for fire hazard reduction: more positive than many think

    Treesearch

    Sarah McCaffrey

    2008-01-01

    With the focus of the National Fire Plan on decreasing fire risk in the wildland-urban interface, fire managers are increasingly tasked with reducing the fuel load in areas where mixed public and private ownership and a growing number of homes can make most fuel reduction methods problematic at best. In many of these intermix areas, use of prescribed burning will be...

  16. Fire!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1996-01-01

    The number of school fires is up nationwide. This article describes unsafe school conditions, problems with new fire codes, and the factors that contribute to school fires. Installation of sprinkler systems is recommended. A fire-safety checklist is included. (LMI)

  17. Fire hazard analysis of Rocky Flats Building 776/777 duct systems

    SciTech Connect

    DiNenno, P.J.; Scheffey, J.L.; Gewain, R.G.; Shanley, J.H. Jr.

    1988-12-01

    The objective of this analysis is to determine if ventilation ductwork in Building 776/777 will maintain their structural integrity during expected fire conditions as well as standard design fires typically used to ascertain fire resistance ratings. If the analysis shows that ductwork will not maintain structural integrity, the impact of this failure will be determined and analyzed, and alternative solutions recommended. Associated with this analysis is the development of a computer fire model which can be used as an engineering tool in analyzing the effect of fires on ductwork in other areas and buildings.

  18. Landscape scale vegetation-type conversion and fire hazard in the San Francisco bay area open spaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, W.H.; McBride, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Successional pressures resulting from fire suppression and reduced grazing have resulted in vegetation-type conversion in the open spaces surrounding the urbanized areas of the San Francisco bay area. Coverage of various vegetation types were sampled on seven sites using a chronosequence of remote images in order to measure change over time. Results suggest a significant conversion of grassland to shrubland dominated by Baccharis pilularison five of the seven sites sampled. An increase in Pseudotsuga menziesii coverage was also measured on the sites where it was present. Increases fuel and fire hazard were determined through field sampling and use of the FARSITE fire area simulator. A significant increase in biomass resulting from succession of grass-dominated to shrub-dominated communities was evident. In addition, results from the FARSITE simulations indicated significantly higher fire-line intensity, and flame length associated with shrublands over all other vegetation types sampled. These results indicate that the replacement of grass dominated with shrub-dominated landscapes has increased the probability of high intensity fires. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Wildland fire as a self-regulating mechanism: the role of previous burns and weather in limiting fire progression

    Treesearch

    Sean A. Parks; Lisa M. Holsinger; Carol Miller; Cara R. Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Theory suggests that natural fire regimes can result in landscapes that are both self-regulating and resilient to fire. For example, because fires consume fuel, they may create barriers to the spread of future fires, thereby regulating fire size. Top-down controls such as weather, however, can weaken this effect. While empirical examples demonstrating this pattern-...

  20. A collaborative fire hazard reduction/ecosystem restoration stewardship project in a Montana mixed ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir/western larch wildland urban interface

    Treesearch

    Steve Slaughter; Laura Ward; Michael Hillis; Jim Chew; Rebecca McFarlan

    2004-01-01

    Forest Service managers and researchers designed and evaluated alternative disturbance-based fire hazard reduction/ecosystem restoration treatments in a greatly altered low-elevation ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir/western larch wildland urban interface. Collaboratively planned improvement cutting and prescribed fire treatment alternatives were evaluated in simulations of...

  1. Fire behavior modeling to assess net benefits of forest treatments on fire hazard mitigation and bioenergy production in Northeastern California

    Treesearch

    David J. Ganz; David S. Saah; Klaus Barber; Mark Nechodom

    2007-01-01

    The fire behavior modeling described here, conducted as part of the Biomass to Energy (B2E) life cycle assessment, is funded by the California Energy Commission to evaluate the potential net benefits associated with treating and utilizing forest biomass. The B2E project facilitates economic, environmental, energy, and effectiveness assessments of the potential public...

  2. Assessment of dermal hazard from acid burns with fire retardant garments in a full-size simulation of an engulfment flash fire.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Christopher E; Vivanco, Stephanie N; Yeboah, George; Vercellone, Jeff

    2016-09-01

    There have been concerns that fire-derived acid gases could aggravate thermal burns for individuals wearing synthetic flame retardant garments. A comparative risk assessment was performed on three commercial flame retardant materials with regard to relative hazards associated with acidic combustion gases to skin during a full engulfment flash fire event. The tests were performed in accordance with ASTM F1930 and ISO 13506: Standard Test Method for Evaluation of Flame Resistant Clothing for Protection against Fire Simulations Using an Instrumented Manikin. Three fire retardant textiles were tested: an FR treated cotton/nylon blend, a low Protex(®) modacrylic blend, and a medium Protex(®) modacrylic blend. The materials, in the form of whole body coveralls, were subjected to propane-fired flash conditions of 84kW/m(2) in a full sized simulator for a duration of either 3 or 4s. Ion traps consisting of wetted sodium carbonate-impregnated cellulose in Teflon holders were placed on the chest and back both above and under the standard undergarments. The ion traps remained in position from the time of ignition until 5min post ignition. Results indicated that acid deposition did increase with modacrylic content from 0.9μmol/cm(2) for the cotton/nylon, to 12μmol/cm(2) for the medium modacrylic blend. The source of the acidity was dominated by hydrogen chloride. Discoloration was inversely proportional to the amount of acid collected on the traps. A risk assessment was performed on the potential adverse impact of acid gases on both the skin and open wounds. The results indicated that the deposition and dissolution of the acid gases in surficial fluid media (perspiration and blood plasma) resulted in an increase in acidity, but not sufficient to induce irritation/skin corrosion or to cause necrosis in open third degree burns. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Dispersal limitation drives successional pathways in Central Siberian forests under current and intensified fire regimes.

    PubMed

    Tautenhahn, Susanne; Lichstein, Jeremy W; Jung, Martin; Kattge, Jens; Bohlman, Stephanie A; Heilmeier, Hermann; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Kahl, Anja; Wirth, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Fire is a primary driver of boreal forest dynamics. Intensifying fire regimes due to climate change may cause a shift in boreal forest composition toward reduced dominance of conifers and greater abundance of deciduous hardwoods, with potential biogeochemical and biophysical feedbacks to regional and global climate. This shift has already been observed in some North American boreal forests and has been attributed to changes in site conditions. However, it is unknown if the mechanisms controlling fire-induced changes in deciduous hardwood cover are similar among different boreal forests, which differ in the ecological traits of the dominant tree species. To better understand the consequences of intensifying fire regimes in boreal forests, we studied postfire regeneration in five burns in the Central Siberian dark taiga, a vast but poorly studied boreal region. We combined field measurements, dendrochronological analysis, and seed-source maps derived from high-resolution satellite images to quantify the importance of site conditions (e.g., organic layer depth) vs. seed availability in shaping postfire regeneration. We show that dispersal limitation of evergreen conifers was the main factor determining postfire regeneration composition and density. Site conditions had significant but weaker effects. We used information on postfire regeneration to develop a classification scheme for successional pathways, representing the dominance of deciduous hardwoods vs. evergreen conifers at different successional stages. We estimated the spatial distribution of different successional pathways under alternative fire regime scenarios. Under intensified fire regimes, dispersal limitation of evergreen conifers is predicted to become more severe, primarily due to reduced abundance of surviving seed sources within burned areas. Increased dispersal limitation of evergreen conifers, in turn, is predicted to increase the prevalence of successional pathways dominated by deciduous hardwoods

  4. Modeling hydrologic and geomorphic hazards across post-fire landscapes using a self-organizing map approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies attempt to model the range of possible post-fire hydrologic and geomorphic hazards because of the sparseness of data and the coupled, nonlinear, spatial, and temporal relationships among landscape variables. In this study, a type of unsupervised artificial neural network, called a self-organized map (SOM), is trained using data from 540 burned basins in the western United States. The sparsely populated data set includes variables from independent numerical landscape categories (climate, land surface form, geologic texture, and post-fire condition), independent landscape classes (bedrock geology and state), and dependent initiation processes (runoff, landslide, and runoff and landslide combination) and responses (debris flows, floods, and no events). Pattern analysis of the SOM-based component planes is used to identify and interpret relations among the variables. Application of the Davies-Bouldin criteria following k-means clustering of the SOM neurons identified eight conceptual regional models for focusing future research and empirical model development. A split-sample validation on 60 independent basins (not included in the training) indicates that simultaneous predictions of initiation process and response types are at least 78% accurate. As climate shifts from wet to dry conditions, forecasts across the burned landscape reveal a decreasing trend in the total number of debris flow, flood, and runoff events with considerable variability among individual basins. These findings suggest the SOM may be useful in forecasting real-time post-fire hazards, and long-term post-recovery processes and effects of climate change scenarios. ?? 2011.

  5. Fire

    Treesearch

    John R. Jones; Norbert V. DeByle

    1985-01-01

    In some areas, many aspen stands are all the same age, dating from a single great fire or a year of widespread fires (fig. 1). The 1879 fire in the Jackson Hole region of Wyoming (Loope and Gruell 1973) and the 1904 fires in Arizona's White Mountains (Kallander 1969) are examples. Choate (1966) found that almost all aspen stands in New Mexico were even-aged, many...

  6. An update on The Hazard Mapping System (HMS) - a multiplatform remote sensing approach to fire and smoke detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibler, J. M.; Ruminski, M. G.; Simko, J. J.; McNamara, D. P.; Kasheta, T.

    2004-12-01

    The Hazard Mapping System (HMS) is a multiplatform remote sensing approach to detecting fires and smoke over the US, Canada, Mexico and Central America. This system is an integral part of the Satellite Services Division's near realtime hazards detection and mitigation efforts. The system utilizes NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES), Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on NASA's Terra and Aqua spacecraft and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (OLS) sensor, (F14 and F15). Automated detection algorithms are employed for each of the satellites (except DMSP OLS) for the fire detects while smoke is annotated by a satellite analyst. Fire detects can also be added by the satellite analyst. Major customers for this product include the National Weather Service, Storm Prediction Center, US Forest Service, Environmental Protection Agency, research science teams, as well as numerous federal, state and local land and air quality managers. In 2004 the HMS was upgraded by adding the Canadian, Mexican, and Central American sectors for hotspot and smoke detection. These sectors can be easily turned off or on by changing flags in the system configuration file. This enables analysis in sectors only during their respective burning seasons. The Alaskan and Canadian sectors are typically turned off in the winter season and the Mexican sector is cut off after the March-May burning season. But sectors can also be easily added or restarted if, for instance, smoke from a region is affecting the United States. Various ancillary data sources are used in the HMS to aid the analysis. Stable Lights is a static product that identifies stable sources of light from the OLS sensor and is usually associated with cities and urban areas. It appears on the screen as a transparent overlay on the satellite imagery being displayed. This capability can assist

  7. FIRE

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-03-16

    Projects:  FIRE Definition/Description:  The F irst I SCCP R egional E xperiments (FIRE) have been designed to improve data products and cloud/radiation ... circulation models (GCMs). Specifically, the goals of FIRE are (1) to improve basic understanding of the interaction of physical ...

  8. Postcrash Fuel Fire Hazard Measurements in a Wide-Body Aircraft Cabin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    stripped of these items and the interior walls covered with fire-resistant materials (KaowoolO insulation and fiberglass cloth , figure 2). The area...surrounding the forward fire opening had additional protection in the form of a Refasil® fireproof covering around the door frame and over the ceiling

  9. Forest structure and fire hazard in dry forests of the Western United States

    Treesearch

    David L. Peterson; Morris C. Johnson; James K. Agee; Theresa B. Jain; Donald McKenzie; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt

    2005-01-01

    Fire, in conjunction with landforms and climate, shapes the structure and function of forests throughout the Western United States, where millions of acres of forest lands contain accumulations of flammable fuel that are much higher than historical conditions owing to various forms of fire exclusion. The Healthy Forests Restoration Act mandates that public land...

  10. What limits fire, where and when: sensitivity of burnt area to different controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, D. I.; Bistinas, I.; Whitley, R.; Marthews, T.; Burton, C.

    2016-12-01

    Global fire models typically describe fire as a consequence of fuel load, moisture, natural and anthropogenic ignitions, and land use suppression. A lack of information on the temporal and spatial distribution of these controls has meant that their simulated effects on predicting burnt area are largely untested. Despite this, there is a pervasive assumption that burnt area is proportional to the number of ignitions, with many models predicting significant increases in burnt area with human fire starts. Here, we map the limitation and sensitivity of burnt area to each control using a simple framework whereby limitations are imposed by: fuel discontinuity; fuel moisture and atmospheric drying potential; lightning and human ignitions; and land use. Limitations are described from remote sensed and meteorological observations and optimized against Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED4s) burnt area observations. Fuel moisture is shown to be the main limitation of fire over much of the world, (44% annual average and 36% during local dry seasons), particularly in the humid forests and cold, slow drying boreal areas. Fuel discontinuity is the next limitation (25% annually and 23% in the dry season), especially in deserts and dry season grasslands. This is followed by land use change (18% annually, 21 % dry season) and then ignitions (13% annually, 19% dry season), which is only a significant limiting factor in dry season savanna, where rapid drying of fuel built up during the wet season removes all other natural limitations. In these areas, changes in burnt area are actually more sensitive to other controls, typically land use. This study contradicts the way basic processes are represented in many global fire models. As ignitions only impact burnt area over a limited geographic extent, better representation of controls imposed by fuel loads and moisture is vital. Human ignitions only contribute to a small increase in global burnt area (2%), which is offset by the dramatic

  11. Investigations into the fire hazard of a composite made from aerated concrete and crushed expanded polystyrene waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kligys, M.; Laukaitis, A.; Sinica, M.; Sezemanas, G.; Dranseika, N.

    2008-03-01

    The study deals with experimental investigations into the fire hazard of a composite of density 150-350 kg/m3 made of aerated concrete and crushed expanded polystyrene waste. The results of fire tests showed that a single-flame source of low heat output (0.07 kW) did not influence the origination and spread of flame on the surface of test specimens, regardless their density. Upon exposing the specimens to a single burning item of moderate heat output (30.0 kW), during the first 600 s of exposure, neither flaming particles nor droplets originated, nor a lateral flame spread on the long specimen wing was observed. In the case of high heat output (112 kW), the specimens of densities 150 and 250 kg/m3 started to burn, but those of density 150 kg/m3, in addition, lost their integrity.

  12. 49 CFR 173.423 - Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.423 Section 173.423 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.423 Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a...

  13. 49 CFR 173.423 - Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.423 Section 173.423 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.423 Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials. (a...

  14. 49 CFR 173.423 - Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.423 Section 173.423 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.423 Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials....

  15. 49 CFR 173.423 - Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.423 Section 173.423 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.423 Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials....

  16. 49 CFR 173.423 - Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Class 7 (radioactive) materials. 173.423 Section 173.423 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Class 7 (Radioactive) Materials § 173.423 Requirements for multiple hazard limited quantity Class 7 (radioactive) materials....

  17. 24 CFR 3280.203 - Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements. 3280.203 Section 3280.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL...

  18. 24 CFR 3280.203 - Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements. 3280.203 Section 3280.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL...

  19. 24 CFR 3280.203 - Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements. 3280.203 Section 3280.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL...

  20. 24 CFR 3280.203 - Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Flame spread limitations and fire protection requirements. 3280.203 Section 3280.203 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL...

  1. Emergency assessment of post-fire debris-flow hazards for the 2013 Powerhouse fire, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staley, Dennis M.; Smoczyk, Gregory M.; Reeves, Ryan R.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire dramatically alters the hydrologic response of a watershed such that even modest rainstorms can produce dangerous flash floods and debris flows. Existing empirical models were used to predict the probability and magnitude of debris-flow occurrence in response to a 10-year recurrence interval rainstorm for the 2013 Powerhouse fire near Lancaster, California. Overall, the models predict a relatively low probability for debris-flow occurrence in response to the design storm. However, volumetric predictions suggest that debris flows that occur may entrain a significant volume of material, with 44 of the 73 basins identified as having potential debris-flow volumes between 10,000 and 100,000 cubic meters. These results suggest that even though the likelihood of debris flow is relatively low, the consequences of post-fire debris-flow initiation within the burn area may be significant for downstream populations, infrastructure, and wildlife and water resources. Given these findings, we recommend that residents, emergency managers, and public works departments pay close attention to weather forecasts and National-Weather-Service-issued Debris Flow and Flash Flood Outlooks, Watches, and Warnings and that residents adhere to any evacuation orders.

  2. Fires in storages of LFO: Analysis of hazard of structural collapse of steel-aluminium containers.

    PubMed

    Rebec, A; Kolšek, J; Plešec, P

    2016-04-05

    Pool fires of light fuel oil (LFO) in above-ground storages with steel-aluminium containers are discussed. A model is developed for assessments of risks of between-tank fire spread. Radiative effects of the flame body are accounted for by a solid flame radiation model. Thermal profiles evolved due to fire in the adjacent tanks and their consequential structural response is pursued in an exact (materially and geometrically non-linear) manner. The model's derivation is demonstrated on the LFO tank storage located near the Port of Koper (Slovenia). In support of the model, data from literature are adopted where appropriate. Analytical expressions are derived correspondingly for calculations of emissive characteristics of LFO pool fires. Additional data are collected from experiments. Fire experiments conducted on 300cm diameter LFO pans and at different wind speeds and high-temperature uniaxial tension tests of the analysed aluminium alloys types 3xxx and 6xxx are presented. The model is of an immediate fire engineering practical value (risk analyses) or can be used for further research purposes (e.g. sensitivity and parametric studies). The latter use is demonstrated in the final part of the paper discussing possible effects of high-temperature creep of 3xxx aluminium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Secure Utilization of Beacons and UAVs in Emergency Response Systems for Building Fire Hazard.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seung-Hyun; Choi, Jung-In; Song, Jinseok

    2017-09-25

    An intelligent emergency system for hazard monitoring and building evacuation is a very important application area in Internet of Things (IoT) technology. Through the use of smart sensors, such a system can provide more vital and reliable information to first-responders and also reduce the incidents of false alarms. Several smart monitoring and warning systems do already exist, though they exhibit key weaknesses such as a limited monitoring coverage and security, which have not yet been sufficiently addressed. In this paper, we propose a monitoring and emergency response method for buildings by utilizing beacons and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) on an IoT security platform. In order to demonstrate the practicability of our method, we also implement a proof of concept prototype, which we call the UAV-EMOR (UAV-assisted Emergency Monitoring and Response) system. Our UAV-EMOR system provides the following novel features: (1) secure communications between UAVs, smart sensors, the control server and a smartphone app for security managers; (2) enhanced coordination between smart sensors and indoor/outdoor UAVs to expand real-time monitoring coverage; and (3) beacon-aided rescue and building evacuation.

  4. The influence of manganese-cobalt oxide/graphene on reducing fire hazards of poly(butylene terephthalate).

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Qiangjun; Zhou, Keqing; Yang, Wei; Hu, Yuan; Gong, Xinglong

    2014-08-15

    By means of direct nucleation and growth on the surface of graphene and element doping of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nano-particles, manganese-cobalt oxide/graphene hybrids (MnCo2O4-GNS) were synthesized to reduce fire hazards of poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT). The structure, elemental composition and morphology of the obtained hybrids were surveyed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis was applied to simulate and study the influence of MnCo2O4-GNS hybrids on thermal degradation of PBT during combustion. The fire hazards of PBT and its composites were assessed by the cone calorimeter. The cone test results had showed that peak HRR and SPR values of MnCo2O4-GNS/PBT composites were lower than that of pure PBT and Co3O4-GNS/PBT composites. Furthermore, the incorporation of MnCo2O4-GNS hybrids gave rise to apparent decrease of pyrolysis products containing aromatic compounds, carbonyl compounds, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, attributed to combined impact of physical barrier for graphene and cat O4 for organic volatiles and carbon monoxide.

  5. Postwildfire debris flows hazard assessment for the area burned by the 2011 Track Fire, northeastern New Mexico and southeastern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    In June 2011, the Track Fire burned 113 square kilometers in Colfax County, northeastern New Mexico, and Las Animas County, southeastern Colorado, including the upper watersheds of Chicorica and Raton Creeks. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from basins burned by the Track Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of burn severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of post-fire debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 38 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence-interval), the probability of debris flow estimated for basins burned by the Track fire ranged between 2 and 97 percent, with probabilities greater than 80 percent identified for the majority of the tributary basins to Raton Creek in Railroad Canyon; six basins that flow into Lake Maloya, including the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins; two tributary basins to Sugarite Canyon, and an unnamed basin on the eastern flank of the burned area. Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 30 cubic meters to greater than 100,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 100,000 cubic meters) were estimated for Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins, which drain into Lake Maloya. The Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Ranking identifies the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins as having the highest probability of producing the largest debris flows. This finding indicates the greatest post-fire debris-flow impacts may be expected to Lake Maloya

  6. The Tiptop coal-mine fire, Kentucky: Preliminary investigation of the measurement of mercury and other hazardous gases from coal-fire gas vents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Henke, K.; O'Keefe, J. M. K.; Engle, M.A.; Blake, D.R.; Stracher, G.B.

    2009-01-01

    The Tiptop underground coal-mine fire in the Skyline coalbed of the Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation was investigated in rural northern Breathitt County, Kentucky, in May 2008 and January 2009, for the purpose of determining the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and mercury (Hg) in the vent and for measuring gas-vent temperatures. At the time of our visits, concentrations of CO2 peaked at 2.0% and > 6.0% (v/v) and CO at 600 ppm and > 700 ppm during field analysis in May 2008 and January 2009, respectively. For comparison, these concentrations exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) eight-hour safe exposure limits (0.5% CO2 and 50 ppm CO), although the site is not currently mined. Mercury, as Hg0, in excess of 500 and 2100 ??g/m3, in May and January, respectively, in the field, also exceeded the OSHA eight-hour exposure limit (50 ??g/m3). Carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and a suite of organic compounds were determined at two vents for the first sampling event. All gases are diluted by air as they exit and migrate away from a gas vent, but temperature inversions and other meteorological conditions could lead to unhealthy concentrations in the nearby towns. Variation in gas temperatures, nearly 300 ??C during the January visit to the fire versus < 50 ??C in May, demonstrates the large temporal variability in fire intensity at the Tiptop mine. These preliminary results suggest that emissions from coal fires may be important, but additional data are required that address the reasons for significant variations in the composition, flow, and temperature of vent gases. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Emergency assessment of post-fire debris-flow hazards for the 2013 Rim Fire, Stanislaus National Forest and Yosemite National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staley, Dennis M.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire can significantly alter the hydrologic response of a watershed to the extent that even modest rainstorms can produce dangerous flash floods and debris flows. In this report, empirical models are used to predict the probability and magnitude of debris-flow occurrence in response to a 10-year rainstorm for the 2013 Rim fire in Yosemite National Park and the Stanislaus National Forest, California. Overall, the models predict a relatively high probability (60–80 percent) of debris flow for 28 of the 1,238 drainage basins in the burn area in response to a 10-year recurrence interval design storm. Predictions of debris-flow volume suggest that debris flows may entrain a significant volume of material, with 901 of the 1,238 basins identified as having potential debris-flow volumes greater than 10,000 cubic meters. These results of the relative combined hazard analysis suggest there is a moderate likelihood of significant debris-flow hazard within and downstream of the burn area for nearby populations, infrastructure, wildlife, and water resources. Given these findings, we recommend that residents, emergency managers, and public works departments pay close attention to weather forecasts and National-Weather-Service-issued Debris Flow and Flash Flood Outlooks, Watches and Warnings and that residents adhere to any evacuation orders.

  8. Post-fire debris-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek Fire near Hailey, central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary hazard assessment was developed for debris-flow hazards in the 465 square-kilometer (115,000 acres) area burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek fire near Hailey in central Idaho. The burn area covers all or part of six watersheds and selected basins draining to the Big Wood River and is at risk of substantial post-fire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the Intermountain Region in Western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence, potential volume of debris flows, and the combined debris-flow hazard ranking along the drainage network within the burn area and to estimate the same for analyzed drainage basins within the burn area. Input data for the empirical models included topographic parameters, soil characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 2-year storm (13 mm); (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 10-year storm (19 mm); and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 25-year storm (22 mm). Estimated debris-flow probabilities for drainage basins upstream of 130 selected basin outlets ranged from less than 1 to 78 percent with the probabilities increasing with each increase in storm magnitude. Probabilities were high in three of the six watersheds. For the 25-year storm, probabilities were greater than 60 percent for 11 basin outlets and ranged from 50 to 60 percent for an additional 12 basin outlets. Probability estimates for stream segments within the drainage network can vary within a basin. For the 25-year storm, probabilities for stream segments within 33 basins were higher than the basin outlet, emphasizing the importance of evaluating the drainage network as well as basin outlets. Estimated debris-flow volumes for the three modeled storms range

  9. Emergency Assessment of Postfire Debris-Flow Hazards for the 2009 Station Fire, San Gabriel Mountains, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Rupert, Michael G.; Michael, John A.; Staley, Dennis M.; Worstell, Bruce B.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents an emergency assessment of potential debris-flow hazards from basins burned by the 2009 Station fire in Los Angeles County, southern California. Statistical-empirical models developed for postfire debris flows are used to estimate the probability and volume of debris-flow production from 678 drainage basins within the burned area and to generate maps of areas that may be inundated along the San Gabriel mountain front by the estimated volume of material. Debris-flow probabilities and volumes are estimated as combined functions of different measures of basin burned extent, gradient, and material properties in response to both a 3-hour-duration, 1-year-recurrence thunderstorm and to a 12-hour-duration, 2-year recurrence storm. Debris-flow inundation areas are mapped for scenarios where all sediment-retention basins are empty and where the basins are all completely full. This assessment provides critical information for issuing warnings, locating and designing mitigation measures, and planning evacuation timing and routes within the first two winters following the fire. Tributary basins that drain into Pacoima Canyon, Big Tujunga Canyon, Arroyo Seco, West Fork of the San Gabriel River, and Devils Canyon were identified as having probabilities of debris-flow occurrence greater than 80 percent, the potential to produce debris flows with volumes greater than 100,000 m3, and the highest Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Ranking in response to both storms. The predicted high probability and large magnitude of the response to such short-recurrence storms indicates the potential for significant debris-flow impacts to any buildings, roads, bridges, culverts, and reservoirs located both within these drainages and downstream from the burned area. These areas will require appropriate debris-flow mitigation and warning efforts. Probabilities of debris-flow occurrence greater than 80 percent, debris-flow volumes between 10,000 and 100,000 m3, and high

  10. 22 CHARTS TO ACCOMPANY PEACETIME RADIATION HAZARDS IN THE FIRE SERVICE--BASIC COURSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC. Office of Industrial Relations.

    A SET OF TWENTY-TWO 20-BY-28 INCH CHARTS ILLUSTRATING ASPECTS OF RADIATION SUCH AS TYPES, EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE, SHIELDS, WARNING SIGNS, REACTORS, THE CHAIN REACTION PROCESS, AND FIRE-FIGHTING PROCEDURES IS TO BE USED WITH (1) RESOURCE MANUAL (VT 001 337), (2) INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE (VT 002 117), (3) STUDENT STUDY GUIDE (VT 001 878), (4) ORIENTATION…

  11. A survey of vegetation and wildland fire hazards on the Nevada Test Site

    Treesearch

    Dennis J. Hansen; W. Kent Ostler

    2008-01-01

    In the springs of 2004, 2005, and 2006, surveys were conducted on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to characterize vegetation resources and climatic components of the environment that contribute to wildland fires. The NTS includes both Great Basin Desert and Mojave Desert ecosystems and a transitional zone between these two deserts. The field surveys assessed 211 sites along...

  12. Ten years after wildfires: How does varying tree mortality impact fire hazard and forest resiliency?

    Treesearch

    Camille S. Stevens-Rumann; Carolyn H. Sieg; Molly E. Hunter

    2012-01-01

    Severe wildfires across the western US have lead to concerns about heavy surface fuel loading and the potential for high-intensity reburning. Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests, often overly dense from a century of fire suppression, are increasingly susceptible to large and severe wildfires especially given warmer and drier climate projections for the future....

  13. Numerical simulation of crown fire hazard following bark beetle-caused mortality in lodgepole pine forests

    Treesearch

    Chad Hoffman; Russell Parsons; Penny Morgan; Ruddy Mell

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how varying amounts of MPB-induced tree mortality affects the amount of crown fuels consumed and the fire intensity across a range of lodgepole pine stands of different tree density and spatial arrangements during the early stages of a bark beetle outbreak. Unlike past studies which have relied on semi-empirical or empirical...

  14. Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: A Continued Effort in Applying Geophysics to Solve a Local Problem and to Mitigate a Global Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttke, M. W.; Halisch, M.; Tanner, D. C.; Cai, Z. Y.; Zeng, Q.; Wang, C.

    2012-04-01

    laboratory measurements realistic dynamical models of fire-zones are constructed to increase the understanding of particular coal-fires, to interpret the surface signatures of the coal-fire in terms of location and propagation and to estimate the output of hazardous exhaust products to evaluate the economic benefit of fire extinction.

  15. Lessons learned from an emergency release of a post-fire debris-flow hazard assessment for the 2009 Station fire, San Gabriel Mountains, southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, S. H.; Perry, S. C.; Staley, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    The 2009 Station fire burned through portions of the steep, rugged terrain of the San Gabriel Mountains in southern California with a known history of producing large magnitude debris flows following fires. In response to the emergency, the U.S. Geological Survey released an assessment of debris-flow hazards as maps showing estimates of the probability and volume of debris-flow production from 678 burned drainage basins, and the areas that may be inundated by debris flows. The assessment was based on statistical-empirical models developed from post-fire hydrologic-response monitoring data throughout southern California steeplands. The intent of the assessment was to provide state-of-the-art information about potential debris-flow impacts to the public, and quantitative data critical for mitigation, resource-deployment and evacuation decisions by land-management, city and county public-works and flood-control, and emergency-response agencies. Here, we describe a research scientist perspective of the hits and misses associated with the release of this information. Release of the assessment was accompanied by an extensive multi-agency public information campaign. Hazards information was provided to the media and presented at numerous well-attended public meetings organized by local politicians, homeowner and religious associations, city councils, and a multi-agency response team. Meetings targeted to specific ethnic and religious groups resulted in increased attendance by members of these groups. Even with the extensive information campaign, the public response to both mandatory and voluntary evacuation orders was low, and decreased with each sequential winter storm. Interviews with local residents indicated that the low compliance could be attributed to: 1) a lack of a personal understanding of just how dangerous and destructive debris flows can be, 2) inconsistent messaging from different agencies regarding potential magnitudes of a debris-flow response, 3) a poor

  16. Measurement of natural radioactivity and assessment of associated radiation hazards in soil around Baoji second coal-fired thermal power plant, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinwei; Li, Xiaoxue; Yun, Pujun; Luo, Dacheng; Wang, Lijun; Ren, Chunhui; Chen, Cancan

    2012-01-01

    Activity concentrations of natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in soil around Baoji Second coal-fired thermal power plant of China were determined using gamma ray spectrometry. The mean activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in soil were found to be 40.3 ± 3.5, 59.6 ± 3.1 and 751.2 ± 12.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively, which are all higher than the corresponding average values in Shaanxi, Chinese and world soil. The radium equivalent activity (Ra(eq)), the air absorbed dose rate (D), the annual effective dose (E), the external hazard index (H(ex)) and internal hazard index (H(in)) were evaluated and compared with the internationally reported or reference values. All the soil samples have Ra(eq) lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg(-1) and H(ex) and H(in) less than unity. The overall mean outdoor terrestrial gamma air absorbed dose rate is ∼86.6 ± 3.4 nGy h(-1) and the corresponding outdoor annual effective dose is 0.106 ± 0.004 mSv, which is higher than the worldwide average (0.07 mSv y(-1)) for outdoor's annual effective dose.

  17. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Santiago Fire, Orange County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Santiago Fire in Orange County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 1.75 inches (44.45 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  18. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Buckweed Fire, Los Angeles County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Buckweed Fire in Los Angeles County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  19. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Witch Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Witch Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  20. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Canyon Fire, Los Angeles County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Canyon Fire in Los Angeles County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  1. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Ammo Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Ammo Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 1.75 inches (44.45 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  2. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Rice Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Rice Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 1.75 inches (44.45 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  3. Emergency assessment of debris-flow hazards from basins burned by the 2007 Harris Fire, San Diego County, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    IntroductionThe objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Harris Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 1.75 inches (44.45 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  4. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Poomacha Fire, San Diego County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Poomacha Fire in San Diego County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  5. Methods for the Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the Fires of 2007, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the approach used to assess potential debris-flow hazards from basins burned by the Buckweed, Santiago, Canyon, Poomacha, Ranch, Harris, Witch, Rice, Ammo, Slide, Grass Valley and Cajon Fires of 2007 in southern California. The assessments will be presented as a series of maps showing a relative ranking of the predicted volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to a 3-hour duration rainstorm with a 10-year return period. Potential volumes of debris flows are calculated using a multiple-regression model that describes debris-flow volume at a basin outlet as a function of measures of basin gradient, burn extent, and storm rainfall. This assessment provides critical information for issuing basin-specific warnings, locating and designing mitigation measures, and planning of evacuation timing and routes.

  6. Bioenergy from trees: using cost-effective thinning to reduce forest fire hazards

    Treesearch

    Marie Oliver; Jeremy Fried; Jamie Barbour

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly large and severe wildfires threaten millions of forested acres throughout the West. Under certain conditions, mechanical thinning can address these hazardous conditions while providing opportunitiesto create renewable energy and reduce our carbon footprint but how do land managers decide whether thinning is a good idea? How do they decide where to begin,...

  7. PEACETIME RADIATION HAZARDS IN THE FIRE SERVICE, ORIENTATION UNIT-STUDENT MANUAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERNDT, WILLIAM; AND OTHERS

    DESIGNED TO BE USED BY FIREMEN TRAINEES IN A TWO-SESSION, INTENSIVE ORIENTATION UNIT, THIS MANUAL ACQUAINTS THEM WITH THE PROBLEMS OF RADIATION HAZARDS IN GENERAL AND PREPARES THEM FOR MORE SPECIALIZED TRAINING. IT PRESENTS 29 CAPTIONED ILLUSTRATIONS WHICH SERVE AS A SUMMARY OF THE MATERIALS COVERED IN THE UNIT WHICH WAS DEVELOPED JOINTLY BY THE…

  8. PEACETIME RADIATION HAZARDS IN THE FIRE SERVICE, ORIENTATION UNIT--INSTRUCTOR'S GUIDE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERNDT, WILLIAM; AND OTHERS

    MATERIALS ARE PROVIDED FOR A 2-SESSION UNIT TO ACQUAINT FIREMEN WITH THE PROBLEMS OF RADIATION HAZARDS AND TO PREPARE THEM FOR MORE SPECIALIZED TRAINING. THE UNIT WAS DEVELOPED JOINTLY BY THE TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION BRANCH OF THE U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION AND THE OFFICE OF INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS, U.S. ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION. IT INCLUDES…

  9. Approach to the assessment of the hazard. [fire released carbon fiber electrical effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the carbon fiber hazard assessment is presented. The potential risk to the civil sector associated with the accidental release of carbon fibers from aircraft having composite structures was assessed along with the need for protection of civil aircraft from carbon fibers.

  10. Importance of fuel treatment for limiting moderate-to-high intensity fire: Findings from comparative fire modeling

    Treesearch

    Geoffrey J. Cary; Ian D. Davies; Ross A. Bradstock; Robert E. Keane; Mike D. Flannigan

    2017-01-01

    Context: Wildland fire intensity influences natural communities, soil properties, erosion, and sequestered carbon. Measuring effectiveness of fuel treatment for reducing area of higher intensity unplanned fire is argued to be more meaningful than determining effect on total unplanned area burned. Objectives...

  11. Jointly optimizing selection of fuel treatments and siting of forest biomass-based energy production facilities for landscape-scale fire hazard reduction.

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Daugherty; Jeremy S. Fried

    2007-01-01

    Landscape-scale fuel treatments for forest fire hazard reduction potentially produce large quantities of material suitable for biomass energy production. The analytic framework FIA BioSum addresses this situation by developing detailed data on forest conditions and production under alternative fuel treatment prescriptions, and computes haul costs to alternative sites...

  12. Chapter 3: Simulating fire hazard across landscapes through time: integrating state-and-transition models with the Fuel Characteristic Classification System

    Treesearch

    Jessica E. Halofsky; Stephanie K. Hart; Miles A. Hemstrom; Joshua S. Halofsky; Morris C. Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Information on the effects of management activities such as fuel reduction treatments and of processes such as vegetation growth and disturbance on fire hazard can help land managers prioritize treatments across a landscape to best meet management goals. State-and-transition models (STMs) allow landscape-scale simulations that incorporate effects of succession,...

  13. Using fine-scale fuel measurements to assess wildland fuels, potential fire behavior and hazard mitigation treatments in the southeastern USA

    Treesearch

    Roger D. Ottmar; John I. Blake; William T. Crolly

    2012-01-01

    The inherent spatial and temporal heterogeneity of fuel beds in forests of the southeastern United States may require fine scale fuel measurements for providing reliable fire hazard and fuel treatment effectiveness estimates. In a series of five papers, an intensive, fine scale fuel inventory from the Savanna River Site in the southeastern United States is used for...

  14. Woody biomass supply from thinnings to reduce fire hazard in the U.S. West and its potential impact on regional wood markets

    Treesearch

    Kenneth E. Skog; Peter J. Ince; Henry Spelter; Andi Kramp; R. James. Barbour

    2008-01-01

    Part I of this paper identifies timberland areas in 12 western states where thinning treatments are judged to be needed to reduce fire hazard and may ?pay for themselves?? at a scale to make investment in forest product processing a realistic option. We also estimate amounts of biomass removed and costs of removal. Part II of this paper estimates the market impact if...

  15. Field Guide for Testing Existing Photovoltaic Systems for Ground Faults and Installing Equipment to Mitigate Fire Hazards: November 2012 - October 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, William

    2015-02-01

    Ground faults and arc faults are the two most common reasons for fires in photovoltaic (PV) arrays and methods exist that can mitigate the hazards. This report provides field procedures for testing PV arrays for ground faults, and for implementing high resolution ground fault and arc fault detectors in existing and new PV system designs.

  16. Tracking hazardous air pollutants from a refinery fire by applying on-line and off-line air monitoring and back trajectory modeling.

    PubMed

    Shie, Ruei-Hao; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2013-10-15

    The air monitors used by most regulatory authorities are designed to track the daily emissions of conventional pollutants and are not well suited for measuring hazardous air pollutants that are released from accidents such as refinery fires. By applying a wide variety of air-monitoring systems, including on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector, and off-line gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for measuring hazardous air pollutants during and after a fire at a petrochemical complex in central Taiwan on May 12, 2011, we were able to detect significantly higher levels of combustion-related gaseous and particulate pollutants, refinery-related hydrocarbons, and chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as 1,2-dichloroethane, vinyl chloride monomer, and dichloromethane, inside the complex and 10 km downwind from the fire than those measured during the normal operation periods. Both back trajectories and dispersion models further confirmed that high levels of hazardous air pollutants in the neighboring communities were carried by air mass flown from the 22 plants that were shut down by the fire. This study demonstrates that hazardous air pollutants from industrial accidents can successfully be identified and traced back to their emission sources by applying a timely and comprehensive air-monitoring campaign and back trajectory air flow models.

  17. A Combined Hazard Index Fire Test Methodology for Aircraft Cabin Materials. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    scale testing at the McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Division, his crew of technicians, and N. R. Radke for his support in computer control and data...heat, smoke and toxic gases hazards of a single aircraft material under a possible range of controlled test conditions encountered in a post-crash...34clean" source to ignite the 4 X 6 ft. panels. Air flow through the simulator was controlled and variable, Burn test data measured by the

  18. Projections of air toxic emissions from coal-fired utility combustion: Input for hazardous air pollutant regulators

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1993-08-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required by the 1990 CAAA to promulgate rules for all ``major`` sources of any of these HAPs. According to the HAPs section of the new Title III, any stationary source emitting 10 tons per year (TPY) of one HAP or 25 TPY of a combination of HAPs will be considered and designated a major source. In contrast to the original National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), which were designed to protect public health to ``an ample margin of safety,`` the new Title III, in its first phase, will regulate by industrial category those sources emitting HAPs in excess of the 10/25-TPY threshold levels, regardless of health risks. The trace elements normally associated with coal mineral matter and the various compounds formed during coal combustion have the potential to produce hazardous air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. Under Title III, the EPA is required to perform certain studies, prior to any regulation of electric utilities; these studies are currently underway. Also, the US Department of Energy (DOE) maintains a vested interest in addressing those energy policy questions affecting electric utility generation, coal mining, and steel producing critical to this country`s economic well-being, where balancing the costs to the producers and users of energy with the benefits of environmental protection to the workers and the general populace remains of significant concern.

  19. Using fine-scale fuel measurements to assess wildland fuels, potential fire behavior and hazard mitigation treatments in the southeastern USA.

    SciTech Connect

    Ottmar, Roger, D.; Blake, John, I.; Crolly, William, T.

    2012-01-01

    The inherent spatial and temporal heterogeneity of fuelbeds in forests of the southeastern United States may require fine scale fuel measurements for providing reliable fire hazard and fuel treatment effectiveness estimates. In a series of five papers, an intensive, fine scale fuel inventory from the Savanna River Site in the southeastern United States is used for building fuelbeds and mapping fire behavior potential, evaluating fuel treatment options for effectiveness, and providing a comparative analysis of landscape modeled fire behavior using three different data sources including the Fuel Characteristic Classification System, LANDFIRE, and the Southern Wildfire Risk Assessment. The research demonstrates that fine scale fuel measurements associated with fuel inventories repeated over time can be used to assess broad scale wildland fire potential and hazard mitigation treatment effectiveness in the southeastern USA and similar fire prone regions. Additional investigations will be needed to modify and improve these processes and capture the true potential of these fine scale data sets for fire and fuel management planning.

  20. Fire

    Treesearch

    John A. Stanturf; Scott L. Goodrick

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsClimate forecasts indicate that the South’s spring and fall wildfire seasons will be extended.Prescribed fires, currently conducted on roughly a 3 to 5 year rotation across much of the South, would need to become more frequent if conditions become drier.Major wildfire events, such as the 2007...

  1. Limits of passive remote detection of hazardous vapors by computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanigan, Dennis F.

    1996-06-01

    Passive infrared is an emerging method for the remote detection of hazardous vapors particularly where warning is the primary consideration. Detection of gases, vapors and aerosols is based on the difference, (Delta) T), between the temperature of the target cloud and the effective radiometric temperature of the background. Computer simulation of spectra has been used to predict the detection limits for several target gases with a low angle sky background. The simulation is based on a 3 layer model that uses MODTRAN, which includes 6 standard atmospheric models, to compute background radiance and atmospheric transmittance. The detection limits, at 2 cm-1 resolution, for sulfur hexafluoride (simulant), Sarin, trichlorethylene, methyl isocyanate (the Bhopal gas), mustard gas, methyl chloride, and sulfur dioxide are discussed for selected cases with the U.S. Standard, and the sub-arctic winter and the tropical models. In this paper the method is illustrated with methyl isocyanate.

  2. 76 FR 10771 - Hazardous Materials: Limiting the Use of Electronic Devices by Highway

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ..., Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, 1200 New Jersey... of Hazardous Materials Safety is the Federal safety authority for the transportation of hazardous materials by air, rail, highway, and water. Under the Federal hazardous materials transportation...

  3. Fire Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An early warning fire detection sensor developed for NASA's Space Shuttle Orbiter is being evaluated as a possible hazard prevention system for mining operations. The incipient Fire Detector represents an advancement over commercially available smoke detectors in that it senses and signals the presence of a fire condition before the appearance of flame and smoke, offering an extra margin of safety.

  4. Household Hazardous Waste

    MedlinePlus

    ... containers, however, require special handling. Call your local hazardous materials official or fire department for instructions. When leftovers ... of Hazardous Waste Hazardous Waste Management Generation Identification Transportation Land Disposal Restrictions Requirements for Importers and Exporters ...

  5. Postwildfire debris-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the 2013 West Fork Fire Complex, southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verdin, Kristine L.; Dupree, Jean A.; Stevens, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary emergency assessment of the debris-flow hazards from drainage basins burned by the 2013 West Fork Fire Complex near South Fork in southwestern Colorado. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence, potential volume of debris flows, and the combined debris-flow hazard ranking along the drainage network within and just downstream from the burned area, and to estimate the same for 54 drainage basins of interest within the perimeter of the burned area. Input data for the debris-flow models included topographic variables, soil characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 2-year storm; (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 10-year storm; and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 25-year storm. Estimated debris-flow probabilities at the pour points of the 54 drainage basins of interest ranged from less than 1 to 65 percent in response to the 2-year storm; from 1 to 77 percent in response to the 10-year storm; and from 1 to 83 percent in response to the 25-year storm. Twelve of the 54 drainage basins of interest have a 30-percent probability or greater of producing a debris flow in response to the 25-year storm. Estimated debris-flow volumes for all rainfalls modeled range from a low of 2,400 cubic meters to a high of greater than 100,000 cubic meters. Estimated debris-flow volumes increase with basin size and distance along the drainage network, but some smaller drainages also were predicted to produce substantial debris flows. One of the 54 drainage basins of interest had the highest combined hazard ranking, while 9 other basins had the second highest combined hazard ranking. Of these 10 basins with the 2 highest

  6. The Redesigned Hazard Mapping System (HMS) for Fire and Smoke Analysis and the Impact of Including Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruminski, M.; Cheng, Z.; Salemi, T.

    2016-12-01

    The HMS incorporates a wide variety of satellite data for use in fire and smoke detection, including 30 minute interval GOES-East and GOES-West, five AVHRR satellites (NOAA and METOP) and MODIS Aqua/Terra. NESDIS' Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB) analysts utilize the HMS to analyze and quality control the automated fire detections from each of the sensors and create the fire/smoke products to enable the users to mitigate disasters and environmental hazards. The new HMS design eliminates the inefficiencies and increases the accuracy of the fire/smoke analysis. The new system has the capability to display higher resolution data available from VIIRS while maintaining individual pixel integrity which improves the representation of fire size. This will benefit the input to smoke forecast models and may possibly be useful as input for fire spread models. An analysis of all VIIRS Active Fire (AF) locations compared to the operational HMS fire analysis for all of 2015 over North America will be presented that will provide an estimate of the impact of this new data set. Results will be presented for regional and seasonal impact. The new system also provides greater analysis control of layers and display properties and will allow for the display of all GOES images, even when in Rapid Scan Operations (RSO) mode. To enhance the efficiency and improve the accuracy of the fire and smoke product, the display of the new HMS eliminates the sector boundaries to display full analysis domain (North and Central America, Caribbean and Hawaii) and has functionality to edit plumes on a finer scale. In the presentation we will highlight the new features of the updated HMS.

  7. Assessment of crash fire hazard of LH sub 2 fueled aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.; Wittlin, G.; Versaw, E. F.; Parmley, R.; Cima, R.; Walther, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    The relative safety of passengers in LH2 - fueled aircraft, as well as the safety of people in areas surrounding a crash scene, has been evaluated in an analytical study. Four representative circumstances were postulated involving a transport aircraft in which varying degrees of severity of damage were sustained. Potential hazard to the passengers and to the surroundings posed by the spilled fuel was evaluated for each circumstance. Corresponding aircraft fueled with liquid methane, Jet A, and JP-4 were also studied in order to make comparisons of the relative safety. The four scenarios which were used to provide a basis for the evaluation included: (1) a small fuel leak internal to the aircraft, (2) a survivable crash in which a significant quantity of fuel is spilled in a radial pattern as a result of impact with a stationary object while taxiing at fairly low speed, (3) a survivable crash in which a significant quantity of fuel is spilled in an axial pattern as a result of impact during landing, and (4) a non-survivable crash in which a massive fuel spill occurs instantaneously.

  8. Preparation of zinc hydroxystannate-decorated graphene oxide nanohybrids and their synergistic reinforcement on reducing fire hazards of flexible poly (vinyl chloride).

    PubMed

    Gao, Tingting; Chen, Laicheng; Li, Zhiwei; Yu, Laigui; Wu, Zhishen; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-12-01

    A novel flame retardant, zinc hydroxystannate-decorated graphene oxide (ZHS/GO) nanohybrid, was successfully prepared and well characterized. Herein, the ZHS nanoparticles could not only enhance the flame retardancy of GO with the synergistic flame-retardant effect of ZHS but also prevent the restack of GO to improve the mechanical properties of poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix. The structure characterization showed ZHS nanoparticles were bonded onto the surface of GO nanosheets and the ZHS nanoparticles were well distributed on the surface of GO. Subsequently, resulting ZHS/GO was introduced into flexible PVC and fire hazards and mechanical properties of PVC nanocomposites were investigated. Compared to neat PVC, thermogravimetric analysis exhibited that the addition of ZHS/GO into PVC matrix led to an improvement of the charring amount and thermal stability of char residue. Moreover, the incorporation of 5 wt.% ZHS/GO imparted excellent flame retardancy to flexible PVC, as shown by increased limiting oxygen index, reduced peak heat release rate, and total heat release tested by an oxygen index meter and a cone calorimeter, respectively. In addition, the addition of ZHS/GO nanohybrids decreased the smoke products and increased the tensile strength of PVC. Above-excellent flame-retardant properties are generally attributed to the synergistic effect of GO and ZHS, containing good dispersion of ZHS/GO in PVC matrix, the physical barrier of GO, and the catalytic char function of ZHS.

  9. Preparation of zinc hydroxystannate-decorated graphene oxide nanohybrids and their synergistic reinforcement on reducing fire hazards of flexible poly (vinyl chloride)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tingting; Chen, Laicheng; Li, Zhiwei; Yu, Laigui; Wu, Zhishen; Zhang, Zhijun

    2016-04-01

    A novel flame retardant, zinc hydroxystannate-decorated graphene oxide (ZHS/GO) nanohybrid, was successfully prepared and well characterized. Herein, the ZHS nanoparticles could not only enhance the flame retardancy of GO with the synergistic flame-retardant effect of ZHS but also prevent the restack of GO to improve the mechanical properties of poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix. The structure characterization showed ZHS nanoparticles were bonded onto the surface of GO nanosheets and the ZHS nanoparticles were well distributed on the surface of GO. Subsequently, resulting ZHS/GO was introduced into flexible PVC and fire hazards and mechanical properties of PVC nanocomposites were investigated. Compared to neat PVC, thermogravimetric analysis exhibited that the addition of ZHS/GO into PVC matrix led to an improvement of the charring amount and thermal stability of char residue. Moreover, the incorporation of 5 wt.% ZHS/GO imparted excellent flame retardancy to flexible PVC, as shown by increased limiting oxygen index, reduced peak heat release rate, and total heat release tested by an oxygen index meter and a cone calorimeter, respectively. In addition, the addition of ZHS/GO nanohybrids decreased the smoke products and increased the tensile strength of PVC. Above-excellent flame-retardant properties are generally attributed to the synergistic effect of GO and ZHS, containing good dispersion of ZHS/GO in PVC matrix, the physical barrier of GO, and the catalytic char function of ZHS.

  10. 75 FR 59197 - Hazardous Materials: Limiting the Use of Electronic Devices by Highway

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... of transportation incidents involving hazardous materials when CMV drivers are distracted by... transportation of hazardous materials as defined in this section. In a final rule published today addressing the... of Hazardous Materials Safety is the Federal safety authority for the transportation of...

  11. Emergency assessments of postfire debris-flow hazards for the 2009 La Brea, Jesusita, Guiberson, Morris, Sheep, Oak Glen, Pendleton, and Cottonwood fires in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Rupert, Michael G.; Michael, John A.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents an emergency assessment of potential debris-flow hazards from basins burned by the 2009 La Brea and Jesusita fires in Santa Barbara County, the Guiberson fire in Ventura County, the Morris fire in Los Angeles County, the Sheep, Oak Glen, and Pendleton fires in San Bernardino County, and the Cottonwood fire in Riverside County, southern California. Statistical-empirical models developed to analyze postfire debris flows are used to estimate the probability and volume of debris-flows produced from drainage basins within each of the burned areas. Debris-flow probabilities and volumes are estimated as functions of different measures of basin burned extent, gradient, and material properties in response to both a 3-hour-duration, 2-year-recurrence thunderstorm and to a widespread, 12-hour-duration, 2-year-recurrence winter storm. This assessment provides critical information for issuing warnings, locating and designing mitigation measures, and planning evacuation timing and routes within the first two winters following the fire.

  12. Framework for addressing the national wildland urban interface fire problem—determining fire and ember exposure zones using a WUI hazard scale

    Treesearch

    Alexander Maranghides; William Mell

    2012-01-01

    Destruction of homes and businesses from Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) fires have been steadily escalating as have the fire suppression costs associated with them. Since 2000, in the U.S. over 3,000 homes per year are lost to WUI fires, compared to about 900 homes in the 1990s, and 400 homes in the 1970s. In 2011, in Texas alone, over 2,000 homes were...

  13. Force Protection for Fire Fighters: Warm Zone Operations at Paramilitary Style Active Shooter Incidents in a Multi-Hazard Environment as a Fire Service Core Competency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    massive fire in the Taj Mahal hotel was intentionally set to confuse responders, trap victims, and create a powerful visual image that would captivate...the rapidly spreading smoke and fire at the Taj Mahal hotel. When life is threatened, time is of the essence. One of the most important ‘best...Fire service personnel in Mumbai, faced with the prospect of people trapped, injured, and dying inside the Taj Mahal Hotel and at other attack

  14. Estimation of fire danger in Hawai'i using limited weather data and simulation

    Treesearch

    D.R. Weise; S.L. Stephens; F.M. Fujioka; T.J. Moody; J. Benoit

    2010-01-01

    The presence of fire in Hawai'i has increased with introduction of nonnative grasses. Fire danger estimation using the National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS) typically requires 5 to 10 yr of data to determine percentile weather values and fire activity. The U.S. Army Pōhakuloa Training Area in Hawai‘i is located in the interface zone between windward...

  15. What is limiting more flexible fire management—public or agency pressure?

    Treesearch

    Toddi A. Steelman; Sarah M. McCaffrey

    2011-01-01

    Conventional wisdom within American federal fire management agencies suggests that external influence such as community or political pressure for aggressive suppression are key factors circumscribing the ability to execute less aggressive fire management strategies. Thus, a better understanding of external constraints on fire management options is essential. This...

  16. 76 FR 38590 - Proposed National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil-Fired...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Fossil-Fuel-Fired Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial-Institutional, and Small Industrial-Commercial... Performance for Fossil-Fuel- Fired Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial-Institutional, and Small Industrial...

  17. 77 FR 45967 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Fossil-Fuel-Fired Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial-Institutional, and Small Industrial-Commercial... Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Electric Utility, Industrial- Commercial-Institutional, and Small Industrial...

  18. Infrared-fiber-optic fire sensor developments - Role of measurement uncertainty in evaluation of background limited range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapphorn, Ralph M.; Kays, Randy; Porter, Alan

    Fire-detector systems based on distributed infrared fiber-sensors have been investigated for potential applications in the aerospace industry. Responsivities to blackbody and flame radiations were measured with various design configurations of an infrared fiber-optic sensor. Signal processing techniques were also investigated, and the results show significant differences in the fire-sensor performance depending on the design configuration. Measurement uncertainties were used to determine the background-limited ranges for the various fire-sensor concepts, and the probability of producing false alarms caused by fluctuations in the background signals were determined using extreme probability theory. The results of the research show that infrared fiber-optic fire sensors are feasible for application on manned spacecraft; however, additional development work will be required to eliminate false alarms caused by high temperature objects such as incandescent lamps.

  19. Infrared-fiber-optic fire sensor developments - Role of measurement uncertainty in evaluation of background limited range. [in spacecraft safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapphorn, Ralph M.; Kays, Randy; Porter, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Fire-detector systems based on distributed infrared fiber-sensors have been investigated for potential applications in the aerospace industry. Responsivities to blackbody and flame radiations were measured with various design configurations of an infrared fiber-optic sensor. Signal processing techniques were also investigated, and the results show significant differences in the fire-sensor performance depending on the design configuration. Measurement uncertainties were used to determine the background-limited ranges for the various fire-sensor concepts, and the probability of producing false alarms caused by fluctuations in the background signals were determined using extreme probability theory. The results of the research show that infrared fiber-optic fire sensors are feasible for application on manned spacecraft; however, additional development work will be required to eliminate false alarms caused by high temperature objects such as incandescent lamps.

  20. Infrared-fiber-optic fire sensor developments - Role of measurement uncertainty in evaluation of background limited range. [in spacecraft safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapphorn, Ralph M.; Kays, Randy; Porter, Alan

    1989-01-01

    Fire-detector systems based on distributed infrared fiber-sensors have been investigated for potential applications in the aerospace industry. Responsivities to blackbody and flame radiations were measured with various design configurations of an infrared fiber-optic sensor. Signal processing techniques were also investigated, and the results show significant differences in the fire-sensor performance depending on the design configuration. Measurement uncertainties were used to determine the background-limited ranges for the various fire-sensor concepts, and the probability of producing false alarms caused by fluctuations in the background signals were determined using extreme probability theory. The results of the research show that infrared fiber-optic fire sensors are feasible for application on manned spacecraft; however, additional development work will be required to eliminate false alarms caused by high temperature objects such as incandescent lamps.

  1. 76 FR 23768 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric Utility Steam Generating Units and Standards of Performance for Fossil... Utility Steam Generating Units and Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Electric Utility... Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Electric Utility, Industrial- Commercial-Institutional, and Small Industrial...

  2. Bibliography on aircraft fire hazards and safety. Volume 2: Safety. Part 1: Key numbers 1 to 524

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelouch, J. J., Jr. (Compiler); Hacker, P. T. (Compiler)

    1974-01-01

    Bibliographic citations are presented to describe and define aircraft safety methods, equipment, and criteria. Some of the subjects discussed are: (1) fire and explosion suppression using whiffle balls, (2) ultraviolet flame detecting sensors, (3) evaluation of flame arrestor materials for aircraft fuel systems, (4) crash fire prevention system for supersonic commercial aircraft, and (5) fire suppression for aerospace vehicles.

  3. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; forest structure and fire hazard fact sheet 04: role of silviculture in fuel treatments

    Treesearch

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    The principal goals of fuel treatments are to reduce fireline intensities, reduce the potential for crown fires, improve opportunities for successful fire suppression, and improve forest resilience to forest fires. This fact sheet discusses thinning, and surface fuel treatments, as well as challenges associated with those treatments.

  4. Identifying an indoor air exposure limit for formaldehyde considering both irritation and cancer hazards

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Formaldehyde is a well-studied chemical and effects from inhalation exposures have been extensively characterized in numerous controlled studies with human volunteers, including asthmatics and other sensitive individuals, which provide a rich database on exposure concentrations that can reliably produce the symptoms of sensory irritation. Although individuals can differ in their sensitivity to odor and eye irritation, the majority of authoritative reviews of the formaldehyde literature have concluded that an air concentration of 0.3 ppm will provide protection from eye irritation for virtually everyone. A weight of evidence-based formaldehyde exposure limit of 0.1 ppm (100 ppb) is recommended as an indoor air level for all individuals for odor detection and sensory irritation. It has recently been suggested by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the National Toxicology Program (NTP), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) that formaldehyde is causally associated with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) and leukemia. This has led US EPA to conclude that irritation is not the most sensitive toxic endpoint and that carcinogenicity should dictate how to establish exposure limits for formaldehyde. In this review, a number of lines of reasoning and substantial scientific evidence are described and discussed, which leads to a conclusion that neither point of contact nor systemic effects of any type, including NPC or leukemia, are causally associated with exposure to formaldehyde. This conclusion supports the view that the equivocal epidemiology studies that suggest otherwise are almost certainly flawed by identified or yet to be unidentified confounding variables. Thus, this assessment concludes that a formaldehyde indoor air limit of 0.1 ppm should protect even particularly susceptible individuals from both irritation effects and any potential cancer hazard. PMID:21635194

  5. Potentials and limitations for human control over historic fire regimes in the boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Granström, Anders; Niklasson, Mats

    2008-07-12

    Fire, being both a natural and cultural phenomenon, presents problems in disentangling the historical effect of humans from that of climate change. Here, we investigate the potential impact of humans on boreal fire regimes from a perspective of fuels, ignitions and culture. Two ways for a low technology culture to impact the fire regime are as follows: (i) by altering the number of ignitions and their spatial distribution and timing and (ii) by hindering fire spread. Different cultures should be expected to have quite different impacts on the fire regimes. In northern Fennoscandia, there is evidence for fire regime changes associated with the following: a reindeer herding culture associated with few ignitions above the natural; an era of cattle husbandry with dramatically increased ignitions and somewhat higher fire frequency; and a timber exploitation era with decreasing fire sizes and diminishing fire frequency. In other regions of the boreal zone, such schemes can look quite different, but we suggest that a close look at the resource extraction and land use of different cultures should be part of any analysis of past fire regimes.

  6. Where's the Fire?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, Dorothy

    1977-01-01

    National Fire Protection Week is a perfect time for launching a fire safety learning center. The activities described here are intended to help children recognize fire hazards in their homes, play areas and public buildings; learn how to act intelligently in fire emergencies; be able to share their knowledge of fire safety with others and…

  7. Where's the Fire?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, Dorothy

    1977-01-01

    National Fire Protection Week is a perfect time for launching a fire safety learning center. The activities described here are intended to help children recognize fire hazards in their homes, play areas and public buildings; learn how to act intelligently in fire emergencies; be able to share their knowledge of fire safety with others and…

  8. Fire behavior and risk analysis in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Sacksteder, Kurt R.

    1988-01-01

    Practical risk management for present and future spacecraft, including space stations, involves the optimization of residual risks balanced by the spacecraft operational, technological, and economic limitations. Spacecraft fire safety is approached through three strategies, in order of risk: (1) control of fire-causing elements, through exclusion of flammable materials for example; (2) response to incipient fires through detection and alarm; and (3) recovery of normal conditions through extinguishment and cleanup. Present understanding of combustion in low gravity is that, compared to normal gravity behavior, fire hazards may be reduced by the absence of buoyant gas flows yet at the same time increased by ventilation flows and hot particle expulsion. This paper discusses the application of low-gravity combustion knowledge and appropriate aircraft analogies to fire detection, fire fighting, and fire-safety decisions for eventual fire-risk management and optimization in spacecraft.

  9. FIRE extended time/limited area observations at Palisades, New York

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David A.; Kukla, George; Frei, Alan

    1990-01-01

    Downwelling shortwave and longwave irradiation are being continuously monitored at Palisades, New York as part of the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE) Extended Time/Limited Area Initiative. In addition, fisheye (180 degree) sky photographs are taken at the times of NOAA 9 and LANDSAT satellite overpasses on select days, particularly when cirrus clouds are present. Measurements of incoming shortwave (0.28 to 2.80 microns) hemispheric and diffuse, hemispheric near infrared (0.7 to 2.80 microns), and downwelling hemispheric infrared (4.0 to 50.0 microns) irradiation have been made from a rooftop location on the grounds of the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory since December 1986. The three Eppley Precision Spectral Pyranometers and the Eppley Pyrgeometer used to measure these variables were calibrated with Colorado State University instruments at Madison, Wisconsin as part of the FIRE Intensive Laboratory. Pyrgeometer output contains an adjustment for body temperature but not for dome temperature. Data are transmitted to a Campbell CR-21 Digital Recorder, where one minute averages of ten second samples are stored and subsequently dumped to a cassette recorder. Using a Campbell C-20 Cassette Interface, these data are transferred to an Apple Macintosh computer for analysis and for archiving on floppy disks. In addition to the raw irradiances collected, variables derived from these data are generated and stored. These include: the ratio of near infrared irradiation to visible irradiation and the fraction of the full shortwave irradiation which is diffuse; and will soon include: shortwave transmissivity and optical depth in the shortwave. Sky photographs are taken with an Olympus OM2-N 35 mm camera and are timed to be coincident with overpassing NOAA and LANDSAT satellites. Palisades is within the field of view of the NOAA 9 daily in the middle to late afternoon. The satellite viewing angle is within 45 degrees

  10. Fire safety

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger

    1999-01-01

    Fire safety is an important concern in all types of construction. The high level of national concern for fire safety is reflected in limitations and design requirements in building codes. These code requirements are discussed in the context of fire safety design and evaluation in the initial section of this chapter. Since basic data on fire behavior of wood products...

  11. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-375-1861, International Association of Fire Fighters (IAFF), Los Angeles, California

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.E.; Melius, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    In response to a request from the International Association of Fire Fighters, a study was made of possible toxic exposures experienced by fire fighters from the Los Angeles Fire Department, paramedics, and police officers during a chemical warehouse fire at Research Organic, Inorganic Chemical Corporation, Sun Valley, California. Numerous flammable, corrosive, and reactive compounds were stored at the warehouse at the time of the fire. Dermatological problems with rashes lasting more than 1 day after the fire were reported by 18 fire fighters and nine police officers. Neurotoxic symptoms of fatigue, forgetfulness, irritability, headaches, and difficulty sleeping were also reported. The neurotoxic symptoms lasted from a month to over a year. The authors conclude that the symptoms experienced by those working at the fire site are associated with exposures during the fire. Recommendations arising from the fire include the establishment of a response team with comprehensive training, state of the art protective equipment, protocols for addressing medical evaluation and decontamination issues, environmental sampling capability, and coordination with other emergency disaster responders.

  12. The relationship of an integral wind shear hazard to aircraft performance limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. S.; Robinson, P. A.; Hinton, D. A.; Bowles, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    The development and certification of airborne forward-looking wind shear detection systems has required a hazard definition stated in terms of sensor observable wind field characteristics. This paper outlines the definition of the F-factor wind shear hazard index and an average F-factor quantity, calculated over a specified averaging interval, which may be used to judge an aircraft's potential performance loss due to a given wind shear field. A technique for estimating airplane energy changes during a wind shear encounter is presented and used to determine the wind shear intensity, as a function of the averaging interval, that presents significant hazard to transport category airplanes. The wind shear hazard levels are compared to averaged F-factor values at various averaging intervals for four actual wind shear encounters. Results indicate that averaging intervals of about one kilometer could be used in a simple method to discern hazardous shears.

  13. Chapter C. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989 - Fire, Police, Transportation and Hazardous Materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Anne, Craig; Scawthorn, Charles R.

    1994-01-01

    The papers in this chapter discuss some of the failures and successes that resulted from the societal response by a multitude of agencies to the Loma Prieta earthquake. Some of the lessons learned were old ones relearned. Other lessons were obvious ones which had gone unnoticed. Still, knowledge gained from past earthquakes spawned planning and mitigation efforts which proved to be successful in limiting the aftermath effects of the Loma Prieta event. At least four major areas of response are presented in this chapter: the Oakland Police Department response to the challenge of controlled access to the Cypress freeway collapse area without inhibiting relief and recovery efforts; search and rescue of the freeway collapse and the monumental crisis management problem that accompanied it; the short- and long-term impact on transbay transportation systems to move a large work force from home to business; and the handling of hazardous material releases throughout the Bay Area.

  14. 30 CFR 71.700 - Inhalation hazards; threshold limit values for gases, dust, fumes, mists, and vapors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Airborne Contaminants § 71.700 Inhalation hazards; threshold... worksite to be exposed to airborne contaminants (other than respirable coal mine dust, respirable dust... Limit Values of Airborne Contaminants” (1972) which is hereby incorporated by reference and made a part...

  15. 30 CFR 71.700 - Inhalation hazards; threshold limit values for gases, dust, fumes, mists, and vapors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Airborne Contaminants § 71.700 Inhalation hazards; threshold... worksite to be exposed to airborne contaminants (other than respirable coal mine dust, respirable dust... Limit Values of Airborne Contaminants” (1972) which is hereby incorporated by reference and made a part...

  16. 30 CFR 71.700 - Inhalation hazards; threshold limit values for gases, dust, fumes, mists, and vapors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Airborne Contaminants § 71.700 Inhalation hazards; threshold... worksite to be exposed to airborne contaminants (other than respirable coal mine dust, respirable dust... Limit Values of Airborne Contaminants” (1972) which is hereby incorporated by reference and made a part...

  17. 14 CFR 91.815 - Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., as effective on January 1, 1966) or for dispensing fire fighting materials. (b) If the Airplane Flight Manual, or other approved manual material information, markings, or placards for the airplane... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural and fire fighting...

  18. 14 CFR 91.815 - Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., as effective on January 1, 1966) or for dispensing fire fighting materials. (b) If the Airplane Flight Manual, or other approved manual material information, markings, or placards for the airplane... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agricultural and fire fighting...

  19. 14 CFR 91.815 - Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., as effective on January 1, 1966) or for dispensing fire fighting materials. (b) If the Airplane Flight Manual, or other approved manual material information, markings, or placards for the airplane... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agricultural and fire fighting...

  20. 14 CFR 91.815 - Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., as effective on January 1, 1966) or for dispensing fire fighting materials. (b) If the Airplane Flight Manual, or other approved manual material information, markings, or placards for the airplane... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agricultural and fire fighting...

  1. 14 CFR 91.815 - Agricultural and fire fighting airplanes: Noise operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., as effective on January 1, 1966) or for dispensing fire fighting materials. (b) If the Airplane Flight Manual, or other approved manual material information, markings, or placards for the airplane... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agricultural and fire fighting...

  2. Estimating radiated flux density from wildland fires using the raw output of limited bandpass detectors

    Treesearch

    Robert L. Kremens; Matthew B. Dickinson

    2015-01-01

    We have simulated the radiant emission spectra from wildland fires such as would be observed at a scale encompassing the pre-frontal fuel bed, the flaming front and the zone of post-frontal combustion and cooling. For these simulations, we developed a 'mixed-pixel' model where the fire infrared spectrum is estimated as the linear superposition of spectra of...

  3. Spatially explicit modeling of mixed-severity fire regimes and landscape dynamics

    Treesearch

    Michael C. Wimberly; Rebecca S.H. Kennedy

    2008-01-01

    Simulation models of disturbance and succession are being increasingly applied to characterize landscape composition and dynamics under natural fire regimes, and to evaluate alternative management strategies for ecological restoration and fire hazard reduction. However, we have a limited understanding of how landscapes respond to changes in fire frequency, and about...

  4. Study on emission of hazardous trace elements in a 350 MW coal-fired power plant. Part 1. Mercury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shilin; Duan, Yufeng; Chen, Lei; Li, Yaning; Yao, Ting; Liu, Shuai; Liu, Meng; Lu, Jianhong

    2017-10-01

    Hazardous trace elements (HTEs), especially mercury, emitted from coal-fired power plants had caused widespread concern worldwide. Field test on mercury emissions at three different loads (100%, 85%, 68% output) using different types of coal was conducted in a 350 MW pulverized coal combustion power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), electrostatic precipitator and fabric filter (ESP + FF), and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD). The Ontario Hydro Method was used for simultaneous flue gas mercury sampling for mercury at the inlet and outlet of each of the air pollutant control device (APCD). Results showed that mercury mass balance rates of the system or each APCD were in the range of 70%-130%. Mercury was mainly distributed in the flue gas, followed by ESP + FF ash, WFGD wastewater, and slag. Oxidized mercury (Hg(2+)) was the main form of mercury form in the flue gas emitted to the atmosphere, which accounted for 57.64%-61.87% of total mercury. SCR was favorable for elemental mercury (Hg(0)) removal, with oxidation efficiency of 50.13%-67.68%. ESP + FF had high particle-bound mercury (Hg(p)) capture efficiency, at 99.95%-99.97%. Overall removal efficiency of mercury by the existing APCDs was 58.78%-73.32%. Addition of halogens or oxidants for Hg(0) conversion, and inhibitors for Hg(0) re-emission, plus the installation of a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) was a good way to improve the overall removal efficiency of mercury in the power plants. Mercury emission factor determined in this study was from 0.92 to 1.17 g/10(12)J. Mercury concentration in the emitted flue gas was much less than the regulatory limit of 30 μg/m(3). Contamination of mercury in desulfurization wastewater should be given enough focus. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Vishweshwaraiah Iron Steel Limited (VISL) fire disasters following steel converter blast, 30 July 2003.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramod

    2010-02-01

    A fire disaster occurred in Vishweshwaraiah Iron Steel Limited (VISL), Bhadravathi, India on 30 July 2003. The steel converter containing 24,000 kg of liquid metal (pig iron) at very high temperature exploded. A total of 30 workers became victims. Seven persons died on the spot. Twenty-three victims were transferred to the VISL hospital; of these, six were transferred to the burns unit of the Kasturba Hospital, Manipal (180 km from VISL). All six treated at the burns unit suffered 3-65% total body surface area (TBSA) burn, two had external injuries and two had eye involvement. Out of the six patients admitted at the burns unit, two expired (one due to refractory shock and another due to pulmonary embolism). Out of four survivors, one underwent tangential excision; another underwent operation for removal of foreign body from both soles and the remaining two were managed conservatively. Of the four survivors, two who had eye injuries, one developed minute corneal opacities within 2 months. The total duration of hospital stay of survivors at the burns unit varied from 8 to 43 days. All the victims were counselled by VISL psychiatrists before resuming their duties. Except the one who developed mixed anxiety-depression disorder, all survivors returned to work. The article describes the mechanism of the incident, injuries sustained and suggestions in relation to future safety measures.

  6. 77 FR 23399 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-19

    ... Fossil-Fuel-Fired Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial-Institutional, and Small Industrial-Commercial... Units and Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial..., 2005, means a 24-hour period during which fossil fuel is combusted in a steam-generating unit for the...

  7. Long-term dead wood changes in a Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest: habitat and fire hazard implications

    Treesearch

    Eric E. Knapp

    2015-01-01

    Dead trees play an important role in forests, with snags and coarse woody debris (CWD) used by many bird and mammal species for nesting, resting, or foraging. However, too much dead wood can also contribute to extreme fire behavior. This tension between dead wood as habitat and dead wood as fuel has raised questions about appropriate quantities in fire-dependent...

  8. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 85-274-1879, evaluation of zinc chloride smoke-generating devices, International Association of Fire Fighters, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect

    Zey, J.N.; Richardson, F.

    1988-03-01

    An assessment was made of hazards to fire fighters of using different zinc-chloride smoke generating devices, manufactured by the Superior Signal Company, Inc., New Jersey. used in fire-fighter-training exercises, zinc compounds, hydrochloric acid and over 50 chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected in smoke clouds. The concentration of hydrochloric acid ranged as high as 420 mg/m/sup 3/. Zinc chloride concentrations ranged from 11 to 498 mg/m/sup 3/. A telephone survey was conducted of 62 different fire fighting training organizations around the United States to obtain information they might have on use of similar devices. A literature search revealed that there had been severe adverse health effects, including death, resulting from exposure to a dense smoke cloud from a zinc-chloride smoke-generating device. Individuals who were adversely affected were not wearing respiratory protective gear or had malfunctioning gear. Symptoms of exposure included sore throat, difficulty breathing, joint pain, chills and fever, headache, and generalized fatigue. The authors conclude that no smoke-generating device should be considered safe and nontoxic, and that measures should be taken to reduce exposures to smoke clouds from such devices. Alternative methods to distort vision in fire-fighting training exercises should be considered.

  9. Analysis and mapping of post-fire hydrologic hazards for the 2002 Hayman, Coal Seam, and Missionary Ridge wildfires, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.G.; Smith, M.E.; Friedel, M.J.; Stevens, M.R.; Bossong, C.R.; Litke, D.W.; Parker, R.S.; Costello, C.; Wagner, J.; Char, S.J.; Bauer, M.A.; Wilds, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Wildfires caused extreme changes in the hydrologic, hydraulic, and geomorphologic characteristics of many Colorado drainage basins in the summer of 2002. Detailed assessments were made of the short-term effects of three wildfires on burned and adjacent unburned parts of drainage basins. These were the Hayman, Coal Seam, and Missionary Ridge wildfires. Longer term runoff characteristics that reflect post-fire drainage basin recovery expected to develop over a period of several years also were analyzed for two affected stream reaches: the South Platte River between Deckers and Trumbull, and Mitchell Creek in Glenwood Springs. The 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year flood-plain boundaries and water-surface profiles were computed in a detailed hydraulic study of the Deckers-to-Trumbull reach. The Hayman wildfire burned approximately 138,000 acres (216 square miles) in granitic terrain near Denver, and the predominant potential hazard in this area is flooding by sediment-laden water along the large tributaries to and the main stem of the South Platte River. The Coal Seam wildfire burned approximately 12,200 acres (19.1 square miles) near Glenwood Springs, and the Missionary Ridge wildfire burned approximately 70,500 acres (110 square miles) near Durango, both in areas underlain by marine shales where the predominant potential hazard is debris-flow inundation of low-lying areas. Hydrographs and peak discharges for pre-burn and post-burn scenarios were computed for each drainage basin and tributary subbasin by using rainfall-runoff models because streamflow data for most tributary subbasins were not available. An objective rainfall-runoff model calibration method based on nonlinear regression and referred to as the ?objective calibration method? was developed and applied to rainfall-runoff models for three burned areas. The HEC-1 rainfall-runoff model was used to simulate the pre-burn rainfall-runoff processes in response to the 100-year storm, and HEC-HMS was used for runoff

  10. Applications of Living Fire PRA models to Fire Protection Significance Determination Process in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    De-Cheng, Chen; Chung-Kung, Lo; Tsu-Jen, Lin; Ching-Hui, Wu; Lin, James C.

    2004-07-01

    The living fire probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) models for all three operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) in Taiwan had been established in December 2000. In that study, a scenario-based PRA approach was adopted to systematically evaluate the fire and smoke hazards and associated risks. Using these fire PRA models developed, a risk-informed application project had also been completed in December 2002 for the evaluation of cable-tray fire-barrier wrapping exemption. This paper presents a new application of the fire PRA models to fire protection issues using the fire protection significance determination process (FP SDP). The fire protection issues studied may involve the selection of appropriate compensatory measures during the period when an automatic fire detection or suppression system in a safety-related fire zone becomes inoperable. The compensatory measure can either be a 24-hour fire watch or an hourly fire patrol. The living fire PRA models were used to estimate the increase in risk associated with the fire protection issue in terms of changes in core damage frequency (CDF) and large early release frequency (LERF). In compliance with SDP at-power and the acceptance guidelines specified in RG 1.174, the fire protection issues in question can be grouped into four categories; red, yellow, white and green, in accordance with the guidelines developed for FD SDP. A 24-hour fire watch is suggested only required for the yellow condition, while an hourly fire patrol may be adopted for the white condition. More limiting requirement is suggested for the red condition, but no special consideration is needed for the green condition. For the calculation of risk measures, risk impacts from any additional fire scenarios that may have been introduced, as well as more severe initiating events and fire damages that may accompany the fire protection issue should be considered carefully. Examples are presented in this paper to illustrate the evaluation process. (authors)

  11. Great Balls of Fire: A probabilistic approach to quantify the hazard related to ballistics - A case study at La Fossa volcano, Vulcano Island, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biass, Sébastien; Falcone, Jean-Luc; Bonadonna, Costanza; Di Traglia, Federico; Pistolesi, Marco; Rosi, Mauro; Lestuzzi, Pierino

    2016-10-01

    We present a probabilistic approach to quantify the hazard posed by volcanic ballistic projectiles (VBP) and their potential impact on the built environment. A model named Great Balls of Fire (GBF) is introduced to describe ballistic trajectories of VBPs accounting for a variable drag coefficient and topography. It relies on input parameters easily identifiable in the field and is designed to model large numbers of VBPs stochastically. Associated functions come with the GBF code to post-process model outputs into a comprehensive probabilistic hazard assessment for VBP impacts. Outcomes include probability maps to exceed given thresholds of kinetic energies at impact, hazard curves and probabilistic isoenergy maps. Probabilities are calculated either on equally-sized pixels or zones of interest. The approach is calibrated, validated and applied to La Fossa volcano, Vulcano Island (Italy). We constructed a generic eruption scenario based on stratigraphic studies and numerical inversions of the 1888-1890 long-lasting Vulcanian cycle of La Fossa. Results suggest a ~ 10- 2% probability of occurrence of VBP impacts with kinetic energies ≤ 104 J at the touristic locality of Porto. In parallel, the vulnerability to roof perforation was estimated by combining field observations and published literature, allowing for a first estimate of the potential impact of VBPs during future Vulcanian eruptions. Results indicate a high physical vulnerability to the VBP hazard, and, consequently, half of the building stock having a ≥ 2.5 × 10- 3% probability of roof perforation.

  12. Moral Hazard: How The National Flood Insurance Program Is Limiting Risk Reduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    75  2.  Enhancing Resiliency of the NFIP in the Era of Climate Change ...enhanced threat of flooding from climate change . The data clearly demonstrates the prominence of weather-related hazards as the primary source of major...Adaptation through Insurance: Lessons from the NFIP,” International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management 3, no. 3 (2011): 257

  13. Learning from escaped prescribed fires - lessons for high reliability

    Treesearch

    Deirdre Dether; Anne Black

    2006-01-01

    Meeting national goals for hazardous fuels reduction and ecosystem restoration would be difficult - if not impossible - without utilizing prescribed fire. Suspension of prescribed fire programs, as often happens following an escape, limits Federal capacity to meet programmatic, social, and ecological goals.

  14. Integrated effect of supramolecular self-assembled sandwich-like melamine cyanurate/MoS2 hybrid sheets on reducing fire hazards of polyamide 6 composites.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaming; Wang, Xin; Cai, Wei; Hong, Ningning; Hu, Yuan; Liew, Kim Meow

    2016-12-15

    A novel strategy of using supramolecular self-assembly for preparing sandwich-like melamine cyanurate/MoS2 sheets as the hybrid flame retardants for polyamide 6 (PA6) is reported for the first time. The introduction of MoS2 sheets function not only as a template to induce the formation of two-dimensional melamine cyanurate capping layers but also as a synergist to generate integrated flame-retarding effect of hybrid sheets, as well as a high-performance smoke suppressor to reduce fire hazards of PA6 materials. Once incorporating this well-designed structures (4wt%) into PA6 matrix, there resulted in a remarkable drop (40%) in the peak heat release rate and a 25% reduction in total heat release. Moreover, the smoke production and pyrolysis gaseous products were efficiently suppressed by the addition of sandwich-like hybrid sheets. The integrated functions consisting of inherent flame retarding effect, physical barrier performance and catalytic activity are believed to the crucial guarantee for the reduced fire hazards of PA6 nanocomposites. Furthermore, this novel strategy with facile and scalable features may provide reference for developing various kinds of MoS2 based hybrid sheets for diverse applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Role of Deposition in Limiting the Hazard Extent of Dense-Gas Plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, M B

    2008-01-29

    Accidents involving release of large (multi-ton) quantities of toxic industrial chemicals often yield far fewer fatalities and causalities than standard, widely-used assessment and emergency response models predict. While recent work has suggested that models should incorporate the protection provided by buildings, more refined health effect methodologies, and more detailed consideration of the release process; investigations into the role of deposition onto outdoor surfaces has been lacking. In this paper, we examine the conditions under which dry deposition may significantly reduce the extent of the downwind hazard zone. We provide theoretical arguments that in congested environments (e.g. suburbs, forests), deposition to vertical surfaces (such as building walls) may play a significant role in reducing the hazard zone extent--particularly under low-wind, stable atmospheric conditions which are often considered to be the worst-case scenario for these types of releases. Our analysis suggests that in these urban or suburban environments, the amount of toxic chemicals lost to earth's surface is typically a small fraction of overall depositional losses. For isothermal gases such as chlorine, the degree to which the chemicals stick to (or react with) surfaces (i.e. surface resistance) is demonstrated to be a key parameter controlling hazard extent (the maximum distance from the release at which hazards to human health are expected). This analysis does not consider the depositional effects associated with particulate matter or gases that undergo significant thermal change in the atmosphere. While no controlled experiments were available to validate our hypothesis, our analysis results are qualitatively consistent with the observed downwind extent of vegetation damage in two chlorine accidents.

  16. Postwildfire preliminary debris flow hazard assessment for the area burned by the 2011 Las Conchas Fire in north-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The Las Conchas Fire during the summer of 2011 was the largest in recorded history for the state of New Mexico, burning 634 square kilometers in the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from 321 basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of burn severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 28.0 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence interval), the probabilities of debris flows estimated for basins burned by the Las Conchas Fire were greater than 80 percent for two-thirds (67 percent) of the modeled basins. Basins with a high (greater than 80 percent) probability of debris-flow occurrence were concentrated in tributaries to Santa Clara and Rio del Oso Canyons in the northeastern part of the burned area; some steep areas in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, Los Alamos, and Guaje Canyons in the east-central part of the burned area; tributaries to Peralta, Colle, Bland, and Cochiti canyons in the southwestern part of the burned area; and tributaries to Frijoles, Alamo, and Capulin Canyons in the southeastern part of the burned area (within Bandelier National Monument). Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 400 cubic meters to greater than 72,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 40,000 cubic meters) were estimated for basins in Santa Clara, Los Alamos, and Water Canyons, and for two

  17. Radionuclides in the soil around the largest coal-fired power plant in Serbia: radiological hazard, relationship with soil characteristics and spatial distribution.

    PubMed

    Ćujić, Mirjana; Dragović, Snežana; Đorđević, Milan; Dragović, Ranko; Gajić, Boško; Miljanić, Šćepan

    2015-07-01

    Primordial radionuclides, (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K were determined in soil samples collected at two depths (0-10 and 10-20 cm) in the vicinity of the largest coal-fired power plant in Serbia, and their spatial distribution was analysed using ordinary kriging. Mean values of activity concentrations for these depths were 50.7 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, 48.7 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and 560 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. Based on the measured activity concentrations, the radiological hazard due to naturally occurring radionuclides in soil was assessed. The value of the mean total absorbed dose rate was 76.3 nGy h(-1), which is higher than the world average. The annual effective dose due to these radionuclides ranged from 51.4 to 114.2 μSv. Applying cluster analysis, correlations between radionuclides and soil properties were determined. The distribution pattern of natural radionuclides in the environment surrounding the coal-fired power plant and their enrichment in soil at some sampling sites were in accordance with dispersion models of fly ash emissions. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that operation of the coal-fired power plant has no significant negative impact on the surrounding environment with regard to the content of natural radionuclides.

  18. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; forest structure and fire hazard fact sheet 06: Guide to fuel treatments in dry forests of the Western United States: assessing forest structure and fire hazard

    Treesearch

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2005-01-01

    The Guide to Fuel Treatments analyzes a range of potential silvicultural thinnings and surface fuel treatments for 25 representative dry-forest stands in the Western United States. The guide provides quantitative guidelines and visualization for treatment based on scientific principles identified for reducing potential crown fires. This fact sheet identifies the...

  19. A distributed framework for multi-risk assessment of natural hazards used to model the effects of forest fire on hydrology and sediment yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isabella Bovolo, C.; Abele, Simon J.; Bathurst, James C.; Caballero, David; Ciglan, Marek; Eftichidis, George; Simo, Branislav

    2009-05-01

    Within the European Commission-funded MEDIGRID project, Grid computing technology is used to integrate various natural hazard models and data sets, maintained independently at different centres in Europe, into a single system, accessible to users over the internet. Each centre forms a process (application) or data storage node and has been fitted with the Globus toolkit, which provides the distributed computing environment functionality that is required for the system set up. In addition, several Grid data management components were developed to allow the system to operate on different computing platforms. Access to the data and application management services is enabled through a Grid Portal. A series of portlets enable users to access the system, providing a personalised interface to the Grid. Integration of the individual models required them to be modified as web services, so as to be run remotely over the internet. As the models have different data characteristics, a common data format was adopted for creating harmonised data sets and allowing the exchange of data between the models. As an example, the Fire Spread Engine model is used to derive a map of areas that have been burnt by fire. This forms an input to the SHETRAN hydrology, soil erosion and landslide model, which in turn could provide data for other models such as vegetation regeneration. The use of the system is demonstrated for a site in south-west Spain where a large forest fire occurred on 2 August 2003. The MEDIGRID system marks an advance in the integration of independently constructed models to provide improved hazard assessment technology.

  20. The role of permissible limits for hazardous airborne substances in the working environment in the prevention of occupational disease

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, Theodore F.

    1972-01-01

    Recognized limits of permissible exposure to hazardous airborne substances adopted by different countries for industrial health protection may differ by a factor of 10. A Joint ILO/WHO Committee on Occupational Health in 1969 was unable to recommend a single set of values as international standards for more than a few toxic agents. The greatest differences are in the tolerance limits employed in the USA and in the USSR. The reasons for this substantial disagreement are discussed in this paper and are explained in terms of fundamental differences in the psychophysiological criteria employed to establish safe limits between the maintenance of good health and the development of a significant threat to the health. Some practical implications in the selection of permissible limits of exposure by developing countries are discussed in relation to living standards, endemic disease, climate, and geographical situation. PMID:4539411

  1. Measurements of UV-A radiation and hazard limits from some types of outdoor lamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Moghazy, Essam; Abd-Elmageed, Alaa-Eldin; Reda, Sameh

    2015-05-01

    Illumination using artificial light sources is common in these days. Many manufactures are paying for the design of lamps depending on high efficacy and low UV hazards. This research is focusing on the most useable lamps in the Egyptian markets; High Pressure Mercury (HPM), Metal Halide (MH), and High Pressure Sodium (HPS). A set up for relative spectral power distribution based on single monochromator and UVA silicon detector for absolute irradiance measurements are used. The absolute irradiance in (W/m2) in UVA region of the lamps and their accompanied standard uncertainty are evaluated.

  2. Fire hazard analysis for the Westinghouse Hanford Company managed low-level mixed waste Trench 31 and 34

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, B.J.

    1995-01-10

    This analysis is to assess comprehensively the risks from fire within the new lined landfills, provided by W-025 and designated Trench 31 and 34 of Burial Ground 218-W-5; they are located in the 200 West area of the Hanford Site, and are designed to receive low-level mixed waste.

  3. Influence of bark beetle-caused mortality on fuel loadings and crown fire hazard in southwestern ponderosa pine stands

    Treesearch

    Chad M. Hoffman; Joel D. McMillin; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Peter Z. Fule

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are important biotic agents of conifer mortality in forests of western North America (Furniss and Carolin 1977) and play an important role in the disturbance ecology of these ecosystems (Fettig and others 2007). Bark beetle outbreaks affect subsequent fire behavior in part by influencing the spatial...

  4. Finding balance between fire hazard reduction and erosion control in the Lake Tahoe Basin, California–Nevada

    Treesearch

    Nicolas M. Harrison; Andrew P. Stubblefield; J. Morgan Varner; Eric E. Knapp

    2016-01-01

    The 2007 Angora Fire served as a stark reminder of the need for fuel reduction treatments in the Lake Tahoe Basin, California–Nevada, USA. Concerns exist, however, that the corresponding removal of forest floor fuels could increase erosion rates, negatively affecting the clarity of Lake Tahoe. To quantify trade-offs between fuel reduction and erosion, we conducted...

  5. A contingent valuation study of the value of reducing fire hazards to old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    John B. Loomis; Armando González-Cabán; Robin Gregory

    1996-01-01

    A contingent valuation methodology was applied to old-growth forests and critical habitat units for the Northern Spotted Owl in Oregon to estimate the economic value to the public in knowing that rare and unique ecosystems will be protected from fire for current and future generations. Generalizing to the whole state, the total annual willingness-to-pay of Oregon...

  6. The Role of Deposition in Limiting the Hazard Extent of Dense-Gas Plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, M B

    2008-05-11

    Accidents that involve large (multi-ton) releases of toxic industrial chemicals and form dense-gas clouds often yield far fewer fatalities, casualties and environmental effects than standard assessment and emergency response models predict. This modeling study, which considers both dense-gas turbulence suppression and deposition to environmental objects (e.g. buildings), demonstrates that dry deposition to environmental objects may play a significant role in reducing the distance at which adverse impacts occur - particularly under low-wind, stable atmospheric conditions which are often considered to be the worst-case scenario for these types of releases. The degree to which the released chemical sticks to (or reacts with) environmental surfaces is likely a key parameter controlling hazard extents. In all modeled cases, the deposition to vertical surfaces of environmental objects (e.g. building walls) was more efficient in reducing atmospheric chemical concentrations than deposition to the earth's surface. This study suggests that (1) hazard extents may vary widely by release environment (e.g. grasslands vs. suburbia) and release conditions (e.g. sunlight or humidity may change the rate at which chemicals react with a surface) and (2) greenbelts (or similar structures) may dramatically reduce the impacts of large-scale releases. While these results are demonstrated to be qualitatively consistent with the downwind extent of vegetation damage in two chlorine releases, critical knowledge gaps exist and this study provides recommendations for additional experimental studies.

  7. Postwildfire debris-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the 2012 Little Bear Fire, south-central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillery, Anne C.; Matherne, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary hazard assessment was developed of the debris-flow potential from 56 drainage basins burned by the Little Bear Fire in south-central New Mexico in June 2012. The Little Bear Fire burned approximately 179 square kilometers (km2) (44,330 acres), including about 143 km2 (35,300 acres) of National Forest System lands of the Lincoln National Forest. Within the Lincoln National Forest, about 72 km2 (17,664 acres) of the White Mountain Wilderness were burned. The burn area also included about 34 km2 (8,500 acres) of private lands. Burn severity was high or moderate on 53 percent of the burn area. The area burned is at risk of substantial postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. A postwildfire debris-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the Little Bear Fire was performed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Lincoln National Forest. A set of two empirical hazard-assessment models developed by using data from recently burned drainage basins throughout the intermountain Western United States was used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows along the burn area drainage network and for selected drainage basins within the burn area. The models incorporate measures of areal burn extent and severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall intensity to estimate the probability and volume of debris flows following the fire. Relative hazard rankings of postwildfire debris flows were produced by summing the estimated probability and volume ranking to illustrate those areas with the highest potential occurrence of debris flows with the largest volumes. The probability that a drainage basin could produce debris flows and the volume of a possible debris flow at the basin outlet were estimated for three design storms: (1) a 2-year-recurrence, 30-minute-duration rainfall of 27 millimeters (mm) (a 50 percent chance of occurrence in

  8. Does fungal endophyte infection improve tall fescue's growth response to fire and water limitation?

    PubMed

    Hall, Sarah L; McCulley, Rebecca L; Barney, Robert J; Phillips, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species may owe some of their success in competing and co-existing with native species to microbial symbioses they are capable of forming. Tall fescue is a cool-season, non-native, invasive grass capable of co-existing with native warm-season grasses in North American grasslands that frequently experience fire, drought, and cold winters, conditions to which the native species should be better-adapted than tall fescue. We hypothesized that tall fescue's ability to form a symbiosis with Neotyphodium coenophialum, an aboveground fungal endophyte, may enhance its environmental stress tolerance and persistence in these environments. We used a greenhouse experiment to examine the effects of endophyte infection (E+ vs. E-), prescribed fire (1 burn vs. 2 burn vs. unburned control), and watering regime (dry vs. wet) on tall fescue growth. We assessed treatment effects for growth rates and the following response variables: total tiller length, number of tillers recruited during the experiment, number of reproductive tillers, tiller biomass, root biomass, and total biomass. Water regime significantly affected all response variables, with less growth and lower growth rates observed under the dry water regime compared to the wet. The burn treatments significantly affected total tiller length, number of reproductive tillers, total tiller biomass, and total biomass, but treatment differences were not consistent across parameters. Overall, fire seemed to enhance growth. Endophyte status significantly affected total tiller length and tiller biomass, but the effect was opposite what we predicted (E->E+). The results from our experiment indicated that tall fescue was relatively tolerant of fire, even when combined with dry conditions, and that the fungal endophyte symbiosis was not important in governing this ecological ability. The persistence of tall fescue in native grassland ecosystems may be linked to other endophyte-conferred abilities not measured here (e

  9. Does Fungal Endophyte Infection Improve Tall Fescue’s Growth Response to Fire and Water Limitation?

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sarah L.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Barney, Robert J.; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species may owe some of their success in competing and co-existing with native species to microbial symbioses they are capable of forming. Tall fescue is a cool-season, non-native, invasive grass capable of co-existing with native warm-season grasses in North American grasslands that frequently experience fire, drought, and cold winters, conditions to which the native species should be better-adapted than tall fescue. We hypothesized that tall fescue’s ability to form a symbiosis with Neotyphodium coenophialum, an aboveground fungal endophyte, may enhance its environmental stress tolerance and persistence in these environments. We used a greenhouse experiment to examine the effects of endophyte infection (E+ vs. E−), prescribed fire (1 burn vs. 2 burn vs. unburned control), and watering regime (dry vs. wet) on tall fescue growth. We assessed treatment effects for growth rates and the following response variables: total tiller length, number of tillers recruited during the experiment, number of reproductive tillers, tiller biomass, root biomass, and total biomass. Water regime significantly affected all response variables, with less growth and lower growth rates observed under the dry water regime compared to the wet. The burn treatments significantly affected total tiller length, number of reproductive tillers, total tiller biomass, and total biomass, but treatment differences were not consistent across parameters. Overall, fire seemed to enhance growth. Endophyte status significantly affected total tiller length and tiller biomass, but the effect was opposite what we predicted (E−>E+). The results from our experiment indicated that tall fescue was relatively tolerant of fire, even when combined with dry conditions, and that the fungal endophyte symbiosis was not important in governing this ecological ability. The persistence of tall fescue in native grassland ecosystems may be linked to other endophyte-conferred abilities not measured here (e

  10. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Slide and Grass Valley Fires, San Bernardino County, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Slide and Grass Valley Fires in San Bernardino County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 3.50 inches (88.90 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  11. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Ranch Fire, Ventura and Los Angeles Counties, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Ranch Fire in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  12. Escaping radioactivity from coal-fired power plants (CPPs) due to coal burning and the associated hazards: a review.

    PubMed

    Papastefanou, Constantin

    2010-03-01

    Coal, like most materials found in nature, contains trace quantities of the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, i.e. of (40)K and of (238)U, (232)Th and their decay products. Therefore, the combustion of coal results in the released into the environment of some natural radioactivity (1.48 TBq y(-1)), the major part of which (99%) escapes as very fine particles, while the rest in fly ash. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides measured in coals originated from coal mines in Greece varied from 117 to 435 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 44 to 255 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 59 to 205 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 9 to 41 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 59 to 227 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. Fly ash escapes from the stacks of coal-fired power plants in a percentage of 3-1% of the total fly ash, in the better case. The natural radionuclide concentrations measured in fly ash produced and retained or escaped from coal-fired power plants in Greece varied from 263 to 950 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 142 to 605 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 133 to 428 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 27 to 68 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 204 to 382 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. About 5% of the total ash produced in the coal-fired power plants is used as substitute of cement in concrete for the construction of dwellings, and may affect indoor radiation doses from external irradiation and the inhalation of radon decay products (internal irradiation) is the most significant. The resulting normalized collective effective doses were 6 and 0.5man-Sv(GWa)(-1) for typical old and modern coal-fired power plants, respectively. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Emergency assessment of debris-flow hazards from basins burned by the Cedar and Paradise Fires of 2003, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Rupert, Michael G.; Michael, John A.

    2004-01-01

    These maps present preliminary assessments of the probability of debris-flow activity and estimates of peak discharges that can potentially be generated by debris flows issuing from basins burned by the Cedar and Paradise Fires of October 2003 in southern California in response to 25-year, 10-year, and 2-year recurrence, 1-hour duration rain storms. The probability maps are based on the application of a logistic multiple regression model that describes the percent chance of debris-flow production from an individual basin as a function of burned extent, soil properties, basin gradients, and storm rainfall. The peak-discharge maps are based on application of a multiple-regression model that can be used to estimate debris-flow peak discharge at a basin outlet as a function of basin gradient, burn extent, and storm rainfall. Probabilities of debris-flow occurrence for the Cedar Fire range between 0 and 98% and estimates of debris-flow peak discharges range between 893 and 5,987 ft3/s (25 to 170 m3/s). Basins burned by the Paradise Fire show probabilities for debris-flow occurrence between 2 and 98%, and peak discharge estimates between 1,814 and 5,980 ft3/s (51 and 169 m3/s). These maps are intended to identify those basins that are most prone to the largest debris-flow events and provide information for the preliminary design of mitigation measures and for the planning of evacuation timing and routes.

  14. The flammability limits of lean fuel-air mixtures: thermochemical and kinetic criteria for explosion hazards.

    PubMed

    Burgess, D; Hertzberg, M

    1975-01-01

    The present state of knowledge is reviewed concisely in terms of the experimental methods used, the effect of apparatus size, accuracy of data, methods of data presentation, and the sensitivity of the limits to initial temperature and pressure. The heat of combustion per mole of gas mixture at the lean limit is a reliable thermochemical criterion for the flammability of organic fuels with comparable reactivities. The limit calorific value for the heavy paraffins is 11.5 +/- 0.1 kcal mole -1. However, kinetic effects strongly influence this value. Highly reactive fuels (hydrogen, acetylene) require lower energy contents, whereas less reactive fuels (ammonia) require higher values. Hydrogen-starved fuels (carbon monoxide, cyanogen) show marked anomalies and are sensitive to impurities that can provide H-atom chain carriers. These kinetic effects are reflected in the experimentally measurable burning velocity of the fuel. This parameter is a key ingredient in the theory of flammable limits, which is briefly sketched. Five competing processes dissipate power from the combustion wave and quench it at some characteristic limit velocity. The prevalent consensus that the limits are controlled by natural convection is clearly demonstrated, and the complex interplay of kinetics and thermochemistry follows logically therefrom.

  15. The influence of zinc hydroxystannate on reducing toxic gases (CO, NO(x) and HCN) generation and fire hazards of thermoplastic polyurethane composites.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bibo; Sheng, Haibo; Shi, Yongqian; Song, Lei; Zhang, Yan; Hu, Yuan; Hu, Weizhao

    2016-08-15

    A uniform zinc hydroxystannate (ZnHS) microcube was synthesized to reduce toxicity and fire hazards of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composites using ammonium polyphosphate as a flame retardant agent. The structure, morphology and thermal properties of ZnHS were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. Smoke suppression properties and synergistic flame retardant effect of ZnHS on flame retardant TPU composites were intensively investigated by smoke density test, cone calorimeter test, and thermalgravimetric analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry and tube furnace were employed to evaluate the toxic gases (CO, NOx and HCN) of TPU composites. The incorporation of ZnHS into TPU matrix effectively improved the fire safety and restrained the smoke density, which is attributed to that the char residue catalyzed by ZnHS enhanced barrier effect that reduced peak heat release rate, total heat release, smoke particles and organic volatiles during combustion. Furthermore, the ZnHS synergist demonstrated high efficiency in catalytic degradation of the toxic gases, which obviously decreased total volatiled product and toxic volatiles evolved, such as the CO, HCN and NOx, indicating suppressed toxicity of the TPU composites. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Relative Spectral Mixture Analysis for monitoring natural hazards that impact vegetation cover: the importance of the nonphotosynthetic fraction in understanding landscape response to drought, fire, and hurricane damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okin, G. S.

    2007-12-01

    Remote sensing provides a unique ability to monitor natural hazards that impact vegetation hydrologically. Here, the use of a new multitemporal remote sensing technique that employs free, coarse multispectral remote sensing data is demonstrated in monitoring short- and long-term drought, fire occurrence and recovery, and damage to hurricane-related mangrove ecosystems and subsequent recovery of these systems. The new technique, relative spectral mixture analysis (RSMA), provides information about the nonphotosynthetic fraction (nonphotosynthetic vegetation plus litter) of ground cover in addition to the green vegetation fraction. In some cases, RSMA even provides an improved ability to monitor changes in the green fraction compared to traditional vegetation indices or standard remote sensing products. In arid and semiarid regions, the nonphotosynthetic fraction can vary on an annual basis significantly more than the green fraction and is thus perfectly suited for monitoring drought in these regions. Mortality of evergreen trees due to long-term drought also shows up strongly in the nonphotosynthetic fraction as green vegetation is replaced by dry needles and bare trunks. The response of the nonphotosynthetic fraction to fire is significantly different from that of drought because of the combustion of nonphotosynthetic material. Finally, damage to mangrove ecosystems from hurricane damage, and their subsequent recovery, is readily observable in both the green and nonphotosynthetic fractions as estimated by RSMA.

  17. Assessing the Potential Impact of the 2015-2016 El Niño on the California Rim Fire Burn Scar Through Debris Flow Hazard Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larcom, S.; Grigsby, S.; Ustin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfires are a perennial issue for California, and the current record-breaking drought is exacerbating the potential problems for the state. Fires leave behind burn scars characterized by diminished vegetative cover and abundant bare soil, and these areas are especially susceptible to storm events that pose an elevated risk of debris flows and sediment-rich sheet wash. This study focused on the 2013 Rim Fire that devastated significant portions of Stanislaus National Forest and Yosemite National Park, and utilized readily available NASA JPL SRTM elevation data and AVIRIS spectral imaging data to construct a debris flow hazard map that assesses mass wasting risk for the Rim Fire burn scar. This study consisted entirely of remotely sensed data, which was processed in software programs such as ENVI, GRASS GIS, ArcMap, and Google Earth. Parameters that were taken into consideration when constructing this map include hill slope (greater than 30 percent rise), burn severity (assessed by calculating NDVI), and erodibility of the soil (by comparing spectral reflectance of AVIRIS images with the reference spectra of illite). By calculating percent of total burn area, 6% was classified as low risk, 55% as medium risk, and 39% as high risk. In addition, this study assessed the importance of the 2015-2016 El Niño, which is projected to be one of the strongest on record, by studying historic rainfall records and storm events of past El Niño's. Hydrological and infrastructural problems that could be caused by short-term convective or long-term synoptic storms and subsequent debris flows were explored as well.

  18. Multi-Hazard Risk Assessment of Structures Subjected to Seismic Excitation and Blast for the Limit State of Collapse

    SciTech Connect

    Asprone, D.; Jalayer, F.; Prota, A.; Manfredi, G.

    2008-07-08

    Multi-hazard approach represents a convenient way to address structural reliability of a critical infrastructure. Objective of the present paper is to present a multi-hazard methodology for evaluation of the risk associated with the limit state of collapse for a reinforced concrete (RC) structure subject to both seismic and blast threats. Blast fragility can be defined as the probability of progressive collapse given a blast event has taken place and its evaluation is here suggested via a Monte Carlo procedure, generating different possible blast configurations. For each blast scenario, the consequent damages occurring to the investigated structure are identified and an updating of the structure is then performed. The structural stability under gravity loading is then verified by employing a kinematic plastic limit analysis. The conditional probability of collapse or the blast fragility is then calculated as the mean value of the collapse indicator variable over the number of cases generated by the simulation procedure. Therefore, the seismic fragility is also determined via classical methods described elsewhere and the total risk of collapse is evaluated as the sum of blast and seismic contributions.

  19. Guideline Document: Requests for Approval of an Alternative Emissions Limitation for the Asbestos National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) 40 CFR Part 61 Subpart M

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This April 2015 guideline addresses requests for an alternative emissions limitation for the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Asbestos (the Asbestos NESHAP). The Asbestos NESHAP is in 40 CFR part 61, subpart M.

  20. Comparing the accuracy of terrestrial laser scanner in measuring forest inventory variables to enhance better decision making for potential fire hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Suman; Xystrakis, Fotios; Koutsias, Nikos

    2017-04-01

    Forest inventory variables are essential in accessing the potential of wildfire hazard, obtaining above ground biomass and carbon sequestration which helps developing strategies for sustainable management of forests. Effective management of forest resources relies on the accuracy of such inventory variables. This study aims to compare the accuracy in obtaining the forest inventory variables like diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height from Terrestrial Laser Scanner (Faro Focus 3D X 330) with that from the traditional forest inventory techniques in the Mediterranean forests of Greece. The data acquisition was carried out on an area of 9,539.8 m2 with six plots each of radius 6 m. Computree algorithm was applied for automatic detection of DBH from terrestrial laser scanner data. Similarly, tree height was estimated manually using CloudCompare software for the terrestrial laser scanner data. The field estimates of DBH and tree height was carried out using calipers and Nikon Forestry 550 Laser Rangefinder. The comparison of DBH measured between field estimates and Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS), resulted in R squared values ranging from 0.75 to 0.96 at the plot level. An average R2 and RMSE value of 0.80 and 1.07 m respectively was obtained when comparing the tree height between TLS and field data. Our results confirm that terrestrial laser scanner can provide nondestructive, high-resolution, and precise determination of forest inventory for better decision making in sustainable forest management and assessing potential of forest fire hazards.

  1. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the Padua Fire of 2003, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Rupert, Michael G.; Michael, John A.

    2004-01-01

    Results of a present preliminary assessment of the probability of debris-flow activity and estimates of peak discharges that can potentially be generated by debris flows issuing from basins burned by the Padua Fire of October 2003 in southern California in response to 25-year, 10-year, and 2-year recurrence, 1-hour duration rain storms are presented. The resulting probability maps are based on the application of a logistic multiple-regression model (Cannon and others, 2004) that describes the percent chance of debris-flow production from an individual basin as a function of burned extent, soil properties, basin gradients, and storm rainfall. The resulting peak discharge maps are based on application of a multiple-regression model (Cannon and others, 2004) that can be used to estimate debris-flow peak discharge at a basin outlet as a function of basin gradient, burn extent, and storm rainfall. Probabilities of debris-flow occurrence for the Padua Fire range between 0 and 99% and estimates of debris-flow peak discharges range between 1211 and 6,096 ft3/s (34 to 173 m3/s). These maps are intended to identify those basins that are most prone to the largest debris-flow events and provide information for the preliminary design of mitigation measures and for the planning of evacuation timing and routes.

  2. Holiday Decor Can Be Hazardous

    MedlinePlus

    ... gifts are opened. This "debris" can cause a fire or pose a choking or suffocation hazard for ... Human Services. More Health News on: Child Safety Fire Safety Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics ...

  3. Assessing crown fire potential by linking models of surface and crown fire behavior

    Treesearch

    Joe H. Scott; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt

    2001-01-01

    Fire managers are increasingly concerned about the threat of crown fires, yet only now are quantitative methods for assessing crown fire hazard being developed. Links among existing mathematical models of fire behavior are used to develop two indices of crown fire hazard-the Torching Index and Crowning Index. These indices can be used to ordinate different forest...

  4. Use of limited protocols to evaluate the genotoxicity of hazardous wastes in mammalian cell assays: comparison to Salmonella

    SciTech Connect

    DeMarini, D.M.; Brusick, D.J.; Lewtas, J.

    1987-01-01

    Dichloromethane extracts of four diverse hazardous wastes (coke plant, herbicide manufacturing, pulp and paper, and oil refining) were evaluated for mutagenicity in strains TA98 and TA100 of Salmonella. These extracts also were tested for biological activity in short-term mammalian cell assays, including mutagenicity in L5178Y/TK +/- mouse lymphoma cells, chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, morphological transformation in BALB/c-3T3 cells, and teratogenic potential in mouse limb bud cells. The mammalian cell assays were performed using limited protocols that consisted of a preliminary testing of the extracts for cytotoxicity in CHO cells in order to estimate the appropriate dose range for the other assays. These assays were then performed once with only a few doses of extract; all but the mouse limb bud assay were performed in the presence of metabolic activation. Although all four of the wastes were presumptively positive for either mutation or cytogenetic effects, none of the wastes transformed BALB/c-3T3 cells. Further studies are needed to establish which mammalian cell assays, if any, might be useful complements to the Salmonella assay for the purpose of screening hazardous wastes.

  5. Fire Department Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.; Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services.

  6. Fire Prevention Inspection Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    Lesson plans are provided for a fire prevention inspection course of the Wisconsin Fire Service Training program. Objectives for the course are to enable students to describe and conduct fire prevention inspections, to identify and correct hazards common to most occupancies, to understand the types of building construction and occupancy, and to…

  7. Fire Prevention Inspection Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    Lesson plans are provided for a fire prevention inspection course of the Wisconsin Fire Service Training program. Objectives for the course are to enable students to describe and conduct fire prevention inspections, to identify and correct hazards common to most occupancies, to understand the types of building construction and occupancy, and to…

  8. Prediction of the limits of detection of hazardous vapors by passive infrared with the use of modtran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanigan, Dennis F.

    1996-10-01

    Passive infrared remote detection of hazardous gases, vapors, and aerosols is based on the difference, T , between the air temperature of the threat vapor cloud and the effective radiative temperature of the background. In this paper I address the problem of detection with a low-angle-sky background. I used Modtran to predict T and atmospheric transmittance for standard atmospheric models. The detection limits, at 2-cm 1 resolution, are discussed for sulfur hexafluoride, Sarin, trichloroethylene, methyl isocyanate, mustard gas, methyl chloride, and sulfur dioxide for selected cases with the U.S. Standard, the Subarctic Winter, and the Tropical models. I used a particularly interesting case of Sarin detection with the Subarctic Winter atmospheric model to illustrate the power of Modtran to predict subtle changes in T with angle of elevation (AOE).

  9. 29 CFR 1926.352 - Fire prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... confine the heat, sparks, and slag, and to protect the immovable fire hazards from them. (c) No welding... penetration of sparks or heat transfer may introduce a fire hazard to an adjacent area, the same...

  10. Risks and issues in fire safety on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert

    1993-01-01

    A fire in the inhabited portion of a spacecraft is a greatly feared hazard, but fire protection in space operations is complicated by two factors. First, the spacecraft cabin is an enclosed volume, which limits the resources for fire fighting and the options for crew escape. Second, an orbiting spacecraft experiences a balance of forces, creating a near-zero-gravity (microgravity) environment that profoundly affects the characteristics of fire initiation, spread, and suppression. The current Shuttle Orbiter is protected by a fire-detection and suppression system whose requirements are derived of necessity from accepted terrestrial and aircraft standards. While experience has shown that Shuttle fire safety is adequate, designers recognize that improved systems to respond specifically to microgravity fire characteristics are highly desirable. Innovative technology is particularly advisable for the Space Station, a forthcoming space community with a complex configuration and long-duration orbital missions, in which the effectiveness of current fire-protection systems is unpredictable. The development of risk assessments to evaluate the probabilities and consequences of fire incidents in spacecraft are briefly reviewed. It further discusses the important unresolved issues and needs for improved fire safety in the Space Station, including those of material selection, spacecraft atmospheres, fire detection, fire suppression, and post-fire restoration.

  11. Risks and issues in fire safety on the Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Robert

    1993-12-01

    A fire in the inhabited portion of a spacecraft is a greatly feared hazard, but fire protection in space operations is complicated by two factors. First, the spacecraft cabin is an enclosed volume, which limits the resources for fire fighting and the options for crew escape. Second, an orbiting spacecraft experiences a balance of forces, creating a near-zero-gravity (microgravity) environment that profoundly affects the characteristics of fire initiation, spread, and suppression. The current Shuttle Orbiter is protected by a fire-detection and suppression system whose requirements are derived of necessity from accepted terrestrial and aircraft standards. While experience has shown that Shuttle fire safety is adequate, designers recognize that improved systems to respond specifically to microgravity fire characteristics are highly desirable. Innovative technology is particularly advisable for the Space Station, a forthcoming space community with a complex configuration and long-duration orbital missions, in which the effectiveness of current fire-protection systems is unpredictable. The development of risk assessments to evaluate the probabilities and consequences of fire incidents in spacecraft are briefly reviewed. It further discusses the important unresolved issues and needs for improved fire safety in the Space Station, including those of material selection, spacecraft atmospheres, fire detection, fire suppression, and post-fire restoration.

  12. Fire Safety's My Job. Eighth Grade. Fire Safety for Texans: Fire and Burn Prevention Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Commission on Fire Protection, Austin.

    This booklet comprises the eighth grade component of a series of curriculum guides on fire and burn prevention. Designed to meet the age-specific needs of eighth grade students, its objectives include: (1) focusing on technical aspects of fire hazards and detection, and (2) exploring fire hazards outside the home. Texas essential elements of…

  13. Short-term impact of post-fire salvage logging on regeneration, hazardous fuel accumulation, and understorey development in ponderosa pine forest of the Black Hills, SD, USA

    Treesearch

    Tara L Keyser; Fredrick W Smith; Wayne D. Shepperd

    2009-01-01

    We examined the impacts of post-fire salvage logging on regeneration, fuel accumulation, and understorey vegetation and assessed whether the effects of salvage logging differed between stands burned under moderate and high fire severity following the 2000 Jasper Fire in the Black Hills. In unsalvaged sites, fire-related tree mortality...

  14. Limits on Pluto's ring system from the June 12 2006 stellar occultation and implications for the New Horizons impact hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throop, Henry B.; French, Richard G.; Shoemaker, Kevin; Olkin, Cathy B.; Ruhland, Trina R.; Young, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    The Pluto system passed in front of a 15th magnitude star on 12 June 2006. We observed this occultation from the 3.9 m Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT), and took photometric observations every 100 ms for 3 h. Our three-hour baseline of data provides among the longest and highest-quality occultation dataset of the Pluto system ever taken. Results on Pluto's atmospheric structure from these data have been previously reported (Young, E.F. [2008]. Astron. J. 136, 1757-1769). Here we report on limits for rings, ring arcs, and small satellites within the system. We find a 3 σ upper limit on the normal optical depth of τ < 0.07 for narrow rings of width 2.4 km, and τ < 5 ×10-3 for rings of width 1500 km. We also detect no discrete objects of radius 220 m or larger along the occultation path. Motivated by the upcoming flyby of New Horizons through the Pluto system, we estimate the dust impact hazard to the spacecraft based on our optical depth limits and those derived from imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope.

  15. Study on emission of hazardous trace elements in a 350 MW coal-fired power plant. Part 2. arsenic, chromium, barium, manganese, lead.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shilin; Duan, Yufeng; Chen, Lei; Li, Yaning; Yao, Ting; Liu, Shuai; Liu, Meng; Lu, Jianhong

    2017-07-01

    Hazardous Trace elements (HTEs) emitted from coal combustion has raised widespread concern. Studies on the emission characteristics of five HTEs, namely arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), barium (Ba), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) at three different loads (100%, 83%, 71% output) and different coal types were performed on a 350 MW coal-fired power plant equipped with SCR, ESP + FF, and WFGD. HTEs in the flue gas at the inlet/outlet of each air pollution control device (APCD) were sampled simultaneously based on US EPA Method 29. During flue gas HTEs sampling, coal, bottom ash, fly ash captured by ESP + FF, fresh desulfurization slurry, desulfurization wastewater were also collected. Results show that mass balance rate for the system and each APCD is in an acceptable range. The five studied HTEs mainly distribute in bottom and ESP + FF ash. ESP + FF have high removal efficiency of 99.75-99.95%. WFGD can remove part of HTEs further. Total removal rate across the APCDs ranges from 99.84 to 99.99%. Concentration of HTEs emitted to atmosphere is within the extremely low scope of 0.11-4.93 μg/m(3). Emission factor of the five studied HTEs is 0.04-1.54 g/10(12)J. Content of As, Pb, Ba, Cr in solid samples follows the order of ESP + FF ash > bottom ash > gypsum. More focus should be placed on Mn in desulfuration wastewater, content of which is more than the standard value. This work is meaningful for the prediction and removal of HTEs emitted from coal-fired power plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fire modeling code comparisons. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mowrer, F.W.; Gautier, B.

    1998-09-01

    There is a significant effort taking place in the US nuclear power industry to provide an option for risk-informed/performance-based fire protection programs. One of the requirements for such a program is the ability to deterministically model the characteristics and consequences of a postulated fire in terms of initiation, growth and propagation. There are two general classifications of methods to accomplish this, namely computational fluid dynamics models and the more simplified zone models. For many applications, zone models will provide adequate results. Zone models have been used for probabilistic risk assessments and fire hazard analyses. However, a lack of comparative verification and established confidence in the results has limited their application. This report compares the features and capabilities of four zone type fire models: FIVE, CFAST, COMPBRNIIIe, and MAGIC. The main features of the models are documented in matrix form. The model are benchmarked against three series of existing large-scale fire tests.

  17. The effectiveness and limitations of fuel modeling using the fire and fuels extension to the Forest Vegetation Simulator

    Treesearch

    Erin K. Noonan-Wright; Nicole M. Vaillant; Alicia L. Reiner

    2014-01-01

    Fuel treatment effectiveness is often evaluated with fire behavior modeling systems that use fuel models to generate fire behavior outputs. How surface fuels are assigned, either using one of the 53 stylized fuel models or developing custom fuel models, can affect predicted fire behavior. We collected surface and canopy fuels data before and 1, 2, 5, and 8 years after...

  18. Fire Inspection Guide for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Corp. Commission, Richmond.

    A functional explanation of the "School Fire Prevention Inspection Form" is provided for use by local school and fire department personnel in the Virginia School Fire Prevention Inspection Program. Many helpful suggestions are made for safeguarding occupants of public school buildings from fire hazards. Items discussed are--(1) exit doors, (2)…

  19. Teach Children Fire Will Burn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Bureau (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    This handbook, addressed to parents and others responsible for the safety of children, presents information on fire hazards, prevention and protection. Emphasizing an early start to fire safety training, it outlines the basic facts of fire safety education, listing the most frequent causes of fire and suggesting the organization of a Family Fire…

  20. Fire Protection in Educational Occupancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervais, Romeo P.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the origins of school fires and the components of the fire protection code called the Life Safety Code (LSC). Three of the following LSC requirements are described: means of egress; protection from hazards; and fire suppression and alarm systems. Information on who starts fires is highlighted along with preventive measures. (GR)

  1. 29 CFR 1926.352 - Fire prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... confine the heat, sparks, and slag, and to protect the immovable fire hazards from them. (c) No welding... instructed as to the specific anticipated fire hazards and how the firefighting equipment provided is to be... penetration of sparks or heat transfer may introduce a fire hazard to an adjacent area, the same precautions...

  2. Testing sodium limitation of fire ants in the field and laboratory

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    1) Sodium is an essential dietary element and preferential foraging for high concentrations of sodium by inland herbivorous and omnivorous ants suggests it may be limiting. If so, increased sodium availability through altered deposition and anthropogenic sources may lead to increased colony growth a...

  3. In situ loading ultra-small Cu2O nanoparticles on 2D hierarchical TiO2-graphene oxide dual-nanosheets: Towards reducing fire hazards of unsaturated polyester resin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Kan, Yongchun; Yu, Xiaojuan; Liu, Jiajia; Song, Lei; Hu, Yuan

    2016-12-15

    Fire hazards have seriously hindered the commercial application of unsaturated polyester resin (UPR), and polymer inorganic nanosheet nanocomposites hold great promise in improving their flame-retardant properties. Herein, the hierarchical structured Cu2OTiO2GO nanosheets were synthesized and characterized by XRD, Raman, TEM and XPS. Then Cu2OTiO2GO nanosheets were incorporated into UPR matrix to obtain flame-retardant UPR nanocomposite. Incorporation of 2wt% Cu2OTiO2GO nanosheets into UPR matrix resulted in an obvious reduction in PHRR and THR by 29.7 and 19.1%. TG-IR-MS results revealed that toxic pyrolysis gas such as benzene, CO and aromatic compounds greatly were decreased. In addition, RIIR spectra demonstrated the limited influence of Cu2OTiO2GO nanosheets on thermal degradation of UPR matrix, and SEM images of char residues showed that Cu2OTiO2GO nanosheets could improve their compactness. Based on the analysis of gaseous and condensed phase, a plausible flame-retardant mechanism was hypothesized to elaborate how Cu2OTiO2GO nanosheets work inside the flaming UPR nanocomposite. This innovative idea may be expanded to other polymer system and open a new door to develop polymeric nanocomposites with high performance.

  4. Studies on Synthesis of Electrochemically Exfoliated Functionalized Graphene and Polylactic Acid/Ferric Phytate Functionalized Graphene Nanocomposites as New Fire Hazard Suppression Materials.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaming; Wang, Xin; Cai, Wei; Qiu, Shuilai; Hu, Yuan; Liew, Kim Meow

    2016-09-28

    Practical application of functionalized graphene in polymeric nanocomposites is hampered by the lack of cost-effective and eco-friendly methods for its production. Here, we reported a facile and green electrochemical approach for preparing ferric phytate functionalized graphene (f-GNS) by simultaneously utilizing biobased phytic acid as electrolyte and modifier for the first time. Due to the presence of phytic acid, electrochemical exfoliation leads to low oxidized graphene sheets (a C/O ratio of 14.8) that are tens of micrometers large. Successful functionalization of graphene was confirmed by the appearance of phosphorus and iron peaks in the X-ray photoelectron spectrum. Further, high-performance polylactic acid/f-GNS nanocomposites are readily fabricated by a convenient masterbatch strategy. Notably, inclusion of well-dispersed f-GNS resulted in dramatic suppression on fire hazards of polylactic acid in terms of reduced peak heat-release rate (decreased by 40%), low CO yield, and formation of a high graphitized protective char layer. Moreover, obviously improvements in crystallization rate and thermal conductivities of polylactic acid nanocomposites were observed, highlighting its promising potential in practical application. This novel strategy toward the simultaneous exfoliation and functionalization for graphene demonstrates a simple yet very effective approach for fabricating graphene-based flame retardants.

  5. Data and Summaries for Catalytic Destruction of a Surrogate Organic Hazardous Air Pollutant as a Potential Co-benefit for Coal-Fired Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Table 1 summarizes and explanis the Operating Conditions of the SCR Reactor used in the Benzene-Destruction.Table 2 summarizes and explains the Experimental Design and Test Results.Table 3 summarizes and explains the Estimates for Individual Effects and Cross Effects Obtained from the Linear Regression Models for Destruction of C6H6 and Reduction of NO.Fig. 1 shows the Down-flow SCR reactor system in detail.Fig. 2 shows the graphical summary of the Effect of the inlet C6H6 concentration to the SCR reactor on the destruction of C6H6.Fig.3 shows the summary of Carbon mass balance for C6H6 destruction promoted by the V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst.This dataset is associated with the following publication:Lee , C., Y. Zhao, S. Lu, and W.R. Stevens. Catalytic Destruction of a Surrogate Organic Hazardous Air Polutant as a Potential Co-benefit for Coal-fired Selective Catalyst Reduction Systems. AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, USA, 30(3): 2240-2247, (2016).

  6. Experiments to Determine Whether Recursive Partitioning (CART) or an Artificial Neural Network Overcomes Theoretical Limitations of Cox Proportional Hazards Regression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kattan, Michael W.; Hess, Kenneth R.; Kattan, Michael W.

    1998-01-01

    New computationally intensive tools for medical survival analyses include recursive partitioning (also called CART) and artificial neural networks. A challenge that remains is to better understand the behavior of these techniques in effort to know when they will be effective tools. Theoretically they may overcome limitations of the traditional multivariable survival technique, the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Experiments were designed to test whether the new tools would, in practice, overcome these limitations. Two datasets in which theory suggests CART and the neural network should outperform the Cox model were selected. The first was a published leukemia dataset manipulated to have a strong interaction that CART should detect. The second was a published cirrhosis dataset with pronounced nonlinear effects that a neural network should fit. Repeated sampling of 50 training and testing subsets was applied to each technique. The concordance index C was calculated as a measure of predictive accuracy by each technique on the testing dataset. In the interaction dataset, CART outperformed Cox (P less than 0.05) with a C improvement of 0.1 (95% Cl, 0.08 to 0.12). In the nonlinear dataset, the neural network outperformed the Cox model (P less than 0.05), but by a very slight amount (0.015). As predicted by theory, CART and the neural network were able to overcome limitations of the Cox model. Experiments like these are important to increase our understanding of when one of these new techniques will outperform the standard Cox model. Further research is necessary to predict which technique will do best a priori and to assess the magnitude of superiority.

  7. The properties of the nano-minerals and hazardous elements: Potential environmental impacts of Brazilian coal waste fire.

    PubMed

    Civeira, Matheus S; Pinheiro, Rafael N; Gredilla, Ainara; de Vallejuelo, Silvia Fdez Ortiz; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Ramos, Claudete G; Taffarel, Silvio R; Kautzmann, Rubens M; Madariaga, Juan Manuel; Silva, Luis F O

    2016-02-15

    Brazilian coal area (South Brazil) impacted the environment by means of a large number of coal waste piles emplaced over the old mine sites and the adjacent areas of the Criciúma, Urussanga, and Siderópolis cities. The area studied here was abandoned and after almost 30 years (smokeless visual) some companies use the actual minerals derived from burning coal cleaning rejects (BCCRs) complied in the mentioned area for industry tiles or refractory bricks. Mineralogical and geochemical similarities between the BCCRs and non-anthropogenic geological environments are outlined here. Although no visible flames were observed, this study revealed that auto-combustion existed in the studied area for many years. The presence of amorphous phases, mullite, hematite and other Fe-minerals formed by high temperature was found. There is also pyrite, Fe-sulphates (eg. jarosite) and unburnt coal present, which are useful for comparison purposes. Bad disposal of coal-dump wastes represents significant environmental concerns due to their potential influence on atmosphere, river sediments, soils and as well as on the surface and groundwater in the surroundings of these areas. The present study using advanced analytical techniques were performed to provide an improved understanding of the complex processes related with sulphide-rich coal waste oxidation, spontaneous combustion and mineral formation. It is reporting huge numbers of rare minerals with alunite, montmorillonite, szomolnokite, halotrichite, coquimbite and copiapite at the BCCRs. The data showed the presence of abundant amorphous Si-Al-Fe-Ti as (oxy-)hydroxides and Fe-hydro/oxides with goethite and hematite with various degrees of crystallinity, containing hazardous elements, such as Cu, Cr, Hf, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Th, U, Zr, and others. By Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the mineralogical composition was related with the range of elemental concentration of each sample. Most of the nano-minerals and ultra-fine particles

  8. The Dependency of Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment on Magnitude Limits of Seismic Sources in the South China Sea and Adjoining Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongwei; Yuan, Ye; Xu, Zhiguo; Wang, Zongchen; Wang, Juncheng; Wang, Peitao; Gao, Yi; Hou, Jingming; Shan, Di

    2017-06-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) and its adjacent small basins including Sulu Sea and Celebes Sea are commonly identified as tsunami-prone region by its historical records on seismicity and tsunamis. However, quantification of tsunami hazard in the SCS region remained an intractable issue due to highly complex tectonic setting and multiple seismic sources within and surrounding this area. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) is performed in the present study to evaluate tsunami hazard in the SCS region based on a brief review on seismological and tsunami records. 5 regional and local potential tsunami sources are tentatively identified, and earthquake catalogs are generated using Monte Carlo simulation following the Tapered Gutenberg-Richter relationship for each zone. Considering a lack of consensus on magnitude upper bound on each seismic source, as well as its critical role in PTHA, the major concern of the present study is to define the upper and lower limits of tsunami hazard in the SCS region comprehensively by adopting different corner magnitudes that could be derived by multiple principles and approaches, including TGR regression of historical catalog, fault-length scaling, tectonic and seismic moment balance, and repetition of historical largest event. The results show that tsunami hazard in the SCS and adjoining basins is subject to large variations when adopting different corner magnitudes, with the upper bounds 2-6 times of the lower. The probabilistic tsunami hazard maps for specified return periods reveal much higher threat from Cotabato Trench and Sulawesi Trench in the Celebes Sea, whereas tsunami hazard received by the coasts of the SCS and Sulu Sea is relatively moderate, yet non-negligible. By combining empirical method with numerical study of historical tsunami events, the present PTHA results are tentatively validated. The correspondence lends confidence to our study. Considering the proximity of major sources to population-laden cities

  9. The Dependency of Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment on Magnitude Limits of Seismic Sources in the South China Sea and Adjoining Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongwei; Yuan, Ye; Xu, Zhiguo; Wang, Zongchen; Wang, Juncheng; Wang, Peitao; Gao, Yi; Hou, Jingming; Shan, Di

    2016-08-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) and its adjacent small basins including Sulu Sea and Celebes Sea are commonly identified as tsunami-prone region by its historical records on seismicity and tsunamis. However, quantification of tsunami hazard in the SCS region remained an intractable issue due to highly complex tectonic setting and multiple seismic sources within and surrounding this area. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) is performed in the present study to evaluate tsunami hazard in the SCS region based on a brief review on seismological and tsunami records. 5 regional and local potential tsunami sources are tentatively identified, and earthquake catalogs are generated using Monte Carlo simulation following the Tapered Gutenberg-Richter relationship for each zone. Considering a lack of consensus on magnitude upper bound on each seismic source, as well as its critical role in PTHA, the major concern of the present study is to define the upper and lower limits of tsunami hazard in the SCS region comprehensively by adopting different corner magnitudes that could be derived by multiple principles and approaches, including TGR regression of historical catalog, fault-length scaling, tectonic and seismic moment balance, and repetition of historical largest event. The results show that tsunami hazard in the SCS and adjoining basins is subject to large variations when adopting different corner magnitudes, with the upper bounds 2-6 times of the lower. The probabilistic tsunami hazard maps for specified return periods reveal much higher threat from Cotabato Trench and Sulawesi Trench in the Celebes Sea, whereas tsunami hazard received by the coasts of the SCS and Sulu Sea is relatively moderate, yet non-negligible. By combining empirical method with numerical study of historical tsunami events, the present PTHA results are tentatively validated. The correspondence lends confidence to our study. Considering the proximity of major sources to population-laden cities

  10. Determination of Realistic Fire Scenarios in Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper expands on previous work that examined how large a fire a crew member could successfully survive and extinguish in the confines of a spacecraft. The hazards to the crew and equipment during an accidental fire include excessive pressure rise resulting in a catastrophic rupture of the vehicle skin, excessive temperatures that burn or incapacitate the crew (due to hyperthermia), carbon dioxide build-up or accumulation of other combustion products (e.g. carbon monoxide). The previous work introduced a simplified model that treated the fire primarily as a source of heat and combustion products and sink for oxygen prescribed (input to the model) based on terrestrial standards. The model further treated the spacecraft as a closed system with no capability to vent to the vacuum of space. The model in the present work extends this analysis to more realistically treat the pressure relief system(s) of the spacecraft, include more combustion products (e.g. HF) in the analysis and attempt to predict the fire spread and limiting fire size (based on knowledge of terrestrial fires and the known characteristics of microgravity fires) rather than prescribe them in the analysis. Including the characteristics of vehicle pressure relief systems has a dramatic mitigating effect by eliminating vehicle overpressure for all but very large fires and reducing average gas-phase temperatures.

  11. Remote sensing of coastal environmental hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huh, Oscar K.; Roberts, Harry H.; Rouse, Lawrence J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Examples of the application of NOAA High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) data to natural hazards and disasters are reviewed. The examples discussed include flooding of the Ganges River Delta; detecting effects of salt water intrusion into freshwater marshes; detecting fires, smoke plumes, and oil slicks; and monitoring of ocean currents and eddies. The present limitations of the HRPT data and future prospects are briefly discussed.

  12. Remote sensing of coastal environmental hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huh, Oscar K.; Roberts, Harry H.; Rouse, Lawrence J., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Examples of the application of NOAA High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) data to natural hazards and disasters are reviewed. The examples discussed include flooding of the Ganges River Delta; detecting effects of salt water intrusion into freshwater marshes; detecting fires, smoke plumes, and oil slicks; and monitoring of ocean currents and eddies. The present limitations of the HRPT data and future prospects are briefly discussed.

  13. Fire scars reveal variability and dynamics of eastern fire regimes

    Treesearch

    Richard P. Guyette; Daniel C. Dey; Michael C. Stambaugh; Rose-Marie Muzika

    2006-01-01

    Fire scar evidence in eastern North America is sparse and complex but shows promise in defining the dynamics of these fire regimes and their influence on ecosystems. We review fire scar data, methods, and limitations, and use this information to identify and examine the factors influencing fire regimes. Fire scar data from studies at more than 40 sites in Eastern North...

  14. Hazardous Materials Hazard Analysis, Portland, Oregon.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    regional equipment, crossings , and other aspects of overall system safety. For further information: Henry Jacobs, Hazardous Materials Inspector U.S... cross -tralning and an Increased in- spection effort. In the last year, twelve Oregon State Police Officers who patrol highways around the Portland area...Response System:, The International Fire Chlef (date unknown). Lee, Myra T. and Roe, Penelope G. Hazardous Materials Management System: A Guide for Local

  15. Limited population structure, genetic drift and bottlenecks characterise an endangered bird species in a dynamic, fire-prone ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sarah M; Harrisson, Katherine A; Clarke, Rohan H; Bennett, Andrew F; Sunnucks, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Fire is a major disturbance process in many ecosystems world-wide, resulting in spatially and temporally dynamic landscapes. For populations occupying such environments, fire-induced landscape change is likely to influence population processes, and genetic patterns and structure among populations. The Mallee Emu-wren Stipiturus mallee is an endangered passerine whose global distribution is confined to fire-prone, semi-arid mallee shrublands in south-eastern Australia. This species, with poor capacity for dispersal, has undergone a precipitous reduction in distribution and numbers in recent decades. We used genetic analyses of 11 length-variable, nuclear loci to examine population structure and processes within this species, across its global range. Populations of the Mallee Emu-wren exhibited a low to moderate level of genetic diversity, and evidence of bottlenecks and genetic drift. Bayesian clustering methods revealed weak genetic population structure across the species' range. The direct effects of large fires, together with associated changes in the spatial and temporal patterns of suitable habitat, have the potential to cause population bottlenecks, serial local extinctions and subsequent recolonisation, all of which may interact to erode and homogenise genetic diversity in this species. Movement among temporally and spatially shifting habitat, appears to maintain long-term genetic connectivity. A plausible explanation for the observed genetic patterns is that, following extensive fires, recolonisation exceeds in-situ survival as the primary driver of population recovery in this species. These findings suggest that dynamic, fire-dominated landscapes can drive genetic homogenisation of populations of species with low-mobility and specialised habitat that otherwise would be expected to show strongly structured populations. Such effects must be considered when formulating management actions to conserve species in fire-prone systems.

  16. Fire Safety Power. Sixth Grade. Fire Safety for Texans: Fire and Burn Prevention Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Commission on Fire Protection, Austin.

    This booklet comprises the sixth grade component of a series of curriculum guides on fire and burn prevention. Designed to meet the age-specific needs of sixth grade students, its objectives include: (1) developing a comprehensive understanding of fire physics, (2) evaluating electrical hazards and how to respond to those hazards, and (3)…

  17. Responsible for Fire Safety. Seventh Grade. Fire Safety for Texans: Fire and Burn Prevention Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Commission on Fire Protection, Austin.

    This booklet comprises the seventh grade component of a series of curriculum guides on fire and burn prevention. Designed to meet the age-specific needs of seventh grade students, its objectives include: (1) practicing responsible decision-making regarding fire and burn hazards, including peer pressure related to fire risks; and (2) practicing…

  18. Fire Endurance Testing of Fiberglass Piping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-01

    explosion . A computer data acquisition system was used to record the various channels of test data. Color video cameras, an infrared camera, and 35 mm...sample included a bolted flanged coupling. One of the copper-nickel samples had a brazed sleeve-type coupling and the other had a Staub mechanical...FGP of the types tested. Pipe deflections were within IACS limits. 8. An explosion hazard exists when sealed pipe samples are exposed to fire. If the

  19. Fire technology abstracts, volume 4. Cumulative indexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-03-01

    Cumulative subject, author, publisher, and report number indexes referencing articles, books, reports, and patents are provided. The dynamics of fire, behavior and properties of materials, fire modeling and test burns, fire protection, fire safety, fire service organization, apparatus and equipment, fire prevention suppression, planning, human behavior, medical problems, codes and standards, hazard identification, safe handling of materials, and insurance economics of loss and prevention are among the subjects covered.

  20. Oak regeneration across a heterogeneous landscape in Ohio: some limited success after thinning, two fires, and seven years

    Treesearch

    Louis Iverson; Todd Hutchinson; Anantha Prasad; Matthew Peters

    2009-01-01

    We document an increase in oak and hickory advance regeneration, depending on landscape position, in the sixth year (2006) after mechanical thinning (2000) and repeated prescribed fires (2001 and 2005) across two sites (Raccoon Ecological Management Area and Zaleski State Forest) in southern Ohio.

  1. Detoxification of hazardous dust with marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Ling; Lin, Chang-Yuan; Wang, H Paul

    2014-08-30

    Hazardous electric arc furnace dust containing dioxins/furans and heavy metals is blended with harbor sediment, fired at 950-1100 °C to prepare lightweight aggregates. Dust addition can lower the sintering temperature by about 100 °C, as compared to a typical industrial process. After firing at 950 °C and 1050 °C, more than 99.85% of dioxins/furans originally present in the dust have been removed and/or destructed in the mix containing a dust/sediment ratio of 50:100. The heavy metals leached from all fired mixes are far below Taiwan EPA legal limits. The particle density of the lightweight aggregates always decreases with increasing firing temperature. Greater addition of the dust results in a considerably lower particle density (mostly <2.0 g cm(-3)) fired at 1050 °C and 1100 °C. However, firing at temperatures lower than 1050 °C produces no successful bloating, leading to a denser particle density (>2.0 g cm(-3)) that is typical of bricks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessing Surface Fuel Hazard in Coastal Conifer Forests through the Use of LiDAR Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulas, Christos

    The research problem that this thesis seeks to examine is a method of predicting conventional fire hazards using data drawn from specific regions, namely the Sooke and Goldstream watershed regions in coastal British Columbia. This thesis investigates whether LiDAR data can be used to describe conventional forest stand fire hazard classes. Three objectives guided this thesis: to discuss the variables associated with fire hazard, specifically the distribution and makeup of fuel; to examine the relationship between derived LiDAR biometrics and forest attributes related to hazard assessment factors defined by the Capitol Regional District (CRD); and to assess the viability of the LiDAR biometric decision tree in the CRD based on current frameworks for use. The research method uses quantitative datasets to assess the optimal generalization of these types of fire hazard data through discriminant analysis. Findings illustrate significant LiDAR-derived data limitations, and reflect the literature in that flawed field application of data modelling techniques has led to a disconnect between the ways in which fire hazard models have been intended to be used by scholars and the ways in which they are used by those tasked with prevention of forest fires. It can be concluded that a significant trade-off exists between computational requirements for wildfire simulation models and the algorithms commonly used by field teams to apply these models with remote sensing data, and that CRD forest management practices would need to change to incorporate a decision tree model in order to decrease risk.

  3. 75 FR 62307 - Fire Prevention Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... 8577 of October 1, 2010 Fire Prevention Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation During Fire Prevention Week, we reaffirm the importance of fire safety and awareness, and we pay... our loved ones from the hazards of fire. Smoke alarms are vital detection devices, and...

  4. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  5. 14 CFR 25.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.851 Fire extinguishers... for use in a personnel compartment must be designed to minimize the hazard of toxic gas concentration... ventilation rate....

  6. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capturefrom Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 GeologicStorage

    SciTech Connect

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-02-23

    environmental pollutants in the gaseous state and co-inject them with the CO2, in order to mitigate problems associated with solid waste disposal in surface impoundments. Under such conditions, the injected pollutant concentrations could be roughly equivalent to their concentrations in the coal feed. The fate of the injected contaminants can only be determined through further testing and geochemical modeling. However, the concentrations of inadvertent contaminants in the injected CO2 would probably be comparable to their ambient concentrations in confining shales of the injection zone. In general, the aqueous concentrations of hazardous constituents in distal parts of the injection zone, regardless of source, are likely to be limited by equilibrium with respect to coexisting solid phases under the acid conditions induced by the dissolved high pressure CO2, rather than by the initial concentrations of injected contaminants. Therefore, even if a deliberate policy of contaminant recovery and injection were to be pursued, water quality in USDWs would more likely depend on thermodynamic controls governing aqueous contaminant concentrations in the presence of high pressure CO2 rather than in the injected CO2. The conclusions reached in this report are preliminary, and should be confirmed through more comprehensive data evaluation and supporting geochemical modeling.

  7. Computational fire modeling for aircraft fire research

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolette, V.F.

    1996-11-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Federal Aviation Administration. The technical issues involved in fire modeling for aircraft fire research are identified, as well as computational fire tools for addressing those issues, and the research which is needed to advance those tools in order to address long-range needs. Fire field models are briefly reviewed, and the VULCAN model is selected for further evaluation. Calculations are performed with VULCAN to demonstrate its applicability to aircraft fire problems, and also to gain insight into the complex problem of fires involving aircraft. Simulations are conducted to investigate the influence of fire on an aircraft in a cross-wind. The interaction of the fuselage, wind, fire, and ground plane is investigated. Calculations are also performed utilizing a large eddy simulation (LES) capability to describe the large- scale turbulence instead of the more common k-{epsilon} turbulence model. Additional simulations are performed to investigate the static pressure and velocity distributions around a fuselage in a cross-wind, with and without fire. The results of these simulations provide qualitative insight into the complex interaction of a fuselage, fire, wind, and ground plane. Reasonable quantitative agreement is obtained in the few cases for which data or other modeling results exist Finally, VULCAN is used to quantify the impact of simplifying assumptions inherent in a risk assessment compatible fire model developed for open pool fire environments. The assumptions are seen to be of minor importance for the particular problem analyzed. This work demonstrates the utility of using a fire field model for assessing the limitations of simplified fire models. In conclusion, the application of computational fire modeling tools herein provides both qualitative and quantitative insights into the complex problem of aircraft in fires.

  8. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Samuel A.; Hosea, Joel C.; Timberlake, John R.

    1986-01-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

  9. Global relationship of fire occurrence and fire intensity: A test of intermediate fire occurrence-intensity hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ruisen; Hui, Dafeng; Miao, Ning; Liang, Chuan; Wells, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Fire plays a significant role in global atmosphere and biosphere carbon and nutrient cycles. Globally, there are substantially different distributions and impacts between fire occurrence and fire intensity. It is prominent to have a thorough investigation of global relationship between fire occurrence and fire intensity for future fire prediction and management. In this study, we proposed an intermediate fire occurrence-intensity (IFOI) hypothesis for the global relationship between fire occurrence and fire intensity, suggesting that fire occurrence changes with fire intensity following a humped relationship. We examined this hypothesis via satellite data from January 2001 to December 2013 at a global scale, and in small and large fire intensity zones, respectively. Furthermore, the fire occurrence and fire intensity relationship was developed among different vegetation types to reveal the changes of parameters and strengths. Finally, the environmental factors (including climatic, hydraulic, biological, and anthropogenic variables) underpinning the fire occurrence and intensity pattern were evaluated for the underlying mechanisms. The results supported our IFOI hypothesis and demonstrated that the humped relationship is driven by different causes among vegetation types. Fire occurrence increases with fire intensity in small fire intensity zones due to alleviation of the factors limiting both fire occurrence and intensity. Beyond a certain fire intensity threshold, fire occurrence is constrained, probably due to the limitation of available fuels. The information generated in this study could be helpful for understanding global variation of fire occurrence and fire intensity due to fire-vegetation-climate-human interactions and facilitating future fire management.

  10. Contingent valuation study of the value of reducing fire hazards to old-growth forests in the Pacific northwest. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, J.B.; Gonzalez-Caban, A.; Gregory, R.

    1996-07-01

    A contingent valuation methodology was applied to old-growth forests and critical habitat units for the Northern Spotted Owl in Oregon to esimate the economic value to the public in knowing that rare and unique ecosystems will be protected from fire for current and future generations. Generalizing to the whole state, the total annual willingness-to-pay of Oregon residents ranges from $49.6 to $99 million. In terms of old-growth forests protected from fire, the value is $28 per acre.

  11. Influence of slash burning on regeneration, other plant cover, and fire hazard in the Douglas-fir region (a progress report).

    Treesearch

    William G. Morris

    1958-01-01

    In the Douglas-fir region, is slash burning ultimately good or bad practice? During the early 1940's whenever a group of foresters, met to discuss management or silviculture of that region, they usually debated this question. Until then they had burned slash in most clear cuttings east of the narrow coastal fog belt as accepted practice. Fire...

  12. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the Piru, Simi, and Verdale Fires of 2003, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Rupert, Michael G.; Michael, John A.

    2003-01-01

    These maps present preliminary assessments of the probability of debris-flow activity and estimates of peak discharges that can potentially be generated by debris-flows issuing from basins burned by the Piru, Simi and Verdale Fires of October 2003 in southern California in response to the 25-year, 10-year, and 2-year 1-hour rain storms. The probability maps are based on the application of a logistic multiple regression model that describes the percent chance of debris-flow production from an individual basin as a function of burned extent, soil properties, basin gradients and storm rainfall. The peak discharge maps are based on application of a multiple-regression model that can be used to estimate debris-flow peak discharge at a basin outlet as a function of basin gradient, burn extent, and storm rainfall. Probabilities of debris-flow occurrence for the Piru Fire range between 2 and 94% and estimates of debris flow peak discharges range between 1,200 and 6,640 ft3/s (34 to 188 m3/s). Basins burned by the Simi Fire show probabilities for debris-flow occurrence between 1 and 98%, and peak discharge estimates between 1,130 and 6,180 ft3/s (32 and 175 m3/s). The probabilities for debris-flow activity calculated for the Verdale Fire range from negligible values to 13%. Peak discharges were not estimated for this fire because of these low probabilities. These maps are intended to identify those basins that are most prone to the largest debris-flow events and provide information for the preliminary design of mitigation measures and for the planning of evacuation timing and routes.

  13. Hazard Evaluation for a Salt Well Centrifugal Pump Design Using Service Water for Lubrication and Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    GRAMS, W.H.

    2000-10-09

    This report documents the results of a preliminary hazard analysis (PHA) covering the new salt well pump design. The PHA identified ten hazardous conditions mapped to four analyzed accidents: flammable gas deflagrations, fire in contaminated area, tank failure due to excessive loads, and waste transfer leaks. This document also presents the results of the control decision/allocation process. A backflow preventer and associated limiting condition were assigned.

  14. Annual Conference on Fire Research: Book of abstracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Sheilda B.

    1994-10-01

    The contents of this conference include: Suppression Using Halocarbons - Laboratory Studies; Fire Hazard, Risk, and Data; Suppression Using Halocarbons - Large-Scale Studies; Suppression Using Water; Pool Fires; Fire-Induced Flows; Chemistry and Physics of Material and Product Combustion; Soot; Fire Signatures; Flame Spread; Fire Plumes.

  15. Assessing high reliability practices in the wildland fire community

    Treesearch

    Anne E. Black; Kathleen Sutcliffe; Michelle Barton; Deirdre Dether

    2008-01-01

    The Office of Inspector General's 2006 audit of Forest Service fire management operations added yet another voice to the growing chorus calling on the Federal wildland fire community to get more fire on the ground (OIG 2006). The 1995 National Fire Plan and the 2001 Implementation Plan identify the critical role of wildland fire use in reducing hazardous fuels...

  16. Fire safety of wood construction

    Treesearch

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger

    2010-01-01

    Fire safety is an important concern in all types of construction. The high level of national concern for fire safety is reflected in limitations and design requirements in building codes. These code requirements and related fire performance data are discussed in the context of fire safety design and evaluation in the initial section of this chapter. Because basic data...

  17. Mode of action and the assessment of chemical hazards in the presence of limited data: use of structure-activity relationships (SAR) under TSCA, Section 5.

    PubMed Central

    Auer, C M; Nabholz, J V; Baetcke, K P

    1990-01-01

    Section 5 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires that manufacturers and importers of new chemicals must submit a Premanufacture Notification (PMN) to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 90 days before they intend to commence manufacture or import. Certain information such as chemical identity, uses, etc., must be included in the notification. The submission of test data on the new substance, however, is not required, although any available health and environmental information must be provided. Nonetheless, over half of all PMNs submitted to the agency do not contain any test data; because PMN chemicals are new, no test data is generally available in the scientific literature. Given this situation, EPA has had to develop techniques for hazard assessment that can be used in the presence of limited test data. EPA's approach has been termed "structure-activity relationships" (SAR) and involves three major components: the first is critical evaluation and interpretation of available toxicity data on the chemical; the second component involves evaluation of test data available on analogous substances and/or potential metabolites; and the third component involves the use of mathematical expressions for biological activity known as "quantitative structure-activity relationships" (QSARs). At present, the use of QSARs is limited to estimating physical chemical properties, environmental toxicity, and bioconcentration factors. An important overarching element in EPA's approach is the experience and judgment of scientific assessors in interpreting and integrating the available data and information. Examples are provided that illustrate EPA's approach to hazard assessment for PMN chemicals. PMID:2269224

  18. Fire Technology Abstracts, volume 4, issue 1, August, 1981

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtschlag, L. J.; Kuvshinoff, B. W.; Jernigan, J. B.

    This bibliography contains over 400 citations with abstracts addressing various aspects of fire technology. Subjects cover the dynamics of fire, behavior and properties of materials, fire modeling and test burns, fire protection, fire safety, fire service organization, apparatus and equipment, fire prevention, suppression, planning, human behavior, medical problems, codes and standards, hazard identification, safe handling of materials, insurance, economics of loss and prevention, and more.

  19. A Crashworthiness Analysis with Emphasis on the Fire Hazard: U.S. and Selected Foreign Turbine Aircraft Accidents, 1964-1974

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-07-01

    concentration of hydrogen fluoride resulting from the pyrolysis of Halon 1301 suppressing agent was measured in these tests to establish whether human...1965 Summary, Pg. 11 21. 6/14/65, DC-8, , Santiago, Chile Left main landing gear brakes were locked on touchdown causing tire blowouts and a small fire...Damage was confined to the tires , wheels, and related components of the left main gear. Passengers were evacuated via two galley doors and main

  20. Catalytic Destruction of a Surrogate Organic Hazardous Air Pollutant as a Potential Co-benefit for Coal-fired Selective Catalyst Reduction Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Catalytic destruction of benzene (C6H6), a surrogate for organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) produced from coal combustion, was investigated using a commercial selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst for evaluating the potential co-benefit of the SCR technology for reduc...

  1. Catalytic Destruction of a Surrogate Organic Hazardous Air Pollutant as a Potential Co-benefit for Coal-fired Selective Catalyst Reduction Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Catalytic destruction of benzene (C6H6), a surrogate for organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) produced from coal combustion, was investigated using a commercial selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst for evaluating the potential co-benefit of the SCR technology for reduc...

  2. Transformer room fire tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fustich, C. D.

    1980-03-01

    A series of transformer room fire tests are reported to demonstate the shock hazard present when automatic sprinklers operate over energized electrical equipment. Fire protection was provided by standard 0.5 inch pendent automatic sprinklers temperature rated at 135 F and installed to give approximately 150 sq ft per head coverage. A 480 v dry transformer was used in the room to provide a three phase, four wire distribution system. It is shown that the induced currents in the test room during the various tests are relatively small and pose no appreciable personnel shock hazard.

  3. Moderate Image Spectrometer (MODIS) Fire Radiative Energy: Physics and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y.

    2004-01-01

    MODIS fire channel does not saturate in the presence of fires. The fire channel therefore is used to estimate the fire radiative energy, a measure of the rate of biomass consumption in the fire. We found correlation between the fire radiative energy, the rate of formation of burn scars and the rate of emission of aerosol from the fires. Others found correlations between the fire radiative energy and the rate of biomass consumption. This relationships can be used to estimates the emissions from the fires and to estimate the fire hazards.

  4. Fire research publications, 1983

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jason, N. H.

    1984-04-01

    Approximately 130 articles are cited addressing topics in fire fighting and prevention, combustion physics, and fire related hazards. Only publications prepared by members of the Center for Fire Research (CFR), by other National Bureau of Standards (NBS) personnel for CFR, or by external laboratories under contract or grant from the CFR are cited. For documents that are available for purchase from either the Government Printing Office (GPO) or the National Technical Information Service (NTIS), the specific order number has been included in the citation.

  5. Determination of Survivable Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Niehaus, J. E.; Ruff, G. A.; Urban, D. L.; Takahashi, F.; Easton, J. W.; Abbott, A. A.; Graf, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    At NASA, there exists no standardized design or testing protocol for spacecraft fire suppression systems (either handheld or total flooding designs). An extinguisher's efficacy in safely suppressing any reasonable or conceivable fire is the primary benchmark. That concept, however, leads to the question of what a reasonable or conceivable fire is. While there exists the temptation to over-size' the fire extinguisher, weight and volume considerations on spacecraft will always (justifiably) push for the minimum size extinguisher required. This paper attempts to address the question of extinguisher size by examining how large a fire a crew member could successfully survive and extinguish in the confines of a spacecraft. The hazards to the crew and equipment during an accidental fire include excessive pressure rise resulting in a catastrophic rupture of the vehicle skin, excessive temperatures that burn or incapacitate the crew (due to hyperthermia), carbon dioxide build-up or other accumulation of other combustion products (e.g. carbon monoxide). Estimates of these quantities are determined as a function of fire size and mass of material burned. This then becomes the basis for determining the maximum size of a target fire for future fire extinguisher testing.

  6. Large-Scale Controls and Characteristics of Fire Activity in Central Chile, 2001-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McWethy, D. B.; Pauchard, A.; García, R.; Holz, A.; González, M.; Veblen, T. T.; Stahl, J.

    2016-12-01

    In recent decades, fire activity has increased in many ecosystems worldwide, even where fuel conditions and natural ignitions historically limited fire activity, and this increase begs questions of whether climate change, land-use change, and/or altered vegetation are responsible. Increased frequency of large fires in these settings has been attributed to drier-than-average summers and longer fire seasons as well as fuel accumulation related to ENSO events, raising concerns about the trajectory of post-fire vegetation dynamics and future fire regimes. In temperate and Mediterranean forests of central Chile, recent large fires associated with altered ecosystems, climate variability and land-use change highlight the risk and hazard of increasing fire activity yet the causes and consequences are poorly understood. To better understand characteristics of recent fire activity, key drivers of fire occurrence and the spatial probability of wildfire we examined the relationship between fire activity derived from MODIS satellite imagery and biophysical, land-cover and land-use variables. The probability of fire occurrence and annual area burned was best predicted by seasonal precipitation, annual temperature and land cover type. The likelihood of fire occurrence was greatest in Matorral shrublands, agricultural lands (including pasture lands) and Pinus and Eucalyptus plantations, highlighting the importance of vegetation type and fuel flammability as a critical control on fire activity. Our results suggest that land-use change responsible for the widespread presence of highly flammable vegetation and projections for continued warming and drying will likely combine to promote the occurrence of large fires in central Chile in the future.

  7. Examining fire-prone forest landscapes as coupled human and natural systems

    Treesearch

    Thomas A. Spies; Eric M. White; Jeffrey D. Kline; A. Paige Fisher; Alan Ager; John Bailey; John Bolte; Jennifer Koch; Emily Platt; Christine S. Olsen; Derric Jacobs; Bruce Shindler; Michelle M. Steen-Adams; Roger. Hammer

    2014-01-01

    Fire-prone landscapes are not well studied as coupled human and natural systems (CHANS) and present many challenges for understanding and promoting adaptive behaviors and institutions. Here, we explore how heterogeneity, feedbacks, and external drivers in this type of natural hazard system can lead to complexity and can limit the development of more adaptive approaches...

  8. Can climate change increase fire severity independent of fire intensity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mantgem, P.; Nesmith, J.; Keifer, M.; Knapp, E.; Flint, A. L.; Flint, L. E.

    2013-12-01

    There is a growing realization that regional warming may be linked to increasing fire size and frequency in forests of the western US, a trend occurring in concert with increased fuel loads in forests that historically experienced frequent surface fires. Recent studies have also suggested that warming temperatures are correlated with increased fire severity (post-fire tree mortality). The mechanism whereby fire severity might increase in response to warming is presumed to be increasing probabilities of hazardous fire weather (higher air temperature, lower relative humidity and fuel moisture). While likely true, this view does not consider the biological context of the fire event. Here we present evidence that trees subject to environmental stress are more sensitive to subsequent fire damage. Tree growth records, used as an index of health for individuals, show that for two tree species (Abies concolor and Pinus lambertiana) in the Sierra Nevada of California poor growth leads to increased probabilities of mortality following fire. Plot-based fire monitoring databases from over 300 sites across the western US demonstrate that indices of drought stress are strongly predictive of post-fire tree survivorship. In sum, these results suggest that recent climatic trends may lead to a de facto increase in fire severity, even when there is no change in fire intensity.

  9. Changing research needs in wilderness fire

    Treesearch

    Carol Miller

    2008-01-01

    Wilderness policies of the four agencies that manage wilderness in the United States recognize the importance of fire as a natural process and federal fire policy supports allowing lightning-caused fires to burn. However, a complex suite of challenges has limited the restoration and maintenance of natural fire regimes in wilderness (Parsons 2000). As a result, fire...

  10. Fire and bird communities in the South

    Treesearch

    James G. Dickson

    2002-01-01

    Fire has long been a natural and anthropogenic force shaping southern forests and their fauna. Some species are attracted to recent burns. There is little direct mortality of adult birds by fire, but growing season fires may consume some nests. Fire affects bird communities mainly through effects on vegetation. Fires effective enough to limit understory hardwood...

  11. Designing fire safe interiors.

    PubMed

    Belles, D W

    1992-01-01

    Any product that causes a fire to grow large is deficient in fire safety performance. A large fire in any building represents a serious hazard. Multiple-death fires almost always are linked to fires that grow quickly to a large size. Interior finishes have large, continuous surfaces over which fire can spread. They are regulated to slow initial fire growth, and must be qualified for use on the basis of fire tests. To obtain meaningful results, specimens must be representative of actual installation. Variables--such as the substrate, the adhesive, and product thickness and density--can affect product performance. The tunnel test may not adequately evaluate some products, such as foam plastics or textile wall coverings, thermoplastic materials, or materials of minimal mass. Where questions exist, products should be evaluated on a full-scale basis. Curtains and draperies are examples of products that ignite easily and spread flames readily. The present method for testing curtains and draperies evaluates one fabric at a time. Although a fabric tested alone may perform well, fabrics that meet test standards individually sometimes perform poorly when tested in combination. Contents and furnishings constitute the major fuels in many fires. Contents may involve paper products and other lightweight materials that are easily ignited and capable of fast fire growth. Similarly, a small source may ignite many items of furniture that are capable of sustained fire growth. Upholstered furniture can reach peak burning rates in less than 5 minutes. Furnishings have been associated with many multiple-death fires.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Positively Fire Safe. Third Grade. Fire Safety for Texans: Fire and Burn Prevention Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Commission on Fire Protection, Austin.

    This booklet comprises the third grade component of a series of curriculum guides on fire and burn prevention. Designed to meet the age-specific needs of third grade students, its objectives include: (1) acquiring basic knowledge of hazards and safe storage of flammable liquids; and (2) developing positive actions to prevent fires and burns or to…

  13. Versatile fire barrier systems for telephone cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, R. H.; Dahms, D. G.; Licht, R. R.

    Fire barriers prevent smoke and fire spread along and between cables, through walls and floors, and protect critical conductors and equipment from heat. New flexible intrumescent materials expand up to 10 times when heated, are versatile and easy to install in sealing fire rated floor and wall penetrations. Telephone cables have large insulator/metal ratios and may have slack or oval jacketing, making older limited expansion materials ineffective. Strict design for specific cables and cable densities is obsoleted; reactive foaming chemicals are not needed for an effective seal. Fire expanding hydrated silicate particles are incorporated in a neoprene matrix yielding environmental protection for tough, flexible board, sheet, tape, caulk, putty, and foam rubber products. Penetration kits from these materials have been underwriter tested. Their UL ratings are compared with rubber blocks, foaming resins, and compressed washer devices. Traditional telecraft skills and tools install and adapt the new material to many cable types. Ease, simplicity, speed, and sureness of installation entry, and reentry/reseal are related to the fire hazard window of cable, fiber, or coax additions.

  14. Current status and future needs of the BehavePlus Fire Modeling System

    Treesearch

    Patricia L. Andrews

    2014-01-01

    The BehavePlus Fire Modeling System is among the most widely used systems for wildland fire prediction. It is designed for use in a range of tasks including wildfire behaviour prediction, prescribed fire planning, fire investigation, fuel hazard assessment, fire model understanding, communication and research. BehavePlus is based on mathematical models for fire...

  15. Fire suppressing apparatus. [sodium fires

    DOEpatents

    Buttrey, K.E.

    1980-12-19

    Apparatus for smothering a liquid sodium fire comprises a pan, a perforated cover on the pan, and tubed depending from the cover and providing communication between the interior of the pan and the ambient atmosphere through the perforations in the cover. Liquid caught in the pan rises above the lower ends of the tubes and thus serves as a barrier which limits the amount of air entering the pan.

  16. 29 CFR 1926.151 - Fire prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire prevention. 1926.151 Section 1926.151 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Fire Protection and Prevention § 1926.151 Fire prevention. (a) Ignition hazards. (1) Electrical wiring and equipment for light, heat, or power purposes...

  17. Economic Impact of Fire Weather Forecasts

    Treesearch

    Don Gunasekera; Graham Mills; Mark Williams

    2006-01-01

    Southeastern Australia, where the State of Victoria is located is regarded as one of the most fire prone areas in the world. The Australian Bureau of Meteorology provides fire weather services in Victoria as part of a national framework for the provision of such services. These services range from fire weather warnings to special forecasts for hazard reduction burns....

  18. 14 CFR 121.221 - Fire precautions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire precautions. 121.221 Section 121.221..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements § 121.221 Fire precautions. (a... the compartment and so that damage to or failure of the item would not create a fire hazard in the...

  19. 46 CFR 169.311 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 169.311 Section 169.311 Shipping COAST... and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.311 Fire protection. (a) The general construction of the vessel must be designed to minimize fire hazards. Each vessel which carries more than 100 persons or has...

  20. 49 CFR 397.11 - Fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fires. 397.11 Section 397.11 Transportation Other... PARKING RULES General § 397.11 Fires. (a) A motor vehicle containing hazardous materials must not be operated near an open fire unless its driver has first taken precautions to ascertain that the vehicle can...

  1. 46 CFR 169.311 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 169.311 Section 169.311 Shipping COAST... and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.311 Fire protection. (a) The general construction of the vessel must be designed to minimize fire hazards. Each vessel which carries more than 100 persons or has...

  2. 46 CFR 169.311 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 169.311 Section 169.311 Shipping COAST... and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.311 Fire protection. (a) The general construction of the vessel must be designed to minimize fire hazards. Each vessel which carries more than 100 persons or has...

  3. 14 CFR 29.851 - Fire extinguishers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.851 Fire extinguishers... personnel compartment must be designed to minimize the hazard of toxic gas concentrations. (b) Built-in fire... to the volume of the compartment where used and the ventilation rate, must be adequate for any...

  4. 46 CFR 169.311 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 169.311 Section 169.311 Shipping COAST... and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.311 Fire protection. (a) The general construction of the vessel must be designed to minimize fire hazards. Each vessel which carries more than 100 persons or...

  5. 46 CFR 169.311 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 169.311 Section 169.311 Shipping COAST... and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.311 Fire protection. (a) The general construction of the vessel must be designed to minimize fire hazards. Each vessel which carries more than 100 persons or...

  6. 49 CFR 397.11 - Fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fires. 397.11 Section 397.11 Transportation Other... PARKING RULES General § 397.11 Fires. (a) A motor vehicle containing hazardous materials must not be operated near an open fire unless its driver has first taken precautions to ascertain that the vehicle...

  7. 49 CFR 397.11 - Fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fires. 397.11 Section 397.11 Transportation Other... PARKING RULES General § 397.11 Fires. (a) A motor vehicle containing hazardous materials must not be operated near an open fire unless its driver has first taken precautions to ascertain that the vehicle...

  8. 49 CFR 397.11 - Fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fires. 397.11 Section 397.11 Transportation Other... PARKING RULES General § 397.11 Fires. (a) A motor vehicle containing hazardous materials must not be operated near an open fire unless its driver has first taken precautions to ascertain that the vehicle...

  9. 49 CFR 397.11 - Fires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fires. 397.11 Section 397.11 Transportation Other... PARKING RULES General § 397.11 Fires. (a) A motor vehicle containing hazardous materials must not be operated near an open fire unless its driver has first taken precautions to ascertain that the vehicle...

  10. Heightened fire probability in Indonesia in non-drought conditions: the effect of increasing temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Kátia; Verchot, Louis; Baethgen, Walter; Gutierrez-Velez, Victor; Pinedo-Vasquez, Miguel; Martius, Christopher

    2017-05-01

    In Indonesia, drought driven fires occur typically during the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation. This was the case of the events of 1997 and 2015 that resulted in months-long hazardous atmospheric pollution levels in Equatorial Asia and record greenhouse gas emissions. Nonetheless, anomalously active fire seasons have also been observed in non-drought years. In this work, we investigated the impact of temperature on fires and found that when the July-October (JASO) period is anomalously dry, the sensitivity of fires to temperature is modest. In contrast, under normal-to-wet conditions, fire probability increases sharply when JASO is anomalously warm. This describes a regime in which an active fire season is not limited to drought years. Greater susceptibility to fires in response to a warmer environment finds support in the high evapotranspiration rates observed in normal-to-wet and warm conditions in Indonesia. We also find that fire probability in wet JASOs would be considerably less sensitive to temperature were not for the added effect of recent positive trends. Near-term regional climate projections reveal that, despite negligible changes in precipitation, a continuing warming trend will heighten fire probability over the next few decades especially in non-drought years. Mild fire seasons currently observed in association with wet conditions and cool temperatures will become rare events in Indonesia.

  11. Remote sensing information for fire management and fire effects assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvieco, Emilio; Kasischke, Eric S.

    2007-03-01

    Over the past decade, much research has been carried out on the utilization of advanced geospatial technologies (remote sensing and geographic information systems) in the fire science and fire management disciplines. Recent advances in these technologies were the focus of a workshop sponsored by the EARSEL special interest group (SIG) on forest fires (FF-SIG) and the Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD) fire implementation team. Here we summarize the framework and the key findings of papers submitted from this meeting and presented in this special section. These papers focus on the latest advances for near real-time monitoring of active fires, prediction of fire hazards and danger, monitoring of fuel moisture, mapping of fuel types, and postfire assessment of the impacts from fires.

  12. Fire prevention on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Fritz

    1931-01-01

    The following discussion is at first restricted to the light-oil engines now in use. We shall consider how far it is possible to reduce fire hazards by changes in the design of the engines and carburetors and in the arrangement of the fuel pipes.

  13. Hazardous Waste

    MedlinePlus

    ... you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint ...

  14. Fire in Mediterranean climate ecosystems: a comparative overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2012-01-01

    Four regions of the world share a similar climate and structurally similar plant communities with the Mediterranean Basin. These five areas, known collectively as "mediterranean-type climate (MTC) regions", are dominated by evergreen sclerophyllous-leaved shrublands, semi-deciduous scrub, and woodlands, all of which are prone to widespread crown fires. Summer droughts produce an annual fire hazard that contributes to a highly predictable fire regime. Fire has been an important factor driving the convergence of these systems and is reflected in plant traits such as lignotubers in resprouting shrubs and delayed reproduction that restricts recruitment to a postfire pulse of seedlings. On fertile soils where postfire resprouting is very rapid, opportunities for postfire seedling recruitment are limited and thus these woody taxa have not opted for delaying reproduction. Such fire-independent recruitment is widespread in the floras of MTC regions of the Mediterranean Basin and California and postfire seeding tends to dominate at the more arid end of the gradient. Due to very different geological histories in South Africa and Western Australia, substrates are nutrient poor and thus postfire resprouters do not pose a similar competitive challenge to seedlings and thus postfire seeding is very widespread in these floras. Although circumstantial evidence suggests that the MTC region of Chile had fire-prone landscapes in the Tertiary, these were lost with the late Miocene completion of the Andean uplift, which now blocks summer lightning storms from moving into the region. Today these five regions pose a significant fire management challenge due to the annual fire hazard and metropolitan centers juxtaposed with highly flammable vegetation. This challenge varies across the five MTC landscapes as a function of differences in regional fuel loads and population density.

  15. Standard on fire protection for self-propelled and mobile surface mining equipment. 2001 ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2001-07-01

    Safeguard life and property against fire and related hazards in mines with the latest requirements in NFPA 121. This 2001 edition covers fire detection, suppression, ignition sources, fire risk assessment and maintenance of mining equipment systems. 4 apps.

  16. Predicting Change in Sediment Transport Rates in the Wake of the Cerro Grande Fire: Limitations and Potential of a Physically-based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canfield, H. E.; Wilson, C. J.; Lane, L. J.; McLin, S. G.; Earles, A.

    2001-12-01

    One of the benefits of physically based hydrologic models is that since they are based on physics, they can potentially be used to describe hydrologic response to change. On the Pajarito Plateau in New Mexico the introduction of cattle in the late 1800s, and then establishment of the Los Alamos National Laboratory in the 1940s has had a profound effect on the cover on the watersheds surrounding Los Alamos, with a proliferation of a more dense under story, on the hillsides, and more impermeable areas at the town site. Since the establishment of the Laboratory, there have been several large forest fires, most recently, the Cerro Grande Fire in May 2000. Hydrologic models suggest an eight-fold increase in the 100yr-6hr-flood peak in Los Alamos Canyon, and a corresponding three to four fold increase in sediment transport in the Canyon under post-burn conditions. However, the magnitude of the predicted scour depends strongly on what processes are allowed to occur in the model. The predicted scour is much greater if the model incorporates an observed inset channel, where modeled velocities are much greater than in the full wetted area. Furthermore, the model suggests that armoring has the potential to cut off the supply of sediment in the bed, so that scour and sediment transport are limited by the capability of the flow to transport larger particles that might otherwise armor the bed. Therefore, the magnitude of the predicted increase in sediment transport depends strongly on the ability of channels to armor as well as an a-priori understanding of how scour and deposition will occur in the canyon in response to flows much greater than the historical record. As such, reliance on model estimates of sediment transport based on the physics of flow is inadequate for assessing the effects of change and, at-best, provides only a range in the possible response to an extreme event. In this poster we examine available data on post-fire armoring rates, and observations about

  17. Fire Protection Program fiscal year 1996, site support program plan Hanford Fire Department. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Good, D.E.

    1995-09-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under a mutual aid agreement and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System). The fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, self-contained breathing apparatus maintenance, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education. This report gives a program overview, technical program baselines, and cost and schedule baseline.

  18. Fire protection program fiscal year 1997 site support program plan - Hanford fire department

    SciTech Connect

    Good, D.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fires Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford Site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. this includes response to surrounding fire department districts under mutual aids agreements and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System) and various commercial entities operating on site. the fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing, and maintenance, respiratory protection services, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention and education.

  19. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the Grand Prix and Old Fires of 2003, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Rupert, Michael G.; Michael, John A.; Djokic, Dean; Sreedhar, Sreeresh

    2003-01-01

    These maps present preliminary assessments of the probability of debris-flow activity and estimates of peak discharges that can potentially be generated by debris flows issuing from basins burned by the Old and Grand Prix Fires of October 2003 in southern California in response to the 25-year, 10-year, and 2-year recurrence, 1-hour duration rain storms. The probability maps are based on the application of a logistic multiple regression model that describes the percent chance of debris-flow production from an individual basin as function of burned extent, soil properties, basin gradients and storm rainfall. The peak discharge maps are based on application of a multiple-regression model that can be used to estimate debris-flow peak discharge at a basin outlet as a function of basin gradient, burn extent, and storm rainfall. Probabilities of debris-flow occurrence range between 0 and 85% and estimates of debris flow peak discharges range between 460 and 5,900 ft3/s (13 to 167 m3/s). These maps are intended to identify those basins that are most prone to the largest debris-flow events and provide critical information for the preliminary design of mitigation measures and for the planning of evacuation timing and routes.

  20. A suite of fire, fuels, and smoke management tools

    Treesearch

    Roger D. Ottmar; Clint S. Wright; Susan J. Prichard

    2009-01-01

    The Fire and Environmental Research Applications Team (FERA) of the Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, is an interdisciplinary team of scientists that conduct primary research on wildland fire and provide decision support for fire hazard and smoke management. The team is committed to providing easy-to-use tools that help managers in their fire and...

  1. 33 CFR 127.601 - Fire equipment: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.601 Fire equipment: General. (a) Fire... extinguishers. (4) Fire monitors. (c) Fire equipment, if applicable, must bear the approval of...

  2. 33 CFR 127.601 - Fire equipment: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.601 Fire equipment: General. (a) Fire... extinguishers. (4) Fire monitors. (c) Fire equipment, if applicable, must bear the approval of...

  3. 33 CFR 127.601 - Fire equipment: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.601 Fire equipment: General. (a) Fire... extinguishers. (4) Fire monitors. (c) Fire equipment, if applicable, must bear the approval of...

  4. 30 CFR 77.1100 - Fire protection; training and organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire protection; training and organization. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1100 Fire protection; training and organization. Firefighting facilities and equipment shall be provided commensurate with the potential fire hazards at each structure...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1100 - Fire protection; training and organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire protection; training and organization. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1100 Fire protection; training and organization. Firefighting facilities and equipment shall be provided commensurate with the potential fire hazards at each structure...

  6. Use of prescribed fire to reduce wildfire potential

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Martin; J. Boone Kauffman

    1989-01-01

    Fires were a part of our wildlands prehistorically. Prescribed burning reduces fire hazard and potential fire behavior primarily by reducing fuel quantity and continuity. Fuel continuity should be considered on the micro scale within stands, the mid-scale among, and the macro-scale among watersheds or entire forests. Prescribed fire is only one of the tools which can...

  7. A basic approach to fire injury of tree stems

    Treesearch

    R. E. Martin

    1963-01-01

    Fire has come to be widely used as a tool in wildland management, particularly in the South. Its usefulness in fire hazard reduction, removal of undesirable trees, and changing of cover types has been demonstrated. We are continually trying to improve fire use, however, by learning more of the specific effects of fire on different species of plants.

  8. Fire service emergency management handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-01-01

    This planning guide was prepared for the Federal Emergency Management Agency by the International Association of Fire Chiefs as part of an effort to update and improve emergency management information available to the fire service. Intended as a primary source for fire chiefs, fire executives, and planners, it incorporates the following main topic areas: instruction for the use of the handbook; description of the emergency management process; and checklists for specific hazards. The volume includes a self evaluation form for determining community risk, concepts of emergency management, and specific steps in community risk reduction in the four phases of emergency management process. Sample forms, tables, and letters of agreement are also included.

  9. Fire Resistant Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Fire hazard is greater in atmospheres containing a high percentage of oxygen under pressure. NASA intensified its fire safety research after a 1967 Apollo fire. A chemically treated fabric called Durette developed by Monsanto Company, which will not burn or produce noxious fumes, was selected as a material for Apollo astronaut garments. Monsanto sold production rights for this material to Fire Safe Products (FSP). Durette is now used for a wide range of applications such as: sheets, attendants' uniforms in hyperbaric chambers; crew's clothing, furniture and interior walls of diving chambers operated by the U.S. Navy and other oceanographic companies and research organizations. Pyrotect Safety Equipment, Minneapolis, MN produces Durette suits for auto racers, refuelers and crew chiefs from material supplied by FSP. FSP also manufactures Durette bags for filtering gases and dust from boilers, electric generators and similar systems. Durette bags are an alternative to other felted fiber capable of operating at high temperature that cost twice as much.

  10. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart P of... - Model Fire Safety Plan (Non-Mandatory)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Contents I. Purpose. II. Work site fire hazards and how to properly control them. III. Alarm... case of fire. II. Work Site Fire Hazards and How To Properly Control Them A. Measures to contain fires... more than one type exists. B. The work site emergency alarm system. C. Procedures for reporting...

  11. Comparison of six fire severity classification methods using Montana and Washington wildland fires

    Treesearch

    Pamela G. Sikkink

    2015-01-01

    Fire severity classifications are used in the post-fire environment to describe fire effects, such as soil alteration or fuel consumption, on the forest floor. Most of the developed classifications are limited because they address very specific fire effects or post-burn characteristics in the burned environment. However, because fire effects vary so much among soil,...

  12. Libby South Fire, Washington

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On July 9, 2001, a fire burned about 15 miles south of Twisp, Washington, that officials believe was caused by human error. NASA's Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on the Terra satellite observed the fire, indicated with a red dot in this image, on July 10, after the fire had already consumed about 1,240 acres. On July 10, another fire-called the Thirty Mile Fire-trapped 21 firefighters and 2 civilians in a narrow canyon in the Chewuch River Valley, north of Winthrop, WA. (That fire did not erupt until later in the day after this image was acquired and is therefore not visible.) Tragically, four firefighters were killed and six people were injured, including the two civilians. Rolling debris, rugged and steep terrain, and limited access are impeding efforts to contain the now 8,200-acre fire, which according to current fire incident reports, is completely uncontained. Nearly all the areas in the full-size image, including Washington (center), Idaho (right), Oregon (bottom) are in a state of severe drought, which means the region could be in for another devastating fire season. Another fire is visible in Idaho in the full-size image just east of where Idaho borders with Washington and Oregon. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  13. Scientists assess impact of Indonesia fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The fires burning in Indonesia over the past several months are setting aflame the biomass and wildlife habitat of the tropical forests, spreading a dangerously unhealthy haze across the populous country and nearby nations in southeast Asia, causing transportation hazards, and sending plumes of smoke up into the troposphere.Most of the fires have been set—by big landowners, commercial loggers, and small farmers—in attempts to clear and cultivate the land, as people have done in the past. But this year a drought induced by El Niño limited the rainfall that could help extinguish the flames and wash away the smoke and haze. In addition, some scientists say that smoke could even delay the monsoon, which usually arrives in early November.

  14. Evaluation of prognostic factors in liver-limited metastatic colorectal cancer: a preplanned analysis of the FIRE-1 trial

    PubMed Central

    Giessen, C; Fischer von Weikersthal, L; Laubender, R P; Stintzing, S; Modest, D P; Schalhorn, A; Schulz, C; Heinemann, V

    2013-01-01

    Background: Liver-limited disease (LLD) denotes a specific subgroup of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. Patients and Methods: A total of 479 patients with unresectable mCRC from an irinotecan-based randomised phase III trial were evaluated. Patients with LLD and non-LLD and hepatic resection were differentiated. Based on baseline patient characteristic, prognostic factors for hepatic resection were evaluated. Furthermore, prognostic factors for median overall survival (OS) were estimated via Cox regression in LLD patients. Results: Secondary liver resection was performed in 38 out of 479 patients (resection rate: 7.9%). Prognostic factors for hepatic resection were LLD, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), node-negative primary, alkaline phosphatase (AP) and Karnofsky performance status (PS). Median OS was significantly increased after hepatic resection (48 months), whereas OS in LLD (17 months) and non-LLD (19 months) was comparable in non-resected patients. With the inapplicability of Koehne's risk classification in LLD patients, a new score based on only the independent prognostic factors LDH and white blood cell (WBC) provided markedly improved information on the outcome. Conclusion: Patients undergoing hepatic resection showed favourable long-term survival, whereas non-resected LLD patients and non-LLD patients did not differ with regard to progression-free survival and OS. The LDH levels and WBC count were confirmed as prognostic factors and provide a useful and simple score for OS-related risk stratification also in LLD. PMID:23963138

  15. Comparative hazard evaluation of near-infrared diode lasers.

    PubMed

    Marshall, W J

    1994-05-01

    Hazard evaluation methods from various laser protection standards differ when applied to extended-source, near-infrared lasers. By way of example, various hazard analyses are applied to laser training systems, which incorporate diode lasers, specifically those that assist in training military or law enforcement personnel in the proper use of weapons by simulating actual firing by the substitution of a beam of near-infrared energy for bullets. A correct hazard evaluation of these lasers is necessary since simulators are designed to be directed toward personnel during normal use. The differences among laser standards are most apparent when determining the hazard class of a laser. Hazard classification is based on a comparison of the potential exposures with the maximum permissible exposures in the 1986 and 1993 versions of the American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers, Z136.1, and the accessible emission limits of the federal laser product performance standard. Necessary safety design features of a particular system depend on the hazard class. The ANSI Z136.1-1993 standard provides a simpler and more accurate hazard assessment of low-power, near-infrared, diode laser systems than the 1986 ANSI standard. Although a specific system is evaluated, the techniques described can be readily applied to other near-infrared lasers or laser training systems.

  16. Assessment and Prediction of Natural Hazards from Satellite Imagery.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Thomas W; Chu, Jasmine; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Thomas, Duncan

    2007-10-01

    Since 2000, there have been a number of spaceborne satellites that have changed the way we assess and predict natural hazards. These satellites are able to quantify physical geographic phenomena associated with the movements of the earth's surface (earthquakes, mass movements), water (floods, tsunamis, storms), and fire (wildfires). Most of these satellites contain active or passive sensors that can be utilized by the scientific community for the remote sensing of natural hazards over a number of spatial and temporal scales. The most useful satellite imagery for the assessment of earthquake damage comes from high-resolution (0.6 m to 1 m pixel size) passive sensors and moderate resolution active sensors that can quantify the vertical and horizontal movement of the earth's surface. High-resolution passive sensors have been used to successfully assess flood damage while predictive maps of flood vulnerability areas are possible based on physical variables collected from passive and active sensors. Recent moderate resolution sensors are able to provide near real time data on fires and provide quantitative data used in fire behavior models. Limitations currently exist due to atmospheric interference, pixel resolution, and revisit times. However, a number of new microsatellites and constellations of satellites will be launched in the next five years that contain increased resolution (0.5 m to 1 m pixel resolution for active sensors) and revisit times (daily ≤ 2.5 m resolution images from passive sensors) that will significantly improve our ability to assess and predict natural hazards from space.

  17. Fire extinguishers for manned spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylov, S.; Smirnov, N. V.; Tanklevsky, L. T.

    2015-04-01

    Based on an analysis of fires in the oxygen-enriched atmosphere conditions in spacecraft and other sealed chambers of various purposes, the most dangerous groups of fires are identified. For this purpose, groups were compiled to analyze dependences that describe the increase of fire hazard to a critical value. A criterion for determining timely and effective fire extinguishing was offered. Fire experiments in oxygen-enriched atmosphere conditions were conducted, and an array of experimental data on the mass burning rate of materials and their extinguishing by water mist was obtained. Relationships colligating an array of experimental data were offered. Experimental and analytical studies were taken as a basis for hand fire extinguisher implementation for manned spacecraft.

  18. 33 CFR 127.601 - Fire equipment: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.601 Fire equipment: General. (a)...

  19. Fire Signatures of Materials Used in Spacecraft Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Christina

    2003-01-01

    The focus of my work this summer was fire safety, specifically determining fire signatures from the combustion of materials commonly found in the construction of spacecraft. This project was undertaken with the aim of addressing concerns for health and safety onboard spacecraft. Under certain conditions, burning electronics produce surprisingly large amounts of acrid smoke, release fine airborne particles and expel condensable aerosols. Similarly, some wire insulation and packing material evolves smoke when in contact with a hot surface. In the limited, enclosed space available on spacecraft, these combustion products may pose a nuisance at the very least - at worst, a hazard to health or equipment. There is also a concern for fire safety in early detection on spacecraft. Our goal for the summer was to determine the most effective methods to test the materials, develop a protocol for sampling, and generate samples for analysis. We restricted our testing to electronic components, packaging and insulation materials, and wire insulation materials.

  20. Hazardous Materials Verification and Limited Characterization Report on Sodium and Caustic Residuals in Materials and Fuel Complex Facilities MFC-799/799A

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Mecham

    2010-08-01

    This report is a companion to the Facilities Condition and Hazard Assessment for Materials and Fuel Complex Sodium Processing Facilities MFC-799/799A and Nuclear Calibration Laboratory MFC-770C (referred to as the Facilities Condition and Hazards Assessment). This report specifically responds to the requirement of Section 9.2, Item 6, of the Facilities Condition and Hazards Assessment to provide an updated assessment and verification of the residual hazardous materials remaining in the Sodium Processing Facilities processing system. The hazardous materials of concern are sodium and sodium hydroxide (caustic). The information supplied in this report supports the end-point objectives identified in the Transition Plan for Multiple Facilities at the Materials and Fuels Complex, Advanced Test Reactor, Central Facilities Area, and Power Burst Facility, as well as the deactivation and decommissioning critical decision milestone 1, as specified in U.S. Department of Energy Guide 413.3-8, “Environmental Management Cleanup Projects.” Using a tailored approach and based on information obtained through a combination of process knowledge, emergency management hazardous assessment documentation, and visual inspection, this report provides sufficient detail regarding the quantity of hazardous materials for the purposes of facility transfer; it also provides that further characterization/verification of these materials is unnecessary.

  1. Radio Hazard Safety Assessment for Marine Ship Transmitters: Measurements Using a New Data Collection Method and Comparison with ICNIRP and ARPANSA Limits

    PubMed Central

    Halgamuge, Malka N.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the levels of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMFs) emitted from marine ship transmitters. In this study, we recorded the radio frequency (RF) electric field (EF) levels emitted from transmitters from a marine vessel focusing on the areas normally occupied by crew members and passengers. Previous studies considered radiation hazard safety assessment for marine vessels with a limited number of transmitters, such as very high-frequency (VHF) transceivers, radar and communication transmitters. In our investigation, EF levels from seven radio transmitters were measured, including: VHF, medium frequency/high frequency (MF/HF), satellite communication (Sat-Com C), AISnavigation, radar X-band and radar S-band. Measurements were carried out in a 40 m-long, three-level ship (upper deck, bridge deck and bridge roof) at 12 different locations. We developed a new data-collection protocol and performed it under 11 different scenarios to observe and measure the radiation emissions from all of the transmitters. In total, 528 EF field measurements were collected and averaged over all three levels of the marine ship with RF transmitters: the measured electric fields were the lowest on the upper deck (0.82–0.86 V/m), the highest on the bridge roof (2.15–3.70 V/m) and in between on the bridge deck (0.47–1.15 V/m). The measured EF levels were then assessed for compliance with the occupational and general public reference levels of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines and the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) standards. The ICNIRP and the ARPANSA limits for the general public were exceeded on the bridge roof; nevertheless, the occupational limits were respected everywhere. The measured EF levels, hence, complied with the ICNIRP guidelines and the ARPANSA standards. In this paper, we provide a new data collection model for future surveys, which could be conducted with

  2. Radio Hazard Safety Assessment for Marine Ship Transmitters: Measurements Using a New Data Collection Method and Comparison with ICNIRP and ARPANSA Limits.

    PubMed

    Halgamuge, Malka N

    2015-05-19

    We investigated the levels of radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMFs) emitted from marine ship transmitters. In this study, we recorded the radio frequency (RF) electric field (EF) levels emitted from transmitters from a marine vessel focusing on the areas normally occupied by crew members and passengers. Previous studies considered radiation hazard safety assessment for marine vessels with a limited number of transmitters, such as very high-frequency (VHF) transceivers, radar and communication transmitters. In our investigation, EF levels from seven radio transmitters were measured, including: VHF, medium frequency/high frequency (MF/HF), satellite communication (Sat-Com C), AISnavigation, radar X-band and radar S-band. Measurements were carried out in a 40 m-long, three-level ship (upper deck, bridge deck and bridge roof) at 12 different locations. We developed a new data-collection protocol and performed it under 11 different scenarios to observe and measure the radiation emissions from all of the transmitters. In total, 528 EF field measurements were collected and averaged over all three levels of the marine ship with RF transmitters: the measured electric fields were the lowest on the upper deck (0.82-0.86 V/m), the highest on the bridge roof (2.15-3.70 V/m) and in between on the bridge deck (0.47-1.15 V/m). The measured EF levels were then assessed for compliance with the occupational and general public reference levels of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines and the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) standards. The ICNIRP and the ARPANSA limits for the general public were exceeded on the bridge roof; nevertheless, the occupational limits were respected everywhere. The measured EF levels, hence, complied with the ICNIRP guidelines and the ARPANSA standards. In this paper, we provide a new data collection model for future surveys, which could be conducted with larger

  3. Fire retardant polyetherimide nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Takekoshi, T.; Giannelis, E.P.

    1997-09-01

    Polyetherimide-layered silicates nanocomposites with increased char yield and fire retardancy are described. The use of nanocomposites is a new, environmentally-benign approach to improve fire resistance of polymers. An increase in the aromaticity yields high char residues that normally correlate with higher oxygen index and lower flammability. The often high cost of these materials and the specialized processing techniques required, however, have limited the use of these polymers to certain specialized applications. The effectiveness of fire retardant fillers is also limited since the large amounts required make processing difficult and might inadvertently affect mechanical properties.

  4. A FIRE-ACE/SHEBA Case Study of Mixed-Phase Arctic Boundary Layer Clouds: Entrainment Rate Limitations on Rapid Primary Ice Nucleation Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fridlin, Ann; vanDiedenhoven, Bastiaan; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Avramov, Alexander; Mrowiec, Agnieszka; Morrison, Hugh; Zuidema, Paquita; Shupe, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of long-lived mixed-phase Arctic boundary layer clouds on 7 May 1998 during the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment (FIRE)Arctic Cloud Experiment (ACE)Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) campaign provide a unique opportunity to test understanding of cloud ice formation. Under the microphysically simple conditions observed (apparently negligible ice aggregation, sublimation, and multiplication), the only expected source of new ice crystals is activation of heterogeneous ice nuclei (IN) and the only sink is sedimentation. Large-eddy simulations with size-resolved microphysics are initialized with IN number concentration N(sub IN) measured above cloud top, but details of IN activation behavior are unknown. If activated rapidly (in deposition, condensation, or immersion modes), as commonly assumed, IN are depleted from the well-mixed boundary layer within minutes. Quasi-equilibrium ice number concentration N(sub i) is then limited to a small fraction of overlying N(sub IN) that is determined by the cloud-top entrainment rate w(sub e) divided by the number-weighted ice fall speed at the surface v(sub f). Because w(sub c)< 1 cm/s and v(sub f)> 10 cm/s, N(sub i)/N(sub IN)<< 1. Such conditions may be common for this cloud type, which has implications for modeling IN diagnostically, interpreting measurements, and quantifying sensitivity to increasing N(sub IN) (when w(sub e)/v(sub f)< 1, entrainment rate limitations serve to buffer cloud system response). To reproduce observed ice crystal size distributions and cloud radar reflectivities with rapidly consumed IN in this case, the measured above-cloud N(sub IN) must be multiplied by approximately 30. However, results are sensitive to assumed ice crystal properties not constrained by measurements. In addition, simulations do not reproduce the pronounced mesoscale heterogeneity in radar reflectivity that is observed.

  5. Assessing the risk to firefighters from chemical vapors and gases during vehicle fire suppression.

    PubMed

    Fent, Kenneth W; Evans, Douglas E

    2011-03-01

    Despite the frequent occurrence of vehicle fires, very few studies investigating firefighters' potential inhalation exposures during vehicle fire suppression have been conducted. In this paper, we present an assessment of firefighters' health risk from vehicle fire suppression that accounts for the mixture of gases and vapors likely to be found in these fires. Summa canisters were used to collect emissions from the engine and cabin fires of a single vehicle and were analyzed for 75 volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Firefighters' breathing zone concentrations (BZCs) of aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, isocyanates, and carbon monoxide were measured during the suppression of three vehicle fires. The Summa canister and BZC data were used to develop a simple model for predicting BZCs for the compounds that were not measured in the firefighters' breathing zones. Hazard quotients (HQs) were calculated by dividing the predicted and measured BZCs by the most conservative short-term exposure limits (STELs) or ceiling limits. Hazard indices (HIs) were determined by adding HQs for compounds grouped by the target organ for acute health effects. Any HIs above unity represented unacceptable risks. According to this mixture analysis, the estimated 95(th) percentile of the exposure distribution for the study population represents ≥ 9.2 times the acceptable level of risk to the respiratory tract and eyes. Furthermore, chemicals known or reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens contributed to > 45% of these HIs. While STELs are not usually based on carcinogenicity, maintaining exposures below STELs may protect individuals from the biological stress that could result from short-term exposures to carcinogens over time. Although vehicle fires are suppressed quickly (<10 min), this assessment suggests that firefighters have the potential to be overexposed to acute toxins during vehicle fire suppression and should therefore wear self-contained breathing apparatus at all times

  6. Fighting Fire with Fire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoor, Dana L.

    1996-01-01

    School districts are integrating security and life-safety systems into school buildings to protect students and property. This proactive approach includes sprinkler systems, fire alarms, and security systems that monitor door movement. Some school districts that are incorporating the latest life-safety technology are in Missouri, Ohio, California,…

  7. Fighting Fire with Fire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoor, Dana L.

    1996-01-01

    School districts are integrating security and life-safety systems into school buildings to protect students and property. This proactive approach includes sprinkler systems, fire alarms, and security systems that monitor door movement. Some school districts that are incorporating the latest life-safety technology are in Missouri, Ohio, California,…

  8. Reconstruction of an inn fire scene using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) program.

    PubMed

    Chi, Jen-Hao

    2013-01-01

    An inn fire occurring in the middle of the night usually causes a great deal more injuries and deaths. This article examines the case study of an inn fire accident that resulted in the most serious casualties in Taiwan's history. Data based on the official fire investigation report and NFPA921 regulations are used, and the fire scenes are reconstructed using the latest Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) program from NIST. The personnel evacuation time and time variants for various fire hazard factors of reconstructive analysis clarify the reason for such a high number of casualties. It reveals that the FDS program has come to play an essential role in fire investigation. The close comparison between simulation result and the actual fire scene also provides fire prevention engineers, a possible utilization of FDS to examine the effects of improved schemes for fire safety of buildings.

  9. Post-fire logging reduces surface woody fuels up to four decades following wildfire

    Treesearch

    David W. Peterson; Erich Kyle Dodson; Richy J. Harrod

    2015-01-01

    Severe wildfires create pulses of dead trees that influence future fuel loads, fire behavior, and fire effects as they decay and deposit surface woody fuels. Harvesting fire-killed trees may reduce future surface woody fuels and related fire hazards, but the magnitude and timing of post-fire logging effects on woody fuels have not been fully assessed. To address this...

  10. Hazard perception, risk perception, and the need for decontamination by residents exposed to soil pollution: the role of sustainability and the limits of expert knowledge.

    PubMed

    Vandermoere, Frédéric

    2008-04-01

    This case study examines the hazard and risk perception and the need for decontamination according to people exposed to soil pollution. Using an ecological-symbolic approach (ESA), a multidisciplinary model is developed that draws upon psychological and sociological perspectives on risk perception and includes ecological variables by using data from experts' risk assessments. The results show that hazard perception is best predicted by objective knowledge, subjective knowledge, estimated knowledge of experts, and the assessed risks. However, experts' risk assessments induce an increase in hazard perception only when residents know the urgency of decontamination. Risk perception is best predicted by trust in the risk management. Additionally, need for decontamination relates to hazard perception, risk perception, estimated knowledge of experts, and thoughts about sustainability. In contrast to the knowledge deficit model, objective and subjective knowledge did not significantly relate to risk perception and need for decontamination. The results suggest that residents can make a distinction between hazards in terms of the seriousness of contamination on the one hand, and human health risks on the other hand. Moreover, next to the importance of social determinants of environmental risk perception, this study shows that the output of experts' risk assessments-or the objective risks-can create a hazard awareness rather than an alarming risk consciousness, despite residents' distrust of scientific knowledge.

  11. Fires in Eastern Siberia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA image acquired August 1, 2010 Intense fires continued to burn in the boreal forests of eastern Siberia on August 1, 2010. The fires are outlined in red in this image, acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite. The fires span the borders of Russia’s Chukotskiy, Magadan, and Koryakskiy provinces. Burning in coniferous (evergreen) forests, the fires blanketed northeastern Siberia with thick brown smoke. The smoke hugs the ground near the fires, filling valleys, and soars over clouds farther away from the flames. On August 1, the smoke flowed north from the fires and over the Arctic Ocean. A wide view of the Arctic shows the smoke crossing the Bering Strait and clouding skies over northern Alaska. This image is available in additional resolutions from the MODIS Rapid Response Team here: rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/gallery/?2010213-0801/Russia.... To view more images from this event go to: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/event.php?id=44561 NASA image courtesy Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC. Caption by Holli Riebeek Instrument: Aqua - MODIS NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  12. Wildfire risk and hazard: procedures for the first approximation

    Treesearch

    David E. Calkin; Alan A. Ager; Julie Gilbertson-Day

    2010-01-01

    This report was designed to meet three broad goals: (1) evaluate wildfire hazard on Federal lands; (2) develop information useful in prioritizing where fuels treatments and mitigation measures might be proposed to address significant fire hazard and risk; and (3) develop risk-based performance measures to document the effectiveness of fire management programs. The...

  13. Structural fire risk of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parente, Joana; Pereira, Mário

    2017-04-01

    Portugal is on the top of the European countries most affected by vegetation fires which underlines the importance of the existence of an updated and coherent fire risk map. This map represent a valuable supporting tool for forest and fire management decisions, focus prevention activities, improve the efficiency of fire detection systems, manage resources and actions of fire fighting with greater effectiveness. Therefore this study proposed a structural fire risk map of the vegetated area of Portugal using a deterministic approach based on the concept of fire risk currently accepted by the scientific community which consists in the combination of the fire hazard and the potential economic damage. The existing fire susceptibility map for Portugal based on the slope, land cover and fire probability, was adopted and updated by the use of a higher resolution digital terrain model, longer burnt area perimeter dataset (1975 - 2013) and the entire set of Corine land cover inventories. Five susceptibility classes were mapped to be in accordance with the Portuguese law and the results confirms the good performance of this model not only in terms of the favourability scores but also in the predictive values. Considering three different scenarios of (maximum, mean, and minimum annual) burnt area, fire hazard were estimate. The vulnerability scores and monetary values of species defined in the literature and by law were used to calculate the potential economic damage. The result was a fire risk map that identifies the areas more prone to be affected by fires in the future and provides an estimate of the economic damage of the fire which will be a valuable tool for forest and fire managers and to minimize the economic and environmental consequences of vegetation fires in Portugal. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by: (i) the project Interact - Integrative Research in Environment,Agro-Chain and Technology, NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000017, research line BEST, cofinanced by

  14. The California Hazards Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, J. B.; Kellogg, L. H.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    California's abundant resources are linked with its natural hazards. Earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, severe storms, fires, and droughts afflict the state regularly. These events have the potential to become great disasters, like the San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906, that overwhelm the capacity of society to respond. At such times, the fabric of civic life is frayed, political leadership is tested, economic losses can dwarf available resources, and full recovery can take decades. A patchwork of Federal, state and local programs are in place to address individual hazards, but California lacks effective coordination to forecast, prevent, prepare for, mitigate, respond to, and recover from, the harmful effects of natural disasters. Moreover, we do not know enough about the frequency, size, time, or locations where they may strike, nor about how the natural environment and man-made structures would respond. As California's population grows and becomes more interdependent, even moderate events have the potential to trigger catastrophes. Natural hazards need not become natural disasters if they are addressed proactively and effectively, rather than reactively. The University of California, with 10 campuses distributed across the state, has world-class faculty and students engaged in research and education in all fields of direct relevance to hazards. For that reason, the UC can become a world leader in anticipating and managing natural hazards in order to prevent loss of life and property and degradation of environmental quality. The University of California, Office of the President, has therefore established a new system-wide Multicampus Research Project, the California Hazards Institute (CHI), as a mechanism to research innovative, effective solutions for California. The CHI will build on the rich intellectual capital and expertise of the Golden State to provide the best available science, knowledge and tools for

  15. Post-Fire Sediment Flux of the Day Fire, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, K. M.; Stock, J. D.; Hanshaw, M. N.

    2007-12-01

    Hillslope transport rates in steeplands often increase dramatically following wildfires. Hillslope material transported by post-fire ravel processes is the primary source for sediment entrained in hazardous debris flows, which tend to initiate during intense rainfall. We used sediment traps to assess post-fire hillslope transport rates in steeplands burned by the 2006 Day fire in the Transverse Ranges of southern California. We installed seven sediment traps flush with the ground surface on relatively planar hillslopes ranging in gradient from 0.3 to 0.76 within two geologic parent materials: Mesozoic plutonic rocks and Miocene conglomerate and sandstone. Traps were installed within 2 to 4 weeks of fire containment while ravel was on-going. In the first month following fire containment, we observed widespread dry ravel and grain flows of cohesionless granular material occurring in response to localized turbulent wind bursts and solar-driven thermal variations. We collected sediment at <1 month intervals between October 2006 and July 2007, air dried samples, and then manually sieved and weighed them for particle size determination. The sediment mass acquired from each trap emptying interval was converted to a sediment flux per unit contour width. A nearby anemometer provided estimates of wind direction and speed. Particle size distribution of sediment accumulated in the traps remained relatively uniform throughout the monitoring period with no apparent immediate spike in post-fire, fine-grained ashy material. Ravel from the Miocene sediment is largely gravelly sand, while that derived from Mesozoic plutonic rocks is a sandy gravel grus. Sediment flux from all seven traps ranges over 2 orders of magnitude from 0.002 to 0.5 m3m-1yr- 1, lower on gentle slopes and higher on steeper slopes, independent of parent material. Plots show an exponential relation between cumulative sediment flux and local hillslope gradient, consistent with a non-linear relation between flux

  16. Airway fire during tracheostomy: prevention strategies for surgeons and anaesthetists.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, M. L.; Nickalls, R. W.; Brackenbury, E. T.; Salama, F. D.; Beattie, M. G.; Perks, A. G.

    2001-01-01

    Airway fires are an uncommon but real and devastating complication of tracheostomy. One such fire in a 31-year-old man is described. Surgical fires are discussed, and 15 reported cases of tracheostomy fire are reviewed. A tracheostomy protocol, adopted by our department and designed to avoid this life-threatening complication, is described. Surgeons and anaesthetists involved in tracheostomy must understand the fire hazard and how to avoid it. PMID:11777128

  17. 36 CFR 1234.12 - What are the fire safety requirements that apply to records storage facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Penetrations in the walls must not reduce the specified fire resistance ratings. The fire resistance ratings of... records storage areas with at least a 2-hour rated fire barrier wall. (r) Hazardous materials, including...

  18. Analysis of Multiengine Transport Airplane Fire Records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesman, Gerard J.

    1950-01-01

    An analysis has been made of Civil Aeronautics Administration and Civil Aeronautics Board commercial airplane fire records collected during the 10-year period ending July 1, 1948. The results of the analysis show that: 1. Gasoline was most frequently the initial combustible ignited in flight and ground fires and is considered to be the most hazardous of the combustibles carried. 2. Although electrical-ignition sources are the most frequent flight-fire ignition source by a small margin, the exhaust system is concluded to be the most hazardous ignition source because it is necessarily located near the lubricating-oil and gasoline-plumbing systems and the resulting fires are relatively severe. The electrical-ignition sources usually involve only the electrical insulation and result in small-volume fires. The exhaust system was found to be the most frequent ground-fire ignition source. 3. Engine failures were the most frequent cause of the union of combustible and ignition source that resulted in flight fires. 4. Fuel-plumbing-system failures were the most frequent cause of fires occurring during ground operation. 5. The evidence concerning crash fires was not sufficiently extensive to provide information concerning the factors that affect the start and the spread of fire. In order that future records may be more useful, all crash accidents should be studied to determine why fire does or does not occur and to establish data that relate the occurrence and the spread of fire to airplane design and operation.

  19. Fire management of California shrubland landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2002-01-01

    Fire management of California shrublands has been heavily influenced by policies designed for coniferous forests, however, fire suppression has not effectively excluded fire from chaparral and coastal sage scrub landscapes and catastrophic wildfires are not the result of unnatural fuel accumulation. There is no evidence that prescribed burning in these shrublands provides any resource benefit and in some areas may negatively impact shrublands by increasing fire frequency. Therefore, fire hazard reduction is the primary justification for prescription burning, but it is doubtful that rotational burning to create landscape age mosaics is a cost effective method of controlling catastrophic wildfires. There are problems with prescription burning in this crown-fire ecosystem that are not shared by forests with a natural surface-fire regime. Prescription weather conditions preclude burning at rotation intervals sufficient to effect the control of fires ignited under severe weather conditions. Fire management should focus on strategic placement of prescription burns to both insure the most efficient fire hazard reduction and to minimize the amount of landscape exposed to unnaturally high fire frequency. A major contributor to increased fire suppression costs and increased loss of property and lives is the continued urban sprawl into wildlands naturally subjected to high intensity crown fires. Differences in shrubland fire history suggest there may be a need for different fire management tactics between central coastal and southern California. Much less is known about shrubland fire history in the Sierra Nevada foothills and interior North Coast Ranges, and thus it would be prudent to not transfer these ideas too broadly across the range of chaparral until we have a clearer understanding of the extent of regional variation in shrubland fire regimes.

  20. Fire management of California shrubland landscapes.

    PubMed

    Keeley, Jon E

    2002-03-01

    Fire management of California shrublands has been heavily influenced by policies designed for coniferous forests, however, fire suppression has not effectively excluded fire from chaparral and coastal sage scrub landscapes and catastrophic wildfires are not the result of unnatural fuel accumulation. There is no evidence that prescribed burning in these shrublands provides any resource benefit and in some areas may negatively impact shrublands by increasing fire frequency. Therefore, fire hazard reduction is the primary justification for prescription burning, but it is doubtful that rotational burning to create landscape age mosaics is a cost effective method of controlling catastrophic wildfires. There are problems with prescription burning in this crown-fire ecosystem that are not shared by forests with a natural surface-fire regime. Prescription weather conditions preclude burning at rotation intervals sufficient to effect the control of fires ignited under severe weather conditions. Fire management should focus on strategic placement of prescription burns to both insure the most efficient fire hazard reduction and to minimize the amount of landscape exposed to unnaturally high fire frequency. A major contributor to increased fire suppression costs and increased loss of property and lives is the continued urban sprawl into wildlands naturally subjected to high intensity crown fires. Differences in shrubland fire history suggest there may be a need for different fire management tactics between central coastal and southern California. Much less is known about shrubland fire history in the Sierra Nevada foothills and interior North Coast Ranges, and thus it would be prudent to not transfer these ideas too broadly across the range of chaparral until we have a clearer understanding of the extent of regional variation in shrubland fire regimes.