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Sample records for limited internal fixation

  1. Limits of internal fixation in long-bone fracture.

    PubMed

    Nieto, H; Baroan, C

    2017-02-01

    Alternatives to internal fixation of long-bone fracture comprise, depending on location, external fixation or joint replacement. Limitations comprise risk of infection and functional outcome quality, which vary according to technique. The present study examines these limitations, based on comparative or large-scale studies from which certain significant results emerge. Four main questions are dealt with: (1) the present role of locking plates; (2) conditions for intramedullary nailing in Gustilo grade IIIb open fracture; (3) the limitations of conversion from external fixation to intramedullary nailing in open lower leg fracture; (4) and the limitations of definitive anterograde femoral nailing in multiple trauma. Locking plate fixation has yet to prove clinical superiority in any of the anatomic sites for which good-quality comparative analyses are available. Infection risk in Gustilo grade IIIb open lower leg fracture is equivalent when treated by intramedullary nailing or external fixation, if wound care and debridement are effective, antibiotherapy is initiated rapidly and skin cover is restored within 7days. Conversion from primary external fixation to intramedullary nailing is possible if the external fixator was fitted less than 28days previously and skin cover was restored within 7days. The pulmonary and systemic impact of peripheral lesions or definitive anterograde intramedullary nailing of femoral fracture in multiple trauma calls for caution and what is known as "damage-control orthopedics" (DCO), a term covering the general consequences of both the initial trauma and its treatment. Femoral intramedullary nailing is thus contraindicated in case of hemorrhagic shock (blood pressure<90mmHg), hypothermia (<33°C), coagulation disorder (platelet count<90,000) or peripheral lesions such as multiple long-bone fractures, crushed limb or primary pulmonary contusion. In such cases, external fixation or retrograde nailing with a small-diameter nail and without

  2. Treatment of tibial plateau fractures by limited internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Duwelius, P J; Rangitsch, M R; Colville, M R; Woll, T S

    1997-06-01

    Seventy-five adults who sustained 76 tibial plateau fractures were treated according to a prospective protocol using instability in extension as the principal indication for operative fixation. Patients showing instability underwent closed manipulative reduction under fluoroscopic guidance. If significant joint depression persisted after reduction, elevation of the fracture was performed either from below using bone punches through a cortical window or via limited arthrotomy. Iliac crest bone graft was used to buttress depressed fractures. Fixation was then secured using 7-mm cannulated screws with washers or buttress plates and screws. Postoperatively, 58 of 76 knees were managed in a hinged knee brace, allowing the patient early range of motion and protected weightbearing for 8 weeks. Patients who were found to have a stable knee were treated with Bledsoe braces according to the postoperative protocol. In the 75 patients, 18 of the 76 knees were unsuitable for percutaneous screw fixation because of fracture complexity requiring plates, severe open injuries, or inadequate reductions with limited fixation had been done. A minimum followup of 12 months was obtained in 55 patients (range, 12-59 months). All fractures had healed at the time of followup. Eighty-seven percent of the patients at followup had a successful outcome using Rasmussen's criteria. Fourteen of these patients had arthroscopic assisted reduction or evaluation. All seven patients who had poor outcomes had AO Type C3 fracture patterns. Severely depressed or comminuted fractures or fractures with significant metaphyseal diaphyseal extension may not be suitable for this technique and require the addition of an external fixation device or buttress plate to maintain the reduction and allow for early range of motion.

  3. External Fixation combined with Limited Internal Fixation versus Open Reduction Internal Fixation for Treating Ruedi-Allgower Type III Pilon Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yongzhi; Tong, Liangyong; Li, Shaoguang; Liu, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Background The optimal treatment of type III pilon fractures remains controversial. Hence, we performed this study to investigate whether open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is superior to external fixations combined with limited internal fixations (EFLIF). Material/Methods From January 2012 to October 2013, a total of 78 patients were included. Twenty-six patients underwent EFLIF and 52 patients underwent ORIF. All subjects were followed up at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. All outcomes and complications were recorded. Results No statistical differences were observed in Mazur score or ROM between the 2 groups. There were significant differences between the 2 groups in hospital stay (P<0.001), reduction results (P=0.019), screw loosening (P=0.025), and traumatic arthritis (P=0.037). Conclusions Similar functional outcomes were achieved in EFLIF and ORIF groups. Due to several limitations of this study, a well-designed randomized controlled trial involving more patients and long-term follow-up is needed to find an optimal treatment protocol. PMID:26050786

  4. Application of internal fixation of steel-wire limited loop in early Achilles tendon rupture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Wei, Jia-Sen; Hou, Zhao-Yang; Hu, Jiong; Cao, Yan-Guang; Chen, Qi-Xin

    2013-11-01

    To explore the clinical effect and safety of internal fixation of steel-wire limited loop in early Achilles tendon rupture. Seventy-six patients respectively with early transected and avulsed types of Achilles tendon rupture were selected and treated with internal fixation of steel-wire limited loop. The patients began to take exercise for their lower limbs through continous passive motion as early as possible after surgical repair, and the loops were removed after 3-5 months. Six months later, the condition of complications including Achilles tendon re-rupture, wound fistula, wound infection and skin necrosis, cutaneous sensation in sural nerve dominance region, time back to preinjury work or learning as well as time to physical activities were observed. One year later, the therapeutic effect was evaluated, and the maximum circumferences of bilateral legs and ruptured plane circumferences of Achilles tendon were measured. The wound of all patients healed well, no complications like Achilles tendon re-rupture, wound fistula, wound infection and skin necrosis occured, and the cutaneous sensation in sural nerve dominance region was normal. The mean time back to preinjury work or learning as well as to pysical activities of all patients were respectively 10 and 22 weeks. Seventy out of 76 patients (92.1%) achieved an excellent effect, and 6 (7.9%) good effect. The excellent and good rate came up to 100%. The maximum circumference in the affected leg decreased to 2 mm averagely compared with the offside, while the ruptured plane circumferences of Achilles tendon in the affected side increased to 2.2 mm compared with the offside. For early Achilles tendon rupture, internal fixation of steel-wire limited loop can recover the ankle function better, return to the preinjury state in the shortest time, and has few complications. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Residual intersegmental spinal mobility following limited pedicle fixation of thoracolumbar spine fractures with the fixateur interne.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, R W; Dick, W; Nunchuck, S; Zach, G

    1993-03-15

    The Fixateur Interne has been proposed for limited pedicle fixation of thoracolumbar spine fractures with the assumption that motion in the nontraumatized spinal segments could be maintained. To date, no data exist that both localize and quantitate spinal mobility about the fractured vertebra. Voluntary maximum lateral flexion and extension radiographs were obtained on patients with unstable thoracolumbar spine fractures at a minimum of 2 years after Fixateur Interne instrumentation (implant was removed after 1 year). Residual intersegmental motion was measured at levels adjacent to both the vertebra fracture and the fixation. Fifty-nine patients were reviewed, and the posterior vertebral body angle demonstrated a mean total sagittal motion of 2.98 degrees. Cephalad and caudal to the fractured vertebra, a mean of 1.34 degrees and 3.08 degrees, respectively, of residual motion was noted; cephalad and caudal to the previously instrumented segment a mean of 3.22 degrees and 6.88 degrees, respectively, was measured. The authors conclude that residual mobility is most evident at the caudal end of the instrumented segment, removed from the fractured vertebra. The level with end plate disruption becomes essentially ankylosed, with or without a fusion.

  6. Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

  7. Eighth international congress on nitrogen fixation. Final program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This volume contains the proceedings of the Eighth International Congress on Nitrogen Fixation held May 20--26, 1990 in Knoxville, Tennessee. The volume contains abstracts of individual presentations. Sessions were entitled Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Nitrogen Fixation, Plant-microbe Interactions, Limiting Factors of Nitrogen Fixation, Nitrogen Fixation and the Environment, Bacterial Systems, Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture and Industry, Plant Function, and Nitrogen Fixation and Evolution.

  8. Internal fixation: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Greenhagen, Robert M; Johnson, Adam R; Joseph, Alison

    2011-08-01

    Internal fixation has become a pillar of surgical specialties, yet the evolution of these devices has been relatively short. The first known description of medical management of a fracture was found in the Edwin Smith Papyrus of Ancient Egypt (circa 2600 bc). The first description of internal fixation in the medical literature was in the 18th century. The advancement of techniques and technology over the last 150 years has helped to preserve both life and function. The pace of advancement continues to accelerate as surgeons continue to seek new technology for osseous fixation. The authors present a thorough review of the history of internal fixation and the transformation into a multibillion dollar industry.

  9. Retinal sensitivity and fixation changes 1 year after triamcinolone acetonide assisted internal limiting membrane peeling for macular hole surgery--a MP-1 microperimetric study.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Hakan; Karacorlu, Murat; Senturk, Fevzi; Karacorlu, Serra A; Uysal, Omer

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate microperimetric changes 1year after macular hole surgery with triamcinolone acetonide assisted internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. Twenty-two eyes of 22 patients with stage 3 and 4 idiopathic macular holes of <6months' duration underwent vitrectomy with triamcinolone acetonide assisted ILM peeling. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution), and central retinal sensitivity were documented before and 1, 3, 6, and 12months after surgery. Macular sensitivity (mean sensitivity in decibels -dB), and stability and location of fixation (preferred retinal locus) were determined using MP-1 microperimetry (Nidek). The MP-1 microperimetry sensitivity map was overlaid onto infrared images recorded on a Heidelberg scanning laser ophthalmoscope using dedicated MP-1 software to evaluate the fixation location before surgery. Anatomical success was evaluated with optical coherence tomography (OCT). Optical coherence tomography scans were recorded on an OCT 3000 scanner. Anatomical success was achieved in all 22 eyes. All patients completed 1year follow-up. No recurrence of macular hole was seen in any patients in the follow-up period. The mean BCVA improved from 0.75±0.2 before surgery to 0.31±0.1 logMAR at the last visit (p<0.001). Mean sensitivity improved from 3.7±0.6 to 5.3±1.0dB at the last visit (p<0.001). Before surgery, the preferred retinal locus was located on the margin of the hole in all, in 18 eyes on its upper part and in four eyes to the side or on its lower part. Preoperatively, 12 eyes were stable and 10 were relatively unstable, but 12month after surgery, fixation stability had improved, and 20 eyes were stable and two were relatively unstable.   MP-1 microperimetry sensitivity map overlaid onto an infrared image using dedicated MP-1 software can be used successfully to evaluate fixation location in patients with a macular hole before surgery. With microperimetry findings, we can also measure

  10. Failed internal fixation of femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Hoelsbrekken, Sigurd Erik; Opsahl, Jan-Henrik; Stiris, Morten; Paulsrud, Øyvind; Strømsøe, Knut

    2012-06-12

    There are two types of surgical treatment for fractures of the femoral neck; internal fixation and arthroplasty. Internal fixation is associated with a higher risk of complications such as secondary displacement, non-union and avascular necrosis. To improve treatment results of internal fixation, we have tried to identify procedure related risk-factors associated with fixation failure. A retrospective study was conducted based on the medical records and X-ray images of 337 patients sustaining intracapsular fractures of the hip during the period 1999-2000. The patients were treated with closed reduction and internal fixation at Oslo University Hospital, Aker. The reduction of the fracture and the placement of the fixation implants were evaluated and scored (six points representing best achievable result). Fixation failed in 23 (18,3 %) out of 126 patients with displaced fractures awarded six points for the reduction. In contrast, fixation failed in five (50 %) out of ten patients given a score of three points or less (p = 0.017). The risk of non-union increased when patients were treated more than 48 hours after the initial injury. In this group, 5 (25 %) out of 20 patients developed non-union compared to 16 (8 %) out of 200 patients treated within 48 hours (p = 0.014). Our findings emphasize the importance of achieving anatomical reduction of displaced femoral neck fractures, and to perform surgery within 48 hours unless an acute medical condition needs to be stabilized.

  11. Distal Humerus Fractures: Open Reduction Internal Fixation.

    PubMed

    Mighell, Mark A; Stephens, Brent; Stone, Geoffrey P; Cottrell, Benjamin J

    2015-11-01

    Distal humerus fractures are challenging injuries for the upper extremity surgeon. However, recent techniques in open reduction internal fixation have been powerful tools in getting positive outcomes. To get such results, the surgeon must be aware of how to properly use these techniques in their respective practices. The method of fixation depends on the fracture, taking the degree of comminution and the restoration of the columns and articular surface into account. This article helps surgeons understand the concepts behind open reduction internal fixation of the distal humerus and makes them aware of pitfalls that may lead to negative results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Design and Optimization of Resorbable Silk Internal Fixation Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Dylan S.

    Limitations of current material options for internal fracture fixation devices have resulted in a large gap between user needs and hardware function. Metal systems offer robust mechanical strength and ease of implantation but require secondary surgery for removal and/or result in long-term complications (infection, palpability, sensitivity, etc.). Current resorbable devices eliminate the need for second surgery and long-term complications but are still associated with negative host response as well as limited functionality and more difficult implantation. There is a definitive need for orthopedic hardware that is mechanically capable of immediate fracture stabilization and fracture fixation during healing, can safely biodegrade while allowing complete bone remodeling, can be resterilized for reuse, and is easily implantable (self-tapping). Previous work investigated the use of silk protein to produce resorbable orthopedic hardware for non- load bearing fracture fixation. In this study, silk orthopedic hardware was further investigated and optimized in order to better understand the ability of silk as a fracture fixation system and more closely meet the unfulfilled market needs. Solvent-based and aqueous-based silk processing formulations were cross-linked with methanol to induce beta sheet structure, dried, autoclaved and then machined to the desired device/geometry. Silk hardware was evaluated for dry, hydrated and fatigued (cyclic) mechanical properties, in vitro degradation, resterilization, functionalization with osteoinductive molecules and implantation technique for fracture fixation. Mechanical strength showed minor improvements from previous results, but remains comparable to current resorbable fixation systems with the advantages of self-tapping ability for ease of implantation, full degradation in 10 months, ability to be resterilized and reused, and ability to release molecules for osteoinudction. In vivo assessment confirmed biocompatibility, showed

  13. Local versus basin-scale limitation of marine nitrogen fixation

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Thomas; Deutsch, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fixation by diazotrophic plankton is the primary source of this crucial nutrient to the ocean, but the factors limiting its rate and distribution are controversial. According to one view, the ecological niche of diazotrophs is primarily controlled by the ocean through internally generated N deficits that suppress the growth of their competitors. A second view posits an overriding limit from the atmosphere, which restricts diazotrophs to regions where dust deposition satisfies their high iron (Fe) requirement, thus separating N sources from sinks at a global scale. Here we use multiple geochemical signatures of N2 fixation to show that the Fe limitation of diazotrophs is strong enough to modulate the regional distribution of N2 fixation within ocean basins—particularly the Fe-poor Pacific—but not strong enough to influence its partition between basins, which is instead governed by rates of N loss. This scale-dependent limitation of N2 fixation reconciles local observations of Fe stress in diazotroph communities with an inferred spatial coupling of N sources and sinks. Within this regime of intermediate Fe control, the oceanic N reservoir would respond only weakly to enhanced dust fluxes during glacial climates, but strongly to the reduced fluxes hypothesized under anthropogenic climate warming. PMID:24889607

  14. Local versus basin-scale limitation of marine nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed

    Weber, Thomas; Deutsch, Curtis

    2014-06-17

    Nitrogen (N) fixation by diazotrophic plankton is the primary source of this crucial nutrient to the ocean, but the factors limiting its rate and distribution are controversial. According to one view, the ecological niche of diazotrophs is primarily controlled by the ocean through internally generated N deficits that suppress the growth of their competitors. A second view posits an overriding limit from the atmosphere, which restricts diazotrophs to regions where dust deposition satisfies their high iron (Fe) requirement, thus separating N sources from sinks at a global scale. Here we use multiple geochemical signatures of N2 fixation to show that the Fe limitation of diazotrophs is strong enough to modulate the regional distribution of N2 fixation within ocean basins--particularly the Fe-poor Pacific--but not strong enough to influence its partition between basins, which is instead governed by rates of N loss. This scale-dependent limitation of N2 fixation reconciles local observations of Fe stress in diazotroph communities with an inferred spatial coupling of N sources and sinks. Within this regime of intermediate Fe control, the oceanic N reservoir would respond only weakly to enhanced dust fluxes during glacial climates, but strongly to the reduced fluxes hypothesized under anthropogenic climate warming.

  15. [Applied researches on polylactide internal fixation devices].

    PubMed

    Duan, H; Song, Y

    2001-03-01

    Nowadays, more and more basic and clinical researches on polylactide internal fixators were carried out in China. In this paper are reviewed the researches of polylactide acid(PLA), including its physical and chemical characters, biodegradation, absorption and mechanical properties, effects on fracture healing, and clinical application. Some problems that have not been solved are high-lighted and discussed. Also dealt with are some researches of PLA in future.

  16. Characteristics of Fixational Eye Movements in Amblyopia: Limitations on Fixation Stability and Acuity?

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Girish; Li, Roger W.; Levi, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    Persons with amblyopia, especially those with strabismus, are known to exhibit abnormal fixational eye movements. In this paper, we compared six characteristics of fixational eye movements among normal control eyes (n=16), the non-amblyopic fellow eyes and the amblyopic eyes of anisometropic (n=14) and strabismic amblyopes (n=14). These characteristics include the frequency, magnitude of landing errors, amplitude and speed of microsaccades, and the amplitude and speed of slow drifts. Fixational eye movements were recorded using retinal imaging while observers monocularly fixated a 1° cross. Eye position data were recovered using a cross-correlation procedure. We found that in general, the characteristics of fixational eye movements are not significantly different between the fellow eyes of amblyopes and controls, and that the strabismic amblyopic eyes are always different from the other groups. Next, we determined the primary factors that limit fixation stability and visual acuity in amblyopic eyes by examining the relative importance of the different oculomotor characteristics, adding acuity (for fixation stability) or fixation stability (for acuity), and the type of amblyopia, as predictive factors in a multiple linear regression model. We show for the first time that the error magnitude of microsaccades, acuity, amplitude and frequency of microsaccades are primary factors limiting fixation stability; while the error magnitude, fixation stability, amplitude of drifts and amplitude of microsaccades are the primary factors limiting acuity. A mediation analysis showed that the effects of error magnitude and amplitude of microsaccades on acuity could be explained, at least in part, by their effects on fixation stability. PMID:25668775

  17. Mechanical testing of a device for subcutaneous internal anterior pelvic ring fixation versus external pelvic ring fixation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although useful in the emergency treatment of pelvic ring injuries, external fixation is associated with pin tract infections, the patient’s limited mobility and a restricted surgical accessibility to the lower abdomen. In this study, the mechanical stability of a subcutaneous internal anterior fixation (SIAF) system is investigated. Methods A standard external fixation and a SIAF system were tested on pairs of Polyoxymethylene testing cylinders using a universal testing machine. Each specimen was subjected to a total of 2000 consecutive cyclic loadings at 1 Hz with sinusoidal lateral compression/distraction (+/−50 N) and torque (+/− 0.5 Nm) loading alternating every 200 cycles. Translational and rotational stiffness were determined at 100, 300, 500, 700 and 900 cycles. Results There was no significant difference in translational stiffness between the SIAF and the standard external fixation when compared at 500 (p = .089), 700 (p = .081), and 900 (p = .266) cycles. Rotational stiffness observed for the SIAF was about 50 percent higher than the standard external fixation at 300 (p = .005), 500 (p = .020), and 900 (p = .005) cycles. No loosening or failure of the rod-pin/rod-screw interfaces was seen. Conclusions In comparison with the standard external fixation system, the tested device for subcutaneous internal anterior fixation (SIAF) in vitro has similar translational and superior rotational stiffness. PMID:24684828

  18. Diagnosis and rehabilitation of deep wound infection and internal fixation rejection in elbow

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Huiping; Song, Lin; Lin, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aims at diagnosis and rehabilitation of a rare case of deep wound infection and internal fixation rejection in elbow. The patient sustained a distal fracture in the humerus 1 year ago, which was internal fixed. The wound always effused and the elbow had pain and swelling; joint motion was limited. Blood sedimentation rate and C reactive protein level increased, bacterial culture suggested deep wound infection, and ultrasound indicated inflammation. The main diagnoses were deep wound infection and internal fixation rejection. Therapeutics interventions were antibiotic agents, physical therapy, operative debridement, incision, drainage, and exercise and physical therapy. One year later, the internal fixation was taken out. His elbow was fully mobilized and the fracture healed. He got back to his former job. When encountered deep wound infection again and again after internal fixation, rejection should be considered. Except for anti-infection treatment, rehabilitation cannot be neglected, or the healing process may be delayed. PMID:27281079

  19. Complications of open reduction and internal fixation of ankle fractures.

    PubMed

    Leyes, Manuel; Torres, Raúl; Guillén, Pedro

    2003-03-01

    This article discusses the complications after open reduction and internal fixation of ankle fractures. Complications are classified as perioperative (malreduction, inadequate fixation, and intra-articular penetration of hardware), early postoperative (wound edge dehiscence, necrosis, infection and compartment syndrome), and late (stiffness, distal tibiofibular synostosis, degenerative osteoarthritis, and hardware related complications). Emphasis is placed on preventive measures to avoid such complications.

  20. Molybdenum limitation of asymbiotic nitrogen fixation in tropical forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, Alexander R.; Wurzburger, Nina; Bellenger, Jean Phillipe; Wright, S. Joseph; Kraepiel, Anne M. L.; Hedin, Lars O.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen fixation, the biological conversion of di-nitrogen to plant-available ammonium, is the primary natural input of nitrogen to ecosystems, and influences plant growth and carbon exchange at local to global scales. The role of this process in tropical forests is of particular concern, as these ecosystems harbour abundant nitrogen-fixing organisms and represent one third of terrestrial primary production. Here we show that the micronutrient molybdenum, a cofactor in the nitrogen-fixing enzyme nitrogenase, limits nitrogen fixation by free-living heterotrophic bacteria in soils of lowland Panamanian forests. We measured the fixation response to long-term nutrient manipulations in intact forests, and to short-term manipulations in soil microcosms. Nitrogen fixation increased sharply in treatments of molybdenum alone, in micronutrient treatments that included molybdenum by design and in treatments with commercial phosphorus fertilizer, in which molybdenum was a `hidden' contaminant. Fixation did not respond to additions of phosphorus that were not contaminated by molybdenum. Our findings show that molybdenum alone can limit asymbiotic nitrogen fixation in tropical forests and raise new questions about the role of molybdenum and phosphorus in the tropical nitrogen cycle. We suggest that molybdenum limitation may be common in highly weathered acidic soils, and may constrain the ability of some forests to acquire new nitrogen in response to CO2 fertilization.

  1. Radiological evaluation of ankle arthrodesis with Ilizarov fixation compared to internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Morasiewicz, Piotr; Dejnek, Maciej; Urbański, Wiktor; Dragan, Szymon Łukasz; Kulej, Mirosław; Dragan, Szymon Feliks

    2017-07-01

    We asked whether the type of ankle joint arthrodesis stabilization will affect: (1) rate of union, (2) rate of adjacted-joint arthritis, (3) malalignment of the ankle joint. We retrospectively radiological studied 62 patients who underwent ankle arthrodesis with Ilizarov external fixator stabilization (group 1,n=29) or internal stabilization (group 2,n=33) from 2006 to 2015. Radiologic outcomes were mesure by: (1) rate of union, (2) rate of adjacent-joint arthritis, (3) malalignment of the ankle joint. The Levene's test,Mann-Whitney U test and Students t-test were used to the statistical analyses. Ankle fusion was achieved in 100% of patients treated with external fixation and in 88% with internal stabilization. Desired frontal plane alignment was achieved in 100% of patients with external fixation and 76% with internal stabilization. Desired sagittal plane alignment was achieved in 100% of external fixation and 85% of internal stabilization. A total of 14 (48.3%) patients from group 1 showed a radiographic evidence of pre-existing adjacent-joint OA. The radiographic evidence of pre-existing adjacent-joint OA was also found in 27(81.8%) subjects from group 2. Alterations of adjacent joints were also found on postoperative radiograms of 19 (65.5%) patients subjected to Ilizarov fixation and in all 33 patients from group 2. Ilizarov fixation of ankle arthrodesis is associated with lower prevalence of adjacent-joint OA and ankle joint misalignment,and with higher fusion rates than after internal fixation.Although achieving a complex ankle fusion is generally challenging,radiological outcomes after fixation with the Ilizarov apparatus are better than after internal stabilization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical Results of Internal Fixation of Subcapital Femoral Neck Fractures.

    PubMed

    Kang, Joon Soon; Moon, Kyoung Ho; Shin, Joong Sup; Shin, Eun Ho; Ahn, Chi Hoon; Choi, Geon Hong

    2016-06-01

    Subcapital femoral neck is known to cause many complications, such as avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head or nonunion, compared with other femoral neck fractures. The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence of AVN and fixation failures in patients treated with internal fixation using cannulated screws for the subcapital femoral neck fractures. This study targeted a total of 84 cases of subcapital femoral neck fractures that underwent internal fixation using cannulated screws. The average follow-up time after surgery was 36.8 months (range, 24 to 148 months). Nine hips (10.7%) showing AVN of the femoral head and 6 hips (7.1%) showing fixation failures were observed. The factors affecting the incidence of AVN of the femoral head after sustaining fractures correlated well with fracture types in the Garden classification (p = 0.030). The factors affecting fixation failure were the degree of reduction (p = 0.001) measured by the Garden alignment index and firm fixation (p = 0.009) assessed using the technique of 3-point fixation through the inferomedial cortical bone of the femoral neck. The complication rates for subcapital femoral neck fractures were lower than those previously reported; hence, internal fixation could be a primary treatment option for these fractures.

  3. MRI analysis of the ISOBAR TTL internal fixation system for the dynamic fixation of intervertebral discs: a comparison with rigid internal fixation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we analyzed the efficacy of the posterior approach lumbar ISOBAR TTL internal fixation system for the dynamic fixation of intervertebral discs, with particular emphasis on its effects on degenerative intervertebral disc disease. Methods We retrospectively compared the MRIs of 54 patients who had previously undergone either rigid internal fixation of the lumbar spine or ISOBAR TTL dynamic fixation for the treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis. All patients had received preoperative and 6-, 12-, and 24-month postoperative MRI scans of the lumbar spine with acquisition of both routine and diffusion-weighted images (DWI). The upper-segment discs of the fusion were subjected to Pfirrmann grading, and the lumbar intervertebral discs in the DWI sagittal plane were manually drawn; the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value was measured. Results ADC values in the ISOBAR TTL dynamic fixation group measured at the 6-, 12-, and 24-month postoperative MRI studies were increased compared to the preoperative ADC values. The ADC values in the ISOBAR TTL dynamic fixation group at 24 months postoperatively were significantly different from the preoperative values (P < 0.05). At 24 months, the postoperative ADC values were significantly different between the rigid fixation group and the ISOBAR TTL dynamic fixation group (P < 0.05). Conclusion MRI imaging findings indicated that the posterior approach lumbar ISOBAR TTL internal fixation system can prevent or delay the degeneration of intervertebral discs. PMID:24898377

  4. Conversion of external fixation to open reduction and internal fixation for complex distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Natoli, R M; Baer, M R; Bednar, M S

    2016-05-01

    Distal radius fractures are common injuries treated in a multitude of ways. One treatment paradigm not extensively studied is initial treatment by external fixation (EF) followed by conversion to open reduction internal fixation (ORIF). Such a paradigm may be beneficial in damage control situations, when there is extensive soft tissue injury, or when appropriate personnel/hospital resources are not available for immediate internal fixation. There is no increased risk of infection when converting EF to ORIF in the treatment of complex distal radius fractures when conversion occurs early or if EF pin sites are overlapped by the definitive fixation. Using an IRB approved protocol, medical records over nine years were queried to identify patients with distal radius fractures that had undergone initial EF and were later converted to ORIF. Charts were reviewed for demographic data, injury characteristics, operative details, time to conversion from EF to ORIF, assessment of whether the EF pin sites overlapped the definitive fixation, presence of infection after ORIF, complications, and occupational therapy measurements of range of motion and strength. In total, 16 patients were identified, only one of which developed an infection following conversion to ORIF. Fisher's exact testing showed that infection did not depend on open fracture, time to conversion of one week or less, presence of EF pin sites overlapping definitive fixation, fracture classification, high energy mechanism of injury, or concomitant injury to the DRUJ. Planned staged conversion from EF to ORIF for complex distal radius fractures does not appear to result in an increased rate of infection if conversion occurs early or if the EF pin sites are overlapped by definitive fixation. This treatment paradigm may be reasonable for treating complex distal radius fractures in damage control situations, when there is extensive soft tissue injury, or when appropriate personnel/hospital resources are not available

  5. Anterior subcutaneous internal fixation for treatment of unstable pelvic fractures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fractures of the pelvic ring including disruption of the posterior elements in high-energy trauma have both high morbidity and mortality rates. For some injury pattern part of the initial resuscitation includes either external fixation or plate fixation to close the pelvic ring and decrease blood loss. In certain situations – especially when associated with abdominal trauma and the need to perform laparotomies – both techniques may put the patient at risk of either pintract or deep plate infections. We describe an operative approach to percutaneously close and stabilize the pelvic ring using spinal implants as an internal fixator and report the results in a small series of patients treated with this technique during the resuscitation phase. Findings Four patients were treated by subcutaneous placement of an internal fixator. Screw fixation was carried out by minimally invasive placement of two supra-acetabular iliac screws. Afterwards, a subcutaneous transfixation rod was inserted and attached to the screws after reduction of the pelvic ring. All patients were allowed to fully weight-bear. No losses of reduction or deep infections occurred. Fracture healing was uneventful in all cases. Conclusion Minimally invasive fixation is an alternative technique to stabilize the pelvic ring. The clinical results illustrate that this technique is able to achieve good results in terms of maintenance of reduction the pelvic ring. Also, abdominal surgeries no longer put the patient at risk of infected pins or plates. PMID:24606833

  6. Pathophysiology of infections after internal fixation of fractures.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A H; Swiontkowski, M F

    2000-01-01

    Infection complicating internal fixation of fractures is a serious complication that is difficult to treat. Whenever metallic devices are implanted in vivo, successful biointegration requires that host cells colonize the highly reactive implant surface. Bacteria such as staphylococci can also become adherent to metallic or polymeric implants and will compete with host cells for colonization of the implant surface. Once adherent, these bacteria form a biofilm and undergo phenotypic changes that make them resistant to the normal host immune response as well as to antibiotics. Furthermore, metallic implants themselves cause specific deficits in the function of the local immune system that may render the host response to infection inadequate. Any associated soft-tissue injury causes even greater impairment of local immune function. Despite the potentially detrimental impact of internal fixation, fracture stability is of paramount importance in achieving fracture union and in preventing infection. It has been demonstrated in animal models that contaminated fractures without internal fixation develop clinical infection more commonly than similar fractures treated with internal fixation at the time of colonization. Because of the potential for infection whenever internal fixation is utilized, appropriate prophylactic antibiotic coverage for staphylococci and Gram-negative organisms should be provided. Open wounds and severely damaged soft tissues require aggressive management so that a viable soft-tissue envelope is maintained around the implant. Host factors such as smoking and malnourishment should be corrected. Early diagnosis and aggressive treatment of implant-related infection with antibiotics, debridement, and maintenance of stable internal fixation are essential to successful treatment.

  7. [Complications of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures: a meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Yang, Z; Yuan, Z Z; Ma, J X; Ma, X L

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To make a systematic assessment of the complications of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures. Method: A computer-based online search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, BIOSIS, Springer and Cochrane Library were performed.The randomized and controlled trials of open reduction and internal fixation versus external fixation for unstable distal radius fractures were collected.The included trials were screened out strictly based on the criterion of inclusion and exclusion.The quality of included trials was evaluated.RevMan 5.0 was used for data analysis. Result: A total of 17 studies involving 1 402 patients were included.There were 687 patients with open reduction and internal fixation and 715 with external fixation.The results of Meta-analysis indicated that there were statistically significant differences with regard to the postoperatively total complications, infection, malunion, tendon rupture (I(2)=8%, RR=0.77(95%CI 0.65-0.91, Z=3.10, P<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences observed between two approaches with respect to nounion, re-operation, complex regional pain syndrome, carpal tunnel syndrome, neurapraxia, tendonitis, painful hardware, scar(P>0.05). Conclusion: Postoperative complications are present in both open reduction and internal fixation and external fixation.Compared with external fixation, open reduction and internal fixation is lower in total complications postoperatively, infection and malunion, but external fixation has lower tendon rupture incidence.

  8. Open Reduction, Internal Fixation Distal Intraarticular Distal Humerus Fracture.

    PubMed

    Fuller, David A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this video is to demonstrate the surgical repair of an intraarticular distal humerus fracture. A polytrauma patient with an intraarticular distal humerus fracture is shown. The patient is positioned laterally, with a posterior skin incision and olecranon osteotomy for exposure. An anatomic reduction is achieved, and internal fixation with perpendicular plating of the distal humerus is performed. The video is 18 minutes, 34 seconds duration in time and 2,048,752,000 bytes in size. Open reduction with internal fixation of a distal humerus fracture is demonstrated in this video.

  9. Intra-articular scapular fractures: Outcomes after internal fixation

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Sarah; Argintar, Evan; Jahn, Ryan; Zusmanovich, Mike; Itamura, John; Rick Hatch, George F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although operative treatment may offer an appropriate management option for displaced glenoid fractures, there is sparse research assessing post-operative functional outcomes. This study assessed functional outcomes of patients after undergoing open reduction and internal fixation of displaced glenoid fractures. Methods Fifteen patients were treated with open reduction and internal fixation for displaced intra-articular fractures between 2005 and 2010. The indication for operative fixation was intra-articular displacement >4 mm. Post-operative functional outcomes were assessed via retrospective chart review. Evaluation included review of pre-operative imaging for fracture type, review of post-operative plain radiographs for fracture healing, Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeon Assessment (ASES) scores at last follow-up. Results At a mean follow-up of 49 months (24–87 months) all patients had radiographic healing. The mean DASH score was 10 (range 0.83–29.17). Mean ASES score was 90 (range 41.7–100). No patients had evidence of hardware failure or infection. Conclusions Open reduction and internal fixation of displaced intra-articular glenoid fractures results in stable fixation and is associated with good functional outcome. Level of evidence Level IV. Case series. PMID:24396240

  10. Limited role of biochars in nitrogen fixation through nitrate adsorption.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Li, Hao; Zhang, Di; Wu, Min; Pan, Bo

    2017-08-15

    Nitrate cycling is essential in sustaining soil systems. Excessive application of N-fertilizers and the associated underground water contamination have attracted a great deal of research attention. Sorption is efficient and environmentally friendly in nitrate fixation. A debate was noted in literature regarding whether biochars have potential to fix nitrate through sorption. In this study, biochars produced from different biomasses as well as biomass compositions were chosen as the absorbents to evaluate their potential efficiencies in nitrate fixation. Increased sorption to nitrate was observed for biochars with increased pyrolysis temperature, but the increasing extent varied with biomass. The surface base functional groups and surface charges of biochars could not well explain nitrate sorption. The significant positive correlation between nitrate sorption and biochar surface areas suggested that surface area was the controlling parameter for nitrate sorption. The pre-coating of tannic acid (TA) on biochars decreased but did not completely inhibit nitrate sorption. This observation suggested that nitrate sorption on biochars may be further decreased after their interactions with natural organic matter. Nitrate sorption was compared among various adsorbents, including biochars, soil particles, clay minerals, engineered particles, as well as humic substances. Soil particles generally showed high sorption to nitrate over biochars. This result suggested that biochars investigated in this work may play a limited role in nitrate fixation through sorption after their massive application. Nitrogen fixation through nitrate adsorption on biochars should be carefully evaluated taking into consideration of biochar feedstocks and properties.

  11. Physiological limitations and the genetic improvement of symbiotic nitrogen fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Gara, F.O.; Manian, S. ); Drevon, J.J. )

    1988-01-01

    The rhizobium legume symbiosis continues to be of strategic importance particularly in the context of food production. As the world population grows, it is necessary that new developments take place in crop improvement. The development and application of new technologies in biological sciences over past years has made the entire area of plant-microbial interaction an exciting and challenging research area to be involved in. In view of the importance of symbiotic nitrogen fixation, it is not surprising that it still represents one of the priority areas for commercial development in agricultural biotechnology. Since this symbiosis involves an association between procaryotic and eucaryhotic partners, it requires of necessity a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach. This book focuses on physiological limitations affecting symbiotic nitrogen fixation and the potential for overcoming such limitations by using genetic technologies.

  12. Retrospective Comparison of Percutaneous Fixation and Volar Internal Fixation of Distal Radius Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Calderón, Santiago A.; Doornberg, Job N.

    2007-01-01

    A change in the practice of a single surgeon provided an opportunity for retrospective comparison of comparable cohorts treated with percutaneous fixation (17 patients) or a volar plate and screws (23 patients) an average of 30 months after surgery. The final evaluation was performed according to the Gartland and Werley and Mayo rating systems and the DASH questionnaire. There were no significant differences on the average scores for the percutaneous and volar plating groups, respectively: Gartland and Werley, 4 vs 5; Mayo, 82 vs 83; and DASH score 13 for both cohorts. Motion, grip, and radiographical parameters were likewise comparable. Volar internal plate and screw fixation can achieve results comparable to percutaneous fixation techniques in the treatment of fractures of the distal radius. PMID:18780085

  13. The limited anterior approach of the elbow for open reduction and internal fixation of capitellum fractures. Surgical technique and clinical experience in 2 cases with more than 2 years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros-Betancourt, J R; Fernández-Valencia, J A; García-Tarriño, R; Domingo-Trepat, A; Sastre-Solsona, S; Combalia-Aleu, A; Llusá-Pérez, M

    Fractures involving the capitellum can be treated surgically by excision of the fragment, or by reduction and internal fixation with screws, with or without heads. The lateral Kocher approach is the most common approach for open reduction. We believe that the limited anterior approach of the elbow, could be a valid technique for treating these fractures, as it does not involve the detachment of any muscle group or ligament, facilitating the recovery process. A description is presented of the surgical technique, as well as of 2cases with a Bryan-Morrey type 1 fracture (Dubberley type 1A). Two different final quality of life evaluation questionnaires were completed by telephone: the EuroQol Five Dimensions Questionnaire (EQ-5D), and the patient part of the Liverpool Elbow Score (PAQ-LES) questionnaire. The 2patients showed favourable clinical progress at 36 and 24 months, respectively, with an extension/flexion movement arc of -5°/145° and -10°/145°, as well as a pronosupination of 85°/80° and 90°/90°. The 2patients showed radiological consolidation with no signs of osteonecrosis. The EQ-5D score was 0.857 and 0.910 (range: 0.36-1), and a PAQ-SLE of 35 and 35 (range: 17-36), respectively. We believe that the limited anterior approach of the elbow is a technical option to consider for the open surgical treatment of a capitellum fracture, although further studies are needed to demonstrate its superiority and clinical safety compared to the classical lateral Kocher approach. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Fixation of Radiological Contamination; International Collaborative Development

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Demmer

    2013-03-01

    A cooperative international project was conducted by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the United Kingdom’s National Nuclear Laboratory (NNL) to integrate a capture coating with a high performance atomizing process. The initial results were promising, and lead to further trials. The somewhat longer testing and optimization process has resulted in a product that could be demonstrated in the field to reduce airborne radiological dust and contamination.

  15. Internal fixation of mandibular angle fractures: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Regev, Eran; Shiff, Jacob S; Kiss, Alex; Fialkov, Jeffrey A

    2010-06-01

    The degree of rigidity of internal fixation required for the treatment of mandibular angle fractures has long been at the center of debate in the literature. A statistical comparison between rigid fixation and monocortical fixation has been difficult because of multiple terms, definitions, and technical variations. The purpose of this study was to use the meta-analysis tool to combine information from multiple studies and to compare complication rates for different fixation methods. An English language literature search was conducted for articles on mandibular angle fractures. Information was collected on four variables of interest: compression/noncompression technique, monocortical/bicortical screws, number of plates, and location of plates. Five outcome rates were analyzed: infection, reoperation, hardware removal, malunion, and nonunion. Meta-analyses were run using Comprehensive Meta Analysis, version 2.2.03. Twenty-four studies with relevant data on the variables and outcomes of interest met the inclusion criteria. Significantly higher rates of infection, reoperation, and hardware removal were found for compression compared with noncompression, two plates compared with one plate, and for plates located on both the inferior and superior borders as compared with superior or inferior only. There were also significantly higher infection rates for bicortical screws compared with monocortical screws and higher malunion rates for compression compared with noncompression plating techniques. The results of this meta-analysis found lower complication rates with the use of noncompression, monocortical, and single-plate fixation, supporting the trend toward a single, superiorly placed, monocortical miniplate for fixation of mandibular angle fractures.

  16. A Prospective Randomized Trial to Assess Fixation Strategies for Severe Open Tibia Fractures: Modern Ring External Fixators Versus Internal Fixation (FIXIT Study).

    PubMed

    OʼToole, Robert V; Gary, Joshua L; Reider, Lisa; Bosse, Michael J; Gordon, Wade T; Hutson, James; Quinnan, Stephen M; Castillo, Renan C; Scharfstein, Daniel O; MacKenzie, Ellen J

    2017-04-01

    The treatment of high-energy open tibia fractures is challenging in both the military and civilian environments. Treatment with modern ring external fixation may reduce complications common in these patients. However, no study has rigorously compared outcomes of modern ring external fixation with commonly used internal fixation approaches. The FIXIT study is a prospective, multicenter randomized trial comparing 1-year outcomes after treatment of severe open tibial shaft fractures with modern external ring fixation versus internal fixation among men and women of ages 18-64. The primary outcome is rehospitalization for major limb complications. Secondary outcomes include infection, fracture healing, limb function, and patient-reported outcomes including physical function and pain. One-year treatment costs and patient satisfaction will be compared between the 2 groups, and the percentage of Gustilo IIIB fractures that can be salvaged without soft tissue flap among patients receiving external fixation will be estimated.

  17. Outcomes of Internal Fixation in a Combat Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    A variety of internal fixation procedures were performed to include 44 plate and/or screw (88%), four intramedullary nail (8%), and two tension band...that underwent intramedullary nailing at an Air Force Theater Hospital in Balad, Iraq. Two-thirds of the patients had high-energy ballistic injuries...JOURNAL OF SURGICAL ORTHOPAEDIC ADVANCES 5. Keeney, J. A., Ingari, J. V., Mentzer, K. D., et al. Closed intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures

  18. Internal fixators: a safe option for managing distal femur fractures?

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Bruno Bellaguarda; Salim, Rodrigo; Paccola, Cleber Antonio Jansen; Kfuri, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate safety and reliability of internal fixator for the treatment of intra-articular and periarticular distal femur fractures. METHODS: Retrospective data evaluation of 28 patients with 29 fractures fixed with internal fixator was performed. There was a predominance of male patients (53.5%), with 52% of open wound fractures, 76% of AO33C type fractures, and a mean follow up of 21.3 months. Time of fracture healing, mechanical axis deviation, rate of infection and postoperative complications were registered. RESULTS: Healing rate was 93% in this sample, with an average time of 5.5 months. Twenty-seven percent of patients ended up with mechanical axis deviation, mostly resulting from poor primary intra-operative reduction. There were two cases of implant loosening; two implant breakage, and three patients presented stiff knee. No case of infection was observed. Healing rate in this study was comparable with current literature; there was a high degree of angular deviation, especially in the coronal plane. CONCLUSION: Internal fixators are a breakthrough in the treatment of knee fractures, but its use does not preclude application of principles of anatomical articular reduction and mechanical axis restoration. Level of Evidence II, Retrospective Study. PMID:25061424

  19. Comparison of CT imaging artifacts from craniomaxillofacial internal fixation devices.

    PubMed

    Fiala, T G; Novelline, R A; Yaremchuk, M J

    1993-12-01

    This study compares the artifacts caused by craniomaxillofacial internal fixation devices in CT images. Mandibular reconstruction and "mini" titanium, Vitallium, and stainless steel systems, "micro" titanium and Vitallium systems, and stainless steel wires were evaluated. The hardware was placed on a nylon grid and submerged in water. CT images were obtained with both bone and soft-tissue window settings. All artifacts were compared and graded after a minimum of five observations each. The severity of "starburst" artifact was found to be related to the physical size of the fixation hardware and its composition. Titanium hardware caused the least amount of artifact. Vitallium and stainless steel fixation devices, with the exception of interfragmentary wiring, produced significantly more artifact. These results agree with theoretical predictions. The data indicate that when postoperative imaging is an important clinical consideration, (1) the least amount of implant material necessary to achieve stable fixation should be used, (2) the proximity of implant material to the area of interest should be considered, and (3) titanium implants produce less artifact than Vitallium or stainless steel implants.

  20. A biomechanical study of conventional acetabular internal fracture fixation versus locking plate fixation

    PubMed Central

    Mehin, Ramin; Jones, Bryn; Zhu, Qingan; Broekhuyse, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Background Conventional internal fixation entails the use of an interfragmentary lag screw along with a plate. Not all acetabular fractures are amenable to the placement of an interfragmentary lag screw, and the fracture may be displaced during tightening of the interfragmentary lag screw. Locking plates are a possible solution. We sought to determine whether a locking plate construct can provide stability equivalent to that provided with a conventional construct for transverse acetabular fractures. Methods We used 5 paired fresh-frozen cadaveric acetabula. We fixed one side with the conventional technique and the other side with a locking plate. We subjected each fixation to a cyclic compressive force up to 500 cycles, followed by compressive force until failure. We monitored 3-dimensional motion of the fracture. Results The average fracture gap at 50 N compressive force after 500 loading cycles was 0.41 (standard deviation [SD] 0.49) mm for the conventional plate and lag screw construct compared with 0.76 (SD 0.62) mm for the locked plate construct (p = 0.46). The force to failure, as defined by 2 mm of fracture gap, was 848 (SD 805) N for the conventional plate and lag screw construct compared with 506 (SD 277) N for the locked plate fixation (p = 0.34). Conclusion The locking plate construct is as strong as the conventional plate plus interfragmentary lag screw construct for fixing transverse acetabular fractures. Locking plates may improve management of acetabular fractures by eliminating the need for placement of an interfragmentary lag screw. Furthermore, they may be helpful in revision hip arthroplasty in patients with pelvic discontinuity. PMID:19503667

  1. Bladder incarceration following anterior external fixation of a traumatic pubic symphysis diastasis treated with immediate open reduction and internal fixation

    PubMed Central

    Finnan, Ryan P; Herbenick, Michael A; Prayson, Michael J; McCarthy, Mary C

    2008-01-01

    Anterior pelvic ring disruptions are often associated with injuries to the genitourinary structures with the potential for considerable resultant morbidity. Herniation of the bladder into the symphyseal region after injury with subsequent entrapment upon reduction of the symphyseal diastasis has seldom been reported in the literature. We report such a case involving bladder herniation and subsequent entrapment after attempted closed reduction with anterior pelvic external fixation immediately treated with open reduction and internal fixation along with a review of the literature. PMID:18928569

  2. Influence of internal fixation systems on radiation therapy for spinal tumor.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingfeng; Yan, Lei; Wang, Jianping; Cai, Lin; Hu, Dongcai

    2015-07-08

    In this study, the influence of internal fixation systems on radiation therapy for spinal tumor was investigated in order to derive a theoretical basis for adjustment of radiation dose for patients with spinal tumor and internal fixation. Based on a common method of internal fixation after resection of spinal tumor, different models of spinal internal fixation were constructed using the lumbar vertebra of fresh domestic pigs and titanium alloy as the internal fixation system. Variations in radiation dose in the vertebral body and partial spinal cord in different types of internal fixation were studied under the same radiation condition (6 MV and 600 mGy) in different fixation models and compared with those irradiated based on the treatment planning system (TPS). Our results showed that spinal internal fixation materials have great impact on the radiation dose absorbed by spinal tumors. Under the same radiation condition, the influence of anterior internal fixation material or combined anterior and posterior approach on radiation dose at the anterior border of the vertebral body was the greatest. Regardless of the kinds of internal fixation method employed, radiation dose at the anterior border of the vertebral body was significantly different from that at other positions. Notably, the influence of posterior internal fixation material on the anterior wall of the vertebral canal was the greatest. X-ray attenuation and scattering should be taken into consideration for most patients with bone metastasis that receive fixation of metal implants. Further evaluation should then be conducted with modified TPS in order to minimize the potentially harmful effects of inappropriate radiation dose.

  3. Internal Fixation of Cervical Fractures in Three Horses.

    PubMed

    Rossignol, Fabrice; Brandenberger, Olivier; Mespoulhes-Rivière, Céline

    2016-01-01

    To describe the surgical treatment outcome of cervical fractures in 3 horses. Case report. Three client-owned horses with cervical vertebral fractures. Three horses were refered for neck stiffness, pain, and ataxia after a cervical trauma because of a fall. Radiographic examination showed an oblique displaced fracture of the caudal aspect of the body of the second cervical vertebra (C2) in horse 1, an oblique displaced fracture of the caudal aspect of C4 involving the disc between C4 and C5 in horse 2, and a displaced transverse fracture of the body of the axis (C2) extending to the lateral arches and involving the vertebral canal in horse 3. In horse 1, the fracture was reduced and stabilized using a 14-hole narrow DCP plate, applied ventrally, and fixed with cancellous screws. A cervical fusion was performed. In horses 2 and 3, fracture fixation was performed using a 5-hole narrow LCP and 5 mm locking screws. All horses showed improvement and returned to full activity. The fracture healed in all horses. Internal fixation of cervical fracture in these horses was associated with minimal complications, and was associated with healing and a highly functional outcome in all horses. The LCP was preferred and would be recommended for ventral stabilization of selected cases of vertebral fractures. © Copyright 2015 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  4. A new adhesive technique for internal fixation in midfacial surgery

    PubMed Central

    Endres, Kira; Marx, Rudolf; Tinschert, Joachim; Wirtz, Dieter Christian; Stoll, Christian; Riediger, Dieter; Smeets, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    Background The current surgical therapy of midfacial fractures involves internal fixation in which bone fragments are fixed in their anatomical positions with osteosynthesis plates and corresponding screws until bone healing is complete. This often causes new fractures to fragile bones while drilling pilot holes or trying to insert screws. The adhesive fixation of osteosynthesis plates using PMMA bone cement could offer a viable alternative for fixing the plates without screws. In order to achieve the adhesive bonding of bone cement to cortical bone in the viscerocranium, an amphiphilic bone bonding agent was created, analogous to the dentin bonding agents currently on the market. Methods The adhesive bonding strengths were measured using tension tests. For this, metal plates with 2.0 mm diameter screw holes were cemented with PMMA bone cement to cortical bovine bone samples from the femur diaphysis. The bone was conditioned with an amphiphilic bone bonding agent prior to cementing. The samples were stored for 1 to 42 days at 37 degrees C, either moist or completely submerged in an isotonic NaCl-solution, and then subjected to the tension tests. Results Without the bone bonding agent, the bonding strength was close to zero (0.2 MPa). Primary stability with bone bonding agent is considered to be at ca. 8 MPa. Moist storage over 42 days resulted in decreased adhesion forces of ca. 6 MPa. Wet storage resulted in relatively constant bonding strengths of ca. 8 MPa. Conclusion A new amphiphilic bone bonding agent was developed, which builds an optimizied interlayer between the hydrophilic bone surface and the hydrophobic PMMA bone cement and thus leads to adhesive bonding between them. Our in vitro investigations demonstrated the adhesive bonding of PMMA bone cement to cortical bone, which was also stable against hydrolysis. The newly developed adhesive fixing technique could be applied clinically when the fixation of osteosynthesis plates with screws is impossible. With

  5. Wire internal fixation: an obsolete, yet valuable method for surgical management of facial fractures

    PubMed Central

    Bouletreau, Pierre; Konsem, Tarcissus; Traoré, Ibraïma; Coulibaly, Antoine Toua; Ouédraogo, Dieudonné

    2014-01-01

    In some developing countries wire is still widely used in facial fractures internal fixation. This study presents the effectiveness and complications of wire osteosynthesis in a university teaching hospital in Burkina Faso and discusses some of its other benefits and disadvantages. Notes of 227 patients with facial fractures treated by wire internal fixation at department of stomatology and maxillofacial surgery of CHU Souro Sanou, Burkina Faso between 2006 and 2010 are reviewed retrospectively. A satisfactory treatment outcome was recorded in 91.2% of the 227 patients. Complications occurred in 8.8% of the patients who had operative site infection (3.1%), malocclusion (1.8%), sensory disturbance (1.8), facial asymmetry (1.3%), delayed bone union (0.9%) or enophtalmos (0.4%). The overall complications rate was 7.4% after mandibular osteosynthesis, 6.9% after Le Fort osteosynthesis and 6.5% after zygoma osteosynthesis. Post operative infections occurred irrespective to the surgical site. The other complications were more specific to the surgical site. Wire internal fixation may be a reasonable alternative for the surgical treatment of non-comminuted facial fractures and those without bone substance loss, in the setting of limited resources. PMID:25237416

  6. Evolutionary tradeoffs can select against nitrogen fixation and thereby maintain nitrogen limitation.

    PubMed

    Menge, Duncan N L; Levin, Simon A; Hedin, Lars O

    2008-02-05

    Symbiotic nitrogen (N) fixing trees are absent from old-growth temperate and boreal ecosystems, even though many of these are N-limited. To explore mechanisms that could select against N fixation in N-limited, old-growth ecosystems, we developed a simple resource-based evolutionary model of N fixation. When there are no costs of N fixation, increasing amounts of N fixation will be selected for until N no longer limits production. However, tradeoffs between N fixation and plant mortality or turnover, plant uptake of available soil N, or N use efficiency (NUE) can select against N fixation in N-limited ecosystems and can thereby maintain N limitation indefinitely (provided that there are losses of plant-unavailable N). Three key traits influence the threshold that determines how large these tradeoffs must be to select against N fixation. A low NUE, high mortality (or turnover) rate and low losses of plant-unavailable N all increase the likelihood that N fixation will be selected against, and a preliminary examination of published data on these parameters shows that these mechanisms, particularly the tradeoff with NUE, are quite feasible in some systems. Although these results are promising, a better characterization of these parameters in multiple ecosystems is necessary to determine whether these mechanisms explain the lack of symbiotic N fixers-and thus the maintenance of N limitation-in old-growth forests.

  7. Fracture union following internal fixation in the HIV population.

    PubMed

    Gardner, R O E; Bates, J H; Ng'oma, E; Harrison, W J

    2013-06-01

    HIV is thought to be associated with increased rates of fracture non-union. We report on a prospective cohort of 96 HIV positive patients with 107 fractures that required internal fixation. The CD4 count was measured and patients were reviewed until eventual clinical or radiological union or non-union was established. Four percent of fractures (4 out of 100) failed to unite. Three patients required one further procedure to induce union, and two developed avascular necrosis. The CD4 count was not related to fracture union. Contrary to previous assumptions, this study suggests that HIV infection does not increase rates of non-union in surgically managed fractures. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolutionary tradeoffs can select against nitrogen fixation and thereby maintain nitrogen limitation

    PubMed Central

    Menge, Duncan N. L.; Levin, Simon A.; Hedin, Lars O.

    2008-01-01

    Symbiotic nitrogen (N) fixing trees are absent from old-growth temperate and boreal ecosystems, even though many of these are N-limited. To explore mechanisms that could select against N fixation in N-limited, old-growth ecosystems, we developed a simple resource-based evolutionary model of N fixation. When there are no costs of N fixation, increasing amounts of N fixation will be selected for until N no longer limits production. However, tradeoffs between N fixation and plant mortality or turnover, plant uptake of available soil N, or N use efficiency (NUE) can select against N fixation in N-limited ecosystems and can thereby maintain N limitation indefinitely (provided that there are losses of plant-unavailable N). Three key traits influence the threshold that determines how large these tradeoffs must be to select against N fixation. A low NUE, high mortality (or turnover) rate and low losses of plant-unavailable N all increase the likelihood that N fixation will be selected against, and a preliminary examination of published data on these parameters shows that these mechanisms, particularly the tradeoff with NUE, are quite feasible in some systems. Although these results are promising, a better characterization of these parameters in multiple ecosystems is necessary to determine whether these mechanisms explain the lack of symbiotic N fixers—and thus the maintenance of N limitation—in old-growth forests. PMID:18223153

  9. Open reduction and temporary internal fixation of a subacute elbow dislocation.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Valentin; Alqueza, Arnold; Mudgal, Chaitanya S

    2012-05-01

    We present the case of a 61-year-old woman with a subacute elbow dislocation, who was referred to our institution 4 weeks after a fall. She was treated with open reduction and temporary bridging internal fixation through a posterior approach with a limited contact dynamic compression plate. After 4 weeks, the hardware was removed. One year postoperatively, the patient had nearly pain-free motion of 20° short of full extension and full flexion. Her radiographs showed residual incongruity and degenerative arthritis of the elbow.

  10. The role of internal fixation for long bone metastasis prior to impending fracture: an experimental model.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohammad; Terai, Hidetomi; Yamada, Kentaro; Suzuki, Akinobu; Toyoda, Hiromitsu; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2013-07-01

    Patients with long bone metastasis have many therapeutic options, including surgery. However, the appropriate time for surgical intervention and the use of internal fixation prior to impending fracture remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to establish a long bone metastatic model with internal fixation, and to determine whether prophylactic internal fixation for long bone metastasis prior to impending fracture would affect bone destruction, tumor progression, and mortality. We implanted VX2 tumor cells into the tibiae of 45 rabbits divided equally into three groups: internal fixation, control, and sham groups. Rabbits were monitored by X-ray and computed tomography, and blood serum levels were examined every 2 weeks. Computed tomography data revealed significantly higher bone destruction in rabbit tibiae in the sham and control groups compared with those in the fixation group; there were volumetric bone losses of 0.2, 0.4, and 2.3% in the fixation, sham, and control groups, respectively, at 3 weeks, which increased to 1.2, 2.5, and 6.1% at 5 weeks. Rabbits in the fixation group showed significantly prolonged survival (64.5 ± 13.5 days) in comparison with rabbits in the sham group (50.3 ± 11.6 days) and control group (38.2 ± 4.9 days). Our results suggest that prophylactic internal fixation may hinder bone destruction and tumor progression, thus extending the survival period for patients with long bone metastasis.

  11. Open reduction internal fixation for midline mandibulotomy: lag screws vs plates.

    PubMed

    Danan, Deepa; Mukherjee, Sugoto; Jameson, Mark J; Shonka, David C

    2014-12-01

    Midline mandibulotomy is a common approach for resection of head and neck oral cavity and oropharyngeal tumors; however, there are limited data available on the outcomes of lag screw vs plate fixation. To compare outcomes for midline mandibulotomy open reduction and internal fixation using plates vs lag screw technique. Retrospective cohort study at a tertiary care academic medical center of patients undergoing midline mandibulotomy for head and neck tumor resection over a 6-year period. Mandibular fixation using lag screws or plates. The medical records and computed tomographic (CT) scans of patients undergoing midline mandibulotomy for head and neck tumor resection over a 6-year period were retrospectively reviewed. The postoperative CT scans were reviewed by a neuroradiologist who graded the fusion site on a scale of 0 to 2 using a 2-pass method. The rates and grades of union were compared, as well as several factors that affect healing, for fixations performed with plates vs lag screws. Thirty-seven patients were included. The overall rate of radiologic union was 90% (9 out of 10) for lag screw technique and 41% (11 out of 27) for plates (P = .01). The average grade of radiologic union was 1.3 for lag screws and 0.67 for plates (P = .04). Hardware exposure occurred in 4 (15%) of the plate group and fistulae formed in 3 (11%); neither complication occurred in the lag screw group. In univariate analysis, both presence of dentition (odds ratio [OR], 5.50 [95% CI, 1.33-22.73]; P = .02) and plate technique (OR, 13.09 [95% CI, 1.45-11.62]; P = .02) were significantly associated with nonunion. In multivariate analysis, plate technique had an OR of 8.32 (95% CI, 0.85-81.75) for nonunion (P = .07). Fixation of midline mandibulotomy with lag screws results in a significantly increased rate of radiologic union compared with plates. Lag screws were also significantly better at achieving radiologic union in patients who underwent postoperative radiation

  12. Treatment of Spinal Tuberculosis by Debridement, Interbody Fusion and Internal Fixation via Posterior Approach Only.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ming-xing; Zhang, Hong-qi; Wang, Yu-xiang; Guo, Chao-feng; Liu, Jin-yang

    2016-02-01

    Surgical treatment for spinal tuberculosis includes focal tuberculosis debridement, segmental stability reconstruction, neural decompression and kyphotic deformity correction. For the lesions mainly involved anterior and middle column of the spine, anterior operation of debridement and fusion with internal fixation has been becoming the most frequently used surgical technique for the spinal tuberculosis. However, high risk of structural damage might relate with anterior surgery, such as damage in lungs, heart, kidney, ureter and bowel, and the deformity correction is also limited. Due to the organs are in the front of spine, there are less complications in posterior approach. Spinal pedicle screw passes through the spinal three-column structure, which provides more powerful orthopedic forces compared with the vertebral body screw, and the kyphotic deformity correction effect is better in posterior approach. In this paper, we report a 68-year-old male patient with thoracic tuberculosis who underwent surgical treatment by debridement, interbody fusion and internal fixation via posterior approach only. The patient was placed in prone position under general anesthesia. Posterior midline incision was performed, and the posterior spinal construction was exposed. Then place pedicle screw, and fix one side rod temporarily. Make the side of more bone destruction and larger abscess as lesion debridement side. Resect the unilateral facet joint, and retain contralateral structure integrity. Protect the spinal cord, nerve root. Clear sequestrum, necrotic tissue, abscess of paravertebral and intervertebral space. Specially designed titanium mesh cages or bone blocks were implanted into interbody. Fix both side rods and compress both sides to make the mesh cages and bone blocks tight. Reconstruct posterior column structure with allogeneic bone and autologous bone. Using this technique, the procedures of debridement, spinal cord decompression, deformity correction, bone grafting

  13. The use of blood cell salvage in acetabular fracture internal fixation surgery.

    PubMed

    Bigsby, Ewan; Acharya, Mehool R; Ward, Anthony J; Chesser, Timothy Js

    2013-10-01

    To determine if the routine use of intraoperative blood cell salvage in acetabular fracture internal fixation reduces the need for allogenic blood transfusion, is cost effective, and whether it is influenced by the acetabular fracture pattern. A retrospective study. Tertiary pelvic and acetabular reconstructive center. Patients undergoing internal fixation for acetabular fractures. Eighty consecutive patients were reviewed, comprising 26 elementary fracture (EF) and 54 associated fracture (AF) types. The mean volume of autologous blood transfused was 484 mL. The mean volume of 561 mL of autologous blood transfused in patients with AF types was significantly greater than the mean volume of 325 mL transfused in the EF group (P = 0.007). Additional allogenic blood transfusion was required in 5 (19%) patients with EFs and 15 (28%) patients with AFs (P = 0.418). The mean cost of the blood cell salvage and additional blood products in our study was $223 (£135) for all fracture types ($174/£105 for EF and $246/£149 for AF).When treating AF types, the mean cost of using blood cell salvage was $246 (£149) as compared with the mean predicted cost of not using blood cell salvage and transfusing the equivalent of 1.7 units of allogenic blood instead, which was $463 (£281). These distributions are significantly different (P = 0.01). The use of blood cell salvage for internal fixation surgery for acetabular fracture is cost effective, particularly when treating AF types, and its routine use is advocated to limit the need for allogenic blood transfusion.

  14. A novel internal fixator device for peripheral nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ting-Hsien; Wilson, Robin E; Love, James M; Fisher, John P; Shah, Sameer B

    2013-06-01

    Recovery from peripheral nerve damage, especially for a transected nerve, is rarely complete, resulting in impaired motor function, sensory loss, and chronic pain with inappropriate autonomic responses that seriously impair quality of life. In consequence, strategies for enhancing peripheral nerve repair are of high clinical importance. Tension is a key determinant of neuronal growth and function. In vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that moderate levels of imposed tension (strain) can encourage axonal outgrowth; however, few strategies of peripheral nerve repair emphasize the mechanical environment of the injured nerve. Toward the development of more effective nerve regeneration strategies, we demonstrate the design, fabrication, and implementation of a novel, modular nerve-lengthening device, which allows the imposition of moderate tensile loads in parallel with existing scaffold-based tissue engineering strategies for nerve repair. This concept would enable nerve regeneration in two superposed regimes of nerve extension--traditional extension through axonal outgrowth into a scaffold and extension in intact regions of the proximal nerve, such as that occurring during growth or limb-lengthening. Self-sizing silicone nerve cuffs were fabricated to grip nerve stumps without slippage, and nerves were deformed by actuating a telescoping internal fixator. Poly(lactic co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) constructs mounted on the telescoping rods were apposed to the nerve stumps to guide axonal outgrowth. Neuronal cells were exposed to PLGA using direct contact and extract methods, and they exhibited no signs of cytotoxic effects in terms of cell morphology and viability. We confirmed the feasibility of implanting and actuating our device within a sciatic nerve gap and observed axonal outgrowth following device implantation. The successful fabrication and implementation of our device provides a novel method for examining mechanical influences on nerve regeneration.

  15. Ensuring precision in lower limb deformity correction through a combination of temporary external fixation followed by internal fixation: Results of a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ganjwala, Dhiren; Shah, Shrenik; Shah, Snehal

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is important to plan preoperatively when contemplating internal fixation following deformity correction. Surgeons often find it difficult to retain the achieved correction till the end of internal fixation. To maintain precise correction we used hybrid technique which uses both external and internal fixation. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this hybrid technique in achieving and retaining desired correction. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, we evaluated the magnitude of deformity with radiological parameters. We compared correction which was planned and correction which was achieved. The technique was used during surgery for corrective osteotomies. Before carrying out the osteotomy, rail fixator with two swivel clamps was applied. After osteotomy swivel clamps were loosened. Desired correction was achieved. While fixator held the fragments in corrected position, definitive internal fixation was carried out. External fixator was removed after completion of internal fixation. Position of mechanical axis ratio, mechanical lateral distal femoral angle and mechanical medial proximal tibial angle were measured before and 12 weeks after surgery. Student t-test was used to analyze the difference between correction which was planned and correction which was achieved. Results: There was no statistical difference between the desired correction and the correction achieved. Conclusions: Temporary use of external fixator while correcting angular deformities of lower limb allows to achieve accurate correction. PMID:25298557

  16. Treatment of Early Post-op Wound Infection after Internal Fixation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Approximately 10%-40% of severe fractures fixed with internal fixation develop a deep wound infection during the healing process. Thus, the overall...stable while the bone heals . Approximately 10%-40% of severe fractures fixed with internal fixation develop a deep wound infection during the... healing process. Thus, the overall goals of this study are to (1) evaluate the effect of treatment of post-op wound infection in long bones after

  17. Open reduction internal fixation for proximal humerus fractures indications, techniques, and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Brandon S; Egol, Kenneth A

    2013-01-01

    Proximal humerus fractures account for approximately 5% of all fractures. It is estimated that due to our aging population, orthopaedic surgeons will see a three-fold increase in proximal humerus fractures over the next 30 years. Internal fixation with locked plating is the current mainstay of treatment for functionally active patients who desire minimal loss of function. A thorough understanding of the indications, techniques, and drawbacks of treatment with internal fixation is essential to achieve the highest quality of patient care.

  18. Internal fixation for coronal shear fracture of the capitellum with polylactide resorbable fixation

    PubMed Central

    Kraan, Gerald A; Krijnen, Matthijs R; Eerenberg, Jan Peter

    2013-01-01

    A 24-year-old woman with pain in the right elbow after a fall demonstrated a coronal shear fracture on radiographic studies. Perioperative a coronal shear fracture was seen and treated successfully with a polylactide Rigid fix resorbable pin. The operative correction resulted in normal function at 6 months follow-up. We state that a capitellum shear fracture can be fixated with a single resorbable pin, leading to successful fusion. PMID:23378544

  19. Femoral neck shortening after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Stephanie M; Keijsers, Noël L; Praet, Stephan F E; Heetveld, Martin J; Bhandari, Mohit; Wilssens, Jean Pierre; Patka, Peter; Van Lieshout, Esther M M

    2013-07-01

    This study assesses femoral neck shortening and its effect on gait pattern and muscle strength in patients with femoral neck fractures treated with internal fixation. Seventy-six patients from a multicenter randomized controlled trial participated. Patient characteristics and Short Form 12 and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores were collected. Femoral neck shortening, gait parameters, and maximum isometric forces of the hip muscles were measured and differences between the fractured and contralateral leg were calculated. Variables of patients with little or no shortening, moderate shortening, and severe shortening were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. Median femoral neck shortening was 1.1 cm. Subtle changes in gait pattern, reduced gait velocity, and reduced abductor muscle strength were observed. Age, weight, and Pauwels classification were risk factors for femoral neck shortening. Femoral neck shortening decreased gait velocity and seemed to impair gait symmetry and physical functioning. In conclusion, internal fixation of femoral neck fractures results in permanent physical limitations. The relatively young and healthy patients in our study seem capable of compensating. Attention should be paid to femoral neck shortening and proper correction with a heel lift, as inadequate correction may cause physical complaints and influence outcome. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Callus Formation and Mineralization after Fracture with Different Fixation Techniques: Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis versus Open Reduction Internal Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Haoliang; Qin, Hui; An, Zhiquan

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis(MIPO) has been considered as an alternative for fracture treatment. Previous study has demonstrated that MIPO technique has the advantage of less soft tissue injury compared with open reduction internal fixation (ORIF). However, the comparison of callus formation and mineralization between two plate osteosynthesis methods remains unknown. In this experiment, ulna fracture model was established in 42 beagle dogs. The fractures underwent reduction and internal fixation with MIPO or ORIF. Sequential fluorescent labeling and radiographs were applied to determine new callus formation and mineralization in two groups after operation. At 4, 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively, the animals were selected to be sacrificed and the ulna specimens were analyzed by Micro-CT. The sections were also treated with Masson staining for histological evaluation. More callus formation was observed in MIPO group in early stage of fracture healing. The fracture union rate has no significant difference between two groups. The results indicate that excessive soft tissue stripping may impact early callus formation. As MIPO technique can effectively reduce soft tissue injury with little incision, it is considered to be a promising alternative for fracture fixation. PMID:26444295

  1. Biomechanical testing of two devices for internal fixation of fractured ribs.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Nicole; Richardson, Martin; Antippa, Phillip

    2010-05-01

    An intramedullary screw (Portland Orthopaedics, St. Clair, MI) and Inion (Tampere, Finland) Orthopaedic Trauma Plating System (OTPS) mesh for use for internal fixation of fractured ribs have not previously undergone biomechanical testing. The aim of this study is to compare the biomechanics of intact ribs undergoing four-point bending to the biomechanics of fractured ribs fixed with each of the two devices to determine which device provides superior fixation. Thirty fresh-frozen porcine ribs (ribs 6-8) were submitted to four-point bending to failure, at a rate of 2.5 mm/min, to determine stiffness and force at failure. The ribs were then randomized to receive fixation with either Inion OTPS mesh or an intramedullary screw. The fixated ribs were again submitted to four-point bending to failure. Ribs fixated with OTPS mesh were significantly stiffer and failed at a significantly higher load than ribs fixated with intramedullary screws (p = 0.0001). Ribs fixated with OTPS mesh were less stiff than intact ribs but failed at a similar force to intact ribs. The Inion OTPS mesh system provides superior fixation of fractured ribs compared with an intramedullary screw when tested with four-point bending. The OTPS mesh system also has the added advantage of being absorbable. The intramedullary screw needs to undergo modification and further testing before use in humans. Future studies should focus on more physiologic methods of loading.

  2. Clamping stiffness and its influence on load distribution between paired internal spinal fixation devices.

    PubMed

    Rohlmann, A; Calisse, J; Bergmann, G; Radvan, J; Mayer, H M

    1996-06-01

    The load distribution between two internal spinal fixation devices depends, besides other factors, on their stiffness. The stiffness ranges were determined experimentally for the clamps of the AO internal fixator with lateral nut and with posterior nut as well as for the clamps of the SOCON fixator. The stiffness of eight devices each differed by a factor of 3.1 for the clamp with lateral nut, by a factor of 1.5 for the clamp with posterior nut, and by a factor of 1.4 for the clamp of the SOCON fixator. For the AO clamp with lateral nut, the influence of the nut-tightening torque on the stiffness was determined. Using instrumented internal spinal fixation devices mounted to plastic vertebrae and simulating a corpectomy, the load distribution between the implants was measured for different tightening torques. It could be shown that, for the AO internal fixator whose clamps have a lateral nut, a nut-tightening torque > 5 Nm has only a negligible influence on load-sharing between the implants. Tooth damage occurs when the teeth of the clamp body and clamping jaw of the clamp with lateral nut do not gear together exactly, which leads to changes in the clamping stiffness and load-sharing between the two implants.

  3. Effect of cortical thickness and cancellous bone density on the holding strength of internal fixator screws.

    PubMed

    Seebeck, J; Goldhahn, J; Städele, H; Messmer, P; Morlock, M M; Schneider, E

    2004-11-01

    Internal fixators are a new class of implants designed to preserve the periosteal blood supply of the bone. In contrast to conventional plate fixation in which the screws have spherical heads and are loaded mainly by axial pullout forces, screws in internal fixators are "locked" within the plate and therefore subjected to axial as well as bending loads. In this study the ultimate loads of screws of a commercially available internal fixator system were tested in a pullout (n = 72) and cantilever bending mode (n = 72) in metaphyseal and diaphyseal regions of four pairs of human tibiae with different bone qualities. Cortical thickness and cancellous bone density were determined at the screw insertion sites. Stepwise multiple linear regression revealed that cortical thickness and cancellous density can explain 93% and 98% of the variance of the ultimate load of the screws in an axial pullout and cantilever bending mode. Screws in internal fixators are better suited to transmit shear forces and thereby make better use of the strength potential of bone than screws used in conventional plate fixation: this is especially advantageous when bone strength is reduced, e.g. due to osteoporosis.

  4. Treatment of Early Post-Op Wound Infection after Internal Fixation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Severe fractures are common in modern warfare with fractures ...being fixed via internal fixation of plates and screws to hold the fracture stable while the bone heals. Approximately 10%-40% of severe fractures ...effect of treatment of post-op wound infection in long bones after fracture fixation or joint fusion and either: (Group 1) operative debridement and

  5. A new device for internal fixation of thoracolumbar and lumbar spine fractures: the 'fixateur interne'.

    PubMed

    Dick, W; Kluger, P; Magerl, F; Woersdörfer, O; Zäch, G

    1985-08-01

    A new system of operative fixation of thoracolumbar and lumbar spine fractures is presented: the 'fixateur interne' (F.I.). From a posterior approach long Schanz screws are inserted through the pedicles into the body of the two vertebrae just adjacent to the lesion and connected by th threaded F.I. rods. By tightening the nuts the Schanz screws are fixed in all directions. The advantages of the F.I. system are: excellent reposition by the long lever-arm of the Schanz screws, immobilization of only two segments and therefore good mobility of the residual spine, stability against flexion forces better than is obtained with Harrington distraction rods, additional rotational stability, and fixation in lordosis or kyphosis as is desired. The F.I. does not act as a four point bending system like all other dorsal spine instrumentation systems, but provides stability in flexion by itself. Therefore it can be Used independently of the condition of all ligaments (including the anterior longitudinal ligament) and of the posterior wall of the fractured vertebrae, and there is no need to fix more than the two immediately adjacent vertebrae, thus avoiding the often painful and cumbersome iatrogenic loss of lumbar lordosis and of mobility and permitting early mobilization of the patient. Experience with the first 45 patients is very promising.

  6. Internal polarization limits coronagraph contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breckinridge, James Bernard; Lam, Wai Sze T.; Chipman, Russell A.

    2015-08-01

    The performance of exoplanet imaging coronagraphs is limited by internal polarization. The point spread function (PSF) of these systems is determined by the details of the opto-mechanical layout selected to package the system and by the highly reflective metal thin films needed to maintain high optical system transmittance. To obtain the high contrast levels needed for terrestrial exoplanet science requires a comprehensive understanding of the vector electromagnetic wave from the source through the system. The literature contains many studies of polarization transmissivity of telescopes and instruments for the purpose of photo-polarimetry. Here we report for the first time the effects of polarization on high-performance image quality.We modeled a typical 2.4-meter Cassegrain telescope system with one 90-degree fold mirror and analyzed the system for polarization aberrations.We find: 1. The image plane irradiance distribution is the linear superposition of four PSF images: One for each of the two orthogonal polarizations and one for each of two cross-product polarization terms. 2. The PSF image is brighter by 9% for one polarization component compared to its orthogonal state. 3. The image of the PSF for orthogonal components are shifted across the focal plane with respect to each other, causing the PSF image for astronomical sources (polarized or unpolarized) to become slightly elongated (elliptical) with a centroid separation of about 0.6 masec. 4. The orthogonally polarized components of unpolarized sources contain different wavefront aberrations, which are separated by approximately 32 milliwaves. This implies that a wavefront correction system cannot optimally correct the aberrations for all polarizations simultaneously. 5. The polarization aberrations couple small parts (~1E-5) of each polarization component of the light into the orthogonal polarization to create highly distorted secondary, or “ghost” PSF image.. The radius of the spatial extent of the 90

  7. Distal tibial pilon fractures (AO/OTA type B, and C) treated with the external skeletal and minimal internal fixation method.

    PubMed

    Milenković, Sasa; Mitković, Milorad; Micić, Ivan; Mladenović, Desimir; Najman, Stevo; Trajanović, Miroslav; Manić, Miodrag; Mitković, Milan

    2013-09-01

    Distal tibial pilon fractures include extra-articular fractures of the tibial metaphysis and the more severe intra-articular tibial pilon fractures. There is no universal method for treating distal tibial pilon fractures. These fractures are treated by means of open reduction, internal fixation (ORIF) and external skeletal fixation. The high rate of soft-tissue complications associated with primary ORIF of pilon fractures led to the use of external skeletal fixation, with limited internal fixation as an alternative technique for definitive management. The aim of this study was to estimate efficacy of distal tibial pilon fratures treatment using the external skeletal and minimal internal fixation method. We presented a series of 31 operated patients with tibial pilon fractures. The patients were operated on using the method of external skeletal fixation with a minimal internal fixation. According to the AO/OTA classification, 17 patients had type B fracture and 14 patients type C fractures. The rigid external skeletal fixation was transformed into a dynamic external skeletal fixation 6 weeks post-surgery. This retrospective study involved 31 patients with tibial pilon fractures, average age 41.81 (from 21 to 60) years. The average follow-up was 21.86 (from 12 to 48) months. The percentage of union was 90.32%, nonunion 3.22% and malunion 6.45%. The mean to fracture union was 14 (range 12-20) weeks. There were 4 (12.19%) infections around the pins of the external skeletal fixator and one (3.22%) deep infections. The ankle joint arthrosis as a late complication appeared in 4 (12.90%) patients. All arthroses appeared in patients who had type C fractures. The final functional results based on the AOFAS score were excellent in 51.61%, good in 32.25%, average in 12.90% and bad in 3.22% of the patients. External skeletal fixation and minimal internal fixation of distal tibial pilon fractures is a good method for treating all types of inta-articular pilon fractures. In

  8. Iron and phosphorus co-limit nitrogen fixation in the eastern tropical North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew M.; Ridame, Celine; Davey, Margaret; La Roche, Julie; Geider, Richard J.

    2004-05-01

    The role of iron in enhancing phytoplankton productivity in high nutrient, low chlorophyll oceanic regions was demonstrated first through iron-addition bioassay experiments and subsequently confirmed by large-scale iron fertilization experiments. Iron supply has been hypothesized to limit nitrogen fixation and hence oceanic primary productivity on geological timescales, providing an alternative to phosphorus as the ultimate limiting nutrient. Oceanographic observations have been interpreted both to confirm and refute this hypothesis, but direct experimental evidence is lacking. We conducted experiments to test this hypothesis during the Meteor 55 cruise to the tropical North Atlantic. This region is rich in diazotrophs and strongly impacted by Saharan dust input. Here we show that community primary productivity was nitrogen-limited, and that nitrogen fixation was co-limited by iron and phosphorus. Saharan dust addition stimulated nitrogen fixation, presumably by supplying both iron and phosphorus. Our results support the hypothesis that aeolian mineral dust deposition promotes nitrogen fixation in the eastern tropical North Atlantic.

  9. Flavone Limitations to Root Nodulation and Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Alfalfa 1

    PubMed Central

    Kapulnik, Yoram; Joseph, Cecillia M.; Phillips, Donald A.

    1987-01-01

    Transcription of the nodABC genes in Rhizobium meliloti is required for root nodule formation in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and occurs when specific compounds, such as the flavone luteolin, are supplied by the host plant. Results reported here indicate how luteolin in the root and rhizosphere can affect subsequent N2 fixation and plant growth. Previous experiments with `Hairy Peruvian 32' (HP32), an alfalfa population produced from `Hairy Peruvian' (HP) by two generations of selection for increased N2 fixation and growth, found that HP32 had more root nodules and fixed more N2 than the parental HP population. In the present study, flavonoid extracts of HP32 seedling roots are shown to contain a 60% higher concentration of compounds that induce transcription of a nodABC-lacZ fusion in R. meliloti than comparable extracts of HP roots. Chromatographic data indicated that HP32 roots had a 77% higher concentration of luteolin than HP roots. Adding 10 micromolar luteolin to the rhizosphere of HP seedlings increased nodulation, N2 fixation, total N, and total dry weight but had no effect on nitrate assimilation. These data show that normal levels of flavone nodulation signals in the rhizosphere of HP alfalfa can limit root nodulation, symbiotic N2 fixation, and seedling growth and suggest that one mechanism for increasing N2 fixation can be the genetic enhancement of specific biochemical signals which induce nodulation genes in Rhizobium. PMID:16665583

  10. The use of pedicle-screw internal fixation for the operative treatment of spinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Gaines, R W

    2000-10-01

    Pedicle screws have dramatically improved the outcomes of spinal reconstruction requiring spinal fusion. Short-segment surgical treatments based on the use of pedicle screws for the treatment of neoplastic, developmental, congenital, traumatic, and degenerative conditions have been proved to be practical, safe, and effective. The Funnel Technique provides a straightforward, direct, and inexpensive way to very safely apply pedicle screws in the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar spine. Carefully applied pedicle-screw fixation does not produce severe or frequent complications. Pedicle-screw fixation can be effectively and safely used wherever a vertebral pedicle can accommodate a pedicle screw--that is, in the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar spine. Training in pedicle-screw application should be standard in orthopaedic training programs since pedicle-screw fixation represents the so-called gold standard of spinal internal fixation.

  11. Functional outcome after successful internal fixation versus salvage arthroplasty of patients with a femoral neck fracture

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Stephanie M.; Keijsers, Noël L.; Praet, Stephan F.E.; Heetveld, Martin J.; Bhandari, Mohit; Wilssens, Jean Pierre; Patka, Peter; Van Lieshout, Esther M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine patient independency, health-related and disease-specific quality of life (QOL), gait pattern, and muscle strength in patients after salvage arthroplasty for failed internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture. Design Secondary cohort study to a randomized controlled trial. Setting Multicenter trial in the Netherlands, including 14 academic and non-academic hospitals Patients Patients after salvage arthroplasty for failed internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture were studied. A comparison was made with patients who healed uneventfully after internal fixation. Intervention None (observatory study) Main outcome measurements Patient characteristics, SF-12, and WOMAC scores were collected. Gait parameters were measured using plantar pressure measurement. Maximum isometric forces of the hip muscles were measured using a handheld dynamometer. Differences between the fractured and contralateral leg were calculated. Groups were compared using univariate analysis. Results Of 248 internal fixation patients (median age 72 years), salvage arthroplasty was performed in 68 patients (27%). Salvage arthroplasty patients had a significantly lower WOMAC score (median 73 versus 90, P=0.016) than patients who healed uneventfully after internal fixation. Health-related QOL (SF-12) and patient independency did not differ significantly between the groups. Gait analysis showed a significantly impaired progression of the center of pressure in the salvage surgery patients (median ratio −8.9 versus 0.4, P=0.013) and a significant greater loss of abduction strength (median −25.4 versus −20.4 N, P=0.025). Conclusion Despite a similar level of dependency and QOL, salvage arthroplasty patients have inferior functional outcome than patients who heal after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture. PMID:24835623

  12. Functional outcome after successful internal fixation versus salvage arthroplasty of patients with a femoral neck fracture.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Stephanie M; Keijsers, Noël L; Praet, Stephan F E; Heetveld, Martin J; Bhandari, Mohit; Wilssens, Jean Pierre; Patka, Peter; Van Lieshout, Esther M M

    2014-12-01

    To determine patient independency, health-related and disease-specific quality of life (QOL), gait pattern, and muscle strength in patients after salvage arthroplasty for failed internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture. Secondary cohort study to a randomized controlled trial. Multicenter trial in the Netherlands, including 14 academic and nonacademic hospitals. Patients after salvage arthroplasty for failed internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture were studied. A comparison was made with patients who healed uneventfully after internal fixation. None (observatory study). Patient characteristics, SF-12, and Western Ontario McMaster osteoarthritis index scores were collected. Gait parameters were measured using plantar pressure measurement. Maximum isometric forces of the hip muscles were measured using a handheld dynamometer. Differences between the fractured and contralateral leg were calculated. Groups were compared using univariate analysis. Of 248 internal fixation patients (median age, 72 years), salvage arthroplasty was performed in 68 patients (27%). Salvage arthroplasty patients had a significantly lower Western Ontario McMaster osteoarthritis index score (median, 73 vs. 90; P = 0.016) than patients who healed uneventfully after internal fixation. Health-related QOL (SF-12) and patient independency did not differ significantly between the groups. Gait analysis showed a significantly impaired progression of the center of pressure in the salvage surgery patients (median ratio, -8.9 vs. 0.4, P = 0.013) and a significant greater loss of abduction strength (median, -25.4 vs. -20.4 N, P = 0.025). Despite a similar level of dependency and QOL, salvage arthroplasty patients have inferior functional outcome than patients who heal after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture. Therapeutic level III.

  13. Internal fixation versus arthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures: what is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Heetveld, Martin J; Rogmark, Cecilia; Frihagen, Frede; Keating, John

    2009-07-01

    A review of the current evidence for internal fixation versus hemiarthroplasty versus primary total hip arthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures was undertaken. At the meta-analysis level no difference in postoperative pain, function, or quality of life can yet be demonstrated. A significant difference in mortality has also not been found, but a trend towards higher mortality after primary arthroplasty is possible. Internal fixation (IF) has less morbidity, but a higher risk of revision and less cost-effectiveness. Independent adjudication for IF technique is rare in studies and bias towards higher revision rates due to technical failure is an issue. Randomized trials comparing IF with arthroplasty remain underpowered in specific subgroups of patients, in which IF revision rates could be acceptable. In hemiarthroplasty the data suggest minimal differences in outcome between the prosthesis types. The cementless Austin-Moore prosthesis is out-dated. Currently a cemented unipolar or bipolar, depending on costs, hemi-arthroplasty is the treatment of choice for an elderly patient with functional limitations before the fracture. The role of modern, uncemented hemiarthroplasty designs are uncertain until more data are published. Total hip arthroplasty (THA) should be considered in any active older patient with a displaced femoral neck fracture. Patients with concomitant osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or renal failure do poorly with other treatment options and should be treated with THA. Randomized trials have shown THA to be a cost-effective treatment with lower revision rates than IF. THA may also appear to be superior to hemiarthroplasty in specific subgroups, but larger trials are needed to confirm this observation.

  14. Subluxation of the hip joint after internal fixation of a trochanteric fracture.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Kazuo; Murotani, Rentaroh; Mogami, Atsuhiko; Okahara, Hitoshi; Ohbayashi, Osamu; Iwase, Hideaki; Fujita, Hidemine; Kurosawa, Hisashi

    2004-02-01

    The authors report an unusual case of hip subluxation after internal fixation without associated sepsis. We report one recently treated case in which a 75-year-old female experienced subluxation of her hip joint after open reduction and internal fixation for a trochanteric fracture. In this paper, we describe a case of progressive, spontaneous subluxation of the hip joint over several weeks. Most previously reported cases are associated with cerebral palsy. This entity has not been reported previously. Our patient was treated by hemi-arthroplasty and repair of the disrupted capsule, and achieved a good long-term functional result. The cause of this particular condition is discussed.

  15. An Overview of Internal Fixation Implant Metallurgy and Galvanic Corrosion Effects.

    PubMed

    Koh, Justin; Berger, Aaron; Benhaim, Prosper

    2015-08-01

    Orthopedic and hand surgery implants for internal fixation of fractures have evolved substantially over the past 50 years. Newer metal compositions have been used, and new standards have been applied to older alloys, resulting in modern implants with unique physical properties and better clinical performances. Conventional wisdom has long dictated that implanting different metals should be avoided, but few guidelines exist regarding the safety of using in proximity implant systems of dissimilar metals. To better characterize the landscape of internal fixation implant metallurgy, we have compiled the recommendations and conclusions of the currently available and pertinent literature.

  16. [Mechanobiology of fracture healing part 2 : Relevance for internal fixation of fractures].

    PubMed

    Claes, L

    2017-01-01

    Clinical studies do not allow a quantitative correlation between stability of fracture fixation and outcome of bone healing. This limits the biomechanical improvement of fracture fixation techniques. The most practical quantitative parameter to describe the stability of a fracture fixation is the stiffness. This can be determined for several types of fixation through biomechanical methods and in some clinical studies in vivo. By using numerical fracture healing models, it is now possible to use the tissue differentiation rules found in basic research to calculate optimal stiffness parameters for various fixation techniques. For a tibial fracture as an example the possibilities of a numerical fracture healing simulation have been demonstrated. The effects of the diameter of an intramedullary nail, type of fracture, fracture gap size and nail material on healing could be demonstrated. To circumvent complex and time consuming calculations for several fixations a map was calculated which shows the expected bone healing quality as a function of the axial stiffness and the shear stiffness of the fixation device. By comparing the stiffness of various fixation techniques with the stiffness map it becomes evident that the methods most often used (e.g. unreamed nail, plate and external fixator) have a low shear and/or rotational stiffness that is too low to achieve the optimal healing outcome. The high axial stiffness of plates next to the plate surface can lead to very low tissue strain directly adjacent to the plate and can delay the bone healing process at this location.

  17. Principles of internal fixation and selection of implants for periprosthetic femoral fractures.

    PubMed

    Giannoudis, Peter V; Kanakaris, Nikolaos K; Tsiridis, Eleftherios

    2007-06-01

    Periprosthetic femoral fractures (PFF) are increasing as a result of changes in population demographics and the increase in the number of total hip replacements performed. The overall incidence has been reported to range from 0.1% to 6% of all total hip arthroplasties. Management of these fractures is often particularly demanding, complex and expensive. In many cases, the surgeon has to solve the simultaneous problems of implant loosening, bone loss and fracture. A thorough understanding of the unique characteristics of the different fracture types, the principles of PFF treatment and a familiarity with the various fixation devices, grafts and prosthetic implants are all of paramount importance. Internal fixation is used either alone or as an adjunct to stem revision. The stability of the original implant and the configuration of the fracture itself are the basic factors that influence the decision-making process. The current study reviews the existing literature on internal fixation of femoral periprosthetic fractures.

  18. COMPARISON OF VOLUMES OCCUPIED BY DIFFERENT INTERNAL FIXATION DEVICES FOR FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Lauxen, Daniel; Schwartsmann, Carlos Roberto; Silva, Marcelo Faria; Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas; Strohaecker, Telmo Roberto; Souza, Ralf Wellis de; Zimmer, Cinthia Gabriely; Boschin, Leonardo Carbonera; Gonçalves, Ramiro Zilles; Yépez, Anthony Kerbes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this paper is to measure the volume occupied by the most widely used internal fixation devices for treating femoral neck fractures, using the first 30, 40 and 50 mm of insertion of each screw as an approximation. The study aimed to observe which of these implants caused least bone aggression. Methods: Five types of cannulated screws and four types of dynamic hip screws (DHS) available on the Brazilian market were evaluated in terms of volume differences through water displacement. Results: Fixation with two cannulated screws presented significantly less volume than shown by DHS, for insertions of 30, 40 and 50 mm (p=0.01, 0.012 and 0.013, respectively), fixation with three screws did not show any statistically significant difference (p= 0.123, 0.08 and 0.381, respectively) and fixation with four cannulated screws presented larger volumes than shown by DHS (p=0.072, 0.161 and 0.033). Conclusions: Fixation of the femoral neck with two cannulated screws occupied less volume than DHS, with a statistically significant difference. The majority of screw combinations did not reach statistical significance, although fixation with four cannulated screws presented larger volumes on average than those occupied by DHS. PMID:27047886

  19. Clinical results of using the proximal humeral internal locking system plate for internal fixation of displaced proximal humeral fractures.

    PubMed

    Norouzi, Masoud; Naderi, Mohammad Nasir; Komasi, Mehdi Hemmati; Sharifzadeh, Seyyed Reza; Shahrezaei, Mostafa; Eajazi, Alireza

    2012-05-01

    Proximal humerus fractures are accounting for 4-5% of all fractures with increasing incidence. Proximal Humeral Internal Locking System (PHILOS) plate is a new plate which permits early mobility and lowers the risk of complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional outcome and the complication rate after using this plate. Between 2006-2008, 37 patients with displaced 2-, 3-, and 4-part fractures of the proximal humerus underwent surgery using PHILOS plate. The mean range of follow-up was 12 months. Twenty patients were aged 60 years and younger, and 17 were aged older than 60 years. The average American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score at the final follow-up was 77.62. According to Michener and colleagues classification, 5.4% of patients had an excellent outcome, 72.9% were minimally functionally limited, 16.2% were moderately functionally limited, and 5.4% were maximally functionally limited. The average ASES score between patients 60 years and older and those 60 years and younger was not different significantly. One patient developed avascular necrosis of the humeral head, 2 patients developed an infection, and no patients developed a nonunion. Fixation with PHILOS plate can be considered a good method with high union rates for this kind of fracture, especially in the older population with osteoporotic bone.

  20. Auxetic polymeric bone plate as internal fixator for long bone fractures: Design, fabrication and structural analysis.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Seemab; Ali, Murtaza Najabat; Ansari, Umar; Mir, Mariam; Khan, Munezza Ata

    2015-01-01

    Injuries cover about 11% of World's Disease Burden depicting fractures to be the leading severe consequence of trauma. Fractures occur due to force impact or osteoporosis. Fracture healing is a complicated process. Fracture fixation techniques focus on imparting reduction to fractured fragments and induce healing. When considering possible fixation methods, the aspect of micro-movement is an important one, as this induces callus formation which tends to be a crucial step for fracture healing. Internal fixation of long bone fractures using metallic plates has been carried out since decades and recently advancements have been in synthesizing biodegradable plates as well. The purpose of this research was to fabricate an Auxetic Polymeric Bone Plate that can be used as an internal fixator for long bone fracture; this bone plate renders micro-movement due to its counter intuitive behavior, has the potential to reduce the effect of stress shielding and allow the same range of motion as that of natural bone. Polyurethane was chosen as a material for the fabrication of the Auxetic device because of its biocompatibility and non-toxic effects. The plate was then tested for mechanical properties such as Tensile and Compression testing to determine the strength. The tensile testing of the Auxetic polyurethane specimens showed that the mean of the Poisson's ratio of the samples lies between -0.68 and -0.87 at different uni-axial tensile load values. The Auxetic structure of our device has the potential to allow for efficient fixation because its negative Poisson's ratio offers micro-movement, thereby causing fixation with relative stability rather than absolute stability. The Auxetic bone plate can be superior to contemporary plate fixation systems, as it demands meaningfully small contact points. The suitable mechanical properties might lessen stress shielding effects that are normally caused by rigid bone plates. The Auxetic nature of the bone will help align and sustain the

  1. Molybdenum and phosphorus limitation of moss-associated nitrogen fixation in boreal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Rousk, Kathrin; Degboe, Jefferson; Michelsen, Anders; Bradley, Robert; Bellenger, Jean-Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) performed by moss-associated cyanobacteria is one of the main sources of new nitrogen (N) input in pristine, high-latitude ecosystems. Yet, the nutrients that limit BNF remain elusive. Here, we tested whether this important ecosystem function is limited by the availability of molybdenum (Mo), phosphorus (P), or both. BNF in dominant mosses was measured with the acetylene reduction assay (ARA) at different time intervals following Mo and P additions, in both laboratory microcosms with mosses from a boreal spruce forest and field plots in subarctic tundra. We further used a (15) N2 tracer technique to assess the ARA to N2 fixation conversion ratios at our subarctic site. BNF was up to four-fold higher shortly after the addition of Mo, in both the laboratory and field experiments. A similar positive response to Mo was found in moss colonizing cyanobacterial biomass. As the growing season progressed, nitrogenase activity became progressively more P limited. The ARA : (15) N2 ratios increased with increasing Mo additions. These findings show that N2 fixation activity as well as cyanobacterial biomass in dominant feather mosses from boreal forests and subarctic tundra are limited by Mo availability.

  2. Is the Mandibular Growth Affected by Internal Rigid Fixation?: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Olarte, Humberto; Gómez-Delgado, Andrés; López-Dávila, Dayan; Rangel-Perdomo, Rodolfo; Lafaurie, Gloria Inés; Chambrone, Leandro

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate, in animal model-based studies, whether there are mandibular growth alterations, after open reduction and internal rigid fixation with titanium plates and screws. A literature search was conducted using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS databases, up to and including August 2015. Surgical reduction and internal rigid fixation (IRF) of induced fractures were compared to non-invasive procedures, in order to investigate if there were alterations in the mandibular growth patterns. Of a total of 624 potentially relevant papers identified through the searching process, five were eligible for inclusion. Three studies using 3-month old New Zealand white rabbits induced fractures of mandibular body or symphysis and internal fixation with titanium microplates and screws, whereas two were based on 6-month old goats with condylar fracture. None of the studies showed statistically significant difference between experimental and control groups. As literature regarding this subject is scarce, and the included studies show low level of evidence, it is not possible to conclude that open reduction and internal rigid fixation with titanium plates and screws cause significant growing alteration of the mandible.

  3. Maintenance of hardware after early postoperative infection following fracture internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Berkes, Marschall; Obremskey, William T; Scannell, Brian; Ellington, J Kent; Hymes, Robert A; Bosse, Michael

    2010-04-01

    The development of a deep wound infection in the presence of hardware after open reduction and internal fixation presents a clinical dilemma, and there is scant literature to aid in decision-making. The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of osseous union with maintenance of hardware after the development of postoperative infection within six weeks after internal fixation of a fracture. The present study included 121 patients from three level-I trauma centers, retrospectively identified from billing and trauma registries, in whom 123 postoperative wound infections with positive intraoperative cultures had developed within six weeks after internal fixation of acute fractures. The incidence of fracture union without hardware removal was calculated, and the parameters that predicted success or failure were evaluated. Eighty-six patients (eighty-seven fractures; 71%) had fracture union with operative débridement, retention of hardware, and culture-specific antibiotic treatment and suppression. Predictors of treatment failure were open fracture (p = 0.03) and the presence of an intramedullary nail (p = 0.01). Several variables were not significant but trended toward an association with failure, including smoking, infection with Pseudomonas species, and involvement of the femur, tibia, ankle, or foot. Deep infection after internal fixation of a fracture can be treated successfully with operative débridement, antibiotic suppression, and retention of hardware until fracture union occurs. These results may be improved by patient selection based on certain risk factors and the specific bacteria and implants involved.

  4. Osteotomy, compression and other modifications of surgical techniques for internal fixation of extracapsular hip fractures.

    PubMed

    Parker, Martyn J; Handoll, Helen H G

    2009-04-15

    Many different surgical techniques have been described for the internal fixation of extracapsular hip fractures. To compare different aspects of surgical technique used in operations for internal fixation of extracapsular hip fractures in adults. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (January 2008), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 1), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Current Controlled Trials, orthopaedic journals, conference proceedings and reference lists of articles. Date of last search was January 2008. No language restriction was applied. All randomised and quasi-randomised trials investigating operative techniques used in operations for the treatment of extracapsular hip fractures in adults. Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed trial quality and extracted data. Wherever appropriate, data were pooled. Predominantly older people with trochanteric fractures were treated in the 11 included trials.One trial (65 participants undergoing fixation with a fixed nail-plate) found no statistically significant differences between osteotomy versus anatomical reduction. Four trials, involving 465 participants undergoing fixation with a sliding hip screw (SHS), compared osteotomy versus anatomical reduction. Osteotomy was associated with an increased operative blood loss and length of surgery. There were no statistically significant differences for mortality, morbidity or measures of anatomical deformity.Two trials (138 participants) compared SHS fixation of a trochanteric hip fracture augmented with cement against a standard fixation. There were no reoperations even for the four cases of fixation failure in the cement group. The cement group had significantly better quality of life scores at six months. One trial (200 participants) comparing compression versus no compression of a trochanteric fracture in conjunction with SHS fixation found no significant

  5. Conversion of failed proximal femoral internal fixation to total hip arthroplasty in osteopetrotic bone.

    PubMed

    Ramiah, Reagon D; Baker, Richard P; Bannister, Gordon C

    2006-12-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare disease. When fractures are encountered, fixation is extremely difficult. A 38-year-old man with osteopetrosis who sustained a displaced Pauwels type IV fracture with 3 failed internal fixations required total hip arthroplasty. Two main problems were perceived during preoperative planning: the removal of failed and broken metalwork and reaming of the tight intramedullary canal to allow seating of the femoral stem. We present technical solutions to aid the surgeon in the management of this difficult type of case using custom-made tungsten carbide instrumentation.

  6. Finite element analysis of the stability of combined plate internal fixation in posterior wall fractures of acetabulum

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xi-Ming; Pan, Chang-Wu; Wang, Guo-Dong; Cai, Xian-Hua; Chen, Lei; Meng, Cheng-Fei; Huang, Jin-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to explore the mechanical stability of combined plate internal fixation in posterior wall fractures of the acetabulum. Methods: The fracture and internal fixation models were established in this study and they were divided into four kinds of internal fixation models, finite element analysis was performed. The four groups were 2 mini-plates and 1 reconstruction plate fixation (A), Reconstruction plate internal fixation group (B), 2 screws internal fixation group (C) and mini-plates internal fixation group (D). The displacement of each node was measured and evaluated. Results: There was no distortion in the geometric shape of the finite element model. The results of stress showed that it was less in the anterior pelvic ring and distributed uniform in labrum acetabulare; the stress was bigger in the upper and middle of sacroiliac joint and sciatic notch in sitting position. Conclusions: Combined plate internal fixation for posterior wall fractures of acetabular were stable and reliable, it is better than the other three methods. PMID:26550272

  7. Manual reduction of mandibular fractures before internal fixation leads to shorter operative duration and equivalent outcomes when compared with reduction with intermaxillary fixation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Edward; Crombie, Anthony; To, Phong; Marquart, Louise; Batstone, Martin D

    2012-07-01

    Open reduction of mandibular fractures before internal fixation is most commonly performed by 1 of 2 methods: intermaxillary fixation (IMF) or manual reduction. There are risks to both patient and clinician associated with using IMF. Furthermore, previous retrospective studies have failed to show any advantage in its use. The purpose of this study was to directly compare the use of manual reduction (experimental group) and IMF (control group) in open reduction-internal fixation of mandibular fractures. Patients who presented with isolated mandibular fractures at 2 hospitals in Queensland, Australia, from May 2009 to June 2010 were enrolled in a prospective controlled trial comparing IMF and manual reduction. The outcome measures were operative duration (primary outcome), as well as radiographic outcome, occlusal outcome, and complications (secondary outcomes). The patient and assessor were blinded to the type of reduction used before fixation. The study hypothesis is that manual reduction allows internal fixation in a shorter time than IMF with an equivalent outcome. We recruited 50 patients, 26 allocated to IMF and 24 allocated to manual reduction before internal fixation of mandibular fractures. IMF was associated with an increased duration of procedure (P < .001) and increased complication rate (P = .063), without any observable benefit with regard to either radiographic outcome or occlusal outcome. IMF is not required in open reduction-internal fixation of mandibular fractures that met our inclusion criteria. IMF is associated with increased costs to the health service and risks to both the patient and clinician. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  8. 1-stage primary arthroplasty of mechanically failed internally fixated of hip fractures with deep wound infection

    PubMed Central

    Klatte, Till O; O’Loughlin, Padraigh F; Citak, Mustafa; Rueger, Johannes M; Gehrke, Thorsten; Kendoff, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Mechanically failed internal fixation following hip fracture is often treated by salvage arthroplasty. If deep wound infection is present, a 2-stage procedure is often used. We have used a 1-stage procedure in infected cases, and we now report the outcome. Patients and methods We reviewed 16 cases of deep wound infection after mechanically failed hip fracture fixation, treated between 1994 and 2010. In all patients, a joint prosthesis was implanted in a 1-stage procedure. Results After an average follow-up period of 12 (2–18) years, no reinfection was detected. In 4 cases, a hip dislocation occurred and 3 of these needed further surgery. Interpretation A 1-stage procedure for arthroplasty of an infected, mechanically failed hip fracture fixation is feasible and carries a low risk of infection. PMID:23799345

  9. The effects of internal fixation on calcium carbonate. Ceramic anterior spinal fusion in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fuller, D A; Stevenson, S; Emery, S E

    1996-09-15

    An anterior interbody fusion was performed in the canine thoracic spine. Either calcium carbonate or autologous iliac crest bone graft was used to fill a surgically created spinal defect between T7 and T8. Some of the spines were stabilized intraoperatively with anterior instrumentation. Four experimental arthrodesis groups were studied: iliac crest bone graft with or without instrumentation and ceramic with or without instrumentation. To evaluate the effects of internal fixation on an anterior interbody fusion using calcium carbonate ceramic, and to compare this with autologous iliac crest bone grafting. Bone grafting can be associated with significant morbidity, and an acceptable substitute material is sought. In vivo analysis of ceramic as a substitute has revealed fracture and failure of the implant. Creating a stable environment with internal fixation may improve the performance of ceramic as a bone graft substitute. Fusions were evaluated in 20 adult beagles 8 weeks after surgery. Structural properties of the fusion segment were evaluated with biomechanical testing. Histologic analysis was performed to determine junction healing, new bone formation, and revascularization. Fusion segments with iliac crest bone graft and instrumentation were significantly stiffer than the other three groups in all tested modes of angular deformation. Greater junction healing was seen when instrumentation was used with iliac crest bone graft. Greater junction healing, new bone formation, and revascularization were observed when instrumentation was used with calcium carbonate ceramic. Most of the ceramic implants without fixation demonstrated near complete isolation with no revascularization. Internal fixation resulted in histologically and biomechanically superior healing of autologous iliac crest bone graft in this canine model of anterior interbody fusion. Although fixation did not statistically improve the biomechanical properties of ceramic fusion segments, it had a profound

  10. [Risk factors of hidden blood loss in internal fixation of intertrochanteric fracture].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiling; Shen, Jing; Mao, Zhi; Long, Anhua; Zhang, Lihai; Tang, Peifu

    2014-05-01

    To analyze the associated risk factors of hidden blood loss in the internal fixation of intertrochanteric fracture. A retrospective analysis was made on the clinical data of 317 cases of intertrochanteric fractures which were treated by internal fixation between January 1993 and December 2008. There were 154 males and 163 females with an average disease duration of 4.58 days (range, 7 hours to 33 days); the age was (69.86 +/- 15.42) years; the average height was 1.64 m (range, 1.50-1.84 m); and the average weight was 62.26 kg (range, 39-85 kg). Of them, intramedullary fixation was used in 203 patients and extramedullary fixation in 114 patients. The operation time was (61.99 +/- 18.25) minutes. The red blood cell transfusion was given to 84 patients, and the transfusion amount was 200-1 000 mL. The drainage volume was 0-750 mL (mean, 61.85 mL). Hidden blood loss was calculated through change of hematocrit level before and after operation. The multiple linear regression was performed to analyse the risk factors of hidden blood loss. The total blood loss was (918.60 +/- 204.44) mL, the hidden blood loss was (797.77 +/- 192.58) mL, and intraoperative visible blood loss was (257.32 +/- 271.24) mL. Single factor analysis showed hidden blood loss was significantly higher in variables as follows: gender, age, injury cause, fracture type, American anesthesiologists grading, anesthesia mode, hypertension, diabetes, disease duration, operation time, intraoperative transfusion of red blood cells, and fixation type. Multiple linear regression showed age, fracture type, anesthesia mode, and fixation type were significant risk factors. The risk factors of hidden blood loss are advanced age (> 60 years), unstable fracture, general anesthesia, and imtramedullary fixation. Especially in elder patients with unstable fracture treated by intramedullary fixation under general anesthesia, hidden blood loss is more significant.

  11. A survey of current practices and preferences for internal fixation of displaced olecranon fractures.

    PubMed

    Wood, Thomas; Thomas, Katie; Farrokhyar, Forough; Ristevski, Bill; Bhandari, Mohit; Petrisor, Bradley

    2015-08-01

    Olecranon fractures represent 10% of upper extremity fractures. There is a growing body of literature to support the use of plate fixation for displaced olecranon fractures. The purpose of this survey was to gauge Canadian surgeons' practices and preferences for internal fixation methods for displaced olecranon fractures. Using an online survey tool, we administered a cross-sectional survey to examine current practice for fixation of displaced olecranon fractures. We received 256 completed surveys for a response rate of 31% (95% confidence interval [CI] 30.5-37.5%). The preferred treatment was tension band wiring (78.5%, 95% CI 73-83%) for simple displaced olecranon fractures (Mayo IIA) and plating (81%, 95% CI 75.5-85%) for displaced comminuted olecranon fractures (Mayo IIB). Fracture morphology with a mean impact of 3.31 (95% CI 3.17-3.45) and comminution with a mean impact of 3.34 (95% CI 3.21-3.46) were the 2 factors influencing surgeons' choice of fixation method the most. The major deterrent to using tension band wiring for displaced comminuted fractures (Mayo IIB) was increased stability obtained with other methods described by 75% (95% CI 69-80%) of respondents. The major deterrent for using plating constructs for simple displaced fractures (Mayo IIA) was better outcomes with other methods. Hardware prominence was the most commonly perceived complication using either method of fixation: 77% (95% CI 71.4-81.7%) and 76.2% (95% CI 70.6-81.0%) for tension band wiring and plating, respectively. Divergence exists with current literature and surgeon preference for fixation of displaced olecranon fractures.

  12. A survey of current practices and preferences for internal fixation of displaced olecranon fractures

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Thomas; Thomas, Katie; Farrokhyar, Forough; Ristevski, Bill; Bhandari, Mohit; Petrisor, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Background Olecranon fractures represent 10% of upper extremity fractures. There is a growing body of literature to support the use of plate fixation for displaced olecranon fractures. The purpose of this survey was to gauge Canadian surgeons’ practices and preferences for internal fixation methods for displaced olecranon fractures. Methods Using an online survey tool, we administered a cross-sectional survey to examine current practice for fixation of displaced olecranon fractures. Results We received 256 completed surveys for a response rate of 31% (95% confidence interval [CI] 30.5–37.5%). The preferred treatment was tension band wiring (78.5%, 95% CI 73–83%) for simple displaced olecranon fractures (Mayo IIA) and plating (81%, 95% CI 75.5–85%) for displaced comminuted olecranon fractures (Mayo IIB). Fracture morphology with a mean impact of 3.31 (95% CI 3.17–3.45) and comminution with a mean impact of 3.34 (95% CI 3.21–3.46) were the 2 factors influencing surgeons’ choice of fixation method the most. The major deterrent to using tension band wiring for displaced comminuted fractures (Mayo IIB) was increased stability obtained with other methods described by 75% (95% CI 69–80%) of respondents. The major deterrent for using plating constructs for simple displaced fractures (Mayo IIA) was better outcomes with other methods. Hardware prominence was the most commonly perceived complication using either method of fixation: 77% (95% CI 71.4–81.7%) and 76.2% (95% CI 70.6–81.0%) for tension band wiring and plating, respectively. Conclusion Divergence exists with current literature and surgeon preference for fixation of displaced olecranon fractures. PMID:26204363

  13. [One stage anterior debridement, bone fusion and internal fixation for the treatment of lumbosacral tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin-hui; Ouyang, Zhen; Zhao, Jin-long; Zhang, Bo

    2013-07-01

    To explore the clinical effect of the anterior debridement,bone fusion, single screw-rod fixation for the treatment of lumbosacral tuberculosis. From March 2005 to February 2011,18 patients with lumbosacral (L3-S1) tuberculosis (including 13 males and 5 females with an average age of 38.5 years old ranging from 24 to 61 years) were treated with removing focus completely, large piece of iliac bone strut grafting, single screw-rod vertebral lateral anterior internal fixation through anterior extraperitoneal approach. The process segment was L3,4 in 2 cases, L4,5 in 5, L4 in 2, L5S1 in 6, L4-S1 in 3. All patients were routinely treated with antituberculous druy for 12-18 months after operation, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and liver function, X-ray films, CT examination, were statedly rechecked, and condition of antituberculosis treatment and bone grafting fusion were detected. Intraoperative focus were exposed clearly, debrided thoroughly. There were no large blood vessels, nerves, ureteral injury and other serious complications during operation. All patients were followed up form 6 to 42 months with an average of 13 months. Internal fixations were not loosening,breaking; bone of grafting was not displacement and obtained good healing; erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were normal; tuberculosis lesions were not recurrence. Through anterior extraperitoneal approach to remove focus, bone fusion, single screw-rod fixation in treating lumbosacral tuberculosis can complete cut lesion and rebuild the stability of lumbosacral vertebrae,in this area with a single screw and rod fixation is a feasible method.

  14. Successful open reduction and internal fixation for displaced femoral fracture in a patient with osteopetrosis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiangfa; Pan, Jianke; Xu, Mingtao; Xu, Shuchai

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Osteopetrosis is a rare disease that predominantly occurs in descendants of inbreeding families. In the case of fractures happen in patients with osteopetrosis, the choice between operative or conservative treatment is still controversial. Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is a conventional treatment for fractures, and it possesses more applicability than conservative treatment. During this surgical treatment, ensure that bone union in the right way is pivotal to success and simultaneously prevents refracture and displacement after the operation. Herein, we present a case of femoral fracture of a patient with osteopetrosis via open reduction and internal fixation. To illustrate successful factors during the treatment process, we discuss experience combined with literature review following case report. Patient concerns: A 67-year-old man who has diagnosed with osteopetrosis over 20 years ago suffered from pain in the left hip last for more than 1 month and he was incapable of walking recently. Before this incident, he had sustained 4 femoral fractures that treated insufficiently by open reduction surgery. Diagnosis: Physical, radiological, and biological examinations indicated a femoral subtrochanteric fracture that was overlapping displacement between fracture ends. Interventions and outcomes: Treated with surgery by open reduction with internal fixation and osteotomy, the fracture united in 12 months, and he returned to walk with full weight bearing, during which no complication occurred. Lessons: Open reduction and internal fixation is also suitable for the patient with osteopetrosis, and they have similar union ability to the normal. To guarantee successful treatment, specific strategies of operation and rehabilitation program are necessary. PMID:28816960

  15. Internal fixation of patellar apex fractures with the basket plate: 25 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Matejčić, Aljoša; Ivica, Mihovil; Jurišić, Darko; Ćuti, Tomislav; Bakota, Bore; Vidović, Dinko

    2015-11-01

    Comminution of the patellar apex is amenable to internal fixation by standard techniques and usually requires partial patellectomy. In our institution, multifragmentary fractures of the distal pole are treated with the basket plate, which is shaped to fit the geometry of the patellar apex. This implant has been used in our institution for over 25 years. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term results of internal fixation of comminuted fractures of the patellar apex with the basket plate. A total of 142 patients with fracture of the distal pole of the patella were treated with the basket plate between 1988 and 2013. Functional evaluation was conducted using the modified Cincinnati knee rating system. A total of 98 patients were available for late functional evaluation. There were no infections or implant-related problems during the follow-up period. All fractures healed within 8 to 10 weeks. There were three cases of early revision because of improper use of the implant and incorrect indication. Functional outcome following internal fixation with the basket plate was excellent in 80 patients and good in 18; there were no poor results. Internal fixation with the basket plate is recommended for management of multifragmentary fractures of the patellar apex because this method enables early, unrestricted knee motion, and provides reliable healing and good functional outcome. This method is an alternative to partial patellectomy and is considered a patella-saving procedure; therefore, the use of the basket plate is strongly recommended for the treatment of distal pole fractures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Surgical site infection complicating internal fixation of fractures: incidence and risk factors.

    PubMed Central

    Thanni, Lateef O. A.; Aigoro, Nofiu O.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of data on surgical site infections (SSIs) complicating internal fixation of fractures from Nigeria. AIMS: To determine the incidence and risk factors for SSIs following internal fixation of fracture. METHODS: A cohort of 90 patients with long bone fractures that were stabilized internally with metallic devices was studied prospectively and retrospectively. RESULTS: The incidence of SSI was 12%. The isolated organisms were Staphylococcus aureus in four patients, Pseudomonas spp. in three, and Escherichia coli in one patient. Diabetes mellitus and perioperative transfusion with allogeneic blood were not predictive of SSI. Duration of operation longer than 120 minutes was a strong predictor (OR 2.25, 95% CL 0.48-10.16). Other risk factors were male sex (OR 2.01, 95% CL 0.44-10.45), injury-operation interval less than six months (OR 2.00, 95% CL 0.22-46.08), fracture fixation with plates and screws (OR 1.51, 95% CL 0.36-6.40), white blood cell count (WBC) less than 5,000 per cumm (OR 1.50, 95% CL 0.15-16.37), preoperative urinary catheterization (OR 1.48, 95% CL 0.00-16.19), and postoperative urinary catheterization (OR 1.24, 95% CL 0.29-5.00). CONCLUSION: The incidence of SSI after internal fixation of long bone fractures in our centers is 12%, and this is within the previously reported range. Use of plates and screws, WBC less than 5,000 per cumm, and perioperative urinary catheterization are important risk factors. PMID:15303412

  17. Enhancement of Apoptosis by Titanium Alloy Internal Fixations during Microwave Treatments for Fractures: An Animal Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lina; Ye, Dongmei; Feng, Xianxuan; Fu, Tengfei; Bai, Yuehong

    2015-01-01

    Objective Microwaves are used in one method of physical therapy and can increase muscle tissue temperature which is useful for improving muscle, tendon and bone injuries. In the study, we sought to determine whether titanium alloy internal fixations influence apoptosis in tissues subjected to microwave treatments at 2,450 MHz and 40 W during the healing of fractures because this issue is not yet fully understood. Methods In this study, titanium alloy internal fixations were used to treat 3.0-mm transverse osteotomies in the middle of New Zealand rabbits’ femurs. After the operation, 30-day microwave treatments were applied to the 3.0 mm transverse osteotomies 3 days after the operation. The changes in the temperatures of the muscle tissues in front of the implants or the 3.0 mm transverse osteotomies were measured during the microwave treatments. To characterize the effects of titanium alloy internal fixations on apoptosis in the muscles after microwave treatment, we performed TUNEL assays, fluorescent real-time (quantitative) PCR, western blotting analyses, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection and transmission electron microscopy examinations. Results The temperatures were markedly increased in the animals with the titanium alloy implants. Apoptosis in the muscle cells of the implanted group was significantly more extensive than that in the non-implanted control group at different time points. Transmission electron microscopy examinations of the skeletal muscles of the implanted groups revealed muscular mitochondrial swelling, vacuolization. ROS, Bax and Hsp70 were up-regulated, and Bcl-2 was down-regulated in the implanted group. Conclusion Our results suggest that titanium alloy internal fixations caused greater muscular tissue cell apoptosis following 2,450 MHz, 40 W microwave treatments in this rabbit femur fracture models. PMID:26132082

  18. An electronically instrumented internal fixator for the assessment of bone healing

    PubMed Central

    Kowald, B.; Seide, K.; Aljudaibi, M.; Faschingbauer, M.; Juergens, C.; Gille, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The monitoring of fracture healing is a complex process. Typically, successive radiographs are performed and an emerging calcification of the fracture area is evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether different bone healing patterns can be distinguished using a telemetric instrumented femoral internal plate fixator. Materials and Methods An electronic telemetric system was developed to assess bone healing mechanically. The system consists of a telemetry module which is applied to an internal locking plate fixator, an external reader device, a sensor for measuring externally applied load and a laptop computer with processing software. By correlation between externally applied load and load measured in the implant, the elasticity of the osteosynthesis is calculated. The elasticity decreases with ongoing consolidation of a fracture or nonunion and is an appropriate parameter for the course of bone healing. At our centre, clinical application has been performed in 56 patients suffering nonunion or fracture of the femur. Results A total of 39 cases of clinical application were reviewed for this study. In total, four different types of healing curves were observed: fast healing; slow healing; plateau followed by healing; and non-healing. Conclusion The electronically instrumented internal fixator proved to be valuable for the assessment of bone healing in difficult healing situations. Cost-effective manufacturing is possible because the used electronic components are derived from large-scale production. The incorporation of microelectronics into orthopaedic implants will be an important innovation in future clinical care. Cite this article: B. Kienast, B. Kowald, K. Seide, M. Aljudaibi, M. Faschingbauer, C. Juergens, J. Gille. An electronically instrumented internal fixator for the assessment of bone healing. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:191–197. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.55.2000611. PMID:27226357

  19. Dorsal fracture-dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal joint: a comparative study of percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation versus open reduction and internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Aladin, A; Davis, T R C

    2005-05-01

    Nineteen patients with a dorsal fracture-dislocation of the proximal interphalangeal joint of a finger were treated with either closed reduction and transarticular Kirschner wire fixation (eight cases) or open reduction and internal fixation, using either one or two lag screws (six cases) or a cerclage wire (five cases). At a mean follow-up of 7 (range 6-9) years, most patients reported satisfactory finger function, even though some of the injuries healed with proximal interphalangeal joint incongruency (seven cases) or subluxation (four cases). Those treated by open reduction complained of more "loss of feeling" in the affected finger and those specifically treated by cerclage wire fixation reported more cold intolerance and had a significantly larger fixed flexion deformity (median, 30 degrees : range 18-38 degrees ) and a smaller arc of motion (median, 48 degrees : range 45-60 degrees ) at the proximal interphalangeal joint, despite having the best radiological outcomes. Closed reduction and transarticular Kirschner wire fixation produced satisfactory results, with none of the eight patients experiencing significant persistent symptoms despite a reduced arc of proximal interphalangeal joint flexion (median=75 degrees ; range 60-108 degrees ). The results of this relatively simple treatment appear at least as satisfactory as those obtained by the two techniques of open reduction and internal fixation, both of which were technically demanding.

  20. Seasonally dependent iron limitation of nitrogen fixation in tropical forests of karst landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winbourne, J. B.; Brewer, S.; Houlton, B. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Limestone tropical forests in karst topography are one of the most poorly studied ecosystems on Earth, and has been substantially cleared by human activities throughout much of Central America. This ecosystem is noted for its high level of plant productivity, biomass, endemism and biological diversity compared to nearby neighboring tropical forests on volcanic rock substrates (Brewer et al. 2002). A question remains as to how limestone tropical forests are able to maintain the high nutrient demands of plant photosynthesis and tree biomass growth. Here, we demonstrate that rates of nitrogen (N) fixation are higher in limestone versus volcanic soil substrates, with direct evidence for the emergence of seasonally dependent iron limitation of N fixation in limestone tropical forest. N fixation rates showed a three-fold increase in response to iron additions, especially during the wet season when N demands of the forest trees are highest. In contrast, adjacent forests growing on the more classical acidic volcanic soils showed no response to iron or other nutrient additions. Biologically available pools of iron were exceedingly low in the limestone forest site, consistent with the complexation of iron under high pH conditions. Biological acquisition of iron, as measured by the concentration of iron chelating compounds (i.e. siderophores), provided additional evidence for iron limitation of microbial processes in limestone tropical forests, where concentrations were six times higher than those at the volcanic site. Our results suggest that the functioning of limestone tropical forest is strongly regulated by interactions between iron, soil pH, and N cycling.

  1. [Results after internal fixation of humerus distal fractures in patients over than 65 years old].

    PubMed

    Serrano-Mateo, L; Lopiz, Y; León-Serrano, C; García-Fernández, C; López-Durán-Stern, L; Marco, F

    2014-01-01

    Distal humerus fractures in the elderly frequently associated with poor bone quality and comminution, making it harder to achieve proper osteosynthesis. Our aim is to evaluate the radiological and functional results of open reduction and internal fixation of these fractures. Retrospective study of 26 patients treated by open reduction and internal fixation between the years 2005-2010. Mean follow-up was 42 months. At final follow-up, a radiography evaluation (Knirk and Jupiter score) and clinical examination using Mayo Elbow Performance Score and Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score was performed. Mean age of the group was 76.8 years (65-89), with 83% of the patients being female. Sixteen patients suffered type C fractures and 8 type A by AO classification. All underwent posterior surgical approach. Mean elbow flexion reached 118.86°, with a mean extension deficit of 25°. More than 3-quarters (79.1%) of the patients showed 0-1 grade degenerative changes on the X-ray films at final follow-up. Functional results reached an average 19.87 points on Quick-Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Score, and 85 points on Mayo Elbow Performance Score scores. Non-union occurred in 2 cases: distal humerus in one patient and olecranon osteotomy in another. Ulnar nerve neuropraxia was recorded in 2 cases, and radial nerve in one. All 3 recovered uneventfully. Revision surgery was required, with 2 patients needing hardware removal and one a new fixation. Treatment by open reduction and internal fixation with plating in elderly people for type A and C distal humerus fractures gives good functional results regarding this population, and thus scarcely disturbs their quality of life. Copyright © 2012 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Nitrogen limitation and nitrogen fixation during alkane biodegradation in a sandy soil.

    PubMed Central

    Toccalino, P L; Johnson, R L; Boone, D R

    1993-01-01

    We investigated nutrient limitations during hydrocarbon degradation in a sandy soil and found that fixed nitrogen was initially a limiting nutrient but that N limitation could sometimes be overcome by N2 fixation. Hydrocarbon biodegradation was examined in an unsaturated sandy soil incubated aerobically at 20 degrees C with propane or butane and various added nutrients. Propane and butane degradation proceeded similarly during the first 3 months of incubation. That is, bacteria in soil amended with N oxidized these hydrocarbons more rapidly than in controls without nutrient additions or in soil with added phosphate or trace minerals. Both propane- and butane-amended soil apparently became N limited after the initial available inorganic N was utilized, as indicated by a decrease in the rates of hydrocarbon degradation. After 3 months, propane and butane degradation proceeded differently. Bacteria in propane-degrading soil apparently remained N limited because propane degradation rates stayed low unless more N was added. In contrast, bacteria in butane-degrading soil appeared to overcome their N limitation because butane degradation rates later increased regardless of whether more N was added. Analyses of total N and acetylene reduction assays supported this apparent surplus of N in butane-amended soil. Total N was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in soil incubated with butane and no N amendments than in soil incubated with propane, even when the latter was amended with N. Acetylene reduction occurred only in butane-amended soil. These results indicate that N2 fixation occurred in butane-amended soil but not in propane-amended soil. PMID:8215369

  3. [Bone cement dry prosthetic with internal fixation treat senile osteoporotic femoral fractures].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y; Rong, X X; Chen, P; Xu, Y J; Zhu, G X

    2017-03-01

    Objective: To explore the treatment of senile osteoporotic femoral fractures after using internal fixation of bone cement dry prosthetic. Methods: Twelve patients aged from 74 to 94 years with mean age of (84.0±2.5) years with internal fixation of bone cement dry prosthetic surgery who were treated at Department of Orthopaedics in Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Wuxi Second Hospital between May 2013 and May 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 8 male and 4 female, 10 cases of tumble and 2 cases of traffic injury. The fracture types with AO type included 1 case of A1 type, 5 cases of A2 type, 3 cases of A3 type, 1 case of B1 type, 2 cases of B2 type. The steel plate internal fixation with bone cement dry prosthetic method was chosen to treat senile severe femoral fracture. Postoperative observation of postoperative pain assessment, hip joint activity and walking ability were evaluated. Paired simple t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to compare the differences of pain score and the ability to walk. Results: Twelve cases received an average of (16.0±3.6) months follow-up. The average hospitalization days are (9.0±1.4) days and average of intraoperative time was (68.0±10.6) minutes. Intraoperative blood loss compared to normal was (106.0±24.2) ml. Patients began walking load and activities in two weeks. The gait and joint activities gradually restored and there were no obvious deformity and no loose internal fixation. All of the patients didn't have fracture shift with breaking plates or screws deformation and have no bone cement reaction. The walking ability was (4.1±0.9) points, the hip joint activities were 98.5°±7.7° and pain scores were 1.22±0.58 by Holden grading standards. The differences of walking ability (Z=-3.126, P<0.05) and pain scores (t=23.047, P<0.001) between pre- and post-operative were statistically significant. One patient had contralateral hip pain, 2 patients had lateral thigh pain, 10 patients returned to

  4. Treatment of Unicameral Bone Cysts of the Proximal Femur With Internal Fixation Lessens the Risk of Additional Surgery.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Benjamin; Houdek, Matthew; Rao, Rameshwar R; Caird, Michelle S; Larson, A Noelle; Milbrandt, Todd

    2017-08-17

    Little data exist to guide the treatment of unicameral bone cysts in the proximal femur. Methods of treatment include corticosteroid injections, curettage and bone grafting, and internal fixation. The authors completed a multi-institutional, retrospective review to evaluate their experience with proximal femoral unicameral bone cysts. They posed the following questions: (1) Does internal fixation reduce the risk of further procedures for the treatment of a unicameral bone cyst? (2) Is radiographic healing faster with internal fixation? Following institutional review board approval, the authors conducted a retrospective review of 36 patients treated for a unicameral bone cyst of the proximal femur at their institutions between 1974 and 2014. Medical records and radiographs were reviewed to identify patient demographics and treatment outcomes. Tumor locations included femoral neck (n=13), intertrochanteric (n=16), and subtrochanteric (n=7). Initial treatment included steroid injection (n=2), curettage and bone grafting (n=9), and internal fixation with curettage and bone grafting (n=25). Mean time was 9 months to radiographic healing and 15 months to return to full activity. The number of patients requiring additional surgeries was increased among those who did not undergo internal fixation. There was no difference in time to radiographic healing. However, time to return to normal activities was reduced if patients had received internal fixation. A significant reduction in additional procedures was observed when patients had been treated with internal fixation. Although this did not influence time to radiographic healing, patients did return to normal activities sooner. Internal fixation should be considered in the treatment of proximal femoral unicameral bone cysts. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Treatment of Edentulous Mandibular Fractures with Rigid Internal Fixation: Case Series and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Franciosi, Edgardo; Mazzaro, Eduardo; Larranaga, Juan; Rios, Alfredo; Picco, Pedro; Figari, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to analyze the effectiveness of rigid internal fixation (RIF) for treating edentulous mandibular fractures. Because of the low incidence of fractures in edentulous mandible, there is no consensus of the optimal treatment for it. This study included all edentulous patients with mandibular fracture diagnosis, who were treated with internal fixation at the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires from November 1991 to July 2011. Data such as age, gender, etiology and location of fracture, surgical approach, type of osteosynthesis used, and postoperative complications were analyzed. A total of 18 patients, 76.2 years mean age, 12 females (66.6%), presented a total of 35 mandibular fractures. The mandibular body was the most common localization of the fractures. Twenty-five fractures received surgical treatment with RIF, mainly approached extraorally. Reconstruction plates were the most common type of fixation used. Fracture reduction was considered satisfactory in 96.5%, with 22.2% of complications and 11.1% of reoperations needed. Open reduction and RIF demonstrated to be a reliable method for treating edentulous mandibular fractures. Nevertheless, there is lack of high-level recommendation publication to support this. PMID:24624255

  6. Bioburden after Staphylococcus aureus inoculation in type 1 diabetic rats undergoing internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nga L; Rose, Michael B; Blueschke, Gert; Cho, Eugenia H; Schoenfisch, Mark H; Erdmann, Detlev; Klitzman, Bruce

    2014-09-01

    Fracture stabilization in the diabetic patient is associated with higher complication rates, particularly infection and impaired wound healing, which can lead to major tissue damage, osteomyelitis, and higher amputation rates. With an increasing prevalence of diabetes and an aging population, the risks of infection of internal fixation devices are expected to grow. Although numerous retrospective clinical studies have identified a relationship between diabetes and infection, currently there are few animal models that have been used to investigate postoperative surgical-site infections associated with internal fixator implantation and diabetes. The authors therefore refined the protocol for inducing hyperglycemia and compared the bacterial burden in controls to pharmacologically induced type 1 diabetic rats after undergoing internal fracture plate fixation and Staphylococcus aureus surgical-site inoculation. Using an initial series of streptozotocin doses, followed by optional additional doses to reach a target blood glucose range of 300 to 600 mg/dl, the authors reliably induced diabetes in 100 percent of the rats (n = 16), in which a narrow hyperglycemic range was maintained 14 days after onset of diabetes (mean ± SEM, 466 ± 16 mg/dl; coefficient of variation, 0.15). With respect to their primary endpoint, the authors quantified a significantly higher infectious burden in inoculated diabetic animals (median, 3.2 × 10 colony-forming units/mg dry tissue) compared with inoculated nondiabetic animals (7.2 × 10 colony-forming units/mg dry tissue). These data support the authors' hypothesis that uncontrolled diabetes adversely affects the immune system's ability to clear Staphylococcus aureus associated with internal hardware.

  7. Internal plate fixation versus plaster in displaced complete articular distal radius fractures, a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mulders, Marjolein A M; Walenkamp, Monique M J; Goslings, J Carel; Schep, Niels W L

    2016-02-09

    Of all distal radius fractures, 25 % are complete articular fractures (AO/OTA type C fractures). Two thirds of those fractures are displaced and require reduction. According to several International Guidelines, adequately reduced intra-articular distal radius fractures are best treated non-operatively with plaster immobilisation, while surgical fixation is suggested only when the articular step exceeds 2 mm after reduction. However, these recommendations are based on studies that did not differentiate between intra- and extra-articular distal radius fractures. Thus, no clear consensus about the best treatment for patients with displaced intra-articular distal radius fractures can be reached. Despite the lack of evidence, an increase in internal fixation of intra-articular distal radius fractures has been observed over the last decade. The aim of this study is to determine the difference in functional outcome following open reduction and plate fixation compared with non-operative treatment with closed reduction and plaster immobilisation in patients with a displaced intra articular distal radius fracture. This multicentre randomised controlled trial will randomise between open reduction and internal plate fixation (intervention group) and closed reduction and plaster immobilisation (control group). All consecutive adult patients from 18 to 65 years with a displaced intra-articular distal radius fracture (AO/OTA type C), which has been adequately reduced at the Emergency Department according to the Dutch National Guidelines, are eligible for inclusion in this study. The primary outcome is function and pain of the wrist assessed with the Patient-Rated Wrist Evaluation score (PRWE). Secondary outcomes are the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score (DASH), pain, quality of life (SF-36), range of motion, grip strength, radiological parameters, complications, crossovers and cost-effectiveness of both treatments. A total of 90 patients will be included in this

  8. Management of open fractures using a noncontact locking plate as an internal fixator.

    PubMed

    Yıldırım, Azad; Kapukaya, Ahmet; Mertsoy, Yılmaz; Yiğit, Şehmus; Çaçan, Mehmet Akif; Atiç, Ramazan

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of open fractures leads to major problems which may be due to various reasons. It mainly causes soft tissue problems due to the absorption of a large amount of energy by the soft tissues and bone tissues. Although some recent treatment protocols have eliminated many problems regarding delayed soft tissue closure, it still remains a big challange. This study uses a method called the internal fixator technique with noncontact locking plate (NC-LP) which involves the use of a combination of advantages of open and closed fixation techniques. 42 patients (32 men and 10 women) having a mean age of 34.11 years (range 17-56 years) with open fractures operated using internal fixator technique between 2007 and 2012 were included in this study. A retrospective chart review was conducted to record the following: age, gender, anatomic region of fractures, fracture etiology, classification of open fractures by Gustilo-Anderson and AO classification, surgeries, length of hospitalization, location and pattern of fracture, length of followup, and complications. The fractures were caused by traffic accidents, shotgun injuries, falls from heights, and industrial crush injuries. Based on the Gustilo-Anderson classification, 31 fractures were Type III and 11 were Type II, where 23 were localized in the tibia and 19 in the femur. Patients delay for a mean of 13.5 h (range 6-24 h) for operation and the mean followup interval was 27.8 months (range 16-44 months). The mean union time was 19.7 weeks (range 16-29 weeks). One patient had delayed union and implant failure, one patient had osteomyelitis, five suffered from surface skin necrosis, and one patient had an angulation of 17° in the sagittal plane, for which no additional intervention was performed. This case series demonstrates that an "internal fixator technique" is an acceptable alternative to the management of open fractures of the femur or tibia in adult patients. The NC-LP method provided opportunities to achieve

  9. Assessment of nutrient limitation on the primary production and N2 fixation across the tropical Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridame, C.; Mills, M. M.; Davey, M.; Laroche, J.; Geider, R.

    2003-04-01

    In the surface layer of the Tropical North Atlantic, Saharan dust inputs, as a source of iron and phosphate, might preferentially stimulate the growth of diazotrophs. The availability of iron, essential for the synthesis of the nitrogenase enzyme, and/or phosphorus through dust inputs is suspected to impose additional control on N_2 fixation in these waters chronically low in dissolved inorganic nitrogen. Here, we present results from the cruise M-55 (October--November 2002, SOLAS Program) in the tropical Atlantic (11^oN) between Curacao and Cameroon that address this hypothesis. The studied area was particularly interesting because it is characterized by a nutrient gradient from oligotrophic waters (Caribbean Sea) to upwelling dominated regions (NW Africa) and is also subject to a strong lateral gradient of inputs from Saharan mineral aerosol. Using trace metal clean methods, nutrient addition bioassays were used to asses which nutrient (N, P, and Fe) most likely limits of phytoplankton biomass, primary productivity and dinitrogen fixation in incubation experiments along the transect. An additional Saharan dust treatment, considered as a proxy for Saharan aerosol, was used to simulate an atmospheric Saharan dust input into the surface layer.

  10. Ilizarov hybrid external fixation for fractures of the distal radius: Part II. Internal fixation versus Ilizarov hybrid external fixation: Stability as assessed by cadaveric simulated motion testing.

    PubMed

    Dunning, C E; Lindsay, C S; Bicknell, R T; Johnson, J A; King, G J; Patterson, S D

    2001-03-01

    The in vitro stability of an Ilizarov hybrid external fixator was compared with that of a dorsal 3.5-mm AO T-plate in 8 unpaired, fresh-frozen upper extremities. A specially designed testing device that used computer-controlled pneumatic actuators was used to simulate active finger, wrist, and forearm motions by applying loads to relevant tendons. A comminuted extra-articular distal radius fracture was modelled using a dorsally based wedge osteotomy. Fracture stability was assessed using an electromagnetic tracking device to measure motion across the fracture site after randomized application of the plate and the hybrid fixator. During simulated finger and wrist motions with the forearm pronated or supinated, motion of the distal fragment with the hybrid fixator applied was comparable to or statistically less than with the AO plate applied. During simulated forearm rotation, the stability provided by the 2 fixation types was similar, although the plate allowed statistically less radial-ulnar deviation of the fragment. In this model of a 2-part extra-articular distal radius fracture, the clinically meaningful stability of the Ilizarov hybrid external fixator was comparable to that of the dorsal AO plate.

  11. [Case-control study on T-shaped locking internal fixation and external fixation for the treatment of dorsal Barton's fracture].

    PubMed

    Chen, Huan-qing; Wen, Xi-le; Li, Yang-ming; Wen, Cong-you

    2015-06-01

    To compare clinical effect of T-shaped locking internal fixation and external fixation in treating dorsal Barton's fracture,and investigate selective strategy of internal fixation. From January 2008 to January 2013, 100 patients with dorsal Barton's fracture were randomly divided into two groups. In treatment group, there were 30 males and 20 females with an average age of (33.8±3.6) years old;30 cases were type B, 20 cases were type C;and treated with T-shaped locking internal fixation. In control group, there were 32 male and 18 females with an average age of (32.9±3.4) years old; 29 cases were type B, 21 cases were type C; and treated with external fixation. Volar tilt, ulnar deviation and radial height at 3 months after operation were detected and compared between two groups. Mechara functional evaluation were used to evaluate postoperative clinical effects. Clinical cure time, postoperative complications,joint mobility and function score were recorded and compared between two groups. In treatment group,volar tilt was (11.9±2.7)°, ulnar deviation was (20.8+ 2.9)°,and radial height was (10.9±1.8) mm; while volar tilt was (9.1±1.6)°, ulnar deviation was (17.1±2.9)°, and radial height was (8.1±1.5) mm in control group. Treatment group was better than control group in volar tilt, ulnar deviation and radial height. Clinical cure time in treatment group was(12.0±2.3) weeks, shorter than control group (18.0±4.1) weeks. The incidence of complications in treatment group was lower than control group. According to Mehara functional evaluation,20 cases got excellent results, 25 good, 3 moderate and 2 poor in treatment group; 16 cases got excellent results, 14 good, 10 moderate and 10 poor in control group. Treatment group was better than control group in clinical effects. T-shaped locking internal fixation with postoperative functional exercise for the treatment of dorsal Barton's fracture fits for biomechanics demands,and has advantages of stable fixation

  12. Internal fixation of the fibula in ankle fractures: a prospective, randomized and comparative study: plating versus nailing.

    PubMed

    Asloum, Y; Bedin, B; Roger, T; Charissoux, J-L; Arnaud, J-P; Mabit, C

    2014-06-01

    Open reduction and internal plate fixation of the fibula is the gold standard treatment for ankle fractures. The aim of this study was to perform a prospective randomized study to compare bone union, complications and functional results of two types of internal fixation of the fibula (plating and the Epifisa FH intramedullary nail). Inclusion criteria were: closed fractures, isolated displaced fractures of the lateral malleolus, inter- and supra-tubercular bimalleolar fractures, and trimalleolar fractures. This study included 71 patients (mean age 53 ± 19): plate fixation group (n=35) and intramedullary nail fixation group (n=36). In seven cases, intramedullary nailing was technically impossible and was converted to plate fixation (the analysis of this sub-group was performed independently). Two patients died and two patients were lost to follow-up. The final comparative series included 32 cases of plate fixation and 28 cases of intramedullary nail fixation. Union, postoperative complications and Kitaoka and Olerud-Molander functional scores were analyzed after one year of follow-up. There was no significant difference in the rate of union (P=0.5605) between the two types of fixation. There were significantly fewer complications (7% versus 56%) and better functional scores (96 versus 82 for the Kitaoka score; 97 versus 83 for the Olerud-Molander score) with intramedullary nailing than with plate fixation. Intramedullary nailing of the lateral malleolus in non-comminuted ankle fractures without syndesmotic injury is a reproducible technique with very few complications that provides better functional results than plate fixation. II (randomized prospective study). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Improved Intermittent-clamped Drainage in Lower Lumbar Internal Fixation: A Randomized Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Qing-Ying; Liu, Chu-Yin; Fu, Chan-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Tan, Ming-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Continuous negative pressure drainage (CNPD) is widely used after lower lumbar internal fixation; however, it may cause tremendous blood loss and lead to postoperative hemorrhagic anemia. The present study explored the efficacy and safety of improved intermittent-clamped drainage (ICD) for lower lumbar internal fixation. Methods: This was a prospective study that included 156 patients with decompression of the spinal canal and internal fixation for the first time from January 2012 to December 2014. The patients were randomly divided into ICD group and CNPD group, and each group had 78 cases. A drainage tube was placed under the deep fascia in all patients within 10 min after the commencement of wound closure. The postoperative drainage amount at different time points, the hemoglobin level, and postoperative complications were recorded and compared between the two groups. Shapiro-Wilk test, independent samples t-test, and Mann-Whitney U-test were used in this study. Results: The drainage amount was significantly reduced in the ICD group, as compared with the CNPD group (Z = 10.74, P < 0.01). The mean total drainage amount (in ml) of the single-segment and two-segment procedures was significantly greater in the CNPD group than the ICD group (Z = 10.63 and 10.75, respectively; P < 0.01). For the adverse events, there was no significant difference in postoperative temperature, wound problem, and complications between the two groups. Conclusions: The present study showed a statistically significant reduction in postoperative drainage amount between ICD and CNPD groups, and ICD is an effective, convenient, and safe method for routine use in lower lumbar surgery. It is essential to focus on the effect of clamping drainage with long-segment surgical procedure and complex lumbar disease in the further investigation, as well as the effect of clamping on long-term functional outcomes. PMID:27900992

  14. Effectiveness of Hindfoot Arthrodesis by Stable Internal Fixation in Various Eichenholtz Stages of Neuropathic Ankle Arthropathy.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, Silvampatty R; Srikanth, Kanchana P; Nagaraja, Handenahally S; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan

    The optimal time to treat neuropathic (Charcot) arthropathy of the ankle and peritalar joint is controversial because of the various treatment options available and the variable results reported in published studies. We sought to determine the outcome of hind foot arthrodesis with stable internal fixation in patients with different Eichenholtz stages of arthropathy. We prospectively studied patients with substantial disabilities caused by neuropathic arthropathy in deformed, unstable ankle and peritalar joints, with or without ulcerations, who had undergone treatment from July 2007 to December 2012. All patients underwent ankle arthrodesis, autologous iliac crest bone grafting, and subtalar joint arthrodesis, with or without talonavicular joint arthrodesis, fixed internally with an intramedullary hindfoot nail, with or without an additional plate or cancellous screws. Of the 33 enrolled patients, 9 (27.3%) had stage I, 13 (39.4%) had stage II, and 11 (33.3%) had stage III Charcot arthropathy. The cause of arthropathy was diabetes mellitus in 25 (75.8%) patients. The duration of symptoms ranged from 1 to 120 (median 7) months. The mean follow-up period was 40 (range 12 to 76) months and did not differ markedly among the groups. The hindfoot scores, rate of salvage or amputation, or complication rates did not differ significantly across Eichenholtz stage. For the patients with stage I, II, and III, the preoperative hindfoot score was 50, 49, and 48, respectively (p = .9). The corresponding postoperative scores were 68, 68, and 70 (p = .5). We found no evidence that the effectiveness of hindfoot arthrodesis by stable fixation varied across the Eichenholtz stage of Charcot arthropathy involving ankle and peritalar joint. Furthermore, we found that stable internal fixation and bone grafting using a hindfoot nail results in an 84.84% union rate and salvages the unstable and disabled foot in 90.9% of patients with ankle and peritalar Charcot arthropathy.

  15. End-stage hindfoot arthrosis: outcomes of tibiocalcaneal fusion using internal and Ilizarov fixation.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Brooke; Watson, J Tracy; Jackman, James; Fissel, Brian; Karges, David E

    2014-01-01

    End-stage post-traumatic pantalar arthrosis from ankle, pilon, and talus fractures has often been complicated by infection, bone loss, and a soft tissue deficit. Patients can present with neuropathy, diabetes, tobacco use, and previously failed arthrodesis. Fusion in this population has been challenging, with nonunion rates up to 30%, often leading to amputation. We reviewed the results of a standardized protocol that combined simultaneous internal fixation with the Ilizarov technique to achieve fusion in high-risk patients. With institutional review board approval, a retrospective review of the patients treated with simultaneous internal fixation and an Ilizarov frame was undertaken. The records and radiographs allowed identification of the comorbidities and the presence or absence of successful fusion. Complications were acknowledged and treated. Fifteen patients had undergone the procedure. The mean follow-up period was 27.9 (range 9 to 67) months. Thirteen patients (86.67%) had had previous fusion failure. Twelve patients (80%) had developed post-traumatic arthrosis, 5 (33.33%) of whom had open injuries. All patients had 1 comorbidity, and 10 (66.67%) had multiple, including rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes (types 1 and 2), and smoking. Four patients (26.67%) presented with deep infection and bone loss. Union was achieved in 11 (73.33%), with 12 (80%) patients experiencing profound pain relief. Seven patients (46.67%) required symptomatic hardware removal. Three patients (20%) eventually underwent below-the-knee amputation for recalcitrant nonunion. Statistically significant correlations were found between smoking and wound infection and revision and between nonunion and amputation. Our results have indicated that combined internal fixation with Ilizarov application can provide a strong surgical option for the management of end-stage, pantalar arthritis. More studies are needed to compare the cohort outcomes and gait analysis in these patients with those who have

  16. Rigid internal fixation and the effects on the temporomandibular joint and masticatory system: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Smith, V; Williams, B; Stapleford, R

    1992-12-01

    A prospective study of 22 patients who underwent a bilateral sagittal osteotomy to advance the mandible and subsequent rigid internal fixation, were examined for signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain and masticatory dysfunction. A modified Helkimo index was used to analyze the anamnestic, clinical, and occlusal data. In addition, 12 of the cases chosen at random were mounted on a semiadjustable (SAM2) articulator and analyzed with the mandibular position indicator (MPI) to determine the amount and the direction of condylar displacement postoperatively. Anamnestic dysfunction decreased because of a reported decrease in muscular pain, joint noise, headache frequency, and parafunctional habits postoperatively. Clinical dysfunction remained unchanged, with a decrease in muscular soreness but with an increased incidence of joint clicking of 7%. The increased incidence of temporomandibular joint pain postoperatively was 4%. Increase in clinical dysfunction was most often seen in women and older patients. Occlusal dysfunction decreased, with the majority of interferences remaining after surgery as a result of insufficient lingual crown torque of the maxillary buccal segments. Occlusion is thought to have played only a minor role in temporomandibular joint and masticatory dysfunction. Reduction in range of motion was 10%, indicating the added benefit of early mobilization with rigid internal fixation procedures. The MPI study found the condyles inferiorly or inferoposteriorly displaced less than 1 mm from their preoperative position. These findings suggest that rigid internal fixation had no adverse effects on the temporomandibular and masticatory system. The variable responses and results can be attributed, at least in part, to the heterogenous population of patients studied and the variations in surgical techniques employed.

  17. Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Displaced Calcaneum, Intra-Articular Fractures by Locking Calcaneal Plate

    PubMed Central

    Santosha; Singh, Arambam Mahendra; Waikhom, Sanjib; Pakhrin, Vishal; Mukherjee, Sagnik; Debbarma, Rajkumar; Prashant, Prabhu Shrinivas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Calcaneal fractures constitute the most common fractures in hindfoot. Lots of controversies exist in the management of calcaneal fractures but now-a-days, it is preferable to perform open reduction and internal fixation and early mobilizatation. Aim To evaluate the functional outcome after open reduction and internal fixation of displaced intra-articular fractures of the calcaneum by locking calcaneal plate. Materials and Methods The study was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery from September 2013 to April 2016. Thirty intra-articular fractures of the calcaneum were treated by locking calcaneal plate. Patients were followed up for a period of 24 months. Bohler’s angle was measured in preoperative, immediate Post-operative period and after 2 years, follow-up was compared. Results were evaluated according to American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Score. Results After 24 months of follow-up, all 24 patients were available for evaluation. Radiological union was achieved in a mean time of 12.5 weeks. Mean duration of hospital stay was 21 days. Bohler’s angle was significantly higher after 2 years of follow-up when compared with preoperative x-ray. According to the AOFAS, Ankle–Hind foot Scale outcome score results were excellent in 43.3% of the patients, good in 33.3%, fair in 10%, and poor in 13.3% of patients. The mean AOFAS score was 79.9 (Range 49-96). Conclusion Open reduction and internal fixation of intra-articular fractures of the calcaneum with locking calcaneal plate gives good results. Maintenance of calcaneal height and Bohler’s angle helps to decrease the incidence of subtalar arthritis. PMID:28208957

  18. Implant Removal After Internal Fixation of a Femoral Neck Fracture: Effects on Physical Functioning.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Stephanie M; Heetveld, Martin J; Bhandari, Mohit; Patka, Peter; Van Lieshout, Esther M M

    2015-09-01

    The effect of implant removal after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture on physical functioning was analyzed. Characteristics of patients who had their implant removed were studied, as it is currently unknown from which type of patients implants are removed and what effect removal has on function. Secondary cohort study alongside a randomized controlled trial. Multicenter study in 14 hospitals. Patients who had their implant removed after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture are compared with patients who did not. Patient characteristics and quality of life (Short Form 12, Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index) were compared. Matched pairs were selected based on patient/fracture characteristics and prefracture physical functioning. Of 162 patients, 37 (23%) had their implant removed. These patients were younger (median age: 67 vs. 72 years, P = 0.024) and more often independently ambulatory prefracture (100% vs. 84%, P = 0.008) than patients who did not. They more often had evident implant back-out on x-rays (54% vs. 34%, P = 0.035), possibly related to a higher rate of Pauwels 3 fractures (41% vs. 22%, P = 0.032). In time, quality of life improved more in implant removal patients [+2 vs. -4 points, Short Form 12 (physical component), P = 0.024; +9 vs. 0 points, Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index, P = 0.019]. Implant removal after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture positively influenced quality of life. Implant removal patients were younger and more often independently ambulatory prefracture, more often had a Pauwels 3 fracture, and an evident implant back-out. Implant removal should be considered liberally for these patients if pain persists or functional recovery is unsatisfactory. Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  19. Vertical shear fractures of the medial malleolus: a biomechanical study of five internal fixation techniques.

    PubMed

    Toolan, B C; Koval, K J; Kummer, F J; Sanders, R; Zuckerman, J D

    1994-09-01

    Fifty embalmed human tibias were osteotomized to create a simulated vertical shear (supination-adduction) fracture of the medial malleolus and were stabilized using one of five internal fixation techniques. In offset axial testing, which simulated supination-adduction loading, the fixation strength of tibias stabilized with either cortical or cancellous lag screws placed perpendicular to the osteotomy was over five times greater than the strength of those treated with an antiglide plate and nearly two and a half times greater than those treated with cancellous lag screws placed oblique to the osteotomy. The tibias stabilized with cancellous lag screws placed perpendicular to the osteotomy exhibited twice the fixation strength of the tibias stabilized with an antiglide plate and distal lag screw. The tibias stabilized with an antiglide plate and distal lag screw and perpendicularly placed cortical or cancellous lag screws demonstrated three times greater resistance to displacement to the applied supination-adduction load than those stabilized with an antiglide plate alone. In offset transverse testing, to simulate loading in external rotation, the mean failure load of the tibias stabilized with cancellous lag screws placed perpendicular to the osteotomy was over two and a half times greater than those stabilized with an antiglide plate and distal lag screw. No significant differences were observed in the resistance to displacement for these tests. These results support the use of lag screws placed perpendicular to the fracture surface for stabilization of vertical shear fractures of the medial malleolus and indicate that the use of an antiglide plate, with or without a distal lag screw, does not offer any advantage over lag screw fixation.

  20. Clinical outcomes of limited-open retrograde intramedullary headless screw fixation of metacarpal fractures.

    PubMed

    Ruchelsman, David E; Puri, Sameer; Feinberg-Zadek, Natanya; Leibman, Matthew I; Belsky, Mark R

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate clinical and radiographic outcomes in patients treated with limited-open retrograde intramedullary headless compression screw (IMHS) fixation for metacarpal neck and shaft fractures. Retrospective review of prospectively collected data on a consecutive series of 39 patients (34 men; 5 women), mean age 28 years (range, 16-66 y) treated with IMHS fixation for acute displaced metacarpal neck/subcapital (N = 26) and shaft (N = 13) fractures at a single academic practice between 2010 and 2014. Preoperative magnitude of metacarpal neck angulation averaged 54° (range, 15° to 70°), and shaft angulation averaged 38° (range, 0° to 55°). Patients used a hand-based orthosis until suture removal and began active motion within the first week. Clinical outcomes were assessed with digital goniometry, pad-to-distal palmar crease distance, and grip strength. Time to union and radiographic arthrosis was assessed. Twenty patients reached minimum 3-month follow-up, with a mean of 13 months (range, 3-33 mo). All 20 patients with minimum 3 months of follow-up achieved full composite flexion, and extensor lag resolved by 3-week follow-up. All patients demonstrated full active metacarpophalangeal joint extension or hyperextension. Grip strength measured 105% (range, 58% to 230%) of the contralateral hand. No secondary surgeries were performed. There were 2 cases of shaft re-fracture from blunt trauma following prior evidence of full osseous union with the screw in place. All patients achieved radiographic union by 6 weeks. There was no radiographic arthrosis at latest follow-up. One patient reported occasional clicking with metacarpophalangeal joint motion not requiring further treatment. Limited open retrograde IMHS fixation proved to be safe and reliable for metacarpal neck/subcapital and axially stable shaft fractures, allowed for early postoperative motion without affecting union rates, and obviated immobilization. This technique offers distinct advantages in

  1. Internal fixation in compound type III fractures presenting after golden period

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Quamar; Sherwani, MKA; Abbas, Mazhar; Gupta, Rahul; Asif, Naiyer; Sabir, AB

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Patients often reach the hospital late after passage of golden hours (initial 6 hours) after sustaining high-velocity injuries. The decision of internal fixation in Gustilo's Type IIIA and IIIB fractures becomes a formidable challenge in patients reaching late. The purpose of the present study was to find out if internal fixation could be safely undertaken in these patients. Materials and Methods: Sixty-three patients, having 70 compound fractures (46 Type IIIA and 24 IIIB), which were internally fixed after 6h but within 24h after injury, were included in the present analysis. Follow-up ranged from 18 to 48 months with mean of 28 months. Result: Overall infection rate noted was (n = 11) 15.71% (8.7% in IIIA, and 29.16% in IIIB). The difference in deep infection rate between Type IIIA and Type IIIB was found to be statistically significant (P value < 0.01). Nonunion was seen in five fractures. Functional evaluation using Katenjian's criteria, showed 62.85% (44 fractures of 70) good to excellent results. Conclusion: Satisfactory results may be obtained in Gustilo's Type IIIA and IIIB fractures even if fixed after the golden period, provided strict protocol such as aggressive debridement, prophylactic antibiotic coverage, early soft tissue reconstruction and timely bone grafting is followed. The primary coverage of the wound is discouraged. PMID:21139745

  2. Management of complications of open reduction and internal fixation of ankle fractures.

    PubMed

    Ng, Alan; Barnes, Esther S

    2009-01-01

    The management of complications resulting from the open reduction and internal fixation of ankle fractures is discussed in detail. The initial radiographic findings of the most common postsurgical complications of ankle fracture reduction are briefly discussed, namely lateral, medial, and posterior malleolar malunion or nonunion, syndesmotic widening, degenerative changes, and septic arthritis with or without concomitant osteomyelitis. Emphasis is placed on the management of these complications, with a review of the treatment options proposed in the literature, a detailed discussion of the authors' recommendations, and an inclusion of different case presentations.

  3. Delayed internal fixation of femoral shaft fracture reduces mortality among patients with multisystem trauma.

    PubMed

    Morshed, Saam; Miclau, Theodore; Bembom, Oliver; Cohen, Mitchell; Knudson, M Margaret; Colford, John M

    2009-01-01

    Fractures of the femoral shaft are common and have potentially serious consequences in patients with multiple injuries. The appropriate timing of fracture repair is controversial. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of timing of internal fixation on mortality in patients with multisystem trauma. We performed a retrospective cohort study with use of data from public and private trauma centers throughout the United States that were reported to the National Trauma Data Bank (version 5.0 for 2000 through 2004). The study included 3069 patients with multisystem trauma (Injury Severity Score, > or =15) who underwent internal fixation of a femoral shaft fracture. The time to treatment was defined in categories as the time from admission to internal fixation: t(0) (twelve hours or less), t(1) (more than twelve hours to twenty-four hours), t(2) (more than twenty-four hours to forty-eight hours), t(3) (more than forty-eight hours to 120 hours), and t(4) (more than 120 hours). The relative risk of in-hospital mortality when the four later periods were compared with the earliest one was estimated with inverse probability of treatment-weighted analysis. Subgroups with serious head or neck, chest, abdominal, and additional extremity injury were investigated. When compared with that during the first twelve hours after admission, the estimated mortality risk was significantly lower in three time categories: t(1) (relative risk, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.15 to 0.98; p = 0.03), t(3) (relative risk, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.28 to 0.93; p = 0.03), and t(4) (relative risk, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.10 to 0.94; p = 0.03). Patients with serious abdominal trauma (Abbreviated Injury Score, > or =3) experienced the greatest benefit from a delay of internal fixation beyond twelve hours (relative risk, 0.82 [95% confidence interval, 0.54 to 1.35] for patients with an Abbreviated Injury Score of <3, compared with 0.36 [95% confidence interval, 0

  4. The history of internal fixation of proximal femur fractures Ernst Pohl-the genius behind.

    PubMed

    Bartoníček, Jan; Rammelt, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    The most frequently used implants for internal fixation of proximal femoral fractures are currently the dynamic hip screw and the intramedullary hip nail. However, little has been written about one of the pioneers in this field, a German genius, the designer Ernst Pohl (1876-1962). Without his involvement the concepts of intramedullary nailing coined by Gerhard Küntscher, Richard Maatz and other surgeons could hardly have been implemented. Through his achievements Pohl has rightly merited his pre-eminent position in the history of bone surgery. This article outlines the extraordinary contribution of Ernst Pohl to the development of skeletal surgery and radiology, as well as other medical disciplines.

  5. Displaced avulsion of the ischial apophysis: a hamstring injury requiring internal fixation

    PubMed Central

    Servant, C. T.; Jones, C. B.

    1998-01-01

    A case is reported of an adolescent sprinter who was chronically disabled by pain after non-operative management for an acute hamstring injury. He had sustained an avulsion fracture of the ischial apophysis with displacement of 2.5 cm. Avulsion fractures of the ischial apophysis with displacement of 2 cm or more are unusual, but they frequently result in a symptomatic non-union, and early diagnosis, open reduction, and internal fixation is to be encouraged. 


 PMID:9773178

  6. Sphagnum N and P Stoichiometry Indicates P-limitation on N2 Fixation in Ombrotrophic Bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zivkovic, T.; Moore, T. R.; Disney, K.

    2015-12-01

    Biological N2 fixation is an important N input in ombrotrophic, nutrient poor and Sphagnum dominated bogs. As an energetically costly process, by which each N2 molecule is fixed to a cost of 16ATP molecules, N2 fixation might be P limited process. In this study we tested whether moss P and N concentrations, and N:P ratios could explain N2 fixation in the top 6cm photosynthetically active Sphagnum moss across eight ombrotrophic bogs along south-north geographical gradient in Ontario and Quebec. Under constant environmental conditions, we incubated subsamples of the surface Sphagnum mosses by using both, acetylene reduction assays (ARA) and 15N2 enriched method to measure N2 fixation rates. Same subsamples were later analyzed for N and P concentrations. Our preliminary data show that the increase of P concentration within moss capitula is related to a significant linear increase of ARA rates (R2=0.18, p<0.0001, N=150). N:P ratios showed a significant negative linear relationship with ARA (R2=0.34, p<0.0001, N=150) indicating that P limitation in the photosynthetically active part of mosses in bogs may also indicate P limitation on microbial N2 fixation

  7. Autologous bone graft versus demineralized bone matrix in internal fixation of ununited long bones

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Non-unions are severe complications in orthopaedic trauma care and occur in 10% of all fractures. The golden standard for the treatment of ununited fractures includes open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) as well as augmentation with autologous-bone-grafting. However, there is morbidity associated with the bone-graft donor site and some patients offer limited quantity or quality of autologous-bone graft material. Since allogene bone-grafts are introduced on the market, this comparative study aims to evaluate healing characteristics of ununited bones treated with ORIF combined with either iliac-crest-autologous-bone-grafting (ICABG) or demineralized-bone-matrix (DBM). Methods and results From 2000 to 2006 out of sixty-two consecutive patients with non-unions presenting at our Level I Trauma Center, twenty patients had ununited diaphyseal fractures of long bones and were treated by ORIF combined either by ICABG- (n = 10) or DBM-augmentation (n = 10). At the time of index-operation, patients of the DBM-group had a higher level of comorbidity (ASA-value: p = 0.014). Mean duration of follow-up was 56.6 months (ICABG-group) and 41.2 months (DBM-group). All patients were clinically and radiographically assessed and adverse effects related to bone grafting were documented. The results showed that two non-unions augmented with ICABG failed osseous healing (20%) whereas all non-unions grafted by DBM showed successful consolidation during the first year after the index operation (p = 0.146). No early complications were documented in both groups but two patients of the ICABG-group suffered long-term problems at the donor site (20%) (p = 0.146). Pain intensity were comparable in both groups (p = 0.326). However, patients treated with DBM were more satisfied with the surgical procedure (p = 0.031). Conclusion With the use of DBM, the costs for augmentation of the non-union-site are more expensive compared to ICABG (calculated difference: 160

  8. Autologous bone graft versus demineralized bone matrix in internal fixation of ununited long bones.

    PubMed

    Pieske, Oliver; Wittmann, Alexandra; Zaspel, Johannes; Löffler, Thomas; Rubenbauer, Bianka; Trentzsch, Heiko; Piltz, Stefan

    2009-12-15

    Non-unions are severe complications in orthopaedic trauma care and occur in 10% of all fractures. The golden standard for the treatment of ununited fractures includes open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) as well as augmentation with autologous-bone-grafting. However, there is morbidity associated with the bone-graft donor site and some patients offer limited quantity or quality of autologous-bone graft material. Since allogene bone-grafts are introduced on the market, this comparative study aims to evaluate healing characteristics of ununited bones treated with ORIF combined with either iliac-crest-autologous-bone-grafting (ICABG) or demineralized-bone-matrix (DBM). From 2000 to 2006 out of sixty-two consecutive patients with non-unions presenting at our Level I Trauma Center, twenty patients had ununited diaphyseal fractures of long bones and were treated by ORIF combined either by ICABG- (n = 10) or DBM-augmentation (n = 10). At the time of index-operation, patients of the DBM-group had a higher level of comorbidity (ASA-value: p = 0.014). Mean duration of follow-up was 56.6 months (ICABG-group) and 41.2 months (DBM-group). All patients were clinically and radiographically assessed and adverse effects related to bone grafting were documented. The results showed that two non-unions augmented with ICABG failed osseous healing (20%) whereas all non-unions grafted by DBM showed successful consolidation during the first year after the index operation (p = 0.146). No early complications were documented in both groups but two patients of the ICABG-group suffered long-term problems at the donor site (20%) (p = 0.146). Pain intensity were comparable in both groups (p = 0.326). However, patients treated with DBM were more satisfied with the surgical procedure (p = 0.031). With the use of DBM, the costs for augmentation of the non-union-site are more expensive compared to ICABG (calculated difference: 160 euro/case). Nevertheless, this study demonstrated that the

  9. Combined Internal and External Fixation for Diabetic Charcot Reconstruction: A Retrospective Case Series.

    PubMed

    Hegewald, Kenneth W; Wilder, Megan L; Chappell, Todd M; Hutchinson, Byron L

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic Charcot neuroarthropathy is a complex, limb-threatening disease process with major lifestyle-altering repercussions for patients. When Charcot neuroarthropathy leads to unstable deformity, ulceration, and potential infection despite conservative therapies, foot and ankle surgeons often consider reconstructive limb salvage procedures to restore function. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of diabetic Charcot reconstruction using combined internal and external fixation. A total of 22 patients were reviewed; 16 (72.73%) midfoot and 6 (27.27%) tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis procedures were consecutively performed from March 2009 to May 2013. All surgical procedures were performed in nonacute phases of the Charcot process in patients with diagnosed diabetes mellitus and documented peripheral neuropathy. Patients were excluded from the study if they were not diabetic despite having undergone Charcot reconstruction, regardless of the fixation method, or if they did not complete radiographic imaging. During a mean follow-up period of 58.60 ± 42.37 (range 16 to 164) weeks, limb salvage was achieved in 20 patients (90.91%), and 2 (9.09%) required below-the-knee amputation at a mean of 42 ± 14.14 weeks. Wound dehiscence occurred in 8 (36.36%), pin tract infection in 10 (45.45%), and superficial wound infection in 9 (40.91%) and peaked in bimodal fashion at 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively. Radiographic analysis of the pre- versus postoperative alignment showed statistically significant changes in the lateral talo-first metatarsal angle (p = .02) and lateral talar declination angle (p = .01). The limb salvage rates with diabetic Charcot reconstruction are improving in part because of the continued development of increasingly superior modalities for both internal and external fixation. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of risk factors for femoral head necrosis after internal fixation in femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Sun, Jun-Ying; Zha, Guo-Chun; Jiang, Tao; You, Zhen-Jun; Yuan, De-Jing

    2014-12-01

    Femoral head necrosis is a rare but devastating complication following femoral neck fracture. The reported incidence of avascular necrosis after femoral neck fracture fixation varies widely, and there is no consensus regarding its risk factors. The aim of this study was to analyze the risk factors for femoral head necrosis after internal fixation in femoral neck fracture. This retrospective study included 166 patients with femoral neck fractures treated with surgical reduction and internal fixation at the authors' institution from January 2004 to December 2008. Eight patients died for reasons unrelated to the surgery, and 12 patients were lost to follow-up. The remaining 146 patients (146 fractures) were followed until union or until conversion to total hip arthroplasty. The patients included 61 males and 85 females with an average age of 47.5 years (range, 18-68 years). The authors analyzed the following factors: age, sex, Garden classification, reduction quality, surgical methods, injury-to-surgery interval, preoperative traction, weight-bearing time, and implant removal. All patients were followed for a mean of 52 months (range, 6-90 months). The incidence of femoral head necrosis was 14.4% (21/146). Garden classification (P=.012), reduction quality (P=.008), implant removal (P=.020), and preoperative traction (P=.003) were significantly associated with femoral head necrosis. Patient age (P=.990), sex (P=.287), injury-to-surgery interval (P=.360), weight-bearing time (P=.868), and surgical methods (P=.987) were not significantly associated with femoral head necrosis. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, implant removal was not a significant risk factor for femoral head necrosis development (P=.498). Garden classification, reduction quality, and preoperative traction had a significant effect on femoral head necrosis development. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Clinical use of computed tomography and surface markers to assist internal fixation within the equine hoof.

    PubMed

    Gasiorowski, Janik C; Richardson, Dean W

    2015-02-01

    To describe clinical use of computed tomography (CT) and hoof surface markers to facilitate internal fixation within the confines of the hoof wall. Retrospective case series. Horses (n = 16) that had CT-guided internal fixation of the distal phalanx (DP) or distal sesamoid bone (DSB). Drill bit entry point and direction were planned from CT image series performed on hooves with grids of barium paste dots at proposed entry and projected exit sites. Post-implantation CT images were obtained to check screw position and length as well as fracture reduction. Imaging, reduction, and surgical and general anesthesia times were evaluated. Outcome was recorded. Screw position and length were considered near optimal in all horses, with no consequential malposition of bits or screws. Fracture reduction was evident in all cases. Preoperative planning times (at least 2 CT image acquisitions and grid creation) ranged from 10 to 20 minutes. Surgery time ranged from 45 to 90 minutes (mean, 61 minutes) and general anesthesia time ranged from 115 to 220 minutes (mean, 171 minutes). The combination of CT and surface marker grids allowed accurate positioning of screws in clinical DP and DSB fractures. The technique was simple and rapid. An aiming device is useful for the technique. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  12. [Arthroscopically assisted internal fixation of avulsion fractures of the anterior cruciate ligament during childhood and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Sommerfeldt, Dirk W

    2008-01-01

    Minimally invasive reduction and internal fixation of anterior tibial spine and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) without harming knee joint cartilage and physis of the proximal tibia. Anterior tibial spine fractures type II-IV according to Meyers/McKeever. ACL tears. Fractures of the tibial plateau. Fractures involving the growth plate (Aitken I-III). 1. Diagnostic arthroscopy and drainage of the knee joint. Search for additional injuries (menisci, knee joint cartilage, collateral ligaments, posterior cruciate ligament). 2. Arthroscopy-assisted reduction of anterior tibial spine fragment. 3. Epiphyseal internal fixation with Kirschner wires or cannulated screws according to fragment size. Full weight bearing as tolerated after wound healing (day 7 after surgery) in 20 degrees of knee flexion (orthesis or ankle-sparing cast tutor). X-rays postoperatively and after 3 and 6 weeks. Passive and active physiotherapy (extension and flexion without weight bearing) 3-4 weeks postoperatively according to patient's age, weight and compliance. Weight bearing in knee flexion (stairs) 6-8 weeks postoperatively. 19 patients were treated from 2001 to 2005 at an age of 7-14 years. All patients achieved free range of motion without pain or growth disturbances. Three patients developed slight joint laxity (anterior drawer test) which did not affect mobility, sports performance, joint surface or menisci on clinical evaluations conducted at least 1 year postoperatively. One patient had bony healing of the tibial spine in slight dislocation without impingement or decrease of range of motion within the knee joint.

  13. Bone bonding ability of a new biodegradable composite for internal fixation of bone fractures.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, T; Matsusue, Y; Yasunaga, T; Nakagawa, Y; Shikinami, Y; Okuno, M; Nakamura, T

    2000-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite particles and poly(L-lactide) composites for internal fixation of bone fractures have been developed based on the hypothesis that incorporation of hydroxyapatite particles in a poly(L-lactide) matrix might enhance bone bonding. This study evaluated the bone bonding ability of these biodegradable composites. Two types of hydroxyapatite and poly(L-lactide) composite were used in this study: calcined hydroxyapatite/poly(L-lactide) and uncalcined hydroxyapatite/poly(L-lactide). Rectangular plates (2 x 10 x 15 mm) of each composite or poly(L-lactide) were implanted into the metaphysis of the tibiae of 33 male rabbits, and the failure load was measured by conducting a detaching test 8, 16, and 25 weeks after implantation. The failure loads of calcined hydroxyapatite/poly(L-lactide), uncalcined hydroxyapatite/poly(L-lactide), and poly(L-lactide), respectively, were 13.60, 13.95, and 0.46 N at 8 weeks; 29.84, 24.09, and 2.86 N at 16 weeks; and 25.50, 29.67, and 2.43 N at 25 weeks. Histologic observation revealed that the composites formed direct contact with the bone. The results in this study indicate that the composites improved the strength of the interface between bone and plate. This improved interfacial strength lead to a substantial decrease in the frequency of implant loosening in the treatment of fractured bones by internal fixation.

  14. Costs of internal fixation and arthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures: a randomized study of 68 patients.

    PubMed

    Rogmark, Cecilia; Carlsson, Ake; Johnell, Olof; Sembo, Ingemar

    2003-06-01

    We included in a prospective, randomized study 68 patients aged 70 years or older, with displaced cervical hip fractures. The patients were randomized to internal fixation with hook-pins (36) or primary arthroplasty (32) (total or hemiarthroplasty due to their prefracture status) and followed for 2 years. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis, mental confusion and/or residence in an institution were excluded. The postoperative stay in hospital, rehabilitation wards or nursing homes were recorded as well as complications and the costs of surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the accumulated costs of each method, during the first 2 years after the fracture. In the internal fixation group, 15/36 were considered failures, as compared to 1/32 in the arthroplasty group. As regards primary treatment of the fracture, the durations of surgery and hospital stay were shorter after internal fixation, but the total need for hospitalization/institutionalization was somewhat longer in these patients. The mean 2-year cost for a patient with internal fixation was USD 21,000 and of one with primary arthroplasty USD 15,000. We conclude that primary arthroplasty is a cost-efficient treatment. Considering the very much higher failure rate after internal fixation--leading to increased suffering for these patients--primary arthroplasty stands out as the best method for displaced fractures of the femoral neck.

  15. Timing of surgery for open reduction and internal fixation of displaced proximal humeral fractures.

    PubMed

    Siebenbürger, Georg; Van Delden, Dustin; Helfen, Tobias; Haasters, Florian; Böcker, Wolfgang; Ockert, Ben

    2015-10-01

    Open reduction and internal fixation is one established method for treatment of displaced fractures of the proximal humerus. However, the timing of surgery and its effect on complications have not yet been investigated in the literature. Hence, aim of this study was to analyze the occurrence of complication following locked plating of proximal humeral fractures when surgery was delayed in comparison to early intervention. Between February 2002 and November 2010, 497 patients with displaced proximal humeral fractures were treated by open reduction and locked plating. 329 patients were available for follow-up with a minimum of 12 months after surgery. Outcome analysis included radiographic evidence of loss of fixation (> 10° of secondary displacement), screw-cutout and avascular head necrosis. Outcomes were analyzed with regards to age, gender and fracture pattern and were compared between time intervals in which the primary surgery had been conducted; early intervention (< 48 h), timely scheduled for surgery (3-5 days) and delayed intervention (>5 days). Of 329 patients (68.4% women; median age at time of surgery: 69.9 years, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 68.2, 71.2) the median time between fracture incident and surgical intervention was 3.2 days (95%CI: 3.1, 3.3). Surgery was performed in a 2-part fracture at a median of 3.3 days (95%CI: 3.2, 3.4) after trauma, in a 3-part fracture after 3.3 days (95%CI: 3.1, 3.4), in a 4-part fracture 2.9 days (95%CI: 2.8, 3.0), in head split type fracture 2.2 days (95%CI: 2.0, 2.4) and in dislocation type fracture 0.8 days after trauma (95%CI: 0.7, 0.9, p = 0.40). Loss of fixation was observed in 12.8% (n = 42 patients), of which in 4.9% (n = 16) screw cutout was evident and in 6.8% of cases (n = 20) avascular head necrosis was diagnosed. Patients in which complication was observed were treated at median 2.5 days after trauma (95% CI, 1.8, 3.2), in comparison, patients without evidence of complications were treated at a median of

  16. The societal costs of femoral neck fracture patients treated with internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, S M; Bouwmans, C A M; Heetveld, M J; Bhandari, M; Patka, P; Van Lieshout, E M M

    2014-03-01

    The study rationale was to provide a detailed overview of the costs for femoral neck fracture treatment with internal fixation in the Netherlands. Mean total costs per patient at 2-years follow-up were 19,425. Costs were higher for older, less healthy patients. Results are comparable to internationally published costs. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed overview of the cost and healthcare consumption of patients treated for a hip fracture with internal fixation. A secondary aim was to compare costs of patients who underwent a revision surgery with patients who did not. The study was performed alongside the Dutch sample of an international randomized controlled trial, concerning femoral neck fracture patients treated with internal fixation. Patient characteristics and healthcare consumption were collected. Total follow-up was 2 years. A societal perspective was adopted. Costs included hospital costs during primary stay and follow-up, and costs related to rehabilitation and changes in living situation. Costs were compared between non-revision surgery patients, implant removal patients, and revision arthroplasty patients. A total of 248 patients were included (mean age 71 years). Mean total costs per patient at 2-years follow-up were 19,425. In the non-revision surgery patients total costs were 17,405 (N = 137), in the implant removal patients 10,066 (N = 38), and in the revision arthroplasty patients 26,733 (N = 67). The main contributing costs were related to the primary surgery, admission days, physical therapy, and revision surgeries. The main determinant was the costs of admission to a rehabilitation center/nursing home. Costs were specifically high in elderly with comorbidity, who were less independent pre-fracture, and have a longer admission to the hospital and/or a nursing home. Costs were also higher in revision surgery patients. The 2-years follow-up costs in our study were comparable to published costs

  17. Nuclear Weapon Testing Limitations and International Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corden, Pierce S.

    2017-01-01

    For over 50 years stopping nuclear weapon tests has been sought to support achieving international security without nuclear weapons. Testing is the critical path beyond primitive fission devices, e.g. to develop thermonuclear weapons, reduce weight and volume and increase yield. The 1958 Geneva Conference of Experts considered ways to verify a test ban. With then-limitations on seismology, and lack of in-country monitoring and on-site inspections, the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty prohibits testing only in the atmosphere, outer space and under water, and is verified by National Technical Means. The US and USSR agreed to a limit of 150 kilotons on underground explosions in the 1970s-80s. The 1996 Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty bans all nuclear explosions. Its International Monitoring System - seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound and radionuclide sensors - is being used, and has easily detected testing by the DPRK. On-site inspections will be available under an in-force Treaty. A 2012 National Academy report concludes that cheating attempts would not undermine U.S. security, and the program for monitoring and extending the life of US weapons has succeeded since US testing ceased in 1992.

  18. Treatment of malar and midfacial fractures with osteoconductive forged unsintered hydroxyapatite and poly-L-lactide composite internal fixation devices.

    PubMed

    Landes, Constantin; Ballon, Alexander; Ghanaati, Sharam; Tran, Andreas; Sader, Robert

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the internal fixation of malar and midfacial fractures, long-term results, and biocompatibility of osteoconductive internal fixation devices composed of a forged composite of unsintered hydroxyapatite and poly-L-lactide (F-u-HA/PLLA). From January 2006 to June 2010, 29 patients (24 males and 5 females; age 33 ± 15 years) were included in the present prospective study. The fracture type was malar in 24 patients, midfacial in 5, isolated orbital floor blowout in 2, and frontal sinus, cranial base in 2 patients. The fractures were fixed with internal fixation devices; these were plates and screws composed of F-u-HA/PLLA. The 24 patients with malar fractures were treated with a single 4-hole L-plate or a straight plate at the infrazygomatic crest. All fractures with internal fixation using devices composed of F-u-HA/PLLA healed well. All malar and midfacial fractures had satisfactory long-term stability. The follow-up examinations at 12 to 67 months after surgery showed that most patients had no complaints, although 2 patients (15%) had a foreign body reaction that was treated by implant removal, with complete symptom resolution. At 5 years after fracture fixation, 2 patients had ultrasound and 2 had radiographic evidence of residual material. An exemplar biopsy showed direct bone growth into the material. In patients with malar and midfacial fractures, hardware composed of the F-u-HA/PLLA composite provided reliable and satisfactory internal fixation, intraoperative handling, long-term stability, and biocompatibility. Direct bone growth into the material could be histopathologically exemplified, in contrast to previous polymer fixations that were resorbed and surrounded by a connective tissue layer. This finding indicates that long-term F-u-HA/PLLA residual material will be included into the remodeled bone, which was confirmed on long-term follow-up radiographs. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by

  19. Internal fixation of radiation-induced pathological fractures of the femur has a high rate of failure.

    PubMed

    Sternheim, A; Saidi, K; Lochab, J; O'Donnell, P W; Eward, W C; Griffin, A; Wunder, J S; Ferguson, P

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the clinical outcome of internal fixation for pathological fracture of the femur after primary excision of a soft-tissue sarcoma that had been treated with adjuvant radiotherapy. A review of our database identified 22 radiation-induced fractures of the femur in 22 patients (seven men, 15 women). We noted the mechanism of injury, fracture pattern and any complications after internal fixation, including nonunion, hardware failure, secondary fracture or deep infection. The mean age of the patients at primary excision of the tumour was 58.3 years (39 to 86). The mean time from primary excision to fracture was 73.2 months (2 to 195). The mean follow-up after fracture fixation was 65.9 months (12 to 205). Complications occurred in 19 patients (86%). Nonunion developed in 18 patients (82%), of whom 11 had a radiological nonunion at 12 months, five a nonunion and hardware failure and two an infected nonunion. One patient developed a second radiation-associated fracture of the femur after internal fixation and union of the initial fracture. A total of 13 patients (59%) underwent 24 revision operations. Internal fixation of a pathological fracture of the femur after radiotherapy for a soft-tissue sarcoma has an extremely high rate of complication and requires specialist attention.

  20. The effect of local bone density on mechanical failure after internal fixation of pertrochanteric fractures.

    PubMed

    Li, Changhua; Xie, Bingju; Chen, Shanxi; Lin, Guangmao; Yang, Guojing; Zhang, Lei

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the effect of local hip bone density on mechanical failure after fixation of pertrochanteric fractures and to establish possible risk factors for the failures. A total of 136 consecutive patients presenting a closed unilateral pertrochanteric fracture were enrolled. The patients were treated with a sliding hip screw or an intramedullary nail. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements for bone density of the contralateral hip were made within 4 weeks postoperatively. Follow-up evaluations on the standard radiographs were documented for any mechanical failure including loss of reduction, screw or blade cut-out, lateral migration of the screw or blade, and implant breakage. Secondary outcomes were also recorded including patient characteristics and fixation construct variables as possible predictors for mechanical failure. At a minimum of 2 years of follow-up, 38 patients were reported with mechanical failure at an estimated risk of 27.9 %. The local bone density measurements for the study population showed no difference between patients with (0.710 g/cm(2)) and without (0.726 g/cm(2)) mechanical failure (P = 0.180). We also observed no significant correlation between local bone density and failure in patients with good fracture reduction (P = 0.862). The multivariate regression analysis identified fracture type (P < 0.001) and quality of fracture reduction (P < 0.001) as being independent predictors for mechanical failure, whereas local bone density was not (P = 0.658). Local hip bone density does not appear to have a significant influence on mechanical failure after internal fixation of pertrochanteric fractures. Stable fractures and fractures with good reduction are expected to obtain satisfactory outcomes.

  1. Primary total hip arthroplasty versus internal fixation in displaced fracture of femoral neck in sexa- and septuagenarians.

    PubMed

    Wani, Iftikhar H; Sharma, Sidhartha; Latoo, Irfan; Salaria, A Q; Farooq, Munir; Jan, Masrat

    2014-09-01

    The optimal treatment of femoral neck fracture in the elderly patient is still under debate. In patients aged 60-80 years, the decision between internal fixation and arthroplasty remains controversial. The primary aim of the present study is to evaluate the functional outcome of patients aged 60-80 years with femoral neck fracture treated with total hip arthroplasty or closed reduction and internal fixation. The secondary aim is to evaluate the incidence of nonunion and avascular necrosis in femoral neck fracture in different age groups. We studied 100 patients affected by displaced fracture of the femoral neck from May 2007 through June 2010. There were 60 men and 40 women with mean age of 66 years. Fifty patients were treated with closed reduction and internal fixation with cannulated screws (group A), and the other 50 patients with total hip arthroplasty (group B). Mean surgical time, blood loss, duration of hospital stay, Harris hip score, complications, and need for reoperation were recorded. Harris hip score was significantly higher in group B at 3-, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up evaluation. The overall complication rate was 28 % in group A and 32 % in group B, which was not statistically significant. A statistically significant difference was found regarding patients who required reoperation in group A (20 %) compared with group B (no one). The average Harris hip score in the internal fixation group was 90.6 and in the total hip arthroplasty group was 93.7, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Our study showed an increased risk for intracapsular hip fracture developing nonunion with older age. Primary total hip arthroplasty compared with internal fixation appears to be a reasonably safe method of treating displaced fracture of femoral neck in elderly patients. We also concluded that outcome regarding hip function is generally better after total hip arthroplasty compared with internal fixation. Level II-Prospective cohort study.

  2. New concept of 3D printed bone clip (polylactic acid/hydroxyapatite/silk composite) for internal fixation of bone fractures.

    PubMed

    Yeon, Yeung Kyu; Park, Hae Sang; Lee, Jung Min; Lee, Ji Seung; Lee, Young Jin; Sultan, Md Tipu; Seo, Ye Bin; Lee, Ok Joo; Kim, Soon Hee; Park, Chan Hum

    2017-09-22

    Open reduction with internal fixation is commonly used for the treatment of bone fractures. However, postoperative infection associated with internal fixation devices (intramedullary nails, plates, and screws) remains a significant complication, and it is technically difficult to fix multiple fragmented bony fractures using internal fixation devices. In addition, drilling in the bone to install devices can lead to secondary fracture, bone necrosis associated with postoperative infection. In this study, we developed bone clip type internal fixation device using three- dimensional (3D) printing technology. Standard 3D model of the bone clip was generated based on computed tomography (CT) scan of the femur in the rat. Polylacticacid (PLA), hydroxyapatite (HA), and silk were used for bone clip material. The purpose of this study was to characterize 3D printed PLA, PLA/HA, and PLA/HA/Silk composite bone clip and evaluate the feasibility of these bone clips as an internal fixation device. Based on the results, PLA/HA/Silk composite bone clip showed similar mechanical property, and superior biocompatibility compared to other types of the bone clip. PLA/HA/Silk composite bone clip demonstrated excellent alignment of the bony segments across the femur fracture site with well-positioned bone clip in an animal study. Our 3D printed bone clips have several advantages: (1) relatively noninvasive (drilling in the bone is not necessary), (2) patient-specific design (3) mechanically stable device, and (4) it provides high biocompatibility. Therefore, we suggest that our 3D printed PLA/HA/Silk composite bone clip is a possible internal fixation device.

  3. Finite element analysis of three patterns of internal fixation of fractures of the mandibular condyle.

    PubMed

    Aquilina, Peter; Chamoli, Uphar; Parr, William C H; Clausen, Philip D; Wroe, Stephen

    2013-06-01

    The most stable pattern of internal fixation for fractures of the mandibular condyle is a matter for ongoing discussion. In this study we investigated the stability of three commonly used patterns of plate fixation, and constructed finite element models of a simulated mandibular condylar fracture. The completed models were heterogeneous in the distribution of bony material properties, contained about 1.2 million elements, and incorporated simulated jaw-adducting musculature. Models were run assuming linear elasticity and isotropic material properties for bone. This model was considerably larger and more complex than previous finite element models that have been used to analyse the biomechanical behaviour of differing plating techniques. The use of two parallel 2.0 titanium miniplates gave a more stable configuration with lower mean element stresses and displacements over the use of a single miniplate. In addition, a parallel orientation of two miniplates resulted in lower stresses and displacements than did the use of two miniplates in an offset pattern. The use of two parallel titanium plates resulted in a superior biomechanical result as defined by mean element stresses and relative movement between the fractured fragments in these finite element models. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Treatment of Humeral Shaft Fractures: Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis Versus Open Reduction and Internal Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Esmailiejah, Ali Akbar; Abbasian, Mohammad Reza; Safdari, Farshad; Ashoori, Keyqobad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The optimal technique for operative fixation of humeral shaft fractures remains controversial and warrants research. Objectives: The purpose of the current study was to compare the functional and clinical outcomes of conventional open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) in patients with fractures in two-third distal humeral shaft. Patients and Methods: In the current prospective case-control study, 65 patients with humeral shaft fractures were treated using ORIF (33 patients) or MIPO (32 patients). Time of surgery, time of union, incidence of varus deformity and complications were compared between the two groups. Also, the university of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder rating scale and Mayo Elbow performance score (MEPS) were used to compare the functional outcomes between the two groups. Results: The median of union time was shorter in the MIPO group (4 months versus 5 months). The time of surgery and functional outcomes based on the UCLA and MEPS scores were the same. The incidence of varus deformity was more than 5° and was higher and the incidence of nonunion, infection and iatrogenic radial nerve injury were lower in the MIPO group; however, the differences were not significant. Conclusions: Due to the shorter union time, to some extent less complication rate and comparable functional and clinical results, the authors recommend to use the MIPO technique in treating the mid-distal humeral shaft fracture. PMID:26543844

  5. Analysis of a Lane-plate internal fixation device after 64 years in vivo.

    PubMed

    McAuley, J P; Gow, K V; Covert, A; McDermott, A G; Yabsley, R H

    1987-11-01

    A patient presented for an above-knee amputation 64 years after successful internal fixation of a femoral fracture with a Lane plate. Chemical analyses of the plate and corrosion products were done using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, x-ray energy spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. Mechanical properties of the fixation devices were measured using Rockwell-type instruments and metallographic analyses were also performed. In addition, pathologic and radiologic investigations of the underlying bone were carried out. Results disclosed that extensive corrosion had weakened the plate by 50%. The metallosis of the surrounding soft tissues and abnormal morphologic features of underlying bone were analysed. No appreciable cellular inflammatory or dysplastic reaction of adjacent tissues was identified. The underlying bone showed a persistent lack of mature compact bone and no evidence of remodelling. The products of corrosion were mainly ferrous carbonate and some ferrous chloride. The mechanism of the corrosion was the formation of a galvanic cell between the iron carbide and surrounding iron, with dissolution of the iron and formation of the corrosion products.

  6. [Causes and managements of postoperative neurological complications in internal fixation for the treatment of degenerative scoliosis].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie; Ye, Hong; Yang, Yong-Hong; Lou, Su-Liang

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the causes and managements of postoperative neurological complications in pedicle screw internal fixation for the treatment of degenerative scoliosis (DS). The data of 325 patients with degenerative scoliosis underwent pedicle screw internal fixation was retrospectively analyzed from February 2000 to April 2013. There were 22 patients with postoperative neurological complications. Of them, 16 cases complicated with numbness or pain of lower limb and 6 cases with obvious sensation and motor function decreasing in lower limb. The patients were treated with trophic nerve, dehydration, glucocorticoids, reoperation according to the causes of disease. Postoperative at 3, 6 months and 1 year later, according to VAS scoring and muscule power improvement,the recovery of nerve injury was assessed. Postoperative at 3,6 months and 1 year later,VAS scoring of 16 patients with slightly nerve injury was 2.81 +/- 0.66, 1.94 +/- 0.77, 0.63 +/- 0.62, respectively, and the symptoms had obviously improved than 1 week after operation (P < 0.05). Postoperative at 3 months, among 6 patients with severe nerve injury,muscule power improved in 2 cases and no-improved in 4 cases, with VAS scoring of 4.83 +/- 1.17; postoperative at 6 months,muscule power still had not improved in 3 cases,with VAS scoring of 4.17 +/- 0.75; both of the VAS scoring had not significant difference than 1 week after operation (P > 0.05). One year later, there was no muscule power improvement in 2 cases,with VAS scoring of 3.00 +/- 1.26, there was significant difference than 1 week after operation (P < 0.05). The causes of postoperative neurological complication in internal fixation for the treatment of dengenerative scoliosis includes: dragging and torsion injury of spinal marrow and nerve root because of excessive orthopedic of scoliosis; inderect injury of nerve root because of malposition of pedicle screw; nerve functional impairment caused by spinal cord ischemia. Avoiding the above factors could

  7. [A biomechanical study on internal fixation of proximal ulna combined with olecranon fracture].

    PubMed

    Teng, Lin; Zhong, Gang; Liu, Gang; Xiao, Cong; Liu, Guoming; Huang, Fuguo

    2012-01-01

    To compare the biomechanical stability of Kirschner wire and tension band wiring, reconstruction plate combined with tension band wiring, and olecranon anatomical plate in fixing proximal ulna combined with olecranon fracture, so as to provide the theoretical evidence for clinical selection of internal fixation. Eight specimens of elbow joints and ligaments were taken from eight fresh male adult cadaveric elbows (aged 26-43 years, mean 34.8 years) donated voluntarily. The model of proximal ulna combined with olecranon fracture was made by an osteotomy in each specimen. Fracture end was fixed successively by Kirschner wire and tension band wiring (group A), reconstruction plate combined with tension band wiring (group B), and olecranon anatomical plate (group C), respectively. The biomechanical test was performed for monopodium compression experiments, and load-displacement curves were obtained. The stability of the fixation was evaluated according to the load value when the compression displacement of fracture segment was 2 mm. No Kirschner wire withdrawal, broken plate and screw, loosening and specimens destruction were observed. The load-displacement curves of 3 groups showed that the displacement increased gradually with increasing load, while the curve slope of groups B and C was significantly higher than that of group A. When the compression displacement was 2 mm, the load values of groups A, B, and C were (218.6 +/- 66.9), (560.3 +/- 116.1), and (577.2 +/- 137.6) N, respectively; the load values of groups B and C were significantly higher than that of group A (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was observed between groups B and C (t = 0.305, P = 0.763). The proximal ulna combined with olecranon fracture is unstable. Reconstruction plate combined with tension band wiring and olecranon anatomical plate can meet the requirement of fracture fixation, so they are favorable options for proximal ulna combined with olecranon fracture. Kirschner wire and tension

  8. Comparative analysis of international standards for the fatigue testing of posterior spinal fixation systems.

    PubMed

    Villa, Tomaso; La Barbera, Luigi; Galbusera, Fabio

    2014-04-01

    Preclinical evaluation of the long-term reliability of devices for lumbar fixation is a mandatory activity before they are put into market. The experimental setups are described in two different standards edited by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM), but the evaluation of the suitability of such tests to simulate the actual loading with in vivo situations has never been performed. To calculate through finite element (FE) simulations the stress in the rods of the fixator when subjected to ASTM and ISO standards. To compare the calculated stresses arising in the same fixator once it has been virtually mounted in a physiological environment and loaded with physiological forces and moments. FE simulations and validation experimental tests. FE models of the ISO and ASTM setups were created to conduct simulations of the tests prescribed by standards and calculate stresses in the rods. Validation of the simulations were performed through experimental tests; the same fixator was virtually mounted in an L2-L4 FE model of the lumbar spine and stresses in the rods were calculated when the spine was subjected to physiological forces and moments. The comparison between FE simulations and experimental tests showed good agreement between results obtained using the two methodologies, thus confirming the suitability of the FE method to evaluate stresses in the device in different loading situations. The usage of a physiological load with ASTM standard is impossible due to the extreme severity of the ASTM configuration; in this circumstance, the presence of an anterior support is suggested. Also, ISO prescriptions, although the choice of the setup correctly simulates the mechanical contribution of the discs, seem to overstress the device as compared with a physiological loading condition. Some daily activities, other than walking, can induce a further state of stress in the device that should be taken into

  9. Light-Limited Growth Rate Modulates Nitrate Inhibition of Dinitrogen Fixation in the Marine Unicellular Cyanobacterium Crocosphaera watsonii

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Nathan S.; Hutchins, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Biological N2 fixation is the dominant supply of new nitrogen (N) to the oceans, but is often inhibited in the presence of fixed N sources such as nitrate (NO3−). Anthropogenic fixed N inputs to the ocean are increasing, but their effect on marine N2 fixation is uncertain. Thus, global estimates of new oceanic N depend on a fundamental understanding of factors that modulate N source preferences by N2-fixing cyanobacteria. We examined the unicellular diazotroph Crocosphaera watsonii (strain WH0003) to determine how the light-limited growth rate influences the inhibitory effects of fixed N on N2 fixation. When growth (µ) was limited by low light (µ = 0.23 d−1), short-term experiments indicated that 0.4 µM NH4+ reduced N2-fixation by ∼90% relative to controls without added NH4+. In fast-growing, high-light-acclimated cultures (µ = 0.68 d−1), 2.0 µM NH4+ was needed to achieve the same effect. In long-term exposures to NO3−, inhibition of N2 fixation also varied with growth rate. In high-light-acclimated, fast-growing cultures, NO3− did not inhibit N2-fixation rates in comparison with cultures growing on N2 alone. Instead NO3− supported even faster growth, indicating that the cellular assimilation rate of N2 alone (i.e. dinitrogen reduction) could not support the light-specific maximum growth rate of Crocosphaera. When growth was severely light-limited, NO3− did not support faster growth rates but instead inhibited N2-fixation rates by 55% relative to controls. These data rest on the basic tenet that light energy is the driver of photoautotrophic growth while various nutrient substrates serve as supports. Our findings provide a novel conceptual framework to examine interactions between N source preferences and predict degrees of inhibition of N2 fixation by fixed N sources based on the growth rate as controlled by light. PMID:25503244

  10. Light-limited growth rate modulates nitrate inhibition of dinitrogen fixation in the marine unicellular cyanobacterium Crocosphaera watsonii.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Nathan S; Hutchins, David A

    2014-01-01

    Biological N2 fixation is the dominant supply of new nitrogen (N) to the oceans, but is often inhibited in the presence of fixed N sources such as nitrate (NO3-). Anthropogenic fixed N inputs to the ocean are increasing, but their effect on marine N2 fixation is uncertain. Thus, global estimates of new oceanic N depend on a fundamental understanding of factors that modulate N source preferences by N2-fixing cyanobacteria. We examined the unicellular diazotroph Crocosphaera watsonii (strain WH0003) to determine how the light-limited growth rate influences the inhibitory effects of fixed N on N2 fixation. When growth (µ) was limited by low light (µ = 0.23 d-1), short-term experiments indicated that 0.4 µM NH4+ reduced N2-fixation by ∼90% relative to controls without added NH4+. In fast-growing, high-light-acclimated cultures (µ = 0.68 d-1), 2.0 µM NH4+ was needed to achieve the same effect. In long-term exposures to NO3-, inhibition of N2 fixation also varied with growth rate. In high-light-acclimated, fast-growing cultures, NO3- did not inhibit N2-fixation rates in comparison with cultures growing on N2 alone. Instead NO3- supported even faster growth, indicating that the cellular assimilation rate of N2 alone (i.e. dinitrogen reduction) could not support the light-specific maximum growth rate of Crocosphaera. When growth was severely light-limited, NO3- did not support faster growth rates but instead inhibited N2-fixation rates by 55% relative to controls. These data rest on the basic tenet that light energy is the driver of photoautotrophic growth while various nutrient substrates serve as supports. Our findings provide a novel conceptual framework to examine interactions between N source preferences and predict degrees of inhibition of N2 fixation by fixed N sources based on the growth rate as controlled by light.

  11. Radiographic prevalence of CAM-type femoroacetabular impingement after open reduction and internal fixation of femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Mathew, G; Kowalczuk, M; Hetaimish, B; Bedi, A; Philippon, M J; Bhandari, M; Simunovic, N; Crouch, S; Ayeni, O R

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the radiographic prevalence of CAM-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in elderly patients (≥ 50 years) who have undergone internal fixation for femoral neck fracture. A total of 187 frog-leg lateral radiographs of elderly patients who underwent internal fixation for a femoral neck fracture were reviewed by two independent reviewers. The alpha angle, beta angle, and femoral head-neck offset ratio were calculated. The presence of two abnormal radiographic parameters was deemed to be diagnostic of radiographic CAM-type impingement. Radiographic CAM-type FAI was identified in 157 out of 187 (84 %) patients who underwent internal fixation for fractures of the femoral neck. Moderate-to-good inter-observer reliability was achieved in the measurement of radiographic parameters. With reference to fracture subtypes and prevalence of radiographic features of CAM-type morphology, 97 (72 %) out of 134 patients were positive for CAM in Garden subtypes I and II, whereas 49 (85.9 %) out of 57 patients had radiographic CAM in Garden III and IV subtypes. There was a high prevalence of CAM-type FAI in patients that underwent surgical fixation of femoral neck fractures. This is significantly higher than the reported prevalence in non-fracture patient populations. The high prevalence of CAM morphology could be related to several factors, including age, fracture morphology, quality of reduction, type of fixation, and fracture healing.

  12. Distal radioulnar joint instability (Galeazzi type injury) after internal fixation in relation to the radius fracture pattern.

    PubMed

    Korompilias, Anastasios V; Lykissas, Marios G; Kostas-Agnantis, Ioannis P; Beris, Alexandros E; Soucacos, Panayiotis N

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to classify Galeazzi type injuries and determine the association of residual instability after rigid fixation with the fracture pattern of the shaft of the radius, using a system that is based on anatomic landmarks of the radial shaft. The clinical records of 95 patients (72 men and 23 women) with Galeazzi type injuries requiring open reduction and internal fixation of the fractures were retrospectively reviewed. The mean follow-up was 6.8 years (range, 18 mo to 11 y) after injury. Sixty-nine fractures occurred in the distal third of the radial shaft (type I), 17 fractures were in the middle third (type II), and 9 fractures were in the proximal third of the shaft of the radius (type III). Gross instability of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) was determined intraoperatively by manipulation after radial fixation as compared to the uninjured side. Forty patients had DRUJ instability after internal fixation and were treated with temporary pinning with a K-wire placed transversely proximal to the sigmoid notch. Distal radioulnar joint instability after internal fixation was recorded in 37 type I fractures, 2 type II fractures, and 1 type III fracture. Distal radioulnar joint instability following radial shaft fracture fixation is significantly higher in patients with type I fractures than in patients with type II or type III fractures. The location of the radius fracture can be sufficiently used for preoperative estimation of percentage chance of potential DRUJ instability after fracture fixation. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Outcome of total hip arthroplasty as a salvage procedure for failed infected internal fixation of hip fractures

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Shubhranshu S; Agashe, Mandar V; Sheth, Binoti A; Dash, Kumar K

    2013-01-01

    Background: Failed infected internal fixation produces significant pain and functional disability. In infected internal fixation of hip fractures with partial or complete head destruction, total hip arthroplasty (THA) can be technically challenging; however, it restores hip biomechanics. The present study is to evaluate the results and assess the complications of THA following failed infected internal fixation of these fractures. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of prospectively collected data in a tertiary healthcare center was performed of 20 consecutive patients of THA following failed infected internal fixation operated between September 2001 and November 2007. There were 11 dynamic hip screw failures for intertrochanteric fractures, 6 failed osteotomies following transcervical fractures, and 3 failed screw fixations for transcervical fractures. Results: The average age of the patients was 48.5 years (range 28-70 years) and the average followup period was 6.5 years (range 3.5-10.5 years). An indigenously designed cement spacer was used in a majority of patients (n = 15). The custom-made antibiotic impregnated cement spacer was prepared on-table, with the help of a K-nail bent at 130°, long stem Austin Moore's prosthesis (n=1), Charnley's prosthesis (n=1), or bent Rush nail (n=1). The antibiotic mixed cement was coated over the hardware in its doughy phase and appropriately shaped using an asepto syringe or an indigenously prepared spacer template. Nineteen of the 20 patients underwent two-stage revision surgeries. The average Harris hip score improved from 35.3 preoperatively to 82.85 postoperatively at the last followup. A significant difference was found (P < 0.0001). None of the patients had recurrence of infection. Conclusions: The results were comparable to primary arthroplasty in femoral neck fractures. Thus, THA is a useful salvage procedure for failed infected internal fixation of hip fractures. PMID:23533069

  14. Limitations of Using Micro Computed Tomography to Predict Bone-Implant Contact and Mechanical Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuo; Broucek, Joseph; Virdi, Amarjit S.; Sumner, D. Rick

    2013-01-01

    SEM images. However, OV/TV was significantly, but weakly, correlated with implant pull-out strength (r=0.401, p=0.049) and energy to failure (r=0.435, p=0.035). Thus, the need for the 48 μm thick exclusion zone in the OV/TV program to avoid metal-induced artifacts with the scanner used in this study means that it is not possible to make bone measurements sufficiently close to the implant surface to obtain an accurate assessment of BIC. Current generation laboratory-based μCT scanners typically have voxel sizes of 6–8 μm or larger which will still not overcome this limitation. Thus, peri-implant bone measurements at these resolutions should only be used as a guide to predict implant fixation and should not be over-interpreted as a measurement of BIC. Newer generation laboratory-based μCT scanners have several improvements including better spatial resolution and x-ray sources and appear to have less severe metal-induced artifacts, but will need appropriate validation as they become available to researchers. Regardless of the μCT scanner being used, we recommend that detailed validation studies be performed for any study using metal implants since variation in the composition and geometry of the particular implants used may lead to different artifact patterns. PMID:21919905

  15. Ureteral penetration caused by drilling during internal pelvic bone fixation: delayed recognition.

    PubMed

    Shin, Yu Seob; Park, Jong Hyuk; Raheem, Omer A; Jeong, Young Beom; Kim, Hyung Jin; Kim, Young Gon

    2013-06-01

    A 49-year-old man was referred to our department with profuse serous fluid discharge from a Penrose drain after undergoing internal fixation with metal screws for multiple pelvic bone fractures. A definite ureteral penetration was identified that was orientated from the lateral to the medial aspect of the right distal ureter. The patient was surgically treated with excision of the 2-cm injured ureteral segment, end-to-end ureteroureterostomy, and double J ureteral stent placement. To our knowledge, a penetrating ureteral injury caused by bone drilling has not been reported previously in the published literature. This case shows that surgeons who do pelvic surgery, including orthopedic surgeons, should be familiar with the anatomical relationship of the ureter and its potential injuries.

  16. Minimally invasive bioabsorbable bone plates for rigid internal fixation of mandible fractures.

    PubMed

    Gaball, Curtis; Lovald, Scott; Baack, Bret; Olson, Garth

    2011-01-01

    To optimize design variables of a bioabsorbable bone plate using a finite element model of the mandible and to discover a minimally invasive bioabsorbable bone plate design that can provide the same mechanical stability as a titanium plate. A finite element model of a mandible with a fracture in the body was subjected to bite loads. An analysis was run to determine the principal strain in the fracture callus and von Mises stress in a titanium plate. These values were then set as the limits within which the bioabsorbable bone plate must comply. The model then considered a bone plate made of the polymer poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide) (P[L/DL]LA) 70/30. An optimization routine determined the smallest volume of bioabsorbable bone plate that can perform as well as a titanium bone plate when fixating mandibular fractures. A P(L/DL)LA plate volume of 315 mm(2) with a thickness of 1.5 mm provided as much mechanical stability as a commonly used titanium strut structure of 172 mm(2). The peak plate stress was well below the yield strength of the material. The P(L/DL)LA bioabsorbable bone plate design is as strong as a titanium plate when fixating fractures of the mandible body despite the polymer material having only 6% of the stiffness of the titanium. The P(L/DL)LA plate can be less than half the volume of its strut-style counterpart.

  17. Retrospective Study on Multidrug-Resistant Bacterium Infections After Rigid Internal Fixation of Mandibular Fracture.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhangao; Zhou, Zhongwei; Li, Peng; Zeng, Wei; Qing, Hai; Tang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    To retrospectively investigate infection by multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB) after rigid internal fixation (RIF) of mandibular fracture and determine risk factors and cure methods. From 2009 through 2014, 933 patients with mandibular fracture were enrolled in the study. Fifteen variables were statistically analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods to investigate risk factors for MDRB infection after RIF of mandibular fracture. Sixteen of 933 patients (1.71%) developed MDRB infection. Of these, 6 were infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), 6 with multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-PA), 1 with extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumonia, 1 with extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, 1 with multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, and 1 with multidrug-resistant Enterobacter cloacae. Univariate analysis showed that risk factors of MDRB infection after RIF of mandibular fracture were age, obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2) for Asians), polytrauma (Injury Severity Score >16), preoperative infection, open fractures, comminuted fractures accompanied by other facial fractures, and teeth involving the fracture line. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that obesity, preoperative infection, and open fractures were independent risk factors of MDRB infection. After systemic anti-infection treatments with vancomycin, piperacillin, tazobactam, local drainage, and debridement, the infections were under control. Fourteen patients achieved clinical healing at an average time of 8.71 months, and 2 did not achieve clinical healing. The overall mean follow-up was 18.81 months. MDRB infections occurring after RIF of mandibular fracture were caused mainly by MRSA and MDR-PA. Obesity, preoperative infection, and open fractures were the main risk factors. To lower risk, surgical debridement should be performed sooner once acute infection has been controlled

  18. Internal Versus External Fixation for the Treatment of Distal Radial Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qingyu; Liu, Fanxiao; Xiao, Zhenyun; Li, Zhenfeng; Wang, Bomin; Dong, Jinlei; Han, Yong; Zhou, Dongsheng; Li, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although a serious of meta-analyses have been published to compare the effects of internal versus external fixation (IF vs EF) for treating distal radial fractures (DRF), no consensus was obtained. By performing a systematic review of overlapping meta-analyses comparing IF versus EF for the treatment of distal radial fractures, we attempted to evaluate the methodology and reporting quality of these meta-analyses, interpret the source of discordant results, and therefore determine the dominant strategy for the treatment of distal radial fractures based on the best evidence currently. An electronic databases search was conducted in MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane library to retrieve meta-analyses comparing IF versus EF for treating DRF. Reference lists of relevant literatures were also screened manually to retrieve additional ones. Two investigators independently assessed the eligibility of retrieved articles using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. All characteristics as well as outcome variables including functional outcomes, range of motion, radiological results, and complication rates with relevant heterogeneity information presented in each included study were extracted. Heterogeneity was thought to be significant when I2 > 50%. We adopted the Oxford Levels of Evidence and the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) Instrument to assess the methodological quality of every included study, and applied the Jadad decision algorithm to select studies with more likely reliable conclusions. A total of 8 studies met the inclusion criteria. The AMSTAR scores ranged from 5 to 9 with a median of 7.75. Following the Jadad algorithm, the meta-analyses with most reliable results can be selected based on the search strategies and application of selection. Finally, 2 meta-analyses with most RCTs and highest AMSTAR scores were selected in this systematic review of overlapping meta-analysis. The best available evidence suggested that compared with

  19. Distal Forearm Fracture Open Reduction-Internal Fixation: Sonographic Detection of Hardware Malalignment and Associated Tendon Injuries Missed by Radiography.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Tara A; Piper, Samantha L; Lattanza, Lisa L; Goldstein, Ruth B; Link, Thomas; Motamedi, Daria

    2017-05-15

    Tendon injury is a known complication of distal radius fracture plate and screw fixation. Targeted musculoskeletal sonography is uniquely capable of assessing both tendon integrity and hardware abnormalities not recognized on radiographs. Each of the 3 patients described presented with pain after an open reduction-internal fixation following a distal forearm fracture. In each patient, radiographic findings, specifically the hardware position, were interpreted as normal. Important radiographically occult observations were subsequently made with sonography, including 3 proud screws and tendon injuries, all of which required surgical treatment. This case series demonstrates the clinical utility of musculoskeletal sonography in symptomatic patients after distal radius open reduction-internal fixation with negative radiographic findings. In our practice, sonography has been the most useful modality for precluding missing or delaying the diagnosis and treatment of these hardware complications. We advocate its use as an adjunct in any department performing musculoskeletal imaging. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  20. [Biomechanical evaluation and clinical correlation of 3 methods of internal fixation of metacarpophalangeal arthrodesis of the thumb].

    PubMed

    Leroux, M; Harris, P; Fowles, J V; Boudreault, F; Yahia, L

    1998-01-01

    Three methods of internal fixation for MCP arthrodesis of fifteen cadaveric thumbs were used to analyze the biomechanical stability by applying a palmar force, lateral force, and torsion moment. The techniques used included two K-wires 0.045 in parallel (BK), 2 cerclage metallic wires #25 perpendicular to each other (CP), and a 6-holes plate and screws construct from Synthes (PV). The initial rigidity was measured using a Bionix MTS-858. The results after statistical analysis showed: 1) CP was just as rigid as PV for the palmar and lateral tests; 2) CP was, overall, superior to BK in palmar and lateral tests; 3) no difference existed in torsion between the three types of fixation. A comparison was done between the rigidity of the fixation techniques used and the rates of bony nonunion found in the literature. The mean rates of nonunion were reported to be 0-4.0% for the following techniques: CP, tension band wiring (TB), plate and screws, external fixation, compression screw. The rates of nonunion were higher, 7.5-12.5%, for BK, cerclages not perpendicular (CM), bone pegs. According to the results of this biomechanical study and the review of the literature, fixation with BK is the least rigid, and fixation with CP is just as rigid as with PV. The success clinically of CP is yet to be demonstrated. Other studies on the properties of CP for fatigue would be necessary to give a better analysis.

  1. A prospective randomised controlled trial of the fibular nail versus standard open reduction and internal fixation for fixation of ankle fractures in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    White, T O; Bugler, K E; Appleton, P; Will, E; McQueen, M M; Court-Brown, C M

    2016-09-01

    The fundamental concept of open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of ankle fractures has not changed appreciably since the 1960s and, whilst widely used, is associated with complications including wound dehiscence and infection, prominent hardware and failure. Closed reduction and intramedullary fixation (CRIF) using a fibular nail, wires or screws is biomechanically stronger, requires minimal incisions, and has low-profile hardware. We hypothesised that fibular nailing in the elderly would have similar functional outcomes to standard fixation, with a reduced rate of wound and hardware problems. A total of 100 patients (25 men, 75 women) over the age of 65 years with unstable ankle fractures were randomised to undergo standard ORIF or fibular nailing (11 men and 39 women in the ORIF group, 14 men and 36 women in the fibular nail group). The mean age was 74 years (65 to 93) and all patients had at least one medical comorbidity. Complications, patient related outcome measures and cost-effectiveness were assessed over 12 months. Significantly fewer wound infections occurred in the fibular nail group (p = 0.002). At one year, there was no evidence of difference in mean functional scores (Olerud and Molander Scores 63; 30 to 85, versus 61; 10 to 35, p = 0.61) or scar satisfaction. The overall cost of treatment in the fibular nail group was £91 less than in the ORIF group despite the higher initial cost of the implant. We conclude that the fibular nail allows accurate reduction and secure fixation of ankle fractures, with a significantly lower rate of soft-tissue complications, and is more cost-effective than ORIF. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1248-52. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  2. Single-incision open reduction and internal fixation of comminuted trapezium fractures with distal radius cancellous autograft.

    PubMed

    Matzon, Jonas L; Reb, Christopher W; Danowski, Ryan M; Lutsky, Kevin

    2015-03-01

    Trapezium fractures comprise approximately 3% to 5% of all hand fractures. Although operative management of intra-articular trapezium fractures can result in good functional outcomes, there is very little literature addressing specific operative techniques. We describe a technique for open reduction and internal fixation of severely comminuted, intra-articular trapezium fractures, utilizing autogenous cancellous bone graft from the distal radius.

  3. Effects of rigidity of an internal fixation device. A comprehensive biomechanical investigation.

    PubMed

    Goel, V K; Lim, T H; Gwon, J; Chen, J Y; Winterbottom, J M; Park, J B; Weinstein, J N; Ahn, J Y

    1991-03-01

    Internal fixation with instrumentation often accompanies surgical fusion to augment spinal stability, provide temporary fixation while the surgical fusion mass unites, and enhance postoperative mobilization of a patient. Some surgeons, however, feel that the existing plate-screw designs are too rigid and are the primary cause of "iatrogenic" adverse effects clinically observed. A three-part study, involving in vitro experimental protocol, analytical finite-element-based models, and an in vivo canine investigation, was undertaken to study the role of decreasing rigidity of a device on the biomechanical response of the stabilized segments. Two alternatives--the use of one variable screw placement (Steffee plate [unilateral, 1VSP model]) as opposed to two VSP plates (bilateral, 2VSP model) and two VSP plates with polymer washers placed in between the integral nut and plate (2MVSP model)--were considered for achieving a reduction in the rigidity of the conventional VSP system. The load-displacement data obtained from the in vitro experiments and the stress distributions within the stabilized and intact models predicted by the finite-element models revealed that the unilateral VSP system is less rigid and is likely to reduce stress shielding of the vertebral bodies compared with the 2VSP model. The undesirable effects associated with the use of the 1VSP plate system are the presence of coupled motions due to the inherent asymmetry and the likely inability to provide enough rigidity for decompression procedures requiring a complete excision of the disc. The use of two MVSP plates overcomes these deficiencies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. [Drusen characteristics after internal limiting membrane peeling].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, F; Jenisch, T; Helbig, H; Gamulescu, M A

    2015-05-01

    There are some reports showing isolated cases of drusen regression after pars plana vitrectomy (ppV) with peeling of the internal limiting membrane (iLM). Drusen characteristics after iLM peeling was investigated in this study. The data of 527 patients who had received iLM peeling between 2004 and 2012 were retrospectively collected and those patients with retinal drusen were selected for the study. Fundus photographs before and after vitrectomy due to a macular hole or epiretinal gliosis were compared and drusen arrangement in the peeling site was analyzed. The aim of the study was to show whether there was drusen regression 2-5 months after surgery. Out of the 527 patients 11 showed central macular drusen, 4 with confluent large drusen (> 63 µm diameter) and 7 with small hard drusen (≤ 63 µm diameter). One patient showed drusen regression after iLM peeling without any changes in the other eye and all other patients showed no differences in the drusen findings (n = 6) or even some additional drusen (n = 4) without drusen alterations in the other eye. The results of this study could not confirm some reports showing drusen regression after iLM peeling in the peeling site in general and there was only one single case of central drusen regression.

  5. An old mismanaged Lisfranc injury treated by gradual deformity correction followed by the second-stage internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Tantray, Mehraj D; Kangoo, Khurshid; Nazir, Asif; Baba, Muzamil; Rameez, Raja; Tabish, Syed; Shahnawaz, Syed

    2017-04-01

    The Lisfranc fracture-dislocation of the foot is uncommon and diagnosis is often missed. The Lisfranc joint involves the articulation between medial cuneiform and base of the second metatarsal and is considered a keystone to structural integrity to the midfoot. The articulation has a stabilization effect on longitudinal and transverse arches of the foot. A neglected or untreated injury to the Lisfranc joint can lead to secondary arthritis and significant morbidity and disability. We present a case of a neglected Lisfranc fracture-dislocation in a 28-year-old female patient who presented 3 months after injury. A staged treatment of distraction with an Ilizarov ring fixator followed in the second stage by the removal of ring fixator and internal fixation with K wires was performed. There was complete relief of pain and a good functional outcome at 3 months after treatment.

  6. [Nylon fixation at the internal and external canthus combined with skin graft for recurrent lower eyelids ectropion].

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Wang, Jiaqi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the long-time effects of nylon fixation at the internal and external canthus combined with skin graft for recurrent lower eyelids ectropion. Under local anesthesia, the cicatricial contraction was released to repostion the lower eyelid. Then nylon thread was implanted in the fascial tissue at the upper margin of tarsus and was fixed on the periosteum at the internal and external canthus. The skin graft was applied on the wound of lower eyelids. 12 patients with lower eyelids ectropion at 19 sides were treated with primary healing. The patients were followed up for 6-24 months. All cases were satisfied with functional and cosmetic results. No complication and no recurrence happened. The technique of nylon fixation at the internal and external canthus combined with skin graft is an effective method for recurrent lower eyelids ectropion.

  7. Summary of ISX-B limiters and internal components

    SciTech Connect

    Langley, R.A.

    1983-09-01

    This report describes the limiters and internal components of the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX-B) as of May 1983. The positions of the fixed limiters and internal components are noted; for movable limiters the limits of position are given. In addition, the function, shape, size, and material of each component are given, along with the name of the scientist responsible for that component.

  8. Proximal tibial fractures with impending compartment syndrome managed by fasciotomy and internal fixation: A retrospective analysis of 15 cases

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Naveen; Singh, Varun; Agrawal, Ashish; Bhargava, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Proximal tibia fractures with compartment syndrome present a challenge for orthopedic surgeons. More often than not these patients are subjected to multiple surgeries and are complicated by infection osteomyelitis and poor rehabilitation. There is no consensus in the management of these fractures. Most common mode is to do early fasciotomy with external fixation, followed by second stage definitive fixation. We performed a retrospective study of proximal tibia fractures with impending compartment syndrome treated by single stage fasciotomy and internal fixation. Results in terms of early fracture union, minimum complications and early patient mobilization were very good. Materials and Methods: Fifteen patients who were operated between July 2011 and June 2012 were selected for the study. All documents from their admission until the last followup in December 2013 were reviewed, data regarding complications collected and results were evaluated using Oxford Knee scoring system. Results: At the final outcome, there was anatomical or near anatomical alignment with no postoperative problems with range of motion of near complete flexion (>120) in all patients within 3 months. 13 patients started full weight bearing walking at 3 months. Delayed union in two patients and skin necrosis in one patient was observed. Conclusions: Since the results are encouraging and the rehabilitation time is much less when compared to conventional approaches, it is recommended using this protocol to perform early fasciotomy with the definitive internal fixation as single stage surgery to obtain excellent followup results and to reduce rehabilitation time, secondary trauma, expense of treatment and infection rate. PMID:26538755

  9. Is arthroplasty preferable to internal fixation for the treatment of extracapsular fracture of the upper femur in the elderly?

    PubMed

    Duriez, P; Devaux, T; Chantelot, C; Baudrier, N; Hery, J-Y; Mainard, D; Favier, T; Massin, P

    2016-10-01

    Although internal fixation is the reference treatment for extracapsular fracture of the upper femur, indications for arthroplasty are broadening, especially in unstable comminutive fracture in fragile bone. The present study hypothesis was that arthroplasty reduces early mortality and morbidity and provides better recovery of autonomy in over-80 year-old patients than does internal fixation. A prospective multicenter study was conducted on 8 sites. Internal fixation was systematically used in 5 centers; arthroplasty was used systematically in 1 center, and reserved for unstable fracture in 2 centers. A total of 697 patients aged over 80 years (mean age, 85±5 years), presenting with extracapsular fracture, were included; 521 were treated by internal fixation and 176 by arthroplasty. Results were studied on multivariate analysis of ASA score, blood loss, transfusion, and also of treatment modality as an independent factor for early (first 6 months) mortality and morbidity (mechanical, general and nutritional complications) and functional outcome (autonomy and dependence). Overall mortality was 19.2%. Autonomy deteriorated in 56% of patients alive at 6 months and dependence worsened in 44%. Two percent of those managed by internal fixation underwent revision for disassembly (n=8) or infection (n=1). Eight percent of those managed by arthroplasty underwent revision for dislocation (n=4), implant loosening (n=3) or infection (n=7). On univariate analysis, mortality was higher in the arthroplasty group (25%) than with internal fixation (17%; P=0.002), as were blood loss (425±286mL versus 333±223mL; P<0.0001), transfusion rate (61% versus 32%; P<0.0001) and infection (4% versus 0.2%; P<0.001). On multivariate analysis, however, treatment modality no longer showed impact on mortality or on morbidity and autonomy at 6 months. Nutritional status was better conserved at 6 months following arthroplasty, but dependence worsened. Poor preoperative autonomy, ASA score, and

  10. Internal Fixation Versus Nonoperative Treatment for Displaced 3-Part or 4-Part Proximal Humeral Fractures in Elderly Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Chen, Aimin

    2013-01-01

    Background A few studies focused on open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) or nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients have been published, all of whom had a low number of patients. In this meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), we aimed to assess the effect of ORIF or nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients on the clinical outcomes and re-evaluate of the potential benefits of conservative treatment. Methods We searched PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for randomized controlled trials comparing ORIF and nonoperative treatment of displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures in elderly patients. Our outcome measures were the Constant scores. Results: Three randomized controlled trials with a total of 130 patients were identified and analyzed. The overall results based on fixed-effect model did not support the treatment of open reduction and internal fixation to improve the functional outcome when compared with nonoperative treatment for treating elderly patients with displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures (WMD −0.51, 95% CI: −7.25 to 6.22, P = 0.88, I2 = 0%). Conclusions Although our meta-analysis did not support the treatment of open reduction and internal fixation to improve the functional outcome when compared with nonoperative treatment for treating elderly patients with displaced 3-part or 4-part proximal humeral fractures, this result must be considered in the context of variable patient demographics. Only a limited recommendation can be made based on current data. Considering the limitations of included studies, a large, well designed trial that incorporates the evaluation of clinically relevant outcomes in participants with different underlying risks of shoulder function is required to more adequately assess the role for ORIF or nonoperative

  11. Open reduction and internal fixation versus percutaneous transverse Kirschner wire fixation for single, closed second to fifth metacarpal shaft fractures: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Greeven, A P A; Bezstarosti, S; Krijnen, P; Schipper, I B

    2016-04-01

    Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of single, closed metacarpal shaft fractures is increasingly preferred over closed reduction and percutaneous fixation (K-wire). The aim of this systematic review is to determine whether the preference for ORIF can be substantiated based on the available literature regarding the functional outcome and complications after surgery. A systematic review was performed using a computer-based search on MedLine and Embase, following the preferred reporting items for systematic and meta-analyses guidelines. Five non-comparative studies were found. Two studies reported on 36 ORIF-treated patients. Three studies reported on 65 K-wire-treated patients. Complications were reported in 8 ORIF-treated patients (22 %) and in 23 K-wire-treated patients (35 %). Functional outcome was generally reported as good for both techniques. Nonetheless functional impairment requiring reoperation was reported in 6 ORIF-treated patients (17 %) and in none of the K-wire-treated patients. Although for both techniques good functional outcomes were reported, the significance of the functional impairment after ORIF requiring reoperation suggests ORIF to be a less favorable technique for single, closed metacarpal shaft fractures.

  12. Percutaneous Reduction and Fixation with Kirschner Wires versus Open Reduction Internal Fixation for the Management of Calcaneal Fractures: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianbin; Zhou, Feiya; Yang, Lei; Tan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our meta-analysis was to compare outcomes for two surgical treatments of calcaneal fractures, percutaneous reduction and fixation with Kirschner wires (PRFK) and open reduction internal fixation (ORIF), with the intent of evaluating the quality of evidence to inform practice. Search of MEDLINE, Cochrane and CNKI databases to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing PRKF and ORIF on the following outcomes: post-operative function, complications and quality of the reduction. Odd ratios (OR) and weighted mean differences were pooled using either a fixed-effects or random-effects model, depending on the heterogeneity of the trials included in the analysis. Eighteen RCTs provided the data from 1407 patients. PRFK was associated with a lower risk of surgical wound complications, and ORIF with better post-operative function, angle of Gissane, calcaneal height, and calcaneal width. There were no statistically significant differences between the techniques with regards to post-operative Böhler’s angle. PRFK does not provide a substantive advantage over ORIF for the treatment of calcaneal fractures in adults. PRFK may, however, yield comparable functional outcomes to ORIF for closed Sanders type II calcaneal fractures but with less complication related to surgical wound healing. PMID:27457262

  13. Posterior Cruciate Ligament Tibial Avulsion treated with Open Reduction and Internal Fixation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wxp; Kyaw, M O

    2015-07-01

    The optimal treatment for thoracolumbar fractures (TLF) without neurological deficit remains controversial. Majority of the systematic reviews and meta-analyses have evaluated open operative approaches but have yet to compare the outcomes of minimally invasive percutaneous pedicle fixation (MIPPF) versus non-operative treatment. A retrospective cohort study was performed to compare clinical and radiological outcomes between MIPPF and conservative groups for TLF AO Type A1 to Type B2 during a 2-year follow-up period. Pre-operative plain and CT films were evaluated and decision made for short segment (non-fusion) MIPPF. Patients who refused operation were treated conservatively with three months of body cast, brace, or corset. MIPPF group showed earlier Visual Analog Score(VAS) improvement at six months post-injury (0 vs 6.0- p<0.001), as well as better functional and radiological outcomes (p<0.050) at final follow-up. Progressions of regional kyphosis (RK) were noted in both groups but there was no significant difference within and between them(p>0.050). MIPPF as a method of internal bracing can be pursued in the treatment of TLF, with larger future cohorts and RCTs being called for to support and explore new findings.

  14. Bio-Environment-Induced Degradation and Failure of Internal Fixation Implants

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan; Perkins, Luke A.; Wang, Guodong; Zhou, Dongsheng; Liang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Internal fixations provide fast healing but their failure remains problematic to patients. Here, we report an experimental study in failure of three typical cases of metals: a bent intramedullary stainless steel nail, a broken exterior pure Ti plate, and a broken intramedullary stainless steel nail. Characterization of the bent nail indicates that those metals are vulnerable to corrosion with the evidence of increased surface roughness and embrittlement. Depredated surface of the Ti plate resulted debris particles in the surrounding tissue of 15.2 ± 6.5 μm in size. Nanoparticles were observed in transmission electron microscope. The electron diffraction pattern of the debris indicates a combination of nanocrystalline and amorphous phases. The failure mode of the broken nail made of stainless steel was found to be fatigue initiated from the surface. This study clearly shows the biological-attack induced surface degradation resulting in debris and fatigue. Future design and selection of implant materials should consider such factors for improvement. PMID:26501330

  15. Consequences and prevention of inadvertent internal fixation of primary osseous sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Adams, Sheila Conway; Potter, Benjamin K; Mahmood, Zakariah; Pitcher, J David; Temple, H Thomas

    2009-02-01

    The evaluation and treatment of aggressive bone tumors continue to be diagnostic and therapeutic challenges for orthopaedic surgeons. Despite compelling data regarding the hazards of biopsy, incomplete preoperative evaluation, inappropriate biopsy techniques, and premature surgical interventions continue to compromise optimal treatment of primary bone sarcomas. We retrospectively identified eight patients who had internal fixation of a primary bone sarcoma before referral to an orthopaedic oncology service. Six of the eight patients subsequently underwent amputations and two patients underwent limb salvage for local disease control. Biopsy techniques from referring institutions were highly variable, with only two of seven rendering an accurate diagnosis. The average Musculoskeletal Tumor Society functional score was 10.6 and four of eight patients were disease-free and alive at a minimum followup of 8 months (mean, 26.9 months; range, 8-80 months). Implant violation of primary bone malignancies was associated with frequent high-level amputation for local disease control and low Musculoskeletal Tumor Society functional scores. Common errors in the initial evaluation and treatment included inadequate attention to patient history, incomplete radiographic evaluation, and improper biopsy and surgical techniques, which violated compartmental boundaries. Level IV, prognostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  16. Using biomechanics to improve the surgical technique for internal fixation of intracapsular femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    Despite advances in science and technology, the success rate for the treatment of displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures in high-energy injuries remains disappointing. The blood supply system in the femoral head of humans does not favor recovery from these fractures. Once these fractures occur, osteonecrosis and nonunion rates may be as high as 30%, even if the newest technique is used. There are some surgical techniques used to supplement internal fixation to reestablish the blood supply in the femoral head, but none have been evidently successful. After analysis of related studies, the author concludes that immediate surgical treatment using improved techniques incorporating the principles of biomechanics can improve the success rate of treatment of these fractures. Using these principles, the fracture site can achieve sufficient stability. Consequently, the blood supply in the femoral head and neck can be reestablished earlier and loss of reduction of fragments during treatment can be minimized. Thus, the chance of full recovery from these complicated fractures can be maximized. In this study, the biomechanical characteristics of these fractures and the principles associated with the surgical techniques used for treating them are reviewed and clarified. Finally, a surgical technique which is ideal from the author's viewpoint is presented. The author believes that the recommended surgical technique may become the best method for treating these complicated fractures.

  17. Bioabsorbable fish scale for the internal fixation of fracture: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Chou, Cheng-Hung; Chen, Yong-Guei; Lin, Chien-Chen; Lin, Shang-Ming; Yang, Kai-Chiang; Chang, Shih-Hsin

    2014-09-01

    Fish scales, which consist of type I collagen and hydroxyapatite (HA), were used to fabricate a bioabsorbable bone pin in this study. Fresh fish scales were decellularized and characterized to provide higher biocompatibility. The mechanical properties of fish scales were tested, and the microstructure of an acellular fish scale was examined. The growth curve of a myoblastic cell line (C2C12), which was cultured on the acellular fish scales, implied biocompatibility in vitro, and the morphology of the cells cultured on the scales was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A bone pin made of decellularized fish scales was used for the internal fixation of femur fractures in New Zealand rabbits. Periodic X-ray evaluations were obtained, and histologic examinations were performed postoperatively. The present results show good cell growth on decellularized fish scales, implying great biocompatibility in vitro. Using SEM, the cell morphology revealed great adhesion on a native, layered collagen structure. The Young's modulus was 332 ± 50.4 MPa and the tensile strength was 34.4 ± 6.9 MPa for the decellularized fish scales. Animal studies revealed that a fish-scale-derived bone pin improved the healing of bone fractures and degraded with time. After an 8-week implantation, the bone pin integrated with the adjacent tissue, and new extracellular matrix was synthesized around the implant. Our results proved that fish-scale-derived bone pins are a promising implant material for bone healing and clinical applications.

  18. The Relationship of the Facial Nerve to the Condylar Process: A Cadaveric Study with Implications for Open Reduction Internal Fixation.

    PubMed

    Barham, H P; Collister, P; Eusterman, V D; Terella, A M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The mandibular condyle is the most common site of mandibular fracture. Surgical treatment of condylar fractures by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) demands direct visualization of the fracture. This project aimed to investigate the anatomic relationship of the tragus to the facial nerve and condylar process. Materials and Methods. Twelve fresh hemicadavers heads were used. An extended retromandibular/preauricular approach was utilized, with the incision being based parallel to the posterior edge of the ramus. Measurements were obtained from the tragus to the facial nerve and condylar process. Results. The temporozygomatic division of the facial nerve was encountered during each approach, crossing the mandible at the condylar neck. The mean tissue depth separating the facial nerve from the condylar neck was 5.5 mm (range: 3.5 mm-7 mm, SD 1.2 mm). The upper division of the facial nerve crossed the posterior border of the condylar process on average 2.31 cm (SD 0.10 cm) anterior to the tragus. Conclusions. This study suggests that the temporozygomatic division of the facial nerve will be encountered in most approaches to the condylar process. As visualization of the relationship of the facial nerve to condyle is often limited, recognition that, on average, 5.5 mm of tissue separates condylar process from nerve should help reduce the incidence of facial nerve injury during this procedure.

  19. Fracture fixation in the operative management of hip fractures (FAITH): an international, multicentre, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    2017-04-15

    Reoperation rates are high after surgery for hip fractures. We investigated the effect of a sliding hip screw versus cancellous screws on the risk of reoperation and other key outcomes. For this international, multicentre, allocation concealed randomised controlled trial, we enrolled patients aged 50 years or older with a low-energy hip fracture requiring fracture fixation from 81 clinical centres in eight countries. Patients were assigned by minimisation with a centralised computer system to receive a single large-diameter screw with a side-plate (sliding hip screw) or the present standard of care, multiple small-diameter cancellous screws. Surgeons and patients were not blinded but the data analyst, while doing the analyses, remained blinded to treatment groups. The primary outcome was hip reoperation within 24 months after initial surgery to promote fracture healing, relieve pain, treat infection, or improve function. Analyses followed the intention-to-treat principle. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00761813. Between March 3, 2008, and March 31, 2014, we randomly assigned 1108 patients to receive a sliding hip screw (n=557) or cancellous screws (n=551). Reoperations within 24 months did not differ by type of surgical fixation in those included in the primary analysis: 107 (20%) of 542 patients in the sliding hip screw group versus 117 (22%) of 537 patients in the cancellous screws group (hazard ratio [HR] 0·83, 95% CI 0·63-1·09; p=0·18). Avascular necrosis was more common in the sliding hip screw group than in the cancellous screws group (50 patients [9%] vs 28 patients [5%]; HR 1·91, 1·06-3·44; p=0·0319). However, no significant difference was found between the number of medically related adverse events between groups (p=0·82; appendix); these events included pulmonary embolism (two patients [<1%] vs four [1%] patients; p=0·41) and sepsis (seven [1%] vs six [1%]; p=0·79). In terms of reoperation rates the sliding hip

  20. Iron limitation in the marine cyanobacterium Trichodesmium reveals new insights into regulation of photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation.

    PubMed

    Küpper, Hendrik; Setlík, Ivan; Seibert, Sven; Prásil, Ondrej; Setlikova, Eva; Strittmatter, Martina; Levitan, Orly; Lohscheider, Jens; Adamska, Iwona; Berman-Frank, Ilana

    2008-01-01

    * As iron (Fe) deficiency is a main limiting factor of ocean productivity, its effects were investigated on interactions between photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation in the marine nonheterocystous diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium IMS101. * Biophysical methods such as fluorescence kinetic microscopy, fast repetition rate (FRR) fluorimetry, and in vivo and in vitro spectroscopy of pigment composition were used, and nitrogenase activity and the abundance of key proteins were measured. * Fe limitation caused a fast down-regulation of nitrogenase activity and protein levels. By contrast, the abundance of Fe-requiring photosystem I (PSI) components remained constant. Total levels of phycobiliproteins remained unchanged according to single-cell in vivo spectra. However, the regular 16-kDa phycoerythrin band decreased and finally disappeared 16-20 d after initiation of Fe limitation, concomitant with the accumulation of a 20-kDa protein cross-reacting with the phycoerythrin antibody. Concurrently, nitrogenase expression and activity increased. Fe limitation dampened the daily cycle of photosystem II (PSII) activity characteristic of diazotrophic Trichodesmium cells. Further, it increased the number and prolonged the time period of occurrence of cells with elevated basic fluorescence (F(0)). Additionally, it increased the effective cross-section of PSII, probably as a result of enhanced coupling of phycobilisomes to PSII, and led to up-regulation of the Fe stress protein IsiA. * Trichodesmium survives short-term Fe limitation by selectively down-regulating nitrogen fixation while maintaining but re-arranging the photosynthetic apparatus.

  1. 76 FR 18618 - Operating Limitations at Newark Liberty International Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... Management Rule for LaGuardia Airport, John F. Kennedy International Airport, and Newark Liberty... resulting from limiting operations at John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK). With a temporary schedule... John F. Kennedy International Airport and Newark Liberty International Airport, which would have become...

  2. Corrective osteotomy through fracture site and internal fixation with headless screws for type I (Hahn-Steinthal) capitellar malunion

    PubMed Central

    Jeevannavar, Santosh Somayya; Shenoy, Keshav Someshwar; Daddimani, Ravi M

    2013-01-01

    A 20-year-old woman presented 6 months after an initial injury to her left elbow with pain and restricted movements. She was diagnosed with a type I malunited (Hahn-Steinthal) type of capitellum fracture through radiographic studies. Classically, the treatment has been excision of the fragment, which carries a risk of valgus instability of the elbow and late osteoarthrosis. We report a case of malunited type I capitellum fracture, for which corrective osteotomy through fracture site, open reduction and internal fixation was done 6 months following missed trauma. At 24 months follow-up the capitellum fracture had united and the patient has a stable elbow and excellent range of motion. Our case demonstrates that for type I malunited capitellum fractures corrective osteotomy through fracture site and internal fixation rather than excision of the fragment in young can result in successful union and stable elbow. PMID:23709538

  3. Failed operative treatment in two cases of pseudarthrosis of the clavicle using internal fixation and bovine cancellous xenograft (Tutobone).

    PubMed

    Elliot, Robin R; Richards, Robert H

    2011-09-01

    The most commonly reported technique of reconstructive surgery for congenital pseudarthrosis of the clavicle involves resection of the pseudarthrosis, insertion of autologous iliac crest bone graft and internal fixation. In an attempt to avoid the potential complications of iliac crest bone graft harvest we used bovine cancellous xenograft (Tutobone). Two cases of pseudarthrosis of the clavicle treated with resection of the pseudarthrosis, Tutobone graft and internal fixation are presented. Both cases resulted in treatment failures, which were associated with significant osteolysis and failure of incorporation of the graft material. This required removal of the loose metal work and debridement of the failed graft material. We would caution surgeons against the use of Tutobone as a graft material in the surgical management of pseudarthrosis of the clavicle. The level of evidence was level IV case series.

  4. Does Arthroplasty Provide Better Outcomes Than Internal Fixation At Mid- and Long-term Followup? A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jin; Yang, Chen-hui; Lin, Qiao; Yun, Xiang-dong; Xia, Ya-yi

    2015-08-01

    Arthroplasty has been shown to be superior regarding low risk of reoperation and better function score to internal fixation for treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures at short-term followup. However, there are unanswered questions regarding the efficacy of arthroplasty in the longer term compared with internal fixation. We performed a meta-analysis comparing arthroplasty (hemiarthroplasty or THA) with internal fixation in patients with displaced femoral neck fractures with respect to (1) mortality, (2) reoperation, (3) functional recovery, and (4) complications, including only randomized trials with a minimum of 4 years followup. Computerized databases, including PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials databases, and Web of Science™ were searched for studies published from the inception date for each database to March 2014. Eleven randomized controlled trials that compared arthroplasty (either hemiarthroplasty or THA) with internal fixation for treatment of patients with a femoral neck fracture were included in our analysis. The quality of the trials was assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook and meta-analyses were conducted using RevMan 5.2 software from the Cochrane Collaboration. The heterogeneity among studies was evaluated by the I-squared index (I2) and publication bias was assessed using forest plots. There were no differences between the internal fixation and arthroplasty groups for patient mortality at mid-term (48.4% vs 46.8%) or long-term followup (83.2% vs 81.5%). Arthroplasty was associated with a lower risk of reoperation at mid-term (7.2% vs 39.8%; relative risk [RR]=0.10; 95% CI, 0.06-0.07) and at long-term followup (14.3% vs 43.8%; RR=0.10; 95% CI, 0.06-0.07). Arthroplasty was associated with better functional recovery at mid-term followup (standard mean difference [SMD]=0.55; 95% CI, 0.02-1.09), whereas function at long-term followup (SMD=0.14; 95% CI, -0.35 to 0.62) was not different between the arthroplasty

  5. Corrective osteotomy through fracture site and internal fixation with headless screws for type I (Hahn-Steinthal) capitellar malunion.

    PubMed

    Jeevannavar, Santosh Somayya; Shenoy, Keshav Someshwar; Daddimani, Ravi M

    2013-05-24

    A 20-year-old woman presented 6 months after an initial injury to her left elbow with pain and restricted movements. She was diagnosed with a type I malunited (Hahn-Steinthal) type of capitellum fracture through radiographic studies. Classically, the treatment has been excision of the fragment, which carries a risk of valgus instability of the elbow and late osteoarthrosis. We report a case of malunited type I capitellum fracture, for which corrective osteotomy through fracture site, open reduction and internal fixation was done 6 months following missed trauma. At 24 months follow-up the capitellum fracture had united and the patient has a stable elbow and excellent range of motion. Our case demonstrates that for type I malunited capitellum fractures corrective osteotomy through fracture site and internal fixation rather than excision of the fragment in young can result in successful union and stable elbow.

  6. Review of techniques for monitoring the healing fracture of bones for implementation in an internally fixated pelvis.

    PubMed

    Wong, Lydia Chwang Yuh; Chiu, Wing Kong; Russ, Matthias; Liew, Susan

    2012-03-01

    Sacral fractures from high-impact trauma often cause instability in the pelvic ring structure. Treatment is by internal fixation which clamps the fractured edges together to promote healing. Healing could take up to 12 weeks whereby patients are bedridden to avoid hindrances to the fracture from movement or weight bearing activities. Immobility can lead to muscle degradation and longer periods of rehabilitation. The ability to determine the time at which the fracture is stable enough to allow partial weight-bearing is important to reduce hospitalisation time. This review looks into different techniques used for monitoring the fracture healing of bones which could lead to possible methods for in situ and non-invasive assessment of healing fracture in a fixated pelvis. Traditional techniques being used include radiology and CT scans but were found to be unreliable at times and very subjective in addition to being non in situ. Strain gauges have proven to be very effective for accurate assessment of fracture healing as well as stability for long bones with external fixators but may not be suitable for an internally fixated pelvis. Ultrasound provides in situ monitoring of stiffness recovery but only assesses local fracture sites close to the skin surface and has only been tested on long bones. Vibration analysis can detect non-uniform healing due to its assessment of the overall structure but may suffer from low signal-to-noise ratio due to damping. Impedance techniques have been used to assess properties of non-long bones but recent studies have only been conducted on non-biological materials and more research needs to be done before it can be applicable for monitoring healing in the fixated pelvis.

  7. Mechanical analysis of a rodent segmental bone defect model: the effects of internal fixation and implant stiffness on load transfer.

    PubMed

    Yavari, S Amin; van der Stok, J; Ahmadi, S M; Wauthle, R; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2014-08-22

    Segmental bone defect animal models are often used for evaluating the bone regeneration performance of bone substituting biomaterials. Since bone regeneration is dependent on mechanical loading, it is important to determine mechanical load transfer after stabilization of the defect and to study the effects of biomaterial stiffness on the transmitted load. In this study, we assess the mechanical load transmitted over a 6mm femur defect that is stabilized with an internal PEEK fixation plate. Subsequently, three types of selective laser melted porous titanium implants with different stiffness values were used to graft the defect (five specimens per group). In one additional group, the defect was left empty. Micro strain gauges were used to measure strain values at four different locations of the fixation plate during external loading on the femoral head. The load sharing between the fixation plate and titanium implant was highly variable with standard deviations of measured strain values between 31 and 93% of the mean values. As a consequence, no significant differences were measured between the forces transmitted through the titanium implants with different elastic moduli. Only some non-significant trends were observed in the mean strain values that, consistent with the results of a previous finite element study, implied the force transmitted through the implant increases with the implant stiffness. The applied internal fixation method does not standardize mechanical loading over the defect to enable detecting small differences in bone regeneration performances of bone substituting biomaterials. In conclusion, the fixation method requires further optimization to reduce the effects of the operative procedure and make the mechanical loading more consistent and improve the overall sensitivity of this rat femur defect model.

  8. [Treatment of thoracolumbar burst fracture with lateral anterior decompression, internal fixation with Ventrofix and bone graft with titanic mesh].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shi-min; Zhang, Zhao-jie; Liu, Yu-zhang; Zhang, Lu-tang; Li, Xing

    2011-11-01

    To discuss the efficacy of lateral anterior decompression, internal fixation with Ventrofix and bone graft with titanic mesh in the treatment of severe thoracolumbar burst fracture. From January 2008 to January 2010, 21 patients with severe thoracolumbar burst fracture were treated with lateral anterior decompression, internal fixation with Ventrofix, bone graft with titanic mesh. There were 15 males and 6 females, ranging in age from 21 to 46 years with an average of 32.2 years. Segment of fracture: 3 cases were in T11, 6 cases in T12, 7 cases in L1, 5 cases in L2. The mean kyphosis angle was 20.1 degrees and loading of fracture was 7.8 scores. Twenty-one cases accompany with incomplete paralysis. Nerves functions were observed according to Frankel grade; correction and maintain of kyphosis angle were observed by X-rays and CT. All the patients were followed up from 12 to 34 months with an average of 18.5 years. Postoperative complication including injury of pleura in 1 case, dynamic ileus in 2 cases, ilioinguinal nerve injury in 1 case, faulty union of wound in 1 case. All the above complications got recovery after symptomatic treatment. The mean kyphosis angle in fusional segment were 4.2 degrees and the rate of correction was 79%. Nerves functions of all patients got improvement and no internal fixation fail, kyphosis angle obviously lost, titanium mesh shifting, loosening and breakage of screw were found at final follow-up. Lateral anterior decompression, bone graft with titanic mesh, internal fixation with Ventrofix is an idea technique for severe thoracolumber burst fracture, but the method can not be used for patient with severity osteoporosis.

  9. Educational Research at International Level: Features, Expectations and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carelli, M. Dino

    1976-01-01

    Offers a short review of the major characteristics and limitations of international educational research institutions. One of its major concerns is to contrast the role of international vis a vis national institutions in educational research. (Editor/RK)

  10. The effect of HIV on early wound healing in open fractures treated with internal and external fixation.

    PubMed

    Aird, J; Noor, S; Lavy, C; Rollinson, P

    2011-05-01

    There are 33 million people worldwide currently infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This complex disease affects many of the processes involved in wound and fracture healing, and there is little evidence available to guide the management of open fractures in these patients. Fears of acute and delayed infection often inhibit the use of fixation, which may be the most effective way of achieving union. This study compared fixation of open fractures in HIV-positive and -negative patients in South Africa, a country with very high rates of both HIV and high-energy trauma. A total of 133 patients (33 HIV-positive) with 135 open fractures fulfilled the inclusion criteria. This cohort is three times larger than in any similar previously published study. The results suggest that HIV is not a contraindication to internal or external fixation of open fractures in this population, as HIV is not a significant risk factor for acute wound/implant infection. However, subgroup analysis of grade I open fractures in patients with advanced HIV and a low CD4 count (< 350) showed an increased risk of infection; we suggest that grade I open fractures in patients with advanced HIV should be treated by early debridement followed by fixation at an appropriate time.

  11. [Digital panoramic radiography in patients with rigid internal fixations devices after maxillofacial surgery].

    PubMed

    Nessi, R; Ottolina, P; Lazzerini, F; Giannì, A B

    1998-01-01

    Digital techniques have found promising applications in dental radiology in the recent past, namely with radiovisiography and digital panoramic radiography. These images present some features making them particularly interesting for alveolar bone studies. Digital panoramic radiography with light-emitting phosphors was performed on 16 patients during postoperative follow-up. The patients were previously submitted to multiple maxillofacial osteosynthesis with rigid internal fixation devices (32 miniplates, 12 microplates, 14 screws). Digital images were always observed and printed with analogic-like and Xeroradiographic-like post-processing. Digital panoramic radiographs yielded clear and effective images of the maxillary and mandibular arches and of surgical osteosynthesis, as demonstrated by a retrospective evaluation performed by three independent observers on a blind basis (score 3: 60.42%), with no major interobserver differences (p = .7286). Xeroradiographic-like images were the most effective in depicting bone structures and osteosynthesis materials, thanks to their better detailing and typically lower overall contrast. Among the drawbacks of the digital technique, reduced cassette size may prevent the full view of the mandibular arch from the symphysis to both condylar regions. The edge effect, which is typical of Xeroradiographic images, may mask useful details within the trabecular bone close to metal implants. This effect was present in some of our cases, but it was seldom disturbing according to our retrospective evaluation (score 3: 53.40%), with good interobserver agreement (p = .1117). Digital panoramic radiography proves to be a useful tool to study metal implants after maxillofacial surgery as well as alveolar bone structure. The digital technique markedly reduces the radiation dose to the patient, which is very important for an X-ray examination that must be repeated several times, often in young subjects.

  12. Fibular Strut Graft Augmentation for Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Proximal Humerus Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Saltzman, Bryan M.; Erickson, Brandon J.; Harris, Joshua D.; Gupta, Anil K.; Mighell, Mark; Romeo, Anthony A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Proximal humerus fractures are common problems plaguing the elderly population. Purpose: The purposes of this study were to determine the outcomes of fibular strut allografts in treatment of proximal humerus fractures with open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) and to present the authors’ preferred surgical technique. The hypothesis was that the use of fibular strut allografts in treating proximal humerus fractures with ORIF will provide low reoperation rates with acceptable outcomes. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A systematic review was registered with PROSPERO and performed with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines using 3 publicly available free databases. Therapeutic clinical outcome investigations reporting arthroscopic elbow outcomes with levels of evidence 1 through 4 were eligible for inclusion. All study, subject, and surgical technique demographics were analyzed and compared between continents and countries. Statistics were calculated using Student t tests, 1-way analysis of variance, chi-square tests, and 2-proportion Z tests. Results: Four studies met the inclusion criteria. While there is great heterogeneity existing in the literature surrounding use of a fibular strut allograft as an adjunct to ORIF of proximal humerus fractures, current evidence shows a humeral head screw penetration rate of 3.7% with acceptable functional outcome scores, with a reoperation rate of 4.4% at a weighted mean 80.78 weeks (1.55 years) of postoperative follow-up. Conclusion: There is great heterogeneity that exists in the literature surrounding the use of a fibular strut allograft as an adjunct to ORIF of proximal humerus fractures. Current evidence shows a screw penetration rate of 3.7% with acceptable functional outcome scores, demonstrating fibular strut allograft is a viable option for treating proximal humerus fractures. PMID:27504463

  13. Risk factors for complications following open reduction internal fixation of distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jimmy J; Phillips, Craig S; Levitz, Seth P; Benson, Leon S

    2014-12-01

    A national surgical database was used to determine risk factors for complications in patients undergoing open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) for distal radius fractures. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database for the 2006-2012 years was queried to identify all patients who underwent an ORIF of a distal radius fracture based on Current Procedural Terminology codes 25607, 25608, or 25609. The database is a statistically representative sample of prospectively collected perioperative surgical data from hospitals primarily in the United States. Demographics, comorbidities, preoperative laboratory values, and 30-day complications were compared between the patient groups with and without a postoperative complication. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify patient characteristics and comorbidities that were independently associated with early postoperative complications. This retrospective analysis identified 3,003 patients who underwent an ORIF of the distal radius over 7 years. The number of patients with a complication within 30 days after surgery was 62 (2%), totaling 90 complications. Incidence of return to the operative room for the entire study population was 1.1%. Multivariate analysis, adjusting for confounding variables, showed that patients with a complication were more likely to have hypertension, congestive heart failure, preoperative chemotherapy or radiotherapy, longer operating time, and manifest preoperative impairment in independent living. Approximately 2% of patients sustained a complication within 30 days following ORIF of a distal radius fracture. Recognition of the risk factors may help avoid complications in the identified high-risk patients. Prognostic II. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Early active motion protocol following open reduction internal fixation of the scaphoid: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dunn, J-C; Kusnezov, N; Fares, A; Buccino, Z; Esquivel, D; Mitchell, J

    2017-02-01

    Scaphoid fractures are common injuries which traditionally have been treated with long periods of immobilization even after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). The purpose of this pilot investigation was two-fold: 1) describe a precise postoperative Early Active Motion (EAM) rehabilitation protocol following ORIF of scaphoid fractures and 2) record the outcomes of the EAM protocol. Eight consecutive patients having undergone ORIF of the scaphoid were enrolled in the EAM and followed for a minimum of 1 year. At 12 weeks, Disabilities of the Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score, Mayo Wrist score, and range of motion values were obtained. At 1 year, a telephone survey was conducted and several data points were obtained including DASH and Mayo Wrist score, number of push-ups, satisfaction with surgery and ability to remain on active duty. All 8 patients were male, on active duty, with an average age of 26 years. Two patients used tobacco products and none had major health problems. All patients completed the EAM protocol and obtained CT; all CT exams demonstrated healing at 8 weeks. At 12 weeks postoperatively, the average DASH score was 8.8±16 (range: 0-47.5), Mayo wrist score was 88±10 (range: 75-100) and range of motion nearly symmetrical. At a mean final follow-up of 15.4 months postoperatively, the average DASH score was 1.1±1.7 (Range: 0-4.5), Mayo wrist score was 97.5±4 (range 90-100), average number of push-ups was 57 (40-70) at the prior Army Physical Fitness Test. All patients were satisfied with surgery and all remained on active duty at 1 year. There were no reported complications. The EAM protocol following scaphoid fracture ORIF is safe and effective. The EAM can reliably return patients back to high demand activity earlier than a traditional protocol.

  15. A murine femoral segmental defect model for bone tissue engineering using a novel rigid internal fixation system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Li, Dianqi; Huang, Xiangyu; Lv, Kun; Ongodia, David; Zhu, Lingling; Zhou, Langming; Li, Zubing

    2013-08-01

    As a model animal, the mouse has already been widely used in bone-related research. However, there is a lack of ideal long bone segmental defect mouse model. Since external fixation has disadvantages of heavy weight, penetrating the skin, and hampering mobility, an internal fixation device is probably more preferable to maintain the segmental bone defect. The aim of this study was to establish a simple, reproducible, and standardized murine critical-size defect model through designing an internal fixation system, verifying its adaptability, and investigating the critical size of femoral segmental defect. By utilizing computer-aided measuring and processing system, anatomical data of adult C57BL/6 mouse femur was obtained, and a plate-bolts system was designed for rigid fixation. The plate and screws were fixed in 67 mice and 1.5 or 2.0 mm defect gaps were created in the femoral midshaft. Compression and three-point bending of bone-implant construct were tested in mice at 0, 2, 5, and 12 wk postoperative to test the biomechanical stability. X-ray, micro-computed tomography, and histology were used to investigate the defect healing process. The plate- and screws-fitted mouse femur and unilateral or bilateral operation had seemingly no adverse impact on the mouse in general. Mechanical tests indicated that there were no significant differences between the bone-implant construct and intact femur in compression and three-point bending loading. Micro-computed tomography scanning showed the bone mineral density had not been affected by the implantation of fixation device. There was no union of the 2.0 mm segmental defect in 12-wk period. Using the specifically designed rigid internal fixation device, a segmental defect size of 2.0 mm in C57BL/6 mouse femur will show nonunion and can serve as a critical defect size for bone tissue engineering and bone regeneration research. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of hooks and a lag screw on internal fixation plates for lateral malleolar fracture: a biomechanical and ergonomic study.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Rina; Uchino, Masataka; Yoneo, Terumasa; Ohtaki, Yasuaki; Minehara, Hiroaki; Matsuura, Terumasa; Gomi, Tsutomu; Ujihira, Masanobu

    2017-02-23

    For internal fixation of AO classification Type B lateral malleolar fracture, insertion of lag screws into the fracture plane and fixation with a one-third tubular plate as a neutralization plate are the standard treatment procedures. The one-third tubular plate is processed to a hook shape and hung on the distal end of the fibula. In this study, to compare the function of the hook and lag screws of a one-third tubular plate and LCP for osteosynthesis of lateral malleolar fracture, mechanical indices of internal fixation were compared among the one-third tubular plates with lag screws with and without the hook and a locking compression plate. As mechanical tests, a compression test was performed in which compression in the bone axis direction produced by supporting the body weight was simulated, and a torsion test was performed in which external rotation of the bone axis caused by plantar flexion of the ankle joint was simulated. Muscle strength during walking and the force and torque acting on the ankle and knee joints were determined using inverse dynamic analysis. Finite element analysis was performed to analyze the function of hooks and lag screws. The joint reaction force determined by inverse dynamic analysis was adopted as the loading condition of finite element analysis. A stiffness equivalent to that of healthy bone could be achieved by all three internal fixations. It was clarified that the presence of the hook does not make a difference in stiffness. Displacement of the one-third tubular plate was small regardless of the presence or absence of the hook compared with those of locking compression plates. The presence of the hook did not make any difference in stiffness, suggesting that active preparation of the hook is unnecessary. We also clarified that lag screws inhibit displacement.

  17. Unravelling Carbon Fixation under Nutrient limited Conditions - a Water Column Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Helmuth; Craig, Susanne; Shadwick, Elizabeth H.; Li, William K.; Greenan, Blair J. W.

    2014-05-01

    Phytoplankton plays a critical role in the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) by the ocean, and is comprised of a spectrum of cell sizes that are strongly regulated by oceanographic conditions. Elevated CO2 fixation relative to nutrient availability, also called carbon overconsumption, has been observed in various mid to high latitude systems, such as the Baltic and North Seas, the North Atlantic Ocean, the Canadian Arctic Archipelago or the Scotian Shelf. We shed light on this phenomenon relying on an extensive data set of water column observations of the CO2 system and phytoplankton cell counts from the Scotian Shelf, a temperate shelf sea. We show that in the summertime, the population of numerically abundant small cells, which favour warmer, nutrient poor conditions, accounts for approximately 20% of annual carbon uptake. At the broader scale, the neglection of this "non-Redfieldian" contribution typically leads to an underestimation of net community production by approximately 20% to 50%. These small cells are not well represented by chlorophyll a - the ubiquitously used proxy of phytoplankton biomass - but rather, are strongly correlated with surface water temperature. Given the persistent near-zero nutrient concentrations during the summer, it appears that small cells drive carbon overconsumption, and suggest that their role in carbon fixation will become increasingly important in a warming, increasingly stratified ocean.

  18. Internal emitter limits for iodine, radium and radon daughters

    SciTech Connect

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1984-08-15

    This paper identifies some of the issues which arise in the consideration of the derivation of new limits on exposure to internal emitters. Basic and secondary radiation protection limits are discussed. Terms are defined and applied to the limitation of risk from stochastic effects. Non-stochastic data for specific internal emitters (/sup 131/I and the radium isotopes) are presented. Emphasis is placed on the quantitative aspects of the limit setting problem. 65 references, 2 figures, 12 tables.

  19. Sarcopenia With Limited Mobility: An International Consensus

    PubMed Central

    Morley, John E.; Abbatecola, Angela Marie; Argiles, Josep M.; Baracos, Vickie; Bauer, Juergen; Bhasin, Shalender; Cederholm, Tommy; Stewart Coats, Andrew J.; Cummings, Steven R.; Evans, William J.; Fearon, Kenneth; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fielding, Roger A.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Harris, Tamara B.; Inui, Akio; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kirwan, Bridget-Anne; Mantovani, Giovanni; Muscaritoli, Maurizio; Newman, Anne B.; Rossi-Fanelli, Filippo; Rosano, Giuseppe M. C.; Roubenoff, Ronenn; Schambelan, Morris; Sokol, Gerald H.; Storer, Thomas W.; Vellas, Bruno; von Haehling, Stephan; Yeh, Shing-Shing; Anker, Stefan D.

    2016-01-01

    A consensus conference convened by the Society of Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders has concluded that “Sarcopenia, ie, reduced muscle mass, with limited mobility” should be considered an important clinical entity and that most older persons should be screened for this condition. “Sarcopenia with limited mobility” is defined as a person with muscle loss whose walking speed is equal to or less than 1 m/s or who walks less than 400 m during a 6-minute walk, and who has a lean appendicular mass corrected for height squared of 2 standard deviations or more below the mean of healthy persons between 20 and 30 years of age of the same ethnic group. The limitation in mobility should not clearly be a result of otherwise defined specific diseases of muscle, peripheral vascular disease with intermittent claudication, central and peripheral nervous system disorders, or cachexia. Clinically significant interventions are defined as an increase in the 6-minute walk of at least 50 meters or an increase of walking speed of at least 0.1 m/s. “A word is not a crystal, transparent and unchanged; it is the skin of a living thought and may vary greatly in color and content according to the circumstances and the time when it is used.”—Oliver Wendell Holmes PMID:21640657

  20. Application of IMF screws to assist internal rigid fixation of jaw fractures: our experiences of 168 cases

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Zhenxi; Gao, Zhibiao; Xiao, Xia; Zhang, Wenjuan; Fan, Xing; Wang, Zhaoling

    2015-01-01

    Intermaxillary fixation (IMF) screws were first introduced to achieve IMF as a kind of bone borne appliance for jaw fractures in 1989. Because this method can overcome many disadvantages associated with tooth borne appliance, IMF screws have been popularly used for jaw fractures since then. From March 2011 to February 2014, we treated 168 cases with single or multiple jaw fractures by open reduction and a total of 705 IMF screws were intraoperatively applied in all the cases to achieve IMF and maintain dental occlusion as an adjuvant to open reduction. The numbers, implantation sites and complications of IMF screws were retrospectively analyzed. In our experience, we found that IMF screws were important to assist open reduction of jaw fractures but their roles should be objectively assessed and the reliability of open reduction and internal rigid fixation must be emphasized. Much attention should be paid when implanting. PMID:26617892

  1. Application of IMF screws to assist internal rigid fixation of jaw fractures: our experiences of 168 cases.

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhenxi; Gao, Zhibiao; Xiao, Xia; Zhang, Wenjuan; Fan, Xing; Wang, Zhaoling

    2015-01-01

    Intermaxillary fixation (IMF) screws were first introduced to achieve IMF as a kind of bone borne appliance for jaw fractures in 1989. Because this method can overcome many disadvantages associated with tooth borne appliance, IMF screws have been popularly used for jaw fractures since then. From March 2011 to February 2014, we treated 168 cases with single or multiple jaw fractures by open reduction and a total of 705 IMF screws were intraoperatively applied in all the cases to achieve IMF and maintain dental occlusion as an adjuvant to open reduction. The numbers, implantation sites and complications of IMF screws were retrospectively analyzed. In our experience, we found that IMF screws were important to assist open reduction of jaw fractures but their roles should be objectively assessed and the reliability of open reduction and internal rigid fixation must be emphasized. Much attention should be paid when implanting.

  2. Approaches for enhancement of N₂ fixation efficiency of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under limiting nitrogen conditions.

    PubMed

    Esfahani, Maryam Nasr; Sulieman, Saad; Schulze, Joachim; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tran, Lam-Son

    2014-04-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is an important pulse crop in many countries in the world. The symbioses between chickpea and Mesorhizobia, which fix N₂ inside the root nodules, are of particular importance for chickpea's productivity. With the aim of enhancing symbiotic efficiency in chickpea, we compared the symbiotic efficiency of C-15, Ch-191 and CP-36 strains of Mesorhizobium ciceri in association with the local elite chickpea cultivar 'Bivanij' as well as studied the mechanism underlying the improvement of N₂ fixation efficiency. Our data revealed that C-15 strain manifested the most efficient N₂ fixation in comparison with Ch-191 or CP-36. This finding was supported by higher plant productivity and expression levels of the nifHDK genes in C-15 nodules. Nodule specific activity was significantly higher in C-15 combination, partially as a result of higher electron allocation to N₂ versus H⁺. Interestingly, a striking difference in nodule carbon and nitrogen composition was observed. Sucrose cleavage enzymes displayed comparatively lower activity in nodules established by either Ch-191 or CP-36. Organic acid formation, particularly that of malate, was remarkably higher in nodules induced by C-15 strain. As a result, the best symbiotic efficiency observed with C-15-induced nodules was reflected in a higher concentration of the total and several major amino metabolites, namely asparagine, glutamine, glutamate and aspartate. Collectively, our findings demonstrated that the improved efficiency in chickpea symbiotic system, established with C-15, was associated with the enhanced capacity of organic acid formation and the activities of the key enzymes connected to the nodule carbon and nitrogen metabolism. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Clinical effects of internal fixation for ulnar styloid fractures associated with distal radius fractures: A matched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Hideyoshi; Shinohara, Takaaki; Natsume, Tadahiro; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2016-11-01

    Ulnar styloid fractures are often associated with distal radius fractures. However, controversy exists regarding whether to treat ulnar styloid fractures. This study aimed to evaluate clinical effects of internal fixation for ulnar styloid fractures after distal radius fractures were treated with the volar locking plate system. We used prospectively collected data of distal radius fractures. 111 patients were enrolled in this study. A matched case-control study design was used. We selected patients who underwent fixation for ulnar styloid fractures (case group). Three control patients for each patient of the case group were matched on the basis of age, sex, and fracture type of distal radius fractures from among patients who did not undergo fixation for ulnar styloid fractures (control group). The case group included 16 patients (7 men, 9 women; mean age: 52.6 years; classification of ulnar styloid fractures: center, 3; base, 11; and proximal, 2). The control group included 48 patients (15 men, 33 women; mean age: 61.1 years; classification of ulnar styloid fractures: center, 10; base, 31; and proximal, 7). For radiographic examination, the volar tilt angle, radial inclination angle, and ulnar variance length were measured, and the union of ulnar styloid fractures was judged. For clinical examination, the range of motions, grip strength, Hand20 score, and Numeric Rating Scale score were evaluated. There was little correction loss for each radiological parameter of fracture reduction, and these parameters were not significantly different between the groups. The bone-healing rate of ulnar styloid fractures was significantly higher in the case group than in the control group, but the clinical results were not significantly different. We revealed that there was no need to fix ulnar styloid fractures when distal radius fractures were treated via open reduction and internal fixation with a volar locking plate system. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association

  4. Hardware Removal Due to Infection after Open Reduction and Internal Fixation: Trends and Predictors.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, Mohammad R; Viola, Jessica; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Shahi, Alisina; Parvizi, Javad; Krieg, James C

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about trends and predictors of hardware related infection following open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of extremity fractures, one of the major causes of failure following ORIF. The present study was designed and conducted to determine trends and predictors of infection-related hardware removal following ORIF of extremities using a nationally representative database. We used Nationwide Inpatient Sample data from 2002 to 2011 to identify cases of ORIF following upper and lower extremity fractures, as well as cases that underwent infection-related hardware removal following ORIF. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of infection-related hardware removal, controlling for patient demographics and comorbidities, hospital characteristics, site of fracture, and year. For all ORIF procedures, the highest rate of hardware removal related to infection was observed in tarsal fractures (5.56%), followed by tibial (3.65%) and carpal (3.37%) fractures. Hardware removal rates due to infection increased in all fractures except radial/ulnar fractures. Tarsal fractures(odds ratio (OR)=1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.09, P<0.001), tibial fractures (OR=1.04, 95% CI: 1.03-1.06, P<0.001) and those patients with diabetes mellitus (OR=2.64, 95% CI: 2.46-2.84, P<0.001), liver disease (OR=2.04, 95% CI: 1.84- 2.26, P<0.001), and rheumatoid arthritis (OR=2.06, 95% CI: 1.88-2.25 P<0.001) were the main predictors of infection-related removals; females were less likely to undergo removal due to infection (OR= 0.61, 95% CI: 0.59-0.63 P<0.001). Hardware removal rates due to infection increased in all fractures except radial/ulnar fractures. Diabetes, liver disease, and rheumatoid arthritis were important predictors of infection-related hardware removal. The study identified some risk factors for hardwarerelated infection following ORIF, such as diabetes, liver disease, and rheumatoid arthritis, that should be studied further in

  5. Hardware Removal Due to Infection after Open Reduction and Internal Fixation: Trends and Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Rasouli, Mohammad R.; Viola, Jessica; Maltenfort, Mitchell G.; Shahi, Alisina; Parvizi, Javad; Krieg, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about trends and predictors of hardware related infection following open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of extremity fractures, one of the major causes of failure following ORIF. The present study was designed and conducted to determine trends and predictors of infection-related hardware removal following ORIF of extremities using a nationally representative database. Methods: We used Nationwide Inpatient Sample data from 2002 to 2011 to identify cases of ORIF following upper and lower extremity fractures, as well as cases that underwent infection-related hardware removal following ORIF. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of infection-related hardware removal, controlling for patient demographics and comorbidities, hospital characteristics, site of fracture, and year. Results: For all ORIF procedures, the highest rate of hardware removal related to infection was observed in tarsal fractures (5.56%), followed by tibial (3.65%) and carpal (3.37%) fractures. Hardware removal rates due to infection increased in all fractures except radial/ulnar fractures. Tarsal fractures(odds ratio (OR)=1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.09, P<0.001), tibial fractures (OR=1.04, 95% CI: 1.03-1.06, P<0.001) and those patients with diabetes mellitus (OR=2.64, 95% CI: 2.46-2.84, P<0.001), liver disease (OR=2.04, 95% CI: 1.84- 2.26, P<0.001), and rheumatoid arthritis (OR=2.06, 95% CI: 1.88-2.25 P<0.001) were the main predictors of infection-related removals; females were less likely to undergo removal due to infection (OR= 0.61, 95% CI: 0.59-0.63 P<0.001). Conclusions: Hardware removal rates due to infection increased in all fractures except radial/ulnar fractures. Diabetes, liver disease, and rheumatoid arthritis were important predictors of infection-related hardware removal. The study identified some risk factors for hardwarerelated infection following ORIF, such as diabetes, liver disease, and rheumatoid

  6. Stability Following Combined Maxillary and Mandibular Osteotomies Treated with Rigid Internal Fixation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    mandible upon closure for approximately 2 to 4 weeks. Cephalometrlc Analysis * . Each patient had standardized lateral cephalometric radiographs taken (Quint...thickness on changes in vertical dimension as it affected the total anterior facial height at B point. The vertical closure from splint removal ranged...conjunction with increases in vertical dimension . Rigid stabilization with good bony apposition of the mandibular segments during fixation

  7. Optimal internal fixation of anatomically shaped synthetic bone grafts for massive segmental defects of long bones.

    PubMed

    Vorys, George C; Bai, Hanying; Chandhanayingyong, Chandhanarat; Lee, Chang H; Compton, Jocelyn T; Caldwell, Jon-Michael; Gardner, Thomas R; Mao, Jeremy J; Lee, Francis Y

    2015-12-01

    Large segmental bone defects following tumor resection, high-energy civilian trauma, and military blast injuries present significant clinical challenges. Tissue engineering strategies using scaffolds are being considered as a treatment, but there is little research into optimal fixation of such scaffolds. Twelve fresh-frozen paired cadaveric legs were utilized to simulate a critical sized intercalary defect in the tibia. Poly-ε-caprolactone and hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds 5 cm in length with a geometry representative of the mid-diaphysis of an adult human tibia were fabricated, inserted into a tibial mid-diaphyseal intercalary defect, and fixed with a 14-hole large fragment plate. Optimal screw fixation comparing non-locking and locking screws was tested in axial compression, bending, and torsion in a non-destructive manner. A cyclic torsional test to failure under torque control was then performed. Biomechanical testing showed no significant difference for bending or axial stiffness with non-locking vs. locking fixation. Torsional stiffness was significantly higher (P=0.002) with the scaffold present for both non-locking and locking compared to the scaffold absent. In testing to failure, angular rotation was greater for the non-locking compared to locking constructs at each torque level up to 40 N-m (P<0.05). The locking constructs survived a significantly higher number of loading cycles before reaching clinical failure at 30 degrees of angular rotation (P<0.02). The presence of the scaffold increased the torsional stiffness of the construct. Locking fixation resulted in a stronger construct with increased cycles to failure compared to non-locking fixation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The retromandibular transparotid approach for reduction and rigid internal fixation using two locking miniplates in mandibular condylar neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Kanno, T; Sukegawa, S; Tatsumi, H; Nariai, Y; Ishibashi, H; Furuki, Y; Sekine, J

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the safety, efficacy, and morbidity associated with the treatment of displaced mandibular condylar neck fractures using a retromandibular transparotid approach to reduce and rigidly fix using two 2.0-mm locking miniplates. Our surgical inclusion criteria were: patient selection of open reduction and fixation, displaced unilateral condylar fractures with derangement of occlusion, and bilateral condylar fractures with an anterior open bite. The study group consisted of 19 patients who underwent surgery for 19 mandibular condylar neck fractures; patients were analyzed prospectively, with more than 6 months of follow-up, and were evaluated in terms of functional results, scar formation, postoperative complications, and stability of fixation. The results showed that functional occlusion identical to the preoperative condition and correct anatomical reduction of the condylar segments in centric occlusion, followed by immediate functional recovery, was achieved in all patients. No patient suffered from any major or permanent complication postoperatively, although there were two cases (11%) of temporary facial nerve palsy, which resolved completely within 3 months. Surgical scars were barely visible. The retromandibular transparotid approach with open reduction and rigid internal fixation for displaced condylar neck fractures of the mandible is a feasible and safe, minimally invasive surgical technique that provides reliable clinical results.

  9. Internal fixation of displaced inferior pole of the patella fractures using vertical wiring augmented with Krachow suturing.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyoung-Keun; Choo, Suk-Kyu; Kim, Ji-Wan; Lee, Mark

    2015-12-01

    We present the surgical technique of separate vertical wiring for displaced inferior pole fractures of the patella combined with Krachow suture and report the surgical outcomes. Between September 2007 to May 2012, 11 consecutive patients (mean age, 54.6 years) with inferior pole fractures of the patella (AO/OTA 34-A1) were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Through longitudinal incision, all patients underwent open reduction and internal fixation by separate vertical wiring combined with Krackow suture. The range of motion, loss of fixation, and Bostman score were primary outcome measures. The union time was 10 weeks after surgery on average (range: 8-12). No patient had nonunion, loss of reduction and wire breakage. There was no case of wound problem and irritation from the implant. At final follow-up, the average range of motion arc was 129.4° (range: 120-140). The mean Bostman score at last follow-up was 29.6 points (range: 28-30) and graded excellent in all cases. Separate vertical wiring combined with Krackow suture for inferior pole fractures of the patella is a useful technique that is easy to perform and can provide stable fixation with excellent results in knee function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Risk factors for 30-day postoperative complications and mortality following open reduction internal fixation of distal radius fractures.

    PubMed

    Schick, Cameron W; Koehler, Daniel M; Martin, Christopher T; Gao, Yubo; Pugely, Andrew J; Shah, Apurva; Adams, Brian D

    2014-12-01

    To identify the incidence and risk factors for 30-day postoperative morbidity and mortality following operative treatment of distal radius fractures in a multicenter cohort. We retrospectively queried the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database for the years 2005-2011 for cases of closed distal radius fractures treated operatively with internal fixation. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and operative characteristics were analyzed. Thirty-day postoperative complications were identified and separated into categories of major morbidity or mortality, minor morbidity, and any complication. Risk factors were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. We identified 1,673 cases of closed distal radius fractures managed with internal fixation. The overall incidence of having any early complication was 3%. Major morbidity was 2.1%, which included 4 patient deaths, and minor morbidity was 1%. The most common major morbidity was a return to the operating room (16 patients). The most common minor morbidity was urinary tract infection (6 patients). The multivariate analysis demonstrated ASA class III or IV, dependent functional status, hypertension, and myocardial infarction/congestive heart failure to be significant risk factors for any early complication. There was a 10.0% complication rate in the inpatient group and a 1.3% complication rate in the outpatient group. The incidence of early complications following internal fixation for closed distal radius fractures was low, especially in the outpatient group. In the setting of an isolated injury to the distal radius, the data presented here can provide prognostic information for patients during informed consent for what is considered to be an elective procedure. Surgeons should consider risk of morbidity and mortality when considering surgery for patients with noteworthy cardiopulmonary disease, increased ASA class, or poor functional status. Prognostic II. Copyright

  11. Feasibility of percutaneous cementoplasty combined with interventional internal fixation for impending pathologic fracture of the proximal femur.

    PubMed

    He, Chengjian; Tian, Qinghua; Wu, Chun-gen; Gu, Yifeng; Wang, Tao; Li, Minghua

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of percutaneous cementoplasty and interventional internal fixation for stabilization of impending pathologic fracture of the proximal femur. From May 2012 to August 2013, six consecutive patients (three men and three women; median age, 58.33 y ± 21.45; age range, 18-78 y) who underwent percutaneous cementoplasty plus interventional internal fixation for the treatment of metastases to the proximal femur were retrospectively analyzed. The Karnofsky performance status (KPS) and visual analog scale (VAS) score for pain were assessed before and 1 week after the procedure; moreover, the procedure duration, length of hospital stay, risk of fracture at the procedural site, and complications were assessed. The KPS increased from 66.67 ± 12.11 (range, 60-90) before the procedure to 76.67 ± 13.66 (range, 60-100) 1 week after the procedure. For symptomatic patients (n = 5), the VAS score decreased from 6.80 ± 2.39 (range, 3-9) before the procedure to 1.80 ± 0.84 (range, 1-3) at 1 week after the procedure. The mean procedure duration was 90.00 minutes ± 10.56 (range, 72-102 min). The average length of hospital stay was 7 days ± 2 (range, 4-10 d). The only complication noted consisted of thrombophlebitis in one patient, on the operative side, at 15 days after the procedure. No cases of procedural site fracture during follow-up were noted (median, 192 d; range, 30-365 d). Percutaneous cementoplasty plus interventional internal fixation is a feasible technique for stabilization of impending pathologic fracture of the femur. Copyright © 2014 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reoperation rate after internal fixation of intertrochanteric femur fractures with the percutaneous compression plate: what are the risk factors?

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Rohlfing, Bernhard; Heussen, Nicole; Knobe, Matthias; Pfeifer, Roman; Kaneshige, Jason R; Pape, Hans-Christoph

    2013-06-01

    The aim was this study was to analyze the risk factors for reoperation after internal fixation of intertrochanteric fractures of the femur using the percutaneous compression plate (PCCP). This was a retrospective cohort study. The study was conducted at the University Hospital. Patients with intertrochanteric femur fractures who underwent internal fixation with a PCCP were included in this study. We investigated potential risk factors such as age, gender, body mass index, comorbidities of the patients (American Society of Anesthetist classification), type of fracture (AO/OTA classification), experience of the surgeons (in terms of the number of surgical procedures with the PCCP device), tip-apex distance (TAD), and operation time. The procedures were performed by 10 surgeons. Logistic regression was used to assess potential predictors for the need of reoperation. Of the 96 patients with 96 intertrochanteric fractures, 8 underwent reoperation due to local complications (8.3%). The most frequent complication was complete or imminent cutting out of the upper cervical screw (N = 5; 5.2%). Five of the 8 risk factors that were associated with reoperation in the initial univariable analyses with a P value of <0.20 were retained in a multivariable logistic regression model, including, age, body mass index, TAD, experience of the surgeons, and operation time. Of these, only the factor TAD proved to be a significant predictor for reoperation (P = 0.027, odds ratio = 1.089, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.175). Our data show that the surgeon-related risk factors (number of operations, operation time, TAD) seem to be more relevant for the reoperation rate after internal fixation with the PCCP device when compared with the patient-related risk factors. This finding indicates a substantial learning curve for this technically demanding procedure. Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  13. A prospective study of midfoot osteotomy combined with adjacent joint sparing internal fixation in treatment of rigid pes cavus deformity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, You; Zhou, Binghua; Liu, Junpeng; Tan, Xiaokang; Tao, Xu; Chen, Wan; Tang, Kanglai

    2014-06-05

    Midfoot osteotomy has been previously confirmed to be a good method to correct pes cavus. How to fix the osteotomy and which point to choose for the procedure has been a focus for most surgeons. The aim of this study was to analyse the outcomes of a series of patients who had been treated for pes cavus deformity using midfoot osteotomy combined with adjacent joint sparing internal fixation. Between 2008 and 2012, 17 patients with a mean age of 16.8 years (12-36 years) were tracked after treatment by midfoot osteotomy combined with adjacent joint sparing internal fixation with three cannulated screws between the Lisfranc line and Cyma line. Clinical outcomes were assessed by measuring improvements of appearance and function, American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scores, and radiographic changes. The mean follow-up time was 25.3 months (range, 10-50). The mean healing time from the osteotomy was 7.8 weeks (range, 6-12). The appearance and weight-bearing function were significantly improved in all patients. At a final follow-up, the mean AOFAS score was 75.8/100 points (range, 63-90). The mean Meary's angle, calcaneal pitch angle, tibiotalar angle, and Hibb's angle values improved from 26.3 to 5.5, 44.5 to 28.3, 133.1 to 100.8 and 66.9 to 41.1, respectively. Adjacent joints presented no obviously arthritic degeneration at the follow-up. Subjectively, 94.1% of patients were very satisfied or satisfied with minor reservations. Objective outcomes were excellent or good in 88.2% of feet. For the treatment of rigid pes cavus deformity, extra-articular midfoot osteotomy combined with adjacent joint sparing internal fixation is effective and safe. This surgical technique is especially effective with low rates of arthritic degeneration and joint stiffness in the adjacent joints and little reduction of ankle and foot flexibility.

  14. Internal screw fixation compared with bipolar hemiarthroplasty for treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Gjertsen, J-E; Vinje, T; Engesaeter, L B; Lie, S A; Havelin, L I; Furnes, O; Fevang, J M

    2010-03-01

    Internal fixation and arthroplasty are the two main options for the treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures in the elderly. The optimal treatment remains controversial. Using data from the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register, we compared the results of hemiarthroplasty and internal screw fixation in displaced femoral neck fractures. Data from 4335 patients over seventy years of age who had internal fixation (1823 patients) or hemiarthroplasty (2512 patients) to treat a displaced femoral neck fracture were compared at a minimum follow-up interval of twelve months. One-year mortality, the number of reoperations, and patient self-assessment of pain, satisfaction, and quality of life at four and twelve months were analyzed. Subanalyses of patients with cognitive impairment and reduced walking ability were done. In the arthroplasty group, only contemporary bipolar prostheses were used and uncemented prostheses with modern stems and hydroxyapatite coating accounted for 20.8% (522) of the implants. There were no differences in one-year mortality (27% in the osteosynthesis group and 25% in the arthroplasty group; p = 0.76). There were 412 reoperations (22.6%) performed in the osteosynthesis group and seventy-two (2.9%) in the hemiarthroplasty group during the follow-up period. After twelve months, the osteosynthesis group reported more pain (mean score, 29.9 compared with 19.2), higher dissatisfaction with the operation result (mean score, 38.9 compared with 25.7), and a lower quality of life (mean score, 0.51 compared with 0.60) than the arthroplasty group. All differences were significant (p < 0.001). For patients with cognitive impairment, hemiarthroplasty provided a better functional outcome (less pain, higher satisfaction with the result of the operation, and higher quality of life as measured on the EuroQol visual analog scale) at twelve months (p < 0.05). Displaced femoral neck fractures in the elderly should be treated with hemiarthroplasty.

  15. Primary subtalar joint arthrodesis with internal and external fixation for the repair of a diabetic comminuted calcaneal fracture.

    PubMed

    Facaros, Zacharia; Ramanujam, Crystal L; Zgonis, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Comminuted, intra-articular calcaneal fractures can cause severe lower extremity impairment and have devastating effects on a patient's well being. Diabetes is a multisystem process that may cause neuropathy and loss of protective sensation further complicating the prognosis. Not all calcaneal fractures are created equal and when considering the patient's overall presentation and extent of injury, the combined approach of internal and external fixation for fracture reduction may be beneficial for restoration of anatomic alignment and function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Internal limiting membrane peeling in vitreo-retinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Abdelkader, Ehab; Lois, Noemi

    2008-01-01

    Peeling the internal limiting membrane of the retina has become a very common procedure performed by vitreo-retinal surgeons. The combination of new microsurgical instrumentation with the availability of different dyes to stain this thin and transparent membrane has facilitated the performance of internal limiting membrane peeling, reducing the time and trauma associated with this maneuver. Internal limiting membrane peeling has been used to treat a variety of retinal pathologies, including full-thickness macular hole, epiretinal membrane, macular edema, vitreomacular traction syndrome, and Terson syndrome, among others. Although it appears that peeling the internal limiting membrane in these retinal conditions may be associated with better anatomical and visual outcomes following surgery, further evidence through randomized controlled clinical trials is still needed to guide the vitreo-retinal surgeon on the appropriate use of this surgical maneuver.

  17. Treatment of Early Post-Op Wound Infection after Internal Fixation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    having difficulty maintaining equipoise when prescribing antibiotics . Informational slides have been developed for the sites to use to present the study...to their Infectious Disease teams to assist with this problem. 15. SUBJECT TERMS PO, IV, Antibiotics , plate, fixation, infection 16. SECURITY...and either: (Group 1) operative debridement and PO antibiotic treatment for 6 weeks; or (Group 2) operative debridement and IV antibiotics for 6

  18. Clavicle fractures in 2010: sling/swathe or open reduction and internal fixation?

    PubMed

    McKee, Michael D

    2010-04-01

    Clavicle fractures are common, and they comprise close to 3% of all fractures seen in fracture clinics. Midshaft fractures account for approximately 80% of all clavicle fractures and are the focus of this article. In carefully selected cases primary plate fixation of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures improves outcome, results in earlier return to function, and reduces the nonunion and symptomatic malunion rate significantly compared with nonoperative treatment.

  19. The initial safe range of motion of the ankle joint after three methods of internal fixation of simulated fractures of the medial malleolus.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Yoshio; Kaneko, Kazuo; Kume, Kazuhiko; Maeda, Mutsuhiro; Iwase, Hideaki

    2006-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the safe passive range of ankle motion for inter-bone stiffness after internal fixation under load but there is a lack of information about the safe range of ankle motion for early rehabilitation in the absence of loading. The present study was designed to assess the effect of ankle movement on inter-bone displacement characteristics of medial malleolus fractures following three types of internal fixation to determine the safe range of motion. Five lower legs obtained during autopsy were used to assess three types of internal fixation (two with Kirschner-wires alone; two with Kirschner-wires plus tension band wiring; and, one with an AO/ASIF malleolar screw alone). Following a simulated fracture by sawing through the medial malleolus the displacement between the fractured bone ends was measured during a passive range of movement with continuous monitoring using omega (Omega) shaped transducers and a biaxial flexible goniometer. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated measures analysis of variance. Inter-bone displacement was not proportional to the magnitude of movement throughout the range of ankle motion as, when separation exceeded 25 microm, there was increasingly wide separation as plantar-flexion or dorsal-flexion was increased. There was no statistical significant difference between the small amount of inter-bone displacement observed with three types of fixation within the safe range of dorsal-flexion and plantar-flexion for early rehabilitation. However the inter-bone separation when fixation utilized two Kirschner-wires alone tended to be greater than when using the other two types of fixation during dorsal-flexion and eversion. The present study revealed a reproducible range of ankle motion for early rehabilitation which was estimated to be within the range of 20 degrees of dorsal-flexion and 10 degrees of plantar-flexion without eversion. Also, internal fixation with two Kirschner-wires alone does not seem to

  20. Efficacy of spinal pia mater incision and laminoplasty combined with internal fixation for old spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gen-Long, Jiao; Zhi-Zhong, Li; Tan, Tan; Yong-Qin, Pan; Zhi-Gang, Zhou

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of incising spinal pia mater to relieve pressure and unilateral open-door laminoplasty with internal screw fixation for treatment of the dated spinal cord injury. From March, 2009 to July, 2010, 16 cases with chronic cervical cord injury underwent spinal dura mater incision and unilateral open-door laminoplasty with internal screw fixation. Nerve functions of pre- and postoperation were evaluated by Frankel classification and the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) scale.The improvement rate of JOA score at the indicated time was recorded. Postoperative Frankel classification rating of 16 patients improved obviously.JOA scores at the 1st month, 3rd month, 6th month, and 12th month after surgery were 7.9 ± 2.3, 8.5 ± 1.6, 8.9 ± 2.1, and 12.4 ± 2.5, respectively, and significantly increased compared with that prior to surgery (5.5 ± 0.6). At the end of follow-up period, JOA score was significantly higher than that of pre-treatment (P<0.05). The recovery was relatively rapid during the first 3 months following the surgery, then entered a platform period. It is effective for patients with dated spinal cord injury to undergo spinal decompression and laminoplasty.

  1. Bone radiofrequency ablation combined with prophylactic internal fixation for metastatic bone tumor of the femur from hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Koichi; Miyake, Ryoko; Shiina, Shuichiro; Shinoda, Yusuke; Okuma, Tomotake; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Goto, Takahiro; Nakamura, Kozo; Kawano, Hirotaka

    2012-08-01

    A 64-year-old man with 6-year history of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was referred to us regarding bone metastasis to the right proximal femur. Although he underwent radiotherapy for pain palliation and local tumor control, the pain persisted and the tumor relapsed 3 months after the radiotherapy and he was thought to be at high risk of pathologic fracture. Given hypervascularity and large tumor size, a prophylactic internal fixation combined with adjuvant radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was proposed to reduce blood loss and prevent viable tumor cells being disseminated. His postoperative course was uneventful without requiring blood transfusion and preoperative symptoms immediately disappeared after surgery. He became capable of weight-bearing walk with a single cane and was almost asymptomatic without local progression on the plain radiographs when he died 14 months after surgery. Combination therapy of RFA and internal fixation using intramedullary nailing for metastases of the long bones from HCC seems to be a very promising technique both for sufficient pain relief and for local control of the tumor. Adjuvant RFA may become a potential option for patients with metastases of the long bones for the purpose of prevention of tumor dissemination and reduction of intraoperative blood loss.

  2. Failure of Internal Fixation for Painful Bipartite Navicular in Two Adolescent Soccer Players: A Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Niki, Hisateru; Akagi, Ryuichiro; Yamamoto, Yohei; Sasho, Takahisa

    Bipartite navicular bone is an uncommon condition that can cause midfoot pain in children and adolescents. No treatment methods, other than conservative management, have been reported. We report the cases of 2 adolescent soccer players who underwent internal fixation of the painful bipartite fragments, resulting in nonunion. After failure of conservative management, the patients underwent surgery. Curettage of the junction between the 2 bone fragments was performed, and autologous cancellous bone was grafted. Next, the fragments were fixed with variable-threaded screws. Bone union of the bipartite fragments was once achieved on computed tomography in both cases at 3 and 5 months after surgery, respectively. However, separation of the fragment occurred in both cases after the patients had returned to sports. Although the patients were able to return to sports activities, they still had mild midfoot pain 3 and 2 years after surgery, respectively. Internal fixation using screws and an autologous bone graft for painful bipartite navicular bone in adolescent athletes is not recommended, and other surgeries should be considered to achieve bony union. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Potential Trace Metal Co-Limitation Controls on N2 Fixation and [Formula: see text] Uptake in Lakes with Varying Trophic Status.

    PubMed

    Romero, I C; Klein, N J; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, S A; Capone, D G

    2013-01-01

    The response of N2 fixation and [Formula: see text] uptake to environmental conditions and nutrient enrichment experiments in three western U.S. lake systems was studied (eutrophic Clear Lake; mesotrophic Walker Lake; oligotrophic Lake Tahoe). We tested the effect of additions of bioactive trace metals molybdenum as Mo(V) and iron (Fe) as well as phosphate (P), N2 fixation, [Formula: see text], carbon (C) fixation, chlorophyll a (Chla), and bacterial cell counts under both natural conditions and in mesocosm experiments. We found distinct background N2 fixation and [Formula: see text] uptake rates: highest at Clear Lake (N2 fixation: 44.7 ± 1.8 nmol N L(-1) h(-1)), intermediate at Walker Lake (N2 fixation: 1.7 ± 1.1 nmol N L(-1) h(-1); [Formula: see text] uptake: 113 ± 37 nmol N L(-1) h(-1)), and lowest at Lake Tahoe (N2 fixation: 0.1 ± 0.07 nmol N L(-1) h(-1); [Formula: see text] uptake: 37.2 ± 10.0 nmol N L(-1) h(-1)). N2 fixation was stimulated above control values with the addition of Fe and Pin Clear Lake (up to 50 and 63%, respectively); with Mo(V), Fe, and P in Walker Lake (up to 121, 990, and 85%, respectively); and with Mo(V) and P in Lake Tahoe (up to 475 and 21%, respectively). [Formula: see text] uptake showed the highest stimulation in Lake Tahoe during September 2010, with the addition of P and Mo(V) (∼84% for both). High responses to Mo(V) additions were also observed at some sites for C fixation (Lake Tahoe: 141%), Chla (Walker Lake: 54% and Clear Lake: 102%), and bacterial cell counts (Lake Tahoe: 61%). Overall our results suggest that co-limitation of nutrients is probably a common feature in lakes, and that some trace metals may play a crucial role in limiting N2 fixation and [Formula: see text] uptake activity, though primarily in non-eutrophic lakes.

  4. Diurnal variation in the coupling of photosynthetic electron transport and carbon fixation in iron-limited phytoplankton in the NE subarctic Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuback, Nina; Flecken, Mirkko; Maldonado, Maria T.; Tortell, Philippe D.

    2016-02-01

    Active chlorophyll a fluorescence approaches, including fast repetition rate fluorometry (FRRF), have the potential to provide estimates of phytoplankton primary productivity at an unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. FRRF-derived productivity rates are based on estimates of charge separation in reaction center II (ETRRCII), which must be converted into ecologically relevant units of carbon fixation. Understanding sources of variability in the coupling of ETRRCII and carbon fixation provides physiological insight into phytoplankton photosynthesis and is critical for the application of FRRF as a primary productivity measurement tool. In the present study, we simultaneously measured phytoplankton carbon fixation and ETRRCII in the iron-limited NE subarctic Pacific over the course of a diurnal cycle. We show that rates of ETRRCII are closely tied to the diurnal cycle in light availability, whereas rates of carbon fixation appear to be influenced by endogenous changes in metabolic energy allocation under iron-limited conditions. Unsynchronized diurnal oscillations of the two rates led to 3.5-fold changes in the conversion factor between ETRRCII and carbon fixation (Kc / nPSII). Consequently, diurnal variability in phytoplankton carbon fixation cannot be adequately captured with FRRF approaches if a constant conversion factor is applied. Utilizing several auxiliary photophysiological measurements, we observed that a high conversion factor is associated with conditions of excess light and correlates with the increased expression of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in the pigment antenna, as derived from FRRF measurements. The observed correlation between NPQ and Kc / nPSII requires further validation but has the potential to improve estimates of phytoplankton carbon fixation rates from FRRF measurements alone.

  5. Diurnal variation in the coupling of photosynthetic electron transport and carbon fixation in iron-limited phytoplankton in the NE subarctic Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuback, N.; Flecken, M.; Maldonado, M. T.; Tortell, P. D.

    2015-10-01

    Active chlorophyll a fluorescence approaches, including fast repetition rate fluorometry (FRRF), have the potential to provide estimates of phytoplankton primary productivity at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. FRRF-derived productivity rates are based on estimates of charge separation at PSII (ETRRCII), which must be converted into ecologically relevant units of carbon fixation. Understanding sources of variability in the coupling of ETRRCII and carbon fixation provides physiological insight into phytoplankton photosynthesis, and is critical for the application of FRRF as a primary productivity measurement tool. In the present study, we simultaneously measured phytoplankton carbon fixation and ETRRCII in the iron-limited NE subarctic Pacific, over the course of a diurnal cycle. We show that rates of ETRRCII are closely tied to the diurnal cycle in light availability, whereas rates of carbon fixation appear to be influenced by endogenous changes in metabolic energy allocation under iron-limited conditions. Unsynchronized diurnal oscillations of the two rates led to 3.5 fold changes in the conversion factor coupling ETRRCII and carbon fixation (Φe:C / nPSII). Consequently, diurnal variability in phytoplankton carbon fixation cannot be adequately captured with FRRF approaches if a constant conversion factor is applied. Utilizing several auxiliary photophysiological measurements, we observed that a high conversion factor is associated with conditions of excess light, and correlates with the expression of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in the pigment antenna, as derived from FRRF measurements. The observed correlation between NPQ and the conversion factor Φe:C / nPSII has the potential to improve estimates of phytoplankton carbon fixation rates from FRRF measurements alone.

  6. Radiostrontium clearance and bone formation in response to simulated internal screw fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Daum, W.J.; Simmons, D.J.; Fenster, R.; Shively, R.A.

    1987-06-01

    Changes in radiostrontium clearance (SrC) and bone formation (tetracycline labeling) were observed in the femurs of skeletally mature dogs following the various operative steps involved in bone screw fixation. Drilling, but not periosteal stripping, produced a small but statistically significant increase in SrC and endosteal bone formation in the distal third of the bone. Strontium clearance values equivalent to those produced by drilling alone were recorded after screw fixation at low or high torque (5 versus 20 inch pounds), as well as by the insertion of loosely fitting stainless steel implants. Bone formation (equals the percentage tetracycline-labeled trabecular bone surfaces) was increased by 30% when SrC values exceeded 3.5 ml/100 g bone/min, and the relationship was linear when SrC values ranged between 1.0 and 7.0 ml/100 g bone/min. The changes in SrC and bone formation one-week after bone screw application are primarily those associated with a response to local trauma caused by drilling.

  7. Effect of body weight on the outcome of displaced intracapsular fracture neck of femur treated by internal fixation; a clinical study of 198 patients.

    PubMed

    Alazzawi, Sulaiman; Mayahi, Reza; Parker, Martyn J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess any possible correlation between body weight and fracture union following displaced intracapsular fractures of the neck of femur treated by a closed reduction and internal fixation. A total of 198 patients with such injuries treated by closed reduction and internal fixation, were recruited retrospectively. Patients were followed up until fracture endpoint (union or non-union) with a minimum follow up of 100 days. The mean body weight for the 118 patients without fracture healing complications was 64.6 kg versus 61.8 kg for the 80 patients with complications, a difference that was not statistically significant (p=0.17). Analysis of data related to sex and age also found no relationship between weight and fracture healing complications. Our results indicate there is no relationship between body weight and fracture healing complications following displaced intracapsular fractures treated by internal fixation.

  8. Closed reduction using the percutaneous leverage technique and internal fixation with K-wires to treat angulated radial neck fractures in children-case report.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hai; Wu, Yongtao; Dang, Youting; Qiu, Yusheng

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric radial neck fractures are uncommon. Severely displaced and angulated fractures usually require treatment. Our goals for treatment are to avoid incision, reduce the fracture adequately with no reduction loss, and achieve good postoperative function. We aimed to observe the clinical outcomes of closed reduction with the percutaneous leverage technique and internal fixation with Kirschner-wires (K-wires) to treat angulated radial neck fractures in children.From January 2011 to April 2013, we treated 16 cases of angulated radial neck fracture in 12 boys and 4 girls. Five fractures were type II and 11 fractures were type III using the O'Brien classification. One K-wire was percutaneously introduced into the fracture site using the leverage technique to attain good reduction. Two K-wires were introduced from the proximal to the distal areas of the fracture site. The elbow was immobilized by cast in 90° of flexion and the forearm in supination for 3 to 4 weeks. The K-wires were removed at 3 to 4 weeks postoperatively. All cases were followed up for a mean duration of 3 years 6 months.According to the Metaizeau reduction classification, 12 cases were excellent, and 4 cases were good. According to the Metaizeau clinical classification, 14 cases were excellent, and 2 cases were good. There was no necrosis of the radial head. There was no infection, radioulnar synostosis, and damage of the radial nerve deep branch. There was no limitation in the pronation and supination functions of the forearm.Closed reduction using the percutaneous leverage technique and internal fixation using K-wires is easy to perform. It is encouraged to use this approach as the clinical outcome is good. level IV-retrospective case, treatment study.

  9. Closed reduction using the percutaneous leverage technique and internal fixation with K-wires to treat angulated radial neck fractures in children-case report

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hai; Wu, Yongtao; Dang, Youting; Qiu, Yusheng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Pediatric radial neck fractures are uncommon. Severely displaced and angulated fractures usually require treatment. Our goals for treatment are to avoid incision, reduce the fracture adequately with no reduction loss, and achieve good postoperative function. We aimed to observe the clinical outcomes of closed reduction with the percutaneous leverage technique and internal fixation with Kirschner-wires (K-wires) to treat angulated radial neck fractures in children. From January 2011 to April 2013, we treated 16 cases of angulated radial neck fracture in 12 boys and 4 girls. Five fractures were type II and 11 fractures were type III using the O’Brien classification. One K-wire was percutaneously introduced into the fracture site using the leverage technique to attain good reduction. Two K-wires were introduced from the proximal to the distal areas of the fracture site. The elbow was immobilized by cast in 90° of flexion and the forearm in supination for 3 to 4 weeks. The K-wires were removed at 3 to 4 weeks postoperatively. All cases were followed up for a mean duration of 3 years 6 months. According to the Metaizeau reduction classification, 12 cases were excellent, and 4 cases were good. According to the Metaizeau clinical classification, 14 cases were excellent, and 2 cases were good. There was no necrosis of the radial head. There was no infection, radioulnar synostosis, and damage of the radial nerve deep branch. There was no limitation in the pronation and supination functions of the forearm. Closed reduction using the percutaneous leverage technique and internal fixation using K-wires is easy to perform. It is encouraged to use this approach as the clinical outcome is good. Level of evidence: level IV-retrospective case, treatment study. PMID:28072734

  10. Low bone mineral density is not related to failure in femoral neck fracture patients treated with internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Viberg, Bjarke; Ryg, Jesper; Overgaard, Søren; Lauritsen, Jens; Ovesen, Ole

    2014-02-01

    Internal fixation (IF) in femoral neck fractures has high reoperation rates and some predictors of failure are known, such as age, quality of reduction, and implant positioning. Finding new predictors of failure is an ongoing process, and in this study we evaluated the importance of low bone mineral density (BMD). 140 consecutive patients (105 females, median age 80) treated with IF had a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan of the hip performed median 80 days after treatment. The patients' radiographs were evaluated for fracture displacement, implant positioning, and quality of reduction. From a questionnaire completed during admission, 2 variables for comorbidity and walking disability were chosen. Primary outcome was low hip BMD (amount of mineral matter per square centimeter of hip bone) compared to hip failure (resection, arthroplasty, or new hip fracture). A stratified Cox regression model on fracture displacement was applied and adjusted for age, sex, quality of reduction, implant positioning, comorbidity, and walking disability. 49 patients had a T-score below -2.5 (standard deviation from the young normal reference mean) and 70 patients had a failure. The failure rate after 2 years was 22% (95% CI: 12-39) for the undisplaced fractures and 66% (CI: 56-76) for the displaced fractures. Cox regression showed no association between low hip BMD and failure. For the covariates, only implant positioning showed an association with failure. We found no statistically significant association between low hip BMD and fixation failure in femoral neck fracture patients treated with IF.

  11. Influence of internal fixator flexibility on murine fracture healing as characterized by mechanical testing and microCT imaging.

    PubMed

    Steck, Roland; Ueno, Masaki; Gregory, Laura; Rijken, Noortje; Wullschleger, Martin E; Itoman, Moritoshi; Schuetz, Michael A

    2011-08-01

    Mechanically well-defined stabilization systems have only recently become available, providing standardized conditions for studying the role of the mechanical environment on mouse bone fracture healing. The aim of this study was to characterize the time course of strength recovery and callus development of mouse femoral osteotomies stabilized with either low or high flexibility (in bending and torsion) internal fixation plates. Animals were euthanized and femora excised at 14, 21, and 28 days post-osteotomy for microCT analysis and torsional strength testing. While a larger mineralized callus was observed in osteotomies under more flexible conditions at all time points, the earlier bridging of the mineralized callus under less flexible conditions by 1 week resulted in an earlier recovery of torsional strength in mice stabilized with low flexibility fixation. Ultimate torque values for these bones were significantly higher at 14 and 21 days post-osteotomy compared to bones with the more flexible stabilization. Our study confirms the high reproducibility of the results that are achieved with this new implant system, therefore making it ideal for studying the influence of the mechanical environment on murine fracture healing under highly standardized conditions.

  12. Are Biodegradable Plates Applicable in Endoscope-Assisted Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Mandibular Subcondyle Fractures?

    PubMed

    Son, Jang-Ho; Ha, Jinhee; Cho, Yeong-Cheol; Sung, Iel-Yong

    2017-08-01

    To investigate whether biodegradable plates are applicable in endoscope-assisted open reduction and internal fixation (EAORIF) of mandibular subcondyle fractures. This retrospective case-series study included patients with mandibular subcondyle fractures treated with EAORIF using an unsintered hydroxyapatite particles/poly-l-lactide biodegradable plate system, with at least 6 months of clinical follow-up data available. The outcome variables were fracture healing with postoperative stability and postoperative complications. Other variables included age, gender, fracture site, cause of injury, accompanying mandibular fracture, total follow-up period, fracture classification, extent of displacement, preoperative status of occlusion, preoperative mandibular movements, fixation materials in accompanying mandibular fracture, location and number of fixation plates, periods of intermaxillary fixation/elastic bands, and postoperative mandibular movements. Fracture healing in these patients was assessed by comparing the immediate postoperative cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images with those obtained at least 3 months after surgery. A total of 11 patients, 9 male and 2 female, with a mean ± standard deviation age of 35.3 ± 15.9 years, were included. The mean follow-up period was 18.8 ± 7.8 months. Four patients had an accompanying mandibular fracture. Two 4-hole, 2.0-mm biodegradable plates were fixed with 6-mm screws along the posterior border of the mandibular ramus and near the sigmoid notch. Complete bone formation around the fracture lines or fading of the fracture lines, with no change in the position of the fractured segments, was observed on the postoperative CBCT images at 3 months. With the exception of 2 patients, no patient complained of plate palpability, deviation in occlusion, or discomfort during the postoperative follow-up period. EAORIF using biodegradable plates for mandible subcondylar fractures is a stable and reliable method, with

  13. Image-Guided Internal Fixation of an Oblique Sagittal Split Fracture of C1 Lateral Mass with Motion Preservation: A Technical Report

    PubMed Central

    Malcolm, James G; Johnson, Andrew K

    2017-01-01

    A sagittal split fracture of the C1 lateral mass is an unstable subtype of C1 fractures and has a high propensity for developing late deformities and pain with nonoperative management. A primary internal fixation of this type of fracture has been recently described with good clinical outcomes and preservation of motion. We present a modified technique of primary internal fixation using an obliquely inserted C1 lag screw with imaging guidance. We successfully treated a 55-year-old woman with a unilateral C1 oblique sagittal split fracture who failed nonoperative management. Technical nuances are discussed with a review of pertinent literature. PMID:28948116

  14. Image-Guided Internal Fixation of an Oblique Sagittal Split Fracture of C1 Lateral Mass with Motion Preservation: A Technical Report.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, James G; Tan, Lee A; Johnson, Andrew K

    2017-07-20

    A sagittal split fracture of the C1 lateral mass is an unstable subtype of C1 fractures and has a high propensity for developing late deformities and pain with nonoperative management. A primary internal fixation of this type of fracture has been recently described with good clinical outcomes and preservation of motion. We present a modified technique of primary internal fixation using an obliquely inserted C1 lag screw with imaging guidance. We successfully treated a 55-year-old woman with a unilateral C1 oblique sagittal split fracture who failed nonoperative management. Technical nuances are discussed with a review of pertinent literature.

  15. Local patterns of biological N fixation and N-to-P limitations along steep atmospheric deposition gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Dalton; Bradley, Robert; Bellenger, Jean-Philippe; Kathrin, Rousk; Michael, Gundale; DeLuca, Tom

    2017-04-01

    A major challenge facing biogeochemists is being able to predict how environmental changes alter the functioning of forest ecosystems. In particular, atmospheric N deposition (AND) from fossil fuel combustion is fertilizing forest ecosystems worldwide at an unprecedented rate. While much attention has been paid to regional and continental-scale AND patterns, very little is known about local scale patterns resulting from human activities. For example, busy roads have recently been identified as hotspots for AND, with steep gradients occurring within 100-400 m margins along busy roadsides. It was previously found that such gradients along boreal forest roadsides correlated negatively with changes in biological N fixation (BNF) by moss dwelling cyanobacteria. Here, we present data from a recent experiment designed to answer specific questions regarding this phenomenon, namely: (1) Can AND lead to shifts from N to P limitation of BNF in mosses? (2) Can AND shift the stoichiometry of P and Mo (i.e. nitrogenase enzyme cofactor) limiting BNF in mosses? (3) Do roadside BNF patterns occur because of a down regulation in nitrogenase enzyme activity, or as the result of changes in moss biomass? (4) Do roadside AND and BNF patterns correlate predictably with the relative N-to-P limitation of trees? Preliminary results confirm that roadside BNF gradients are site specific, with moisture and light availability as major environmental controls. P-limitations of BNF were observed along roadside gradients on some sites, as were changes in spruce needle N and P concentrations. Decreases in BNF due to high AND may partly be due to changes in moss biomass. Collectively, our project provides important insights that improve our knowledge of site-specific stoichiometric gradients due to AND, which can be used to improve the precision of biogeochemical models required to predict ecosystem responses to global changes.

  16. Knock-limited performance of several internal coolants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bellman, Donald R; Evvard, John C

    1945-01-01

    The effect of internal cooling on the knock-limited performance of an-f-28 fuel was investigated in a CFR engine, and the following internal coolants were used: (1) water, (2), methyl alcohol-water mixture, (3) ammonia-methyl alcohol-water mixture, (4) monomethylamine-water mixture, (5) dimethylamine-water mixture, and (6) trimethylamine-water mixture. Tests were run at inlet-air temperatures of 150 degrees and 250 degrees F. to indicate the temperature sensitivity of the internal-coolant solutions.

  17. The periauricular transparotid approach for open reduction and internal fixation of condylar fractures.

    PubMed

    Vesnaver, Ales; Gorjanc, Matija; Eberlinc, Andreja; Dovsak, David A; Kansky, Andrej A

    2005-06-01

    Treatment of fractures of the mandibular condyle fractures varies among centres as there still is no general consensus. The aim of this paper was to determine the safety and efficiency of surgical treatment using a transparotid approach for direct plating. A prospective clinical study was conducted on 34 patients with 36 fractures of the condyle. All 36 fractures were displaced, and 14 (39%) of them were fracture dislocations. The fractures were treated surgically with a transparotid facelift or retromandibular approach using miniplates and screws for fixation. Patients were carefully followed up and were asked to answer a survey paper 2-39 months postoperatively. Occlusion practically identical to the pretraumatic condition was achieved in 31 out of 33 dentate patients (94%). Postoperative interincisal distance was 30-61 mm (mean 44 mm), 4 patients (12%) had postoperative deflection to the side of injury during mouth opening. Facial symmetry was achieved in all of the patients. Eight out of 36 cases (22%) had a transient weakness of certain ipsilateral facial muscle groups, lasting for 4-8 weeks. In one of these patients, a mild weakness of the upper lip and lower eyelid persisted after 13 months. There were 5 cases of miniplate fractures (14%), all of them in patients in whom 1.7 or thinner miniplates were used. There were 5 cases of salivary fistulae (14%), all of them in patients where the parotid capsule was not closed in a watertight fashion. According to the postoperative survey completed by 32 patients, 30 of them (94%) were very satisfied with the outcome of treatment. If conducted properly, the transparotid facelift approach offers a safe and effective approach for direct fixation of condylar fractures.

  18. Incidence and risk factors for surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fracture: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jiashen; Chang, Hengrui; Zhu, Yanbin; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Zhanle; Zhang, Huixin; Zhang, Yingze

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to quantitatively summarize the risk factors associated with surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fracture. Medline, Embase, CNKI, Wanfang database and Cochrane central database were searched for relevant original studies from database inception to October 2016. Eligible studies had to meet quality assessment criteria according to the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, and had to evaluate the risk factors for surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fracture. Stata 11.0 software was used for this meta-analysis. Eight studies involving 2214 cases of tibial plateau fracture treated by open reduction and internal fixation and 219 cases of surgical site infection were included in this meta-analysis. The following parameters were identified as significant risk factors for surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fracture (p < 0.05): open fracture (OR 3.78; 95% CI 2.71-5.27), compartment syndrome (OR 3.53; 95% CI 2.13-5.86), operative time (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.53-3.02), tobacco use (OR 2.13; 95% CI 1.13-3.99), and external fixation (OR 2.07; 95% CI 1.05-4.09). Other factors, including male sex, were not identified as risk factors for surgical site infection. Patients with the abovementioned medical conditions are at risk of surgical site infection after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fracture. Surgeons should be cognizant of these risks and give relevant preoperative advice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. [Three-column plate internal fixation for the treatment of complex tibial plateau fracture through antero-midline and postero-medial approaches].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Li, Gang; Yang, Yong; Gao, Chun-Hong; Luo, Yong-Quan; Luo, Jun-Jun

    2014-11-01

    To study technique and clinical therapeutic effects of internal fixation with three-column plates for the treatment of complex tibial plateau fractures through antero-midline and postero-medial approaches. From January 2010 to December 2012, 28 patients with complex tibial plateau fractures were treated with internal fixation using three-column plates through antero-midline and postero-medial approaches. There were 17 males and 11 females, with an average age of 45.3 years old (ranged, 28 to 64 years old). Twelve patients had injuries in the left side and 16 patients had injuries in the right side. According to Schatzker classification, 12 patients were type V, 16 patients were type VI. According to three-column classification, all the patients had injuries of lateral, medial and posterior columns. The mean interval from injury to operation was 9.4 days (ranged, 6 to 15 days). The main clinical symptoms were knee joint swelling, deformity and limitation of motion before operation. The X-ray and CT showed all patients had complex tibial plateau fractures, which involved in the lateral, medial and posterior columns. The therapeutic effects were evaluated by fracture healing time, hospital for special surgery knee score (HSS) at one year after operation. The indexes such as tibial plateau-tibial shaft angle (TPA), posterior slope angle (PA) and femoral-tibial angle (FfA) were compared between immediate postoperation and one year after operation. All incisions primarily healed without postoperative complications such as infection and cutaneous necrosis. All the patients were followed up, and the duration ranged from 12 to 24 months, with a mean of 18.1 months. The bone union time ranged from 5 to 10 months (mean, 7.8 months) after operation. Knee joint swelling and pain disappeared after bony union, and joint function completely recovered. The results of hospital for special surgery knee score (HSS) was 27.81 ± 2.17 in pain, 19.52 ± 2.05 in function,15.82 ± 1.73 in

  20. Cementless modular hip arthroplasty as a salvage operation for failed internal fixation of trochanteric fractures in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Laffosse, Jean-Michel; Molinier, François; Tricoire, Jean-Louis; Bonnevialle, Nicolas; Chiron, Philippe; Puget, Jean

    2007-12-01

    Failure of internal fixation of trochanteric fractures requires repeat surgery in order to avoid the risks of complications affecting bedridden patients. This study was conducted to assess the results of hemi- or total hip arthroplasty with a cementless modular femoral stem, as a salvage operation following early mechanical failure of internal fixation. Twenty nine patients with a mean age of 81.1 years (70-91) were included in the study. Fractures extending into the diaphysis and pathological fractures were excluded, as well as patients who presented late complications. A cementless modular stem designed for metaphyso-diaphyseal anchorage was used in all cases. Twenty-two patients underwent hemiarthroplasty and seven total hip arthroplasty. Four patients died within one year and two were lost to follow-up. The remaining 23 patients were followed for a mean of 20 months (range: 6-89). At the time of last follow-up, 20 were ambulatory with (11 cases) or without support (9 cases) and three were bedridden. There were no intra- or postoperative femoral fractures. Two patients presented an early dislocation after bipolar hemiarthroplasty. One was successfully treated by closed reduction; the other underwent revision with a dual mobility acetabular component because of recurrent dislocation. All the patients reported significant pain relief and functional improvement. Subsidence of the stem greater than 5 mm was noted in three cases, without clinical consequences. The cementless modular femoral stem used in this study appeared as a reliable implant. Primary arthroplasty with such an implant could be considered in selected cases such as markedly unstable fractures and in osteoporotic elderly patients.

  1. Internal fixation versus conservative treatment for elderly patients with a trochanteric hip fracture in conjunction with post-stroke hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Li, Kainan; Zheng, Yingjie

    2016-10-01

    To retrospectively evaluated Gamma nail internal fixation in the treatment of elderly patients with post-stroke hemiplegia experiencing trochanteric hip fracture. The patients were obtained consecutively from January 2005 to December 2010 with inclusion criteria. The total number was 138 and allocated to two groups: treated with the Gamma nail (n=72,group A) and continuous skin traction (n=66,group B). Preoperative variables including patient age, gender, duration of cerebrovascular accident, duration of hypertension, ASA risk score, Harris hip score and fracture type were recorded and compared. After treatment, time of patients activity on the bed, ambulation time, Harris hip score, mortality, complications were recorded and used to compare the outcomes. (1) Follow-up was undertaken from 3 to 10 years, with an average of 5.8 years. (2) No statistical difference in preoperative variables was found between the 2 groups. (3) two groups had statistical significance (P=0.000) in the time of patients activity on the bed and ambulation time and group A can activities on the bed and ambulates earlier. (4) There were significant differences between 2 groups in Harris hip score at 1 and 3 years and group A was significantly higher than group B. (5) there were statistically significant differences in mortality of 3 years, 5 years and 10 years and the group B was significantly higher than the group A. (6) There was a statistical significance in complications between 2 groups and group B was higher than group A. Major complications in group A were pain, lag screw cut out, implant infection and distal femoral fractures caused by fall after the surgery. On elderly patients with trochanteric hip fracture on the hemiplegic lower side, Gamma nail internal fixation treatment can achieve better effect, patients can be early activity, fewer complications, and less mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An in vivo evaluation of PLLA/PLLA-gHA nano-composite for internal fixation of mandibular bone fractures.

    PubMed

    Peng, Weihai; Zheng, Wei; Shi, Kai; Wang, Wangshu; Shao, Ying; Zhang, Duo

    2015-11-09

    Internal fixation of bone fractures using biodegradable poly(L-lactic-acid) (PLLA)-based materials has attracted the attention of many researchers. In the present study, 36 male beagle dogs were randomly assigned to two groups: PLLA/PLLA-gHA (PLLA-grafted hydroxyapatite) group and PLLA group. PLLA/PLLA-gHA and PLLA plates were embedded in the muscular bags of the erector spinae and also implanted to fix mandibular bone fractures in respective groups. At 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postoperatively, the PLLA/PLLA-gHA and PLLA plates were evaluated by adsorption and degradation tests, and the mandibles were examined through radiographic analysis, biomechanical testing, and histological analysis. The PLLA/PLLA-gHA plates were non-transparent and showed a creamy white color, and the PLLA plates were transparent and faint yellow in color. At all time points following surgery, adsorption and degradation of the PLLA/PLLA-gHA plates were significantly less than those of the PLLA plates, and the lateral and longitudinal bending strengths of the surgically treated mandibles of the beagle dogs in the PLLA/PLLA-gHA group were significantly greater than those of the PLLA group and reached almost the value of intact mandibles at 12 months postoperatively. Additionally, relatively rapid bone healing was observed in the PLLA/PLLA-gHA group with the formation of new lamellar bone tissues at 12 months after the surgery. The PLLA/PLLA-gHA nano-composite can be employed as a biodegradable material for internal fixation of mandibular bone fractures.

  3. Open reduction-internal fixation of a navicular body fracture with dorsal displacement of the first and second cuneiforms: a case report.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Robert C; Neiderer, Katherine; Martin, Billy; Dancho, James

    2013-01-01

    Body fractures of the tarsal navicular are relatively uncommon. To date, there is little literature discussing a navicular body fracture with dorsal subluxation of the first and second cuneiforms over the navicular. This case study presents a 30-year-old patient with this injury. He underwent open reduction internal fixation of the navicular body fracture successfully but failed adequate reduction of the navicular cuneiform joint after ligamentous reconstruction. After revisional surgery, he also failed 6 weeks of percutanous pinning with Kirschner-wire fixation. When comparing the literature of a similar injury, the Lisfranc fracture disclocation, the same principles may apply. One should consider rigid open reduction internal fixation or even primary fusion to treat disclocation of the naviculocuneiform joint following a navicular body fracture.

  4. Inverted Internal Limiting Membrane Flap For Large Traumatic Macular Holes

    PubMed Central

    Abou Shousha, Mohsen Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to assess the role of inverted internal limiting membrane flap as a treatment option for large traumatic macular holes. This is a prospective noncomparative study in which 12 eyes with large traumatic macular holes (basal diameter of 1300–2800 μm) since 3 to 6 months were subjected to standard 23-gauge vitrectomy with removal of the posterior hyaloid, brilliant blue G (BBG)-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling in a circular fashion keeping it attached to the edge of the hole to create a flap. At the end of the surgery, air fluid exchange was done with inversion of the internal limiting membrane flap inside the macular hole using the soft tipped cannula and sulfur hexafluoride 20% as tamponade. The main follow-up measures are the best corrected visual acuity and the optical coherence tomography for 6 to 9 months. All the included eyes had a closed hole from the first week postoperative and along the follow-up period (6–9 months). The best corrected visual acuity improved from 20/2000 to 20/200 with a median of 20/400 preoperatively to 20/400 to 20/50 with a median of 20/100 at the end of follow-up period. Inverted internal limiting membrane flap is a good adjuvant to standard vitrectomy in the management of large traumatic macular holes that led to the 100% closure rate and improvement of best corrected visual acuity. PMID:26817894

  5. Inverted Internal Limiting Membrane Flap For Large Traumatic Macular Holes.

    PubMed

    Abou Shousha, Mohsen Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the role of inverted internal limiting membrane flap as a treatment option for large traumatic macular holes.This is a prospective noncomparative study in which 12 eyes with large traumatic macular holes (basal diameter of 1300-2800 μm) since 3 to 6 months were subjected to standard 23-gauge vitrectomy with removal of the posterior hyaloid, brilliant blue G (BBG)-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling in a circular fashion keeping it attached to the edge of the hole to create a flap. At the end of the surgery, air fluid exchange was done with inversion of the internal limiting membrane flap inside the macular hole using the soft tipped cannula and sulfur hexafluoride 20% as tamponade. The main follow-up measures are the best corrected visual acuity and the optical coherence tomography for 6 to 9 months.All the included eyes had a closed hole from the first week postoperative and along the follow-up period (6-9 months). The best corrected visual acuity improved from 20/2000 to 20/200 with a median of 20/400 preoperatively to 20/400 to 20/50 with a median of 20/100 at the end of follow-up period.Inverted internal limiting membrane flap is a good adjuvant to standard vitrectomy in the management of large traumatic macular holes that led to the 100% closure rate and improvement of best corrected visual acuity.

  6. Plasmon-enhanced internal photoemission for photovoltaics: Theoretical efficiency limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Thomas P.; Catchpole, Kylie R.

    2012-08-01

    Plasmon-enhanced internal photoemission in metal-semiconductor Schottky junctions has recently been proposed as an alternative photocurrent mechanism for solar cells. Here, we identify and discuss the requirements for efficient operation of such cells and analyze their performance limits under standard solar illumination. We show that the maximum efficiency limit is <8% even if perfect optical absorption can be achieved using plasmonic nanostructures. This limit results from the fundamental electronic properties of metallic absorbers. Modifying the electron density of states of the absorber could increase the efficiency to >20%.

  7. Pitfalls associated with open reduction and internal fixation of fractured ribs.

    PubMed

    Sarani, Babak; Schulte, Leah; Diaz, Jose J

    2015-12-01

    Rib fracture is exceedingly common and remains a leading cause of death in patients with chest injury. Probability of death increases by 19% with each broken rib, and the probability of death increases further with age. Treatment is centered on pain control and early mobilization to provide adequate pulmonary hygiene. Multimodality interventions, such as incentive spirometry, postural changes, and coughing, are pivotal in minimizing the risk of pneumonia and death. Recently, many studies have found mortality benefit to operation fixation (ORIF) of ribs in select patients. However, this procedure remains underutilized partly due to lack of familiarity with its technique and pitfalls by trauma surgeons, in particular. Whereas there are publications on operative technique, there are no studies describing pitfalls associated with this procedure. The purpose of this paper is to describe pitfalls on the technical aspects of ORIF of the ribs based on the medical literature where possible and based on our experience in instances where peer reviewed evidence is lacking. The paper is not meant to serve as a protocol for managing rib fractures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biomechanical Evaluation of Four Methods for Internal Fixation of Comminuted Subtrochanteric Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Ma, Jian-xiong; Jia, Hao-bo; Chen, Yang; Yang, Yang; Ma, Xin-long

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Subtrochanteric fractures are common and result in significant morbidity and mortality. Various kinds of implants have been used to fix it. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical performance of PFN, DHS, DCS, and the PFLP in the treatment of subtrochanteric comminuted fractures. A total of 32 antiseptic human femurs from 16 donors were randomly allocated to 4 groups for fixation with PFN, DHS, DCS, and PFLP. A 2-cm cylindrical bone fragment was removed 1 cm below the lesser trochanter to simulate OTA/AO 32-C3.2 post instrumentation fracture. All specimens in single-leg stance situation were preloaded 5 times at 100 N in the axial direction to eliminate the time effect of relaxation and settling, followed by cyclic testing at a rate of 1 Hz with stepwise increasing load. Keeping the valley load at a constant level of 100 N during the entire cyclic test, the peak load, starting at 200 N, was increased by 100 N at 300-cycle steps until a maximum of 1500 cycles or until failure of the bone-implant construct occurred. Each specimen was kept unloaded under 100 N compression for 30 minutes between the 300-cycle steps. Femoral head displacement after 1500 cycles was 1.09 mm ± 0.13 for PFN, 1.78 mm ± 0.25 for DHS, 2.63 mm ± 0.46 for DCS, and 2.26 mm ± 0.16 for PFLP, with significant difference between any 2 implants (P < 0.01). The required load to reach 1-mm femoral head displacement was 563.04 N ± 158.34 for PFN, 485.73 N ± 147.27 for DHS, 258.44 N ± 97.23 for DCS, and 332.68 N ± 100.34 for PFLP. Significant differences were detected between any 2 implants (P < 0.001), except between DCS and PFLP and between DHS and PFN. The number of cycles until 1-mm femoral head displacement was 1458 ± 277 for PFN, 908 ± 184 for DHS, 369 ± 116 for DCS, and 603 ± 162 for PFLP. Significant differences were detected between any 2 implants (P < 0.01), except

  9. Complications of Kirschner Wire Use in Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Calcaneal Fractures.

    PubMed

    Dorr, Maarten C; Backes, Manouk; Luitse, Jan S K; de Jong, Vincent M; Schepers, Tim

    2016-01-01

    The most important goal of surgical management of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures is anatomic correction. This reduction is usually stabilized using plate and screw osteosynthesis. In addition, Kirschner wires (K-wires) can be used to maintain the surgical reduction or stability of the construct. In the present study, we evaluated the frequency and type of use of additional K-wires and subsequent migration in the surgical management of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures. The data from 279 patients treated surgically from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2014 in a level 1 trauma center using an extended lateral approach were analyzed after 1 year of follow-up. All postoperative radiographic images were reviewed to identify the cases in which K-wires were used. Data on the number and type of K-wires used, K-wire location, and K-wire migration found on follow-up imaging studies were collected. Of the 279 patients, 69 K-wires had been used in 49 (18%) patients. A total of 25 (36%) lost (buried), 38 (55%) bent, and 6 (9%) unmodified straight K-wires had been placed. Overall, in 4 (5.8%) of 69 K-wires, secondary dislocation was seen. One (4%) of the lost, 3 (50%) of the unmodified, and none of the bent K-wires showed secondary dislocation. K-wire migration was seen in 5.8% of the cases. None of the bent K-wires and only 1 of the lost K-wires had migrated in the present study. These 2 techniques are preferred when using K-wire fixation in the treatment of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures. The use of unmodified straight K-wires should be discouraged. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Wintertime surgery increases the risk of conversion to hip arthroplasty after internal fixation of femoral neck fracture.

    PubMed

    Sebestyén, A; Mester, S; Vokó, Z; Gajdácsi, J; Cserháti, P; Speer, G; Patczai, B; Warta, V; Bódis, J; Horváth, C; Boncz, I

    2015-03-01

    The study demonstrates that wintertime surgeries are associated with impaired fracture healing and increases the risk of conversion to hip arthroplasty after osteosynthesis of femoral neck fracture. Furthermore, the results raise the possibility of association between seasonal changes in vitamin D levels and impaired fracture healing of femoral neck fracture. Although the changes of vitamin D level and calcitropic hormones influencing bone metabolism are seasonal, the effect of seasons on hip fracture healing is unknown. We assessed the effects of seasonal periodicity on conversion to hip arthroplasty after primary osteosynthesis of femoral neck fracture. This nationwide retrospective observational cohort study involved 2779 patients aged ≥ 60 years who underwent internal screw fixation for primary femoral neck fracture and were discharged in 2000. Cases requiring conversion to arthroplasty during the 8-year follow-up derived from the Hungarian health insurance database were registered. Risk factors assessed included sex, age, fracture type, season of primary surgery and surgical delay. Competing-risks regression analysis was used for data analyses. During the observation period, 190 conversions to hip arthroplasty (6.8%) were identified, yielding an overall incidence of 19.5 per 1000 person-years. The crude incidence rates of conversions after osteosynthesis in winter, spring, summer and fall were 28.6, 17.8, 16.9 and 14.7 per 1000 person-years, respectively. Besides younger age, female sex and intracapsular fracture displacement, wintertime primary osteosynthesis significantly increased the risk of conversion (fall vs. winter, hazard ratio (HR): 0.50, 95% confidence interval [95% CI 0.33-0.76]; spring vs. winter, HR: 0.63, [95% CI 0.44-0.92]; summer vs. winter, HR: 0.62, [95% CI 0.42-0.91]). Our study demonstrate that wintertime primary osteosynthesis increases the risk of conversion surgeries. The results may help improving the outcome of primary fixation of

  11. Risk Factors for 30-Day Postoperative Complications Following Open Reduction Internal Fixation of Proximal Ulna Fractures.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Nikunj N; Cohn, Matthew R; Trehan, Samir K; Daluiski, Aaron

    2016-12-01

    Fractures of the proximal ulna are common injuries in the elderly population. These fractures can be managed nonsurgically or with open reduction internal fixation (ORIF). Whereas nonsurgical management may lead to a relative loss of elbow extension and to nonunion, ORIF carries a risk of complications. Although complications specific to the orthopedic intervention have been reported, few studies have identified postoperative systemic complications in this higher-risk group. The purposes of this study were to determine the rate of systemic complications in patients undergoing surgical fixation of proximal ulna fractures and to determine risk factors for complications. We queried the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database for all cases of proximal ulna fracture ORIF between 2005 and 2013. Demographic, historical, and preoperative laboratory data and 30-day postoperative complications were recorded. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to identify independent risk factors for complications. A total of 650 patients met inclusion criteria. Within the 30-day postoperative period, 61 complications occurred in 45 patients (6.9%). Return to the operating room, which occurred in 19 patients (2.9%), was the most common major morbidity. American Society of Anesthesiologists class III or IV and dialysis dependence were independent risk factors for any complication. Proximal ulna fracture ORIF has a low rate of systemic complications. The most common morbidities are return to the operating room, blood transfusion, and urinary tract infections. Dialysis and American Society of Anesthesiologists class III or IV are independent risk factors for complications. These complications may be nonspecific and related more to the patient population than procedure. We believe that the relatively low risk of short-term complications makes operative treatment a suitable option even in elderly patients with multiple morbidities

  12. Evaluation of three-dimensional printing for internal fixation of unstable pelvic fracture from minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Canjun; Xiao, Jidong; Wu, Zhanglin; Huang, Wenhua

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of three-dimensional printing (3D printing) assisted internal fixation of unstable pelvic fracture from minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach. A total of 38 patients with unstable pelvic fractures were analyzed retrospectively from August 2012 to February 2014. All cases were treated operatively with internal fixation assisted by three-dimensional printing from minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach. Both preoperative CT and three-dimensional reconstruction were performed. Pelvic model was created by 3D printing. Data including the best entry points, plate position and direction and length of screw were obtained from simulated operation based on 3D printing pelvic model. The diaplasis and internal fixation were performed by minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach according to the optimized dada in real surgical procedure. Matta and Majeed score were used to evaluate currative effects after operation. According to the Matta standard, the outcome of the diaplasis achieved 97.37% with excellent and good. Majeed assessment showed 94.4% with excellent and good. The imageological examination showed consistency of internal fixation and simulated operation. The mean operation time was 110 minutes, mean intraoperative blood loss 320 ml, and mean incision length 6.5 cm. All patients have achieved clinical healing, with mean healing time of 8 weeks. Three-dimensional printing assisted internal fixation of unstable pelvic fracture from minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach is feasible and effective. This method has the advantages of trauma minimally, bleeding less, healing rapidly and satisfactory reduction, and worthwhile for spreading in clinical practice.

  13. Evaluation of three-dimensional printing for internal fixation of unstable pelvic fracture from minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach: a preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Canjun; Xiao, Jidong; Wu, Zhanglin; Huang, Wenhua

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of three-dimensional printing (3D printing) assisted internal fixation of unstable pelvic fracture from minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach. Methods: A total of 38 patients with unstable pelvic fractures were analyzed retrospectively from August 2012 to February 2014. All cases were treated operatively with internal fixation assisted by three-dimensional printing from minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach. Both preoperative CT and three-dimensional reconstruction were performed. Pelvic model was created by 3D printing. Data including the best entry points, plate position and direction and length of screw were obtained from simulated operation based on 3D printing pelvic model. The diaplasis and internal fixation were performed by minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach according to the optimized dada in real surgical procedure. Matta and Majeed score were used to evaluate currative effects after operation. Results: According to the Matta standard, the outcome of the diaplasis achieved 97.37% with excellent and good. Majeed assessment showed 94.4% with excellent and good. The imageological examination showed consistency of internal fixation and simulated operation. The mean operation time was 110 minutes, mean intraoperative blood loss 320 ml, and mean incision length 6.5 cm. All patients have achieved clinical healing, with mean healing time of 8 weeks. Conclusion: Three-dimensional printing assisted internal fixation of unstable pelvic fracture from minimal invasive para-rectus abdominis approach is feasible and effective. This method has the advantages of trauma minimally, bleeding less, healing rapidly and satisfactory reduction, and worthwhile for spreading in clinical practice. PMID:26550226

  14. Is Arthroscopic Technique Superior to Open Reduction Internal Fixation in the Treatment of Isolated Displaced Greater Tuberosity Fractures?

    PubMed

    Liao, Weixiong; Zhang, Hao; Li, Zhongli; Li, Ji

    2016-05-01

    Arthroscopic double-row suture-anchor fixation and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) are used to treat displaced greater tuberosity fractures, but there are few data that can help guide the surgeon in choosing between these approaches. We therefore asked: (1) Is there a difference in surgical time between arthroscopic double-row suture anchor fixation and ORIF for isolated displaced greater tuberosity fractures? (2) Are there differences in the postoperative ROM and functional scores between arthroscopic double-row suture anchor fixation and ORIF for isolated displaced greater tuberosity fractures? (3) Are there differences in complications resulting in additional operations between the two approaches? Between 2006 and 2012, we treated 79 patients surgically for displaced greater tuberosity fractures. Of those, 32 (41%) were considered eligible for our study based on inclusion criteria for isolated displaced greater tuberosity fractures with a displacement of at least 5 mm but less than 2 cm. During that time, we generally treated patients with displaced greater tuberosity fractures with a displacement greater than 1 cm or with a fragment size greater than 3×3 cm with open treatment, and patients with displaced greater tuberosity fractures with a displacement less than 1 cm or with a fragment size less than 3×3 cm with arthroscopic treatment. Fifty-three underwent open treatment based on those indications, and 26 underwent arthroscopic treatment, of whom 17 (32%) and 15 (58%) were available for followup at a mean of 34 months (range, 24-28 months). All patients with such fractures identified from our institutional database were treated by these two approaches and no other methods were used. Surgical time was defined as the time from initiation of the incision to the time when suture of the incision was finished, and was determined by an observer with a stopwatch. Patients were followed up in the outpatient department at 6, 12, and 24 weeks, and every 6

  15. Does Extraction or Retention of the Wisdom Tooth at the Time of Surgery for Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of the Mandible Alter the Patient Outcome?

    PubMed

    Hammond, Douglas; Parmar, Sat; Whitty, Justin; Pigadas, Nick

    2015-12-01

    Whether to extract or retain wisdom teeth present in a fracture line is a controversial topic. This study reviewed the records of all patients who had mandibular wisdom teeth at the time of the injury, and had an open reduction and internal fixation procedure between January 2009 and January 2012. The cohort of patients who concomitantly had their wisdom tooth extracted at the time of fixation had a greater complication rate (24.3%) compared with patients who did not (14.9%). This suggests that if third molars in the line of a fracture have caries, are fractured, show signs of pericoronitis, are periodontally involved, or are interfering with the occlusion are extracted at the time of fixation, this will increase the incidence of complications.

  16. Does Extraction or Retention of the Wisdom Tooth at the Time of Surgery for Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of the Mandible Alter the Patient Outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Douglas; Parmar, Sat; Whitty, Justin; Pigadas, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Whether to extract or retain wisdom teeth present in a fracture line is a controversial topic. This study reviewed the records of all patients who had mandibular wisdom teeth at the time of the injury, and had an open reduction and internal fixation procedure between January 2009 and January 2012. The cohort of patients who concomitantly had their wisdom tooth extracted at the time of fixation had a greater complication rate (24.3%) compared with patients who did not (14.9%). This suggests that if third molars in the line of a fracture have caries, are fractured, show signs of pericoronitis, are periodontally involved, or are interfering with the occlusion are extracted at the time of fixation, this will increase the incidence of complications. PMID:26576231

  17. Internal Fixation Versus Hemiarthroplasty for Displaced Intra-Capsular Femoral Neck Fractures in ASA 3-5 Geriatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rezaie, W.; Wei, W.; Cleffken, B.I.; van der Vlies, C.H.; Cleffken, B.I.; Roukema, G.R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The treatment of choice for elderly with a displaced intra-capsular femoral neck fractures is prosthetic replacement. This is however a major surgical procedure for geriatric patients with multiple co-morbidities which can threaten hemodynamic stability and lead to death. In this study we compared the outcome of internal fixation (IF) versus hemiarthroplasty (HA) for the management of intra-capsular femoral neck fractures in the elderly with severe co-morbidities. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all the patients who were admitted to our Level-II trauma centre with a femoral neck fracture between January 2009 and June 2011. Inclusion criteria were: 70 years or older, ASA 3 or higher, a displaced femoral neck fracture and treatment with either internal fixation or a cemented hemiprosthesis. The primary outcome was 6-month mortality rate. Secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality, post-operative complications, re-operation rate and length of hospital stay. Results: 80 patients met our inclusion criteria. The mean age of the IF group was 81.6 years and in the HA group it was 84.5 years (P=0.07). The medical records were retrieved 34-64 months after surgery. Two intra-operative deaths due to cement implantation syndrome were found in the HA group and none in the IF group. Twelve patients (21.8%) in the HA group died within 30 days after surgery and 2 (8.0%) in the IF group (P=0.21). The mean operating time was 83 min. for the HA group and 51 min. for the IF group (P=0.000). There were more implant-related complications in the IF than in the HA group (36% vs 9.1% respectively, P=0.008). The 6-month mortality rates didn’t differ between the IF and the HA groups (respectively 28.0% vs 34.5%, P=0.62). Conclusion: The post-operative mortality rates did not differ between the IF and the HA groups in elderly patients with a displaced femoral neck fracture and ASA 3 to 5. However, the HA associated with less implant-related complications than

  18. Comparison of Percutaneous Cementoplasty with and Without Interventional Internal Fixation for Impending Malignant Pathological Fracture of the Proximal Femur

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Qing-Hua He, Cheng-Jian Wu, Chun-Gen Li, Yong-Dong Gu, Yi-Feng Wang, Tao Xiao, Quan-Ping Li, Ming-Hua

    2016-01-15

    PurposeTo compare the efficacy of percutaneous cementoplasty (PCP) with and without interventional internal fixation (IIF) on malignant impending pathological fracture of proximal femur.MethodsA total of 40 patients with malignant impending pathological fracture of proximal femur were selected for PCP and IIF (n = 19, group A) or PCP alone (n = 21, group B) in this non-randomized prospective study. Bone puncture needles were inserted into the proximal femur, followed by sequential installation of the modified trocar inner needles through the puncture needle sheath. Then, 15–45 ml cement was injected into the femur lesion.ResultsThe overall excellent and good pain relief rate during follow-ups were significantly higher in group A than that in group B (89 vs. 57 %, P = 0.034). The average change of VAS, ODI, KPS, and EFES in group A were significantly higher than those in group B at 1-, 3-, 6-month, 1-year (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, The stability of the treated femur was significantly higher in group A than that in group B (P < 0.05).ConclusionPCP and IIF were not only a safe and effective procedure, but resulted in greater pain relief, bone consolidation, and also reduced the risk of fracture than the currently recommended approach of PCP done on malignant proximal femoral tumor.

  19. Radiographic Evaluation of Ankle Joint Stability After Calcaneofibular Ligament Elevation During Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Calcaneus Fracture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chien-Shun; Tzeng, Yun-Hsuan; Lin, Chun-Cheng; Huang, Ching-Kuei; Chang, Ming-Chau; Chiang, Chao-Ching

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the influence of sectioning the calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) during an extensile lateral approach during open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of calcaneal fractures on ankle joint stability. Forty-two patients with calcaneal fractures that received ORIF were included. Talar tilt stress and anterior drawer radiographs were performed on the operative and contralateral ankles 6 months postoperatively. The average degree of talar tilt on stress radiographs was 3.4 degrees (range, 0-12 degrees) on the operative side and 3.2 degrees (range, 0-14 degrees) on the contralateral side. The mean anterior drawer on stress radiographs of the CFL incised ankle was 6.1 mm (range, 2.4-11.8 mm) and on the contralateral ankle was 5.7 mm (range, 2.6-8.6 mm). There was no statistically significant difference of talar tilt and anterior drawer between the CFL incised side and the contralateral side (P = .658 and .302, respectively). The results suggest that sectioning of the CFL without any repair during ORIF of a calcaneal fracture does not have a negative effect on stability of the ankle. Repair of the CFL is, thus, probably not necessary following extended lateral approach for ORIF of calcaneal fractures. Level II, comparative study. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in open reduction and internal fixation of compound mandibular fractures: a collaborative regional audit of outcome.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rabindra P; Carter, Lachlan M; Whitfield, Paul H

    2013-07-01

    We conducted a regional 2-stage prospective audit involving 5 different maxillofacial units in the Yorkshire region of the UK to evaluate the effectiveness of perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis in the treatment of mandibular fractures. In the first stage (145 patients) we surveyed current practice concerning antimicrobial prophylaxis and found out the current infection rate after open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of mandibular fractures. In the second stage (157 patients) we implemented a common antimicrobial protocol in all units and recorded the infection rates using the new regimen. In the first stage a wide range of antimicrobial prophylaxis was used in different units. The agreed perioperative antimicrobial protocol in the second stage was to begin amoxicillin or clarithromycin and metronidazole intravenously on admission and include 2 postoperative doses. The infection rates were 10.3% and 8.9%, respectively, and the difference between the two groups was not significant (χ(2)=0.051, df=1, p=0.83). The infection rate in the Yorkshire region was similar to results from other centres. We recommend short perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis with a maximum of 2 postoperative doses after ORIF of mandibular fractures. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Immuno-inflammatory tissue reaction to stainless-steel and titanium plates used for internal fixation of long bones.

    PubMed

    Voggenreiter, Gregor; Leiting, Stefan; Brauer, Holger; Leiting, Peter; Majetschak, Matthias; Bardenheuer, Mark; Obertacke, Udo

    2003-01-01

    The immuno-inflammatory responses to stainless-steel (21 implants in 20 patients) and titanium plates (22 implants in 20 patients) used in the treatment of long bone fractures were studied immunohistochemically. All fractures healed without complications. In the soft tissue adjacent to the surface of the implants a dark discolouration of the tissue was visible in 18/21 stainless-steel and 20/22 titanium plates. Tissue specimens of all patients contained positive staining for macrophages (CD68-positive cells). Serial sections showed that the majority of cells were found to express the HLA-DR molecule indicating their activation. Many of the macrophages were surrounded by clusters of T-lymphocytes (CD3-positive cells). 17 out of 21 steel specimens and 15 out of 22 titanium specimens showed the infiltration of moderate amounts of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CD8-positive cells). Moderate amounts of B-lymphocytes (CD79alpha positive cells) were evident in four patients with steel and six patients with titanium implants. The results of the present study clearly demonstrate the presence of a marked inflammation and tissue reaction in the soft tissue covering stainless-steel and titanium plates used for internal fixation of fractures of long bones independently from the material used.

  2. Clinical Evaluation of an Unsintered Hydroxyapatite/Poly-L-Lactide Osteoconductive Composite Device for the Internal Fixation of Maxillofacial Fractures.

    PubMed

    Sukegawa, Shintaro; Kanno, Takahiro; Katase, Naoki; Shibata, Akane; Takahashi, Yuka; Furuki, Yoshihiko

    2016-09-01

    OSTEOTRANS MX (Takiron Co, Ltd, Osaka, Japan) is a resorbable osteosynthetic material composed of an unsintered hydroxyapatite/poly-L-lactide composite, and its osteoconductive capacity has been documented. The authors here report their clinical experience using OSTEOTRANS MX. The authors treated 35 patients (19 men, 16 women; age, 14-88 years; mean ± standard deviation, 38.4 ± 19.9 years) with maxillofacial fractures. The authors used standard surgery to stabilize fractures in all patients, fitting resorbable plates (thickness, 1.0 or 1.4 mm) and screws (diameter, 2 mm) according to Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen/Association (AO) for the Study of Internal Fixation guidelines. All patients eventually achieved satisfactory healing with favorable restoration of form and function without foreign body reaction. Complications occurred in 3 patients-plate exposure in 2 and discomfort in 1. However, fracture sites healed in all patients. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the devices bonded directly to the bone without interposition of nonmineralized tissue. OSTEOTRANS MX is a useful material with few complications. Its osteoconductive bioactivity is advantageous for the early functional improvement of maxillofacial fractures.

  3. Clinical Evaluation of an Unsintered Hydroxyapatite/Poly-L-Lactide Osteoconductive Composite Device for the Internal Fixation of Maxillofacial Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Sukegawa, Shintaro; Kanno, Takahiro; Katase, Naoki; Shibata, Akane; Takahashi, Yuka; Furuki, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: OSTEOTRANS MX (Takiron Co, Ltd, Osaka, Japan) is a resorbable osteosynthetic material composed of an unsintered hydroxyapatite/poly-l-lactide composite, and its osteoconductive capacity has been documented. The authors here report their clinical experience using OSTEOTRANS MX. Methods: The authors treated 35 patients (19 men, 16 women; age, 14–88 years; mean ± standard deviation, 38.4 ± 19.9 years) with maxillofacial fractures. The authors used standard surgery to stabilize fractures in all patients, fitting resorbable plates (thickness, 1.0 or 1.4 mm) and screws (diameter, 2 mm) according to Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Osteosynthesefragen/Association (AO) for the Study of Internal Fixation guidelines. Results: All patients eventually achieved satisfactory healing with favorable restoration of form and function without foreign body reaction. Complications occurred in 3 patients—plate exposure in 2 and discomfort in 1. However, fracture sites healed in all patients. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the devices bonded directly to the bone without interposition of nonmineralized tissue. Conclusion: OSTEOTRANS MX is a useful material with few complications. Its osteoconductive bioactivity is advantageous for the early functional improvement of maxillofacial fractures. PMID:27428913

  4. Arthroplasty versus Internal Fixation for Displaced Intracapsular Femoral Neck Fracture in the Elderly: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Short- and Long-term Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Chen-Yi; Liu, An; Xu, Ming-Yuan; Nonso, Nwofor Samuel; He, Rong-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is conflicting evidence as to whether the femoral head should be preserved or replaced in elderly patients with displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures. In this article, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the short- and long-term effectiveness of arthroplasty (AR) and internal fixation (IF). Methods: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched systematically up to January 2016. All randomized controlled trials directly comparing the effectiveness of AR and IF for displaced intracapsular fracture were retrieved with no limitation on language or publication year. Results: In total, eight prospective randomized studies involving 2206 patients were included. The results of our study showed that patients in the AR group reported significantly lower complication (risk ratio: 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.38–0.80), re-operation (risk ratio: 0.17, 95% CI = 0.13–0.22), revision rates (risk ratio: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.08–0.16), and better function compared with their IF counterparts, and they were less likely to suffer postoperative pain. No statistically significant differences for the rates of mortality, infection, and/or deep vein thrombosis between AR and IF were found. Conclusions: Based on our analysis, we recommend that AR should be used as the primary treatment for displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures in the elderly. However, IF may be appropriate for those who are very frail. PMID:27779172

  5. Biomechanical Comparison of Two Kinds of Internal Fixation in a Type C Zone II Pelvic Fracture Model

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tao; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Qi; Zheng, Zhan-Le; Lyu, Hong-Zhi; Cui, Yun-Wei; Cheng, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Yang, Yan-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Unstable pelvic fractures are complex and serious injuries. Selection of a fixation method for these fractures remains a challenging problem for orthopedic surgeons. This study aimed to compare the stability of Tile C pelvic fractures fixed with two iliosacral (IS) screws and minimally invasive adjustable plate (MIAP) combined with one IS screw. Methods: This study was a biomechanical experiment. Six embalmed specimens of the adult pelvis were used. The soft tissue was removed from the specimens, and the spines from the fourth lumbar vertebra to the proximal one-third of both femurs were retained. The pubic symphysis, bilateral sacroiliac joints and ligaments, bilateral hip joints, bilateral sacrotuberous ligaments, and bilateral sacrospinous ligaments were intact. Tile C pelvic fractures were made on the specimens. The symphysis pubis was fixed with a plate, and the fracture on the posterior pelvic ring was fixed with two kinds of internal fixation in turn. The specimens were placed in a biomechanical machine at a standing neutral posture. A cyclic vertical load of up to 500 N was applied, and displacement was recorded. Shifts in the fracture gap were measured by a grating displacement sensor. Statistical analysis used: Paired-samples t-test. Results: Under the vertical load of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 N, the average displacement of the specimens fixed with MIAP combined with one IS screw was 0.46, 0.735, 1.377, 1.823, and 2.215 mm, respectively, which was significantly lower than that of specimens fixed with two IS screws under corresponding load (P < 0.05). Under the vertical load of 500 N, the shift in the fracture gap of specimens fixed with MIAP combined with one IS screw was 0.261 ± 0.095 mm, and that of specimens fixed with two IS screws was 0.809 ± 0.170 mm. The difference was significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The stability of Tile C pelvic fractures fixed with MIAP combined with one IS screw was better than that fixed with two IS screws

  6. Biomechanical in vitro evaluation of three stable internal fixation techniques used in sagittal osteotomy of the mandibular ramus: a study in sheep mandibles

    PubMed Central

    de OLIVERA, Leandro Benetti; SANT'ANA, Eduardo; MANZATO, Antonio José; GUERRA, Fábio Luis Bunemer; ARNETT, G. William

    2012-01-01

    Among the osteotomies performed in orthognathic surgery, the sagittal osteotomy of the mandibular ramus (SOMR) is the most common, allowing a great range of movements and stable internal fixation (SIF), therefore eliminating the need of maxillomandibular block in the postoperative period. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical resistance of three national systems used for SIF in SOMR in sheep mandibles. Material and methods: The study was performed in 30 sheep hemi-mandibles randomly divided into 3 experimental groups, each containing 10 hemi-mandibles. The samples were measured to avoid discrepancies and then subjected to SOMR with 5-mm advancement. In group I, 2.0x12 mm screws were used for fixation, inserted in an inverted "L" pattern (inverted "L" group). In group II, fixation was performed with two 2.0x12 mm screws, positioned in a linear pattern and a 4-hole straight miniplate and four 2.0x6.0 mm monocortical screws (hybrid group). In group III, fixation was performed with two 4-hole straight miniplates and eight 2.0x6.0 mm monocortical screws (mini plate group). All materials used for SIF were supplied by Osteosin - SIN. The hemimandibles were subjected to vertical linear load test by Kratos K2000MP mechanical testing unit for loading registration and displacement. Results: All groups showed similar resistance during mechanical test for loading and displacement, with no statistically significant differences between groups according to analysis of variance. Conclusion: These results indicate that the three techniques of fixation are equally effective for clinical fixation of SOMR. PMID:23032203

  7. In vitro biomechanical evaluation of internal fixation techniques on the canine lumbosacral junction

    PubMed Central

    Dillard, Stacy; Roe, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Few biomechanical studies have evaluated the effect of internal stabilization techniques after decompressive surgery on the stability of the canine lumbosacral junction. The purpose of this canine cadaver study is to evaluate the stability of the canine lumbosacral (LS) spine in flexion and extension following laminectomy and discectomy and then stabilization with each of the three techniques: pins and polymethylmethacrylate (P/PMMA), two dorsal locking plates (SOP) or bilateral transarticular facet screws (FACET).Using a cantilever biomechanical system, bending moments were applied to the LS and range of motion (ROM) was recorded via a rotational potentiometer. With 3 Nm, the ROM (n = 4 in each group) for P/PMMA, SOP and FACET were 1.92 ± 0.96°, 2.56 ± 0.55°and 3.18 ± 1.14°, respectively. With moments up to 35 Nm, the P/PMMA specimens appeared stable. Sacroiliac motion in the SOP and FACET groups invalidated further comparisons. Each of the stabilization techniques (P/PMMA, SOP, and FACET) significantly decreased the range of motion in flexion and extension for low bending moments. PMID:26312169

  8. In vitro biomechanical evaluation of internal fixation techniques on the canine lumbosacral junction.

    PubMed

    Early, Peter; Mente, Peter; Dillard, Stacy; Roe, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Few biomechanical studies have evaluated the effect of internal stabilization techniques after decompressive surgery on the stability of the canine lumbosacral junction. The purpose of this canine cadaver study is to evaluate the stability of the canine lumbosacral (LS) spine in flexion and extension following laminectomy and discectomy and then stabilization with each of the three techniques: pins and polymethylmethacrylate (P/PMMA), two dorsal locking plates (SOP) or bilateral transarticular facet screws (FACET).Using a cantilever biomechanical system, bending moments were applied to the LS and range of motion (ROM) was recorded via a rotational potentiometer. With 3 Nm, the ROM (n = 4 in each group) for P/PMMA, SOP and FACET were 1.92 ± 0.96°, 2.56 ± 0.55°and 3.18 ± 1.14°, respectively. With moments up to 35 Nm, the P/PMMA specimens appeared stable. Sacroiliac motion in the SOP and FACET groups invalidated further comparisons. Each of the stabilization techniques (P/PMMA, SOP, and FACET) significantly decreased the range of motion in flexion and extension for low bending moments.

  9. Comparison of modified Thiel embalming and ethanol-glycerin fixation in an anatomy environment: Potentials and limitations of two complementary techniques.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Niels; Löffler, Sabine; Bechmann, Ingo; Steinke, Hanno; Hädrich, Carsten; Feja, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Thiel-fixed specimens have outstandingly lifelike visual and haptic properties. However, the original Thiel method is expensive and requires an elaborate setup. It is therefore of principal interest to modify the Thiel method in order to make it available to a broader user group. A modified Thiel embalming method will be described in detail and compared to ethanol-glycerin fixation with the help of illustrative examples. The visual properties, haptic properties, the usability for performing histological investigations, costs and potential health aspects will be considered. Tissues fixed with the modified Thiel technique gave results similar to the original method, providing more realistic visual and haptic properties than ethanol-glycerin embalming. However, Thiel fixation is significantly more expensive and requires more precautions to minimize potential health hazards than ethanol-glycerin-fixed tissues. In contrast to ethanol-glycerin-fixed specimens, the Thiel-fixed specimens are not suitable for histological investigations. Both modes of fixation are inappropriate for biomechanical testing. Modified Thiel embalming simplifies the availability of body donors with lifelike properties and has cost-saving advantages to the original technique. Thiel-embalmed body donors are ideally suited for clinical workshops but have restrictions for student dissection courses in facilities with limited storage space, air circulation or technical staff. Vice versa, ethanol-glycerin-fixed body donors are well suited for student dissection courses in such an environment but are limited in their use for clinical workshops. Modified Thiel embalming therefore ideally complements ethanol-glycerin fixation in order to provide customized solutions for clinical workshops and student dissection courses in a wide range of applications. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. Stereoacuity in the periphery is limited by internal noise

    PubMed Central

    Wardle, Susan G.; Bex, Peter J.; Cass, John; Alais, David

    2012-01-01

    It is well-established that depth discrimination is finer in the fovea than the periphery. Here, we study the decline in depth discrimination thresholds with distance from the fovea using an equivalent noise analysis to separate the contributions of internal noise and sampling efficiency. Observers discriminated the mean depth of patches of “dead leaves” composed of ellipses varying in size, orientation, and luminance at varying levels of disparity noise between 0.05 and 13.56 arcmin and visual field locations between 0° and 9° eccentricity. At low levels of disparity noise, depth discrimination thresholds were lower in the fovea than in the periphery. At higher noise levels (above 3.39 arcmin), thresholds converged, and there was little difference between foveal and peripheral depth discrimination. The parameters estimated from the equivalent noise model indicate that an increase in internal noise is the limiting factor in peripheral depth discrimination with no decline in sampling efficiency. Sampling efficiency was uniformly low across the visual field. The results indicate that a loss of precision of local disparity estimates early in visual processing limits fine depth discrimination in the periphery. PMID:22685339

  11. Prophylactic radiotherapy against heterotopic ossification following internal fixation of acetabular fractures: a comparative estimate of risk

    PubMed Central

    Nasr, P; Yip, G; Scaife, J E; House, T; Thomas, S J; Harris, F; Owen, P J; Hull, P

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Radiotherapy (RT) is effective in preventing heterotopic ossification (HO) around acetabular fractures requiring surgical reconstruction. We audited outcomes and estimated risks from RT prophylaxis, and alternatives of indometacin or no prophylaxis. Methods: 34 patients underwent reconstruction of acetabular fractures through a posterior approach, followed by a 8-Gy single fraction. The mean age was 44 years. The mean time from surgery to RT was 1.1 days. The major RT risk is radiation-induced fatal cancer. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) method was used to estimate risk, and compared with a method (Trott and Kemprad) specifically for estimating RT risk for benign disease. These were compared with risks associated with indometacin and no prophylaxis. Results: 28 patients (82%) developed no HO; 6 developed Brooker Class I; and none developed Class II–IV HO. The ICRP method suggests a risk of fatal cancer in the range of 1 in 1000 to 1 in 10,000; the Trott and Kemprad method suggests 1 in 3000. For younger patients, this may rise to 1 in 2000; and for elderly patients, it may fall to 1 in 6000. The risk of death from gastric bleeding or perforation from indometacin is 1 in 180 to 1 in 900 in older patients. Without prophylaxis risk of death from reoperation to remove HO is 1 in 4000 to 1 in 30,000. Conclusion: These results are encouraging, consistent with much larger series and endorse our multidisciplinary management. Risk estimates can be used in discussion with patients. Advances in knowledge: The risk from RT prophylaxis is small, it is safer than indometacin and substantially overlaps with the range for no prophylaxis. PMID:25089852

  12. Heterotopic Ossification around the Knee after Internal Fixation of a Complex Tibial Plateau Fracture Combined with the Use of Demineralized Bone Matrix (DBM): A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nota, Sjoerd P.F.T.; Kloen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Demineralized bone matrix has been successfully commercialized as an alternative bone graft material that not only can function as filler but also as an osteoinductive graft. Numerous studies have confirmed its beneficial use in clinical practice. Heterotopic ossification after internal fixation combined with the use of demineralized bone matrix has not been widely reported. In this paper we describe a 39 year old male who sustained a complex articular fracture that developed clinically significant heterotopic ossification after internal fixation with added demineralized bone matrix. Although we cannot be sure that there is a cause-and-effect relation between demineralized bone matrix and the excessive heterotopic ossification seen in our patient, it seems that some caution in using demineralised bone matrix in similar cases is warranted. Also, given the known inter- and intraproduct variability, the risks and benefits of these products should be carefully weighed. PMID:25692153

  13. Retrocalcaneal Pain After Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Avulsion Fracture of the Achilles Tendon Treated by Endoscopic Adhesiolysis and Endoscopic Calcaneoplasty: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2016-06-01

    Avulsion fracture of the Achilles tendon is uncommon. Open reduction and internal fixation is indicated for displaced fracture in order to restore the normal function of the Achilles tendon. We present a patient with avulsion fracture of Achilles tendon that was complicated by the development of secondary Haglund's deformity and fibrous adhesion between the Achilles tendon and the calcaneus. He was successful treated by endoscopic calcaneoplasty and endoscopic adhesiolysis. Therapeutic, Level IV: Case report. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Use of the TRPV1 Agonist Capsaicin to Provide Long-Term Analgesia in a Rat Limb Fracture/Open Repair, Internal Fixation Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    W81XWH-10-2-0093 TITLE: Use of the TRPV1 Agonist Capsaicin to Provide Long-Term Analgesia in a Rat Limb Fracture/Open Repair, Internal Fixation Model...2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 30September2010-29September2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Use of the TRPV1 Agonist Capsaicin to...capsaicin around the fracture site. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Femur fracture, Rat Model, Pain, Capsaicin, Trauma, TRPV1 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF

  15. Effects of Low-Dose Microwave on Healing of Fractures with Titanium Alloy Internal Fixation: An Experimental Study in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Han; Fu, Tengfei; Jiang, Lan; Bai, Yuehong

    2013-01-01

    Background Microwave is a method for improving fracture repair. However, one of the contraindications for microwave treatment listed in the literature is surgically implanted metal plates in the treatment field. The reason is that the reflection of electromagnetic waves and the eddy current stimulated by microwave would increase the temperature of magnetic implants and cause heat damage in tissues. Comparing with traditional medical stainless steel, titanium alloy is a kind of medical implants with low magnetic permeability and electric conductivity. But the effects of microwave treatment on fracture with titanium alloy internal fixation in vivo were not reported. The aim of this article was to evaluate the security and effects of microwave on healing of a fracture with titanium alloy internal fixation. Methods Titanium alloy internal fixation systems were implanted in New Zealand rabbits with a 3.0 mm bone defect in the middle of femur. We applied a 30-day microwave treatment (2,450MHz, 25W, 10 min per day) to the fracture 3 days after operation. Temperature changes of muscle tissues around implants were measured during the irradiation. Normalized radiographic density of the fracture gap was measured on the 10th day and 30th day of the microwave treatment. All of the animals were killed after 10 and 30 days microwave treatment with histologic and histomorphometric examinations performed on the harvested tissues. Findings The temperatures did not increase significantly in animals with titanium alloy implants. The security of microwave treatment was also supported by histology of muscles, nerve and bone around the implants. Radiographic assessment, histologic and histomorphometric examinations revealed significant improvement in the healing bone. Conclusion Our results suggest that, in the healing of fracture with titanium alloy internal fixation, a low dose of microwave treatment may be a promising method. PMID:24086626

  16. Posterior decompression and internal fixation in treatment of hypertrophy of posterior longitudinal ligament at C1-2 level accompanied with lower cervical spinal stenosis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Wang, Tao; Wang, Hui; Ding, Wen-Yuan

    2016-12-01

    Hypertrophy of posterior longitudinal ligament (HPLL) at C1-2 level accompanied with lower cervical spinal stenosis is rare in clinic. No reports have described HPLL at C1-2 level accompanied with lower cervical spinal stenosis treated by posterior decompression, combined with internal fixation in 1 stage. A 70-year-old Chinese female complained of numbness and paralysis in both her hands and right leg for 1.5 years; Cervical vertebra x-rays and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a HPLL at C1-2 and cervical spinal stenosis at C3-6. She was diagnosed with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). The patient underwent posterior decompression from C1 to C5 level, and fixed with C1-2 vertebral pedicle and C3-5 lateral mass of screw. One week after operation, the patient showed significant improvement in the numbness of her hands. A follow-up cervical vertebra computed tomography showed good location of internal fixation device and correction of cervical spinal stenosis. Twelve months after surgery, the patient showed improvement in preoperative clumsiness and gait disturbance, and no recurrence of the clinical symptoms occurred. HPLL at C1-2 level accompanied with lower cervical spinal stenosis caused myelopathy is rare. Cervical posterior decompression and internal fixation is an effective treatment. The surgical outcome is satisfactory.

  17. Ab externo scleral fixation of intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Slade, D Snow; Hater, Michael A; Cionni, Robert J; Crandall, Alan S

    2012-08-01

    We describe an ab externo technique that facilitates IOL scleral fixation and reduces the risk associated with previous ab externo scleral fixation techniques. This technique uses a microvitreoretinal blade and an internal limiting membrane forceps to create sclerotomies and retrieve the suture, respectively. Dr. Cionni is a consultant to Morcher GmbH, Stuttgart, Germany. Dr. Crandall is a consultant to Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Ft. Worth, Texas, USA. No other author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. High Prevalence of Chronic Pain With Neuropathic Characteristics After Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Ankle Fractures.

    PubMed

    Rbia, Nadia; van der Vlies, Cornelis H; Cleffken, Berry I; Selles, Ruud W; Hovius, Steven E R; Nijhuis, Tim H J

    2017-09-01

    Unstable ankle fractures require treatment with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Long-term functional outcome is satisfying in most patients; however, a number of patients have persistent complaints. Superficial nerve complications following ankle surgery may be the cause of chronic pain and disability. In this observational retrospective survey, a cohort of 527 women and men, who underwent ORIF in the period from January 2007 to January 2014, were invited to an online questionnaire. Pain symptoms were assessed using the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and the Douleur Neuropathic en 4 Questions (DN4) Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to present patient characteristics; a logistic regression model was used to analyze prognostic factors of neuropathic pain. A total of 271 patients completed the questionnaire. Mean follow-up period was 5.8 years (±1.9). Persistent neuropathic pain symptoms were present in 61 of all patients, and 51 of these patients reported an impaired quality of life caused by their symptoms. In univariate analysis, the following parameters were associated with neuropathic pain: age, hypertension, a thyroid disorder, lower back pain, fracture dislocations, and late complications such as nonunion, posttraumatic arthritis, or osteochondral injury. In multivariate analysis, an age between 40 and 60 years was found to be a significant predictor of neuropathic pain. Hypertension, dislocation, and late complications were significant predictors of persistent pain without neuropathic characteristics. The present study demonstrated a prevalence of persistent neuropathic pain symptoms after ORIF for ankle fractures in 23% of the respondents, which caused an impaired health-related quality of life. We identified 4 significant predictors of chronic and neuropathic pain after ORIF. This knowledge may aid the treating surgeon to identify patients who are at increased risk of persistent postoperative neuropathic pain and may affect the

  19. A Comparative Assessment of Postoperative Analgesic Efficacy of Lornoxicam versus Tramadol after Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Mandibular Fractures.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ankesh Dilip; Vsm, Ravisankar; Ksn, Siva Bharani; Km, Sudheesh; Tewathia, Nisha

    2017-09-01

    Pain after any surgical procedure is inevitable but can be controlled by administration of analgesics in most cases. Postoperative pain after surgical treatment of mandibular fractures can be treated by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and opioid analgesics. The purpose of this study is to critically compare the postoperative analgesic efficacy of small doses of intravenous TRAMADOL (opioid analgesic) versus LORNOXICAM (NSAID) in patients with mandibular trauma undergoing open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) and to assess the presence of any adverse effects due to NSAID or opioid use. Forty adult ASA grade I-II patients with mandibular trauma, scheduled for ORIF under general anesthesia in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dental Sciences, Davangere, were selected for the study. The patients were randomly assigned into a tramadol group (Group T) and a lornoxicam group (Group L) and were administered intravenous tramadol 50 mg and intravenous lornoxicam 8 mg, respectively, at specific postoperative intervals. Pain intensity was quantitatively assessed at the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 12th, and 24th postoperative hours using a visual analog scale of 10 cm. Adverse effects of the analgesics were also recorded and compared. Both the drugs resulted in a significant decrease in pain intensity from 2nd to 24th postoperative hours, but better pain control was observed in Group L at 24th postoperative hour. Only two patients experienced nausea and vomiting in Group T and one patient experienced gastric acidity in Group L. The comparative results clearly demonstrate that pain control by intravenous lornoxicam is significantly better than by intravenous tramadol at 24th postoperative hour after ORIF of mandibular trauma. Side effects produced by both the drugs were minor and had no apparent effect on the study results.

  20. A comparative study of internal fixation and prosthesis replacement for radial head fractures of Mason type III

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Hong-Jiang; Liu, Jun-Jian; Zeng, Bing-fang

    2007-01-01

    Although several treatment options for radial head fractures are available, no clear solutions exist. In this study we therefore compare open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with bipolar radial head prosthesis replacement in treatment of radial head fractures of Mason type III. Cement stem and bipolar radial prosthesis were used to treat 12 fresh cases and two old cases of Mason type III radial head fracture. As a control group, another eight cases of radial head type III fracture were treated with ORIF with cannulated screws and Kirschner (K) wires. The 14 patients who received radial head prosthesis replacement were followed-up for 15.9 months (range 10–27 months). According to elbow functional evaluation criteria by Broberg and Morrey, we found excellent results in nine cases, good in four, and fair in one. Mean follow-up of the eight cases in the ORIF group was 14 months (range 10–21 months), with good results in one case, fair in four, and poor in three. The result was good or excellent in 92.9% of prosthesis replacement patients and in 12.5% of ORIF patients. This difference is statistically significant (P = 0.0004; Fisher’s exact test). We concluded that bipolar radial head prosthesis replacement is better than ORIF in treatment of Mason type III radial head fracture. Electronic Supplementary Material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00264-007-0453-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:17938924

  1. Lower reoperation rate for cemented hemiarthroplasty than for uncemented hemiarthroplasty and internal fixation following femoral neck fracture

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Elderly patients with displaced femoral neck fractures are commonly treated with a hemiarthroplasty (HA), but little is known about the long-term failure of this treatment. We compared reoperation rates for patients aged at least 75 years with displaced femoral neck fractures treated with either internal fixation (IF), cemented HA, or uncemented HA (with or without hydroxyapatite coating), after 12–19 years of follow-up. Methods 4 hospitals with clearly defined guidelines for the treatment of 75+ year-old patients with a displaced femoral neck fracture were included. Cohort 1 (1991–1993) with 180 patients had undergone IF; cohort 2 (1991–1995) with 203 patients had received an uncemented bipolar Ultima HA stem (Austin-Moore); cohort 3 (1991–1995) with 209 patients had received a cemented Charnley-Hastings HA; and cohort 4 (1991–1998) with 158 patients had received an uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated Furlong HA. Data were retrieved from patient files, from the region-based patient administrative system, and from the National Registry of Patients at the end of 2010. We performed survival analysis with adjustment for comorbidity, age, and sex. Results Cemented HA had a reoperation rate (RR) of 5% and was used as reference in the Cox regression analysis, which showed significantly higher hazard ratios (HRs) for IF (HR = 3.8, 95% CI: 1.9–7.5; RR = 18%), uncemented HA (HR = 2.2, CI: 1.1–4.5; RR = 11%) and uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated HA (HR = 3.6, CI: 1.8–7.4; RR = 16%). Interpretation Cemented HA has a superior long-term hip survival rate compared to IF and uncemented HA (with and without hydroxyapatite coating) in patients aged 75 years or more with displaced femoral neck fractures. PMID:23594248

  2. [Case-control study on measurement of coracoclavicular and acromioclavicular ligament injuries during internal fixation operation for the treatment of fresh acromioclavicular joint dislocation of Tossy type III].

    PubMed

    Guan, Ting-Jin; Sun, Peng; Zheng, Liang-Guo; Qi, Xiang-Yang

    2014-01-01

    To study measurement methods of acromioclavicular and coracoclavicular ligament injuries,its therapeutic effects and complications during internal fixation operation for the treatment of fresh acromioclavicular joint dislocations of Tossy type III. From July 2003 to May 2012,127 patients with acromioclavicular joint dislocations of Tossy type III were treated with wire fixation from coracoid process to clavicle or hook-plate fixation. The patients were divided into group A (63 cases) and group B (64 cases) according to whether acromioclavicular ligament and coracoclavicular ligament were repaired or not. In group A (ligaments repaired), there were 39 males and 24 females with an average age of (33.25 +/- 8.46) years old (ranged from 17 to 59 years). And in group B (no ligaments repaired), there were 41 males and 23 females with an average age of (34.10 +/- 7.19) years (ranged from 19 to 57 years). The operation times, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative infections, internal fixation failure, recurrence and other complications, together with therapeutic effects were compared between two groups. The outcome was analyzed according to Karlsson standard. In group A, 54 patients got an excellent result and 9 good according to Karlsson standard;the average operative time was (55.90 +/- 26.56) min; the average intraoperative bleeding amount was (99.80 +/- 50.30) ml; 1 patient had wire broken without re-dislocation at 16 weeks after operation, 3 patients got wound fat liquefaction and recovered after treatment, 1 patient had pain after shoulder joint motion and pain disappeared after implants were taken out. In group B, 52 patients got an excellent result and 12 good according to Karlsson standard; the average operative time was (49.50 +/- 23.14) min; the average intraoperative bleeding amount was (87.30 +/- 46.41) ml; 2 patients got wound fat liquefaction, and 2 patients had pain after shoulder joint motion. All the patients were followed up, and the duration ranged

  3. Outcomes of anterolateral thigh-free flaps and conversion from external to internal fixation with bone grafting in gustilo type IIIB open tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Chung, Duke Whan; Han, Chung Soo

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the utility and the clinical outcomes of anterolateral thigh (ALT)-free flaps and conversion from external to internal fixation with plating and bone grafting in Gustilo type IIIB open tibial fractures. A total of 21 patients were analyzed retrospectively. The mean follow-up period was 18 months and the mean age was 46.7 years. There were 18 men and three women. The mean time from injury to flap coverage was 11.6 days. The mean size of flaps used was 15.3 × 8.2 cm. The mean size of bone defects was 2.26 cm. Segmental bone defects were observed in 5 five cases, for which bone transport or vascularized fibular graft were performed. When flaps were successful and the fracture sites did not have any evidence of infection, internal fixation with plates and bone grafting were performed. Flaps survived in 20 cases. In the 20 cases with successful flaps, two cases developed osteomyelitis, but the 20 cases achieved solid bone union at a mean of 8.6 months after the injury, salvaging the lower extremity in 100% of the cases. At the last follow-up, 9 nine cases were measured excellent or good; 6, fair; and 6, poor in the functional assessment based on the method developed by Puno et al. ALT- free flaps to cover soft tissue defects in Gustilo type IIIB open tibial fractures are considered as useful option for the treatment of composite defects. In addition, conversion to internal fixation and bone grafting can be an alternative method in order to reduce the risk of complications and inconvenience of external fixators.

  4. [Establishment and primary analysis of the three-dimensional finite element model of mandibular bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy with rigid internal fixation].

    PubMed

    Xu, Chong-Tao; Sun, Geng-Lin; Zhou, Jian; Wang, Peng-Lin

    2007-05-01

    Establish the three-dimensional finite element models of mandibular bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy (BSSRO) with rigid internal fixation (RIF), for further study of BSSRO. CT scanned technology and the finite element software (ANSYS) were used to establish the original three-dimensional model of mandible, modify the model to animate the BSSRO, then establish the model of RIF, last mesh the model to establish the finite element model of BSSRO with RIF. Apply 100 N occlusion force at the central incisor; calculate the stress distribution of the mandible and the RIF. Three-dimensional finite element models of BSSRO with RIF were established, such as miniplate model, bicortical fixation screw model. When biting with the incisor and fixed with upper plate, the stress of the medial screw position of the distal and medial segment of mandible is high. When fixed with bicortical fixation screw, the highest stress position located at the internal surface of the medial screw' s position of the distal segment of mandible. The mentioned methods proved feasible in establishing the finite element models of BSSRO with RIF . The models can be applied to the study of BSSRO with RIF.

  5. A systematic review of open reduction and internal fixation of periprosthetic femur fractures with or without allograft strut, cerclage, and locked plates.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ryan E; Baldwin, Keith; Austin, Matthew S; Mehta, Samir

    2014-05-01

    Few comparative studies exist for open reduction and internal fixation of Vancouver B1 and C fractures. We therefore performed a systematic review of fractures treated with or without an allograft strut, and using various fixation techniques. Thirty-seven manuscripts including 682 fractures were identified between 1992 and 2012. Percent union was similar for Vancouver B1 fractures treated with or without an allograft strut (90.7% vs. 91.5%). Time to union (4.4 vs. 6.6 months) and deep infection (3.8% vs. 8.3%) were increased with use of allograft struts. Percent union and time to union were unaffected by plate type or use of cerclage. We conclude that due to increased infection and time to union, allograft struts should be used cautiously during operative treatment of Vancouver B1 factures.

  6. Diminished abductor muscular strength in patients with valgus-impacted femoral neck fractures treated by internal fixation: Clinical study and biomechanical considerations.

    PubMed

    Noda, Mitsuaki; Saegusa, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Masayasu; Kuroda, Yuichi; Takada, Yuma; Yoshikawa, Chihiro; Wakabayashi, Mimami; Adachi, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Yukiko

    2017-01-01

    Valgus-impacted femoral neck fractures treated with internal fixation occasionally result in unsatisfactory postoperative locomotive function, partially due to muscle shortening and a decrease in the moment arm. This study quantifies the degree of diminished abduction strength both clinically and biomechanically. Fifteen patients were enrolled in this study. Twelve patients with fracture healed in valgus-impacted position were further evaluated. Muscular strength around hip was examined, and values between the nonoperated and operated side were compared and analyzed. For the biomechanical study, two three-dimensional models were prepared: model I (control model without displacement) and model II (simulated malunion of a 15° valgus-impacted fracture). Two sets of hip flexion angles in each of the models were simulated with flexion angles of 0° and 23°. Mean and standard deviation values for muscle strength from the nonoperative/operative side among the valgus group are as follows: flexion strength was 9.2 ± 4.0/9.2 ± 3.2, extension strength was 5.8 ± 2.8/6.1 ± 3.2, abduction strength at 0° was 9.1 ± 3.7/7.4 ± 3.6, abduction strength at 10° was 6.7 ± 3.0/5.5 ± 2.2, and knee extension strength was 15.3 ± 6.2/15.1 ± 6.0 (kgf). When comparing values between the nonoperative and operative sides, statistical significance was only observed in abduction strength ( p < 0.01). The biomechanical models prove that valgus impaction decreases the moment arm by approximately 10% at both flexion angle. A significant decrease in abductor strength at 0° and 10° was observed in the valgus-healed group. This may be related to a decrease in the moment arm. Further research should be done to define the acceptable limit of deformity for the satisfactory postoperative functioning.

  7. Burnei’s “double X" internal fixation technique for supracondylar humerus fractures in children: indications, technique, advantages and alternative interventions

    PubMed Central

    Georgescu, I; Gavriliu, S; Pârvan, A; Martiniuc, A; Japie, E; Ghiță, R; Drăghici, I; Hamei, S; Ţiripa, I; El Nayef, T; Dan, D

    2013-01-01

    Background. The Study and Research Group in Pediatric Orthopedics-2012 initated this retrospective study due to the fact that in Romania and in other countries, the numerous procedures do not ensure the physicians a definite point of view related to the therapeutic criteria in the treatment of supracondylar fractures. That is why the number of complications and their severity brought into notice these existent deficiencies. In order to correct some of these complications, cubitus varus or valgus, Prof. Al. Pesamosca communicated a paper called "Personal procedure in the treatment of posttraumatic cubitus varus" at the County Conference from Bacău, in June 24, 1978. This procedure has next been made popular by Prof. Gh. Burnei and his coworkers by operating patients with cubitus varus or valgus due to supracondylar humeral fractures and by presenting papers related to the subject at the national and international congresses. The latest paper regarding this problem has been presented at the 29th Annual Meeting of the European Pediatric Orthopedic Society in Zagreb, Croatia, April 7-10, 2010, being titled “Distal humeral Z-osteotomy for posttraumatic cubitus varus or valgus", having as authors Gh. Burnei, Ileana Georgescu, Ştefan Gavriliu, Costel Vlad and Daniela Dan. As members of this group, based on the performed studies, we wish to make popular this type of osteosynthesis, which ensures a tight fixation, avoids complications and allows a rapid postoperative activity. Introduction. The acknowledged treatment for these types of fractures is the orthopedic one and it must be accomplished as soon as possible, in the first 6 hours, by reduction and cast immobilization or by closed or open reduction and fixation, using one of the several methods (Judet, Boehler, Kapandji, San Antonio, San Diego, Burnei’s double X technique). The exposed treatment is indicated in irreducible supracondylar humeral fractures, in reducible, but unstable type, in polytraumatized

  8. Burnei's "double X" internal fixation technique for supracondylar humerus fractures in children: indications, technique, advantages and alternative interventions : Study and Research Group in Pediatric Orthopaedics-2012.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, I; Gavriliu, S; Pârvan, A; Martiniuc, A; Japie, E; Ghiță, R; Drăghici, I; Hamei, Ş; Ţiripa, I; El Nayef, T; Dan, D

    2013-06-15

    The Study and Research Group in Pediatric Orthopedics-2012 initated this retrospective study due to the fact that in Romania and in other countries, the numerous procedures do not ensure the physicians a definite point of view related to the therapeutic criteria in the treatment of supracondylar fractures. That is why the number of complications and their severity brought into notice these existent deficiencies. In order to correct some of these complications, cubitus varus or valgus, Prof. Al. Pesamosca communicated a paper called "Personal procedure in the treatment of posttraumatic cubitus varus" at the County Conference from Bacău, in June 24, 1978. This procedure has next been made popular by Prof. Gh. Burnei and his coworkers by operating patients with cubitus varus or valgus due to supracondylar humeral fractures and by presenting papers related to the subject at the national and international congresses. The latest paper regarding this problem has been presented at the 29th Annual Meeting of the European Pediatric Orthopedic Society in Zagreb, Croatia, April 7-10, 2010, being titled "Distal humeral Z-osteotomy for posttraumatic cubitus varus or valgus", having as authors Gh. Burnei, Ileana Georgescu, Ştefan Gavriliu, Costel Vlad and Daniela Dan. As members of this group, based on the performed studies, we wish to make popular this type of osteosynthesis, which ensures a tight fixation, avoids complications and allows a rapid postoperative activity. The acknowledged treatment for these types of fractures is the orthopedic one and it must be accomplished as soon as possible, in the first 6 hours, by reduction and cast immobilization or by closed or open reduction and fixation, using one of the several methods (Judet, Boehler, Kapandji, San Antonio, San Diego, Burnei's double X technique). The exposed treatment is indicated in irreducible supracondylar humeral fractures, in reducible, but unstable type, in polytraumatized patients with supracondylar

  9. Retinal Damage Induced by Internal Limiting Membrane Removal

    PubMed Central

    Gelman, Rachel; Stevenson, William; Prospero Ponce, Claudia; Agarwal, Daniel; Christoforidis, John Byron

    2015-01-01

    The internal limiting membrane (ILM), the basement membrane of the Müller cells, serves as the interface between the vitreous body and the retinal nerve fiber layer. It has a fundamental role in the development, structure, and function of the retina, although it also is a pathologic component in the various vitreoretinal disorders, most notably in macular holes. It was not until understanding of the evolution of idiopathic macular holes and the advent of idiopathic macular hole surgery that the idea of adjuvant ILM peeling in the treatment of tractional maculopathies was explored. Today intentional ILM peeling is a commonly applied surgical technique among vitreoretinal surgeons as it has been found to increase the rate of successful macular hole closure and improve surgical outcomes in other vitreoretinal diseases. Though ILM peeling has refined surgery for tractional maculopathies, like all surgical procedures it is not immune to perioperative risk. The essential role of the ILM to the integrity of the retina and risk of trauma to retinal tissue spurs suspicion with regard to its routine removal. Several authors have investigated the retinal damage induced by ILM peeling and these complications have been manifested across many different diagnostic studies. PMID:26425355

  10. Simple fixation and storage protocol for preserving the internal structure of intact human donor lenses and extracted human nuclear cataract specimens

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Ashik; Gilliland, Kurt O.; Metlapally, Sangeetha; Johnsen, Sönke

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Increased use of phacoemulsification procedures for cataract surgeries has resulted in a dramatic decrease in the availability of cataractous nuclear specimens for basic research into the mechanism of human cataract formation. To overcome such difficulties, a fixation protocol was developed to provide good initial fixation of human donor lenses and extracted nuclei, when available, and is suitable for storing or shipping cataracts to laboratories where structural studies could be completed. Methods Cataractous lens nuclei (n=19, ages 12 to 74 years) were obtained from operating suites after extracapsular extraction. Transparent human donor lenses (n=27, ages 22 to 92 years) were obtained from the Ramayamma International Eye Bank. After the dimensions were measured with a digital caliper, samples were preserved in 10% formalin (neutral buffered) for 24 h and followed by fixation in 4% paraformaldehyde (pH 7.2) for 48 h. Samples were stored cold (4 °C) in buffer until shipped. Samples were photographed and measured before further processing for transmission electron microscopy. Results The dimensions of the samples varied slightly after short fixation followed by 1 to 5 months’ storage before transmission electron microscopy processing. The mean change in the axial thickness of the donor lenses was 0.15±0.21 mm or 3.0±5.4%, while that of the extracted nuclei was 0.05±0.24 mm or 1.8±7.6%. Because the initial concern was whether the nuclear core was preserved, thin sections were examined from the embryonic and fetal nuclear regions. All cellular structures were preserved, including the cytoplasm, complex edge processes, membranes, and junctions. The preservation quality was excellent and nearly equivalent to preservation of fresh lenses even for the lens cortex. Cell damage characteristic of specific nuclear cataract types was easily recognized. Conclusions The novel fixation protocol appears effective in preserving whole donor lenses and cataractous

  11. Biodegradable internal fixation plates enabled with X-ray visibility by a radiopaque layer of β-tricalcium phosphate and poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid).

    PubMed

    Shasteen, Catherine; Park, Keun Yung; Kwong, Seok Min; Jung, Sun Young; Lee, Seung Ho; Park, Chun Gwon; Kim, Myung Hun; Kim, Sukwha; Son, Woo-Chan; Choi, Tae Hyun; Choy, Young Bin

    2013-02-01

    Biodegradable polymer plates can be clinically used as an alternative to metal plates (e.g., titanium) for internal fixation, which, however, are not visible with X-ray imaging, often used for post-operative diagnostics. In this study, therefore, we prepared a biodegradable plate enabled with X-ray visibility by attaching a radiopaque layer on a biodegradable fixation plate in clinical use (Inion, Finland). A radiopaque layer was made of a fine powder of a radiopaque agent, β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and a biodegradable binder material, poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), which were physically mixed without change in their chemical structure. The radiopacity increased as we increased the layer thicknesses from 0.5 mm to 1.3 mm. Regardless of layer thickness, however, the radiopacity decreased with time both in vitro and in vivo due to decreasing density of TCP in the layer by swelling and degradation of a binder material, PLGA. The in vivo study with rabbits revealed that a discernible image of the radiopaque plate could be obtained by X-ray for up to 21 days, also showing the overall biocompatibility 6 months after implantation. Therefore, we conclude that the radiopaque plate prepared in this work is a promising fixation device enabled with both X-ray visibility and biodegradability. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A finite element analysis of bone plates available for prophylactic internal fixation of the radial osteocutaneous donor site using the sheep tibia model.

    PubMed

    Avery, C M E; Bujtár, Péter; Simonovics, János; Dézsi, Tamás; Váradi, Károly; Sándor, George K B; Pan, Jingzhe

    2013-10-01

    The strengthening effect of prophylactic internal fixation (PIF) with a bone plate at the radial osteocutaneous flap donor site has previously been demonstrated using the sheep tibia model of the human radius. This study investigated whether a finite element (FE) model could accurately represent this biomechanical model and whether stress or strain based failure criteria are most appropriate. An FE model of an osteotomised sheep tibia bone was strengthened using 4 types of plates with unilocking or bicortical screw fixation. Torsion and 4-point bending simulations were performed. The maximum von Mises stresses and strain failure criteria were studied. The strengthening effects when applying stress failure criteria [factor 1.76-4.57 bending and 1.33-1.80 torsion] were comparable to the sheep biomechanical model [factor 1.73-2.43 bending and 1.54-2.63 torsion]. The strongest construct was the straight 3.5mm stainless steel unilocking plate. Applying strain criteria the strongest construct was the straight 3.5mm stainless DCP plate with bicortical screw fixation. The FE model was validated by comparison with the sheep tibia model. The complex biomechanics at the bone-screw interface require further investigation. This FE modelling technique may be applied to a model of the human radius and other sites. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Arthroscopic disc fixation to the condylar head. Use of resorbable pins for internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint (stage II-IV). Preliminary report of 34 joints.

    PubMed

    Goizueta-Adame, Carlos C; Pastor-Zuazaga, Daniel; Orts Bañón, Juan E

    2014-06-01

    The study describes the arthoscopic use of resorbable pins for the internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint with McCain's technique. Clinical and image features are reported retrospectively. Twenty-seven consecutive patients (34 joints) were included. Symptomatic internal derangement and anterior-medial disc displacement with or without reduction in magnetic resonance images (MRI) were diagnosed in all cases. Two resorbable pins (SmartNail) were placed in each joint employing arthroscopic surgery with a third portal for disc recapture and fixation to condylar head. Clinical data 24 months after surgery are reported (movements, pain score, clicking, laterodeviation, occlusal changes). In eight joints a MRI control was required between 1 and 2 years after surgery. Visual analogue scale values (0-100) decreased from 70.8 to 11.9 (p < 0.001) in the first control (week) and kept down after 24 months of follow-up (VAS: 4.8). Movements began to recover in 3 months and mouth opening increased from 34 mm to 43.2 mm 1 year after surgery (p < 0.001). Clicking, laterodeviation and contralateral excursions improvement were statistically significant (p < 0.001). MRI showed disc fixation to condyle head in closed and opened mouth. Disc fixation to condylar head with resorbable pins is a safe and satisfactory procedure. Pain becomes drastically reduced and mandibular function recovers normal parameters in patients with internal derangement. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Open reduction and internal fixation of extracapsular mandibular condyle fractures: a long-term clinical and radiological follow-up of 25 patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background During the last 2 decades, many studies on the treatment of mandibular condyle fracture have been published. The incidence of mandibular condyle fractures is variable, ranging from 17.5% to 52% of all mandibular fractures. This retrospective study evaluated the long-term clinical and radiological outcomes after surgical treatment of 25 patients with a total of 26 extracapsular condyle fractures. Methods We used 2 types of surgical approaches, the retromandibular retroparotid or preauricular approach. Three kinds of rigid internal fixation plates were used—single plate, double plate, and trapezoidal plate. The following post-operative clinical parameters were evaluated: dental occlusion, facial nerve functionality, skin scarring, and temporomandibular joint functionality. All patients underwent post-operative orthopanoramic radiography and computed tomography. The patients were also monitored for complications such as Frey’s syndrome, infection, salivary fistula, plate fracture, and permanent paralysis of the facial nerve; the patient’s satisfaction was also recorded. Results Of the 25 patients, 80% showed occlusion recovery, 88% had no facial nerve injury, and 88% presented good surgical skin scarring. The patients showed early complete recovery of temporomandibular joint functionality and 72% of them were found to be asymptomatic. The postoperative radiographs of all patients indicated good recovery of the anatomical condylar region, and 80% of them had no postoperative complications. The average degree of patient satisfaction was 8.32 out of 10. Our results confirm that the technique of open reduction and internal fixation in association with postoperative functional rehabilitation therapy should be considered for treating patients with extracapsular condylar fractures. Conclusion The topic of condylar injury has generated more discussion and controversy than any other topic in the field of maxillofacial trauma. We confirm that open reduction and

  15. Vital dyes increase the rigidity of the internal limiting membrane.

    PubMed

    Haritoglou, C; Mauell, S; Benoit, M; Schumann, R G; Henrich, P B; Wolf, A; Kampik, A

    2013-11-01

    To assess the stiffness of the natural human internal limiting membrane (ILM) and evaluate potential changes of the mechanical properties following staining with brilliant blue (BB) and indocyanine green (ICG). Unstained ILM specimens were obtained during ophthalmic surgical procedures. After removal, the specimens were dissected into five parts. Two fragments were stained with BB and ICG, respectively, for 1 min, another two specimens were stained similarly followed by additional subsequent illumination using a standard light source (PENTA LUX x 50, Ophthalmologische Systeme GmbH Fritz Ruck). The fifth part served as an untreated control. All specimens were then analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in contact mode with a scan rate of 0.6 Hz. Two scan regions of 10 × 10 μm were chosen and stiffness was determined by using AFM in a force spectroscopy mode. The force curves were plotted with a data rate of 5000 Hz. In all specimens both the retinal side and vitreal side were analyzed. Staining resulted in a significant increase in tissue stiffness. An increase was seen both for the vitreal (BB: P<0.001; ICG: P<0.01) and retinal side (BB: P<0.01; ICG: P<0.01), with the retinal side being significantly stiffer in all control and stained samples. Additional illumination after staining did further increase tissue rigidity in most samples but not significantly. Staining significantly increases the stiffness of the human ILM. This might explain the fact that the stained ILM can be removed more easily and in larger fragments during vitreoretinal surgical procedures compared with unstained ILM.

  16. Internal limiting membrane transplantation for unclosed and large macular holes.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yining; Dong, Fangtian; Zhang, Xiao; Yang, Zhikun

    2016-11-01

    To present the surgical technique and clinical outcomes of transplantation of autologous internal limiting membrane (ILM) for large macular holes (MHs) after failed surgeries with ILM removal. Thirteen eyes of 13 consecutive patients with MHs larger than 500 μm after failed surgeries with ILM removal underwent vitrectomy with transplantation of autologous ILM. In the ILM transplantation technique, a small piece of the ILM was peeled off and transplanted inside the macular hole. Fluid-air exchange was then performed. The air was then replaced with 10 % perfluoropropane (C3F8) gas. Comprehensive ophthalmologic examinations and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography were performed preoperatively and postoperatively. The main outcome measures were best-corrected Snellen visual acuity (BCVA) and MH closure rate. The preoperative mean base diameter of the MHs was 1637.6 + 412.7 μm (range, 814-2092 μm). The preoperative mean minimum diameter was 814.4 + 255.0 μm (range, 546 μm-1485 μm). Complete MH sealing was achieved in 12 eyes after transplantation of the ILM flap. The mean BCVA was 1.15 + 0.21 (range, 1.0-1.6) before surgery and 0.99 + 0.17 (range, 0.7-1.3) at 12 months postoperatively. There was a significant difference in BCVA before versus after the surgery (t = 3.825, P = 0.0002, paired t- test). Transplantation of autologous ILM is an effective addition to the surgical options for large macular holes after failed surgeries with ILM removal.

  17. [A feasibility research of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) using hybrid internal fixation for recurrent lumbar disc herniation].

    PubMed

    Mao, Ke-ya; Wang, Yan; Xiao, Song-hua; Zhang, Yong-gang; Liu, Bao-wei; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Cui, Geng; Zhang, Xue-song; Li, Peng; Mao, Ke-zheng

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the feasibility of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) using hybrid internal fixation of pedicle screws and a translaminar facet screw for recurrent lumbar disc herniation. From January 2010 to December 2011, 16 recurrent lumbar disc herniation patients, 10 male and 6 female patients with an average age of 45 years (35-68 years) were treated with unilateral incision MIS-TLIF through working channel. After decompression, interbody fusion and fixation using unilateral pedicle screws, a translaminar facet screw was inserted from the same incision through spinous process and laminar to the other side facet joint. The results of perioperative parameters, radiographic images and clinical outcomes were assessed. The repeated measure analysis of variance was applied in the scores of visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry disablity index (ODI). All patients MIS-TLIF were accomplished under working channel including decompression, interbody fusion and hybrid fixation without any neural complication. The average operative time was (148 ± 75) minutes, the average operative blood loss was (186 ± 226) ml, the average postoperative ambulation time was (32 ± 15) hours, and the average hospitalization time was (6 ± 4) days. The average length of incision was (29 ± 4) mm, and the average length of translaminar facets screw was (52 ± 6) mm. The mean follow-up was 16.5 months with a range of 12-24 months. The postoperative X-ray and CT images showed good position of the hybrid internal fixation, and all facets screws penetrate through facets joint. The significant improvement could be found in back pain VAS, leg pain VAS and ODI scores between preoperative 1 day and postoperative follow-up at all time-points (back pain VAS:F = 52.845, P = 0.000;leg pain VAS:F = 113.480, P = 0.000;ODI:F = 36.665, P = 0.000). Recurrent lumbar disc herniation could be treated with MIS-TLIF using hybrid fixation through unilateral incision, and the

  18. Outcome after internal fixation of intraarticular distal humerus (AO type B & C) fractures: Preliminary results with anatomical distal humerus LCP system.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jwalant; Motwani, Girish; Shah, Himanshu; Daveshwar, Rajeev

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of intraarticular fractures of the distal humerus is challenging and involves the risk of complications and bad functional results. Anatomical and stable internal fixation with early postoperative mobilization is expected to improve the functional outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the functional and radiological results, along with the complications associated, of open reduction and internal fixation using precontoured anatomical locking LCP plate system for intraarticular distal humerus fractures in adult patients. This prospective study consist of 31 patients with a mean age of 41.2 years (range 19-62) were treated with open reduction and angular stable internal fixation. All underwent posterior transolecranon surgical approach. Mean follow-up to the final interview was 10 months (from 6 to 20 months). All operated patients were available at the time of last followup. AO classification showed 26 C-fractures (9*13C 1, 12*13C2,5* 13C3) and 5 B-fracture (1* 13B1,1* 13B2,3* 13B3). There were 25 closed fractures and 6 open grade 1 fractures. The clinical followup using Mayo elbow performance score (MEPS) and radiographic follow up with elbow anterior-posterior and lateral view X-rays were performed postoperatively. The mean MEPS was 87.9 points out of 100 (range 55-100) with 61% Excellent, 29% good and 10% fair and poor scores. Mean elbow flexion of 115.8° (range 85°-150°). The mean deficit in extension was 19° (range 5°-35°). All olecranon osteotomy were united .Nonunion of distal humerus fracture occurred in 2 cases. Other complications were hardware prominence in 3 cases, superficial infection in 4 cases and Ulnar nerve neuropraxia in 1 case which was recovered uneventfully. Revision surgery was not required in any complication. Open reduction and internal fixation with precontoured distal humerus anatomical locking plate system is a good method of treatment for complex Supra- intercondylar fracture of distal humerus with

  19. Comprehensive comparing percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy with posterior lumbar internal fixation for treatment of adjacent segment lumbar disc prolapse with stable retrolisthesis: A retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yapeng; Zhang, Wei; Qie, Suhui; Zhang, Nan; Ding, Wenyuan; Shen, Yong

    2017-07-01

    The study was to comprehensively compare the postoperative outcome and imaging parameter characters in a short/middle period between the percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) and the internal fixation of bone graft fusion (the most common form is posterior lumbar interbody fusion [PLIF]) for the treatment of adjacent segment lumbar disc prolapse with stable retrolisthesis after a previous lumbar internal fixation surgery.In this retrospective case-control study, we collected the medical records from 11 patients who received PELD operation (defined as PELD group) for and from 13 patients who received the internal fixation of bone graft fusion of lumbar posterior vertebral lamina decompression (defined as control group) for the treatment of the lumbar disc prolapse combined with stable retrolisthesis at Department of Spine Surgery, the Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University (Shijiazhuang, China) from May 2010 to December 2015. The operation time, the bleeding volume of perioperation, and the rehabilitation days of postoperation were compared between 2 groups. Before and after surgery at different time points, ODI, VAS index, and imaging parameters (including Taillard index, inter-vertebral height, sagittal dislocation, and forward bending angle of lumbar vertebrae) were compared.The average operation time, the blooding volume, and the rehabilitation days of postoperation were significantly less in PELD than in control group. The ODI and VAS index in PELD group showed a significantly immediate improving on the same day after the surgery. However, Taillard index, intervertebral height, sagittal dislocation in control group showed an immediate improving after surgery, but no changes in PELD group till 12-month after surgery. The forward bending angle of lumbar vertebrae was significantly increased and decreased in PELD and in control group, respectively.PELD operation was superior in terms of operation time, bleeding volume, recovery period, and financial

  20. The "bony Bankart bridge" procedure: a new arthroscopic technique for reduction and internal fixation of a bony Bankart lesion.

    PubMed

    Millett, Peter J; Braun, Sepp

    2009-01-01

    Arthroscopic treatment of bony Bankart lesions can be challenging. We present a new easy and reproducible technique for arthroscopic reduction and suture anchor fixation of bony Bankart fragments. A suture anchor is placed medially to the fracture on the glenoid neck, and its sutures are passed around the bony fragment through the soft tissue including the inferior glenohumeral ligament complex. The sutures of this anchor are loaded in a second anchor that is placed on the glenoid face. This creates a nontilting 2-point fixation that compresses the fragment into its bed. By use of the standard technique, additional suture anchors are used superiorly and inferiorly to the bony Bankart piece to repair the labrum and shift the joint capsule. We call this the "bony Bankart bridge" procedure.

  1. History of internal fixation with plates (part 2): new developments after World War II; compressing plates and locked plates.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe; Pariat, Jacques

    2017-07-01

    The first techniques of operative fracture with plates were developed in the 19th century. In fact, at the beginning these methods consisted of an open reduction of the fracture usually followed by a very unstable fixation. As a consequence, the fracture had to be opened with a real risk of (sometimes lethal) infection, and due to unstable fixation, protection with a cast was often necessary. During the period between World Wars I and II, plates for fracture fixation developed with great variety. It became increasingly recognised that, because a fracture of a long bone normally heals with minimal resorption at the bone ends, this may result in slight shortening and collapse, so a very rigid plate might prevent such collapse. However, as a consequence, delayed healing was observed unless the patient was lucky enough to have the plate break. One way of dealing with this was to use a slotted plate in which the screws could move axially, but the really important advance was recognition of the role of compression. After the first description of compression by Danis with a "coapteur", Bagby and Müller with the AO improved the technique of compression. The classic dynamic compression plates from the 1970s were the key to a very rigid fixation, leading to primary bone healing. Nevertheless, the use of strong plates resulted in delayed union and the osteoporosis, cancellous bone, comminution, and/or pathological bone resulted in some failures due to insufficient stability. Finally, new devices represented by locking plates increased the stability, contributing to the principles of a more biological osteosynthesis while giving enough stability to allow immediate full weight bearing in some patients.

  2. Biomechanical and histological evaluation of the application of biodegradable poly-L-lactic cushion to the plate internal fixation for bone fracture healing.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yubo; Xiu, Kaihua; Duan, Hong; Zhang, Ming

    2008-01-01

    Internal plate fixation of fracture can provide favorable mechanical environment for fracture fragments. However, osteoporosis under the plate is often found, and refracture may occur after the plate is removed. There are two different opinions about the bone loss beneath the plate: first is the stress shielding effect brought by the rigid fixation, and the second is the insufficient blood supply of the bone caused by the placement of the plate. In this paper, we tried to achieve a favorable condition for the fracture healing by inserting a kind of biodegradable cushion, through which the stress shielding effect and the interruption of the bone blood supply could be relieved at the same time. Animal models of internal fixation for tibia diaphyseal fracture with the placement of the poly-l-lactic (PLLA) cushion between the plate and the bone were established; a series of in vitro investigations and finite element (FE) analysis were performed to evaluate the effect of this new internal fixation system. During both the initial and 50% healing periods, the extent of stress shielding of the fracture zone decreased due to the use of the PLLA cushion. Especially for the 50% healing stage, the insertion of the PLLA cushion on alleviating the stress shielding of the bone tissue between the inner two screws directly under the plate is more apparent than that at the initial healing period. Meanwhile, radiological and histological coloration results demonstrated sooner callus growth and better trabecular rearrangement of the fracture zone in the PLLA group with the degradation of the PLLA cushion during the healing periods. This study showed that the use of the PLLA cushion at the initial period did not impair the stability of the whole system, which provides a favorable mechanical environment for the following fracture healing. On the other hand, its superiorities on alleviating stress shielding effect and interruption with the blood supply of the bone tissue beneath the

  3. Open reduction and internal fixation for displaced supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children with crossed K-wires via lateral approach.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shahid; Ahmad, Manzoor; Muzaffar, Tufail

    2014-01-01

    To assess the therapeutic results of open reduction and internal fixation with crossed K-wires via lateral approach for displaced supracondylar fractures of the humerus in children. We prospectively followed 52 children who presented with Gartland type 3 displaced supracondylar fractures of the humerus and were managed by open reduction and internal fixation with crossed K-wires via lateral approach.There were 37 male and 15 female patients; average age was 7.39 years. The most common mechanism of trauma was fall while playing (n=23), followed by fall from height (n=20), road traffic accidents (n=5) and fall from standing height (n=2). In 2 cases, mode of injury was not available. The mean follow-up was 12 months and patients were assessed according to Flynn's criteria. Lateral approach provided an excellent view of the lateral column between two nervous planes and enabled an anatomical reduction in all cases. Immobilizing the elbow at 90 degrees or more of flexion was not needed after cross K-wire fixation. Majority of patients regained full range of motion within 6 weeks of pin removal. Two patients had postoperative ulnar nerve injuries that resolved after pin removal. The common late complication of cubitus varus was not seen in any patient. Delayed presentation to the emergency department, repeated manipulations by bone setters and massage with edible oil were responsible for stiffness in 5 patients. Superficial pin tract infection was noted in 5 patients that resolved with dressings and antibiotics. No deep infection occurred. A detailed clinical examination and radiographic analysis was done at final follow-up. They included measurement of carrying angle and range of movements of both operated and normal sides, and radiographs of both upper limbs for comparison. According to Flynn's criteria, 90.4% patients showed satisfactory results. Lateral approach for open reduction and internal fixation of the widely-displaced supracondylar fracture of the humerus is

  4. Results of displaced supracondylar humerus fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation after a mean 22.4 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Guven, Mehmet F; Kaynak, Gokhan; Inan, Muharrem; Caliskan, Gurkan; Unlu, Hiclal B; Kesmezacar, Hayrettin

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term functional and cosmetic results as well as the sagittal and coronal plane remodeling of displaced supracondylar humerus fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation. In total, 49 patients (11 boys and 38 girls) with Gartland type III supracondylar humerus fractures treated with open reduction and cross-pin fixation were retrospectively evaluated. The mean follow-up time was 22.4 years (range, 10.6-37.5 years). The Flynn criteria were used to assess the cosmetic and functional outcomes. Baumann's angle, the lateral rotational percentage, the humerus-elbow-wrist angle, and the humeral condylar angle were obtained from follow-up radiographs. The flexion and extension deficits compared with the uninjured side were measured at the last follow-up. According to the Flynn criteria, the cosmetic outcomes were satisfactory in 93.9% of the patients, and the functional outcomes were satisfactory in 83.7% of the patients. The average flexion deficit was 5° ± 8°, and the average extension deficit was 4° ± 5°. At the final follow-up, the mean difference in the humerus-elbow-wrist angle and the humeral condylar angle between the injured and uninjured sides was -4° ± 7° and 0° ± 3°. We identified the remodeling in the sagittal plane in supracondylar humerus fractures that had been united in flexion. Satisfactory functional and cosmetic results were obtained with the open reduction and internal fixation of displaced supracondylar fractures of the humerus, and no degenerative changes were observed at the long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Single-stage posterior vertebral column resection and internal fixation for old fracture-dislocations of thoracolumbar spine: a case series and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tang, Huan-Zhang; Xu, Hao; Yao, Xiao-Dong; Lin, Song-Qing

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of single-stage posterior vertebral column resection for old thoracolumbar fracture-dislocations with spinal cord injury. From January 2007 to June 2013, twelve male patients (average age, 32.6 years; range 19-57 years) with old fracture-dislocations of the thoracolumbar spine and spinal cord injury underwent single-stage posterior vertebral column resection and internal fixation. All patients were assessed for relief of the pain and restoration of neurologic function. Postoperative Cobb angle was measured and bone graft fusion was evaluated by X-ray. A systematic review of 25 studies evaluating surgical management of thoracolumbar fractures with spinal cord injuries was also performed. From our case series, six of the nine patients with Frankel grade A had significant improvement in urination and defecation after surgery. The three patients with Frankel grades B and C had progression of 1-2 grades after surgery. Bony fusion was achieved and local back pain was relieved in all patients after surgery. From our systematic review of 25 studies, the majority of patients had improved back pain, the postoperative kyphotic angle was significantly reduced compared with pre-operative kyphotic angle. Single-stage posterior vertebral column resection and internal fixation for old thoracolumbar fracture-dislocations is an ideal treatment allowing for thorough decompression, relief of pain, correction of deformities, and restoration of spinal stability. IV.

  6. 76 FR 18620 - Operating Limitations at John F. Kennedy International Airport

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Operating Limitations at John F. Kennedy International Airport AGENCY... amends the Order Limiting Operations at John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK) that published on... until the final Congestion Management Rule for LaGuardia Airport, John F. Kennedy International Airport...

  7. Internal fixation of complex fractures of the tarsal navicular with locking plates. A report of 10 cases.

    PubMed

    Cronier, P; Frin, J-M; Steiger, V; Bigorre, N; Talha, A

    2013-06-01

    Tarsal navicular fractures are rare and treatment of comminuted fractures is especially difficult. Since 2007, the authors have had access to 3D reconstruction from CT scan images and specific locking plates, and they decided to evaluate whether these elements improved management of these severe cases. Between 2007 and 2011, 10 comminuted tarsal navicular fractures were treated in a prospective study. All of the fractures were evaluated by 3D reconstruction from CT scan images, with suppression of the posterior tarsal bones. The surgical approach was chosen according to the type of lesion. Reduction was achieved with a mini-distractor when necessary, and stabilized by AO locking plate fixation (Synthes™). Patient follow-up included a clinical and radiological evaluation (Maryland Foot score, AOFAS score). Eight patients underwent postoperative CT scan. All patients were followed up after a mean 20.5 months. Union was obtained in all patients and arthrodesis was not necessary in any of them. The mean Maryland Foot score was 92.8/100, and the AOFAS score 90.6/100. One patient with an associated comminuted calcaneal fracture had minimal sequella from a compartment syndrome of the foot. The authors did not find any series in the literature that reported evaluating tarsal navicular fractures by 3D reconstruction from CT scan images. The images obtained after suppression of the posterior tarsal bones systematically showed a lateral plantar fragment attached to the plantar calcaneonavicular ligament, which is essential for stability, and which helped determine the reduction technique. Locking plate fixation of these fractures has never been reported. Comminuted fractures of the tarsal navicular were successfully treated with specific imaging techniques in particular 3D reconstructions of CT scan images to choose the surgical approach and the reduction technique. Locking plate fixation of the navicular seems to be a satisfactory solution for the treatment of these

  8. Comparison of double dynamic compression plating versus two configurations of an internal veterinary fixation device: Results of in vitro mechanical testing using a bone substitute.

    PubMed

    Haerdi-Landerer, Christina; Steiner, Adrian; Linke, Berend; Wahl, Dieter; Schneider, Erich; Hehli, Markus; Frei, Reto; Auer, Jörg A

    2002-01-01

    To compare the mechanical properties of 2 configurations of a veterinary fixation system (VFS) for large animal long bones with dynamic compression plating (DCP). Eighteen pairs of Canevasit tubes (Canevasit; Amsler und Frei, Schinznach Dorf, Switzerland) (length, 170 mm; diameter, 47.5 mm; cortex thickness, 10 mm), aligned with a 10-mm gap, and stabilized with 2 DCP or 2 VFS implants. Three groups (n = 6) were compared. Group 1 Canevasit tubes were stabilized with two 10-hole, broad 4.5-mm stainless steel DCP applied with both plates centered over the gap, in orthogonal planes parallel to the long axis of the tubes and staggered to allow bicortical fixation with ten 4.5-mm, 52-mm-long cortex screws each. Group 2 tubes were stabilized similarly with 2 VFS implants, each composed of a stainless steel rod (length, 167 mm; diameter, 8 mm), and 10 clamps were applied in alternating fashion left and right on the rod and fixed bicortically with ten 4.5-mm, 52-mm-long, cortex screws. Group 3 tubes were stabilized similarly, but using only 6 clamps/rod. All groups were tested initially in torsion within elastic limits and subsequently in 4-point bending, with 1 implant on the tension side, until gap closure occurred. None of the constructs failed, but all had plastic deformation after 4-point bending. No statistically significant differences were found among the 3 groups in torsional stiffness. Double DCP fixation was significantly stiffer and stronger in 4-point bending, compared with both configurations of double VFS fixation. The plate design was favored in this study. The VFS system may have to be adapted before further tests are conducted. Test modalities have to be chosen closer to clinical conditions (real bone, cyclic loading, closed gap). The veterinary fixation system has not yet proven its advantages for large animal long bone fracture repair. From the pure mechanical point of view, double DCP is the favored method for the treatment mentioned. Copyright 2002 by

  9. The International Baccalaureate and "Growth Scepticism": A "Social Limits" Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunnell, Tristan

    2011-01-01

    The number of schools offering the programmes of the International Baccalaureate (IB) hit 3000 in July 2010. Since 2004 the IB has aimed for further growth within a "wider access" and "greater impact" paradigm. A "further" 7000 schools are expected to be involved by 2020. However, there is now considerable concern about growth, especially within…

  10. The International Baccalaureate and "Growth Scepticism": A "Social Limits" Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunnell, Tristan

    2011-01-01

    The number of schools offering the programmes of the International Baccalaureate (IB) hit 3000 in July 2010. Since 2004 the IB has aimed for further growth within a "wider access" and "greater impact" paradigm. A "further" 7000 schools are expected to be involved by 2020. However, there is now considerable concern about growth, especially within…

  11. High incidence of osteochondral lesions after open reduction and internal fixation of displaced ankle fractures: Medium-term follow-up of 100 cases.

    PubMed

    Regier, Marc; Petersen, Jan Philipp; Hamurcu, Ahmet; Vettorazzi, Eik; Behzadi, Cyrus; Hoffmann, Michael; Großterlinden, Lars G; Fensky, Florian; Klatte, Till Orla; Weiser, Lukas; Rueger, Johannes M; Spiro, Alexander S

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of osteochondral lesions (OCLs) in association with displaced ankle fractures has only been examined in two previous studies. In both studies magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed prior to open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Because MRI may overdiagnose or overestimate the extent of OCLs in an acute trauma setting the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of OCLs after ORIF of displaced ankle fractures using MRI at medium-term follow-up, and to analyse if the severity of fracture or the clinical outcome correlates with the incidence of OCLs. Following institutional review board approval a total of 100 patients (mean age, 41.3 years; range, 17.9-64.3 years) with a displaced ankle fracture who had undergone ORIF according to the AO principles were included in this study. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot score was used to quantify the clinical outcome and MR images were evaluated for OCLs of the talus and distal tibia after a mean of 34.5 months (range, 17.5-54.1 months). OCLs were found in 40.4% of the patients. Logistic regression revealed a significant correlation between the severity of fracture and the incidence of OCLs. Patients with a trimalleolar fracture (p=0.04) or an ankle fracture dislocation (p=0.003) had a significantly higher risk for developing an OCL compared to those with a type B fracture. Logistic regression also demonstrated a significant correlation between the clinical outcome (AOFAS score) and the incidence of OCLs (p=0.01). The risk for developing an OCL increases up to 5.6% when the AOFAS score decreases by one point. OCLs were frequently found in association with acute ankle fractures at medium-term follow-up, and the severity of fracture was associated with an increased number of OCLs. Considering the disadvantages of MRI including the high cost and limited availability, the results of this study may help to explain why anatomic surgical realignment of displaced

  12. Metallic artifacts from internal scaphoid fracture fixation screws: comparison between C-arm flat-panel, cone-beam, and multidetector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Finkenstaedt, Tim; Morsbach, Fabian; Calcagni, Maurizio; Vich, Magdalena; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Alkadhi, Hatem; Runge, Val M; Andreisek, Gustav; Guggenberger, Roman

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare image quality and extent of artifacts from scaphoid fracture fixation screws using different computed tomography (CT) modalities and radiation dose protocols. Imaging of 6 cadaveric wrists with artificial scaphoid fractures and different fixation screws was performed in 2 screw positions (45° and 90° orientation in relation to the x/y-axis) using multidetector CT (MDCT) and 2 flat-panel CT modalities, C-arm flat-panel CT (FPCT) and cone-beam CT (CBCT), the latter 2 with low and standard radiation dose protocols. Mean cartilage attenuation and metal artifact-induced absolute Hounsfield unit changes (= artifact extent) were measured. Two independent radiologists evaluated different image quality criteria using a 5-point Likert-scale. Interreader agreements (Cohen κ) were calculated. Mean absolute Hounsfield unit changes and quality ratings were compared using Friedman and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Artifact extent was significantly smaller for MDCT and standard-dose FPCT compared with CBCT low- and standard-dose acquisitions (all P < 0.05). No significant differences in artifact extent among different screw types and scanning positions were noted (P > 0.05). Both MDCT and FPCT standard-dose protocols showed equal ratings for screw bone interface, fracture line, and trabecular bone evaluation (P = 0.06, 0.2, and 0.2, respectively) and performed significantly better than FPCT low- and CBCT low- and standard-dose acquisitions (all P < 0.05). Good interreader agreement was found for image quality comparisons (Cohen κ = 0.76-0.78). Both MDCT and FPCT standard-dose acquisition showed comparatively less metal-induced artifacts and better overall image quality compared with FPCT low-dose and both CBCT acquisitions. Flat-panel CT may provide sufficient image quality to serve as a versatile CT alternative for postoperative imaging of internally fixated wrist fractures.

  13. Regional alterations in long bone /sup 85/Sr clearance produced by internal fixation devices. Part II. Histomorphometry

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, D.J.; Daum, W.J.; Calhoun, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of each of the surgical stages involved in compression plating on the development of cortical thinning and porosity were assessed in the intact midshaft, stress-shielded femoral segments of adult mongrel dogs 6 months postoperatively. The data were evaluated in terms of a postsurgical tetracycline-based measure of remodeling and terminal /sup 85/Sr clearance (SrC) values for the plated segments of bone. Drilling had no effect on any parameter. Screw application was associated with minimal cortical thinning (p less than 0.05), while plate fixation clearly promoted thinning (p less than 0.01) and porosity (p less than 0.05). The percentage of labeled osteons, a measure of remodeling activity, increased only after plate fixation (p less than 0.05), and the labeling patterns suggested that most osteons had formed during the first 4 postsurgical months. That none of these changes were correlated with the 6-month SrC values suggests that the development of plate-induced osteopenia involves disparate histomorphometric time constants, rather than lack of any association.

  14. Tolerance limits and methodology: effect on international trade.

    PubMed

    Lupien, J R; Kenny, M F

    1998-11-01

    Microbiological contamination of foods with Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and other pathogens and toxins and chemical and environmental contaminants can cause serious health and trade problems in the international trade of foods. Consequently, a system of monitoring and surveillance of the quality and safety of imported foods can have a significant impact on food trade between two or more countries. The World Trade Organization (WTO) provides a framework for ensuring fair trade and harmonizing standards and import requirements on foods traded, through the Agreements on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures and Technical Barriers to Trade. Countries are required to base their standards on science, to base programs on risk analysis methodologies, and to develop ways of achieving equivalence between methods of inspection, analysis, and certification between trading countries. To facilitate the harmonization of standards the WTO recommends the use of standards, guidelines, and recommendations developed by the Codex Alimentarius. Other international cooperative measures with the objective of assisting trade include the accreditation of laboratories that conform to international standards and the work of the Codex Committee on Food Import and Export Inspection and Certification on equivalency and harmonization.

  15. International pact limits airline's liability for needle injury.

    PubMed

    1998-09-18

    [Name removed] sued Mexicana de Aviacion S.A. de C.V. for liability after he was pricked in the leg by a hypodermic needle that was found in the plane's seat cushion. A Federal judge ruled that since liability claims resulting from injuries on international flights are covered by the Warsaw Convention, [name removed] could not recover more than $75,000 for his fear-of-AIDS liability lawsuit. The judge also stated that the Signature Support Corporation, a second defendant named in the case because they are subcontracted to clean Mexicana's planes, may also be covered by the Warsaw Convention.

  16. Triceps-sparing approach for open reduction and internal fixation of neglected displaced supracondylar and distal humeral fractures in children.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Ahmed Shawkat

    2015-06-01

    Supracondylar humeral fractures are one of the most common skeletal injuries in children. In cases of displacement and instability, the standard procedure is early closed reduction and percutaneous Kirschner wire fixation. However, between 10 and 20 % of patients present late. According to the literature, patients with neglected fractures are those patients who presented for treatment after 14 days of injury. The delay is either due to lack of medical facilities or social and financial constraints. The neglected cases are often closed injuries with no vascular compromise. However, the elbow may still be tense and swollen with abrasions or crusts. In neglected cases, especially after early appearance of callus, there is no place for closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. Traditionally, distal humeral fractures have been managed with surgical approaches that disrupt the extensor mechanism with less satisfactory functional outcome due to triceps weakness and elbow stiffness. The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome of delayed open reduction using the triceps-sparing approach and Kirschner wire fixation for treatment of neglected, displaced supracondylar and distal humeral fractures in children. This prospective study included 15 children who had neglected displaced supracondylar and distal humeral fractures. All patients were completely evaluated clinically and radiologically before intervention, after surgery and during the follow-up. The follow-up period ranged from 8 to 49 months, with a mean period of 17 months. Functional outcome was evaluated according to the Mayo Elbow Performance Index (MEPI) and Mark functional criteria. All fractures united in a mean duration of 7.2 weeks (range 5-10 weeks) with no secondary displacement or mal-union. Excellent results were found at the last follow-up in 13 of the 15 patients studied (86.66 %), while good results were found in two patients (13.33 %) according to the MEPI scale. According to the Mark

  17. Expansive Open-Door Cervical Laminoplasty: In Situ Reconstruction of Extensor Muscle Insertion on the C2 Spinous Process Combined With Titanium Miniplates Internal Fixation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhaohui; Chen, Weishan; Yan, Shigui; Li, Wanli; Qian, Shengjun

    2015-07-01

    Retrospective cohort study. To evaluate efficacy and relevant problems of in situ reconstruction of extensor muscle insertion on the C2 spinous process combined with titanium miniplates internal fixation in expansive open-door cervical laminoplasty in order to improve surgical treatment effect. Expansive open-door cervical laminoplasty has been widely applied in clinical practice, but there are a series of postoperative problems. Therefore, decreasing postoperative complications in order to more effectively relieve symptoms remains a subject for additional research. From October 2011 to September 2013, a total of 60 patients who suffered cervical canal stenosis were treated by expansive open-door laminoplasty with in situ reconstruction of extensor muscle insertion on the C2 spinous process combined with titanium miniplates internal fixation. Changes of cervical curvature index (CI) and range of motion (ROM) were calculated using data from preoperative and postoperative cervical spine X-ray examinations. Clinical function was scored using the Japanese Orthopedics Association Scoring System (JOA) and the neck disability index (NDI). The mean CI before the operation and at 1-year postoperation were 10.49% ± 3.93% and 14.14 ± 2.85 (P < 0.05). The mean ROM values were 43.35 ± 7.55 before the operation, 34.83 ± 7.41 at 1-year postoperation (P < 0.05). The NDI scores decreased from 19.42 ± 4.12 to 7.37 ± 2.58, and the JOA scores increased from 8.87 ± 1.99 to 13.55 ± 1.72, representing significant improvement (P < 0.05). One patient had postoperative C5 nerve root palsy and completely recovered 1 month later. Neither collapse nor door closure in the open-door side occurred in any of the patients. Expansive open-door cervical laminoplasty with in situ reconstruction of extensor muscle insertion on the C2 spinous process combined with titanium miniplates internal fixation is a safe and effective surgical method, and can

  18. Comparative analysis of international standards for the fatigue testing of posterior spinal fixation systems: the importance of preload in ISO 12189.

    PubMed

    La Barbera, Luigi; Ottardi, Claudia; Villa, Tomaso

    2015-10-01

    Preclinical evaluation of the mechanical reliability of fixation devices is a mandatory activity before their introduction into market. There are two standardized protocols for preclinical testing of spinal implants. The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) recommends the F1717 standard, which describes a vertebrectomy condition that is relatively simple to implement, whereas the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) suggests the 12189 standard, which describes a more complex physiological anterior support-based setup. Moreover, ASTM F1717 is nowadays well established, whereas ISO 12189 has received little attention: A few studies tried to accurately describe the ISO experimental procedure through numeric models, but these studies totally neglect the recommended precompression step. This study aimed to build up a reliable, validated numeric model capable of describing the stress on the rods of a spinal fixator assembled according to ISO 12189 standard procedure. Such a model would more adequately represent the in vitro testing condition. This study used finite element (FE) simulations and experimental validation testing. An FE model of the ISO setup was built to calculate the stress on the rods. Simulation was validated by comparison with experimental strain gauges measurements. The same fixator has been previously virtually mounted in an L2-L4 FE model of the lumbar spine, and stresses in the rods were calculated when the spine was subjected to physiological forces and moments. The comparison between the FE predictions and experimental measurements is in good agreement, thus confirming the suitability of the FE method to evaluate the stresses in the device. The initial precompression induces a significant extension of the assembled construct. As the applied load increases, the initial extension is gradually compensated, so that at peak load the rods are bent in flexion: The final stress value predicted is thus reduced to about 50%, if

  19. Method for the purification of tissue DNA suitable for PCR after fixation with Bouin's fluid. Uses and limitations in microsatellite typing.

    PubMed

    Longy, M; Duboue, B; Soubeyran, P; Moynet, D

    1997-06-01

    Paraffin-embedded tissues are often the only available material to perform polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based analysis in various medical purposes. Unfortunately, the use in many countries of acid fixatives such as Bouin's fluid limits the use of such a material for molecular analysis. This article reports the methodological details of a DNA purification technique from Bouin-fixed and paraffin-embedded samples based on a double washing, in an alcohol then in an aqueous medium, of the DNA, which enables PCR reactions from this material. Comparison of the results with those obtained by organic solvent purification of DNA from frozen tissue fragments showed excellent reproducibility in terms of detection of an amplification product on agarose gel. However, differences between the methods were quite frequently seen in the allelic typing profile of microsatellite sequences (CA repeats), either as neo-alleles or by the loss of normal alleles in the fixed materials that constitute a limitation in using DNA from Bouin-fixed tissue as a substrate for fine allelotyping.

  20. Iliopsoas bursitis-associated femoral neuropathy exacerbated after internal fixation of an intertrochanteric hip fracture in rheumatoid arthritis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tokita, Asami; Ikari, Katsunori; Tsukahara, So; Toki, Hiroe; Miyawaki, Motoko; Mochizuki, Takeshi; Kawamura, Koichiro; Tomatsu, Taisuke; Momohara, Shigeki

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a 63-year-old woman with a six-year history of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and a left iliopsoas bursitis. Radiography had detected destructive changes in her hip joint associated with her bursitis, and she had reported some paresthesia along the left anterior distal thigh. Her pain and numbness remained tolerable, and her disease activity was well controlled until she accidentally fell on the floor, which resulted in an unstable intertrochanteric fracture of left femur with displacement of the proximal portion. The fracture was successfully treated with open reduction and internal fixation, but after the surgery, her femoral nerve palsy worsened. She subsequently underwent bursa excision after the failure of conservative treatment. Accordingly, after bursa excision, the postoperative course was uneventful, and her neurological symptoms gradually disappeared. We would recommend that bursa excision be considered even in cases of iliopsoas bursitis associated with mild femoral neuropathy when destructive changes in the hip joint are also present.

  1. Arterial Injury to the Profunda Femoris Artery following Internal Fixation of a Neck of Femur Fracture with a Compression Hip Screw.

    PubMed

    Craxford, Simon; Gale, Michael; Lammin, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of an 82-year-old woman who developed extensive proximal thigh swelling and persistent anaemia following internal fixation of an extracapsular neck of femur fracture with a dynamic hip screw (DHS). This was revealed to be a pseudoaneurysm of a branch of profunda femoris artery on angiography. Her case was further complicated by a concurrent pulmonary embolism (PE). She underwent endovascular coil embolisation of the pseudoaneurysm. An IVC filter was inserted and the patient was fully anticoagulated once it had been ensured that there was no active bleeding. In this case, we review the potential for anatomical variations in the blood supply to this region and discuss treatment options for a complicated patient. We recommend that a pseudoaneurysm should be part of a differential diagnosis for postoperative patients with anaemia refractory to blood transfusion so as not to miss this rare but potentially serious complication.

  2. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis with a locking compression plate is superior to open reduction and internal fixation in the management of the proximal humerus fractures.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Xiao, Baojun; Ma, Xiucai; Fu, Dehao; Yang, Shuhua

    2014-06-16

    The use of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) via anterolateral deltoid splitting has good outcomes in the management of proximal humerus fractures. While using this approach has several advantages, including minimal soft tissue disruption, preservation of natural biology and minimal blood loss, there is an increased risk for axillary nerve damage. This study compared the advantages and clinical and radiological outcomes of MIPO or open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) in patients with proximal humerus fractures. A matched-pair analysis was performed, and patient groups were matched according to age (±3 years), sex and fracture type. Forty-three pairs of patients (average age: MIPO, 63 and ORIF, 61) with a minimum follow-up of 12 months were enrolled in the study group. The patients were investigated radiographically and clinically using the Constant score. The MIPO technique required less surgery time and caused less blood loss compared to ORIF (p < 0.01). In addition, MIPO required a smaller incision, resulted in less scarring, and was cosmetically more appealing and acceptable to female patients than ORIF. Following MIPO, patients had better functional results at 3 and 6 months, with better outcomes, less pain, higher satisfaction in activities of daily living, and a higher range of motion when compared to ORIF (p < 0.05). Fracture configuration, according to the AO/ASIF(Association for the Study of Internal Fixation) fracture classification, did not significantly influence the functional results. The complication rate was comparable between both groups. The use of MIPO with a locking compression plate in the management of proximal humerus fractures is a safe and superior option compared to ORIF.

  3. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis with a locking compression plate is superior to open reduction and internal fixation in the management of the proximal humerus fractures

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) via anterolateral deltoid splitting has good outcomes in the management of proximal humerus fractures. While using this approach has several advantages, including minimal soft tissue disruption, preservation of natural biology and minimal blood loss, there is an increased risk for axillary nerve damage. This study compared the advantages and clinical and radiological outcomes of MIPO or open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) in patients with proximal humerus fractures. Methods A matched-pair analysis was performed, and patient groups were matched according to age (±3 years), sex and fracture type. Forty-three pairs of patients (average age: MIPO, 63 and ORIF, 61) with a minimum follow-up of 12 months were enrolled in the study group. The patients were investigated radiographically and clinically using the Constant score. Results The MIPO technique required less surgery time and caused less blood loss compared to ORIF (p < 0.01). In addition, MIPO required a smaller incision, resulted in less scarring, and was cosmetically more appealing and acceptable to female patients than ORIF. Following MIPO, patients had better functional results at 3 and 6 months, with better outcomes, less pain, higher satisfaction in activities of daily living, and a higher range of motion when compared to ORIF (p < 0.05). Fracture configuration, according to the AO/ASIF(Association for the Study of Internal Fixation) fracture classification, did not significantly influence the functional results. The complication rate was comparable between both groups. Conclusion The use of MIPO with a locking compression plate in the management of proximal humerus fractures is a safe and superior option compared to ORIF. PMID:24934152

  4. Mechanical Comparison of Headless Screw Fixation and Locking Plate Fixation for Talar Neck Fractures.

    PubMed

    Karakasli, Ahmet; Hapa, Onur; Erduran, Mehmet; Dincer, Cemal; Cecen, Berivan; Havitcioglu, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    For talar neck fractures, open reduction and internal fixation have been thought to facilitate revascularization and prevent osteonecrosis. Newer screw systems allow for placement of cannulated headless screws, which provide compression by virtue of a variable pitch thread. The present study compared the biomechanical fixation strength of cannulated headless variable-pitch screw fixation and locking plate fixation. A reproducible talar neck fracture was created in 14 fresh cadaver talar necks. Talar head fixation was then performed using 2 cannulated headless variable-pitch 4-mm/5-mm diameter (4/5) screws (Acutrak; Acumed, Hillsboro, OR) and locking plate fixation. Headless variable-pitch screw fixation had lower failure displacement than did locking plate fixation. No statistically significant differences were found in failure stiffness, yield stiffness (p = .655), yield load (p = .142), or ultimate load between the 2 fixation techniques. Cannulated headless variable-pitch screw fixation resulted in better failure displacement than locking plate fixation in a cadaveric talus model and could be considered a viable option for talus fracture fixation. Headless, fully threaded, variable-pitch screw fixation has inherent advantages compared with locking plate fixation, because it might cause less damage to the articular surface and can compress the fracture for improved reduction. Additionally, plate fixation can increase the risk of avascular necrosis owing to the wider incision and dissection of soft tissues.

  5. Internal fixation of S1-S3 iliosacral screws and pubic screw as the best configuration for unstable pelvic fracture with unilateral vertical sacral fracture (AO type C1.3).

    PubMed

    Dilogo, Ismail Hadisoebroto; Satria, Oryza; Fiolin, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Although internal fixation is the definitive treatment in unstable pelvic fractures with disruption of the anterior arch and a vertical fracture of the sacrum (AO type C1.3), there have been no agreement of the best technique of internal fixation yet. We aimed to derive comparable objective data on stiffness and load to failure in this type of fracture fixations. Synbone was modified into AO type C1.3 fracture model, while treatments were divided into six internal fixation treatment groups using tension band plate (TBP), symphysis pubis plate (SP) with iliosacral screw at S1 and S2 (IS S1-S2), pubic screw (PS) with iliosacral TBP, PS and IS S1-S2, SP and IS S1-S3, PS and S1-S3 and finally PS and IS S1-S3. Sensor was applied to detect the shifting and rotation of fracture fragments. Mechanical strength test conducted with the application of axial force on the sacrum vertebra (S1). The highest translational stiffness was observed in the group IS S1-S3 + PS (830.36 N/mm, p = 0.031) and there was no difference on the rigidity of the rotation between the groups posterior fixation using IS S1-S2 and IS S1-S3 ( p = 0.51). Meanwhile the highest load to failure was found in group IS S1-S3 + PS (1522.20 N). PS provided advantages compared to the use of plate. Group of PS and S1-S3 IS is the configuration of internal fixation with best translational and rotational stiffness and the largest load to failure compared to other techniques in AO type C1.3 fracture.

  6. Surgical fixation of sternal fractures: preoperative planning and a safe surgical technique using locked titanium plates and depth limited drilling.

    PubMed

    Schulz-Drost, Stefan; Oppel, Pascal; Grupp, Sina; Schmitt, Sonja; Carbon, Roman Th; Mauerer, Andreas; Hennig, Friedrich F; Buder, Thomas

    2015-01-05

    Different ways to stabilize a sternal fracture are described in literature. Respecting different mechanisms of trauma such as the direct impact to the anterior chest wall or the flexion-compression injury of the trunk, there is a need to retain each sternal fragment in the correct position while neutralizing shearing forces to the sternum. Anterior sternal plating provides the best stability and is therefore increasingly used in most cases. However, many surgeons are reluctant to perform sternal osteosynthesis due to possible complications such as difficulties in preoperative planning, severe injuries to mediastinal organs, or failure of the performed method. This manuscript describes one possible safe way to stabilize different types of sternal fractures in a step by step guidance for anterior sternal plating using low profile locking titanium plates. Before surgical treatment, a detailed survey of the patient and a three dimensional reconstructed computed tomography is taken out to get detailed information of the fracture's morphology. The surgical approach is usually a midline incision. Its position can be described by measuring the distance from upper sternal edge to the fracture and its length can be approximated by the summation of 60 mm for the basis incision, the thickness of presternal soft tissue and the greatest distance between the fragments in case of multiple fractures. Performing subperiosteal dissection along the sternum while reducing the fracture, using depth limited drilling, and fixing the plates prevents injuries to mediastinal organs and vessels. Transverse fractures and oblique fractures at the corpus sterni are plated longitudinally, whereas oblique fractures of manubrium, sternocostal separation and any longitudinally fracture needs to be stabilized by a transverse plate from rib to sternum to rib. Usually the high convenience of a patient is seen during follow up as well as a precise reconstruction of the sternal morphology.

  7. Surgical Fixation of Sternal Fractures: Preoperative Planning and a Safe Surgical Technique Using Locked Titanium Plates and Depth Limited Drilling

    PubMed Central

    Schulz-Drost, Stefan; Oppel, Pascal; Grupp, Sina; Schmitt, Sonja; Carbon, Roman Th.; Mauerer, Andreas; Hennig, Friedrich F.; Buder, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Different ways to stabilize a sternal fracture are described in literature. Respecting different mechanisms of trauma such as the direct impact to the anterior chest wall or the flexion-compression injury of the trunk, there is a need to retain each sternal fragment in the correct position while neutralizing shearing forces to the sternum. Anterior sternal plating provides the best stability and is therefore increasingly used in most cases. However, many surgeons are reluctant to perform sternal osteosynthesis due to possible complications such as difficulties in preoperative planning, severe injuries to mediastinal organs, or failure of the performed method. This manuscript describes one possible safe way to stabilize different types of sternal fractures in a step by step guidance for anterior sternal plating using low profile locking titanium plates. Before surgical treatment, a detailed survey of the patient and a three dimensional reconstructed computed tomography is taken out to get detailed information of the fracture’s morphology. The surgical approach is usually a midline incision. Its position can be described by measuring the distance from upper sternal edge to the fracture and its length can be approximated by the summation of 60 mm for the basis incision, the thickness of presternal soft tissue and the greatest distance between the fragments in case of multiple fractures. Performing subperiosteal dissection along the sternum while reducing the fracture, using depth limited drilling, and fixing the plates prevents injuries to mediastinal organs and vessels. Transverse fractures and oblique fractures at the corpus sterni are plated longitudinally, whereas oblique fractures of manubrium, sternocostal separation and any longitudinally fracture needs to be stabilized by a transverse plate from rib to sternum to rib. Usually the high convenience of a patient is seen during follow up as well as a precise reconstruction of the sternal morphology. PMID

  8. EVALUATION OF SURGICAL TREATMENT OF FRACTURES OF THORACOLUMBAR SPINE WITH THIRD-GENERATION MATERIAL FOR INTERNAL FIXATION

    PubMed Central

    Bortoletto, Adalberto; Rodrigues, Luiz Cláudio Lacerda; Matsumoto, Marcelo Hide

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the functional results from patients with surgical fractures in the thoracolumbar spine. Method: A prospective study including 100 patients with spinal fractures in the thoracic and lumbar segments was conducted. The lesions were classified in accordance with the AO system, and the patients were treated surgically. The presence of early kyphosis and its evolution after the surgical intervention, and the presence of postoperative pain and its evolution up to the 24th week after the surgery, were evaluated. We compared our data with the literature. Results: One hundred surgical patients were analyzed, of which 37 were type A, 46 were type B and 17 were Type C. Patients who presented Frankel A kept their clinical status, but patients with Frankel B or higher evolved with some improvement. The average improvement in pain based on a visual analog scale was more than four points. All the patients were able to return to their daily routine activities, although we did not take the return to work to be an assessment criterion. Conclusion: Despite controversy regarding the indications for surgery in cases of fractured spine, we believe that the method that we used was satisfactory because of the good results and low complication rate. However, more randomized prospective studies with longer follow-up are needed in order to evaluate this type of fixation. PMID:27047822

  9. [Long-term results of calcaneal fracture treatment by open reduction and internal fixation using a calcaneal locking compression plate from an extended lateral approach].

    PubMed

    Zeman, P; Zeman, J; Matejka, J; Koudela, K

    2008-12-01

    To report on the surgical treatment of intra-articular calcaneal fractures by open reduction and internal fixation with a calcaneal locking compression plate (LCP) from an extended lateral approach, and to retrospectively analyze the mid-term results in a group of patients treated by this technique. In the period from August 2005 till March 2007, a total of 49 patients with 61 calcaneal fractures were treated. Of these, 11 (18 %) were treated conservatively. Reduction combined with Kirschner-wire fixation was used in four fractures (6.6 %). Open reduction with internal calcaneal LCP fixation (ORIF- calcaneal LCP) from an extended lateral approach was carried out to treat 46 fractures (75.4 %) in 38 patients. The group evaluated here comprised 29 patients with 33 calcaneal fractures treated by ORIF-calcaneal LCP at a follow-up longer than 6 months. The fractures were classified on the basis of computer tomography (CT) findings as Sanders types I to IV. The group had two woman (6.9 %) and 27 men (93.1 %) with an average age of 34.2 years (range, 19-55 years). In 11 fractures (33.3 %), the primary treatment included filling a central cancellous bone defect area. Calcium phosphate bone substitute material (resorbable ChronOS) was used in nine cases (27.3 %), a self-solidifying hydroxyapatite implant was injected in two (6.1 %) cases (X3 Wright and Norian SRS, respectively), and a bone allograft was implanted in one case (3 %). Indicated for surgery were patients with an intra-articular calcaneal fracture, Sanders type II or type III, with articular surface displacement by more than 1 mm. Contraindications included age over sixty years, poor cooperation, smoking habits, peripheral vascular disease or skin infection. Surgery was performed only after oedema had resolved. The aim of our treatment was to achieve anatomical reconstruction of all articular surfaces, to restore the height, length, width and axis of the heel bone, to carry out primary stable osteosynthesis, and

  10. Open reduction and internal fixation of OTA type C2-C4 fractures of the calcaneus with a triple-plate technique.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Alexander; Müller, Jochen; Regazzoni, Pietro; Babst, Reto

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a surgical technique of open reduction and internal fixation of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures with 3 AO mini-fragment plates and to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcome of a consecutive group of patients after a mean follow-up of 41.7 months. A series of 54 patients (16 women and 38 men) with 62 calcaneal fractures were treated over a period of 6.5 years. Forty-five patients with 50 calcaneal fractures were completely clinically and radiologically followed up. Clinical follow-up included assessment of range of motion, pain according to a visual analogue scale, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hindfoot score, and the short-form 36 health survey. Radiological follow-up included plain axial and lateral radiographs and measurement of the Böhler's angle and Gissane's angle. Independent Student's t test and paired Student's t test were used alongside the chi-square test to compare clinical and radiological data and score values between different groups of patients. Eleven patients showed breakage of the osteosynthesis material during the healing process and 2 patients sustained deep wound infection requiring revision surgery. At the final follow-up all fractures had healed. The average range of motion was supination 26.4° (range 0° to 50°; SD 11.6°), pronation 15.4° (range 0° to 30°; SD 6.4°), dorsal extension 14.3° (range -10° to 30°; SD 8.0°), and plantarflexion 39.6° (range 20° to 65°; SD 11.7°). Patients with OTA type C4 fractures achieved significantly lower supination (p < .01) and plantarflexion (p < .01) compared with other fracture types. The mean visual analog scale pain score was 3.6 (range 0 to 8; SD 2.3) points, average American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hindfoot score was 70.8 (range 33 to 100; SD 17.1) points, and the mean short-form 36 score was 60.98 (range 22.9 to 93.0; SD 18.4) points. The mean postoperative Böhler's angle was 28.9° (range 8

  11. Internal fixation of intra-capsular proximal femoral fractures in patients older than 80 years: Still relevant? Multivariate analysis of a prospective multicentre cohort.

    PubMed

    Reina, N; Bonnevialle, P; Rubens Duval, B; Adam, P; Loubignac, F; Favier, T; Massin, P

    2017-02-01

    Arthroplasty is now widely used to treat intra-capsular proximal femoral fractures (PFFs) in older patients, even when there is little or no displacement. However, whether arthroplasty is associated with lower mortality and complication rates in non-displaced or mildly displaced PFFs is unknown. The objectives of this prospective study were: (1) to evaluate early mortality rates with the two treatment methods, (2) to identify risk factors for complications, (3) and to identify predictors of functional decline. Arthroplasty and internal fixation produce similar outcomes in non-displaced fractures of patients older than 80 years with PFFs. This multicentre prospective study included consecutive patients older than 80 years who were managed for intra-capsular PFFs at eight centres in 2014. Biometric data and geriatric assessment scores (Parker Mobility Score, Katz Index of Independence, and Mini-Nutritional Assessment [MNA] score) were collected before and 6 months after surgery. Independent risk factors were sought by multivariate analysis. We included 418 females and 124 males with a mean age of 87±4years. The distribution of Garden stages was stage I, n=56; stage II, n=33; stage III, n=130; and stage IV, n=323. Arthroplasty was performed in 494 patients and internal fixation in 48 patients with non-displaced intra-capsular PFFs. Mortality after 6 months was 16.4% overall, with no significant difference between the two groups. By multivariate analysis, two factors were significantly associated with higher mortality, namely, male gender (odds ratio [OR], 3.24; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.0-5.84; P<0.0001) and high ASA score (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.07-2.26; P=0.019). Two factors were independently associated with lower mortality, with 75% predictive value, namely, high haematocrit (OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.7-0.9; P=0.001) and better Parker score (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.8; P=0.01). The cut-off values associated with a significant risk increase were 2 for the Parker

  12. CENTRIPETAL MOVEMENT OF THE CAPILLARIES IN THE CENTRAL MACULAR REGION AFTER INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Kazuyuki; Hangai, Masanori; Furukawa, Mariko; Suetsugu, Tetsuyuki; Ogino, Nobuchika

    2017-01-11

    To report a case that showed centripetal movements of the capillaries in the central macular region after vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling. A 57-year-old pseudophakic woman underwent successful vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling and air tamponade for a vitreomacular traction. Optical coherence tomography angiographic images of the 3 mm × 3 mm inner retinal vascular plexus were examined preoperatively and at 3 months postoperatively. The changes in 93 corresponding bifurcations of the capillaries were assessed. The majority of the bifurcations were displaced towards the fovea at 3 months after the vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling. Optical coherence tomography angiography was used to help visualize the centripetal movement of the inner retina around the fovea after the vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling.

  13. [External fixator: surgical technique, pinless fixator, change in procedure].

    PubMed

    Oberli, H; Frigg, R; Schenk, R

    1994-12-01

    External Fixation-Technique: The advantages of external over internal fixation are as follows: a) endosteal and periosteal blood supply is undisturbed, b) "low-tech" equipment may be used, c) secondary adjustments are possible and d) easy implant removal. These benefits however are outweighed by the main disadvantages of long term external fixation i.e. pin complications and delayed union of fractures. Better understanding of postoperative management and careful application of screws of improved design will lead to better results. Today's standard applications of external fixation for tibial fractures is a unilateral fixator, using Schanz screws. The pin-bone interface is the most critical site of all external fixation. By avoiding heat necrosis (low temperature drilling) and preventing micro motion at the pin-bone interface (by applying bending- or more recently radial-preload), pin complications such as infection and loosening can be reduced. Two Schanz screws are inserted into each main fragment and are connected with one short tube per fragment. The fracture is then reduced by using these tubes as handles. After reduction a third tube connects the first two by means of two tube-to-tube clamps. This type of fixation will easily allow for three dimensional secondary corrections of alignment. Approximately three weeks following the injury some motion at the fracture site will stimulate callus formation. This can be achieved by destabilisation, dynamisation or "active stimulation" of the fracture site [2]. Pinless fixator: The pinless external fixator holds the fragments firmly with pointed clamps that penetrate about one millimeter into cortical bone without entering and contaminating the medullary canal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. 14 CFR 121.513 - Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes. 121.513 Section 121.513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: airplanes. In place of the flight time limitations in §§ 121.503 through 121.511, a certificate...

  15. 14 CFR 121.513 - Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes. 121.513 Section 121.513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: airplanes. In place of the flight time limitations in §§ 121.503 through 121.511, a certificate...

  16. 14 CFR 121.513 - Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes. 121.513 Section 121.513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: airplanes. In place of the flight time limitations in §§ 121.503 through 121.511, a certificate holder...

  17. 14 CFR 121.513 - Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes. 121.513 Section 121.513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: airplanes. In place of the flight time limitations in §§ 121.503 through 121.511, a certificate holder...

  18. 14 CFR 121.513 - Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Overseas and international operations: airplanes. 121.513 Section 121.513 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: airplanes. In place of the flight time limitations in §§ 121.503 through 121.511, a certificate holder...

  19. Brilliant Blue G double staining enhances successful internal limiting membrane peeling with minimal adverse effect by low cellular permeability into live cells.

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, Toshio; Notomi, Shoji; Tachibana, Takashi; Oishi, Seiichiro; Asato, Ryo; Yamashita, Takehiro; Murakami, Yusuke; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Enaida, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Taiji; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2015-02-01

    Brilliant Blue G is used as a surgical adjuvant for retinal surgery. Although BBG double or multiple staining was reported, the effectiveness and safety of repeated staining is still elusive. To further examine the effectiveness and safety, we examined BBG in clinical cases in vivo, primary cell culture in vitro, and surgically resected specimen ex vivo. A retrospective interventional case series with in vitro and ex vivo studies were performed. Vitrectomy was performed in 28 cases of epiretinal membrane with BBG single to multiple staining. The surgically resected membranes were stained by BBG with or without cellular fixation. Primary cell cultures were examined with BBG and live/death cell markers, such as Calcein AM and TUNEL. Single staining provided satisfactory staining in seven cases. Double or multiple staining substantially visualized internal limiting membrane (21 cases), especially the edges of remaining internal limiting membrane (11 cases). Adverse retinal staining was not noted and the final visual acuity showed no difference with multiple staining. The live cells barely stained with BBG, while some dead cells were stained. Brilliant Blue G multiple staining substantially enhanced the visualization of internal limiting membrane. The absence of abnormal staining supports the safety of repeated BBG staining.

  20. Comparison of Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Plate Osteosynthesis and Open Reduction Internal Fixation on Proximal Humeral Fracture in Elder Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objective The study aims to compare minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) and open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) in the treatment of proximal humeral fracture in elder patients. Method PubMed, Medline, EMbase, Ovid, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wangfang, and VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals were searched to identify all relevant studies from inception to October 2016. Data were analyzed with Cochrane Collaboration's Review Manage 5.2. Results A total of 630 patients from 8 publications were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that MIPO was superior to ORIF in the treatment of proximal humeral fracture in elder patients. It was reflected in reducing blood loss, operation time, postoperative pain, or fracture healing time of the surgery and in improving recovery of muscle strength. Concerning complications, no significant difference was seen between MIPO and ORIF. Conclusion The MIPO was more suitable than ORIF for treating proximal humeral fracture in elder patients. PMID:28698871

  1. Preparation and characterization of biodegradable chitosan/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite rods via in situ hybridization: a potential material as internal fixation of bone fracture.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qiaoling; Li, Baoqiang; Wang, Mang; Shen, Jiacong

    2004-02-01

    A transparent and slight yellow chitosan (CS)/hydroxyapatite (HA) nanocomposite with high performed, potential application as internal fixation of bone fracture was prepared by a novel and simple in situ hybridization. The method solves the problem of the nano-sized particle aggregation in polymer matrix. XRD, TEM and SEM were used to determine component and morphology of the composite. Results indicated that nano-HA particles were dispersed well in CS matrix, which can also be proved by the transparent appearance of composite rod, and that the structure of composite is assembled by CS molecule in the order of layer-by-layer. The mechanical properties of the composite were evaluated by using bending strength and modulus, and compared with some other bone replacement materials such as PMMA and bone cement. The initial mechanical properties of bending strength and modulus of composite are 86 MPa and 3.4 GPa, respectively, which is double or triple times stronger than that of PMMA and bone cement. It was found that the bending strength and modulus of CS/HA with ratio of 100/5 (wt/wt) is slightly higher than that of pure CS rod. The addition of HA can also reduce the ratio of water absorption of composite, which postponed the retention of mechanical properties of CS/HA composite under moisture condition. The phenomenon can be predicted with the fit exponential function according the data measured.

  2. Long-term Results, Functional Outcomes and Complications after Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Neglected and Displaced Greater Tuberosity of Humerus Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Amroodi, Morteza Nakhaei; Behshad, Vahid; Motaghi, Paniz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Humerus fractures include 5% to 8% of total fractures. Non-union and delayed union of GT (GT) fractures is uncommon; however they present a challenge to the orthopedic surgeons. Significant controversy surrounds optimal treatment of neglected fractures. The purpose of this article was to perform a comparative study to evaluate the outcomes of open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of neglected GT fractures. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the results of surgical intervention in 12 patients with displaced nonunion of GT fractures who were referred to our center. Before and minimally 25 months after surgery ROM, muscle forces, Constant Shoulder Score (Constant-Murley score) (CSS), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Score and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) Score were all recorded. Additionally, the results were compared with undamaged shoulder. Results: Between March 2006 and January 2013, 12 patients underwent surgical intervention and followed for 36.2 months in average. All fractures healed. Anatomic reduction achieved only in 6 cases with no report of avascular necrosis or infection. All ROMs and muscle forces increased significantly (Mean Forward Flexion: 49.16 to 153.3, Mean Internal Rotation: 3 to 9, Mean External Rotation: -5 to 27.5) (P value<0.0001). All functional scores including CSS, VAS, ADL and ASES score improved significantly (Mean VAS: 6.5 to 1.3, Mean CSS: 29.83 to 86, Mean ADL: 6.6 to 27.1,: Mean ASES: 28.6 to 88.9) (P value<0.0001). Conclusion: ORIF for neglected and displaced GT fractures has satisfactory functional outcomes, despite of non-anatomical reduction of the fracture. PMID:27847845

  3. Mid- to long-term functional outcome after open reduction and internal fixation of tibial plateau fractures.

    PubMed

    van Dreumel, R L M; van Wunnik, B P W; Janssen, L; Simons, P C G; Janzing, H M J

    2015-08-01

    Tibial plateau fractures account for approximately 1% of all fractures. They usually occur after a direct high-energy trauma. Despite adequate treatment, these fractures can result in malalignment and secondary osteoarthritis (OA). Research concerning long-term functional outcome is limited. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate mid- to long-term functional outcome of surgically treated tibial plateau fractures. The secondary aim was to investigate whether radiological characteristics of OA one year after surgery are predictive of functional outcome at follow-up. All consecutive patients with fractures of the proximal tibia, which were surgically treated in our level-2 trauma centre between 2004 and 2010, were included in this study. Initial trauma radiographs were analysed for fracture classification, using both the Schatzker and AO/OTA classification systems, by three different raters. Immediate postoperative and 1-year postoperative radiographs were analysed for osteoarthritis by an experienced radiologist, using the Kellgren and Lawrence scale. Functional outcome of the included patients was measured using the Dutch version of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) questionnaire. Seventy one patients out of a group of 96 included patients completed the survey. Median KOOS scores are 89.8% for pain, 91.1% for 'other symptoms', 89.7% for daily function, 72.5% for sports and recreation and 75.0% for quality of life. Median KOOS overall score is 82.99%. We did not find a correlation between the KOOS scores and the absolute age for any of the subscales. There was no significant relationship between radiological characteristics of osteoarthritis and functional outcome. This is the first study to describe mid- to long-term functional outcome after ORIF for all types of tibial plateau fractures, with the use of the KOOS. Patients should be informed about the likelihood of lower functional outcome in the long-term. This study shows that

  4. Core-halo limit and internal dynamics of high intensity beams

    SciTech Connect

    Nghiem, P. A. P.; Valette, M.; Chauvin, N.; Pichoff, N.; Uriot, D.

    2015-08-15

    The dynamics of high-intensity beams largely depends on their internal space charge forces. These forces are responsible of non-linear coupling, emittance growth, and halo generation. They contribute to shape the beam density profile. As a consequence, an analysis of this profile can be a precious indicator capable of revealing the internal dynamics of the beam. This paper recalls the precise core-halo limit determination proposed earlier, then studies its behavior through a wide range of beam profiles, and finally shows its relevance as an indicator of the limit separating the two space charge field regimes of the core and the halo.

  5. Registration factors that limit international mobility of people holding physiotherapy qualifications: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Foo, Jonathan S; Storr, Michael; Maloney, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    There is no enforced international standardisation of the physiotherapy profession. Thus, registration is used in many countries to maintain standards of care and to protect the public. However, registration may also limit international workforce mobility. What is known about the professional registration factors that may limit the international mobility of people holding physiotherapy qualifications? Systematic review using an electronic database search and hand searching of the World Confederation for Physical Therapy and International Network of Physiotherapy Regulatory Authorities websites. Analysis was conducted using thematic analysis. 10 articles and eight websites were included from the search strategy. Data is representative of high-income English speaking countries. Four themes emerged regarding limitations to professional mobility: practice context, qualification recognition, verification of fitness to practice, and incidental limitations arising from the registration process. Professional mobility is limited by differences in physiotherapy education programmes, resulting in varying standards of competency. Thus, it is often necessary to verify clinical competencies through assessments, as well as determining professional attributes and ability to apply competencies in a different practice context, as part of the registration process. There has been little evaluation of registration practices, and at present, there is a need to re-evaluate current registration processes to ensure they are efficient and effective, thereby enhancing workforce mobility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of fracture healing after minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis or open reduction and internal fixation of coexisting radius and ulna fractures in dogs via ultrasonography and radiography.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Antonio; Risselada, Marije; Winter, Matthew D

    2012-09-15

    To evaluate fracture healing after minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) or open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of coexisting radius and ulna fractures in dogs via ultrasonography and radiography. Prospective cohort study. 16 dogs with radius-ulna fractures that underwent MIPO (n = 9; 2 dogs were subsequently not included in the analyses because of incomplete follow-up information) or ORIF (7). Dogs in the 2 treatment groups were matched by age, body weight, and configuration of the fractures. Fracture healing was evaluated with ultrasonography, power Doppler ultrasonography, and radiography every 3 to 4 weeks until healing was complete; a semiquantitative score based on the number of Doppler signals was used to characterize neovascularization, and subjective B-mode ultrasonographic and radiographic scores were assigned to classify healing. Fractures in dogs that underwent MIPO healed in significantly less time than did fractures in dogs that underwent ORIF (mean ± SD; 30 ± 10.5 days and 64 ± 10.1 days, respectively). Radiography revealed that fractures in dogs that underwent MIPO healed with significantly more callus formation than did fractures in dogs that underwent ORIF. Although Doppler ultrasonography revealed abundant vascularization in fractures that were healing following MIPO, no significant difference in neovascularization scores was found between groups. For dogs with radius-ulna fractures, data indicated that bridging osteosynthesis combined with a minimally invasive approach contributed to rapid healing after MIPO. The MIPO technique may offer some clinical advantage over ORIF, given that complete radius-ulna fracture healing was achieved in a shorter time with MIPO.

  7. The Application of Closed Reduction Internal Fixation and Iliac Bone Block Grafting in the Treatment of Acute Displaced Femoral Neck Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yanling; Zhang, Qi; Hou, Zhiyong; Pan, Jinshe; Zhang, Yingze

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the preliminary clinical and radiographic outcomes of acute displaced femoral neck fracture treated by closed reduction and internal fixation (CRIF) with free iliac bone block grafting with comparison to a routine protocol of CRIF without bone grafting. Methods From December 2008 to February 2010, 220 adult patients with acute displaced femoral neck fractures were enrolled in this study. In study group, there were 124 patients (57 males, 67 females) with a mean age of 44.8 years (range, 20-64 years). There were 70 transcervical fractures and 54 subcapital fractures. The patients were treated by CRIF and free iliac bone block grafting. The control group consisted of 96 adult patients (46 males, 50 females) with a mean age of 46.3 years (range, 23-64 years). There were 61 transcervical fractures and 35 subcapital fractures. The patients in control group were treated by CRIF without bone grafting. Results In study group, 112 patients were followed up for an average of 27.4 months (range, 24-34 months). All fractures healed within 5 months. However, 10 patients presented AVN of the femoral heads. The mean Harris score was 88.6 (range, 41-100). In control group, 68 patients were followed up for an average of 31.2 months (range, 24-42 months). The rates of AVN of the femoral head and fracture nonunion in control group were 26.5% (18/68) and 16.2% (11/68), respectively, significantly higher than those in study group (both P<0.05). The mean Harris score in control group was 83.8 (41–100), significantly lower than that in study group (P<0.05). Conclusion Acute displaced femoral neck fractures can be treated by CRIF and free iliac bone block grafting in a minimally invasive manner. This technique can guarantee uneventful fracture healing and significantly reduce the rate of femoral head osteonecrosis. PMID:24040414

  8. Evaluating the use of antibiotic prophylaxis during open reduction and internal fixation surgery in patients at low risk of surgical site infection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sheng-Gen; Mao, Zhao-Guang; Liu, Bin-Sheng; Zhu, Hui-Hua; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2015-02-01

    Widespread overuse and inappropriate use of antibiotics contribute to increasingly antibiotic-resistant pathogens and higher health care costs. It is not clear whether routine antibiotic prophylaxis can reduce the rate of surgical site infection (SSI) in low-risk patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery. We designed a simple scorecard to grade SSI risk factors and determined whether routine antibiotic prophylaxis affects SSI occurrence during open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) orthopaedic surgeries in trauma patients at low risk of developing SSI. The SSI risk scorecard (possible total points ranged from 5 to 25) was designed to take into account a patient's general health status, the primary cause of fractures, surgical site tissue condition or wound class, types of devices implanted, and surgical duration. Patients with a low SSI risk score (≤8 points) who were undergoing clean ORIF surgery were divided into control (routine antibiotic treatment, cefuroxime) and evaluation (no antibiotic treatment) groups and followed up for 13-17 months after surgery. The infection rate was much higher in patients with high SSI risk scores (≥9 points) than in patients with low risk scores assigned to the control group (10.7% vs. 2.2%, P<0.0001). SSI occurred in 11 of 499 patients in the control group and in 13 of 534 patients in the evaluation group during the follow-up period of 13-17 months. The SSI occurrence rate did not differ significantly (2.2% vs. 2.4%, P=0.97) between the control and evaluation groups. Routine antibiotic prophylaxis does not significantly decrease the rate of SSI in ORIF surgical patients with a low risk score. Implementation of this scoring system could guide the rational use of perioperative antibiotics and ultimately reduce antibiotic resistance, health care costs, and adverse reactions to antibiotics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanical properties of 18 different AO bone plates and the clamp-rod internal fixation system tested on a gap model construct.

    PubMed

    Zahn, K; Frei, R; Wunderle, D; Linke, B; Schwieger, K; Guerguiev, B; Pohler, O; Matis, U

    2008-01-01

    To compare the stiffness and strength of AO bone plates (DCP, LC-DCP, VCP, RCP, and LP) and the Clamp-Rod Internal Fixation System (CRIF). In vitro. 12 individual implants of 18 plate dimensions and four sizes of CRIF, each corresponding to 2.0, 2.4/2.7, 3.5, or 4.5 mm screw sizes. Implant-constructs of each plate and CRIF were created using Canevasit rods as a bone substitute in an unstable gap fracture model. Six implant-constructs of each type were tested under single cycle four-point bending loading, and six were tested under single cycle torsional loading until permanent plastic deformation occurred. Torsional stiffness and yield load of the DCP were always significantly greater than the CRIF within the same group. Bending properties of the 2.0 DCP were not significantly different to the 2.0 CRIF. The 2.7 DCP had significantly higher bending values than the 2.7 CRIF. The bending stiffness of the 3.5 DCP and 4.5 DCP was significantly less than their CRIF counterparts. While the bending yield load of the 3.5 DCP was significantly greater than the 3.5 CRIF, the bending yield load of the 4.5 DCP was significantly less than the 4.5 CRIF. A weakness was found in the torsional resistance of the CRIF constructs compared to the DCP constructs. Bone holding power and applied screw torque should be considered when using the CRIF system in clinical application.

  10. Outcomes and financial implications of intra-articular distal radius fractures: a comparative study of open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) with volar locking plates versus nonoperative management.

    PubMed

    Toon, Dong Hao; Premchand, Rex Antony Xavier; Sim, Jane; Vaikunthan, Rajaratnam

    2017-02-02

    To evaluate the functional and radiographic outcomes, as well as the treatment costs, of closed displaced intra-articular distal radius fractures treated with either open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) with volar locking plates or nonoperative treatment with plaster cast immobilisation. A total of 60 patients (32 receiving ORIF, 28 receiving nonoperative treatment) with closed intra-articular distal radius fractures were included. The mean age was 52.1 and 57.4, respectively. Functional and radiographic assessments were carried out at 12 months post-injury. Patients' treatment costs, median salaries and lengths of medical leave were obtained. DASH and MAYO wrist score in the ORIF group did not differ significantly from those in the nonoperative group. Apart from superior ulnar deviation in the ORIF group (p = 0.0096), differences in the range of motion of the injured wrists were not significant. Similarly, there were no significant differences in grip strength and visual analog scale for pain. Volar tilt (p = 0.0399), radial height (p = 0.0087), radial inclination (p = 0.0051) and articular step-off (p = 0.0002) were all significantly superior in the ORIF group. There was a 37-fold difference in mean treatment costs between ORIF (SGD 7951.23) and nonoperative treatment (SGD 230.52). Our study shows no difference in overall functional outcomes at 12 months for closed displaced intra-articular distal radius fractures treated with either ORIF with volar locking plates or plaster cast immobilisation, and this is independent of radiographic outcome. A longer follow-up, nevertheless, is needed to determine whether the development of post-traumatic arthritis will have an effect on function. The vast difference in treatment costs should be taken into consideration when deciding on the treatment option. Level 3.

  11. Operational Limitations of the High Rate Frame Multiplexer (HRFM) Onboard the International Space Station(ISS)-and How These Limitations Affect Payload Developers (PDs) and International Partners (IPs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, Charles D.; McElyea, Richard M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The data system onboard the United States Operating Segment (USOS) of the ISS is currently used to capture, route, record and downlink high-rate science data from experiments inside the US Lab. Once NASDA's Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) and ESA's Attached Pressurized Module (APM) are launched - in the 2004 to 2005 timeframe - data from these facilities will also be routed to the ground using the USOS data system. A critical component of the USOS data system is the High Rate Frame Multiplexer (HRFM). The HRFM combines multiple data/video inputs and combines them into one data stream. This Ku-band data stream is then routed through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) system to the ground. The Data Management Coordinator (DMC) - located at the Marshall Space Flight Center's Payload Operations Center (POC) - is responsible for commanding and controlling the HRFM. The HRFM can multiplex a maximum of eight digital data sources and four digital video sources. Thus far, this limitation has not been constraining to operations. However, once the JEM and APM are integrated, the HRFM limitations will become a major constraint to science operations onboard. The purpose of this paper is to characterize the limitations of the HRFM and to explain how these limitations can be successfully managed. With this information, Payload Developers and International Partners will be able to more effectively utilize the data systems onboard the ISS. Ultimately, more science data can be captured and downlinked to Flight Controllers and Scientists on the ground.

  12. The pathologist's guide to fixatives.

    PubMed

    Qidwai, Kiran; Afkhami, Michelle; Day, Christina E

    2014-01-01

    Proper tissue fixation is essential to ensure the highest level of specimen evaluation. Pathologists and laboratory staff are frequently consulted by clinical counterparts regarding what fixative should be used for different tissues or to enable a diagnosis of a specific condition. It is vital for the patient that the pathologist provides accurate information to ensure proper fixation. Frequently, once a tissue has been fixed inadequately or inappropriately, remedial changes may no longer be possible. Most often formalin is an adequate choice, if not the optimal one; however, there are certain situations when placing the tissue in formalin may limit the ability to reach a definitive diagnosis. It is imperative for pathologists to have the knowledge to communicate which fixative is optimal. Furthermore, as we move into a world of personalized medicine, where ancillary testing has both diagnostic and specific therapeutic implications, knowledge about how different fixatives affect immunohistochemistry, cytogenetics, and molecular studies becomes even more significant. This chapter provides practical information regarding common fixatives, their mechanism of action and optimal uses.

  13. 14 CFR 399.41 - Zones of limited suspension for international cargo rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Zones of limited suspension for international cargo rates. 399.41 Section 399.41 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to...

  14. 14 CFR 399.41 - Zones of limited suspension for international cargo rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Zones of limited suspension for international cargo rates. 399.41 Section 399.41 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to...

  15. 14 CFR 399.41 - Zones of limited suspension for international cargo rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Zones of limited suspension for international cargo rates. 399.41 Section 399.41 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) POLICY STATEMENTS STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY Policies Relating to...

  16. MULTICOLOR IMAGING OF INNER RETINAL ALTERATIONS AFTER INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING.

    PubMed

    Feng, Henry L; Sharma, Sumit; Asrani, Sanjay; Mruthyunjaya, Prithvi

    2017-01-01

    To characterize the appearance of inner retinal alterations after internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling using multicolor confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO). Retrospective review of two eyes that underwent pars plana vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling and postoperative multicolor cSLO with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Infrared, green, blue, standard multicolor, and blue-green enhanced multicolor reflectance images were evaluated alongside spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for inner retinal alterations. Two eyes of 2 patients, aged 70 and 65 years, were identified. Preoperative diagnoses were epiretinal membrane with lamellar macular hole for Case 1 and full-thickness macular hole for Case 2. Time from surgery to initial multicolor cSLO imaging was 9 years in Case 1 and 3 weeks in Case 2. Inner retinal alterations were best visualized on blue reflectance, moderately visualized on green and blue-green enhanced multicolor, and less evident on infrared and standard multicolor. In Case 2, serial multicolor cSLO imaging demonstrated the emergence of inner retinal alterations between 3 weeks and 5 weeks postoperatively. Multicolor cSLO is a novel imaging modality capable of detecting inner retinal alterations in patients with a history of internal limiting membrane peeling, and may be clinically useful for monitoring anatomical changes associated with internal limiting membrane peeling.

  17. [Modified technique of autologous transplantation of internal limiting membrane for macular hole].

    PubMed

    Hernández-da Mota, Sergio Eustolio; Béjar-Cornejo, Francisco

    Autologous internal limiting membrane transplantation has allowed some cases of macular holes refractory to conventional surgery techniques to be treated. The purpose of this study is to describe the anatomical and functional outcomes of a modification of this technique in a case series of naïve macular hole patients. A consecutive case series study was performed on patients with naïve macular holes with a diameter greater than 600 μ. Best corrected visual acuity, clinical features of the macular area, and optical coherence tomography were recorded before the operation and at the end of follow-up in all patients studied. All patients underwent 23 Ga core vitrectomy, posterior hyaloid separation, and brilliant-blue assisted internal limiting membrane peeling. A small piece of the internal limiting membrane was peeled off to make a free flap, and this was trasplanted and placed inside the macular hole under perfluorocarbon liquids. Air-fluid exchange was performed and SF6 gas was injected at a non-expansile concentration. The study included 5 eyes of 5 patients who underwent internal limiting membrane autograft. The mean age was 50.6 (SD 12.3) years. Four of the 5 cases had macular hole closure. The case where there was no closure of the macular hole was secondary to trauma. There was an improvement in visual acuity in all patients where the closing of the macular hole was achieved at the end of follow-up. In this cases series of macular hole patients, the autologous internal limiting membrane transplantation was associated with an anatomical closure of the macular hole and functional improvement in most of the patients studied. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. A Biomechanical Comparison of Three 1.5-mm Plate and Screw Configurations and a Single 2.0-mm Plate for Internal Fixation of a Mandibular Condylar Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Aquilina, Peter; Parr, William C.H.; Chamoli, Uphar; Wroe, Stephen; Clausen, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The most stable pattern of internal fixation for mandibular condyle fractures is an area of ongoing discussion. This study investigates the stability of three patterns of plate fixation using readily available, commercially pure titanium implants. Finite element models of a simulated mandibular condyle fracture were constructed. The completed models were heterogeneous in bone material properties, contained approximately 1.2 million elements and incorporated simulated jaw adducting musculature. Models were run assuming linear elasticity and isotropic material properties for bone. No human subjects were involved in this investigation. The stability of the simulated condylar fracture reduced with the different implant configurations, and the von Mises stresses of a 1.5-mm X-shaped plate, a 1.5-mm rectangular plate, and a 1.5-mm square plate (all Synthes (Synthes GmbH, Zuchwil, Switzerland) were compared. The 1.5-mm X plate was the most stable of the three 1.5-mm profile plate configurations examined and had comparable mechanical performance to a single 2.0-mm straight four-hole plate. This study does not support the use of rectangular or square plate patterns in the open reduction and internal fixation of mandibular condyle fractures. It does provide some support for the use of a 1.5-mm X plate to reduce condylar fractures in selected clinical cases. PMID:25136411

  19. Dose limits to the lens of the eye: International Basic Safety Standards and related guidance.

    PubMed

    Boal, T J; Pinak, M

    2015-06-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety requirements: 'General Safety Requirements Part 3--Radiation protection and safety of radiation sources: International Basic Safety Standards' (BSS) was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors at its meeting in September 2011, and was issued as General Safety Requirements Part 3 in July 2014. The equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye for occupational exposure in planned exposure situations was reduced from 150 mSv year(-1) to 20 mSv year(-1), averaged over defined periods of 5 years, with no annual dose in a single year exceeding 50 mSv. This reduction in the dose limit for the lens of the eye followed the recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in its statement on tissue reactions of 21 April 2011. IAEA has developed guidance on the implications of the new dose limit for the lens of the eye. This paper summarises the process that led to the inclusion of the new dose limit for the lens of the eye in the BSS, and the implications of the new dose limit.

  20. Latarjet Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Alvi, Hasham M.; Monroe, Emily J.; Muriuki, Muturi; Verma, Rajat N.; Marra, Guido; Saltzman, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Attritional bone loss in patients with recurrent anterior instability has successfully been treated with a bone block procedure such as the Latarjet. It has not been previously demonstrated whether cortical or cancellous screws are superior when used for this procedure. Purpose: To assess the strength of stainless steel cortical screws versus stainless steel cannulated cancellous screws in the Latarjet procedure. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Ten fresh-frozen matched-pair shoulder specimens were randomized into 2 separate fixation groups: (1) 3.5-mm stainless steel cortical screws and (2) 4.0-mm stainless steel partially threaded cannulated cancellous screws. Shoulder specimens were dissected free of all soft tissue and a 25% glenoid defect was created. The coracoid process was osteomized, placed at the site of the glenoid defect, and fixed in place with 2 parallel screws. Results: All 10 specimens failed by screw cutout. Nine of 10 specimens failed by progressive displacement with an increased number of cycles. One specimen in the 4.0-mm screw group failed by catastrophic failure on initiation of the testing protocol. The 3.5-mm screws had a mean of 274 cycles (SD, ±171 cycles; range, 10-443 cycles) to failure. The 4.0-mm screws had a mean of 135 cycles (SD, ±141 cycles; range, 0-284 cycles) to failure. There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 types of screws for cycles required to cause failure (P = .144). Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference in energy or cycles to failure when comparing the stainless steel cortical screws versus partially threaded cannulated cancellous screws. Clinical Relevance: Latarjet may be performed using cortical or cancellous screws without a clear advantage of either option. PMID:27158630

  1. Does limited internal femoral rotation increase peak anterior cruciate ligament strain during a simulated pivot landing?

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Mélanie L; Oh, Youkeun K; Bedi, Asheesh; Ashton-Miller, James A; Wojtys, Edward M

    2014-12-01

    Many factors contributing to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury risk have been investigated. Recently, some ACL-injured individuals have presented with a decreased range of hip internal rotation compared with controls. The pathomechanics of why decreased hip range of motion increases risk of ACL injury have not yet been studied. Peak relative strain of the anteromedial bundle of the ACL (AM-ACL) during a simulated single-leg pivot landing is inversely related to the available range of internal femoral rotation. Controlled laboratory study. A series of pivot landings were simulated in 10 female and 10 male human knee specimens with a testing apparatus that applied a 2-bodyweight impulsive load, inducing knee compression, flexion moment, and internal tibial torque. The range of internal femoral rotation was (1) locked at ~0°, (2) limited with a hard stop to ~7°, (3) limited with a hard stop to ~11°, or (4) free, with rotation resisted by 2 springs to simulate the resistance of the active hip rotator muscles to stretch. The AM-ACL strain was quantified with a differential variable reluctance transducer. A linear mixed model was used to determine whether a significant linear relation existed between peak AM-ACL relative strain and range of internal femoral rotation. Peak AM-ACL relative strain was inversely related to the available range of internal femoral rotation (R (2) = 0.91; P < .001), with strain increasing 1.3% for every 10° decrease in rotation; this represented a 20% increase in peak relative strain, given an average range of femoral rotation of 15° upon landing in healthy athletes. Peak AM-ACL relative strain was inversely proportional to the available range of internal femoral rotation during simulated single-leg pivot landings. Decreased range of internal femoral rotation results in greater ACL strain and may therefore increase the susceptibility to ACL rupture with athletic cutting and pivoting activities. Screening for a limited range of hip

  2. 76 FR 19517 - Orders Limiting Scheduled Operations at John F. Kennedy International Airport, LaGuardia Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Orders Limiting Scheduled Operations at John F. Kennedy International... Airport (DCA) and Operating Authorizations (slots) at John F. Kennedy International Airport (JFK), La...

  3. Percutaneous fixation of scaphoid fractures.

    PubMed

    Slade, J F; Jaskwhich, D

    2001-11-01

    The scaphoid proximal pole and waist fractures presented here were treated by a novel dorsal percutaneous technique with arthroscopic assistance. All fractures healed, with good final functional results and no complications. The advantages of the dorsal percutaneous approach to scaphoid fixation are: (1) the proximal-to-distal placement of the guide pin and screw allow for more precise placement along the central axis of the scaphoid, which decreases healing time and reduces risk of screw thread exposure. (2) The dorsal approach avoids injuring the vulnerable volar ligament anatomy. And (3) the insertion of the screw from the proximal to distal direction allows the more rigid fixation of proximal scaphoid fractures. Arthroscopy allows confirmation of fracture reduction and screw implantation as well as evaluation of concurrent ligament injuries not detected with standard imaging. Percutaneous K-wires act as joysticks to reduce and compress fracture fragments prior to fixation. The presented technique allows for early, rigid internal fixation with minimal associated morbidity. Patients successfully treated with this technique include those with stable and unstable acute fractures of the scaphoid at all locations, including the proximal pole. Nondisplaced fractures that present with delayed or fibrous union without evidence of avascular necrosis, cyst formation, or bony sclerosis may also be treated with this technique. This technique allows for faster rehabilitation and an earlier return to work or avocation without restriction once CT scan confirms a solid union. Some articles document extraordinary rapid healing by standard radiographs; however, we caution that scaphoid bone healing cannot accurately be determined without CT scan. Percutaneous, arthroscopically assisted internal fixation by a dorsal approach may be considered in all acute scaphoid fractures selected for surgical fixation. The dorsal guidewire permits dorsal and volar implantation of a cannulated

  4. Rate of and Risk Factors for Reoperations After Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of Midshaft Clavicle Fractures: A Population-Based Study in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Leroux, Timothy; Wasserstein, David; Henry, Patrick; Khoshbin, Amir; Dwyer, Tim; Ogilvie-Harris, Darrell; Mahomed, Nizar; Veillette, Christian

    2014-07-02

    Reoperation rates following open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) of midshaft clavicle fractures have been described, but reported rates of nonunion, malunion, infection, and implant removal have varied. We sought to establish baseline rates of, and risk factors for, reoperations following clavicle ORIF in a large population cohort. Administrative databases were used to identify patients sixteen to sixty years of age who had undergone an ORIF of a closed, midshaft clavicle fracture from April 2002 to April 2010. The primary outcome was a reoperation within two years (isolated implant removal, irrigation and debridement [deep infection], pseudarthrosis reconstruction [nonunion], or clavicle osteotomy [malunion]). The secondary outcome was rare perioperative complications, including pneumothorax, subclavian vasculature injury, and brachial plexus injury. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the influence of patient and provider factors on these outcomes. We identified 1350 patients who underwent midshaft clavicle ORIF (median age, thirty-two years [interquartile range, twenty-one to forty-four years]; 81.3% male). One in four patients (24.6%) underwent at least one clavicle reoperation. The most common procedure was isolated implant removal (18.8%), and females were at highest risk (odds ratio [OR], 1.7; p = 0.002). The median time to implant removal was twelve months. A reoperation secondary to nonunion, deep infection, and malunion occurred in 2.6%, 2.6%, and 1.1% of the patients after a median of six, five, and fourteen months, respectively. Risk factors for clavicle nonunion included female sex (OR, 2.2; p = 0.04) and a high comorbidity score (OR, 2.8; p = 0.009). For surgeons, fewer years in practice was associated with a small risk of the patient developing an infection (OR, 1.1; p < 0.001). Sixteen pneumothoraces (1.2%) were identified; however, brachial plexus and subclavian vessel injuries were each found in five or

  5. Does Open Reduction and Internal Fixation versus Primary Arthrodesis Improve Patient Outcomes for Lisfranc Trauma? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Nicholas; Stone, Craig; Furey, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Although Lisfranc injuries are uncommon, representing approximately 0.2% of all fractures, they are complex and can result in persistent pain, degenerative arthritis, and loss of function. Both open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) and primary fusion have been proposed as treatment options for these injuries, but debate remains as to which approach is better. We asked whether ORIF or primary fusion led to (1) fewer reoperations for hardware removal; (2) less frequent revision surgery; (3) higher patient outcome scores; and (4) more frequent anatomic reduction. A systematic review was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Three trials met the criteria for inclusion within the meta-analysis. Qualifying articles for the meta-analysis had data extracted independently by two authors (NS, AF). The quality of each study was assessed using the Center for Evidence Based Medicine's evaluation strategy; data were extracted from articles rated as good and fair: two and one article, respectively. The risk ratio for hardware removal was 0.23 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.11-0.45; p < 0.001) indicating more hardware removal for ORIF than fusion. For other revision surgery, the risk ratio for ORIF was 0.36 (95% CI, 0.08-1.59; p = 0.18) favoring neither. Similarly, neither was favored using patient-reported outcomes; the standard mean difference was calculated to be 0.50 (95% CI, -2.13 to 3.12; p = 0.71). When considering the risk of nonanatomic alignment, neither was favored (risk ratio, 1.48; 95% CI, 0.34-6.38; p = 0.60). The surgeon should consider the increased risk of hardware removal along with its associated morbidity and discuss this with the patient preoperatively when considering ORIF of Lisfranc injuries. Because no new trials have been performed since 2012, further randomized controlled trials will be needed improve our understanding of these interventions. Level I, therapeutic study.

  6. Open reduction and internal fixation compared with ORIF and primary subtalar arthrodesis for treatment of Sanders type IV calcaneal fractures: a randomized multicenter trial.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Richard; Leighton, Ross; Sanders, David; Poon, Jeffrey; Coles, Chad P; Stephen, David; Paolucci, Elizabeth O

    2014-10-01

    To compare long-term health outcome of Sanders type IV calcaneal fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) versus ORIF plus primary subtalar arthrodesis (PSTA). Randomized prospective multicenter trial. Four Level 1 trauma hospitals in Canada. Thirty-one patients with 31 Sanders IV displaced intraarticular calcaneal fractures. Seventeen patients were treated with a standard protocol involving a lateral approach for ORIF. Fourteen patients were treated with a standard protocol involving a lateral approach with ORIF + PSTA. Health outcomes were assessed with 4 validated instruments: (1) the Short Form 36 version 2 (SF-36), (2) the Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment Survey, (3) the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society's Ankle-Hindfoot Scale, and (4) the Visual Analogue Scale. From 2004 to 2011, 26 patients (26 displaced intraarticular calcaneal fractures) were followed for a minimum of 2 years (81% follow-up). No statistical difference was found between the results for ORIF compared with ORIF + PSTA: the mean SF-36 physical component scores were, respectively, 30.2 (SD = 11.4) and 37.8 (SD = 10.4) (P = 0.10); the mean Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment Survey scores were 44.2 (SD = 25.6) and 37.9 (SD = 21.5) (P = 0.50); the mean Ankle-Hindfoot Scale scores were 62.5 (SD = 19.6) and 65.8 (SD = 19.2), (P = 0.68); and the mean Visual Analogue Scale scores were 36.8 (SD = 34.7) and 36.0 (SD = 30.7) (P = 0.82). We were unable to demonstrate a significant difference between treating Sanders type IV fractures with either ORIF or ORIF + PSTA. It remains the choice of the surgeon and patient to take into account patient specific factors to determine treatment. However, ORIF + PSTA may be advantageous for both patients with Sanders type IV fractures and the health care system as patients heal quickly. Furthermore, ORIF + PSTA may prevent the need for late secondary subtalar fusion adding to increased costs and lost time from work

  7. Bohler's angle's role in assessing the injury severity and functional outcome of internal fixation for displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Su, Yanling; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Xingwang; Wu, Zhanpo; Zhang, Yingze

    2013-09-24

    Controversy exits over the role of Böhler's angle in assessing the injury severity of displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures and predicting the functional outcome following internal fixation. This study aims to investigate whether a correlation exists between Böhler's angle and the injury severity of displaced calcaneal fractures, and between surgical improvement of Böhler's angle and functional outcome. Patients treated operatively for unilateral closed displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures from January 1, 2004 to March 31, 2008 were identified. The Böhler's angles of both calcaneus were measured, and the measurement of the uninjured foot was used as its normal control. The difference in the value of Böhler's angle measured preoperatively or postoperatively between the angle of the injured foot and that of the contralateral calcaneus were calculated, respectively. The change in Böhler's angle by ratio was calculated by dividing the difference value of Böhler's angle between bilateral calcaneus by its normal control. The injury severity was assessed according to Sanders classification. The functional outcomes were assessed using American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society hindfoot scores. 274 patients were included into the study with a mean follow-up duration of 71 months. According to Sanders classification, the fracture pattern included 105 type II, 121 type III and 48 type IV fractures. According to American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society hindfoot scoring system, the excellent, good, fair and poor results were achieved in 104, 132, 27, and 11 patients, respectively. The preoperative Böhler's angle, difference value of Böhler's angle between bilateral calcaneus, and change in Böhler's angle by ratio each has a significant correlation with Sanders classification (rs=-0.178, P=0.003; rs=-0.174, P=0.004; rs=-0.172, P=0.005, respectively), however, is not correlated with functional outcome individually. The three postoperative measurements

  8. A Limited International Intercomparison of Responsivity Scales at Fiber Optic Wavelengths

    PubMed Central

    Gallawa, R. L.; Gardner, J. L.; Nettleton, D. H.; Stock, K. D.; Ward, T. H.; Li, Xiaoyu

    1991-01-01

    We report here on a recent limited international intercomparison of responsivity scales at wavelengths of interest to the optical communications community. Participants in the comparison were the national laboratories in the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Australia. The wavelengths tested were 1300 and 1550 nm. Data taken at 850 nm are only briefly discussed. The disagreement between the national laboratories’ responsivity scale is comfortably within the uncertainty claimed by each laboratory. PMID:28184112

  9. Inverted internal limiting membrane flap technique for very large macular hole

    PubMed Central

    Khodani, Mitali; Bansal, Pooja; Narayanan, Raja; Chhablani, Jay

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess the anatomical and visual outcome of idiopathic macular holes greater than 1000 µm using the inverted internal limiting membrane flap technique. METHODS This retrospective case series included 5 eyes of 5 patients with idiopathic macular hole with base diameter greater than 1000 µm who underwent inverted internal limiting membrane flap technique along with standard 23G pars plans vitrectomy with posterior hyaloid detachment and fluid gas exchange with 12%-14% perfluoropropane (C3F8). Preoperative and postoperative visual acuity and spectral domain optical coherence tomography images were evaluated. The main outcome measures were visual outcome and macular hole closure. RESULTS Mean age was 63.2±8.4y with all 5 subjects being females. Mean duration of symptoms was 11±14mo with a mean postoperative follow up of 13.2±13mo. The mean base diameter of the macular holes was 1420±84.8 µm (1280-1480 µm). Type 1 closure was achieved in four out of five patients, while one patient had type 2 closure using the inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap technique. Median baseline BCVA was 0.79 logMAR (Snellen's equivalent 20/120) and median final BCVA 0.6 logMAR (Snellen's equivalent 20/80) with mean visual improvement of approximately three lines improvement. No complications related to surgical procedure were noted. CONCLUSION The inverted internal limiting membrane flap technique may be promising for very large macular holes with high rate of macular closure and good visual outcome. PMID:27588280

  10. When femoral fracture fixation fails: salvage options.

    PubMed

    Petrie, J; Sassoon, A; Haidukewych, G J

    2013-11-01

    Most hip fractures treated with modern internal fixation techniques will heal. However, failures occasionally occur and require revision procedures. Salvage strategies employed during revision are based on whether the fixation failure occurs in the femoral neck, or in the intertrochanteric region. Patient age and remaining bone stock also influence decision making. For fractures in young patients, efforts are generally focused on preserving the native femoral head via osteotomies and repeat internal fixation. For failures in older patients, some kind of hip replacement is usually selected. Disuse osteopenia, deformity, bone loss, and stress-risers from previous internal fixation devices all pose technical challenges to successful reconstruction. Attention to detail is important in order to minimise complications. In the majority of cases, good outcomes have been reported for the various salvage strategies.

  11. Psychometrics and the neuroscience of individual differences: Internal consistency limits between-subjects effects.

    PubMed

    Hajcak, Greg; Meyer, Alexandria; Kotov, Roman

    2017-08-01

    In the clinical neuroscience literature, between-subjects differences in neural activity are presumed to reflect reliable measures-even though the psychometric properties of neural measures are almost never reported. The current article focuses on the critical importance of assessing and reporting internal consistency reliability-the homogeneity of "items" that comprise a neural "score." We demonstrate how variability in the internal consistency of neural measures limits between-subjects (i.e., individual differences) effects. To this end, we utilize error-related brain activity (i.e., the error-related negativity or ERN) in both healthy and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) participants to demonstrate options for psychometric analyses of neural measures; we examine between-groups differences in internal consistency, between-groups effect sizes, and between-groups discriminability (i.e., ROC analyses)-all as a function of increasing items (i.e., number of trials). Overall, internal consistency should be used to inform experimental design and the choice of neural measures in individual differences research. The internal consistency of neural measures is necessary for interpreting results and guiding progress in clinical neuroscience-and should be routinely reported in all individual differences studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. [Case-control study on Zero-profile implant for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion and conventional cage plate internal fixation for the treatment of single segmental cervical intervertebral disc herniation].

    PubMed

    Shao, Hai-yu; Zhang, Jun; Yang, Di; Chen, Jin-ping; Huang, Ya-zeng

    2016-06-01

    To compare clinical efficacy of Zero-profile implant for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion and conventional titanium plate with cage internal fixation for the treatment of single segmental cervical intervertebral disc herniation. From August 2011 to March 2014, clinical data of 139 patients with single cervical disc herniation treated with anterior cervical discectomy and interbody fusion with internal fixation were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups according to its operation method. There were 63 patients in group A which performed anterior discectomy and interbody fusion with Zero-profile;76 patients in group B which performed anterior cervical discectomy and cage plate internal fixation. JOA score and Odom functional rating between two groups were compared before and after operation. Videofluorographic swallowing study (VFSS) were used to evaluate thickness of prevertebral soft tissue. Bazaz dysphagia score were used to assess incidence of dysphagia. Postoperative AP X-ray and CT of cervical vertebra at 12 months were applied for evaluating bone graft fusion. Postoperative MRI was applied for evaluating the incidence of adjacent segment degeneration. Blood loss,operative time, preoperative and postoperative JOA score, Odom functional rating and VFSS score, Bazaz score, fusion rate between vertebral bodies and incidence of adjacent segment degeneration were compared between two groups. There were no statistical meaning between two groups in JOA score, Odom functional rating before and after operation (P > 0.05); and no significant meaning in VFSS score between two groups before operation (P > 0.05); There were no significant difference in operative time and blood loss. There was statistical meaning in VFSS, Bazaz dysphagia score at 2 days, and 6 months after operation (P < 0.05). All patients obtained bone union at 1 year after operation, and no obvious meaning in fusion rate (P > 0.05). Eight patients (12.7%) in group A

  13. Olecranon osteotomy fixation using a novel device: the olecranon sled.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Timothy; Wong, Justin C; Patterson, John D; Rekant, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    A posterior approach to the elbow utilizing an olecranon osteotomy has been shown to provide excellent visualization of the distal humerus articular surface. However, many bony stabilization and fixation methods for the olecranon osteotomy are usually prominent, frequently symptomatic, and often require a second operation for removal. This paper evaluates the use of an innovative device, the olecranon sled, in fixation of olecranon osteotomies for exposure of intra-articular distal humerus fractures and provides follow-up results. A retrospective review of all patients with intra-articular distal humerus fracture treated through an olecranon osteotomy approach and fixed with an olecranon sled, between September 2008 and December 2011 was conducted. Charts and radiographs were reviewed to determine olecranon union or nonunion, presence of symptomatic hardware, and need for secondary surgery to remove symptomatic olecranon fixation. Fourteen patients were included in the study. Average clinical follow-up was 33.5 weeks (range, 6 to 118 wk). There were no olecranon nonunions. One patient underwent additional surgery for symptomatic hardware removal (7.1%). Two additional procedures were performed; 1 for revision open reduction and internal fixation of distal humerus fracture nonunion (7.1%) and 1 for release of elbow contracture (7.1%). Although follow-up is limited, the use of this device has been associated with excellent rates of olecranon union with a low rate of symptomatic hardware requiring removal.

  14. Comparison of the Inverted Internal Limiting Membrane Flap Technique and the Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling for Macular Hole with Retinal Detachment.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Takehiro; Takamura, Yoshihiro; Tomomatsu, Takeshi; Arimura, Shogo; Gozawa, Makoto; Kobori, Akira; Inatani, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of the inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap technique in vitrectomy for macular hole (MH) with retinal detachment (RD) compared with vitrectomy using ILM peeling. A retrospective case series study was performed. Twenty-two eyes of 22 patients who underwent vitrectomy for MH with RD and followed-up more than 12 months after the surgery were included in this study. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent vitrectomy with inverted ILM flap technique or vitrectomy with ILM peeling. Ten patients who had been treated vitrectomy with inverted ILM flap technique, and 12 patients who had been treated vitrectomy with ILM peeling were analyzed. We evaluated changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) before and after surgery, closing rates of MH, and retinal reattachment rates and compared between both groups. MH was closed and RD was reattached postoperatively in 9 eyes (90%) in the inverted ILM flap group. In the ILM peeling group, the MH was closed in 4 eyes (33.3%) and the retinas were reattached in 6 eyes (50%) after surgery. Significant improvement in BCVA after surgery (P = 0.0017) was only found in the inverted ILM flap group. Higher rates of closed MH and retinal reattachment, and small but significant improvement in BCVA were found in the inverted ILM flap group. Based on our data, the inverted ILM flap technique may be useful in vitrectomy for MH with RD.

  15. Comparison of the Inverted Internal Limiting Membrane Flap Technique and the Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling for Macular Hole with Retinal Detachment

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, Takehiro; Takamura, Yoshihiro; Tomomatsu, Takeshi; Arimura, Shogo; Gozawa, Makoto; Kobori, Akira; Inatani, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy of the inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap technique in vitrectomy for macular hole (MH) with retinal detachment (RD) compared with vitrectomy using ILM peeling. Methods A retrospective case series study was performed. Twenty-two eyes of 22 patients who underwent vitrectomy for MH with RD and followed-up more than 12 months after the surgery were included in this study. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent vitrectomy with inverted ILM flap technique or vitrectomy with ILM peeling. Ten patients who had been treated vitrectomy with inverted ILM flap technique, and 12 patients who had been treated vitrectomy with ILM peeling were analyzed. We evaluated changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) before and after surgery, closing rates of MH, and retinal reattachment rates and compared between both groups. Results MH was closed and RD was reattached postoperatively in 9 eyes (90%) in the inverted ILM flap group. In the ILM peeling group, the MH was closed in 4 eyes (33.3%) and the retinas were reattached in 6 eyes (50%) after surgery. Significant improvement in BCVA after surgery (P = 0.0017) was only found in the inverted ILM flap group. Conclusions Higher rates of closed MH and retinal reattachment, and small but significant improvement in BCVA were found in the inverted ILM flap group. Based on our data, the inverted ILM flap technique may be useful in vitrectomy for MH with RD. PMID:27764184

  16. Reconstruction of tooth-bearing portion of mandible using polyglactin 910 sutures for internal fixation in the third-world: functional and cosmetic outcome.

    PubMed

    Aluko-Olokun, Bayo; Olaitan, Ademola A; Aluko-Olokun, Oluseun A

    2017-03-01

    This study analyzed the cosmetic and functional outcome of cases involving reconstruction of tooth-bearing portion of the lower jaw, using a polyglactin 910 suture for fixation. This prospective intervention study documented the treatment outcome in 25 consecutive adult patients, who underwent immediate mandibular reconstruction following segmental resection of tooth-bearing portion of mandible. Cortico-cancellous bone graft was taken from the inner table of iliac bone, sparing the crest. Use of post-surgical inter-maxillary fixation was avoided. Twenty-five patients were recruited for the study. Seventeen were males and eight were females. Their ages ranged from 18 to 50 years, with a mean of 30.0 years. Average length of grafted bone was 9.8 cm. Following surgery, all 25 (100%) patients were judged to have satisfactory facial symmetry. One (4.0 %) had altered dental occlusion. Twenty-five (100%) had satisfactory bone union. All of the patients claimed to masticate satisfactorily. Assessment was carried out at the last post-operative follow-up visit for each patient who ranged between 22 and 83 months. Use of polyglactin 910 suture material for fixation in mandibular reconstruction following segmental resection of tooth-bearing portion has proven to be a cosmetic and functional success. It may serve as alternative for those among whom conventional treatment methods may be contraindicated. This method of bone fixation may serve as a reliable and much cheaper alternative in low-income countries. Level IV, therapeutic study.

  17. Inferior alveolar and mental nerve injuries associated with open reduction and internal fixation of mandibular fractures: a Seven Year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Song, Qinyong; Li, Shanhui; Patil, Pavan Manohar

    2014-10-01

    To document adverse neurosensory changes in the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) and mental nerve (MN) after surgical mandibular fracture treatment and to identify risk factors associated with these changes. A retrospective study of patients surgically treated for mandibular fractures. The primary study variable was the postoperative change in IAN/MN neurosensory examination after fracture fixation. Risk factors were categorized as demographic, anatomic, experience of the operator, fracture displacement and number of miniplates placed at each fracture site. Appropriate statistics were computed. 209 patients with 293 fractures were analysed. One hundred twenty fractures (41%) were located between the lingula and mental foramen, and 173 fractures (59%) were located distal to the mental foramen. Two hundred seventeen (41%) were displaced by 5 mm or more. In 38 fractures (13%), the IAN/MN neurosensory status worsened after treatment. In a multivariate model, fracture displacement, operator inexperience and two plate fixation were associated with a statistically significant risk (P ≤ 0.05) for postoperative deterioration of IAN/MN sensation. Fixation with two miniplates, fracture displacement of 5 mm or more and operator inexperience were associated with an increased risk for deterioration of the IAN/MN neurosensory status after treatment of mandibular fractures. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  19. Minimally invasive treatment of unstable pelvic ring injuries with modified pedicle screw-rod fixator.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Tian; Liu, Zuo-Qing; Fu, Wen-Qin; Zhao, Shan

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical application of the minimally invasive modified pedicle screw-rod fixator for unstable pelvic ring injuries, including its feasibility, merits, and limitations. Methods Twenty-three patients (13 males, 10 females; average age, 36.3 years) with unstable pelvic ring injuries underwent anterior fixation using a modified pedicle screw-rod fixator with or without posterior fixation using a transiliac internal fixator. The clinical findings were assessed using Majeed scores. The quality of reduction was evaluated using the Matta criteria. Results Clinical results at 1 year postoperatively were excellent in 14 patients, good in 7, and fair in 2. The two patients with fair results had intermittent pain at the sacroiliac joint because of the posterior implant. One woman complained of persistent pain at the pubic tubercle during sexual intercourse. Iatrogenic neuropraxia of the unilateral lateral femoral cutaneous nerve occurred in three patients. Unilateral femoral nerve palsy occurred in one patient. The quality of fracture reduction was excellent in 12 patients, good in 8, and fair in 3. Heterotopic ossification occurred in eight patients; all were asymptomatic. Conclusions Minimally invasive modified pedicle screw-rod fixation is an effective alternative treatment for pelvic ring injuries.

  20. EFFECT OF INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING ON LONG-TERM VISUAL OUTCOMES FOR DIABETIC MACULAR EDEMA.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Kazuyuki; Hangai, Masanori; Ogino, Nobuchika; Larson, Eric

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling on the long-term visual outcomes in eyes with diffuse, nontractional diabetic macular edema. One hundred and sixteen eyes of 58 patients with the same degree of diabetic macular edema in both eyes underwent pars plana vitrectomy with the creation of a posterior vitreous detachment in both eyes. Internal limiting membrane peeling was performed in one randomly selected eye (ILM-off group), and ILM peeling was not performed (ILM-on group) in the fellow eye. The postoperative follow-up period ranged from 12 months to 161 months (average, 80.4 months). In the ILM-off group, the mean best-corrected visual acuity in logMAR units (Snellen equivalent) increased from 0.55 ± 0.31 (20/71) before surgery to 0.35 ± 0.35 (20/45) at 1 year (P < 0.0001) and 0.46 ± 0.43 (20/59) at the final visit (P = 0.058). In the ILM-on group, the mean best-corrected visual acuity increased from 0.55 ± 0.41 (20/71) before surgery to 0.43 ± 0.38 (20/54) at 1 year (P = 0.010) and 0.44 ± 0.45 (20/56) at the final visit (P = 0.043). The differences in the best-corrected visual acuity between the two groups were not significant at any time point. Pars plana vitrectomy with or without ILM peeling improves the long-term visual acuity of nontractional diabetic macular edema. Internal limiting membrane peeling does not affect the postoperative best-corrected visual acuity significantly.

  1. DETRIMENTAL EFFECTS OF ACTIVE INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING DURING EPIRETINAL MEMBRANE SURGERY: Microperimetric Analysis.

    PubMed

    Deltour, Jean-Baptiste; Grimbert, Pierre; Masse, Helene; Lebreton, Olivier; Weber, Michel

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the microperimetric consequences of active internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling during idiopathic epimacular membrane (IEMM) surgery. This retrospective monocentric study included 32 eyes of 31 consecutive patients who underwent IEMM surgery. Internal limiting membrane integrity was assessed by ILM Blue staining after IEMM removal: peeling was spontaneous (Group S) or active (Group A). Preprocedure and postprocedure (1 and 6 months) examinations were performed using visual acuity determination, spectral domain optical coherence tomography and microperimetry. Twenty-two eyes had an "active ILM peeling" and 10 a "spontaneous ILM peeling." Both groups had comparable and significant improvements in visual acuity 6 months after surgery (+1.82 lines [+9 letters] [Group A] and +1.51 lines [+8 letters] [Group S], P < 0.01) associated with a significant reduction in optical coherence tomography central thickness (-99.9 μm [Group A], P < 0.01 and -62.2 μm [Group S], P = 0.05). Six months after surgery, the microperimetry showed more numerous and deeper microscotomas in the Group A than in the Group S (change in the number of microscotomas: 2.09 vs. -0.10, P = 0.06; change in deficit severity score: 13.18 dB vs. -2 dB, P < 0.01 for Group A and S, respectively). The number of microscotomas and also severity were increased in 63.6% of Group A patients and in only 20% of Group S patients. Microscotomas were most frequently located in IEMM and/or ILM areas. Internal limiting membrane peeling has progressively become generalized in IEMM surgery to reduce recurrences. This additional procedure does not change the postoperative visual acuity but increases the development of deeper microscotomas. The real impact on the quality of vision remains unclear. Active ILM peeling in IEMM surgery may be responsible for visual impairment related to its microtraumatic effects.

  2. Use of Internal Limiting Membrane Autograft in Primary Vitrectomy for Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Da Mota, Sergio Eustolio; Béjar-Cornejo, Jorge Francisco

    2016-01-01

    During a pars plana vitrectomy, an unplanned retinotomy in the raphe was performed in a 55-year-old female patient with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Since diathermy and laser therapy were not available at that moment, it was decided to peel off a small graft of the internal limiting membrane adjacent to the retinotomy site which had been previously stained with Brilliant Blue G. The graft was displaced under perfluorocarbon fluids and placed inside the retinotomy. Three weeks after surgery, the apparent closure of the retinotomy was observed clinically. PMID:28101042

  3. Combined Epiretinal and Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling Facilitated by High Dilution Indocyanine Green Negative Staining.

    PubMed

    Kaehr, Mark M; Apte, Rajendra S

    2015-01-01

    We describe the utilization of indocyanine green (ICG) dye to facilitate combined/en bloc removal of epiretinal membranes (ERM) along with internal limiting membranes (ILM). The method utilizes a highly diluted preparation of ICG in dextrose water solvent (D5W). Elimination of fluid air exchange step facilitating staining in the fluid phase and low intensity lighting help minimize potential ICG toxicity. The technique demonstrates how ICG facilitates negative staining of ERMs and how ILM peeling concomitantly can allow complete and efficient ERM removal minimizing surgical time and the necessity for dual or sequential staining.

  4. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Samuel A.; Hosea, Joel C.; Timberlake, John R.

    1986-01-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

  5. Pars Plana Vitrectomy with Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling for Nontractional Diabetic Macular Edema.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Jan Niklas

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus remains the leading cause of blindness among working age Americans with diabetic macular edema being the most common cause for moderate and severe vision loss. To investigate the anatomical and visual benefits of pars plana vitrectomy with inner limiting membrane peeling in patients with nontractional diabetic macular edema as well as correlation of integrity of outer retinal layers on spectral domain optical coherence tomography to visual outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 42 diabetic patients that underwent vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling for nontractional diabetic macula edema. The integrity of outer retinal layers was evaluated and preoperative central macular thickness and visual acuity were compared with data at 1 month, 3 months and 6 months postoperatively. The student t-test was used to compare the groups. 31 eyes were included. While no differences were seen at 1 and 3 months, there was significant improvement of both central macular thickness and visual acuity at the 6 months follow up visit compared to preoperatively (357, 427 microns; p=0.03. 20/49, 20/82; p=0.03) . Patients with intact external limiting membrane and ellipsoid zone had better preoperative vision than patients with outer retinal layer irregularities (20/54, 20/100; p=0.03) and greater visual gains postoperatively (20/33, p<0.001 versus 20/81; p=non-significant). Pars plana vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling can improve retinal anatomy and visual acuity in patients with nontractional diabetic macular edema. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography may help identify patients with potential for visual improvement.

  6. An in vitro biomechanical comparison of hydroxyapatite coated and uncoated ao cortical bone screws for a limited contact: dynamic compression plate fixation of osteotomized equine 3rd metacarpal bones.

    PubMed

    Durham, Myra E; Sod, Gary A; Riggs, Laura M; Mitchell, Colin F

    2015-02-01

    To compare the monotonic biomechanical properties of a broad 4.5 mm limited contact-dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP) fixation secured with hydroxyapatite (HA) coated cortical bone screws (HA-LC-DCP) versus uncoated cortical bone screws (AO-LC-DCP) to repair osteotomized equine 3rd metacarpal (MC3) bones. Experimental. Adult equine cadaveric MC3 bones (n = 12 pair). Twelve pairs of equine MC3 were divided into 3 test groups (4 pairs each) for: (1) 4 point bending single cycle to failure testing; (2) 4 point bending cyclic fatigue testing; and (3) torsional single cycle to failure testing. For the HA-LC-DCP-MC3 construct, an 8-hole broad LC-DCP (Synthes Ltd, Paoli, PA) was secured on the dorsal surface of each randomly selected MC3 bone with a combination of four 5.5 mm and four 4.5 mm HA-coated cortical screws. For the AO-LC-DCP-MC3 construct, an 8-hole 4.5 mm broad LC-DCP was secured on the dorsal surface of the contralateral MC3 bone with a combination of four 5.5 mm and four 4.5 mm uncoated cortical screws. All MC3 bones had mid-diaphyseal osteotomies. Mean test variable values for each method were compared using a paired t-test within each group. Significance was set at P < .05. Mean yield load, yield bending moment, composite rigidity, failure load, and failure bending moment, under 4 point bending, single cycle to failure, of the HA-LC-DCP fixation were significantly greater than those of the AO-LC-DCP fixation. Mean ± SD values for the HA-LC-DCP and the AO-LC-DCP fixation techniques, respectively, in single cycle to failure under 4 point bending were: yield load, 26.7 ± 2.15 and 16.3 ± 1.38 kN; yield bending moment, 527.4 ± 42.4 and 322.9 ± 27.2 N-m; composite rigidity, 5306 ± 399 and 3003 ± 300 N-m/rad; failure load, 40.6 ± 3.94 and 26.5 ± 2.52 kN; and failure bending moment, 801.9 ± 77.9 and 522.9 ± 52.2 N-m. Mean cycles to failure in 4 point bending of the HA

  7. The doubtful environmental benefit of reduced maximum sulfur limit in international shipping fuel.

    PubMed

    Mestl, Thomas; Løvoll, Grunde; Stensrud, Erik; Le Breton, Arnaud

    2013-06-18

    On January 1st, 2012, the maximum limit for sulfur concentration in marine fuels on the high seas was lowered from 4.50% to 3.50% by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). It was one of a series of planned steps toward reducing the negative environmental and health impacts of international shipping. This study investigates the effectiveness of the IMO regulation in reducing global sulfur emissions. We found a reduction in global average sulfur concentration of only 0.07% points from 2011 to 2012. On the positive side, we also found that only 2.3% of the bunkerings were noncompliant in 2012, that is, exceeded the new 3.50% sulfur concentration cap. The analysis furthermore suggests that compliance with the new regulation is achieved by blending high sulfur fuel with lower sulfur fuel, rather than by removing high sulfur fuel from the market or removing the excess sulfur. The main conclusion is that the regulation has been effective in reducing the maximum sulfur concentration but has not been very effective in reducing the average sulfur concentration. Thus, the regulation may have resulted in local environmental benefits but has not resulted in global benefits with respect to global sulfur emissions from international shipping.

  8. Effect of Internal Limiting Membrane Abrasion on Retinal Tissues in Macular Holes

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, David R. P.; Chin, Eric K.; Tarantola, Ryan M.; Folk, James C.; Boldt, H. Culver; Skeie, Jessica M.; Mullins, Robert F.; Russell, Stephen R.; Mahajan, Vinit B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify the structural and histological effects of a Tano diamond-dusted membrane scraper (DDMS) on the retinal surface after internal limiting membrane (ILM) abrasion in macular hole surgery. Methods. Institutional experimental study was performed in 11 eyes. All eyes underwent ILM abrasion in the operating room with a DDMS for macular hole repair as an alternative to traditional ILM peeling. Three human donor eyes underwent an identical procedure in the laboratory. Retinal tissues were removed by ILM abrasion with a DDMS during vitrectomy for macular hole repair and retinal tissues remaining in human donor eyes. Main outcome measures were microscopic and immunohistological characteristics of instrument tip tissues and retinal structure after ILM abrasion. Results. The tips of the Tano DDMS showed evidence of cellular membranes and ILM removal. The retinas showed distinct areas of lamellar ILM removal without penetration of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). Conclusions. Application of the Tano DDMS instrument is sufficient to remove membranes from the surface of the ILM and layers of the ILM without disruption of the underlying RNFL. Internal limiting membrane abrasion can be a useful and effective alternative to complete ILM removal for macular surgery. PMID:26024069

  9. Effect of internal limiting membrane abrasion on retinal tissues in macular holes.

    PubMed

    Almeida, David R P; Chin, Eric K; Tarantola, Ryan M; Folk, James C; Boldt, H Culver; Skeie, Jessica M; Mullins, Robert F; Russell, Stephen R; Mahajan, Vinit B

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the structural and histological effects of a Tano diamond-dusted membrane scraper (DDMS) on the retinal surface after internal limiting membrane (ILM) abrasion in macular hole surgery. Institutional experimental study was performed in 11 eyes. All eyes underwent ILM abrasion in the operating room with a DDMS for macular hole repair as an alternative to traditional ILM peeling. Three human donor eyes underwent an identical procedure in the laboratory. Retinal tissues were removed by ILM abrasion with a DDMS during vitrectomy for macular hole repair and retinal tissues remaining in human donor eyes. Main outcome measures were microscopic and immunohistological characteristics of instrument tip tissues and retinal structure after ILM abrasion. The tips of the Tano DDMS showed evidence of cellular membranes and ILM removal. The retinas showed distinct areas of lamellar ILM removal without penetration of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). Application of the Tano DDMS instrument is sufficient to remove membranes from the surface of the ILM and layers of the ILM without disruption of the underlying RNFL. Internal limiting membrane abrasion can be a useful and effective alternative to complete ILM removal for macular surgery.

  10. INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING-DEPENDENT RETINAL STRUCTURAL CHANGES AFTER VITRECTOMY IN RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT.

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, Toshio; Tachibana, Takashi; Notomi, Shoji; Koyanagi, Yoshito; Murakami, Yusuke; Takeda, Atsunobu; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Shigeo; Enaida, Hiroshi; Murata, Toshinori; Sakamoto, Taiji; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2017-02-23

    To examine retinal changes after vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling, we used 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography (3D-OCT) in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment cases. The 68 eyes from 67 patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment were studied, including 35 detached macula cases (51%) and 33 attached macula cases. Internal limiting membrane peeling was performed with fine forceps after brilliant blue G staining. The 3D-OCT images were obtained with volume-rendering technologies from cross-sectional OCT images. The 3D-OCT detected 45 eyes (66%) with ILM peeling-dependent retinal changes, including dissociated optic nerve fiber layer appearance, dimple sign, temporal macular thinning, ILM peeling area thinning, or forceps-related retinal thinning. The ILM peeled area was detectable in only 9 eyes with 3D-OCT, whereas it was undetectable in other 59 eyes. The dissociated optic nerve fiber layer appearance was detected in 8 of the total cases (12%), and dimple signs were observed in 14 cases (21%). Forceps-related thinning was also noted in eight cases (24%) of attached macula cases and in four cases (11%) of detached macula cases. No postoperative macular pucker was noted in the observational period. The 3D-OCT clearly revealed spatial and time-dependent retinal changes after ILM peeling. The changes occurred in 2 months and remained thereafter.

  11. Open reduction and internal fixation of capitellar fracture through anterolateral approach with headless double-threaded compression screws: a series of 16 patients.

    PubMed

    Vaishya, Raju; Vijay, Vipul; Jha, Gyanendra Kumar; Agarwal, Amit Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Fracture of the capitellum is an often missed or inadequately treated serious elbow injury. Anatomic reduction and proper stabilization are essential to obtain articular congruity so that late-onset arthritis can be avoided. The main areas of interest in this intriguing fracture are the choice of implant and the surgical approach. We describe the use of anterolateral approach and headless double-threaded compression screws for the fixation of this fracture. This prospective study included 16 capitellar fractures. A computed tomography scan was done for delineating the fracture line and planning the fixation technique. All fractures were treated with headless double-threaded compression screws using an anterolateral approach, over a period of 3 years, with a mean follow-up of 2.3 years (range, 1.5-4 years). The average time to bony union was 3.5 months (range, 2.5-5 months) with no malunion or nonunion. The mean range of flexion was 132° (range, 125°-135°). The average extensor lag was 10° (range, 0°-25°), but the range of motion remained functional in all patients. On the final follow-up, no evidence of osteonecrosis, post-traumatic osteoarthritis, or heterotrophic ossification was seen. The outcome was excellent in 10 patients, and 6 patients had a good result. The success of management of a capitellar fracture depends on an early diagnosis by keeping a high index of suspicion and timely management. Adequate exposure of the fracture is of paramount importance to achieve accurate reduction. This can be satisfactorily achieved by an anterolateral approach to the elbow. An adequate fixation of the fractured fragments can be achieved by the use of headless double-threaded compression screws. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Intermittent Internal Fixation With a Locking Plate to Preserve Epiphyseal Growth Function During Limb-Salvage Surgery in a Child With Osteosarcoma of the Distal Femur

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Jiong; Ni, Ming; Jia, Guang-Yao; Chen, Yan-Xi; Zhu, Xiao-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Limb shortening is a problem associated with surgery for osteosarcoma of the lower extremity in adolescents, as the tumors frequently occur near the epiphysis. Herein we report the use of a less invasive stabilization system (LISS) and an intermittent fixation method to preserve the growth function of epiphysis in an 11-year-old patient with an osteosarcoma of the distal femur. The 11-year-old male presented with left knee enlargement and pain for 2 weeks, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biopsy were consistent with osteosarcoma of the left distal femur. After preoperative chemotherapy, en bloc tumor resection was performed with margins based on MRI findings preserving the epiphyseal growth plate, the tumor cavity was filled with inactivated bone and bone cement, and a LISS was used to stabilize the femur. Aggressive postoperative chemotherapy was given. Approximately 105 weeks after surgery radiography showed that the distal end of the plate had moved superior to the epiphysis along with bone growth. Locking screws were placed in the distal part of the LISS plate to stabilize the re-implanted bone, and external fixation was not needed. The patient was able to walk with the crutches 1 week postoperatively, and bear weight on the extremity 6 weeks postoperatively. At 6 years after surgery, the patient's height had increased 52 cm, shortening of the affected limb was only 1 cm, and the circumference of the affected limb was 2 cm smaller than that of the contralateral limb. There was no significant discomfort in the affected limb, and there was no gait abnormality. The patient could jump and run, and could participate in sports including basketball and badminton to the same degree as his peers. In summary, the novel method of bone reconstruction and fixation provided good results in a child with an osteosarcoma of the distal femur. This fixation method preserves the osteogenic function of the epiphysis and restored bone integrity simultaneously

  13. Nutrient feedbacks to soil heterotrophic nitrogen fixation in forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, Steven; Pett-Ridge, Julie C.; Catricala, Christina E.

    2017-01-01

    Multiple nutrient cycles regulate biological nitrogen (N) fixation in forests, yet long-term feedbacks between N-fixation and coupled element cycles remain largely unexplored. We examined soil nutrients and heterotrophic N-fixation across a gradient of 24 temperate conifer forests shaped by legacies of symbiotic N-fixing trees. We observed positive relationships among mineral soil pools of N, carbon (C), organic molybdenum (Mo), and organic phosphorus (P) across sites, evidence that legacies of symbiotic N-fixing trees can increase the abundance of multiple elements important to heterotrophic N-fixation. Soil N accumulation lowered rates of heterotrophic N-fixation in organic horizons due to both N inhibition of nitrogenase enzymes and declines in soil organic matter quality. Experimental fertilization of organic horizon soil revealed widespread Mo limitation of heterotrophic N-fixation, especially at sites where soil Mo was scarce relative to C. Fertilization also revealed widespread absence of P limitation, consistent with high soil P:Mo ratios. Responses of heterotrophic N-fixation to added Mo (positive) and N (negative) were correlated across sites, evidence that multiple nutrient controls of heterotrophic N-fixation were more common than single-nutrient effects. We propose a conceptual model where symbiotic N-fixation promotes coupled N, C, P, and Mo accumulation in soil, leading to positive feedback that relaxes nutrient limitation of overall N-fixation, though heterotrophic N-fixation is primarily suppressed by strong negative feedback from long-term soil N accumulation.

  14. History of POIC Capabilities and Limitations to Conduct International Space Station Payload Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimaldi, Rebecca; Horvath, Tim; Morris, Denise; Willis, Emily; Stacy, Lamar; Shell, Mike; Faust, Mark; Norwood, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Payload science operations on the International Space Station (ISS) have been conducted continuously twenty-four hours per day, 365 days a year beginning February, 2001 and continuing through present day. The Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC), located at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, has been a leader in integrating and managing NASA distributed payload operations. The ability to conduct science operations is a delicate balance of crew time, onboard vehicle resources, hardware up-mass to the vehicle, and ground based flight control team manpower. Over the span of the last ten years, the POIC flight control team size, function, and structure has been modified several times commensurate with the capabilities and limitations of the ISS program. As the ISS vehicle has been expanded and its systems changed throughout the assembly process, the resources available to conduct science and research have also changed. Likewise, as ISS program financial resources have demanded more efficiency from organizations across the program, utilization organizations have also had to adjust their functionality and structure to adapt accordingly. The POIC has responded to these often difficult challenges by adapting our team concept to maximize science research return within the utilization allocations and vehicle limitations that existed at the time. In some cases, the ISS and systems limitations became the limiting factor in conducting science. In other cases, the POIC structure and flight control team size were the limiting factors, so other constraints had to be put into place to assure successful science operations within the capabilities of the POIC. This paper will present the POIC flight control team organizational changes responding to significant events of the ISS and Shuttle programs.

  15. Principles of tibial fracture management with circular external fixation.

    PubMed

    Lowenberg, David W; Githens, Michael; Boone, Christopher

    2014-04-01

    There is a growing mass of literature to suggest that circular external fixation for high-energy tibial fractures has advantages over traditional internal fixation, with potential improved rates of union, decreased incidence of posttraumatic osteomyelitis, and decreased soft tissue problems. To further advance our understanding of the role of circular external fixation in the management of these tibial fractures, randomized controlled trials should be implemented. In addition to complication rates and radiographic outcomes, validated functional outcome tools and cost analysis of this method should be compared with open reduction with internal fixation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Malleolar fractures and their ligamentous injury equivalents have similar outcomes in supination-external rotation type IV fractures of the ankle treated by anatomical internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Berkes, M B; Little, M T M; Lazaro, L E; Sculco, P K; Cymerman, R M; Daigl, M; Helfet, D L; Lorich, D G

    2012-11-01

    It has previously been suggested that among unstable ankle fractures, the presence of a malleolar fracture is associated with a worse outcome than a corresponding ligamentous injury. However, previous studies have included heterogeneous groups of injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether any specific pattern of bony and/or ligamentous injury among a series of supination-external rotation type IV (SER IV) ankle fractures treated with anatomical fixation was associated with a worse outcome. We analysed a prospective cohort of 108 SER IV ankle fractures with a follow-up of one year. Pre-operative radiographs and MRIs were undertaken to characterise precisely the pattern of injury. Operative treatment included fixation of all malleolar fractures. Post-operative CT was used to assess reduction. The primary and secondary outcome measures were the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) and the range of movement of the ankle. There were no clinically relevant differences between the four possible SER IV fracture pattern groups with regard to the FAOS or range of movement. In this population of strictly defined SER IV ankle injuries, the presence of a malleolar fracture was not associated with a significantly worse clinical outcome than its ligamentous injury counterpart. Other factors inherent to the injury and treatment may play a more important role in predicting outcome.

  17. Minimally invasive (sinus tarsi) approach for open reduction and internal fixation of intra-articular calcaneus fractures in children: surgical technique and case report of two patients.

    PubMed

    Abdelgawad, Amr A; Kanlic, Enes

    2015-01-01

    Calcaneus fractures in children differ from those in adults. Most calcaneus fractures in children can be managed nonoperatively, with good long-term results expected. The width and height of the calcaneus can remodel with time in children. Recently, there has been a trend toward operative treatment of displaced intra-articular fractures of the calcaneus in children to correct the articular deformity. Studies of calcaneal fracture fixation in children used an extended lateral approach, with its possible complications. In the present report, we describe the operative treatment of 2 children (12 and 13 years old), who had a displaced intra-articular fracture of the calcaneus, using a minimally invasive sinus tarsi approach. Adequate reduction was obtained in both cases with no soft tissue complications or implant discomfort. Fixation was obtained using 3.5-mm cortical screws. Anatomic joint alignment was restored. The children were followed up until they had both resumed their full activities with no complications. We recommend this approach for operative treatment of displaced intra-articular fractures of the calcaneus, because it addresses the intra-articular displacement, which is the most important element of the deformity in children.

  18. Mouse tissue fixation.

    PubMed

    Cardiff, Robert D; Miller, Claramae H; Munn, Robert J

    2014-05-01

    One of the primary goals of fixation is to stop postmortem changes that degrade the tissue and allow optimal preservation of morphologic and cytological detail as well as nucleic acid integrity. Following death, tissues soon undergo autolysis, and if organisms from the gastrointestinal, urinary, or respiratory tracts are present, their colonization can soon cause putrefaction. Time is of the essence because warmer temperatures accelerate both types of degradation. Placing the tissue into a fixative stops the postmortem changes. Fixatives have their effect on tissue by cross-linking, coagulation, or a combination of both. This article outlines the basic tissue fixation procedure and offers guidance on choosing an appropriate fixative, the timing and duration of fixation, sample storage, and quality issues.

  19. Kennedy Space Center Fixation Tube (KFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephanie E.; Levine, Howard G.; Romero, Vergel

    2016-01-01

    Experiments performed on the International Space Station (ISS) frequently require the experimental organisms to be preserved until they can be returned to earth for analysis in the appropriate laboratory facility. The Kennedy Fixation Tube (KFT) was developed to allow astronauts to apply fixative, chemical compounds that are often toxic, to biological samples without the use of a glovebox while maintaining three levels of containment (Fig. 1). KFTs have been used over 200 times on-orbit with no leaks of chemical fixative. The KFT is composed of the following elements: a polycarbonate main tube where the fixative is loaded preflight, the sample tube where the plant or other biological specimens is placed during operations, the expansion plug, actuator, and base plug that provides fixative containment (Fig. 2). The main tube is pre-filled with 25 mL of fixative solution prior to flight. When actuated, the specimen contained within the sample tube is immersed with approximately 22 mL (+/- 2 mL) of the fixative solution. The KFT has been demonstrated to maintain its containment at ambient temperatures, 4degC refrigeration and -100 C freezing conditions.

  20. Dinitrogen fixation in aphotic oxygenated marine environments

    PubMed Central

    Rahav, Eyal; Bar-Zeev, Edo; Ohayon, Sarah; Elifantz, Hila; Belkin, Natalia; Herut, Barak; Mulholland, Margaret R.; Berman-Frank, Ilana

    2013-01-01

    We measured N2 fixation rates from oceanic zones that have traditionally been ignored as sources of biological N2 fixation; the aphotic, fully oxygenated, nitrate (NO−3)-rich, waters of the oligotrophic Levantine Basin (LB) and the Gulf of Aqaba (GA). N2 fixation rates measured from pelagic aphotic waters to depths up to 720 m, during the mixed and stratified periods, ranged from 0.01 nmol N L−1 d−1 to 0.38 nmol N L−1 d−1. N2 fixation rates correlated significantly with bacterial productivity and heterotrophic diazotrophs were identified from aphotic as well as photic depths. Dissolved free amino acid amendments to whole water from the GA enhanced bacterial productivity by 2–3.5 fold and N2 fixation rates by ~2-fold in samples collected from aphotic depths while in amendments to water from photic depths bacterial productivity increased 2–6 fold while N2 fixation rates increased by a factor of 2 to 4 illustrating that both BP and heterotrophic N2 fixation were carbon limited. Experimental manipulations of aphotic waters from the LB demonstrated a significant positive correlation between transparent exopolymeric particle (TEP) concentrations and N2 fixation rates. This suggests that sinking organic material and high carbon (C): nitrogen (N) micro-environments (such as TEP-based aggregates or marine snow) could support high heterotrophic N2 fixation rates in oxygenated surface waters and in the aphotic zones. Indeed, our calculations show that aphotic N2 fixation accounted for 37 to 75% of the total daily integrated N2 fixation rates at both locations in the Mediterranean and Red Seas with rates equal or greater to those measured from the photic layers. Moreover, our results indicate that that while N2 fixation may be limited in the surface waters, aphotic, pelagic N2 fixation may contribute significantly to new N inputs in other oligotrophic basins, yet it is currently not included in regional or global N budgets. PMID:23986748

  1. Brilliant blue G-assisted peeling of the internal limiting membrane in macular hole surgery.

    PubMed

    Naithani, Prashant; Vashisht, Naginder; Khanduja, Sumeet; Sinha, Subijay; Garg, Satpal

    2011-01-01

    Dye-assisted internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and gas tamponade is the surgery of choice for idiopathic macular holes. Indocyanine green and trypan blue have been extensively used to stain the ILM. However, the retinal toxicity of indocyanine green and non-uniform staining with trypan blue has necessitated development of newer vital dyes. Brilliant blue G has recently been introduced as one such dye with adequate ILM staining and no reported retinal toxicity. We performed a 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy with brilliant blue G-assisted ILM peeling in six patients with idiopathic macular holes, to assess the staining characteristics and short-term adverse effects of this dye. Adequate staining assisted in the complete removal of ILM and closure of macular holes in all cases. There was no evidence of intraoperative or postoperative dye-related toxicity. Brilliant blue G appears to be safe dye for ILM staining in macular hole surgery.

  2. Assessing the Performance Limits of Internal Coronagraphs Through End-to-End Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krist, John E.; Belikov, Ruslan; Pueyo, Laurent; Mawet, Dimitri P.; Moody, Dwight; Trauger, John T.; Shaklan, Stuart B.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the NASA ROSES Technology Demonstrations for Exoplanet Missions (TDEM) program, we conducted a numerical modeling study of three internal coronagraphs (PIAA, vector vortex, hybrid bandlimited) to understand their behaviors in realistically-aberrated systems with wavefront control (deformable mirrors). This investigation consisted of two milestones: (1) develop wavefront propagation codes appropriate for each coronagraph that are accurate to 1% or better (compared to a reference algorithm) but are also time and memory efficient, and (2) use these codes to determine the wavefront control limits of each architecture. We discuss here how the milestones were met and identify some of the behaviors particular to each coronagraph. The codes developed in this study are being made available for community use. We discuss here results for the HBLC and VVC systems, with PIAA having been discussed in a previous proceeding.

  3. Assessing the Performance Limits of Internal Coronagraphs Through End-to-End Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krist, John E.; Belikov, Ruslan; Pueyo, Laurent; Mawet, Dimitri P.; Moody, Dwight; Trauger, John T.; Shaklan, Stuart B.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the NASA ROSES Technology Demonstrations for Exoplanet Missions (TDEM) program, we conducted a numerical modeling study of three internal coronagraphs (PIAA, vector vortex, hybrid bandlimited) to understand their behaviors in realistically-aberrated systems with wavefront control (deformable mirrors). This investigation consisted of two milestones: (1) develop wavefront propagation codes appropriate for each coronagraph that are accurate to 1% or better (compared to a reference algorithm) but are also time and memory efficient, and (2) use these codes to determine the wavefront control limits of each architecture. We discuss here how the milestones were met and identify some of the behaviors particular to each coronagraph. The codes developed in this study are being made available for community use. We discuss here results for the HBLC and VVC systems, with PIAA having been discussed in a previous proceeding.

  4. Coherent total internal reflection dark-field microscopy: label-free imaging beyond the diffraction limit.

    PubMed

    von Olshausen, Philipp; Rohrbach, Alexander

    2013-10-15

    Coherent imaging is barely applicable in life-science microscopy due to multiple interference artifacts. Here, we show how these interferences can be used to improve image resolution and contrast. We present a dark-field microscopy technique with evanescent illumination via total internal reflection that delivers high-contrast images of coherently scattering samples. By incoherent averaging of multiple coherent images illuminated from different directions we can resolve image structures that remain unresolved by conventional (incoherent) fluorescence microscopy. We provide images of 190 nm beads revealing resolution beyond the diffraction limit and slightly increased object distances. An analytical model is introduced that accounts for the observed effects and which is confirmed by numerical simulations. Our approach may be a route to fast, label-free, super-resolution imaging in live-cell microscopy.

  5. Benthic N2 fixation in coral reefs and the potential effects of human-induced environmental change

    PubMed Central

    Cardini, Ulisse; Bednarz, Vanessa N; Foster, Rachel A; Wild, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Tropical coral reefs are among the most productive and diverse ecosystems, despite being surrounded by ocean waters where nutrients are in short supply. Benthic dinitrogen (N2) fixation is a significant internal source of “new” nitrogen (N) in reef ecosystems, but related information appears to be sparse. Here, we review the current state (and gaps) of knowledge on N2 fixation associated with coral reef organisms and their ecosystems. By summarizing the existing literature, we show that benthic N2 fixation is an omnipresent process in tropical reef environments. Highest N2 fixation rates are detected in reef-associated cyanobacterial mats and sea grass meadows, clearly showing the significance of these functional groups, if present, to the input of new N in reef ecosystems. Nonetheless, key benthic organisms such as hard corals also importantly contribute to benthic N2 fixation in the reef. Given the usually high coral coverage of healthy reef systems, these results indicate that benthic symbiotic associations may be more important than previously thought. In fact, mutualisms between carbon (C) and N2 fixers have likely evolved that may enable reef communities to mitigate N limitation. We then explore the potential effects of the increasing human interferences on the process of benthic reef N2 fixation via changes in diazotrophic populations, enzymatic activities, or availability of benthic substrates favorable to these microorganisms. Current knowledge indicates positive effects of ocean acidification, warming, and deoxygenation and negative effects of increased ultraviolet radiation on the amount of N fixed in coral reefs. Eutrophication may either boost or suppress N2 fixation, depending on the nutrient becoming limiting. As N2 fixation appears to play a fundamental role in nutrient-limited reef ecosystems, these assumptions need to be expanded and confirmed by future research efforts addressing the knowledge gaps identified in this review. PMID:24967086

  6. Benthic N2 fixation in coral reefs and the potential effects of human-induced environmental change.

    PubMed

    Cardini, Ulisse; Bednarz, Vanessa N; Foster, Rachel A; Wild, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Tropical coral reefs are among the most productive and diverse ecosystems, despite being surrounded by ocean waters where nutrients are in short supply. Benthic dinitrogen (N2) fixation is a significant internal source of "new" nitrogen (N) in reef ecosystems, but related information appears to be sparse. Here, we review the current state (and gaps) of knowledge on N2 fixation associated with coral reef organisms and their ecosystems. By summarizing the existing literature, we show that benthic N2 fixation is an omnipresent process in tropical reef environments. Highest N2 fixation rates are detected in reef-associated cyanobacterial mats and sea grass meadows, clearly showing the significance of these functional groups, if present, to the input of new N in reef ecosystems. Nonetheless, key benthic organisms such as hard corals also importantly contribute to benthic N2 fixation in the reef. Given the usually high coral coverage of healthy reef systems, these results indicate that benthic symbiotic associations may be more important than previously thought. In fact, mutualisms between carbon (C) and N2 fixers have likely evolved that may enable reef communities to mitigate N limitation. We then explore the potential effects of the increasing human interferences on the process of benthic reef N2 fixation via changes in diazotrophic populations, enzymatic activities, or availability of benthic substrates favorable to these microorganisms. Current knowledge indicates positive effects of ocean acidification, warming, and deoxygenation and negative effects of increased ultraviolet radiation on the amount of N fixed in coral reefs. Eutrophication may either boost or suppress N2 fixation, depending on the nutrient becoming limiting. As N2 fixation appears to play a fundamental role in nutrient-limited reef ecosystems, these assumptions need to be expanded and confirmed by future research efforts addressing the knowledge gaps identified in this review.

  7. International comparisons of waiting times in health care--limitations and prospects.

    PubMed

    Viberg, Nina; Forsberg, Birger C; Borowitz, Michael; Molin, Roger

    2013-09-01

    Long waiting times for health care is an important health policy issue in many countries, and many have introduced some form of national waiting time guarantees. International comparison of waiting times are critical for countries to improve policy and for patients to be able to make informed choices, especially in Europe, where patients have the right to seek care in other countries if there is undue delay. The objective of this study was to describe how countries measure waiting times and to assess whether waiting times can be compared internationally. Twenty-three OECD countries were included. Information was collected through scientific articles, official and unofficial documents and web pages. Fifteen of the 23 countries monitor and publish national waiting time statistics and have some form of waiting time guarantees. There are significant differences in how waiting times are measured: whether they measure the "ongoing" or "completed" waiting period what kind of care the patient is waiting for; the parameters used; and where in the patient journey the measurement begins. Current national waiting time statistics are of limited use for comparing health care availability among the various countries due to the differences in measurements and data collection. Different methodological issues must be taken into account when making such cross-country comparisons. Within the given context of national sovereignty of health systems it would be desirable if countries could collaborate in order to facilitate international comparisons. Such comparisons would be of benefit to all involved in the process of continuous improvement of health services. They would also benefit patients who seek cross-border alternatives for their care. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Internal limiting membrane staining with various concentrations of indocyanine green dye under air in macular surgeries.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Alvin K H; Lai, Timothy Y Y; Yew, David T W; Li, Winnie W Y

    2003-08-01

    To determine the effective minimal concentration of indocyanine green (ICG) for staining the internal limiting membrane (ILM) under air in macular surgeries and to report the clinical outcome of these patients. Prospective, randomized clinical trial. Consecutive cases of macular hole (17 cases) and epiretinal membrane (ERM) (11 cases) undergoing primary surgery with ICG-stained ILM peeling were randomized to receive one of the three concentrations (mg/ml) of ICG (1): 0.25, (2) 0.5, and (3) 1.25. The number of ICG injections, visual quality of the stained ILM, and time used for ILM peeling were recorded. Internal limiting membrane specimens were subsequently examined under electron microscopy. Preoperative and postoperative clinical data with fluorescein angiography were recorded. There was a significantly smaller number of eyes with poor ILM staining in the 1.25-mg/ml group compared with the 0.25- to 0.5-mg/ml group (Fisher exact test, P =.04). The mean time required for ILM peeling was 4.2 minutes (range, 2.0-8.1 minutes). There was no significant difference in the time required for ILM peeling among the three concentration groups (one-way analysis of variance, P =.18) or between the macular hole and ERM group (two-tailed t test, P =.34). No ICG toxicity was found clinically or angiographically, except in one suspected case with ERM formation at the edge of ILM peeling. Electron microscopy of ILM specimens did not reveal any retinal elements. 1.25-mg/ml ICG under air stains the macular ILM consistently well for its removal in macular surgeries. The safety of ICG-stained ILM peeling needs further evaluation.

  9. Cost of external fixation vs external fixation then nailing in bone infection

    PubMed Central

    Emara, Khaled Mohamed; Diab, Ramy Ahmed; Ghafar, Khaled Abd EL

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the cost benefit of external fixation vs external fixation then nailing in treatment of bone infection by segment transfer. METHODS: Out of 71 patients with infected nonunion tibia treated between 2003 and 2006, 50 patients fitted the inclusion criteria (26 patients were treated by external fixation only, and 24 patients were treated by external fixation early removal after segment transfer and replacement by internal fixation). Cost of inpatient treatment, total cost of inpatient and outpatient treatment till full healing, and the weeks of absence from school or work were calculated and compared between both groups. RESULTS: The cost of hospital stay and surgery in the group of external fixation only was 22.6 ± 3.3 while the cost of hospital stay and surgery in the group of early external fixation removal and replacement by intramedullary nail was 26.0 ± 3.2. The difference was statistically significant regarding the cost of hospital stay and surgery in favor of the group of external fixation only. The total cost of medical care (surgery, hospital stay, treatment outside the hospital including medications, dressing, physical therapy, outpatient laboratory work, etc.) in group of external fixation only was 63.3 ± 15.1, and total absence from work was 38.6 ± 6.6 wk. While the group of early removal of external fixation and replacement by IM nail, total cost of medical care was 38.3 ± 6.4 and total absence from work or school was 22.7 ± 4.1. The difference was statistically significant regarding the total cost and absence from work in favor of the group of early removal and replacement by IM nail. CONCLUSION: Early removal of external fixation and replacement by intramedullary nail in treatment of infected nonunion showed more cost effectiveness. Orthopaedic society needs to show the cost effectiveness of different procedures to the community, insurance, and health authorities. PMID:25621219

  10. Exposure limits for nanoparticles: report of an international workshop on nano reference values.

    PubMed

    van Broekhuizen, Pieter; van Veelen, Wim; Streekstra, Willem-Henk; Schulte, Paul; Reijnders, Lucas

    2012-07-01

    This article summarizes the outcome of the discussions at the international workshop on nano reference values (NRVs), which was organized by the Dutch trade unions and employers' organizations and hosted by the Social Economic Council in The Hague in September 2011. It reflects the discussions of 80 international participants representing small- and medium-size enterprises (SMEs), large companies, trade unions, governmental authorities, research institutions, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) from many European countries, USA, India, and Brazil. Issues that were discussed concerned the usefulness and acceptability of precaution-based NRVs as a substitute for health-based occupational exposure limits (OELs) and derived no-effect levels (DNELs) for manufactured nanoparticles (NPs). Topics concerned the metrics for measuring NPs, the combined exposure to manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) and process-generated NPs, the use of the precautionary principle, the lack of information about the presence of nanomaterials, and the appropriateness of soft regulation for exposure control. The workshop concluded that the NRV, as an 8-h time-weighted average, is a comprehensible and useful instrument for risk management of professional use of MNMs with a dispersible character. The question remains whether NRVs, as advised for risk management by the Dutch employers' organization and trade unions, should be under soft regulation or that a more binding regulation is preferable.

  11. Histologic and Histometric Analysis of Bone Repair at the Site of Mandibular Body Osteotomy and at the Bone-Screw Interface After Using a Biodegradable 2.0-mm Internal Fixation System.

    PubMed

    Sverzut, Cassio Edvard; de Matos, Fernando Pando; Trivellato, Alexandre Elias; Kato, Rogerio Bentes; Sverzut, Alexander Tadeu; Taba Junior, Mario; de Rezende Duek, Eliana Aparecida; de Oliveira, Paulo Tambasco

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate histologically and histometrically the bone repair at the mandibular body osteotomy and at the bone-screw interface after using a biodegradable 2.0-mm internal fixation system. Six dogs were subjected to an osteotomy in the mandibular body, which was stabilized by applying a fixation device manufactured with poly-L-DL-lactic acid (70:30). The dogs were euthanized at 2 and 18 weeks. Each screw was sectioned along its long axis, and the osteotomy sites were divided into 3 parts: the upper part was labeled the tension third (TT); the lower part, compression third (CT); and the part between the TT and CT, intermediary third (IT). Histologic analysis showed areas of direct contact between the screw surface and the parent lamellar bone at 2 weeks. At 18 weeks, 3 microscopically distinct layers at the bone-screw interface were noted. At the osteotomy sites, union between the bone fragments was observed at 18 weeks. Statistically significant differences in the newly formed bone among TT, IT, and CT (P = 0.019) were observed. In conclusion, the biomechanical environment created by the biodegradable IF system used in this study facilitated bone repair at the osteotomy site.

  12. 75 FR 9017 - Orders Limiting Scheduled Operations at John F. Kennedy International Airport, LaGuardia Airport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Orders Limiting Scheduled Operations at John F. Kennedy International... Washington's Reagan National Airport (DCA) and Operating Authorizations (slots) at John F. Kennedy...

  13. Incidence and risk factors for removal of an internal fixation following surgery for ankle fracture: A retrospective cohort study of 997 patients.

    PubMed

    Naumann, M G; Sigurdsen, U; Utvåg, S E; Stavem, K

    2016-08-01

    Implant removal in ankle fractures treated by open reduction and fixation is often based on diffuse complaints. This study determined the incidence of implant removal and identified risk factors for two principal causes for removal: complaints and surgical site infection (SSI). Retrospective cohort study involving 997 patients operated on 2009-2011 with follow-up through to 2013. The incidence of implant removal was analysed using competing risk analysis. Risk factors for implant removal were assessed using cause-specific hazard ratios (HRs) from a Cox regression analysis. The mean age at surgery was 51.6 years, 550 (55%) of the patients were female, and 170 patients (17%) had implant removal: 144 due to complaints and 26 due to infection. Multivariable HRs for implant removal due to complaints were 0.70 for male sex (p=0.047), 0.79 for each 10-year increase in age (p<0.001), 0.70 for treatment with a syndesmosis screw (p=0.038), and 1.09 for each 15-min increase in operation duration (p=0.007). HRs for hardware removal due to infection were 1.42 for each 10-year increase in age (p=0.006) and 3.15 for current smoking (p=0.005). In total 17% of patients had implant removal after open reduction and fixation; the majority because of subjective complaints. The risk factors for implant removal were different for removal due to complaints than for those removed due to infection. This information may be used to inform patients about the risk and risk factors for future implant removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An observational case series of HIV-positive patients treated with open reduction internal fixation for a closed lower extremity fracture.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jiandong; Herbert, Benoit; Quispe, Juan C; Cuellar, Derly O; Chadayammuri, Vivek; Kim, Ji Wan; Young, Heather; Hake, Mark E; Hammerberg, Mark E; Hak, David J; Mauffrey, Cyril

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of immune deficiency status of HIV-positive patients on postoperative complication such as surgical site infection and nonunions. Retrospective observational cohort study: Level III. Level I trauma center. Consecutive adult HIV-positive patients with closed fractures who underwent operative treatment between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2012. postoperative complication including infection and fracture nonunion. A total of 42 HIV-positive patients with closed fractures who underwent surgical fracture fixation were identified during the 12-year study time window. Of these, 18 patients were excluded due to incomplete medical records (n = 16) or open fractures (n = 2). The remaining 24 patients with closed fracture treated surgically (19 males and 5 females; mean age 45.1 ± 10.5 years; age range 20-67 years) were included in the study. Within a 6-month period from the time of injury, 16 patients had a CD4+ cell count >200 and five patients had a CD4+ cell count <200 (CD4+ cell count was not available in three patients). Twenty-two patients (91.6 %) were on antiretroviral therapy at the time of injury. Only one patient, with associated end-stage renal failure and diabetes mellitus, developed a postoperative infection (4.2 %). All patients achieved fracture union within 180 days postoperatively, without the need for surgical revisions. Our study suggests that HIV infection does not seem to correlate with a higher risk for the development of postoperative complication related to surgical site infection and fracture nonunions after operative fixation of closed fractures.

  15. Decreased retinal sensitivity after internal limiting membrane peeling for macular hole surgery.

    PubMed

    Tadayoni, Ramin; Svorenova, Ivana; Erginay, Ali; Gaudric, Alain; Massin, Pascale

    2012-12-01

    To compare the retinal sensitivity and frequency of microscotomas found by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) combined with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) microperimetry after idiopathic macular hole closure, in eyes that underwent internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and eyes that did not. This was a retrospective, non-randomised, comparative study. Combined SD-OCT and SLO microperimetry was performed in 16 consecutive eyes after closure of an idiopathic macular hole. A customised microperimetry pattern with 29 measurement points was used. The ILM was peeled in 8/16 eyes. The main outcome measure was mean retinal sensitivity. Mean retinal sensitivity (in dB) was lower after peeling: 9.80 ± 2.35 dB with peeling versus 13.19 ± 2.92 without (p=0.0209). Postoperative microscotomas were significantly more frequent after ILM peeling: 11.3 ± 6.6 points with retinal sensitivity below 10 dB in eyes that underwent peeling versus 2.9 ± 4.6 in those that did not (p=0.0093). These results suggest that ILM peeling may reduce retinal sensitivity, and significantly increase the incidence of microscotomas. Until a prospective trial confirming or not these results, it seems justified to avoid peeling the ILM when its potential benefit seems minor or unproved, and when peeling is carried out, to limit the surface peeled to the bare minimum.

  16. Fixation, Counting, and Manipulation of Heterotrophic Nanoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Bloem, Jaap; Bär-Gilissen, Marie-José B.; Cappenberg, Thomas E.

    1986-01-01

    Quantitative effects of several fixatives on heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNAN) and phototrophic nanoflagellates (PNAN) were investigated by hemacytometer and epifluorescence counting techniques. Counts of Monas sp. cultures before and after fixation with unbuffered 0.3% glutaraldehyde and 5% formaldehyde showed no loss of cells during fixation, and cell concentrations remained constant for several weeks after fixation. Buffering of fixatives with borax caused severe losses, up to 100% within 2 h. Field samples from Lake Vechten showed no decline of HNAN and total nanoflagellate concentrations for at least 1 week after fixation with 5% formaldehyde and with 1% glutaraldehyde. With 1% glutaraldehyde, the chlorophyll autofluorescence of PNAN was much brighter than with 5% formaldehyde, although it was lost after a few days and thus limited the storage time of samples. However, when primulin-stained slides were prepared soon after fixation and stored at −30°C, the loss of autofluorescence was prevented and PNAN and HNAN concentrations were stable for at least 16 weeks. Effects of filtration and centrifugation on HNAN were also studied. Filtration vacuum could not exceed 3 kPa since 10 kPa already caused losses of 15 to 20%. Similar losses were caused by centrifugation, even at low speed (500 × g). PMID:16347232

  17. Fixation: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Fixation and regression were considered complementary by Freud. You tend to regress to a point of fixation. They are both opposed to progression. In the general area, Anna Freud has written (The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence. London: Hogarth and the Psycho-Analytic Institute, 1937), Sears has evaluated (Survey of Objective Studies of…

  18. Guide to radiation fixatives

    SciTech Connect

    Tawil, J.J.; Bold, F.C.

    1983-11-01

    This report identifies and then characterizes a variety of substances available in the market place for potential effectiveness as a fixative on radiologically contaminated surfaces. The substances include both generic chemicals and proprietary products. In selecting a fixative for a particular application, several attributes of the fixative may be relevant to the choice. These attributes include: toxicity, durability, and cleanliness and removability. In addition to the attributes of the fixative, one should also take into account certain characteristics of the site to be treated. These characteristics relate to climate, nature of the surface, use to which the treated surface will be put, subsequent cleanup operations, and type of neighboring surfaces. Finally, costs and potential environmental effects may influence the decision. A variety of fixatives are evaluated with respect to these various attributes and summarized in a reference table.

  19. Cell fixatives for immunostaining.

    PubMed

    Jamur, Maria Célia; Oliver, Constance

    2010-01-01

    Fixation is one of the most critical steps in immunostaining. The object of fixation is to achieve good morphological preservation, while at the same time preserving antigenicity. Tissue blocks, sections, cell cultures or smears are usually immersed in a fixative solution, while in other situations, whole body perfusion of experimental animals is preferable. Fixation can be accomplished by either chemical or physical methods. The chemical methods include cross-linking agents such as formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde and succinimide esters as well as solvents such as acetone and methanol, which precipitate proteins. Of the physical methods, freezing tissue and air drying are most widely used. This chapter deals with the chemical fixation methods most commonly used for light microscopy.

  20. The use of dual C-arms during fixation of calcaneal fractures: a technique tip.

    PubMed

    Abousayed, Mostafa M; Toussaint, Rull James; Kwon, John Y

    2014-06-01

    We describe a simple technique using dual C-arms (large and mini C-arm together) for open reduction internal fixation of calcaneal fractures in the lateral decubitus position that (1) decreases the difficulty of obtaining proper intraoperative imaging; (2) limits C-arm movement, which decreases risk of contamination and operative time; and (3) minimizes the drawbacks of each imaging fluoroscopic modality. Level V, Technical tip, Expert opinion.

  1. The role of internal limiting membrane peeling in epiretinal membrane surgery: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tranos, Paris; Koukoula, Stavrenia; Charteris, Davic G; Perganda, Georgia; Vakalis, Athanasios; Asteriadis, Solon; Georgalas, Ilias; Petrou, Petros

    2017-06-01

    To compare the anatomical and functional outcomes after primary idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) peeling with or without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. A two-centre randomised, controlled clinical trial with 12 months of follow-up. One hundred and two eyes of 102 patients were included in the analysis and were randomised into two groups (ILM peeling (P) and non-ILM peeling (NP) group). Inclusion criteria were: Idiopathic ERM confirmed on optical coherence tomography, age ≥18 years, binocular distortion, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) ≤90 ETDRS letters, intraocular pressure ≤23 mm Hg and informed consent. The primary outcome measure was the mean change in the ETDRS distance BCVA at 12 months' follow-up for each group. The mean change in distance BCVA at 12 months was 0.30±0.24 logMAR (15 ETDRS letters) in the P group and 0.31±0.23 logMAR (14 ETDRS letters) in the NP group, a change that was not statistically significant (p=0.84). No statistically significant differences were observed when comparing the changes in distance BCVA, the changes in metamorphopsia (Amsler grid) and the changes in central retinal thickness between the two groups at any of the time points studied. Our analysis suggests that ILM peeling in idiopathic ERM surgery does not result in better visual improvement. The more frequent presence of an uninterrupted interdigitation zone in the P group did not result in a better functional outcome of our patients. No recurrent ERMs were noted in either group. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Application of a shape-memory alloy internal fixator for treatment of acetabular fractures with a follow-up of two to nine years in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinwei; Xu, Shuogui; Su, Jiacan; Yu, Baoqing

    2009-01-01

    Displaced acetabular fractures should be treated surgically. Over the past decade, surgical approaches to the acetabulum and the surgical technique for repair of common fracture patterns have advanced. Excellent outcomes after repair of these injuries can be achieved. The aim of this study was to assess the medium-term results of reconstruction of acetabular fractures by using shape-memory alloy designed by the authors. This is a retrospective review conducted at a level 1 trauma centre. From October 1999 to July 2009, 19 patients with acetabular fractures were treated with our patented Ni-Ti shape-memory alloy acetabular tridimensional memory alloy-fixation system (ATMFS). The ATMFS device was cooled with ice before implantation and then warmed to 40–50°C after implantation to produce balanced axial and compression forces that would stabilise the fracture three dimensionally. Our results are as follows; according to the D’Aubigne−Postel scoring system: Fifteen cases out of 19 (79%) achieved excellent or good clinical results. In two patients, late complications included avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) associated with posterior dislocation of the hip joint two years after the operation. We also observed two cases of grade II or III ectopic ossification, with good hip function, and one case of traumatic arthritis. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the effectiveness of the ATMFS device for the management of acetabular fracture. The device provides continuous compression of the fracture with minimal disruption to the local blood supply. PMID:20012433

  3. Application of a shape-memory alloy internal fixator for treatment of acetabular fractures with a follow-up of two to nine years in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinwei; Xu, Shuogui; Zhang, Chuncai; Su, Jiacan; Yu, Baoqing

    2010-10-01

    Displaced acetabular fractures should be treated surgically. Over the past decade, surgical approaches to the acetabulum and the surgical technique for repair of common fracture patterns have advanced. Excellent outcomes after repair of these injuries can be achieved. The aim of this study was to assess the medium-term results of reconstruction of acetabular fractures by using shape-memory alloy designed by the authors. This is a retrospective review conducted at a level 1 trauma centre. From October 1999 to July 2009, 19 patients with acetabular fractures were treated with our patented Ni-Ti shape-memory alloy acetabular tridimensional memory alloy-fixation system (ATMFS). The ATMFS device was cooled with ice before implantation and then warmed to 40-50°C after implantation to produce balanced axial and compression forces that would stabilise the fracture three dimensionally. Our results are as follows; according to the D'Aubigne-Postel scoring system: Fifteen cases out of 19 (79%) achieved excellent or good clinical results. In two patients, late complications included avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) associated with posterior dislocation of the hip joint two years after the operation. We also observed two cases of grade II or III ectopic ossification, with good hip function, and one case of traumatic arthritis. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the effectiveness of the ATMFS device for the management of acetabular fracture. The device provides continuous compression of the fracture with minimal disruption to the local blood supply.

  4. Decrease of the foveal avascular zone area after internal limiting membrane peeling: single case study

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Kazuyuki; Uemura, Akinori; Furukawa, Mariko; Suetsugu, Tetsuyuki; Ogino, Nobuchika

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To report a patient whose foveal avascular zone (FAZ) decreased after vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. Methods A 58-year-old woman underwent successful phacovitrectomy with ILM peeling for a thin epiretinal membrane in an eye with a normal foveal contour. Optical coherence tomography angiographic en face images of the 3 mm×3 mm superficial and deep inner retinal vascular plexuses were examined preoperatively, and on days 1, 2, 9, and 37 postoperatively. The changes in the FAZ areas and the thicknesses of the parafoveal retinal layers at 500 μm from the foveal center were assessed in the vertical and horizontal B-scan images. Results The areas of the superficial and deep FAZ decreased after the surgery. The course of the postoperative decrease of the FAZ area in the superficial plexus can be fit by a hyperbolic curve (R2=0.993). An increase in the thicknesses of the retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell–inner plexiform layer, and inner nuclear layer was observed at all times postoperatively. Conclusions We observed one case that the FAZ area decreased and the parafoveal inner retinal thickness increased after the vitrectomy with ILM peeling. The decrease in the FAZ area suggests that a centripetal movement of the inner retinal layer is probably due to the ILM peeling. PMID:28331373

  5. Limitations of poster presentations reporting educational innovations at a major international medical education conference

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Morris; Darbyshire, Daniel; Saifuddin, Aamir; Vimalesvaran, Kavitha

    2013-01-01

    Background In most areas of medical research, the label of ‘quality’ is associated with well-accepted standards. Whilst its interpretation in the field of medical education is contentious, there is agreement on the key elements required when reporting novel teaching strategies. We set out to assess if these features had been fulfilled by poster presentations at a major international medical education conference. Methods Such posters were analysed in four key areas: reporting of theoretical underpinning, explanation of instructional design methods, descriptions of the resources needed for introduction, and the offering of materials to support dissemination. Results Three hundred and twelve posters were reviewed with 170 suitable for analysis. Forty-one percent described their methods of instruction or innovation design. Thirty-three percent gave details of equipment, and 29% of studies described resources that may be required for delivering such an intervention. Further resources to support dissemination of their innovation were offered by 36%. Twenty-three percent described the theoretical underpinning or conceptual frameworks upon which their work was based. Conclusions These findings suggest that posters presenting educational innovation are currently limited in what they offer to educators. Presenters should seek to enhance their reporting of these crucial aspects by employing existing published guidance, and organising committees may wish to consider explicitly requesting such information at the time of initial submission. PMID:24199272

  6. Accidental subretinal brilliant blue G migration during internal limiting membrane peeling surgery.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Felipe P P; De Lucca, Ana Claudia; Scott, Ingrid Ursula; Jorge, Rodrigo; Messias, Andre

    2015-01-01

    This case report describes a man who developed retinal changes in his right eye associated with brilliant blue G migration into the subretinal space during 2 years of follow-up. The patient's best-corrected visual acuity in the right eye was 20/70 before surgery, and it improved to 20/25 at 1 year after surgery. Fluorescein angiography showed staining during the late phase in the central macula at all follow-up visits after surgery. Multifocal electroretinography demonstrated normal amplitude and implicit times before surgery but decreased amplitudes and increased implicit times in at least 5 contiguous hexagons after surgery on all 3 examinations performed during the 2-year follow-up period. These functional changes were not topographically correlated with the area of fluorescein staining or with the internal limiting membrane peeled area, but were matched to the area where brilliant blue G accidentally entered the subretinal space. Microperimetry demonstrated reduced retinal threshold sensitivity, particularly in areas with decreased multifocal electroretinography amplitude. Despite the visual acuity improvement observed in this case, multifocal electroretinography and microperimetry indicate that subretinal brilliant blue G might cause focal macular damage with a decrease of macular function suggestive of a toxic effect.

  7. Internal limiting membrane contrast after staining with indocyanine green and brilliant blue G during macular surgery.

    PubMed

    Kadonosono, Kazuaki; Arakawa, Akira; Inoue, Maiko; Yamane, Shin; Uchio, Eiichi; Yamakawa, Tadashi; Taguri, Masataka; Morita, Satoshi; Ridgeley, Jamison R; Yanagi, Yasuo

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the difference in color contrast by performing a color contrast ratio (CR) analysis and resulting visibility of the internal limiting membrane (ILM) when stained with indocyanine green and brilliant blue G (BBG) during macular surgery by performing a color CR analysis. The authors analyzed 40 consecutive cases in which vitrectomy with ILM removal was performed to treat a macular hole or an epiretinal membrane. The surgical procedure was performed in 21 patients (21 eyes) after staining with indocyanine green and in 19 patients (19 eyes) after staining with BBG. The color CRs were estimated based on digital analysis of the red, green, and blue data of the digital images captured, and the CRs obtained with the two dyes were compared. Color contrast analysis was performed in all 40 eyes, in which the ILM was removed after staining with indocyanine green or BBG, and the CRs were estimated in every eye. The CR (mean ± SD) obtained with indocyanine green and BBG was 4.3 ± 0.3 and 2.4 ± 0.1, respectively. Indocyanine green provided a significantly higher CR than BBG (P = 0.015). Digital color contrast analysis can be used to evaluate the visibility of digital images, and it may be useful when choosing the dye to use for staining the ILM better.

  8. Interference microscopy delineates cellular proliferations on flat mounted internal limiting membrane specimens.

    PubMed

    Gandorfer, A; Scheler, R; Schumann, R; Haritoglou, C; Kampik, A

    2009-01-01

    To demonstrate that interference microscopy of flat mounted internal limiting membrane specimens clearly delineates cellular proliferations at the vitreomacular interface. ILM specimens harvested during vitrectomy were fixed in glutaraldehyde 0.05% and paraformaldehyde 2% for 24 h (pH 7.4). In addition to interference microscopy, immunocytochemistry using antibodies against glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) and neurofilament (NF) was performed. After washing in phosphate-buffered saline 0.1 M, the specimens were flat-mounted on glass slides without sectioning, embedding or any other technique of conventional light microscopy. A cover slide and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) medium were added to stain the cell nuclei. Interference microscopy clearly delineates cellular proliferations at the ILM. DAPI stained the cell nuclei. Areas of cellular proliferation can be easily distinguished from ILM areas without cells. Immunocytochemistry can be performed without changing the protocols used in conventional microscopy. Interference microscopy of flat mounted ILM specimens gives new insights into the distribution of cellular proliferations at the vitreomacular interface and allows for determination of the cell density at the ILM. Given that the entire ILM peeled is seen en face, the techniques described offer a more reliable method to investigate the vitreoretinal interface in terms of cellular distribution compared with conventional microscopy.

  9. [Internal limiting membrane role in primary surgery of the macular hole].

    PubMed

    Brănişteanu, D; Moraru, Andreea

    2013-01-01

    To assess the anatomical result after primary macular hole surgery with or without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. To assess the safety and stability results; Prospective, comparative, interventional case study of 47 eyes with stage 3 or 4 macular hole treated by pars-plana vitrectomy between 2006 and 2011. In 19 cases (40.42%) only posterior hyaloid was removed (control group) while in the other 28 cases (59.57%) additional ILM peeling was performed. All cases had gas endotamponade. Postoperatively the cases were followed-up at least 6 months clinically and by OCT. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Wilcoxon tests. The mean age of patients in the study was 54, 47 +/- 4, 83 years (ranging from 47 to 74 years). In 36 cases (76.59%) the macular hole was idiopathic. After surgery, the macular hole closed in 22 out of 28 cases with ILM peeling (78.57%) as compared to only 13 out of 19 cases from the control group (68.42%). No intraoperative complications were noted. Main postoperative complications were cataract augmentation and macular hole enlargement in 4 out of 12 failed cases (33.33%). No recurrence was noted if macular hole closed after surgery. These results confirm the stability, safety and efficacy of both techniques but with a significant higher success rate if ILM is peeled. The main postoperative complication was macular hole enlargement if surgery failed.

  10. INCOMPLETE REPAIR OF RETINAL STRUCTURE AFTER VITRECTOMY WITH INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING.

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, Toshio; Tachibana, Takashi; Notomi, Shoji; Nakatake, Shunji; Fujiwara, Kohta; Murakami, Yusuke; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Shigeo; Enaida, Hiroshi; Murata, Toshinori; Sakamoto, Taiji; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2017-08-01

    To examine retinal changes after vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling, we used a cynomolgus monkey model and focused on surgical damages of ILM peeling for long observational period of 3 years. Vitrectomy was performed followed by ILM peeling similar to clinical settings in humans. Ultrastructural changes of the retina were investigated by light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy at 3 months and 3 years after ILM peeling. Ultrastructural study showed that the ILM peeled area was still clearly recognized after 3 years. The Müller cell processes covered most of the retina; however, the nerve fiber layer was partly uncovered and exposed to the vitreous space. The arcuate linear nerve fiber bundles were observed as comparable with dissociated optic nerve fiber layer appearance. Small round retinal surface defects were also observed around macula, resembling the dimple sign. Forceps-related retinal thinning was also found on the edge of ILM peeling, where we started peeling with fine forceps. The ultrastructural studies showed that most of ILM peeling area was covered with glial cells during wound healing processes. Retinal changes were found comparable with dissociated optic nerve fiber layer appearance or dimple sign, which were clinically observed with optical coherence tomography.

  11. [Optical coherence tomography and microperimetry after internal limiting membrane peeling for epiretinal membrane].

    PubMed

    Grimbert, P; Lebreton, O; Weber, M

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the anatomical and functional consequences of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling in epiretinal membrane (ERM) surgery. Retrospective single-center study including consecutive patients operated on for idiopathic ERM. The integrity of the ILM was assessed by ILM Blue® staining after removal of the ERM: either the peeling was spontaneous (group 1) or a complementary peeling was required (group 2). Pre- and post-operatively (1 and 6 months), all patients were analyzed using visual acuity, SD-OCT (Spectralis HRA OCT, Heidelberg, Germany) and microperimetry (OPKO/OTI, Miami, USA). Twenty-one eyes of 21 patients were included: 12 "active ILM peelings" and 9 "spontaneous peelings". In both groups, visual acuity increased significantly after surgery. Microperimetry revealed more microscotomata at 1 and 6 months for active peeling (P<0.05). Their location corresponded more often to the site where the ERM or ILM was grasped, based on surgical videos (P<0.05), and with the appearance of inner retinal defects using en face OCT. ILM peeling is frequently performed to reduce ERM recurrence. Despite lack of effect on visual acuity, active ILM peeling increases the incidence of microscotomas related to the site where the ERM or ILM is grasped. Active ILM peeling may be responsible for postoperative visual discomfort related to microscopic trauma during peeling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Decrease of the foveal avascular zone area after internal limiting membrane peeling: single case study.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Kazuyuki; Uemura, Akinori; Furukawa, Mariko; Suetsugu, Tetsuyuki; Ogino, Nobuchika

    2017-01-01

    To report a patient whose foveal avascular zone (FAZ) decreased after vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. A 58-year-old woman underwent successful phacovitrectomy with ILM peeling for a thin epiretinal membrane in an eye with a normal foveal contour. Optical coherence tomography angiographic en face images of the 3 mm×3 mm superficial and deep inner retinal vascular plexuses were examined preoperatively, and on days 1, 2, 9, and 37 postoperatively. The changes in the FAZ areas and the thicknesses of the parafoveal retinal layers at 500 μm from the foveal center were assessed in the vertical and horizontal B-scan images. The areas of the superficial and deep FAZ decreased after the surgery. The course of the postoperative decrease of the FAZ area in the superficial plexus can be fit by a hyperbolic curve (R(2)=0.993). An increase in the thicknesses of the retinal nerve fiber layer, ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer, and inner nuclear layer was observed at all times postoperatively. We observed one case that the FAZ area decreased and the parafoveal inner retinal thickness increased after the vitrectomy with ILM peeling. The decrease in the FAZ area suggests that a centripetal movement of the inner retinal layer is probably due to the ILM peeling.

  13. Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling to Prevent Post-vitrectomy Epiretinal Membrane Development in Retinal Detachment.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Kunihiko; Fujinami, Kaoru; Watanabe, Ken; Tsunoda, Kazushige; Noda, Toru

    2016-11-01

    To determine the efficacy of internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling during vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) regarding post-vitrectomy epiretinal membrane (ERM) development and visual outcomes. Retrospective, interventional, comparative case series. Setting: Institutional. One hundred and two consecutive eyes with RRD treated with vitrectomy and followed for at least 6 months. ILM was peeled without using dye such as indocyanine green (ICG). Observational Procedures: Patients were divided into 2 groups based on postoperative ERM development: Group 1, 81 eyes without ERM formation; Group 2, 21 eyes with ERM development. Patients also were divided into 2 subgroups: those with and without ILM peeling (58 and 44 eyes, respectively). Statistical analyses were performed between the 2 groups with/without ERM formation and between the 2 subgroups with/without ILM peeling for 5 preoperative factors including foveal involvement of the RRD, 4 intraoperative factors including ILM peeling, baseline best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and final BCVA. An association of ILM peeling with ERM prevention and the influence of ILM peeling on visual outcomes. ILM peeling was significantly (P < .001) associated with ERM prevention. There was no significant difference in the final BCVA between subgroups with and without ILM peeling. ILM peeling without ICG staining during the initial vitrectomy for RRDs may prevent postoperative ERM formation with favorable visual outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes in Retinal Thickness after Vitrectomy for Epiretinal Membrane with and without Internal Limiting Membrane Peeling.

    PubMed

    Obata, Shumpei; Fujikawa, Masato; Iwasaki, Keisuke; Kakinoki, Masashi; Sawada, Osamu; Saishin, Yoshitsugu; Kawamura, Hajime; Ohji, Masahito

    2017-01-01

    To investigate anatomic changes in retinal thickness (RT) and functional changes after vitrectomy for idiopathic epiretinal membranes (ERMs) with and without internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling. The medical records of 100 eyes of 96 patients with ERM who underwent vitrectomy and ERM removal were reviewed retrospectively. The RT was measured by optical coherence tomography, and the area was divided into 9 sections. The best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), 9 RT areas, and incidence rates of recurrent ERM were compared between the groups with and without ILM peeling before the operation and 12 months postoperatively. Thirty-nine eyes that underwent vitrectomy with ILM peeling and 61 eyes that underwent vitrectomy without ILM peeling met the inclusion criteria. There were no significant differences between the groups in the BCVA and any of the RTs before the operation and 12 months postoperatively. The ERMs recurred in 8 (20.5%) of 39 eyes and 26 (42.6%) of 61 eyes in the groups with and without ILM peeling, respectively, with a difference that reached significance (p = 0.02) 12 months postoperatively. Vitrectomy for ERM affects the BCVA or the RTs 12 months postoperatively. Additional ILM peeling does not affect them, but it might reduce the ERM recurrence rate. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Viscoat Assisted Inverted Internal Limiting Membrane Flap Technique for Large Macular Holes Associated with High Myopia

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zongming; Li, Mei; Liu, Junjie; Hu, Xuting; Hu, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the surgical outcomes of Viscoat® assisted inverted internal limiting membrane (ILM) flap technique for large macular holes (MHs) associated with high myopia. Design. Prospective, interventional case series. Methods. Fifteen eyes of 15 patients with high myopia underwent vitrectomy and Viscoat assisted inverted ILM flap technique to treat MH without RD. Patients were followed up over 6 months. The main outcome measures were MH closure evaluated by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and best-corrected visual acuities (BCVAs). Result. MH closure was observed in all eyes (100%) followi