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Sample records for limph node reaction

  1. Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Nodes is a technology demonstration mission that is scheduled for launch to the International SpaceStation no earlier than Nov.19, 2015. The two Nodes satellites will be deployed from the Station in early 2016 todemonstrate new network capabilities critical to the operation of swarms of spacecraft. They will demonstrate the ability ofmulti spacecraft swarms to receive and distribute ground commands, exchange information periodically, andautonomously configure the network by determining which spacecraft should communicate with the ground each day ofthe mission.

  2. Accuracy and Significance of Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of Sentinel Node Metastases in Breast Cancer Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    specific reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction markers in the detection of metastases in the lymph nodes... chain reaction detection of cytokeratin-19 mRNA in bone marrow and blood of breast cancer patients. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 1996; 122: 679-86. (43...directly drain a tumor and are most likely to harbor occult cells . Reverse transcriptase- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a sensitive

  3. Detection of submicroscopic lymph node metastases with polymerase chain reaction in patients with malignant melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X; Heller, R; VanVoorhis, N; Cruse, C W; Glass, F; Fenske, N; Berman, C; Leo-Messina, J; Rappaport, D; Wells, K

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The presence or absence of lymph node metastases in patients with malignant melanoma is the most powerful prognostic factor for predicting survival. If regional nodal metastases are found, the 5-year survival for the patient decreases approximately 50%. If the presence or absence of regional nodal metastases will determine which patients receive formal dissections or which patients enter adjuvant trials, then a technique is needed to accurately screen lymph node samples for occult disease. Routine histopathologic examination routinely underestimates the number of patients with metastases. This study was initiated to develop a highly sensitive clinically applicable method to detect micrometastases by examining lymph nodes for the presence of tyrosinase messenger RNA (mRNA). The hypothesis was that if mRNA for tyrosinase is found in the lymph node preparation, that finding is good evidence that metastatic melanoma cells are present. METHODS. The assay is accomplished using the combination of reverse transcription and double-round polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The amplified samples are examined on a 2% agarose gel and tyrosinase cDNA is seen as a 207 base pair fragment. Lymph node preparations from 29 patients who were clinically stage I and II and undergoing elective node dissections were analyzed both by standard pathologic staining and RT-PCR. RESULTS. Eleven of 29 lymph node (38%) samples from 29 patients with intermediate thickness melanoma were pathologically positive. Nineteen of the 29 lymph node preparations (66%) were RT-PCR-positive, and these included all of the pathologically positive samples, so that the false-negative rate was 0. In a spiking experiment, one SK-Mel-28 melanoma cell in a background of one million normal lymphocytes could be detected, thus indicating the sensitivity of this method. In addition, analysis by restriction enzyme mapping showed that the amplified 207-bp PCR product produced is part of the tyrosinase gene

  4. Minor antigen graft-versus-host reactions revealed in irradiated spleen and popliteal lymph node assays

    SciTech Connect

    Claman, H.N.; Jaffee, B.D.

    1984-10-01

    The graft-versus-hot (GVH) reaction across minor (non-H-2) histocompatibility barriers was studied in mice, in vivo. To increase GVH potential and to mimic clinical bone marrow transplantation protocols, we modified the popliteal lymph node (PLN) and the splenomegaly assays by irradiating the recipients before they received allogeneic lymphoid cell suspensions. In several combinations across major (H-2), minor (non-H-2) and multiple minor (non-H-2 plus minor lymphocyte stimulation) barriers, increased recipient organ weight (a measure of GVH activity) was seen with irradiated F1 recipients of parental cells. The irradiated splenomegaly (x-splenomegaly) assay was more sensitive than the (x-PLN) assay, but both correlated with in vivo GVH experiments of the P----F1 variety. The x-splenomegaly test indicated histoincompatibility in a system (B10.D2----BALB/c) in which the primary in vitro mixed leukocyte reactions is nonreactive, but in which systemic GVH can be induced. The x-splenomegaly test should be useful in analyzing complex reactions involving minor histocompatibility antigens in vivo.

  5. Modeling complex metabolic reactions, ecological systems, and financial and legal networks with MIANN models based on Markov-Wiener node descriptors.

    PubMed

    Duardo-Sánchez, Aliuska; Munteanu, Cristian R; Riera-Fernández, Pablo; López-Díaz, Antonio; Pazos, Alejandro; González-Díaz, Humberto

    2014-01-27

    The use of numerical parameters in Complex Network analysis is expanding to new fields of application. At a molecular level, we can use them to describe the molecular structure of chemical entities, protein interactions, or metabolic networks. However, the applications are not restricted to the world of molecules and can be extended to the study of macroscopic nonliving systems, organisms, or even legal or social networks. On the other hand, the development of the field of Artificial Intelligence has led to the formulation of computational algorithms whose design is based on the structure and functioning of networks of biological neurons. These algorithms, called Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), can be useful for the study of complex networks, since the numerical parameters that encode information of the network (for example centralities/node descriptors) can be used as inputs for the ANNs. The Wiener index (W) is a graph invariant widely used in chemoinformatics to quantify the molecular structure of drugs and to study complex networks. In this work, we explore for the first time the possibility of using Markov chains to calculate analogues of node distance numbers/W to describe complex networks from the point of view of their nodes. These parameters are called Markov-Wiener node descriptors of order k(th) (W(k)). Please, note that these descriptors are not related to Markov-Wiener stochastic processes. Here, we calculated the W(k)(i) values for a very high number of nodes (>100,000) in more than 100 different complex networks using the software MI-NODES. These networks were grouped according to the field of application. Molecular networks include the Metabolic Reaction Networks (MRNs) of 40 different organisms. In addition, we analyzed other biological and legal and social networks. These include the Interaction Web Database Biological Networks (IWDBNs), with 75 food webs or ecological systems and the Spanish Financial Law Network (SFLN). The calculated W

  6. A foreign body reaction to Surgicel® in a lymph node diagnosed by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Badenes, Diana; Pijuan, Lara; Curull, Víctor; Sánchez-Font, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Surgicel® (Ethicon, North Ryde, NSW, Australia) is an absorbable sheet of oxidized cellulose polyanhydroglucuronic acid polymer used as an hemostatic in cardiovascular and thoracic surgery. In some cases, the retained material may cause foreign body granulomatous reactions and simulate tumor recurrence, an abscess, an hematoma, or an infection. We report the case of a 55-year-old patient who was operated of a lung adenocarcinoma. In the thoracic computed tomography scan 1 year after the surgery, a right paratracheal lymph node was detected, so endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) was performed suspecting recurrence of the tumor. The cytology results of the lymph node showed a nonnecrotizing granulomatous reaction secondary to Surgicel®, used as an hemostatic during the surgery. The objective of presenting this case is to consider foreign body reaction to Surgicel® in the differential diagnosis of postoperative suspicion of neoplastic recurrence, and on the other hand, to note that EBUS-TBNA enables diagnosis. PMID:28197224

  7. Intraocular tumor antigen drains specifically to submandibular lymph nodes, resulting in an abortive cytotoxic T cell reaction.

    PubMed

    Boonman, Zita F H M; van Mierlo, Geertje J D; Fransen, Marieke F; Franken, Kees L M C; Offringa, Rienk; Melief, Cornelis J M; Jager, Martine J; Toes, René E M

    2004-02-01

    Ocular immune privilege is considered essential in the protection against sight-threatening immune responses, as illustrated by the ability of the ocular environment to permit the growth of tumors that are rejected when implanted at other sites. Although several studies indicate that soluble Ag can drain directly into the spleen when injected into the anterior chamber, the primary site of intraocular tumor Ag presentation to tumor-specific CTLs has not been studied. To gain a better understanding of the mechanism involved in ocular immune privilege, we examined to which lymphoid organs anterior chamber tumor Ags primarily drain. Our data show that intraocular tumor Ag drains exclusively to the submandibular lymph nodes, resulting in activation of tumor-specific CTLs, whereas no Ag drainage was found in spleen. However, these tumor-specific CTLs do not distribute systemically and, as a consequence, intraocular tumor growth is unhampered. A similar lack of CTL efficacy has been observed in mice bearing s.c. tumors, which is converted to a systemic tumoricidal CTL response by administration of agonistic anti-CD40 mAb. In contrast, systemic anti-CD40 treatment of eye tumor-bearing mice did not result in mobilizing tumor-specific CTLs or tumor eradication. Together, these results show that intraocular tumor Ag drains to regional lymph nodes for activation of tumor-specific CTLs. However, the induced tumor-specific immunity is insufficient for tumor clearance, even combined with otherwise highly effective immune intervention protocols.

  8. Lymph nodes

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and conveying lymph and by producing various blood cells. Lymph nodes play an important part in the ... the microorganisms being trapped inside collections of lymph cells or nodes. Eventually, these organisms are destroyed and ...

  9. Molecular staging by multimarker reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay of lymphatic drainage and blood from melanoma patients after lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, Piotr; Nowecki, Zbigniew I; Kulik, Jadwiga; Ruka, Wlodzimierz; Siedlecki, Janusz A

    2008-08-01

    Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-mediated detection of melanoma cells may be a prognostic factor for disease outcome. We investigated the presence of melanoma cells in lymphatic drainage and blood in melanoma patients after lymph node dissection (LND) via the highly sensitive multimarker (MM) RT-PCR assay. We collected 24-h lymph fluid (LY) and peripheral blood (BL) from 107 stage III melanoma patients after radical LND (59 axillary and 48 ilioinguinal LND). Tyrosinase, MART1 and uMAGE mRNA levels were determined by RT-PCR to detect melanoma cells, and the presence of at least one marker signified a positive result. All patients underwent follow-up (median for survivors, 21 months, range: 4-37 months). Forty patients (37.4%) were positive for LY MM RT-PCR and 28 (26.2%) were positive based on BL MM RT-PCR. No differences for disease-free survival (DFS) curves according to BL MM RT-PCR were observed, but we found significant differences in the estimated 24-month DFS rate for patients with at least one marker and those without any marker in lymph fluid [18.9% (95% confidence interval: 1.4-37.5%) and 42.1% (95% confidence interval: 29.7-54.5%), median: 9.9 and 15.3 months, respectively] (P=0.04). Detection of multiple markers in lymph fluid correlated with shorter DFS. Approximately 37% of lymph fluid after radical LND were positive by MM RT-PCR, which correlated significantly with early melanoma recurrences and shorter survival. The LY MM RT-PCR seems to be an effective prognostic tool for stage III melanoma patients. The MM RT-PCR analysis of single peripheral blood sample in these patients did not have additional prognostic value.

  10. Reconfigureable network node

    DOEpatents

    Vanderveen, Keith B.; Talbot, Edward B.; Mayer, Laurence E.

    2008-04-08

    Nodes in a network having a plurality of nodes establish communication links with other nodes using available transmission media, as the ability to establish such links becomes available and desirable. The nodes predict when existing communications links will fail, become overloaded or otherwise degrade network effectiveness and act to establish substitute or additional links before the node's ability to communicate with the other nodes on the network is adversely affected. A node stores network topology information and programmed link establishment rules and criteria. The node evaluates characteristics that predict existing links with other nodes becoming unavailable or degraded. The node then determines whether it can form a communication link with a substitute node, in order to maintain connectivity with the network. When changing its communication links, a node broadcasts that information to the network. Other nodes update their stored topology information and consider the updated topology when establishing new communications links for themselves.

  11. Swollen lymph nodes

    MedlinePlus

    ... lymph nodes, including: Seizure medicines such as phenytoin Typhoid immunization Which lymph nodes are swollen depends on ... hard, irregular, or fixed in place. You have fever, night sweats, or unexplained weight loss. Any node ...

  12. Detection of rare RNA sequences by single-enzyme in situ reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. High-resolution analyses of interleukin-6 mRNA in paraffin sections of lymph nodes.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, J.; Krams, M.; Wacker, H. H.; Carstens, A.; Weisner, D.; Hamann, K.; Menke, M.; Harms, D.; Parwaresch, R.

    1997-01-01

    To study the distribution pattern of interleukin-6 (IL-6)-producing cells in normal human lymph nodes, we applied the in situ reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technique. We describe a new modification of this technique for monitoring small amounts of specific nucleotide sequences in conventional paraffin sections. This technique differs in at least two respects from those described earlier. The two decisive steps are: 1) the reverse transcription of mRNA and the subsequent amplification of cDNA by polymerase chain reaction are performed by a new single enzyme capable of both reaction types in one and the same medium without buffer exchange; and 2) for the specific detection of the amplified cDNA, a modified version of the primed in situ labeling technique was used. The technique, carried out on normal human lymph nodes, traces a low load of IL-6 mRNA in fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and a minor population of T lymphocytes in the pulp region. High levels of expression were encountered in about 20% of perisinusoidal pulp macrophages. In addition, moderate activity was detectable in sinus lining cells. Because no major activity was found in the germinal centers of the lymphoid B follicles and in the T zone, it is suggested that the plasma cell differentiation ensuing from primary and secondary B-cell immunization is mainly effected by the sinus lining cells as well as perifollicular and perisinusoidal pulp macrophages capable of producing high amounts of IL-6. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9033263

  13. Sentinel node biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sentinel node biopsy is a technique which helps determine if a cancer has spread (metastasized), or is contained locally. When a ... is closest to the cancer site. Sentinel node biopsy is used to stage many kinds of cancer, ...

  14. Lymph node biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Performed The test is used to diagnose cancer, sarcoidosis, or an infection (such as tuberculosis): When you ... of lymph nodes and other organs and tissues ( sarcoidosis ) Risks Lymph node biopsy may result in any ...

  15. Multiple node remote messaging

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin; Salapura, Valentina; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Vranas, Pavlos

    2010-08-31

    A method for passing remote messages in a parallel computer system formed as a network of interconnected compute nodes includes that a first compute node (A) sends a single remote message to a remote second compute node (B) in order to control the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message. The method includes various steps including controlling a DMA engine at first compute node (A) to prepare the single remote message to include a first message descriptor and at least one remote message descriptor for controlling the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message, including putting the first message descriptor into an injection FIFO at the first compute node (A) and sending the single remote message and the at least one remote message descriptor to the second compute node (B).

  16. Modular sensor network node

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Jesse Harper Zehring; Stark, Jr., Douglas Paul; Kershaw, Christopher Patrick; Kyker, Ronald Dean

    2008-06-10

    A distributed wireless sensor network node is disclosed. The wireless sensor network node includes a plurality of sensor modules coupled to a system bus and configured to sense a parameter. The parameter may be an object, an event or any other parameter. The node collects data representative of the parameter. The node also includes a communication module coupled to the system bus and configured to allow the node to communicate with other nodes. The node also includes a processing module coupled to the system bus and adapted to receive the data from the sensor module and operable to analyze the data. The node also includes a power module connected to the system bus and operable to generate a regulated voltage.

  17. Popliteal lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    Sholar, Alina; Martin, Robert C G; McMasters, Kelly M

    2005-02-01

    Most sentinel nodes are located in the cervical, axillary, and inguinal nodal basins. Sometimes, however, sentinel nodes exist outside these traditional nodal basins. Popliteal nodal metastasis is relatively uncommon, and popliteal lymph node dissection is infrequently necessary. However, with lymphoscintigraphic identification of popliteal sentinel nodes, surgeons are more frequently called on to address the popliteal nodal basin. Therefore, knowledge of the anatomy and surgical technique for popliteal lymphadenectomy is essential. This case study illustrates the importance of considering the approach to the popliteal lymph node basin for patients with melanoma.

  18. Protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  19. Protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  20. Relative microvessel area of the primary tumour, and not lymph node status, predicts the presence of bone marrow micrometastases detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in patients with clinically non-metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Benoy, Ina H; Salgado, Roberto; Elst, Hilde; Van Dam, Peter; Weyler, Joost; Van Marck, Eric; Scharpé, Simon; Vermeulen, Peter B; Dirix, Luc Y

    2005-01-01

    About 50% of patients with breast cancer have no involvement of axillary lymph nodes at diagnosis and can be considered cured after primary locoregional treatment. However, about 20-30% will experience distant relapse. The group of patients at risk is not well characterised: recurrence is probably due to the establishment of micrometastases before treatment. Given the early steps of metastasis in which tumour cells interact with endothelial cells of blood vessels, and, given the independent prognostic value in breast cancer of both the quantification of tumour vascularisation and the detection of micrometastases in the bone marrow, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between vascularisation, measured by Chalkley morphometry, and the bone marrow content of cytokeratin-19 (CK-19) mRNA, quantified by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, in a series of 68 patients with localised untreated breast cancer. The blood concentration of factors involved in angiogenesis (interleukin-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor) and of factors involved in coagulation (D-dimer, fibrinogen, platelets) was also measured. When bone marrow CK-19 relative gene expression (RGE) was categorised according to the cut-off value of 0.77 (95th centile of control patients), 53% of the patients had an elevated CK-19 RGE. Patients with bone marrow micrometastases, on the basis of an elevated CK-19 RGE, had a mean Chalkley count of 7.5 +/- 1.7 (median 7, standard error [SE] 0.30) compared with a mean Chalkley count of 6.5 +/- 1.7 in other patients (median 6, SE 0.3) (Mann-Whitney U-test; P = 0.04). Multiple regression analysis revealed that Chalkley count, not lymph node status, independently predicted CK-19 RGE status (P = 0.04; odds ratio 1.38; 95% confidence interval 1.009-1.882). Blood parameters reflecting angiogenesis and coagulation were positively correlated with Chalkley count and/or CK-19 RGE. Our data are in support of an association between

  1. Intramammary lymph nodes.

    PubMed Central

    Jadusingh, I. H.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the prevalence and pathology of intramammary lymph nodes in breast specimens. METHODS: All breast specimens examined by a single pathologist over 70 months in a large teaching hospital were studied retrospectively. All the surgical pathology reports were reviewed. Relevant glass slides from cases in which intramammary lymph nodes were identified were also reexamined. RESULTS: Breast specimens (n = 682) were examined. Seven lymph nodes were found in five patients. The specimens comprised 533 biopsy specimens, 29 segmental resections, 22 reduction mammoplasties, 77 modified radical mastectomies and 20 gynecomastia mastectomies. No clinically relevant microscopical abnormalities were found in four lymph nodes and slight sinus histiocytosis was seen in two nodes. One node contained metastatic adenocarcinoma and benign glandular epithelial inclusions. CONCLUSION: Although rare, intramammary lymph nodes may be detected by careful gross examination of breast specimens even in the absence of clinical identification. They can occur in any quadrant of the breast and can display a variety of pathological conditions. Pathologists should be alert to the existence and potential importance of these lymph nodes. Images PMID:1452776

  2. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... center of the chest (near the breastbone), cancer cells may spread first to lymph nodes inside the chest (under the breastbone) before they can be detected in the axilla. The number of lymph nodes in the axilla varies from person to person but usually ranges from 20 to ...

  3. Theory SkyNode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Richard P.; Norman, M. L.

    2006-12-01

    A working example of a Basic SkyNode serving theoretical data will be presented. The data is taken from the Simulated Cluster Archive (a set of simulated galaxy clusters, where each cluster was computed using four different physics models). The Theory SkyNode tables contain columns of both computational and observational interest. Examples will be shown of using this theoretical data for comparison to data taken from observational SkyNodes, and vice versa. The relative ease of setting up the Theory SkyNode is of import, as it represents a clear way to present tabular theory data to the Virtual Observatory. Also, the Theory SkyNode provides a prototype for additional "theory catalogs", which wil be created from other simulations. This work is supported by the University of California Office of the President via UCDRD-LLNL award "Scientific Data Management". Travel funding was provided by the US NVO Summer School.

  4. Lymph node culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - lymph node ... or viruses grow. This process is called a culture. Sometimes, special stains are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration does not ...

  5. Microfilaria in lymph node mimicking Kimura disease

    PubMed Central

    Jayalakshmy, PS; Pothen, Lillykutty; Letha, V; Sheeja, S

    2011-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical countries, parasitic infections are very rampant causing peripheral blood and or tissue eosinophilia. Here, a case of microfilaria in lymph node that produced intense eosinophil infiltrate is being reported. The dense eosinophil collection in the lymph node raised a possibility of Kimura's disease because no worms were seen in the initial sectioning of the tissue. Extensive sampling and diligent search revealed sections of microfilaria embedded in the eosinophil abscess along with foreign body giant cell reaction to its sheath material, leading to the correct diagnosis of this case. PMID:23508372

  6. Current Status and Scope of Lymph Node Micrometastasis in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Min; Park, Sung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, lymph node micrometastasis has been evaluated for its prognostic value in gastric cancer. Lymph node micrometastasis cannot be detected via a usual pathologic examination, but it can be detected by using some other techniques including immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. With the development of such diagnostic techniques, the detection rate of lymph node micrometastasis is constantly increasing. Although the prognostic value of lymph node micrometastasis remains debatable, its clinical impact is apparently remarkable in both early and advanced gastric cancer. At present, studies on the prognostic value of lymph node micrometastasis are evolving to overcome its current limitations and extend the scope of its application. PMID:25861517

  7. Connecting node and method for constructing a connecting node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J. (Inventor); Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Spexarth, Gary R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A connecting node comprises a polyhedral structure comprising a plurality of panels joined together at its side edges to form a spherical approximation, wherein at least one of the plurality of panels comprises a faceted surface being constructed with a passage for integrating with one of a plurality of elements comprising a docking port, a hatch, and a window that is attached to the connecting node. A method for manufacturing a connecting node comprises the steps of providing a plurality of panels, connecting the plurality of panels to form a spherical approximation, wherein each edge of each panel of the plurality is joined to another edge of another panel, and constructing at least one of the plurality of panels to include a passage for integrating at least one of a plurality of elements that may be attached to the connecting node.

  8. Spiral Patterns of Dislocations at Nodes in (111) Semi-coherent FCC Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Shuai; Wang, Jian; Misra, Amit; Hoagland, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    In semi-coherent interface, a superposed network of interface dislocations accommodates the attendant coherency strains in the adjacent crystals and their intersections (referred to as nodes) can act as sinks and sources for point defects because of the low formation energy. Nodes in {111} semi-coherent interfaces are characterized with a spiral pattern (SP), wherein the line direction of each dislocation entering a node curves. The structure of SP nodes is able to switch between condensed and expanded by either reaction with point defects or mechanical deformation. Due to the switching of the node structures, point defect formation energies at nodes can be significantly reduced. Combining atomistic simulation and dislocation theory, these features are proven universal corresponding to the node density and the character of interface dislocations. PMID:23945821

  9. Predicting Node Degree Centrality with the Node Prominence Profile

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Dong, Yuxiao; Chawla, Nitesh V.

    2014-01-01

    Centrality of a node measures its relative importance within a network. There are a number of applications of centrality, including inferring the influence or success of an individual in a social network, and the resulting social network dynamics. While we can compute the centrality of any node in a given network snapshot, a number of applications are also interested in knowing the potential importance of an individual in the future. However, current centrality is not necessarily an effective predictor of future centrality. While there are different measures of centrality, we focus on degree centrality in this paper. We develop a method that reconciles preferential attachment and triadic closure to capture a node's prominence profile. We show that the proposed node prominence profile method is an effective predictor of degree centrality. Notably, our analysis reveals that individuals in the early stage of evolution display a distinctive and robust signature in degree centrality trend, adequately predicted by their prominence profile. We evaluate our work across four real-world social networks. Our findings have important implications for the applications that require prediction of a node's future degree centrality, as well as the study of social network dynamics. PMID:25429797

  10. Anatomy and histology of Virchow's node.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Masaomi; Nawata, Shin-ichi; Hirai, Ichiro; Murakami, Gen; Kimura, Wataru

    2005-12-01

    A regional lymphatic system is composed of the first, second, third and even fourth or much more intercalated nodes along the lymptatic route from the periphery to the venous angle or the thoracic duct. The third or fourth node is usually termed the last-intercalated node or end node along the route. Similarly, one of the supraclavicular nodes is known to correspond to the end node along the thoracic duct. It is generally called 'Virchow's node', in which the famous 'Virchow's metastasis' of advanced gastric cancer occurs. The histology of this node has not been investigated, although region-specific differences in histology are evident in human lymph nodes. We found macroscopically the end node in five of 30 donated cadavers. Serial sections were prepared for these five nodes and sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Histological investigation revealed that, on the inferior or distal side of the end node, the thoracic duct divided into three to 10 collateral ducts and these ducts surrounded the node. The node communicated with the thoracic duct and its collaterals at multiple sites in two to three hilus-like portions, as well as along the subcapsular sinus. Thus, the end node was aligned parallel to the thoracic duct. Moreover, the superficial and deep cortex areas of the end node were fragmented to make an island-like arrangement, which may cause the short-cut intranodal shunt. Consequenly, the filtration function of most of Virchow's node seemed to be quite limited.

  11. Popliteal lymph node assay: facts and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ravel, Guillaume; Descotes, Jacques

    2005-01-01

    The popliteal lymph node assay (PLNA) derives from the hypothesis that some supposedly immune-mediated adverse effects induced by certain pharmaceuticals involve a mechanism resembling a graft-versus-host reaction. The injection of many but not all of these compounds into the footpad of mice or rats produces an increase in the weight and/or cellularity of the popliteal lymph node in the treated limb (direct PLNA). Some of the compounds known to cause these adverse effects in humans, however, failed to induce a positive PLNA response, leading to refinements of the technique to include pretreatment with enzyme inducers, depletion of CD4(+) T cells or additional endpoints such as histological examination, lymphocyte subset analysis and cytokine fingerprinting. Alternative approaches have been used to improve further the predictability of the assay. In the secondary PLNA, the test compound is injected twice in order to illicit a greater secondary response, thus suggesting a memory-specific T cell response. In the adoptive PLNA, popliteal lymph node cells from treated mice are injected into the footpad of naive mice; a marked response to a subsequent footpad challenge demonstrates the involvement of T cells. Finally, the reporter antigens TNP-Ficoll and TNP-ovalbumin are used to differentiate compounds that induce responses involving neo-antigen help or co-stimulatory signals (modified PLNA). The PLNA is increasingly considered as a tool for detection of the potential to induce both sensitization and autoimmune reactions. A major current limitation is validation. A small inter-laboratory validation study of the direct PLNA found consistent results. No such study has been performed using an alternative protocol. Other issues include selection of the optimal protocol for an improved prediction of sensitization vs autoimmunity, and the elimination of false-positive responses due to primary irritation. Finally, a better understanding of underlying mechanisms is essential to

  12. Identifying node importance in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ping; Fan, Wenli; Mei, Shengwei

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel node importance evaluation method from the perspective of the existence of mutual dependence among nodes. The node importance comprises its initial importance and the importance contributions from both the adjacent and non-adjacent nodes according to the dependence strength between them. From the simulation analyses on an example network and the ARPA network, we observe that our method can well identify the node importance. Then, the cascading failures on the Netscience and E-mail networks demonstrate that the networks are more vulnerable when continuously removing the important nodes identified by our method, which further proves the accuracy of our method.

  13. Controlling data transfers from an origin compute node to a target compute node

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2011-06-21

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for controlling data transfers from an origin compute node to a target compute node that include: receiving, by an application messaging module on the target compute node, an indication of a data transfer from an origin compute node to the target compute node; and administering, by the application messaging module on the target compute node, the data transfer using one or more messaging primitives of a system messaging module in dependence upon the indication.

  14. Underwater Sensor Nodes and Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Sensor technology has matured enough to be used in any type of environment. The appearance of new physical sensors has increased the range of environmental parameters for gathering data. Because of the huge amount of unexploited resources in the ocean environment, there is a need of new research in the field of sensors and sensor networks. This special issue is focused on collecting recent advances on underwater sensors and underwater sensor networks in order to measure, monitor, surveillance of and control of underwater environments. On the one hand, from the sensor node perspective, we will see works related with the deployment of physical sensors, development of sensor nodes and transceivers for sensor nodes, sensor measurement analysis and several issues such as layer 1 and 2 protocols for underwater communication and sensor localization and positioning systems. On the other hand, from the sensor network perspective, we will see several architectures and protocols for underwater environments and analysis concerning sensor network measurements. Both sides will provide us a complete view of last scientific advances in this research field. PMID:24013489

  15. Histopathology of the Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Susan A.

    2007-01-01

    Lymph nodes function as filters of tissues and tissue fluids and are sites of origin and production of lymphocytes for normal physiological functions. As part of this normal function, they react to both endogenous and exogenous substances with a variety of specific morphological and functional responses. Lesions can be both proliferative and nonproliferative, and can be treatment-related or not. The histological evaluation of lymph nodes is necessary in order to understand the immunotoxic effects of chemicals with the resulting data providing an important component of human risk assessment. It is the challenge of the toxicologic pathologist to interpret the pathology data within the complete clinical evaluation of the entire animal. Daily insults, ageing and toxins can alter the normal histology and primary function of lymph nodes. Therefore it is important to distinguish and differentiate lesions that occur naturally during normal development and ageing from those that are induced by xenobiotics. To achieve this goal, comparison with strain- age- and sex-matched controls is crucial. PMID:17067938

  16. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... more likely to affect arm function and cause lymphedema. For this reason, sentinel node biopsy is the ... OR supraclavicular (above the clavicle) nodes have cancer Lymphedema Lymphedema [lim-fa-DEE-ma] is a build- ...

  17. T.Node, industrial version of supernode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flieller, Sylvain

    1989-12-01

    The Esprit I P1085 "SuperNode" project developed a modular reconfigurable archtecture, based on transputers. This highly parallel machine is now marketed by Telmat Informatique under the name T.Node. This paper presents the P1085 project, the architecture of SuperNode, its industrial implementation and its software enviroment.

  18. Drainage of cells and soluble antigen from the CNS to regional lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Laman, Jon D; Weller, Roy O

    2013-09-01

    Despite the absence of conventional lymphatics, there is efficient drainage of both cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) from the CNS to regional lymph nodes. CSF drains from the subarachnoid space by channels that pass through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone to the nasal mucosa and cervical lymph nodes in animals and in humans; antigen presenting cells (APC) migrate along this pathway to lymph nodes. ISF and solutes drain from the brain parenchyma to cervical lymph nodes by a separate route along 100-150 nm wide basement membranes in the walls of cerebral capillaries and arteries. This pathway is too narrow for the migration of APC so it is unlikely that APC traffic directly from brain parenchyma to lymph nodes by this route. We present a model for the pivotal involvement of regional lymph nodes in immunological reactions of the CNS. The role of regional lymph nodes in immune reactions of the CNS in virus infections, the remote influence of the gut microbiota, multiple sclerosis and stroke are discussed. Evidence is presented for the role of cervical lymph nodes in the induction of tolerance and its influence on neuroimmunological reactions. We look to the future by examining how nanoparticle technology will enhance our understanding of CNS-lymph node connections and by reviewing the implications of lymphatic drainage of the brain for diagnosis and therapy of diseases of the CNS ranging from neuroimmunological disorders to dementias. Finally, we review the challenges and opportunities for progress in CNS-lymph node interactions and their involvement in disease processes.

  19. The sentinel node in gynaecological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Balega, J; Van Trappen, P O

    2006-01-01

    As lymph node metastasis is one of the earliest features of tumour cell spread in most human cancers, assessment of the regional lymph nodes is required for tumour staging, determining prognosis and planning adjuvant therapeutic strategies. However, complete lymph node dissections are frequently associated with significant complications. Conjugating the diagnostic advantages with decreased morbidity, the sentinel node concept represents one of the most recent advances in surgical oncology. In this review we briefly highlight the historical background of the development of the sentinel node concept, the anatomical evidence for applying the sentinel node concept in pelvic gynaecological cancers and the technical aspects of sentinel node detection. We discuss recent studies in vulval, cervical and endometrial cancer. PMID:16520291

  20. Dedicated heterogeneous node scheduling including backfill scheduling

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Robert R.; Eckert, Philip D.; Hommes, Gregg

    2006-07-25

    A method and system for job backfill scheduling dedicated heterogeneous nodes in a multi-node computing environment. Heterogeneous nodes are grouped into homogeneous node sub-pools. For each sub-pool, a free node schedule (FNS) is created so that the number of to chart the free nodes over time. For each prioritized job, using the FNS of sub-pools having nodes useable by a particular job, to determine the earliest time range (ETR) capable of running the job. Once determined for a particular job, scheduling the job to run in that ETR. If the ETR determined for a lower priority job (LPJ) has a start time earlier than a higher priority job (HPJ), then the LPJ is scheduled in that ETR if it would not disturb the anticipated start times of any HPJ previously scheduled for a future time. Thus, efficient utilization and throughput of such computing environments may be increased by utilizing resources otherwise remaining idle.

  1. Network model with structured nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisco, Pierluigi

    2011-08-01

    We present a network model in which words over a specific alphabet, called structures, are associated to each node and undirected edges are added depending on some distance measure between different structures. This model shifts the underlying principle of network generation from a purely mathematical one to an information-based one. It is shown how this model differs from the Barábasi-Albert and duplication models and how it can generate networks with topological features similar to biological networks: power law degree distribution, low average path length, clustering coefficient independent from the network size, etc. Two biological networks: S. cerevisiae gene network and E. coli protein-protein interaction network, are replicated using this model.

  2. Nodes packaging option for Space Station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, Kenneth T.; Hall, John B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Space Station nodes packaging analyses are presented relative to moving environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) equipment from the habitability (HAB) module to node 4, in order to provide more living space and privacy for the crew, remove inherently noisy equipment from the crew quarter, retain crew waste collection and processing equipment in one location, and keep objectionable odor away from the living quarters. In addition, options for moving external electronic equipment from the Space Station truss to pressurized node 3 were evaluated in order to reduce the crew extravehicular-activity time required to install and maintain the equipment. Node size considered in this analysis is 3.66 m in diameter and 5.38 m long. The analysis shows that significant external electronic equipment could be relocated from the Space Station truss structure to node 3, and nonlife critical ECLSS HAB module equipment could be moved to node 4.

  3. Sentinel lymph node biopsy reveals a positive popliteal node in clear cell sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Yoshihisa; Tsukushi, Satoshi; Shibata, Shinichi; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2005-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma of the tendons and aponeuroses is an aggressive, rare soft tissue tumor with frequent metastases to regional lymph nodes. Sentinel lymph node biopsy, which has dramatically changed the management of melanoma, was used for clear cell sarcoma for an evaluation of popliteal and groin lymph node status. Although all isosulfan blue-stained groin lymph nodes were negative for malignancy, a popliteal lymph node was positive. Adjuvant 50 Gy of radiotherapy to the popliteal node might have been effective for local control for one year.

  4. Imaging of head and neck lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Eisenmenger, Laura B; Wiggins, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    The cervical lymph nodes can be affected by a variety of infectious, inflammatory, benign, and malignant pathologic conditions. Clinical history and physical examination with the complementary use of imaging is essential to accurately make a diagnosis or appropriate differential. Knowledge of cervical lymph node anatomy, drainage pathways, morphologic variations, and common nodal pathology is key to correct interpretation of cervical lymph nodes on imaging. Computed tomography (CT), MR, ultrasound, and PET/CT are complementary imaging modalities that can be used in the evaluation of cervical lymph node pathology.

  5. The impact of axillary lymph nodes removed in staging of node-positive breast carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kuru, Bekir . E-mail: bekirkuru@hotmail.com; Bozgul, Mustafa

    2006-12-01

    Purpose: Number of positive lymph nodes in the axilla and pathologic lymph node status (pN) have a great impact on staging according to the current American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system of breast carcinoma. Our aim was to define whether the total number of removed axillary lymph nodes influences the pN and thus the staging. Methods and Materials: The records of 798 consecutive invasive breast cancer patients with T1-3 tumors and positive axillary lymph nodes who underwent modified radical mastectomy between 1999 and 2005 in our hospital were reviewed. The total number of removed nodes were grouped, and compared with the patient and tumor characteristics and the influence of the number of nodes removed on the staging was analyzed. Results: The proportion of patients with {>=}4 positive nodes (59%), and pN3 status (51%) were the highest in the group with 21-25 nodes removed. Compared with patients with 1-20 nodes removed, the proportion of patients with {>=}4 positive nodes (52%), and pN3 status (46%) were significantly higher in those with more than 20 nodes removed. Although the proportion of Stage IIA and IIB decreased, the proportion of Stage IIIA and IIIC increased in patients with >20 nodes removed compared with those with 1-20 nodes removed. Conclusions: In patients with axillary node-positive breast carcinoma, staging is highly influenced by total number of removed nodes. Levels I-III axillary dissection with more than 20 axillary lymph nodes removed could lead to more effective adjuvant chemotherapy and increases substantially the proportion of patients to receive radiotherapy.

  6. Salvage Lymph Node Dissection for Node-only Recurrence of Prostate Cancer: Ready for Prime Time?

    PubMed

    Suardi, Nazareno; Briganti, Alberto; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Fossati, Nicola; Montorsi, Francesco

    2016-12-30

    Several studies show that salvage lymph-node dissection for node-only recurrence of prostate cancer after radical treatment might represent a viable treatment modality for node-only recurrent PCa. However, as long as high quality data is not available, this approach should still be considered experimental.

  7. A multiple node software development environment

    SciTech Connect

    Heinicke, P.; Nicinski, T.; Constanta-Fanourakis, P.; Petravick, D.; Pordes, R.; Ritchie, D.; White, V.

    1987-06-01

    Experimenters on over 30 DECnet nodes at Fermilab use software developed, distributed, and maintained by the Data Acquisition Software Group. A general methodology and set of tools have been developed to distribute, use and manage the software on different sites. The methodology and tools are of interest to any group developing and using software on multiple nodes.

  8. Mediastinal lymph node size in lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Libshitz, H.I.; McKenna, R.J. Jr.

    1984-10-01

    Using a size criterion of 1 cm or greater as evidence for abnormality, the size of mediastinal lymph nodes identified by computed tomography (CT) was a poor predictor of mediastinal lymph node metastases in a series of 86 patients who had surgery for bronchogenic carcinoma. The surgery included full nodal sampling in all patients. Of the 86 patients, 36 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm identified by CT. Of the 21 patients with mediastinal metastases proven at surgery, 14 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm (sensitivity = 67%). Of the 65 patients without mediastinal metastases, 22 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm. Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse distal to the cancer was present in 39 patients (45%). Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse is a common occurrence in bronchogenic carcinoma, but mediastinal nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm in this circumstance cannot be presumed to represent metastatic disease. Metastatic mediastinal lymph node involvement was related to nodal size also in patients with evidence of prior granulomatous disease and in patients with no putative benign cause for nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm.

  9. Locating influential nodes in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malliaros, Fragkiskos D.; Rossi, Maria-Evgenia G.; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and controlling spreading processes in networks is an important topic with many diverse applications, including information dissemination, disease propagation and viral marketing. It is of crucial importance to identify which entities act as influential spreaders that can propagate information to a large portion of the network, in order to ensure efficient information diffusion, optimize available resources or even control the spreading. In this work, we capitalize on the properties of the K-truss decomposition, a triangle-based extension of the core decomposition of graphs, to locate individual influential nodes. Our analysis on real networks indicates that the nodes belonging to the maximal K-truss subgraph show better spreading behavior compared to previously used importance criteria, including node degree and k-core index, leading to faster and wider epidemic spreading. We further show that nodes belonging to such dense subgraphs, dominate the small set of nodes that achieve the optimal spreading in the network.

  10. Expandable and reconfigurable instrument node arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilliard, Lawrence M. (Inventor); Deshpande, Manohar (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An expandable and reconfigurable instrument node includes a feature detection means and a data processing portion in communication with the feature detection means, the data processing portion configured and disposed to process feature information. The instrument node further includes a phase locked loop (PLL) oscillator in communication with the data processing portion, the PLL oscillator configured and disposed to provide PLL information to the processing portion. The instrument node further includes a single tone transceiver and a pulse transceiver in communication with the PLL oscillator, the single tone transceiver configured and disposed to transmit or receive a single tone for phase correction of the PLL oscillator and the pulse transceiver configured and disposed to transmit and receive signals for phase correction of the PLL oscillator. The instrument node further includes a global positioning (GPA) receiver in communication with the processing portion, the GPS receiver configured and disposed to establish a global position of the instrument node.

  11. Locating influential nodes in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Malliaros, Fragkiskos D.; Rossi, Maria-Evgenia G.; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and controlling spreading processes in networks is an important topic with many diverse applications, including information dissemination, disease propagation and viral marketing. It is of crucial importance to identify which entities act as influential spreaders that can propagate information to a large portion of the network, in order to ensure efficient information diffusion, optimize available resources or even control the spreading. In this work, we capitalize on the properties of the K-truss decomposition, a triangle-based extension of the core decomposition of graphs, to locate individual influential nodes. Our analysis on real networks indicates that the nodes belonging to the maximal K-truss subgraph show better spreading behavior compared to previously used importance criteria, including node degree and k-core index, leading to faster and wider epidemic spreading. We further show that nodes belonging to such dense subgraphs, dominate the small set of nodes that achieve the optimal spreading in the network. PMID:26776455

  12. High speed polling protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs a remote node polling process performed by a master node by transmitting a polling message generically addressed to all remote nodes associated with the master node. Each remote node responds upon receipt of the generically addressed polling message by transmitting a poll-answering informational message and by relaying the polling message to other adjacent remote nodes.

  13. Transport optimization considering the node aggregation ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Li, Lian; Guo, Jiawei; Li, Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Using the theories of complex networks and gravitational field, we study the dynamic routing process under the framework of node gravitational field, define the equation of gravitation of travel path to data package and introduce two parameters α and γ for adjusting the dependences of transmission data on the unblocked degree of node, the transmission capacity of node and the path length. Based on the path's attraction, a gravitational field routing strategy under node connection ability constraint is proposed with considering the affect of node aggregation ability to transport process, and a parameter is used to adjust the control strength of routing process to node aggregation ability. In order to clarify the efficiency of suggested method, we introduce an order parameter η to measure the throughput of the network by the critical value of phase transition from free state to congestion state, and analyze the distribution of betweenness centrality and traffic jam. Simulation results show that, compared with the traditional shortest path routing strategy, our method greatly improve the throughput of a network, balance the network traffic load and most of the network nodes are used efficiently. Moreover, the network throughput is maximized under μ = -1, and the transmission performance of the algorithm is independent of the values of α and γ, which indicate the routing strategy is stable and reliable.

  14. Node Immunization with Time-Sensitive Restrictions

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Wen; Gong, Xiaoqing; Liu, Chen; Xu, Dan; Chen, Xiaojiang; Fang, Dingyi; Tang, Shaojie; Wu, Fan; Chen, Guihai

    2016-01-01

    When we encounter a malicious rumor or an infectious disease outbreak, immunizing k nodes of the relevant network with limited resources is always treated as an extremely effective method. The key challenge is how we can insulate limited nodes to minimize the propagation of those contagious things. In previous works, the best k immunised nodes are selected by learning the initial status of nodes and their strategies even if there is no feedback in the propagation process, which eventually leads to ineffective performance of their solutions. In this paper, we design a novel vaccines placement strategy for protecting much more healthy nodes from being infected by infectious nodes. The main idea of our solution is that we are not only utilizing the status of changing nodes as auxiliary knowledge to adjust our scheme, but also comparing the performance of vaccines in various transmission slots. Thus, our solution has a better chance to get more benefit from these limited vaccines. Extensive experiments have been conducted on several real-world data sets and the results have shown that our algorithm has a better performance than previous works. PMID:27983680

  15. Inguinal Lymph Node Anthracosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Anthracosis is defined as black, dense pigments in tissues, usually carbon deposits. We, as surgeons, have to make decisions during surgery to the best of our knowledge and based on what the literature provides us. We present the case of a 30-year-old female patient who underwent abdominoplasty. During surgery, bilateral inguinal pigmented and enlarged lymph nodes were seen. Biopsy of the nodes was done to rule out any malignancy. The results showed tattoo pigments on all lymph nodes. We present this case as tattoo pigment migration, which has been rarely described. PMID:27536493

  16. Checkpointing for a hybrid computing node

    DOEpatents

    Cher, Chen-Yong

    2016-03-08

    According to an aspect, a method for checkpointing in a hybrid computing node includes executing a task in a processing accelerator of the hybrid computing node. A checkpoint is created in a local memory of the processing accelerator. The checkpoint includes state data to restart execution of the task in the processing accelerator upon a restart operation. Execution of the task is resumed in the processing accelerator after creating the checkpoint. The state data of the checkpoint are transferred from the processing accelerator to a main processor of the hybrid computing node while the processing accelerator is executing the task.

  17. Surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Faries, Mark B; Morton, Donald L

    2007-12-01

    In patients with melanoma, surgery is pivotal not only for the primary tumor but also for regional and often distant metastases. The minimally invasive technique of sentinel node (SN) biopsy has become standard for detection of occult regional node metastasis in patients with intermediate-thickness primary melanoma; in these patients it has a central role in determining prognosis and a significant impact on survival when biopsy results are positive. Its role in thin melanoma remains under evaluation. The regional tumor-draining SN also is a useful model for studies of melanoma-induced immunosuppression. Although completion lymphadenectomy remains the standard of care for patients with SN metastasis, results of ongoing phase III trials will indicate whether SN biopsy without further lymph node surgery is adequate therapy for certain patients with minimal regional node disease.

  18. Percutaneous Vertebroplasty in Painful Schmorl Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Masala, Salvatore Pipitone, Vincenzo; Tomassini, Marco; Massari, Francesco; Romagnoli, Andrea; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2006-02-15

    The Schmorl node represents displacement of intervertebral disc tissue into the vertebral body. Both Schmorl nodes and degenerative disc disease are common in the human spine. We performed a retrospective study, for the period from January 2003 to February 2005, evaluating 23 patients affected by painful Schmorl nodes, who underwent in our department percutaneous transpedicular injection of polymethylmethacrylate (vertebroplasty) in order to solve their back pain not responsive to medical and physical management. Eighteen patients reported improvement of the back pain and no one reported a worsening of symptoms. Improvement was swift and persistent in reducing symptoms. Painful Schmorl nodes, refractory to medical or physical therapy, should be considered as a new indication within those vertebral lesions adequately treatable utilizing Vertebroplasty procedure.

  19. Synchronizing compute node time bases in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Faraj, Daniel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip

    2014-12-30

    Synchronizing time bases in a parallel computer that includes compute nodes organized for data communications in a tree network, where one compute node is designated as a root, and, for each compute node: calculating data transmission latency from the root to the compute node; configuring a thread as a pulse waiter; initializing a wakeup unit; and performing a local barrier operation; upon each node completing the local barrier operation, entering, by all compute nodes, a global barrier operation; upon all nodes entering the global barrier operation, sending, to all the compute nodes, a pulse signal; and for each compute node upon receiving the pulse signal: waking, by the wakeup unit, the pulse waiter; setting a time base for the compute node equal to the data transmission latency between the root node and the compute node; and exiting the global barrier operation.

  20. Synchronizing compute node time bases in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Faraj, Daniel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip

    2015-01-27

    Synchronizing time bases in a parallel computer that includes compute nodes organized for data communications in a tree network, where one compute node is designated as a root, and, for each compute node: calculating data transmission latency from the root to the compute node; configuring a thread as a pulse waiter; initializing a wakeup unit; and performing a local barrier operation; upon each node completing the local barrier operation, entering, by all compute nodes, a global barrier operation; upon all nodes entering the global barrier operation, sending, to all the compute nodes, a pulse signal; and for each compute node upon receiving the pulse signal: waking, by the wakeup unit, the pulse waiter; setting a time base for the compute node equal to the data transmission latency between the root node and the compute node; and exiting the global barrier operation.

  1. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews what we know about the interior and surface of the moon and the need to establish a robotic set of geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon for the purpose of providing significant scientific value to the exploration of the Moon. The ILN Anchor Nodes will provide the backbone of the network in a way that accomplishes new science and allows other nodes to be flexible contributors to the network.

  2. Synthesis of Embedded Software for Sensor Nodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    the development of the fitness evaluator (i.e., the mapping of candidate solutions into values of the relevant cost function), and of the move... the application input data, and each property stored in a particle’s coordinate. An example of mapping the formatted input to the node representation...sensor nodes for a wireless sensor network application, and appended to the Figure 5: Mapping of

  3. Sentinel Node Biopsy in Early Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Basso, Stefano M M; Chiara, Giordano B; Lumachi, Franco

    2016-01-01

    The approach to the axilla is an evolving paradigm, and recognition of the complexity of breast cancer (BC) biology is changing treatment options. The sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) technique is based on the excision and histological examination of the axillary lymph nodes(s), which is assumed to be the first one draining from the primary tumor. SLNB can accurately stage the axilla, and several trials have shown that there are no significant differences in local recurrence and overall survival between patients treated with or without axillary node dissection (ALND) after a negative SLNB. Surgical morbidity was significantly reduced in terms of rates of lymphedema and neuropathy, with reduced hospital stay and better quality of life after the SLNB procedure. ALND can safely be omitted in patients with ≥2 positive nodes who received conservative surgery and radiotherapy, while ALND is still recommended in clinically N1 BCs, in case of ≥3 positive nodes, and when the number of positive nodes would be crucial for the choice of chemotherapy. Micrometastatic disease can be safely managed with SLNB alone, and additional identification of micrometastases with immunohistochemistry does not affect disease-free survival or overall survival. An appropriate management of the axilla is crucial for the outcome of patients with early BC, and SLNB introduction into the clinical practice dramatically changed the surgical treatment, reducing morbidity without decreasing survival. A tailored approach should be suggested in each patient with BC, considering the biology of the tumor rather than nodal involvement.

  4. Cervical lymph node diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Stephan; Kansy, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The lymph nodes are an essential part of the body’s immune system and as such are affected in many infectious, autoimmune, metabolic and malignant diseases. The cervical lymph nodes are particularly important because they are the first drainage stations for key points of contact with the outside world (mouth/throat/nose/eyes/ears/respiratory system) – a critical aspect especially among children – and can represent an early clinical sign in their exposed position on a child’s slim neck. Involvement of the lymph nodes in multiple conditions is accompanied by a correspondingly large number of available diagnostic procedures. In the interests of time, patient wellbeing and cost, a careful choice of these must be made to permit appropriate treatment. The basis of diagnostic decisions is a detailed anamnesis and clinical examination. Sonography also plays an important role in differential diagnosis of lymph node swelling in children and is useful in answering one of the critical diagnostic questions: is there a suspicion of malignancy? If so, full dissection of the most conspicuous lymph node may be necessary to obtain histological confirmation. Diagnosis and treatment of childhood cervical lymph node disorders present the attending pediatric and ENT physicians with some particular challenges. The spectrum of differential diagnoses and the varying degrees of clinical relevance – from banal infections to malignant diseases – demand a clear and considered approach to the child’s individual clinical presentation. Such an approach is described in the following paper. PMID:25587368

  5. Signaling completion of a message transfer from an origin compute node to a target compute node

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2011-05-24

    Signaling completion of a message transfer from an origin node to a target node includes: sending, by an origin DMA engine, an RTS message, the RTS message specifying an application message for transfer to the target node from the origin node; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, a remote get message containing a data descriptor for the message and a completion notification descriptor, the completion notification descriptor specifying a local direct put transfer operation for transferring data locally on the origin node; inserting, by the origin DMA engine in an injection FIFO buffer, the data descriptor followed by the completion notification descriptor; transferring, by the origin DMA engine to the target node, the message in dependence upon the data descriptor; and notifying, by the origin DMA engine, the application that transfer of the message is complete in dependence upon the completion notification descriptor.

  6. Signaling completion of a message transfer from an origin compute node to a target compute node

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.

    2011-02-15

    Signaling completion of a message transfer from an origin node to a target node includes: sending, by an origin DMA engine, an RTS message, the RTS message specifying an application message for transfer to the target node from the origin node; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, a remote get message containing a data descriptor for the message and a completion notification descriptor, the completion notification descriptor specifying a local memory FIFO data transfer operation for transferring data locally on the origin node; inserting, by the origin DMA engine in an injection FIFO buffer, the data descriptor followed by the completion notification descriptor; transferring, by the origin DMA engine to the target node, the message in dependence upon the data descriptor; and notifying, by the origin DMA engine, the application that transfer of the message is complete in dependence upon the completion notification descriptor.

  7. Dynamically reassigning a connected node to a block of compute nodes for re-launching a failed job

    DOEpatents

    Budnik, Thomas A [Rochester, MN; Knudson, Brant L [Rochester, MN; Megerian, Mark G [Rochester, MN; Miller, Samuel J [Rochester, MN; Stockdell, William M [Byron, MN

    2012-03-20

    Methods, systems, and products for dynamically reassigning a connected node to a block of compute nodes for re-launching a failed job that include: identifying that a job failed to execute on the block of compute nodes because connectivity failed between a compute node assigned as at least one of the connected nodes for the block of compute nodes and its supporting I/O node; and re-launching the job, including selecting an alternative connected node that is actively coupled for data communications with an active I/O node; and assigning the alternative connected node as the connected node for the block of compute nodes running the re-launched job.

  8. Implementation of Multiple Host Nodes in Wireless Sensing Node Network System for Landslide Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abas, Faizulsalihin bin; Takayama, Shigeru

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes multiple host nodes in Wireless Sensing Node Network System (WSNNS) for landslide monitoring. As landslide disasters damage monitoring system easily, one major demand in landslide monitoring is the flexibility and robustness of the system to evaluate the current situation in the monitored area. For various reasons WSNNS can provide an important contribution to reach that aim. In this system, acceleration sensors and GPS are deployed in sensing nodes. Location information by GPS, enable the system to estimate network topology and enable the system to perceive the location in emergency by monitoring the node mode. Acceleration sensors deployment, capacitate this system to detect slow mass movement that can lead to landslide occurrence. Once deployed, sensing nodes self-organize into an autonomous wireless ad hoc network. The measurement parameter data from sensing nodes is transmitted to Host System via host node and "Cloud" System. The implementation of multiple host nodes in Local Sensing Node Network System (LSNNS), improve risk- management of the WSNNS for real-time monitoring of landslide disaster.

  9. Arm lymphoscintigraphy after axillary lymph node dissection or sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sarri, Almir José; Dias, Rogério; Laurienzo, Carla Elaine; Gonçalves, Mônica Carboni Pereira; Dias, Daniel Spadoto; Moriguchi, Sonia Marta

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Compare the lymphatic flow in the arm after breast cancer surgery and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) versus sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) using lymphos-cintigraphy (LS). Patients and methods A cross-sectional study with 39 women >18 years who underwent surgical treatment for unilateral breast cancer and manipulation of the axillary lymph node chain through either ALND or SLNB, with subsequent comparison of the lymphatic flow of the arm by LS. The variables analyzed were the area reached by the lymphatic flow in the upper limb and the sites and number of lymph nodes identified in the ALND or SLNB groups visualized in the three phases of LS acquisition (immediate dynamic and static images, delayed scan images). For all analyses, the level of significance was set at 5%. Results There was a significant difference between the ALND and SLNB groups, with predominant visualization of lymphatic flow and/or lymph nodes in the arm and axilla (P=0.01) and extra-axillary lymph nodes (P<0.01) in the ALND group. There was no significant difference in the total number of lymph nodes identified between the two groups. However, there was a significant difference in the distribution of lymph nodes in these groups. The cubital lymph node was more often visualized in the immediate dynamic images in the ALND group (P=0.004), while the axillary lymph nodes were more often identified in the delayed scan images of the SLNB group (P<0.01). The deltopectoral lymph node was only identified in the ALND group, but with no significant difference. Conclusion The lymphatic flow from the axilla was redirected to alternative extra-axillary routes in the ALND group. PMID:28331338

  10. Labeling Nodes Using Three Degrees of Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Sara; Goldenberg, Anna; Morris, Quaid

    2012-01-01

    The properties (or labels) of nodes in networks can often be predicted based on their proximity and their connections to other labeled nodes. So-called “label propagation algorithms” predict the labels of unlabeled nodes by propagating information about local label density iteratively through the network. These algorithms are fast, simple and scale to large networks but nonetheless regularly perform better than slower and much more complex algorithms on benchmark problems. We show here, however, that these algorithms have an intrinsic limitation that prevents them from adapting to some common patterns of network node labeling; we introduce a new algorithm, 3Prop, that retains all their advantages but is much more adaptive. As we show, 3Prop performs very well on node labeling problems ill-suited to label propagation, including predicting gene function in protein and genetic interaction networks and gender in friendship networks, and also performs slightly better on problems already well-suited to label propagation such as labeling blogs and patents based on their citation networks. 3Prop gains its adaptability by assigning separate weights to label information from different steps of the propagation. Surprisingly, we found that for many networks, the third iteration of label propagation receives a negative weight. Availability The code is available from the authors by request. PMID:23284828

  11. Weyl Nodes in Trigonal Tellurium and Selenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Motoaki; Okugawa, Ryo; Ishibashi, Shoji; Murakami, Shuichi; Miyake, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    Singular points in the momentum space (Dirac nodes) have been under intensive investigation recently. Among various Dirac systems, materials having three-dimensional Dirac nodes without spin degeneracy (Weyl nodes) are of particular interest because of their topological nature. We study trigonal Te and Se as systems having both strong spin-orbit interaction (SOI) and broken inversion symmetry, which is necessary for the Weyl node. We calculate the electronic structure by using QMAS based on relativistic density functional theory, and add the self-energy correction in the GW approximation. Te and Se are insulating at ambient pressure. The conduction bands have a spin splitting similar to the Rashba splitting around the H points, but unlike the Rashba splitting the spin directions are radial, forming a hedgehog spin texture. The energy gap decreases with increasing pressure. In the metallic phase, the spin rotates twice around H on the kz = +/- π/c plane, which can be explained by the motion of the Weyl nodes under pressure. We also find that trigonal Te shows the Weyl semimetal phase with time-reversal symmetry under pressure.

  12. Node Survival in Networks under Correlated Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yan; Armbruster, Dieter; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We study the interplay between correlations, dynamics, and networks for repeated attacks on a socio-economic network. As a model system we consider an insurance scheme against disasters that randomly hit nodes, where a node in need receives support from its network neighbors. The model is motivated by gift giving among the Maasai called Osotua. Survival of nodes under different disaster scenarios (uncorrelated, spatially, temporally and spatio-temporally correlated) and for different network architectures are studied with agent-based numerical simulations. We find that the survival rate of a node depends dramatically on the type of correlation of the disasters: Spatially and spatio-temporally correlated disasters increase the survival rate; purely temporally correlated disasters decrease it. The type of correlation also leads to strong inequality among the surviving nodes. We introduce the concept of disaster masking to explain some of the results of our simulations. We also analyze the subsets of the networks that were activated to provide support after fifty years of random disasters. They show qualitative differences for the different disaster scenarios measured by path length, degree, clustering coefficient, and number of cycles. PMID:25932635

  13. Node Survival in Networks under Correlated Attacks.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yan; Armbruster, Dieter; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We study the interplay between correlations, dynamics, and networks for repeated attacks on a socio-economic network. As a model system we consider an insurance scheme against disasters that randomly hit nodes, where a node in need receives support from its network neighbors. The model is motivated by gift giving among the Maasai called Osotua. Survival of nodes under different disaster scenarios (uncorrelated, spatially, temporally and spatio-temporally correlated) and for different network architectures are studied with agent-based numerical simulations. We find that the survival rate of a node depends dramatically on the type of correlation of the disasters: Spatially and spatio-temporally correlated disasters increase the survival rate; purely temporally correlated disasters decrease it. The type of correlation also leads to strong inequality among the surviving nodes. We introduce the concept of disaster masking to explain some of the results of our simulations. We also analyze the subsets of the networks that were activated to provide support after fifty years of random disasters. They show qualitative differences for the different disaster scenarios measured by path length, degree, clustering coefficient, and number of cycles.

  14. Node-surface and node-line fermions from nonsymmorphic lattice symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Qi-Feng; Zhou, Jian; Yu, Rui; Wang, Zhi; Weng, Hongming

    2016-02-01

    We propose a kind of topological quantum state of semimetals in the quasi-one-dimensional (1D) crystal family BaMX 3 (M =V , Nb, or Ta; X =S or Se) by using symmetry analysis and first-principles calculation. We find that in BaVS3 the valence and conduction bands are degenerate in the kz=π /c plane (c is the lattice constant along the z ̂ axis) of the Brillouin zone (BZ). These nodal points form a node surface, and they are protected by a nonsymmorphic crystal symmetry consisting of a twofold rotation about the z ̂ axis and a half-translation along the same z ̂ axis. The band degeneracy in the node surface is lifted in BaTaS3 by including strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) of Ta. The node surface is reduced into 1D node lines along the high-symmetry paths kx=0 and kx=±√{3 }ky on the kz=π /c plane. These node lines are robust against SOC and guaranteed by the symmetries of the P 63/m m c space group. These node-line states are entirely different from previous proposals which are based on the accidental band touchings. We also propose a useful material design for realizing topological node-surface and node-line semimetals.

  15. Analysis of molecular markers as predictive factors of lymph node involvement in breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Paula, Luciana Marques; De Moraes, Luis Henrique Ferreira; Do Canto, Abaeté Leite; Dos Santos, Laurita; Martin, Airton Abrahão; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; De Azevedo Canevari, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Nodal status is the most significant independent prognostic factor in breast cancer. Identification of molecular markers would allow stratification of patients who require surgical assessment of lymph nodes from the large numbers of patients for whom this surgical procedure is unnecessary, thus leading to a more accurate prognosis. However, up to now, the reported studies are preliminary and controversial, and although hundreds of markers have been assessed, few of them have been used in clinical practice for treatment or prognosis in breast cancer. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether protein phosphatase Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1D, β-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 9, prohibitin, phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 5 (PIK3R5), phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase type IIα, TRF1-interacting ankyrin-related ADP-ribose polymerase 2, BCL2 associated agonist of cell death, G2 and S-phase expressed 1 and PAX interacting protein 1 genes, described as prognostic markers in breast cancer in a previous microarray study, are also predictors of lymph node involvement in breast carcinoma Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed on primary breast tumor tissues from women with negative lymph node involvement (n=27) compared with primary tumor tissues from women with positive lymph node involvement (n=23), and was also performed on primary tumors and paired lymph node metastases (n=11). For all genes analyzed, only the PIK3R5 gene exhibited differential expression in samples of primary tumors with positive lymph node involvement compared with primary tumors with negative lymph node involvement (P=0.0347). These results demonstrate that the PIK3R5 gene may be considered predictive of lymph node involvement in breast carcinoma. Although the other genes evaluated in the present study have been previously characterized to be involved with

  16. Analysis of molecular markers as predictive factors of lymph node involvement in breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Paula, Luciana Marques; De Moraes, Luis Henrique Ferreira; Do Canto, Abaeté Leite; Dos Santos, Laurita; Martin, Airton Abrahão; Rogatto, Silvia Regina; De Azevedo Canevari, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Nodal status is the most significant independent prognostic factor in breast cancer. Identification of molecular markers would allow stratification of patients who require surgical assessment of lymph nodes from the large numbers of patients for whom this surgical procedure is unnecessary, thus leading to a more accurate prognosis. However, up to now, the reported studies are preliminary and controversial, and although hundreds of markers have been assessed, few of them have been used in clinical practice for treatment or prognosis in breast cancer. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether protein phosphatase Mg2+/Mn2+ dependent 1D, β-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 9, prohibitin, phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 5 (PIK3R5), phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinase type IIα, TRF1-interacting ankyrin-related ADP-ribose polymerase 2, BCL2 associated agonist of cell death, G2 and S-phase expressed 1 and PAX interacting protein 1 genes, described as prognostic markers in breast cancer in a previous microarray study, are also predictors of lymph node involvement in breast carcinoma Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed on primary breast tumor tissues from women with negative lymph node involvement (n=27) compared with primary tumor tissues from women with positive lymph node involvement (n=23), and was also performed on primary tumors and paired lymph node metastases (n=11). For all genes analyzed, only the PIK3R5 gene exhibited differential expression in samples of primary tumors with positive lymph node involvement compared with primary tumors with negative lymph node involvement (P=0.0347). These results demonstrate that the PIK3R5 gene may be considered predictive of lymph node involvement in breast carcinoma. Although the other genes evaluated in the present study have been previously characterized to be involved with

  17. Node degree distribution in spanning trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozrikidis, C.

    2016-03-01

    A method is presented for computing the number of spanning trees involving one link or a specified group of links, and excluding another link or a specified group of links, in a network described by a simple graph in terms of derivatives of the spanning-tree generating function defined with respect to the eigenvalues of the Kirchhoff (weighted Laplacian) matrix. The method is applied to deduce the node degree distribution in a complete or randomized set of spanning trees of an arbitrary network. An important feature of the proposed method is that the explicit construction of spanning trees is not required. It is shown that the node degree distribution in the spanning trees of the complete network is described by the binomial distribution. Numerical results are presented for the node degree distribution in square, triangular, and honeycomb lattices.

  18. Energy Options for Wireless Sensor Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Chris; Davidson, Joshua; Behrens, Sam

    2008-01-01

    Reduction in size and power consumption of consumer electronics has opened up many opportunities for low power wireless sensor networks. One of the major challenges is in supporting battery operated devices as the number of nodes in a network grows. The two main alternatives are to utilize higher energy density sources of stored energy, or to generate power at the node from local forms of energy. This paper reviews the state-of-the art technology in the field of both energy storage and energy harvesting for sensor nodes. The options discussed for energy storage include batteries, capacitors, fuel cells, heat engines and betavoltaic systems. The field of energy harvesting is discussed with reference to photovoltaics, temperature gradients, fluid flow, pressure variations and vibration harvesting. PMID:27873975

  19. SpicyNodes Radial Map Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douma, M.; Ligierko, G.; Angelov, I.

    2008-10-01

    The need for information has increased exponentially over the past decades. The current systems for constructing, exploring, classifying, organizing, and searching information face the growing challenge of enabling their users to operate efficiently and intuitively in knowledge-heavy environments. This paper presents SpicyNodes, an advanced user interface for difficult interaction contexts. It is based on an underlying structure known as a radial map, which allows users to manipulate and interact in a natural manner with entities called nodes. This technology overcomes certain limitations of existing solutions and solves the problem of browsing complex sets of linked information. SpicyNodes is also an organic system that projects users into a living space, stimulating exploratory behavior and fostering creative thought. Our interactive radial layout is used for educational purposes and has the potential for numerous other applications.

  20. Vital nodes identification in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Linyuan; Chen, Duanbing; Ren, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Tao

    2016-09-01

    Real networks exhibit heterogeneous nature with nodes playing far different roles in structure and function. To identify vital nodes is thus very significant, allowing us to control the outbreak of epidemics, to conduct advertisements for e-commercial products, to predict popular scientific publications, and so on. The vital nodes identification attracts increasing attentions from both computer science and physical societies, with algorithms ranging from simply counting the immediate neighbors to complicated machine learning and message passing approaches. In this review, we clarify the concepts and metrics, classify the problems and methods, as well as review the important progresses and describe the state of the art. Furthermore, we provide extensive empirical analyses to compare well-known methods on disparate real networks, and highlight the future directions. In spite of the emphasis on physics-rooted approaches, the unification of the language and comparison with cross-domain methods would trigger interdisciplinary solutions in the near future.

  1. Clock Agreement Among Parallel Supercomputer Nodes

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jones, Terry R.; Koenig, Gregory A.

    2014-04-30

    This dataset presents measurements that quantify the clock synchronization time-agreement characteristics among several high performance computers including the current world's most powerful machine for open science, the U.S. Department of Energy's Titan machine sited at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These ultra-fast machines derive much of their computational capability from extreme node counts (over 18000 nodes in the case of the Titan machine). Time-agreement is commonly utilized by parallel programming applications and tools, distributed programming application and tools, and system software. Our time-agreement measurements detail the degree of time variance between nodes and how that variance changes over time. The dataset includes empirical measurements and the accompanying spreadsheets.

  2. Spatiotemporal modeling of node temperatures in supercomputers

    DOE PAGES

    Storlie, Curtis Byron; Reich, Brian James; Rust, William Newton; ...

    2016-06-10

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is home to many large supercomputing clusters. These clusters require an enormous amount of power (~500-2000 kW each), and most of this energy is converted into heat. Thus, cooling the components of the supercomputer becomes a critical and expensive endeavor. Recently a project was initiated to investigate the effect that changes to the cooling system in a machine room had on three large machines that were housed there. Coupled with this goal was the aim to develop a general good-practice for characterizing the effect of cooling changes and monitoring machine node temperatures in this andmore » other machine rooms. This paper focuses on the statistical approach used to quantify the effect that several cooling changes to the room had on the temperatures of the individual nodes of the computers. The largest cluster in the room has 1,600 nodes that run a variety of jobs during general use. Since extremes temperatures are important, a Normal distribution plus generalized Pareto distribution for the upper tail is used to model the marginal distribution, along with a Gaussian process copula to account for spatio-temporal dependence. A Gaussian Markov random field (GMRF) model is used to model the spatial effects on the node temperatures as the cooling changes take place. This model is then used to assess the condition of the node temperatures after each change to the room. The analysis approach was used to uncover the cause of a problematic episode of overheating nodes on one of the supercomputing clusters. Lastly, this same approach can easily be applied to monitor and investigate cooling systems at other data centers, as well.« less

  3. Spatiotemporal modeling of node temperatures in supercomputers

    SciTech Connect

    Storlie, Curtis Byron; Reich, Brian James; Rust, William Newton; Ticknor, Lawrence O.; Bonnie, Amanda Marie; Montoya, Andrew J.; Michalak, Sarah E.

    2016-06-10

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is home to many large supercomputing clusters. These clusters require an enormous amount of power (~500-2000 kW each), and most of this energy is converted into heat. Thus, cooling the components of the supercomputer becomes a critical and expensive endeavor. Recently a project was initiated to investigate the effect that changes to the cooling system in a machine room had on three large machines that were housed there. Coupled with this goal was the aim to develop a general good-practice for characterizing the effect of cooling changes and monitoring machine node temperatures in this and other machine rooms. This paper focuses on the statistical approach used to quantify the effect that several cooling changes to the room had on the temperatures of the individual nodes of the computers. The largest cluster in the room has 1,600 nodes that run a variety of jobs during general use. Since extremes temperatures are important, a Normal distribution plus generalized Pareto distribution for the upper tail is used to model the marginal distribution, along with a Gaussian process copula to account for spatio-temporal dependence. A Gaussian Markov random field (GMRF) model is used to model the spatial effects on the node temperatures as the cooling changes take place. This model is then used to assess the condition of the node temperatures after each change to the room. The analysis approach was used to uncover the cause of a problematic episode of overheating nodes on one of the supercomputing clusters. Lastly, this same approach can easily be applied to monitor and investigate cooling systems at other data centers, as well.

  4. Incidence of metastasis in circumflex iliac nodes distal to the external iliac nodes in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Kazuhira; Kato, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    Objective A causal relationship between removal of circumflex iliac nodes distal to the external iliac nodes (CINDEIN) and lower leg edema has been recently suggested. The aim of this study was to elucidate the incidence of CINDEIN metastasis in cervical cancer. Methods A retrospective chart review was carried out for 531 patients with cervical cancer who underwent lymph node dissection between 1993 and 2014. CINDEIN metastasis was pathologically identified by microscopic investigation. After 2007, sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed selectively in patients with non-bulky cervical cancer. The sentinel node was identified using 99mTc-phytate and by scanning the pelvic cavity with a γ probe. Results Two hundred and ninety-seven patients (55.9%) underwent CINDEIN dissection and 234 (44.1%) did not. The percentage of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIb to IV (42.4% vs. 23.5%, p<0.001) was significantly higher in patients who underwent CINDEIN dissection than those who did not. CINDEIN metastasis was identified in 1.9% overall and in 3.4% of patients who underwent CINDEIN dissection. For patients with stage Ia to IIa disease, CINDEIN metastasis was identified in 0.6% overall and in 1.2% of patients who underwent CINDEIN dissection. Of 115 patients with sentinel node mapping, only one (0.9%) had CINDEIN detected as a sentinel node. In this case, the other three lymph nodes were concurrently detected as sentinel lymph nodes. Conclusion CINDEIN dissection can be eliminated in patients with stage Ia to IIa disease. CINDEIN might not be regional lymph nodes in cervical cancer. PMID:27102250

  5. Hydrodynamic Phase Locking in Mouse Node Cilia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamatsu, Atsuko; Shinohara, Kyosuke; Ishikawa, Takuji; Hamada, Hiroshi

    2013-06-01

    Rotational movement of mouse node cilia generates leftward fluid flow in the node cavity, playing an important role in left-right determination in the embryo. Although rotation of numerous cilia was believed necessary to trigger the determination, recent reports indicate the action of two cilia to be sufficient. We examine cooperative cilia movement via hydrodynamic interaction. Results show cilia to be cooperative, having phases locked in a certain relation; a system with a pair of nonidentical cilia can achieve phase-locked states more easily than one with a pair of identical cilia.

  6. Glycan Node Analysis: A Bottom-up Approach to Glycomics.

    PubMed

    Zaare, Sahba; Aguilar, Jesús S; Hu, Yueming; Ferdosi, Shadi; Borges, Chad R

    2016-05-22

    Synthesized in a non-template-driven process by enzymes called glycosyltransferases, glycans are key players in various significant intra- and extracellular events. Many pathological conditions, notably cancer, affect gene expression, which can in turn deregulate the relative abundance and activity levels of glycoside hydrolase and glycosyltransferase enzymes. Unique aberrant whole glycans resulting from deregulated glycosyltransferase(s) are often present in trace quantities within complex biofluids, making their detection difficult and sometimes stochastic. However, with proper sample preparation, one of the oldest forms of mass spectrometry (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, GC-MS) can routinely detect the collection of branch-point and linkage-specific monosaccharides ("glycan nodes") present in complex biofluids. Complementary to traditional top-down glycomics techniques, the approach discussed herein involves the collection and condensation of each constituent glycan node in a sample into a single independent analytical signal, which provides detailed structural and quantitative information about changes to the glycome as a whole and reveals potentially deregulated glycosyltransferases. Improvements to the permethylation and subsequent liquid/liquid extraction stages provided herein enhance reproducibility and overall yield by facilitating minimal exposure of permethylated glycans to alkaline aqueous conditions. Modifications to the acetylation stage further increase the extent of reaction and overall yield. Despite their reproducibility, the overall yields of N-acetylhexosamine (HexNAc) partially permethylated alditol acetates (PMAAs) are shown to be inherently lower than their expected theoretical value relative to hexose PMAAs. Calculating the ratio of the area under the extracted ion chromatogram (XIC) for each individual hexose PMAA (or HexNAc PMAA) to the sum of such XIC areas for all hexoses (or HexNAcs) provides a new normalization method that

  7. Multilayer Network Analysis of Nuclear Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Liang; Ma, Yu-Gang; Chen, Qu; Han, Ding-Ding

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear reaction network is usually studied via precise calculation of differential equation sets, and much research interest has been focused on the characteristics of nuclides, such as half-life and size limit. In this paper, however, we adopt the methods from both multilayer and reaction networks, and obtain a distinctive view by mapping all the nuclear reactions in JINA REACLIB database into a directed network with 4 layers: neutron, proton, 4He and the remainder. The layer names correspond to reaction types decided by the currency particles consumed. This combined approach reveals that, in the remainder layer, the β-stability has high correlation with node degree difference and overlapping coefficient. Moreover, when reaction rates are considered as node strength, we find that, at lower temperatures, nuclide half-life scales reciprocally with its out-strength. The connection between physical properties and topological characteristics may help to explore the boundary of the nuclide chart. PMID:27558995

  8. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the United States' contribution to the International Lunar Network (ILN) project, the Anchor Nodes project. The ILN is an initiative of 9 national space agencies to establish a set of robotic geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon. The project is aimed at furthering the understanding of the lunar composition, and interior structure.

  9. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mollgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper; Jensen, Mogens H.; Lehmann, Sune; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships. PMID:27300084

  10. Lithography strategy for 65-nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodovsky, Yan A.; Schenker, Richard E.; Allen, Gary A.; Tejnil, Edita; Hwang, David H.; Lo, Fu-Chang; Singh, Vivek K.; Gleason, Robert E.; Brandenburg, Joseph E.; Bigwood, Robert M.

    2002-07-01

    Intel will start high volume manufacturing (HVM) of the 65nm node in 2005. Microprocessor density and performance trends will continue to follow Moore's law and cost-effective patterning solutions capable of supporting it have to be found, demonstrated and developed during 2002-2004. Given the uncertainty regarding the readiness and respective capabilities of 157nm and 193nm lithography to support 65nm technology requirements, Intel is developing both lithographic options and corresponding infrastructure with the intent to use both options in manufacturing. Development and use of dual lithographic options for a given technology node in manufacturing is not a new paradigm for Intel: whenever introduction of a new exposure wavelength presented excessive risk to the manufacturing schedule, Intel developed parallel patterning approaches in time for the manufacturing ramp. Both I-line and 248nm patterning solutions were developed and successfully used in manufacturing of the 350nm node at Intel. Similarly, 248nm and 193nm patterning solutions were fully developed for 130nm node high volume manufacturing.

  11. Research sheds light on lymph node mystery.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Researchers explain why so much HIV is found in the lymph nodes. The follicular dendritic cells act like flypaper to HIV and other pathogens. Once attracted, HIV is able to ambush critical immune cells, even in the presence of a vast excess of neutralizing antibodies. In the absence of follicular dendritic cells, similar quantities of neutralizing antibodies block HIV infectivity.

  12. Use of a Hybrid Edge Node-Centroid Node Approach to Thermal Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peabody, Hume L.

    2010-01-01

    A recent proposal submitted for an ESA mission required that models be delivered in ESARAD/ESATAN formats. ThermalDesktop was the preferable analysis code to be used for model development with a conversion done as the final step before delivery. However, due to some differences between the capabilities of the two codes, a unique approach was developed to take advantage of the edge node capability of ThermalDesktop while maintaining the centroid node approach used by ESARAD. In essence, two separate meshes were used: one for conduction and one for radiation. The conduction calculations were eliminated from the radiation surfaces and the capacitance and radiative calculations were eliminated from the conduction surfaces. The resulting conduction surface nodes were coincident with all nodes of the radiation surface and were subsequently merged, while the nodes along the edges remained free. Merging of nodes on the edges of adjacent surfaces provided the conductive links between surfaces. Lastly, all nodes along edges were placed into the subnetwork and the resulting supernetwork included only the nodes associated with radiation surfaces. This approach had both benefits and disadvantages. The use of centroid, surface based radiation reduces the overall size of the radiation network, which is often the most computationally intensive part of the modeling process. Furthermore, using the conduction surfaces and allowing ThermalDesktop to calculate the conduction network can save significant time by not having to manually generate the couplings. Lastly, the resulting GMM/TMM models can be exported to formats which do not support edge nodes. One drawback, however, is the necessity to maintain two sets of surfaces. This requires additional care on the part of the analyst to ensure communication between the conductive and radiative surfaces in the resulting overall network. However, with more frequent use of this technique, the benefits of this approach can far outweigh the

  13. IDIS Small Bodies and Dust Node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sanctis, M. C.; Capria, M. T.; Carraro, F.; Fonte, S.; Giacomini, L.; Turrini, D.

    2009-04-01

    The EuroPlaNet information service provides access to lists of researchers, laboratories and data archives relevant to many aspects of planetary and space physics. Information can be accessed through EuroPlaNet website or, for advanced searches, via web-services available at the different thematic nodes. The goal of IDIS is to provide easy-to-use access to resources like people, laboratories, modeling activities and data archives related to planetary sciences. The development of IDIS is an international effort started under the European Commission's 6th Framework Programme and which will expand its capabilities during the 7th Framework Programme, as part of the Capacities Specific Programme/Research Infrastructures. IDIS is complemented by a set of other EuroPlaNet web-services maintained under the responsibility of separate institutions. Each activity maintains its own web-portal with cross-links pointing to the other elements of EuroPlaNet. General access is provided via the EuroPlaNet Homepage. IDIS is not a repository of original data but rather supports the access to various data sources. The final goal of IDIS is to provide Virtual Observatory tools for the access to data from laboratory measurements and ground- and spaced-based observations to modeling results, allowing the combination of as divergent data sources as feasible. IDIS is built around four scientific nodes located in different European countries. Each node deals with a subset of the disciplines related to planetary sciences and, working in cooperation with international experts in these fields, provides a wealth of information to the international planetary science community. The EuroPlaNet IDIS thematic node "Small Bodies and Dust Node" is hosted by the Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario and is established in close cooperation with the Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale. Both these institutes are part of the Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF). The IDIS Small Bodies and Dust

  14. Iterative resource allocation based on propagation feature of node for identifying the influential nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Lin-Feng; Liu, Jian-Guo; Shang, Ming-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    The identification of the influential nodes in networks is one of the most promising domains. In this paper, we present an improved iterative resource allocation (IIRA) method by considering the centrality information of neighbors and the influence of spreading rate for a target node. Comparing with the results of the Susceptible Infected Recovered (SIR) model for four real networks, the IIRA method could identify influential nodes more accurately than the tradition IRA method. Specially, in the Erdös network, Kendall's tau could be enhanced 23% when the spreading rate is 0.12. In the Protein network, Kendall's tau could be enhanced 24% when the spreading rate is 0.08.

  15. Analysis of potential markers for detection of submicroscopic lymph node metastases in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Merrie, A E H; Yun, K; Gunn, J; Phillips, L V; McCall, J L

    1999-01-01

    We have developed sensitive assays for cytokeratin (K) 8, 16, 19, stromelysin 3 (ST3), MUC1 and maspin mRNAs using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and used these to assess lymph node status in patients undergoing surgery for breast cancer. In addition the RT-PCR assays were tested against lymph nodes from non-cancer patients to determine their specificity. Despite high sensitivity RT-PCR assays for K8, K16, K19, ST3 and maspin were not found to be useful as markers of submicroscopic disease as transcripts of these genes were detected in the great majority of control lymph nodes tested. Expression of MUC1 was also not found to be useful as it was both insensitive and non-specific. The importance of assessing potential markers against an adequately sized control population is demonstrated, as failure to do so can lead to erroneous conclusions. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10471055

  16. [Features of the structure of the regional lymph nodes of the duodenum in monkeys].

    PubMed

    Rusina, A K

    1980-05-01

    By means of morphometric methods, duodenal regional lymph nodes were studied in rhesus and lapunder macaques. It was demonstrated that in monkeys the connective tissue framework, cortical plateau, medullary substance, cortical substance, sinuses and follicles are expressed differently. Cellular elements in the lymph nodes analysed in the monkeys subjected to a comparative investigation demonstrated their uneven distribution in the same structural components. Small lymphocytes were predominate cellular elements. There were rather essential differences in the number of plasmic cells, mitotically dividing cells, acidophilic granulocytes, mast cells and macrophages. Certain species differences were demonstrated to exist both in structure and cell composition of the lymph nodes that seemed to depend on some local peculiarities of immunogenic reactions.

  17. Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping of Liver

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Hideyuki; Hyun, Hoon; Vargas, Christina; Genega, Elizabeth M.; Gravier, Julien; Gioux, Sylvain; Frangioni, John V.; Choi, Hak Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) hypothesis has been applied to many tissues and organs, liver has remained unstudied. At present, it is unclear whether hepatic SLNs even exist. If so, they could alter management in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and other hepatic malignancies by minimizing the extent of surgery while still providing precise nodal staging. We investigated whether invisible yet tissue-penetrating near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent light can provide simultaneous identification of both the sentinel lymph node (SLN) and all other regional lymph nodes (RLN) in the liver. Method In twenty five Yorkshire pigs, we determined whether SLNs exist in liver, and compared the effectiveness of two clinically available NIR fluorophores, methylene blue (MB) and indocyanine green (ICG), and two novel NIR fluorophores previously described by our group, ESNF14 and ZW800-3C, for SLN and RLN mapping. Results ESNF14 showed the highest signal-to-background ratio (SBR) and longest retention time in SLNs, without leakage to second-tier lymph nodes. ICG had apparent leakage to second-tier nodes, while ZW800-3C suffered from poor migration after intraparenchymal injection. However, when injected intravenously, ZW800-3C was able to highlight all RLNs in liver over a 4–6 h period. Simultaneous dual channel imaging of SLN (ESNF14) and RLN (ZW800-3C) permitted unambiguous identification and image-guided resection of SLNs and RLNs in liver. Conclusion The NIR imaging technology enables real-time intraoperative identification of SLNs and RLNs in the liver of swine. If these results are confirmed in patients, new strategies for the surgical management of intrahepatic malignancies should be possible. PMID:25968620

  18. Synchronicity in composite hydrogels: Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) active nodes in gelatin.

    PubMed

    Buskohl, Philip R; Kramb, Ryan C; Vaia, Richard A

    2015-02-26

    Synchronization of motion, task, or communication is responsible for the successful function of many living systems. Composite Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) self-oscillating hydrogels exhibit a sufficiently complex chemical-mechanical feedback to develop synchrony and other dynamical behaviors. In the context of BZ gels, synchrony is the sustained, oscillating oxidation with constant phase of two or more catalyst-immobilized gel segments. However, design criteria to control chemical-mechanical synchronization through patterning of the reaction catalyst are lacking. To characterize the fundamental units of composite device design, the periodic oxidation behavior of isolated nodes, node pairs, and multinode systems were investigated. Isolated nodes of Ru-immobilized gelatin exhibited three distinct, volume-dependent, regimes of oscillation: (i) long period (10-40 min), (ii) biperiod (mix of long and short), and (iii) short period (2.5 min). Node pairs and multinode grids of Ru gelatin were embedded in plain gelatin through a film stacking or 3D printing technique. The fraction of synchronized node pairs decreased with increasing interspace distance. Embedment increased the probability of synchronization, with 100% synchronization for interspace distances of less than 10 times the characteristic length of the reaction-diffusion process. The phase difference between synchronized node pairs transitioned from in-phase at small interspace distances to antiphase at large distances, providing the first experimental verification of antiphase synchrony in composite BZ gels. From these design criteria and fabrication techniques, the chemical-mechanical feedback of BZ composites can be programmed through strategic patterning of the catalyst to build BZ devices for sensor, trigger, or chemical computing applications.

  19. Dirac-node arc in the topological line-node semimetal HfSiS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takane, D.; Wang, Zhiwei; Souma, S.; Nakayama, K.; Trang, C. X.; Sato, T.; Takahashi, T.; Ando, Yoichi

    2016-09-01

    We have performed angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on HfSiS, which has been predicted to be a topological line-node semimetal with square Si lattice. We found a quasi-two-dimensional Fermi surface hosting bulk nodal lines, alongside the surface states at the Brillouin-zone corner exhibiting a sizable Rashba splitting and band-mass renormalization due to many-body interactions. Most notably, we discovered an unexpected Dirac-like dispersion extending one dimensionally in k space—the Dirac-node arc—near the bulk node at the zone diagonal. These novel Dirac states reside on the surface and could be related to hybridizations of bulk states, but currently we have no explanation for its origin. This discovery poses an intriguing challenge to the theoretical understanding of topological line-node semimetals.

  20. Detection of Occult Lymph Node Metastases in Esophageal Cancer by Minimally Invasive Staging Combined with Molecular Diagnostic Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Kassis, Edmund S.; Nguyen, Ninh; Shriver, Sharon P.; Siegfried, Jill M.; Schauer, Philip R.

    1998-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Lymph node metastases are the most important prognostic factor in patients with esophageal cancer. Histologic examination misses micrometastases in up to 20% of lymph nodes evaluated. In addition, non-invasive imaging modalities are not sensitive enough to detect small lymph nodes metastases. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of messenger RNA (mRNA) for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) to increase the detection of micrometastases in lymph nodes from patients with esophageal cancer. Methods: RT-PCR of CEA mRNA was performed in lymph nodes from patients with malignant and benign esophageal disease. Each specimen was examined histopathologically and by RT-PCR and the results were compared. Results: Metastases were present in 29 of 60 (48%) lymph nodes sample by minimally invasive staging from 13 patients with esophageal cancer when examined histopathologically. RT-PCR identified nodal metastases in 46 of these 60 (77%) samples. RT-PCR detected CEA mRNA in all 29 histologically positive samples and in 17 histologically negative lymph nodes. All lymph nodes from patients with benign disease (n=15) were negative both histopathologically and by RT-PCR. The stage of two patients was reclassified based on the RT-PCR results, which identified lymph node spread undetected histopathologically. Both of these patients developed recurrent disease after resection of the primary tumor. Conclusions: RT-PCR is more sensitive than histologic examination in the detection of lymph node metastases in esophageal cancer and can lead to diagnosis of a more advanced stage in some patients. The combination of minimally invasive surgical techniques in combination with new molecular diagnostic techniques may improve our ability to stage cancer patients. PMID:10036123

  1. Number Density of Mast Cells in the Primo Nodes of Rats.

    PubMed

    Gil, HyunJi; Bae, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, LiJung; Kim, SungChul; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2015-12-01

    Mast cells (MCs) play a major role in allergic reactions. Surprisingly, the acupuncture points have a higher density of MCs compared with nonacupoints in the skin, which is consistent with the augmentation of the immune function by acupuncture treatment. We hypothesized that the primo vascular system (PVS), which was proposed as the anatomical structure of the acupuncture points and meridians, should have a high density of MCs. In order to test that hypothesis, we investigated the primo nodes isolated from the surfaces of internal organs, such as the liver, the small and the large intestines, and the bladder. The harvested primo nodes were stained with toluidine blue, and the MCs were easily recognized by their red-purple stains and their characteristic granules. The results showed a high density of MCs in the primo nodes and confirmed the hypothesis. The MCs were uniformly distributed in the nodes. The relative concentration of the MCs with respect to other cells was ∼15%. We divided the sizes of the primo nodes into three classes: large, medium, and small. The number density and the relative concentration of MCs did not show a size-dependence. The current work suggests that the PVS may participate in the immune response to allergic inflammation, which closely involves MCs.

  2. Research on Critical Nodes Algorithm in Social Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue-Guang

    2017-01-01

    Discovering critical nodes in social networks has many important applications and has attracted more and more institutions and scholars. How to determine the K critical nodes with the most influence in a social network is a NP (define) problem. Considering the widespread community structure, this paper presents an algorithm for discovering critical nodes based on two information diffusion models and obtains each node's marginal contribution by using a Monte-Carlo method in social networks. The solution of the critical nodes problem is the K nodes with the highest marginal contributions. The feasibility and effectiveness of our method have been verified on two synthetic datasets and four real datasets.

  3. Prognostic role of the lymph node ratio in node positive colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Jun-Lin; Li, Yuan; Yang, Lie; Yu, Yong-Yang; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Zhou, Zong-Guang

    2016-01-01

    The lymph node ratio (LNR) (i.e. the number of metastatic lymph nodes divided by the number of totally resected lymph nodes) has recently emerged as an important prognostic factor in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging system for colorectal cancer does not consider it as a prognostic parameter. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic role of the LNR in node positive CRC. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library for relevant studies up to November 2015. As a result, a total of 75,838 node positive patients in 33 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Higher LNR was significantly associated with shorter overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.71–2.14; P = 0.0000) and disease free survival (DFS) (HR = 2.75; 95% CI: 2.14–3.53; P = 0.0000). Subgroup analysis showed similar results. Based on these results, LNR was an independent predictor of survival in colorectal cancer patients and should be considered as a parameter in future oncologic staging systems. PMID:27662659

  4. Does physiological beta cell turnover initiate autoimmune diabetes in the regional lymph nodes?

    PubMed

    Pearl-Yafe, Michal; Iskovich, Svetlana; Kaminitz, Ayelet; Stein, Jerry; Yaniv, Isaac; Askenasy, Nadir

    2006-05-01

    The initial immune process that triggers autoimmune beta cell destruction in type 1 diabetes is not fully understood. In early infancy there is an increased beta cell turnover. Recurrent exposure of tissue-specific antigens could lead to primary sensitization of immune cells in the draining lymph nodes of the pancreas. An initial immune injury to the beta cells can be inflicted by several cell types, primarily macrophages and T cells. Subsequently, infiltrating macrophages transfer antigens exposed by apoptotic beta cells to the draining lymph nodes, where antigen presenting cells process and amplify a secondary immune reaction. Antigen presenting cells evolve as dual players in the activation and suppression of the autoimmune reaction in the draining lymph nodes. We propose a scenario where destructive insulitis is caused by recurrent exposure of specific antigens due to the physiological turnover of beta cells. This sensitization initiates the evolution of reactive clones that remain silent in the regional lymph nodes, where they succeed to evade regulatory clonal deletion.

  5. Lymph Node Dissection for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mizrachi, Aviram; Shaha, Ashok R.

    2017-01-01

    Lymph node metastases in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) have a wide spectrum of clinical significance. Several variables are taken under consideration when trying to decide on the optimal management of patients with DTC. Routine prophylactic central and/or lateral lymph node dissection is not advocated with exception of central neck dissection for locally advanced tumors. When regarding recurrent disease, foundations have been laid for clinicians to make accurate decisions as to when to perform surgery and when to continue maintaining the patient’s disease under observation. These complex decisions are determined based upon multiple factors, not only regarding the patient’s disease but also the patient’s comprehension of the procedure and apprehension levels. Nevertheless if the patient and/or clinician are emotionally keen to surgically remove the disease then the procedure should be considered. PMID:28117285

  6. Harmony Node 2 in Shuttle Cargo Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Back dropped by Earth's horizon and the blackness of space, the Italian-built U.S. Node 2, Harmony, is featured in Space Shuttle Discovery's cargo bay during the STS-120 mission. This image was photographed by an Expedition 16 crew member on the International Space Station (ISS) while Discovery was docked with the station. The aluminum node is 7.2 meters (23.6 feet) long and 4.4 meters (14.5 feet) in diameter. Its pressurized volume is 75.5 cubic meters (2666 cubic feet), and its launch weight is approximately 14,288 kilograms (31,500 pounds). The installation of Harmony increases the living and working space inside the station to approximately 500 cubic meters (18,000 cubic feet). It also allows the addition of international laboratories from Europe and Japan to the station.

  7. [Lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes in children].

    PubMed

    Kvirikashvili, T O

    2006-01-01

    We investigated 79 patients (76.0%) with lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes among all 104 with general abdominal lymphosarcoma. Ultrasound tomography was used in 98.1 % cases; also, in the urgent cases cancer transcutaneal puncture was performed with the purpose of cytological investigation. In complicated situations computer tomography was considered as a highly informative method of investigation. Surgical intervention and radial therapy is inexpedient in a treatment program of lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes in children. Besides, it is shown the superiority of intensive program of polychemical therapy OMDV: vincristine (oncovin) -- 1.5 mg/m(2) i/v in the 1 day; metotrexate -- 250 mg/m(2) i/v drop by drop in the I day; dexamethazone 10 mg/m(2) per os 1-5 day; vepesid -- 100 mg/m(2) i/v drop by drop in the 4 and 5 days.) in comparison with the ACOP scheme: adriamicine or rubomicine - 30 mg/m(2) i/v 1 time in week (N 4-6); cyclophosphane -- 600 mg/m(2) i/v 1 time in week (N 4-6); vincristine (oncovin) -- 1.4 mg/m(2) i/v 1 time in week (N 4-6); prednisolone -- 40 mg/m(2) every day 4-6 week quitting gradually) for treatment of lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes in childhood age. General recovery without recurrence in children with lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes was occurred in 44.2% cases. In the case of polychemical therapy according to ACOP scheme, recovery was 20% and in the case of polychemical therapy following OMDV scheme, 78.1% of the children recovered.

  8. FAWN: A Fast Array of Wimpy Nodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    MapReduce : Simplified Data Processing on Large Clusters . [8] G. DeCandia, D. Hastorun, M. Jampani, G. Kakulapati, A. Lakshman, A. Pilchin, S. Siva...for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This paper introduces the FAWN?Fast Array of Wimpy Nodes? cluster ...for the specific, but important, class of primary-key, seek-bound applications that perform a large number of retrievals of small data objects. A few

  9. Vulnerability of critical infrastructures : identifying critical nodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Roger Gary; Robinson, David Gerald

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this research was the development of tools and techniques for the identification of critical nodes within critical infrastructures. These are nodes that, if disrupted through natural events or terrorist action, would cause the most widespread, immediate damage. This research focuses on one particular element of the national infrastructure: the bulk power system. Through the identification of critical elements and the quantification of the consequences of their failure, site-specific vulnerability analyses can be focused at those locations where additional security measures could be effectively implemented. In particular, with appropriate sizing and placement within the grid, distributed generation in the form of regional power parks may reduce or even prevent the impact of widespread network power outages. Even without additional security measures, increased awareness of sensitive power grid locations can provide a basis for more effective national, state and local emergency planning. A number of methods for identifying critical nodes were investigated: small-world (or network theory), polyhedral dynamics, and an artificial intelligence-based search method - particle swarm optimization. PSO was found to be the only viable approach and was applied to a variety of industry accepted test networks to validate the ability of the approach to identify sets of critical nodes. The approach was coded in a software package called Buzzard and integrated with a traditional power flow code. A number of industry accepted test networks were employed to validate the approach. The techniques (and software) are not unique to power grid network, but could be applied to a variety of complex, interacting infrastructures.

  10. Scheduling applications for execution on a plurality of compute nodes of a parallel computer to manage temperature of the nodes during execution

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Peters, Amanda E; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2012-10-16

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for scheduling applications for execution on a plurality of compute nodes of a parallel computer to manage temperature of the plurality of compute nodes during execution that include: identifying one or more applications for execution on the plurality of compute nodes; creating a plurality of physically discontiguous node partitions in dependence upon temperature characteristics for the compute nodes and a physical topology for the compute nodes, each discontiguous node partition specifying a collection of physically adjacent compute nodes; and assigning, for each application, that application to one or more of the discontiguous node partitions for execution on the compute nodes specified by the assigned discontiguous node partitions.

  11. PDS Lunar Data Node - Apollo Data Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Alfred B.; Williams, D. R.; Guinness, E. A.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Data Node (LDN) was formed under the auspices of the Planetary Data System (PDS) Geosciences (GEO) Node to restore selected Apollo data sets to a modern format. The Apollo lunar missions returned a wealth of information, including long-term (1969-1977) surface data collected by autonomous ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package) stations emplaced by the crews of the Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 missions, surface point measurements, and orbital data. Much of the ALSEP and other surface and orbital data housed at NSSDC are in forms which are not readily usable, such as microfilm, hardcopy, and magnetic tapes with older, seldom-used formats. The LDN is prioritizing these data based on their scientific and engineering value for hazard and resource assessment and the level of effort required for archiving. Data from three experiments, X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS), Cold Cathode Ion Gage (CCIG), and Solar Wind Spectrometer (SWS), comprising eight unique data sets, have been restored and are in peer review process. The CCIG data have completed peer review and have been delivered to PDS GEO Node. We will report on progress made and plans for future data restorations.

  12. Hybrid tracers for sentinel node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Van Den Berg, N S; Buckle, T; Kleinjan, G I; Klop, W M; Horenblas, S; Van Der Poel, H G; Valdés-Olmos, R A; Van Leeuwen, F I

    2014-06-01

    Conventional sentinel node (SN) mapping is performed by injection of a radiocolloid followed by lymphoscintigraphy to identify the number and location of the primary tumor draining lymph node(s), the so-called SN(s). Over the last decade research has focused on the introduction of new imaging agents that can further aid (surgical) SN identification. Different tracers for SN mapping, with varying sizes and isotopes have been reported, most of which have proven their value in a clinical setting. A major challenge lies in transferring this diagnostic information obtained at the nuclear medicine department to the operating theatre thereby providing the surgeon with (image) guidance. Conventionally, an intraoperative injection of vital blue dye or a fluorescence dye is given to allow intraoperative optical SN identification. However, for some indications, the radiotracer-based approach remains crucial. More recently, hybrid tracers, that contain both a radioactive and fluorescent label, were introduced to allow for direct integration of pre- and intraoperative guidance technologies. Their potential is especially high when they are used in combination with new surgical imaging modalities and navigation tools. Next to a description of the known tracers for SN mapping, this review discusses the application of hybrid tracers during SN biopsy and how the introduction of these new techniques can further aid in translation of nuclear medicine information into the operating theatre.

  13. Simplified Dynamic Analysis of Grinders Spindle Node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demec, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The contribution deals with the simplified dynamic analysis of surface grinding machine spindle node. Dynamic analysis is based on the use of the transfer matrix method, which is essentially a matrix form of method of initial parameters. The advantage of the described method, despite the seemingly complex mathematical apparatus, is primarily, that it does not require for solve the problem of costly commercial software using finite element method. All calculations can be made for example in MS Excel, which is advantageous especially in the initial stages of constructing of spindle node for the rapid assessment of the suitability its design. After detailing the entire structure of spindle node is then also necessary to perform the refined dynamic analysis in the environment of FEM, which it requires the necessary skills and experience and it is therefore economically difficult. This work was developed within grant project KEGA No. 023TUKE-4/2012 Creation of a comprehensive educational - teaching material for the article Production technique using a combination of traditional and modern information technology and e-learning.

  14. Spaceport aurora: An orbiting transportation node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    With recent announcements of the development of permanently staffed facilities on the Moon and Mars, the national space plan is in need of an infrastructure system for transportation and maintenance. A project team at the University of Houston College of Architecture and the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture, recently examined components for a low Earth orbit (LEO) transportation node that supports a lunar build-up scenario. Areas of investigation included identifying transportation node functions, identifying existing space systems and subsystems, analyzing variable orbits, determining logistics strategies for maintenance, and investigating assured crew return systems. The information resulted in a requirements definition document, from which the team then addressed conceptual designs for a LEO transportation node. The primary design drivers included: orbital stability, maximizing human performance and safety, vehicle maintainability, and modularity within existing space infrastructure. For orbital stability, the power tower configuration provides a gravity gradient stabilized facility and serves as the backbone for the various facility components. To maximize human performance, human comfort is stressed through zoning of living and working activities, maintaining a consistent local vertical orientation, providing crew interaction and viewing areas and providing crew return vehicles. Vehicle maintainability is accomplished through dual hangars, dual work cupolas, work modules, telerobotics and a fuel depot. Modularity is incorporated using Space Station Freedom module diameter, Space Station Freedom standard racks, and interchangeable interior partitions. It is intended that the final design be flexible and adaptable to provide a facility prototype that can service multiple mission profiles using modular space systems.

  15. The Charles Perkins Centre's Twins Research Node.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lucas C; Craig, Jeffrey M; Hopper, John L; Carrick, Susan E

    2016-08-01

    Twins can help researchers disentangle the roles of genes from those of the environment on human traits, health, and diseases. To realize this potential, the Australian Twin Registry (ATR), University of Melbourne, and the Charles Perkins Centre (CPC), University of Sydney, established a collaboration to form the Twins Research Node, a highly interconnected research facility dedicated specifically to research involving twins. This collaboration aims to foster the adoption of twin designs as important tools for research in a range of health-related domains. The CPC hosted their Twins Research Node's launch seminar entitled 'Double the power of your research with twin studies', in which experienced twin researchers described how twin studies are supporting scientific discoveries and careers. The launch also featured twin pairs who have actively participated in research through the ATR. Researchers at the CPC were surveyed before the event to gauge their level of understanding and interest in utilizing twin research. This article describes the new Twins Research Node, discusses the survey's main results and reports on the launch seminar.

  16. Analysis of complex network performance and heuristic node removal strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanpour, Ehsan; Chen, Xin

    2013-12-01

    Removing important nodes from complex networks is a great challenge in fighting against criminal organizations and preventing disease outbreaks. Six network performance metrics, including four new metrics, are applied to quantify networks' diffusion speed, diffusion scale, homogeneity, and diameter. In order to efficiently identify nodes whose removal maximally destroys a network, i.e., minimizes network performance, ten structured heuristic node removal strategies are designed using different node centrality metrics including degree, betweenness, reciprocal closeness, complement-derived closeness, and eigenvector centrality. These strategies are applied to remove nodes from the September 11, 2001 hijackers' network, and their performance are compared to that of a random strategy, which removes randomly selected nodes, and the locally optimal solution (LOS), which removes nodes to minimize network performance at each step. The computational complexity of the 11 strategies and LOS is also analyzed. Results show that the node removal strategies using degree and betweenness centralities are more efficient than other strategies.

  17. History of sentinel node and validation of the technique

    PubMed Central

    Tanis, Pieter J; Nieweg, Omgo E; Valdés Olmos, Renato A; Th Rutgers, Emiel J; Kroon, Bin BR

    2001-01-01

    Sentinel node biopsy is a minimally invasive technique to select patients with occult lymph node metastases who may benefit from further regional or systemic therapy. The sentinel node is the first lymph node reached by metastasising cells from a primary tumour. Attempts to remove this node with a procedure based on standard anatomical patterns did not become popular. The development of the dynamic technique of intraoperative lymphatic mapping in the 1990s resulted in general acceptance of the sentinel node concept. This hypothesis of sequential tumour dissemination seems to be valid according to numerous studies of sentinel node biopsy with confirmatory regional lymph node dissection. This report describes the history and the validation of the technique, with particular reference to breast cancer. PMID:11250756

  18. Novel Methods of Lymph Node Evaluation for Predicting the Prognosis of Colorectal Cancer Patients with Inadequate Lymph Node Harvest

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Taek Soo; Choi, Sung Bong; Lee, Yoon Suk; Kim, Jun-Gi; Oh, Seong Taek; Lee, In Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Lymph node metastasis is an important factor for predicting the prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. However, approximately 60% of patients do not receive adequate lymph node evaluation (less than 12 lymph nodes). In this study, we identified a more effective tool for predicting the prognosis of patients who received inadequate lymph node evaluation. Materials and Methods The number of metastatic lymph nodes, total number of lymph nodes examined, number of negative metastatic lymph nodes (NL), lymph node ratio (LR), and the number of apical lymph nodes (APL) were examined, and the prognostic impact of these parameters was examined in patients with colorectal cancer who underwent surgery from January 2004 to December 2011. In total, 806 people were analyzed retrospectively. Results In comparison of different lymph node analysis methods for rectal cancer patients who did not receive adequate lymph node dissection, the LR showed a significant difference in overall survival (OS) and the APL predicted a significant difference in disease-free survival (DFS). In the case of colon cancer patients who did not receive adequate lymph node dissection, LR predicted a significant difference in DFS and OS, and the APL predicted a significant difference in DFS. Conclusion If patients did not receive adequate lymph node evaluation, the LR and NL were useful parameters to complement N stage for predicting OS in colon cancer, whereas LR was complementary for rectal cancer. The APL could be used for prediction of DFS in all patients. PMID:25943323

  19. Sentinel Lymph Nodes for Breast Carcinoma A Paradigm Shift

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Aoife; Brogi, Edi

    2016-01-01

    Context Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been established as the new standard of care for axillary staging in most patients with invasive breast carcinoma. Historically, all patients with a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy result underwent axillary lymph node dissection. Recent trials show that axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in women with clinically node negative, T1 or T2 invasive breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast radiotherapy. This change in practice also has implications on the pathologic examination and reporting of sentinel lymph nodes. Objective To review recent clinical and pathologic studies of sentinel lymph nodes and explore how these findings influence the pathologic evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes. Data Sources Sources were published articles from peer-reviewed journals in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) and published guidelines from the American Joint Committee on Cancer, the Union for International Cancer Control, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Conclusions The main goal of sentinel lymph node examination should be to detect all macrometastases (>2 mm). Grossly sectioning sentinel lymph nodes at 2-mm intervals and evaluation of one hematoxylin-eosin–stained section from each block is the preferred method of pathologic evaluation. Axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in clinically node-negative patients with negative sentinel lymph nodes, as well as in a selected group of patients with limited sentinel lymph node involvement. The pathologic features of the primary carcinoma and its sentinel lymph node metastases contribute to estimate the extent of non–sentinel lymph node involvement. This information is important to decide on further axillary treatment. PMID:27472237

  20. On Heterogeneous Mobile Network Connectivity: Number of Gateway Nodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-28

    clusters . Once the network has partitioned, mobile nodes cannot in different clusters cannot maintain connectivity due to insufficient radio...mobile nodes in different clusters can only occur when each cluster contains a gateway node. In this paper, we investigated the number of gateway...disperse geographical area. As tactical nodes move durng an operatioit. the network may partition into several segregated clusters . Once the network

  1. Salmonella in lymph nodes of cattle presented for harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in the subiliac lymph nodes (LN) of cattle. Lymph node samples were obtained from carcasses of cull and feedlot cattle at commercial packing plants. Lymph nodes were trimmed of all fat, surface sterilized by submersion in boiling ...

  2. Identifying node role in social network based on multiple indicators.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shaobin; Lv, Tianyang; Zhang, Xizhe; Yang, Yange; Zheng, Weimin; Wen, Chao

    2014-01-01

    It is a classic topic of social network analysis to evaluate the importance of nodes and identify the node that takes on the role of core or bridge in a network. Because a single indicator is not sufficient to analyze multiple characteristics of a node, it is a natural solution to apply multiple indicators that should be selected carefully. An intuitive idea is to select some indicators with weak correlations to efficiently assess different characteristics of a node. However, this paper shows that it is much better to select the indicators with strong correlations. Because indicator correlation is based on the statistical analysis of a large number of nodes, the particularity of an important node will be outlined if its indicator relationship doesn't comply with the statistical correlation. Therefore, the paper selects the multiple indicators including degree, ego-betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality to evaluate the importance and the role of a node. The importance of a node is equal to the normalized sum of its three indicators. A candidate for core or bridge is selected from the great degree nodes or the nodes with great ego-betweenness centrality respectively. Then, the role of a candidate is determined according to the difference between its indicators' relationship with the statistical correlation of the overall network. Based on 18 real networks and 3 kinds of model networks, the experimental results show that the proposed methods perform quite well in evaluating the importance of nodes and in identifying the node role.

  3. Salmonella prevalence in bovine lymph nodes differs among feedyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lymphatic tissue, specifically lymph nodes, is commonly incorporated into ground beef products as a component of lean trimmings. Salmonella and other pathogenic bacteria have been identified in bovine lymph nodes. Although Salmonella prevalence has been examined among lymph nodes within an animal,...

  4. Pathologic examination of the sentinel lymph node: what is the best method?

    PubMed

    Treseler, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become an acceptable alternative to complete axillary dissection to determine whether breast cancer has spread to axillary lymph nodes. Yet the best method for pathologic examination of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) remains controversial. For years there has been speculation that micrometastases in axillary lymph nodes were clinically insignificant and thus lymph nodes did not require sectioning at close intervals. Yet essentially all studies, including a recent large prospective study, have found a significantly poorer prognosis associated even with metastases less than 2 mm in size-the most common definition of micrometastasis-suggesting that such small metastases cannot be safely overlooked. The use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect keratin proteins will reveal metastatic breast carcinoma in about 18% of axillary lymph nodes that appear negative on routine stains. The preponderance of evidence to date suggests a significantly poorer prognosis in patients with such occult metastases, although data from large prospective studies are lacking. Molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) offer even more sensitive methods for detecting occult metastasis in SLNs, although false positives are a particular problem in techniques that do not permit morphologic correlation, and for now they remain a research tool. Intraoperative examination of the SLN permits a completion axillary dissection to be performed during the same procedure if metastatic tumor is found; however, intraoperative techniques such as cytologic examination and frozen section lack sensitivity, and can result in loss of up to 50% of the SLN tissue. A proposal for optimal pathologic examination of the SLN is offered based on the above data.

  5. Reaction rates for reaction-diffusion kinetics on unstructured meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellander, Stefan; Petzold, Linda

    2017-02-01

    The reaction-diffusion master equation is a stochastic model often utilized in the study of biochemical reaction networks in living cells. It is applied when the spatial distribution of molecules is important to the dynamics of the system. A viable approach to resolve the complex geometry of cells accurately is to discretize space with an unstructured mesh. Diffusion is modeled as discrete jumps between nodes on the mesh, and the diffusion jump rates can be obtained through a discretization of the diffusion equation on the mesh. Reactions can occur when molecules occupy the same voxel. In this paper, we develop a method for computing accurate reaction rates between molecules occupying the same voxel in an unstructured mesh. For large voxels, these rates are known to be well approximated by the reaction rates derived by Collins and Kimball, but as the mesh is refined, no analytical expression for the rates exists. We reduce the problem of computing accurate reaction rates to a pure preprocessing step, depending only on the mesh and not on the model parameters, and we devise an efficient numerical scheme to estimate them to high accuracy. We show in several numerical examples that as we refine the mesh, the results obtained with the reaction-diffusion master equation approach those of a more fine-grained Smoluchowski particle-tracking model.

  6. [Cytological examination of the intrathoracic lymph nodes (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Simeĉek, C

    1978-01-01

    During the last few years, cytological examinations of the intrathoracic lymph nodes have become a usual method of bronchological examinations, being applied by way of routine. Taking the analysis of 3408 perbronchial and pertracheal lymph node punctions as a basis, the author discusses the results. Mostly the intrathoracic nodes of lung cancer patients were examined. A metastasization could be detected in 58 per cent. At sarcoidosis and tuberculosis the results correspond to those of mediastinoscopy. The occurrence of the cholesterol crystals is mentioned. Occasionally, megacaryocytes and immature cells of the hematopoiesis are found in the lymph nodes. Due to the favourable anatomic conditions, also normal lymph nodes are accessible to perbronchial punction.

  7. A new miniaturized fiber positioning node for LAMOST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Liang; Gu, Yonggang; Shen, Yuran; Zhai, Chao

    2016-07-01

    To distribute more fiber positioning nodes on the LAMOST focal plate, two steps are proposed to miniaturize the fiber positioning node in this paper. The first step is to miniaturize the mechanical device of the fiber positioning node. The second step is to redesign the entire wireless driving board using smaller and performance-higher devices. As a result, the size of the new miniaturized fiber positioning node has to be reduced by above 40% and the dense of fiber positioning nodes on focal plate increases by 20% at least.

  8. Genetic Network Programming with Intron-Like Nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabu, Shingo; Chen, Yan; Eto, Shinji; Shimada, Kaoru; Hirasawa, Kotaro

    Recently, Genetic Network Programming (GNP) has been proposed, which is an extension of Genetic Algorithm(GA) and Genetic Programming(GP). GNP can make compact programs and can memorize the past history in it implicitly, because it expresses the solution by directed graphs and therefore, it can reuse the nodes. In this research, intron-like nodes are introduced for improving the performance of GNP. The aim of introducing intron-like nodes is to use every node as much as possible. It is found from simulations that the intron-like nodes are useful for improving the training speed and generalization ability.

  9. Optical response of a line node semimetal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbotte, J. P.

    2017-02-01

    We calculate the AC optical response of a line node semimetal with emphasis on characteristic behaviours which can be used to distinguish them from point node materials such as Dirac and Weyl semimetals. The interband optical background at zero temperature displays a flat region at small photon energies ( Ω ) analogue to the universal background seen in graphene. However, in contrast to graphene, the height of the constant region is not universal but depends inversely on the Fermi velocity of the charge carriers and directly on the radius (b) in momentum space of the nodal circle. The parameter b is a defining energy scale and determines the range of photon energy over which the flat response persists. At high energies Ω >2b , the interband response becomes linear in Ω in agreement with the case for 3D-Dirac fermions with point node. The optical spectral weight contained in the interband or Drude conductivity shows the same two distinct regimes. At low temperature (T) (chemical potential (μ)), it rises linearly with T≤ft(μ \\right) and is proportional to b. At high temperature, T≤ft(μ \\right) , a {{T}2}≤ft({μ2}\\right) law is obtained, which is independent of b. At T  =  0, the Lorentz number takes on the conventional value {{L}o}={π2}/3{{e}2} for all values of μ. It increases with increasing temperature to reach a first plateau of 2.4L o provided T>μ but μ \\ll b . At high temperature, T  >  b, a second plateau of height 4.2L o emerges. The first plateau is characteristic of 2D-Dirac while the second corresponds to 3D-Dirac. The thermopower as a function of temperature also shows an evolution from a 2D to 3D behaviour.

  10. Optical response of a line node semimetal.

    PubMed

    Carbotte, J P

    2017-02-01

    We calculate the AC optical response of a line node semimetal with emphasis on characteristic behaviours which can be used to distinguish them from point node materials such as Dirac and Weyl semimetals. The interband optical background at zero temperature displays a flat region at small photon energies ([Formula: see text]) analogue to the universal background seen in graphene. However, in contrast to graphene, the height of the constant region is not universal but depends inversely on the Fermi velocity of the charge carriers and directly on the radius (b) in momentum space of the nodal circle. The parameter b is a defining energy scale and determines the range of photon energy over which the flat response persists. At high energies [Formula: see text], the interband response becomes linear in [Formula: see text] in agreement with the case for 3D-Dirac fermions with point node. The optical spectral weight contained in the interband or Drude conductivity shows the same two distinct regimes. At low temperature (T) (chemical potential (μ)), it rises linearly with [Formula: see text] and is proportional to b. At high temperature, [Formula: see text], a [Formula: see text] law is obtained, which is independent of b. At T  =  0, the Lorentz number takes on the conventional value [Formula: see text] for all values of μ. It increases with increasing temperature to reach a first plateau of 2.4L o provided [Formula: see text] but [Formula: see text]. At high temperature, T  >  b, a second plateau of height 4.2L o emerges. The first plateau is characteristic of 2D-Dirac while the second corresponds to 3D-Dirac. The thermopower as a function of temperature also shows an evolution from a 2D to 3D behaviour.

  11. Line of Dirac Nodes in Hyperhoneycomb Lattices.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Kieran; Uchoa, Bruno; Glatzhofer, Daniel T

    2015-07-10

    We propose a family of structures that have "Dirac loops," closed lines of Dirac nodes in momentum space, on which the density of states vanishes linearly with energy. Those lattices all possess the planar trigonal connectivity present in graphene, but are three dimensional. We show that their highly anisotropic and multiply connected Fermi surface leads to quantized Hall conductivities in three dimensions for magnetic fields with toroidal geometry. In the presence of spin-orbit coupling, we show that those structures have topological surface states. We discuss the feasibility of realizing the structures as new allotropes of carbon.

  12. Line of Dirac Nodes in Hyperhoneycomb Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullen, Kieran; Uchoa, Bruno; Glatzhofer, Daniel T.

    2015-07-01

    We propose a family of structures that have "Dirac loops," closed lines of Dirac nodes in momentum space, on which the density of states vanishes linearly with energy. Those lattices all possess the planar trigonal connectivity present in graphene, but are three dimensional. We show that their highly anisotropic and multiply connected Fermi surface leads to quantized Hall conductivities in three dimensions for magnetic fields with toroidal geometry. In the presence of spin-orbit coupling, we show that those structures have topological surface states. We discuss the feasibility of realizing the structures as new allotropes of carbon.

  13. Reverse Geographic Location of a Computer Node

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    2-9 2.3.4 Dijkstra’s Algorithm…………………………… 2-10 2.4 Location Tools.………………………………………….. 2-13 2.4.1 CAIDA Tools...way to its destination, such as the node names. 2.4.1 CAIDA Tools. “ CAIDA , the Cooperative Association for Internet Data Analysis, provides tools...and analyses promoting the engineering and maintenance of a robust, scalable global Internet infrastructure… CAIDA is a collaborative undertaking

  14. Prognostic Significance of Number of Positive Nodes: A Long-Term Study of One to Two Nodes Versus Three Nodes in Breast Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Patricia; Yu, Edward; Joseph, Kurian

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: Previous reports of breast cancer have generally analyzed patients with one to three positive lymph nodes as a single group, often leading to controversy regarding the practical clinical applicability. The present study separately analyzed the survival outcomes of Stage T1-T2 breast cancer patients according to whether one, two, or three axillary nodes were pathologically positive. Methods and Materials: The records of 5,996 patients were available for analysis from the population-based Saskatchewan provincial registry between 1981 and 1995. Because the reliability of the nodal assessment depends on the number of lymph nodes sampled, only those 755 patients with Stage T1-T2 disease and eight or more nodes examined were analyzed further for overall survival and cause-specific survival (CSS). Results: Patients with one and two positive nodes had nearly indistinguishable survival plots, but those with three positive nodes had a distinct trend toward worse survival. The overall survival rate of patients with one, two, and three nodes at 5, 10, and 15 years was 82.7%, 77.0%, and 79.0%, 64.8%, 60.9%, and 52.8%, and 48.8%, 48.0%, and 40.9%, respectively (p = .11). The corresponding CSS rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 89.4%, 82.0%, and 81.3%, 78.87%, 72.9%, and 62.1%, and 72.7%. 69.0%, and 55.6% (p = .0004). The use of regional radiotherapy did not confer any apparent survival benefit in terms of either overall survival or CSS. Conclusion: Patients with one or two positive nodes had a similar CSS. However, those with three positive nodes fared worse, with a significantly reduced CSS compared with those with one or two involved nodes. Thus, the survival data among patients with one to three nodes positive reveals clearly relevant differences when analyzed separately.

  15. Social temperament and lymph node innervation

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Erica K.; Capitanio, John P.; Tarara, Ross P.; Cole, Steve W.

    2008-01-01

    Socially inhibited individuals show increased vulnerability to viral infections, and this has been linked to increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). To determine whether structural alterations in SNS innervation of lymphoid tissue might contribute to these effects, we assayed the density of catecholaminergic nerve fibers in 13 lymph nodes from 7 healthy adult rhesus macaques that showed stable individual differences in propensity to socially affiliate (Sociability). Tissues from Low Sociable animals showed a 2.8-fold greater density of catecholaminergic innervation relative to tissues from High Sociable animals, and this was associated with a 2.3-fold greater expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) mRNA, suggesting a molecular mechanism for observed differences. Low Sociable animals also showed alterations in lymph node expression of the immunoregulatory cytokine genes IFNG and IL4, and lower secondary IgG responses to tetanus vaccination. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that structural differences in lymphoid tissue innervation might potentially contribute to relationships between social temperament and immunobiology. PMID:18068331

  16. Simulating cell apoptosis induced sinus node dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kharche, Sanjay; Beling, John; Biktasheva, Irina V; Zhang, Henggui; Biktashev, Vadim N

    2013-01-01

    Sinus node dysfunction (SND) is correlated to the pacemaker sinoatrial node (SAN) cell apoptosis. This study explores the effect of such a dysfunctional SAN on electrical propagation into neighboring atrial tissue. The Fenton Karma model was extended to simulate mouse SAN and atrial cell action potentials. The cell models were incorporated into a 2D model consisting of a central SAN region surrounded by atrial tissue. The intercellular gap junctional coupling, as quantified by the diffusion constant, was estimated to give conduction speeds as observed in mouse atrial tissue. The size of mouse SAN pacemaking region was estimated using the 2D model. In multiple simulations, the effects of an increasing proportion of apoptotic pacemaker cells on atrial tissue pacing were simulated and quantified. The SAN size that gave a basal mouse atrial cycle length (ACL) of 295 ms was found to be 0.6 mm in radius. At low pacemaker cell apoptosis proportion, there was a drastic increase of ACL. At modest increase in the number of apoptotic cells, bradycardia was observed. The incidence of sinus arrest was also found to be high. When the number of apoptotic cells were 10% of the total number of pacemaking cells, all pacemaking was arrested. Phenomenological models have been developed to study mouse atrial electrophysiology and confirm experimental findings. The results show the significance of cell apoptosis as a major mechanism of SND.

  17. Battlefield connectivity via airborne communications nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niessen, Charles W.

    1997-06-01

    Communications are essential to support today's information- rich tactics with distributed forces in a non-linear battlespace. Rapid deployment requirements and limited air/sea lift capability makes it difficult to transport and emplace communications infrastructure equipment in a timely manner. Furthermore, mobile forces quickly out-run fixed communications infrastructure and lose contact with command, support, and intelligence sources. What is needed is a reliable, easily deployed theater-wide communications network to provide the connectivity to separated forces; a mechanism for supplying this is a network of airborne communications nodes. A UAV flying at high altitude (65,000 ft) can provide line of sight connectivity (at up to 150 mi radius) between users that are not within line of sight of each other, and could relay communications through ground or on-board satellite gateways to provide world-wide connectivity. Since a high-altitude, long-endurance UAV (such as the Global Hawk) self-deploys from a great distance, there is no local infrastructure burden to provide this capability. Furthermore, since the range to the ground is relatively short, communications links can be established with even hand-held, low-power radios; heavy ground communications gear is not needed. This paper explores the utility of the UAV communication node concept, discussing applications, capabilities, and networking possibilities. In particular, UAVs, other aircraft, and selected ground sites could provide a backbone network for data communications on a 'warfighter's Internet.'

  18. Interval sentinel lymph nodes in melanoma: a digital pathology analysis of Ki67 expression and microvascular density.

    PubMed

    Marinaccio, Christian; Giudice, Giuseppe; Nacchiero, Eleonora; Robusto, Fabio; Opinto, Giuseppina; Lastilla, Gaetano; Maiorano, Eugenio; Ribatti, Domenico

    2016-08-01

    The presence of interval sentinel lymph nodes in melanoma is documented in several studies, but controversies still exist about the management of these lymph nodes. In this study, an immunohistochemical evaluation of tumor cell proliferation and neo-angiogenesis has been performed with the aim of establishing a correlation between these two parameters between positive and negative interval sentinel lymph nodes. This retrospective study reviewed data of 23 patients diagnosed with melanoma. Bioptic specimens of interval sentinel lymph node were retrieved, and immunohistochemical reactions on tissue sections were performed using Ki67 as a marker of proliferation and CD31 as a blood vessel marker for the study of angiogenesis. The entire stained tissue sections for each case were digitized using Aperio Scanscope Cs whole-slide scanning platform and stored as high-resolution images. Image analysis was carried out on three selected fields of equal area using IHC Nuclear and Microvessel analysis algorithms to determine positive Ki67 nuclei and vessel number. Patients were divided into positive and negative interval sentinel lymph node groups, and the positive interval sentinel lymph node group was further divided into interval positive with micrometastasis and interval positive with macrometastasis subgroups. The analysis revealed a significant difference between positive and negative interval sentinel lymph nodes in the percentage of Ki67-positive nuclei and mean vessel number suggestive of an increased cellular proliferation and angiogenesis in positive interval sentinel lymph nodes. Further analysis in the interval positive lymph node group showed a significant difference between micro- and macrometastasis subgroups in the percentage of Ki67-positive nuclei and mean vessel number. Percentage of Ki67-positive nuclei was increased in the macrometastasis subgroup, while mean vessel number was increased in the micrometastasis subgroup. The results of this study suggest

  19. Lymph node, peritoneal and bone marrow micrometastases in gastric cancer: Their clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Griniatsos, John; Michail, Othon; Dimitriou, Nikoletta; Karavokyros, Ioannis

    2012-02-15

    The 7th TNM classification clearly states that micrometastases detected by morphological techniques (HE stain and immunohistochemistry) should always be reported and calculated in the staging of the disease (pN1mi or M1), while patients in whom micrometastases are detected by non-morphological techniques (e.g., flow cytometry, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction) should still be classified as N0 or M0. In gastric cancer patients, micrometastases have been detected in lymph nodes, the peritoneal cavity and bone marrow. However, the clinical implications and/or their prognostic significance are still a matter of debate. Current literature suggests that lymph node micrometastases should be encountered for the loco-regional staging of the disease, while skip lymph node micrometastases should also be encountered in the total number of infiltrated lymph nodes. Peritoneal fluid cytology examination should be obligatorily performed in pT3 or pT4 tumors. A positive cytology classifies gastric cancer patients as stage IV. Although a curative resection is not precluded, these patients face an overall dismal prognosis. Whether patients with a positive cytology should be treated similarly to patients with macroscopic peritoneal recurrence should be evaluated further. Gastric cancer cells are detected with high incidence in the bone marrow. However, the published results make comparison of data between groups almost impossible due to severe methodological problems. If these methodological problems are overcome in the future, specific target therapies may be designed for specific groups of patients.

  20. Lymph node, peritoneal and bone marrow micrometastases in gastric cancer: Their clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    Griniatsos, John; Michail, Othon; Dimitriou, Nikoletta; Karavokyros, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    The 7th TNM classification clearly states that micrometastases detected by morphological techniques (HE stain and immunohistochemistry) should always be reported and calculated in the staging of the disease (pN1mi or M1), while patients in whom micrometastases are detected by non-morphological techniques (e.g., flow cytometry, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction) should still be classified as N0 or M0. In gastric cancer patients, micrometastases have been detected in lymph nodes, the peritoneal cavity and bone marrow. However, the clinical implications and/or their prognostic significance are still a matter of debate. Current literature suggests that lymph node micrometastases should be encountered for the loco-regional staging of the disease, while skip lymph node micrometastases should also be encountered in the total number of infiltrated lymph nodes. Peritoneal fluid cytology examination should be obligatorily performed in pT3 or pT4 tumors. A positive cytology classifies gastric cancer patients as stage IV. Although a curative resection is not precluded, these patients face an overall dismal prognosis. Whether patients with a positive cytology should be treated similarly to patients with macroscopic peritoneal recurrence should be evaluated further. Gastric cancer cells are detected with high incidence in the bone marrow. However, the published results make comparison of data between groups almost impossible due to severe methodological problems. If these methodological problems are overcome in the future, specific target therapies may be designed for specific groups of patients. PMID:22403737

  1. Immune response pattern of the popliteal lymph nodes of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Pamela Rodrigues Reina; Vieira, Lais Mendes; de Andrade, Mariana Macedo Costa; de Barros Bandarra, Marcio; Machado, Gisele Fabrino; Munari, Danísio Prado; Vasconcelos, Rosemeri de Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    The present study aimed to estimate the cell response and parasite load in the popliteal lymph nodes of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis (VL), comparing these findings with the clinical staging of the disease. From the necropsy, 33 dogs were classified as symptomatic (S), asymptomatic (A), or oligosymptomatic (O). Cytology and histopathology were used to determine any presence of microscopic lesions and immunohistochemistry, for parasite load. Dog hyperimmune serum was used as the primary antibody. The inflammatory infiltrate in lymph nodes consisted of macrophages and plasmocytes. The granulomas invaded the trabecular and sinusoid regions and sometimes compressed the lymphocytes of the cortical region (atrophy) and medullary cord cells. Parasite load intensity was unrelated to the density of the macrophages infiltrating the lymph node. Significant differences in parasite load (P < 0.05) were observed between the three groups of infected dogs. Follicular hyperplasia of the cortical region occurred among A and O, while follicular atrophy predominated among S. The parasite load was the greatest among S, followed by O. It can be concluded that, regardless of clinical condition, the most evident cell response consisted of macrophages and plasmocytes. Lymphoid atrophy was observed among animals with intense granulomatous reaction and high parasite load, such as among the symptomatic dogs (P < 0.05). Likewise, the oligosymptomatic dogs also presented high density of parasites in the lymph nodes. Thus, we can confirm that dogs with clinical manifestations of VL have an immune system that is less effective for controlling infection by Leishmania chagasi, thereby favoring parasite multiplication.

  2. Postoperative Radiation Therapy With or Without Concurrent Chemotherapy for Node-Positive Thoracic Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Junqiang; Pan, Jianji; Liu, Jian; Li, Jiancheng; Zhu, Kunshou; Zheng, Xiongwei; Chen, Mingqiang; Chen, Ming; Liao, Zhongxing

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively compare the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) and chemotherapy plus RT (CRT) for the postoperative treatment of node-positive thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (TESCC) and to determine the incidence and severity of toxic reactions. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed data from 304 patients who had undergone esophagectomy with 3-field lymph node dissection for TESCC and were determined by postoperative pathology to have lymph node metastasis without distant hematogenous metastasis. Of these patients, 164 underwent postoperative chemotherapy (cisplatin 80 mg/m{sup 2}, average days 1-3, plus paclitaxel 135 mg/m{sup 2}, day 1; 21-day cycle) plus RT (50 Gy), and 140 underwent postoperative RT alone. Results: The 5-year overall survival rates for the CRT and RT groups were 47.4% and 38.6%, respectively (P=.030). The distant metastasis rate, the mixed (regional lymph node and distant) metastasis rate, and the overall recurrence rate were significantly lower in the CRT group than in the RT group (P<.05). However, mild and severe early toxic reactions, including neutropenia, radiation esophagitis, and gastrointestinal reaction, were significantly more common in the CRT group than in the RT group (P<.05). No significant differences in incidence of late toxic reactions were found between the 2 groups. Conclusions: Our results show that in node-positive TESCC patients, postoperative CRT is significantly more effective than RT alone at increasing the overall survival and decreasing the rates of distant metastasis, mixed metastasis, and overall recurrence. Severe early toxic reactions were more common with CRT than with RT alone, but patients could tolerate CRT.

  3. Novel method and applications for labeling and identifying lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiraly, Atilla P.; Naidich, David P.; Guendel, Lutz; Zhang, Li; Novak, Carol L.

    2007-03-01

    The lymphatic system comprises a series of interconnected lymph nodes that are commonly distributed along branching or linearly oriented anatomic structures. Physicians must evaluate lymph nodes when staging cancer and planning optimal paths for nodal biopsy. This process requires accurately determining the lymph node's position with respect to major anatomical landmarks. In an effort to standardize lung cancer staging, The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) has classified lymph nodes within the chest into 4 groups and 14 sub groups. We present a method for automatically labeling lymph nodes according to this classification scheme, in order to improve the speed and accuracy of staging and biopsy planning. Lymph nodes within the chest are clustered around the major blood vessels and the airways. Our fully automatic labeling method determines the nodal group and sub-group in chest CT data by use of computed airway and aorta centerlines to produce features relative to a given node location. A classifier then determines the label based upon these features. We evaluate the efficacy of the method on 10 chest CT datasets containing 86 labeled lymph nodes. The results are promising with 100% of the nodes assigned to the correct group and 76% to the correct sub-group. We anticipate that additional features and training data will further improve the results. In addition to labeling, other applications include automated lymph node localization and visualization. Although we focus on chest CT data, the method can be generalized to other regions of the body as well as to different imaging modalities.

  4. Data driven CAN node reliability assessment for manufacturing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leiming; Yuan, Yong; Lei, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The reliability of the Controller Area Network(CAN) is critical to the performance and safety of the system. However, direct bus-off time assessment tools are lacking in practice due to inaccessibility of the node information and the complexity of the node interactions upon errors. In order to measure the mean time to bus-off(MTTB) of all the nodes, a novel data driven node bus-off time assessment method for CAN network is proposed by directly using network error information. First, the corresponding network error event sequence for each node is constructed using multiple-layer network error information. Then, the generalized zero inflated Poisson process(GZIP) model is established for each node based on the error event sequence. Finally, the stochastic model is constructed to predict the MTTB of the node. The accelerated case studies with different error injection rates are conducted on a laboratory network to demonstrate the proposed method, where the network errors are generated by a computer controlled error injection system. Experiment results show that the MTTB of nodes predicted by the proposed method agree well with observations in the case studies. The proposed data driven node time to bus-off assessment method for CAN networks can successfully predict the MTTB of nodes by directly using network error event data.

  5. Drug Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    Most of the time, medicines make our lives better. They reduce aches and pains, fight infections, and control problems such as high blood pressure or diabetes. But medicines can also cause unwanted reactions. One problem is ...

  6. GAS eleven node thermal model (GEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Dan

    1988-01-01

    The Eleven Node Thermal Model (GEM) of the Get Away Special (GAS) container was originally developed based on the results of thermal tests of the GAS container. The model was then used in the thermal analysis and design of several NASA/GSFC GAS experiments, including the Flight Verification Payload, the Ultraviolet Experiment, and the Capillary Pumped Loop. The model description details the five cu ft container both with and without an insulated end cap. Mass specific heat values are also given so that transient analyses can be performed. A sample problem for each configuration is included as well so that GEM users can verify their computations. The model can be run on most personal computers with a thermal analyzer solution routine.

  7. Bradycardia: sinus and AV node dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Cara N; Scheinman, Melvin M

    2015-09-01

    The surface electrocardiogram (ECG) holds many clues with regard to the etiology of bradycardia and site of atrioventricular (AV) block. Bedside maneuvers may prove helpful in cases of 2:1 AV block or situations where the data is not all concordant. Wenckebach conduction may occur in any region of the heart, and there are nonpathologic mimickers of Mobitz II AV block as well. The surface ECG may aid in the inference of etiology for better than expected or slowed rather than blocked AV conduction. Sinus node dysfunction may present in several forms and often accompanies other conduction system disease. On occasion invasive studies may be required to help elucidate the mechanism of bradycardia.

  8. Topological Dirac line nodes in centrosymmetric semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngkuk; Wieder, Benjamin; Kane, Charles; Rappe, Andrew; TI seed Team

    Dirac line nodes (DLNs) are one-dimensional lines of Dirac band-touching points, characterized by linear dispersion in only a single direction in momentum space. In the presence of inversion symmetry and time-reversal symmetry, crystals with vanishing spin-orbit coupling can host topologically protected DLNs. Recently, we have proposed and characterized a novel Z2 class of DLN semimetals [1]. We present Z2 topological invariants, dictating the presence of DLNs, based on the parity eigenvalues at the time-reversal invariant crystal momenta. Our first-principles calculations show that DLNs can be realized in Cu3N in an anti-ReO3 structure via a metal-insulator electronic transition, driven by transition metal doping. We also discuss the resultant surface states and the effects of spin-orbit coupling.

  9. Fast neutron treatment of cervical lymph nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.F.

    1983-09-01

    An editonal is presented which discusses a brief interim report of the prospective, randomized, RTOG study of fast neutron radiation therapy, mixed neutron and photon treatment and standard photon radiation therapy for inoperable, advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck excluding brain. The authors point out that neck nodes serve as an excellent in vivo test site to evaluate the results of fast neutron radiotherapy. The tumor volume is easily measured and the responses of both tumor and normal tissues are easily assessed. The editorial continues that it is all too rare to see the result of a randomized clinical trial in oncology which shows a statistically significant improvement, has a reasonably large number of patients, and is followed-up for a sufficiently long time. It is therefore a particular pleasure to see these three factors occurring together in the report of neutron treatments by Griffin.

  10. Quantification of microvessels in canine lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Tonar, Zbynĕk; Egger, Gunter F; Witter, Kirsti; Wolfesberger, Birgitt

    2008-10-01

    Quantification of microvessels in tumors is mostly based on counts of vessel profiles in tumor hot spots. Drawbacks of this method include low reproducibility and large interobserver variance, mainly as a result of individual differences in sampling of image fields for analysis. Our aim was to test an unbiased method for quantifying microvessels in healthy and tumorous lymph nodes of dogs. The endothelium of blood vessels was detected in paraffin sections by a combination of immunohistochemistry (von Willebrand factor) and lectin histochemistry (wheat germ agglutinin) in comparison with detection of basal laminae by laminin immunohistochemistry or silver impregnation. Systematic uniform random sampling of 50 image fields was performed during photo-documentation. An unbiased counting frame (area 113,600 microm(2)) was applied to each micrograph. The total area sampled from each node was 5.68 mm(2). Vessel profiles were counted according to stereological counting rules. Inter- and intraobserver variabilities were tested. The application of systematic uniform random sampling was compared with the counting of vessel profiles in hot spots. The unbiased estimate of the number of vessel profiles per unit area ranged from 100.5 +/- 44.0/mm(2) to 442.6 +/- 102.5/mm(2) in contrast to 264 +/- 72.2/mm(2) to 771.0 +/- 108.2/mm(2) in hot spots. The advantage of using systematic uniform random sampling is its reproducibility, with reasonable interobserver and low intraobserver variance. This method also allows for the possibility of using archival material, because staining quality is not limiting as it is for image analysis, and artifacts can easily be excluded. However, this method is comparatively time-consuming.

  11. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of inguinal lymph nodes, simulating lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Akansha; Malhotra, Kiran Preet; Sharma, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    Multiple enlarged lymph nodes in an elderly female patient can have varied etiologies as well as histologic pictures. We are presenting the case of a 53-year-old female who presented with inguinal lymphadenopathy with fever, which was clinically misconstrued as lymphoma. Cytology could not exclude a lymphoma. Histology led to the unusual diagnosis of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of lymph node in this case. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the lymph node is a rare, distinctive reactive proliferative pattern in the lymph node which involves proliferation of the connective tissue elements of the lymph node, admixed with lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils, and histiocytes. Multiple etiologic agents have been suggested in existing literature. Despite extensive search, no definite attributable cause could be sought. It is now widely accepted that inflammatory pseudotumor of the lymph node is a non-neoplastic proliferation which has a benign clinical course and excellent prognosis after surgical resection.

  12. Dirac node arcs in PtSn4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yun; Wang, Lin-Lin; Mun, Eundeok; Johnson, D. D.; Mou, Daixiang; Huang, Lunan; Lee, Yongbin; Bud'Ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Kaminski, Adam

    2016-07-01

    In topological quantum materials the conduction and valence bands are connected at points or along lines in the momentum space. A number of studies have demonstrated that several materials are indeed Dirac/Weyl semimetals. However, there is still no experimental confirmation of materials with line nodes, in which the Dirac nodes form closed loops in the momentum space. Here we report the discovery of a novel topological structure--Dirac node arcs--in the ultrahigh magnetoresistive material PtSn4 using laser-based angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data and density functional theory calculations. Unlike the closed loops of line nodes, the Dirac node arc structure arises owing to the surface states and resembles the Dirac dispersion in graphene that is extended along a short line in the momentum space. We propose that this reported Dirac node arc structure is a novel topological state that provides an exciting platform for studying the exotic properties of Dirac fermions.

  13. Alternative staging of regional lymph nodes in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Szczepanik, Antoni M.; Paszko, Agata; Szura, Miroslaw; Scully-Horner, Thecla; Kulig, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The TNM pN stage based on the number of metastatic lymph nodes is an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer. Many studies have highlighted the phenomenon of stage migration and problems in comparing groups of patients with different numbers of total lymph nodes harvested within TNM staging. The current version of UICC/AJCC and JGCA TNM classifications postulates a minimal number of 16 lymph nodes as the base for N stage determination. Alternative systems such as lymph node ratio (LNR), positive to negative lymph node ratio (PNLNR), and LOGODDS (or LODDS), were implemented to increase the quality of LN assessment. These methods have reached the background in the literature, but to date no standard approach according to the cut-offs for the stages has been implemented. LOGODDS is the method that most reflects the number of harvested lymph nodes. The rationale for alternative staging methods, their correlations, and limitations are presented. PMID:27713774

  14. Nodal staging of colorectal carcinomas and sentinel nodes

    PubMed Central

    Cserni, G

    2003-01-01

    This review surveys the staging systems used for the classification of colorectal carcinomas, including the TNM system, and focuses on the assessment of the nodal stage of the disease. It reviews the quantitative requirements for a regional metastatic work up, and some qualitative features of lymph nodes that may help in the selection of positive and negative lymph nodes. Identification of the sentinel lymph nodes (those lymph nodes that have direct drainage from the primary tumour site) is one such qualitative feature that is claimed to allow the upstaging of colorectal carcinomas via an oriented, enhanced pathological work up. Current evidence in favour of a change in the requisite of assessing as may lymph nodes as is possible, and concentrating the efforts on only a selected number of lymph nodes, is weak. PMID:12719450

  15. Identification of hybrid node and link communities in complex networks.

    PubMed

    He, Dongxiao; Jin, Di; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Weixiong

    2015-03-02

    Identifying communities in complex networks is an effective means for analyzing complex systems, with applications in diverse areas such as social science, engineering, biology and medicine. Finding communities of nodes and finding communities of links are two popular schemes for network analysis. These schemes, however, have inherent drawbacks and are inadequate to capture complex organizational structures in real networks. We introduce a new scheme and an effective approach for identifying complex mixture structures of node and link communities, called hybrid node-link communities. A central piece of our approach is a probabilistic model that accommodates node, link and hybrid node-link communities. Our extensive experiments on various real-world networks, including a large protein-protein interaction network and a large network of semantically associated words, illustrated that the scheme for hybrid communities is superior in revealing network characteristics. Moreover, the new approach outperformed the existing methods for finding node or link communities separately.

  16. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy: Quantification of Lymphedema Risk Reduction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    dosimetry to lymph node critical for arm drainage . (Months 1-36) a. Subject enrollment Thirty seven subjects have enrolled in the study. This is 13...lymphatic system compensates for extensive lymph node loss has remained obscure. Our results suggest that collateral drainage pathways involving...planning. Gamma camera-based lymphoscintigraphy images lymph vessels and nodes, and provides information about their drainage territories. However

  17. [Cellular composition of the lymph nodes of monkeys (rhesus macaque) under normal and experimental conditions].

    PubMed

    Rusina, A K

    1978-01-01

    By means of mathematical methods, quantitative and qualitative changes were studied in different structural components of the mesenteric (ileocecal) lymph nodes in normal monkeys (Macaca rhesus) and under per os administration of Salmonella typhi murium, streptomycin-dependent. Cellular composition was calculated in the cortical plateau, cortical (lymphoid) cords and in follicules. Average percent of every cell type was determined. Vaccine administration, was stated to inhibit cytopoiesis in the cortical plateau and in the follicules with light centers. An inverse correlation was noted between the content of small and medium size lymphocytes. Different reactivity of certain structural components in the lymph nodes was demonstrated. As a response to the vaccine administration, plasmocellular acidophilic and macrophagal reactions were most pronounced in the cortical (lymphoid) cords.

  18. Detection of Lymph Node Metastases with SERRS Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Spaliviero, Massimiliano; Harmsen, Stefan; Huang, Ruimin; Wall, Matthew A.; Andreou, Chrysafis; Eastham, James A.; Touijer, Karim A.; Scardino, Peter T.; Kircher, Moritz F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The accurate detection of lymph node metastases in prostate cancer patients is important to direct treatment decisions. Our goal was to develop an intra-operative imaging approach to distinguish normal from metastasized lymph nodes. We therefore developed and tested gold-silica surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) nanoparticles that demonstrate high uptake within normal lymphatic tissue, and negligible uptake in areas of metastatic replacement. Procedures We evaluated the ability of SERRS nanoparticles to delineate lymph node metastases in an orthotopic prostate cancer mouse model using PC-3 cells transduced with mCherry fluorescent protein. Tumor bearing mice (n = 6) and non-tumor bearing control animals (n = 4) were injected intravenously with 30 fmol/g SERRS nanoparticles. After 16–18 hours, the retroperitoneal lymph nodes were scanned in situ and ex vivo with a Raman imaging system and a hand-held Raman scanner and data corroborated with fluorescence imaging for mCherry protein expression and histology. Results The SERRS nanoparticles demonstrated avid homing to normal lymph nodes, but not to metastasized lymph nodes. In cases where lymph nodes were partially infiltrated by tumor cells, the SERRS signal correctly identified, with sub-millimeter precision, healthy from metastasized components within the same lymph node. Conclusions This study serves as a first proof-of-principle that SERRS nanoparticles enable high precision and rapid intraoperative discrimination between normal and metastasized lymph nodes. PMID:26943129

  19. Implementation of bipartite or remote unitary gates with repeater nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Li; Nemoto, Kae

    2016-08-01

    We propose some protocols to implement various classes of bipartite unitary operations on two remote parties with the help of repeater nodes in-between. We also present a protocol to implement a single-qubit unitary with parameters determined by a remote party with the help of up to three repeater nodes. It is assumed that the neighboring nodes are connected by noisy photonic channels, and the local gates can be performed quite accurately, while the decoherence of memories is significant. A unitary is often a part of a larger computation or communication task in a quantum network, and to reduce the amount of decoherence in other systems of the network, we focus on the goal of saving the total time for implementing a unitary including the time for entanglement preparation. We review some previously studied protocols that implement bipartite unitaries using local operations and classical communication and prior shared entanglement, and apply them to the situation with repeater nodes without prior entanglement. We find that the protocols using piecewise entanglement between neighboring nodes often require less total time compared to preparing entanglement between the two end nodes first and then performing the previously known protocols. For a generic bipartite unitary, as the number of repeater nodes increases, the total time could approach the time cost for direct signal transfer from one end node to the other. We also prove some lower bounds of the total time when there are a small number of repeater nodes. The application to position-based cryptography is discussed.

  20. Node-based measures of connectivity in genetic networks.

    PubMed

    Koen, Erin L; Bowman, Jeff; Wilson, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    At-site environmental conditions can have strong influences on genetic connectivity, and in particular on the immigration and settlement phases of dispersal. However, at-site processes are rarely explored in landscape genetic analyses. Networks can facilitate the study of at-site processes, where network nodes are used to model site-level effects. We used simulated genetic networks to compare and contrast the performance of 7 node-based (as opposed to edge-based) genetic connectivity metrics. We simulated increasing node connectivity by varying migration in two ways: we increased the number of migrants moving between a focal node and a set number of recipient nodes, and we increased the number of recipient nodes receiving a set number of migrants. We found that two metrics in particular, the average edge weight and the average inverse edge weight, varied linearly with simulated connectivity. Conversely, node degree was not a good measure of connectivity. We demonstrated the use of average inverse edge weight to describe the influence of at-site habitat characteristics on genetic connectivity of 653 American martens (Martes americana) in Ontario, Canada. We found that highly connected nodes had high habitat quality for marten (deep snow and high proportions of coniferous and mature forest) and were farther from the range edge. We recommend the use of node-based genetic connectivity metrics, in particular, average edge weight or average inverse edge weight, to model the influences of at-site habitat conditions on the immigration and settlement phases of dispersal.

  1. SpicyNodes: radial layout authoring for the general public.

    PubMed

    Douma, Michael; Ligierko, Grzegorz; Ancuta, Ovidiu; Gritsai, Pavel; Liu, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Trees and graphs are relevant to many online tasks such as visualizing social networks, product catalogs, educational portals, digital libraries, the semantic web, concept maps and personalized information management. SpicyNodes is an information-visualization technology that builds upon existing research on radial tree layouts and graph structures. Users can browse a tree, clicking from node to node, as well as successively viewing a node, immediately related nodes and the path back to the "home" nodes. SpicyNodes' layout algorithms maintain balanced layouts using a hybrid mixture of a geometric layout (a succession of spanning radial trees) and force-directed layouts to minimize overlapping nodes, plus several other improvements over prior art. It provides XML-based API and GUI authoring tools. The goal of the SpicyNodes project is to implement familiar principles of radial maps and focus+context with an attractive and inviting look and feel in an open system that is accessible to virtually any Internet user.

  2. Lymph node density predicts recurrence and death after inguinal lymph node dissection for penile cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schwen, Zeyad R.; Ko, Joan S.; Meyer, Alexa; Netto, George J.; Burnett, Arthur L.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine the impact of lymph node density (LND) on survival after inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND) for penile cancer. Materials and Methods Our institutional penile cancer database was queried for patients who underwent ILND. Clinicopathologic characteristics including LND and total number of positive lymph nodes (LNs) were analyzed to determine impact on recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). LND, or the percent of positive LN out of total LN, was calculated as a categorical variable at varying thresholds. Results Twenty-eight patients with complete follow-up were identified. Indications for ILND were stage >T2 in 20 patients (71.4%), palpable adenopathy in 7 (25%), high grade T1 in 1 (3.6%). Median node yield was 17.5 (interquartile range, 12−22), and positive LNs were found in 14 patients (50%). RFS and OS were significantly lower for patients with >15% LN density (median RFS: 62 months vs. 6.3 months, p=0.0120; median OS: 73.6 months vs. 6.3 months, p<0.001). Controlling for age, medical comorbidities, number of positive LN, T stage, pelvic LN status and indication, LN density >15% was independently associated with worse RFS (hazard ratio [HR], 3.6; p=0.04) and OS (HR, 73.6; p=0.002). The c-index for LND was higher than total positive LNs for RFS (0.64 vs. 0.54) and OS (0.79 vs. 0.61). Conclusions In this small, retrospective penile cancer cohort, the presence of nodal involvement >15% was associated with decreased RFS and OS, and outperformed total number of positive LN as a prognostic indicator. PMID:28097264

  3. Sentinel nodes of malignancies originating in the alimentary tract.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hirofumi; Kitagawa, Yuko; Kitajima, Masaki; Kubo, Atsushi

    2004-02-01

    The feasibility of the sentinel node concept for malignancies originating in the alimentary tract is attracting much interest among researchers in the field of gastrointestinal oncology. We have tested more than 350 such cases and obtained favorable and promising initial results. The detectability of sentinel nodes using endoscopically injected Tc-99m tin colloid for these tumors exceeded 90%. Although the false negative ratio was not so low (approximately 10%), most of these cases had an inaccurate preoperative evaluation of mural invasion and/or a technically unfavorable injection. When the indication is restricted to patients with early-stage disease, and when the radioactive colloid is properly administered, sentinel node navigation therapy would be applicable for gastrointestinal malignancies. To achieve successful sentinel node navigation surgery it is essential to accurately identify sentinel nodes, and lymphoscintigraphy is a very useful test to confirm the location of sentinel nodes preoperatively. However, image processing is required for lymphoscintigrams because the original image depicts only high activity at the injection site and faint radioactivity in the sentinel nodes. We have clearly imaged the silhouette of the body using Compton scattered photons, and have also proposed several methods to improve the contrast between the injection sites and sentinel nodes. Many sentinel nodes can be clearly visualized by subtraction of the background activity with heterogeneous distribution. The development of the portable gamma camera, enabling intraoperative imaging, also contributes to less invasive biopsy of sentinel nodes. We have obtained promising initial results using a portable imaging device with semiconductor detectors. These promising results suggest that sentinel node navigation therapy including radiotherapy will be a new therapy for early-stage gastrointestinal malignancies in the near future, with nuclear medicine contributing to the

  4. Assessment of lymph node involvement in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Mark L H; Schofield, John B

    2016-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis informs prognosis and is a key factor in deciding further management, particularly adjuvant chemotherapy. It is core to all contemporary staging systems, including the widely used tumor node metastasis staging system. Patients with node-negative disease have 5-year survival rates of 70%-80%, implying a significant minority of patients with occult lymph node metastases will succumb to disease recurrence. Enhanced staging techniques may help to identify this subset of patients, who might benefit from further treatment. Obtaining adequate numbers of lymph nodes is essential for accurate staging. Lymph node yields are affected by numerous factors, many inherent to the patient and the tumour, but others related to surgical and histopathological practice. Good lymph node recovery relies on close collaboration between surgeon and pathologist. The optimal extent of surgical resection remains a subject of debate. Extended lymphadenectomy, extra-mesenteric lymph node dissection, high arterial ligation and complete mesocolic excision are amongst the surgical techniques with plausible oncological bases, but which are not supported by the highest levels of evidence. With further development and refinement, intra-operative lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy may provide a guide to the optimum extent of lymphadenectomy, but in its present form, it is beset by false negatives, skip lesions and failures to identify a sentinel node. Once resected, histopathological assessment of the surgical specimen can be improved by thorough dissection techniques, step-sectioning of tissue blocks and immunohistochemistry. More recently, molecular methods have been employed. In this review, we consider the numerous factors that affect lymph node yields, including the impact of the surgical and histopathological techniques. Potential future strategies, including the use of evolving technologies, are also discussed. PMID:27022445

  5. Allergic Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... that is right for you. In many instances, allergy immunotherapy in the form of shots or tablets is an effective, cost-efficient long term treatment approach. While there is not yet ... Healthy Tips • Allergy symptoms are the result of a chain reaction ...

  6. Temporal node centrality in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoungshick; Anderson, Ross

    2012-02-01

    Many networks are dynamic in that their topology changes rapidly—on the same time scale as the communications of interest between network nodes. Examples are the human contact networks involved in the transmission of disease, ad hoc radio networks between moving vehicles, and the transactions between principals in a market. While we have good models of static networks, so far these have been lacking for the dynamic case. In this paper we present a simple but powerful model, the time-ordered graph, which reduces a dynamic network to a static network with directed flows. This enables us to extend network properties such as vertex degree, closeness, and betweenness centrality metrics in a very natural way to the dynamic case. We then demonstrate how our model applies to a number of interesting edge cases, such as where the network connectivity depends on a small number of highly mobile vertices or edges, and show that our centrality definition allows us to track the evolution of connectivity. Finally we apply our model and techniques to two real-world dynamic graphs of human contact networks and then discuss the implication of temporal centrality metrics in the real world.

  7. Promoting Creative Engagement with SpicyNodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douma, M.; Ligierko, G.; Angelov, I.

    2008-10-01

    The Information Age has posed new challenges to the presentation and communication of knowledge. In their attempts to handle the abundance of information in an effective way, people have come to rely on maps. Maps are a useful tool for visualization and the arrangement of concepts as they mark the current location in the context of their surroundings. This paper presents SpicyNodes, an improved method of organizing and visually presenting web-based information using radial tree maps. The project encourages creative thought on two levels. For those who create, it provides a platform for organizing and displaying information in a creative manner, and sharing those methods with others. For users, it allows the exploration of complex systems while gaining the perspective of a broader context. By presenting information in a natural and intuitive way, such radial maps can help people think in novel and creative ways. It may also aid and find application in the learning process of kids and students with learning disabilities.

  8. Emergency communications via airborne communications node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niessen, Charles W.

    1997-02-01

    Natural disasters such as floods, hurricanes, and earthquakes invariably result in disruption of the commercial communications infrastructure and can severely impede the delivery of emergency services by local and federal agencies. In addition, the public's inability to communicate with commercial service providers can substantially slow the recovery process. Since wide-spread destruction of communications plant and distribution systems takes a long time to rebuild, an attractive alternative would be to provide communications connectivity through an airborne platform configured as a communication node. From a high altitude, a single aircraft could provide line of sight connectivity between users that are not within line of sight of each other, and could relay communications through ground or satellite gateways to the national PSTN. This capability could be used to substitute for multiple base stations for fire and police as well as military relief workers using their normal mobile communications gear. The airborne platform could also serve as a wide area base station to replace cellular phone towers that have been destroyed; this would enable civilian access to communications services from existing cellular phones, but could also be used by relief workers carrying low-cost commercial handsets. This paper examines the technical methods for achieving these goals, identifies the equipment needed on the airborne platform, and discusses the performance that could be expected.

  9. Transportation node space station conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A number of recent studies have addressed the problem of a transportation node space station. How things would change or what addition facilities would be needed to support a major lunar or Mars initiative is a much often asked question. The support of a lunar base, requiring stacks on the order of 200 metric tons each to land 25 m tons on the lunar surface with reusable vehicles is addressed. The problem of maintaining and reusing large single stage Orbit Transfer Vehicles (OTVs) and single stage lander/launchers in space are examined. The required people and equipment needed, to maintain these vehicles are only vaguely known at present. The people and equipment needed depend on how well the OTV and lander/launcher can be designed for easy reuse. Since the OTV and lander/launcher are only conceptually defined at present, the real maintenance and refurbishment requirements are unobtainable. An estimate of what is needed, based on previous studies and obvious requirements was therefore made. An attempt was made to err on the conservative side.

  10. Dissemination in cutaneous leishmaniasis. 3. Lymph node involvement.

    PubMed

    al-Gindan, Y; Kubba, R; el-Hassan, A M; Omer, A H; Kutty, M K; Saeed, M B

    1989-05-01

    In a study of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) due to leishmania major in an endemic focus in Saudi Arabia, lymph node enlargement was observed in 66 of 643 patients (10.26%). The epitrochlear lymph nodes were most commonly involved (68%), but cervical (11%), axillary (15%), and inguinal (18%) lymph nodes were also involved. In eight patients (12%), two lymph node areas were involved. The affected lymph nodes were typically solitary, firm, mobile, nontender, only moderately enlarged, and appeared to persist beyond the clinical healing of the associated skin lesions. The results of pathologic and immunopathologic studies carried out on eight lymph nodes obtained from this group of patients supported the leishmanial etiology. Although amastigotes were only demonstrated in two lymph nodes, the leishmanial antigen was found in all eight specimens. The lymph node involvement is another manifestation of dissemination in infection with a dermotropic leishmania. It appears that in some cases, instead of the parasite, it may be the leishmanial antigen that disseminates and produces lymphadenitis.

  11. Intra-lymph node injection of biodegradable polymer particles.

    PubMed

    Andorko, James I; Tostanoski, Lisa H; Solano, Eduardo; Mukhamedova, Maryam; Jewell, Christopher M

    2014-01-02

    Generation of adaptive immune response relies on efficient drainage or trafficking of antigen to lymph nodes for processing and presentation of these foreign molecules to T and B lymphocytes. Lymph nodes have thus become critical targets for new vaccines and immunotherapies. A recent strategy for targeting these tissues is direct lymph node injection of soluble vaccine components, and clinical trials involving this technique have been promising. Several biomaterial strategies have also been investigated to improve lymph node targeting, for example, tuning particle size for optimal drainage of biomaterial vaccine particles. In this paper we present a new method that combines direct lymph node injection with biodegradable polymer particles that can be laden with antigen, adjuvant, or other vaccine components. In this method polymeric microparticles or nanoparticles are synthesized by a modified double emulsion protocol incorporating lipid stabilizers. Particle properties (e.g. size, cargo loading) are confirmed by laser diffraction and fluorescent microscopy, respectively. Mouse lymph nodes are then identified by peripheral injection of a nontoxic tracer dye that allows visualization of the target injection site and subsequent deposition of polymer particles in lymph nodes. This technique allows direct control over the doses and combinations of biomaterials and vaccine components delivered to lymph nodes and could be harnessed in the development of new biomaterial-based vaccines.

  12. Understanding the influence of all nodes in a network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawyer, Glenn

    2015-03-01

    Centrality measures such as the degree, k-shell, or eigenvalue centrality can identify a network's most influential nodes, but are rarely usefully accurate in quantifying the spreading power of the vast majority of nodes which are not highly influential. The spreading power of all network nodes is better explained by considering, from a continuous-time epidemiological perspective, the distribution of the force of infection each node generates. The resulting metric, the expected force, accurately quantifies node spreading power under all primary epidemiological models across a wide range of archetypical human contact networks. When node power is low, influence is a function of neighbor degree. As power increases, a node's own degree becomes more important. The strength of this relationship is modulated by network structure, being more pronounced in narrow, dense networks typical of social networking and weakening in broader, looser association networks such as the Internet. The expected force can be computed independently for individual nodes, making it applicable for networks whose adjacency matrix is dynamic, not well specified, or overwhelmingly large.

  13. Wireless Sensor Networks - Node Localization for Various Industry Problems

    DOE PAGES

    Derr, Kurt; Manic, Milos

    2015-06-01

    Fast, effective monitoring following airborne releases of toxic substances is critical to mitigate risks to threatened population areas. Wireless sensor nodes at fixed predetermined locations may monitor such airborne releases and provide early warnings to the public. A challenging algorithmic problem is determining the locations to place these sensor nodes while meeting several criteria: 1) provide complete coverage of the domain, and 2) create a topology with problem dependent node densities, while 3) minimizing the number of sensor nodes. This manuscript presents a novel approach to determining optimal sensor placement, Advancing Front mEsh generation with Constrained dElaunay Triangulation and Smoothingmore » (AFECETS) that addresses these criteria. A unique aspect of AFECETS is the ability to determine wireless sensor node locations for areas of high interest (hospitals, schools, high population density areas) that require higher density of nodes for monitoring environmental conditions, a feature that is difficult to find in other research work. The AFECETS algorithm was tested on several arbitrary shaped domains. AFECETS simulation results show that the algorithm 1) provides significant reduction in the number of nodes, in some cases over 40%, compared to an advancing front mesh generation algorithm, 2) maintains and improves optimal spacing between nodes, and 3) produces simulation run times suitable for real-time applications.« less

  14. Salmonella in lymph nodes of cattle presented for harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Salmonella can invade and survive within host immune cells. Once internalized, these pathogens have the potential to disseminate throughout the lymphatic system and reside within lymph nodes. If so, because some lymph nodes are located within muscle and fat tissues, Salmonella-positiv...

  15. Popliteal lymphadenectomy on sentinel lymph node melanoma metastasis.

    PubMed

    Barrasa Shaw, Antonio; Sancho Merle, Francisca; Fuster Diana, Carlos; Campos Máñez, Jorge; Vázquez Albadalejo, Carlos

    2006-03-01

    Popliteal lymph node dissection is a procedure that surgeons rarely perform and, therefore, scarcely represented in bibliography. In this paper we present the case of a patient with melanoma metastasis to popliteal sentinel lymph nodes showing the surgical procedure and discussing some epidemiological and technical issues.

  16. Wireless Sensor Networks - Node Localization for Various Industry Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Derr, Kurt; Manic, Milos

    2015-06-01

    Fast, effective monitoring following airborne releases of toxic substances is critical to mitigate risks to threatened population areas. Wireless sensor nodes at fixed predetermined locations may monitor such airborne releases and provide early warnings to the public. A challenging algorithmic problem is determining the locations to place these sensor nodes while meeting several criteria: 1) provide complete coverage of the domain, and 2) create a topology with problem dependent node densities, while 3) minimizing the number of sensor nodes. This manuscript presents a novel approach to determining optimal sensor placement, Advancing Front mEsh generation with Constrained dElaunay Triangulation and Smoothing (AFECETS) that addresses these criteria. A unique aspect of AFECETS is the ability to determine wireless sensor node locations for areas of high interest (hospitals, schools, high population density areas) that require higher density of nodes for monitoring environmental conditions, a feature that is difficult to find in other research work. The AFECETS algorithm was tested on several arbitrary shaped domains. AFECETS simulation results show that the algorithm 1) provides significant reduction in the number of nodes, in some cases over 40%, compared to an advancing front mesh generation algorithm, 2) maintains and improves optimal spacing between nodes, and 3) produces simulation run times suitable for real-time applications.

  17. Detecting and isolating malicious nodes in wireless ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fanzhi; Jassim, Sabah

    2007-04-01

    Malicious nodes can seriously impair the performance of wireless ad hoc networks as a result of different actions such as packet dropping. Secure routes are shortest paths on which every node on the route is trusted even if unknown. Secure route discovery requires the adoption of mechanisms of associating trust to nodes. Most existing secure route discovery mechanisms rely on shared keys and digital signature. In the absence of central nodes that act as certification authority, such protocols suffer from heavy computational burden and are vulnerable to malicious attacks. In this paper we shall review existing techniques for secure routing and propose to complement route finding with creditability scores. Each node would have a credit list for its neighbors. Each node monitors its neighbors' pattern of delivering packets and regularly credits are reviewed and updated accordingly. Unlike most existing schemes the focus of our work is based on post route discovery stage, i.e. when packets are transmitted on discovered routes. The level of trust in any route will be based on the credits associated with the neighbors belonging to the discovered route. We shall evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme by modifying our simulation system so that each node has a dynamic changing "credit list" for its neighbors' behavior. We shall conduct a series of simulations with and without the proposed scheme and compare the results. We will demonstrate that the proposed mechanism is capable of isolating malicious nodes and thereby counteracting black hole attacks.

  18. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel node location with magnetite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Chu W.; Rogers, James M.; Groman, Ernest V.

    1999-04-01

    Subcutaneously administered magnetite nanoparticles were used to locate sentinel lymph nodes in normal rats. Nanoparticles sequestered in brachial and axillary lymph nodes produced magnetic susceptibility artifacts in gradient recall echo magnetic resonance images. The artifact sizes enabled the determination of nanoparticle nodal uptake rates and lymphatic drainage patterns. These studies were confirmed by use of 59Fe labeled magnetite nanoparticles.

  19. Effective number of accessed nodes in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Viana, Matheus P; Batista, João L B; Costa, Luciano da F

    2012-03-01

    The measurement called accessibility has been proposed as a means to quantify the efficiency of the communication between nodes in complex networks. This article reports results regarding the properties of accessibility, including its relationship with the average minimal time to visit all nodes reachable after h steps along a random walk starting from a source, as well as the number of nodes that are visited after a finite period of time. We characterize the relationship between accessibility and the average number of walks required in order to visit all reachable nodes (the exploration time), conjecture that the maximum accessibility implies the minimal exploration time, and confirm the relationship between the accessibility values and the number of nodes visited after a basic time unit. The latter relationship is investigated with respect to three types of dynamics: traditional random walks, self-avoiding random walks, and preferential random walks.

  20. Cascading Failures in Networks with Proximate Dependent Nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornbluth, Yosef; Lowinger, Steven; Cwilich, Gabriel; Buldyrev, Sergey

    2013-03-01

    We study a system composed of two identical, random regular, interdependent networks. When a fraction of nodes in the first network are eliminated by failure or attack, further nodes that become isolated or lose their dependent node fail in turn, initiating a process of cascading failures. In contrast to previous models, these networks are constructed such that interdependent nodes are no more than a set distance away, with the distance defined by the number of intervening nodes. We find that as the maximum distance and the degree of connectivity increase, the disintegration of the system shifts from being similar to that of a single network to resembling the failure found in other models of interdependent networks. As the distance and degree increase, the collapse at the critical threshold changes from a second-order transition to a first-order one. The critical threshold monotonically increases as the distance increases.

  1. Treatment plan for breast cancer with sentinel node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Efrén Bolívar; Martinez, Pedro; Betancourt, Luis; Romero, Gabriel; Godoy, Ali; Bergamo, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Lymph node involvement is considered to be one of the most important independent prognostic factors in breast cancer. In patients without palpable lymphadenopathies, the method of choice for determining this involvement is the sentinel lymph node biopsy. In the presence of macrometastases, the current standard is to perform axillary lymph node dissection in spite of the knowledge that the involvement of non-sentinel lymph nodes is approximately 50%. When lymph node involvement is micrometastasic, the decision as to whether or not to proceed with lymphadenectomy remains in dispute. We set out, on the basis of the current scientific evidence and our own experience, to create guidelines that allow us to individualise each case and decide whether or not to perform a lymphadenectomy. We will discuss the arguments that support our position. PMID:24478806

  2. Reentry confined to the atrioventricular node: electrophysiologic and anatomic findings.

    PubMed

    Sheinman, M M; Gonzalez, R; Thomas, A; Ullyot, D; Bharati, S; Lev, M

    1982-05-01

    A patient with recurrent disabling, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia refractory to drug treatment underwent electrophysiologic studies. The paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia was found to be due to atrioventricular (A-V) nodal reentry. The patient died shortly after surgical His bundle section and detailed anatomic studies were performed. These showed fatty infiltration of the approaches to the sinoatrial node, atrial preferential pathways, and A-V node and common bundle. The A-V node was mechanically damaged and the common His bundle was completely severed. These abnormalities were clearly delineated and there was no evidence of an atrio-His bundle bypass tract to an accessory A-V node. Specifically, the central fibrous body and pars membranacea were defined and no atrial muscular fibers pierced these structures to joint the A-V bundle. It is concluded that paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia due to A-V nodal reentry can be confined to the A-V node.

  3. Aligning Metabolic Pathways Exploiting Binary Relation of Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Cheng; Lin, Hai Xiang; Huang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic pathway alignment has been widely used to find one-to-one and/or one-to-many reaction mappings to identify the alternative pathways that have similar functions through different sets of reactions, which has important applications in reconstructing phylogeny and understanding metabolic functions. The existing alignment methods exhaustively search reaction sets, which may become infeasible for large pathways. To address this problem, we present an effective alignment method for accurately extracting reaction mappings between two metabolic pathways. We show that connected relation between reactions can be formalized as binary relation of reactions in metabolic pathways, and the multiplications of zero-one matrices for binary relations of reactions can be accomplished in finite steps. By utilizing the multiplications of zero-one matrices for binary relation of reactions, we efficiently obtain reaction sets in a small number of steps without exhaustive search, and accurately uncover biologically relevant reaction mappings. Furthermore, we introduce a measure of topological similarity of nodes (reactions) by comparing the structural similarity of the k-neighborhood subgraphs of the nodes in aligning metabolic pathways. We employ this similarity metric to improve the accuracy of the alignments. The experimental results on the KEGG database show that when compared with other state-of-the-art methods, in most cases, our method obtains better performance in the node correctness and edge correctness, and the number of the edges of the largest common connected subgraph for one-to-one reaction mappings, and the number of correct one-to-many reaction mappings. Our method is scalable in finding more reaction mappings with better biological relevance in large metabolic pathways. PMID:27936108

  4. Sentinel Lymph Nodes Mapping in Cervical Cancer a Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Diab, Yasser

    2017-01-01

    Objective A comprehensive literature search for more recent studies pertaining to sentinel lymph node mapping in the surveillance of cervical cancer to assess if sentinel lymph node mapping has sensitivity and specificity for evaluation of the disease; assessment of posttreatment response and disease recurrence in cervical cancer. Materials and Methods The literature review has been constructed on a step wise study design that includes 5 major steps. This includes search for relevant publications in various available databases, application of inclusion and exclusion criteria for the selection of relevant publications, assessment of quality of the studies included, extraction of the relevant data and coherent synthesis of the data. Results The search yielded numerous studies pertaining to sentinel lymph node mapping, especially on the recent trends, comparison between various modalities and evaluation of the technique. Evaluation studies have appraised high sensitivity, high negative predictive values and low false-negative rate for metastasis detection using sentinel lymph node mapping. Comparative studies have established that of all the modalities for sentinel lymph node mapping, indocyanine green sentinel lymph node mapping has higher overall and bilateral detection rates. Corroboration of the deductions of these studies further establishes that the sentinel node detection rate and sensitivity are strongly correlated to the method or technique of mapping and the history of preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusions The review takes us to the strong conclusion that sentinel lymph node mapping is an ideal technique for detection of sentinel lymph nodes in cervical cancer patients with excellent detection rates and high sensitivity. The review also takes us to the supposition that a routine clinical evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes is feasible and a real-time florescence mapping with indocyanine green dye gives better statistically significant overall and

  5. Diagnostic challenges of tuberculous lymphadenitis using polymerase chain reaction analysis: a case study.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Masahiko; Shimokawa, Kazuki; Kamiseki, Fumi; Ishizawa, Shin; Abo, Hitoshi; Furuse, Hideaki; Tsuda, Takeshi; Masaki, Yasuaki; Suzuki, Kensuke

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a case of tuberculous lymphadenitis that was difficult to diagnose using polymerase chain reaction analysis. An 80-year-old Japanese female was hospitalized due to swollen cervical lymph nodes. Her lymph node tests revealed paradoxical polymerase chain reaction results. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of two biopsy tissues using the Cobas TaqMan revealed a positive result for Mycobacterium avium and a negative result for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, polymerase chain reaction analysis of a cultured colony of acid-fast bacteria from biopsy tissue using the Cobas TaqMan and an alternative polymerase chain reaction analysis of biopsy tissue yielded discordant results. The patient was diagnosed as having tuberculous lymphadenitis. She was treated with antitubercular drugs and subsequently had a reduction in cervical lymph node swelling. Polymerase chain reaction analysis is not 100% accurate; hence, its use as a diagnostic tool for mycobacterial infection requires increased attention.

  6. Deciphering Time Scale Hierarchy in Reaction Networks.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, Yutaka; Maeda, Satoshi; Teramoto, Hiroshi; Horiyama, Takashi; Taketsugu, Tetsuya; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki

    2016-03-03

    Markovian dynamics on complex reaction networks are one of the most intriguing subjects in a wide range of research fields including chemical reactions, biological physics, and ecology. To represent the global kinetics from one node (corresponding to a basin on an energy landscape) to another requires information on multiple pathways that directly or indirectly connect these two nodes through the entire network. In this paper we present a scheme to extract a hierarchical set of global transition states (TSs) over a discrete-time Markov chain derived from first-order rate equations. The TSs can naturally take into account the multiple pathways connecting any pair of nodes. We also propose a new type of disconnectivity graph (DG) to capture the hierarchical organization of different time scales of reactions that can capture changes in the network due to changes in the time scale of observation. The crux is the introduction of the minimum conductance cut (MCC) in graph clustering, corresponding to the dividing surface across the network having the "smallest" transition probability between two disjoint subnetworks (superbasins on the energy landscape) in the network. We present a new combinatorial search algorithm for finding this MCC. We apply our method to a reaction network of Claisen rearrangement of allyl vinyl ether that consists of 23 nodes and 66 links (saddles on the energy landscape) connecting them. We compare the kinetic properties of our DG to those of the transition matrix of the rate equations and show that our graph can properly reveal the hierarchical organization of time scales in a network.

  7. The STARK-B database VAMDC node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahal-Bréchot, S.; Dimitrijević, M. S.; Moreau, N.; Nessib, N. Ben

    2017-03-01

    Accurate spectroscopic diagnostics and modelling require the knowledge of numerous collisional line profiles. The access to such data via an on line database is essential. The aim of STARK-B is to meet these needs for widths and shifts of "isolated" lines of neutral and ionized atoms due to electron and ion impacts. It is devoted to modelling and spectroscopic diagnostics of stellar atmospheres and envelopes, laboratory plasmas, laser equipments and technological plasmas. So, the range of temperatures and densities covered by the tables is broad and depends on the ionization degree of the radiating atom. STARK-B is a collaborative project between the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade (AOB) and the laboratory LERMA at Observatory of Paris, which started at the end of 2008. STARK-B is a database of LERMA and a node of VAMDC (Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre) and thus complies with the standards of the Virtual Observatories. This database opened at the end of 2008. Today, the database contains our calculated data for a various number of transitions of neutral or ionized atoms, published in more than 150 papers in international refereed journals. We continue to implement our previously published data, and the new ones as soon as they are published. A summary of the scientific objectives, the key points of the impact-semiclassical-perturbation method used for the calculations, the current state of development of our ongoing work and our plans for the future objectives of the database are presented. Finally, an example of the results of a query is displayed.

  8. Dense LU Factorization on Multicore Supercomputer Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lifflander, Jonathan; Miller, Phil; Venkataraman, Ramprasad; Arya, Anshu; Jones, Terry R; Kale, Laxmikant V

    2012-01-01

    Dense LU factorization is a prominent benchmark used to rank the performance of supercomputers. Many implementations, including the reference code HPL, use block-cyclic distributions of matrix blocks onto a two-dimensional process grid. The process grid dimensions drive a trade-off between communication and computation and are architecture- and implementation-sensitive. We show how the critical panel factorization steps can be made less communication-bound by overlapping asynchronous collectives for pivot identification and exchange with the computation of rank-k updates. By shifting this trade-off, a modified block-cyclic distribution can beneficially exploit more available parallelism on the critical path, and reduce panel factorization's memory hierarchy contention on now-ubiquitous multi-core architectures. The missed parallelism in traditional block-cyclic distributions arises because active panel factorization, triangular solves, and subsequent broadcasts are spread over single process columns or rows (respectively) of the process grid. Increasing one dimension of the process grid decreases the number of distinct processes in the other dimension. To increase parallelism in both dimensions, periodic 'rotation' is applied to the process grid to recover the row-parallelism lost by a tall process grid. During active panel factorization, rank-1 updates stream through memory with minimal reuse. In a column-major process grid, the performance of this access pattern degrades as too many streaming processors contend for access to memory. A block-cyclic mapping in the more popular row-major order does not encounter this problem, but consequently sacrifices node and network locality in the critical pivoting steps. We introduce 'striding' to vary between the two extremes of row- and column-major process grids. As a test-bed for further mapping experiments, we describe a dense LU implementation that allows a block distribution to be defined as a general function of block

  9. Sentinel lymph node biopsy using indigo carmine blue dye and the validity of '10% rule' and '4 nodes rule'.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Tomoya; Kinoshita, Takayuki; Hojo, Takashi; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2012-08-01

    This is the study which assessed sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) using indigo carmine blue dye and the validity of the '10% rule' and '4 nodes rule'. Patients (302) were performed SNB using the combined radioisotope (RI)/indigo carmine dye method. Excised SLNs were confirmed whether they were stained and numbered in order of RI count and the percentage of radioactivity as compared to the hottest node was calculated. The relationship between histological diagnosis, dyeing and RI count was assessed. All the patients were detected SLN. Positive nodes were identified in 84 (27.8%) patients and were identified up to the third degree of hottest. All the hottest positive nodes were stained by indigo carmine. From the results, removing the three most radioactive SLNs identified all cases of nodal metastasis without complications. These stopping rules were valid and useful under indigo carmine use too.

  10. The history of sentinel node biopsy in head and neck cancer: From visualization of lymphatic vessels to sentinel nodes.

    PubMed

    de Bree, Remco; Nieweg, Omgo E

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this report is to describe the history of sentinel node biopsy in head and neck cancer. Sentinel node biopsy is a minimally invasive technique to select patients for treatment of metastatic lymph nodes in the neck. Although this procedure has only recently been accepted for early oral cancer, the first studies on visualization of the cervical lymphatic vessels were reported in the 1960s. In the 1980s mapping of lymphatic drainage from specific head and neck sites was introduced. Sentinel node biopsy was further developed in the 1990s and after validation in this century the procedure is routinely performed in early oral cancer in several head and neck centers. New techniques may improve the accuracy of sentinel node biopsy further, particularly in difficult subsites like the floor of mouth.

  11. Distributing an executable job load file to compute nodes in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Gooding, Thomas M.

    2016-08-09

    Distributing an executable job load file to compute nodes in a parallel computer, the parallel computer comprising a plurality of compute nodes, including: determining, by a compute node in the parallel computer, whether the compute node is participating in a job; determining, by the compute node in the parallel computer, whether a descendant compute node is participating in the job; responsive to determining that the compute node is participating in the job or that the descendant compute node is participating in the job, communicating, by the compute node to a parent compute node, an identification of a data communications link over which the compute node receives data from the parent compute node; constructing a class route for the job, wherein the class route identifies all compute nodes participating in the job; and broadcasting the executable load file for the job along the class route for the job.

  12. Distributing an executable job load file to compute nodes in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Gooding, Thomas M.

    2016-09-13

    Distributing an executable job load file to compute nodes in a parallel computer, the parallel computer comprising a plurality of compute nodes, including: determining, by a compute node in the parallel computer, whether the compute node is participating in a job; determining, by the compute node in the parallel computer, whether a descendant compute node is participating in the job; responsive to determining that the compute node is participating in the job or that the descendant compute node is participating in the job, communicating, by the compute node to a parent compute node, an identification of a data communications link over which the compute node receives data from the parent compute node; constructing a class route for the job, wherein the class route identifies all compute nodes participating in the job; and broadcasting the executable load file for the job along the class route for the job.

  13. Aggregating job exit statuses of a plurality of compute nodes executing a parallel application

    DOEpatents

    Aho, Michael E.; Attinella, John E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Mundy, Michael B.

    2015-07-21

    Aggregating job exit statuses of a plurality of compute nodes executing a parallel application, including: identifying a subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer to execute the parallel application; selecting one compute node in the subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer as a job leader compute node; initiating execution of the parallel application on the subset of compute nodes; receiving an exit status from each compute node in the subset of compute nodes, where the exit status for each compute node includes information describing execution of some portion of the parallel application by the compute node; aggregating each exit status from each compute node in the subset of compute nodes; and sending an aggregated exit status for the subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer.

  14. Determining optimal clinical target volume margins in head-and-neck cancer based on microscopic extracapsular extension of metastatic neck nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Apisarnthanarax, Smith; Elliott, Danielle D.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Asper, Joshua A. P.A.; Blanco, Angel; Ang, K. Kian; Garden, Adam S.; Morrison, William H.; Rosenthal, David; Weber, Randal S.; Chao, K.S. Clifford . E-mail: cchao@mdanderson.org

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the optimal clinical target volume margins around the gross nodal tumor volume in head-and-neck cancer by assessing microscopic tumor extension beyond cervical lymph node capsules. Methods and Materials: Histologic sections of 96 dissected cervical lymph nodes with extracapsular extension (ECE) from 48 patients with head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma were examined. The maximum linear distance from the external capsule border to the farthest extent of the tumor or tumoral reaction was measured. The trends of ECE as a function of the distance from the capsule and lymph node size were analyzed. Results: The median diameter of all lymph nodes was 11.0 mm (range: 3.0-30.0 mm). The mean and median ECE extent was 2.2 mm and 1.6 mm, respectively (range: 0.4-9.0 mm). The ECE was <5 mm from the capsule in 96% of the nodes. As the distance from the capsule increased, the probability of tumor extension declined. No significant difference between the extent of ECE and lymph node size was observed. Conclusion: For N1 nodes that are at high risk for ECE but not grossly infiltrating musculature, 1 cm clinical target volume margins around the nodal gross tumor volume are recommended to cover microscopic nodal extension in head-and-neck cancer.

  15. Final report for the mobile node authentication LDRD project.

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, John T.; Lanzone, Andrew J.

    2005-09-01

    In hostile ad hoc wireless communication environments, such as battlefield networks, end-node authentication is critical. In a wired infrastructure, this authentication service is typically facilitated by a centrally-located ''authentication certificate generator'' such as a Certificate Authority (CA) server. This centralized approach is ill-suited to meet the needs of mobile ad hoc networks, such as those required by military systems, because of the unpredictable connectivity and dynamic routing. There is a need for a secure and robust approach to mobile node authentication. Current mechanisms either assign a pre-shared key (shared by all participating parties) or require that each node retain a collection of individual keys that are used to communicate with other individual nodes. Both of these approaches have scalability issues and allow a single compromised node to jeopardize the entire mobile node community. In this report, we propose replacing the centralized CA with a distributed CA whose responsibilities are shared between a set of select network nodes. To that end, we develop a protocol that relies on threshold cryptography to perform the fundamental CA duties in a distributed fashion. The protocol is meticulously defined and is implemented it in a series of detailed models. Using these models, mobile wireless scenarios were created on a communication simulator to test the protocol in an operational environment and to gather statistics on its scalability and performance.

  16. NodeTrix: a hybrid visualization of social networks.

    PubMed

    Henry, Nathalie; Fekete, Jean-Daniel; McGuffin, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    The need to visualize large social networks is growing as hardware capabilities make analyzing large networks feasible and many new data sets become available. Unfortunately, the visualizations in existing systems do not satisfactorily resolve the basic dilemma of being readable both for the global structure of the network and also for detailed analysis of local communities. To address this problem, we present NodeTrix, a hybrid representation for networks that combines the advantages of two traditional representations: node-link diagrams are used to show the global structure of a network, while arbitrary portions of the network can be shown as adjacency matrices to better support the analysis of communities. A key contribution is a set of interaction techniques. These allow analysts to create a NodeTrix visualization by dragging selections to and from node-link and matrix forms, and to flexibly manipulate the NodeTrix representation to explore the dataset and create meaningful summary visualizations of their findings. Finally, we present a case study applying NodeTrix to the analysis of the InfoVis 2004 coauthorship dataset to illustrate the capabilities of NodeTrix as both an exploration tool and an effective means of communicating results.

  17. Computed Tomographic Evaluation of Presumptively Normal Canine Sternal Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Ryota; Mori, Takashi; Ito, Yusuke; Kawabe, Mifumi; Murakmi, Mami; Maruo, Kohji

    The sternal lymph nodes receive drainage from a wide variety of structures in the thoraco-abdominal region. Evaluation of these lymph nodes is essential, especially in cancer patients. Computed tomography (CT) can detect sternal lymph nodes more accurately than radiography or ultrasonography, and the criteria of the sternal lymphadenopathy are unknown. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the CT characteristics of the sternal lymph nodes in dogs considered unlikely to have lymphadenopathy. The ratio of the short axis dimension of the sternal lymph nodes to the thickness of the second sternebra was also investigated. At least one sternal lymph node was identified in each of the 152 dogs included in the study. The mean long axis and short axis dimensions were 0.700 cm and 0.368 cm, respectively. The mean ratio of the sternal lymph nodes to the second sternebrae was 0.457, and the 95% prediction interval ranged from 0.317 to 0.596 (almost a fixed value independent of body weight). These findings will be useful when evaluating sternal lymphadenopathy using CT.

  18. PVM Enhancement for Beowulf Multiple-Processor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, Paul

    2006-01-01

    A recent version of the Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) computer program has been enhanced to enable use of multiple processors in a single node of a Beowulf system (a cluster of personal computers that runs the Linux operating system). A previous version of PVM had been enhanced by addition of a software port, denoted BEOLIN, that enables the incorporation of a Beowulf system into a larger parallel processing system administered by PVM, as though the Beowulf system were a single computer in the larger system. BEOLIN spawns tasks on (that is, automatically assigns tasks to) individual nodes within the cluster. However, BEOLIN does not enable the use of multiple processors in a single node. The present enhancement adds support for a parameter in the PVM command line that enables the user to specify which Internet Protocol host address the code should use in communicating with other Beowulf nodes. This enhancement also provides for the case in which each node in a Beowulf system contains multiple processors. In this case, by making multiple references to a single node, the user can cause the software to spawn multiple tasks on the multiple processors in that node.

  19. Fluorescence imaging to study cancer burden on lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Souza, Alisha V.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Gunn, Jason R.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2015-03-01

    Morbidity and complexity involved in lymph node staging via surgical resection and biopsy calls for staging techniques that are less invasive. While visible blue dyes are commonly used in locating sentinel lymph nodes, since they follow tumor-draining lymphatic vessels, they do not provide a metric to evaluate presence of cancer. An area of active research is to use fluorescent dyes to assess tumor burden of sentinel and secondary lymph nodes. The goal of this work was to successfully deploy and test an intra-nodal cancer-cell injection model to enable planar fluorescence imaging of a clinically relevant blue dye, specifically methylene blue along with a cancer targeting tracer, Affibody labeled with IRDYE800CW and subsequently segregate tumor-bearing from normal lymph nodes. This direct-injection based tumor model was employed in athymic rats (6 normal, 4 controls, 6 cancer-bearing), where luciferase-expressing breast cancer cells were injected into axillary lymph nodes. Tumor presence in nodes was confirmed by bioluminescence imaging before and after fluorescence imaging. Lymphatic uptake from the injection site (intradermal on forepaw) to lymph node was imaged at approximately 2 frames/minute. Large variability was observed within each cohort.

  20. node2vec: Scalable Feature Learning for Networks

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Aditya; Leskovec, Jure

    2016-01-01

    Prediction tasks over nodes and edges in networks require careful effort in engineering features used by learning algorithms. Recent research in the broader field of representation learning has led to significant progress in automating prediction by learning the features themselves. However, present feature learning approaches are not expressive enough to capture the diversity of connectivity patterns observed in networks. Here we propose node2vec, an algorithmic framework for learning continuous feature representations for nodes in networks. In node2vec, we learn a mapping of nodes to a low-dimensional space of features that maximizes the likelihood of preserving network neighborhoods of nodes. We define a flexible notion of a node’s network neighborhood and design a biased random walk procedure, which efficiently explores diverse neighborhoods. Our algorithm generalizes prior work which is based on rigid notions of network neighborhoods, and we argue that the added flexibility in exploring neighborhoods is the key to learning richer representations. We demonstrate the efficacy of node2vec over existing state-of-the-art techniques on multi-label classification and link prediction in several real-world networks from diverse domains. Taken together, our work represents a new way for efficiently learning state-of-the-art task-independent representations in complex networks. PMID:27853626

  1. Extended lymph node dissection in robotic radical prostatectomy: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Sameer; Alemozaffar, Mehrdad; Gill, Inderbir; Aron, Monish

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The role and extent of extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) during radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer patients remains unclear. Materials and Methods: A PubMed literature search was performed for studies reporting on treatment regimens and outcomes in patients with prostate cancer treated by RP and extended lymph node dissection between 1999 and 2013. Results: Studies have shown that RP can improve progression-free and overall survival in patients with lymph node-positive prostate cancer. While this finding requires further validation, it does allow urologists to question the former treatment paradigm of aborting surgery when lymph node invasion from prostate cancer occurred, especially in patients with limited lymph node tumor infiltration. Studies show that intermediate- and high-risk patients should undergo ePLND up to the common iliac arteries in order to improve nodal staging. Conclusions: Evidence from the literature suggests that RP with ePLND improves survival in lymph node-positive prostate cancer. While studies have shown promising results, further improvements and understanding of the surgical technique and post-operative treatment are required to improve treatment for prostate cancer patients with lymph node involvement. PMID:27127352

  2. Temporal-varying failures of nodes in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Georgie; Cristadoro, Giampaolo; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2015-08-01

    We consider networks in which random walkers are removed because of the failure of specific nodes. We interpret the rate of loss as a measure of the importance of nodes, a notion we denote as failure centrality. We show that the degree of the node is not sufficient to determine this measure and that, in a first approximation, the shortest loops through the node have to be taken into account. We propose approximations of the failure centrality which are valid for temporal-varying failures, and we dwell on the possibility of externally changing the relative importance of nodes in a given network by exploiting the interference between the loops of a node and the cycles of the temporal pattern of failures. In the limit of long failure cycles we show analytically that the escape in a node is larger than the one estimated from a stochastic failure with the same failure probability. We test our general formalism in two real-world networks (air-transportation and e-mail users) and show how communities lead to deviations from predictions for failures in hubs.

  3. Protograph LDPC Codes with Node Degrees at Least 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Jones, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present protograph codes with a small number of degree-3 nodes and one high degree node. The iterative decoding threshold for proposed rate 1/2 codes are lower, by about 0.2 dB, than the best known irregular LDPC codes with degree at least 3. The main motivation is to gain linear minimum distance to achieve low error floor. Also to construct rate-compatible protograph-based LDPC codes for fixed block length that simultaneously achieves low iterative decoding threshold and linear minimum distance. We start with a rate 1/2 protograph LDPC code with degree-3 nodes and one high degree node. Higher rate codes are obtained by connecting check nodes with degree-2 non-transmitted nodes. This is equivalent to constraint combining in the protograph. The condition where all constraints are combined corresponds to the highest rate code. This constraint must be connected to nodes of degree at least three for the graph to have linear minimum distance. Thus having node degree at least 3 for rate 1/2 guarantees linear minimum distance property to be preserved for higher rates. Through examples we show that the iterative decoding threshold as low as 0.544 dB can be achieved for small protographs with node degrees at least three. A family of low- to high-rate codes with minimum distance linearly increasing in block size and with capacity-approaching performance thresholds is presented. FPGA simulation results for a few example codes show that the proposed codes perform as predicted.

  4. The status of ESG-BNU node in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Wu, Q.; Wang, L.; Cheng, H.; Ji, D.; Feng, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) Peer-to-Peer (P2P) is an operational system for serving climate data from multiple locations and sources.The ESG-BNU node, established in 2012, is one of the ESGF data nodes, and also the only idp/index node in China. Until now, ESG-BNU node has published 17 experiments of 10,595 GB dataset for CMIP5 and 4 experiments of 1174 GB dataset for GeoMIP generated by the Earth System Model of Beijing Normal University (BNU-ESM) It has provided over 43.0TB data with an average 700 KB/s download speed to scientists all over the world. Especially in China, data users can download the datasets more than 1MB/s. In BNU the speed can reach to over 10MB/s.(Fig.1) As an ESGF Portal node we try to make replicas of other model centers so that data users in China can get the datasets much faster . By analyzing the download information extracted from the thredds log files we found that over 95% data requests were from China, U.S. and Japan.(Fig.2) About 75% downloads came from historical, rcp45 and rcp85 experiments.(Fig.3) And over 79% downloads came from the monthly datasets. So making replicas for those datasets with most interested can meet the needs of most model users and will save over 50% disk space of the data nodes. In our plan, the data volume of the ESG-BNU node will reach to 200TB in the next year. As for the coming CMIP6, data volume may reach to over 3.5EB. Making replica of all experiments maybe too expensive and not necessary for many ESGF nodes. We hope such download statistical analysis can be helpful for ESGF data nodes to decide which experiments should be replicated or be replicated with priority.

  5. Lipid Histiocytosis of the Gallbladder Neck Lymph Node

    PubMed Central

    Ben Romdhane, Mohamed Habib; Straub, Beate Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Lipid histiocytosis of the gallbladder neck lymph node is rarely reported nowadays. Two obese patients presented with gallbladder lithiasis detected on CT scan. The treatment consisted in coelioscopic cholecystectomy. Microscopy revealed subacute/chronic lithiasic cholecystitis and foci of vacuolated cells in the gallbladder neck lymph node. These cells were positive for CD68, CD31, S100 protein, and adipophilin and negative for cytokeratin and Alcian blue. In conclusion, we report lymph node lipid histiocytosis diagnosed microscopically after cholecystectomy. While such lesions may remain unidentified on imaging procedures, the microscopic analysis may require special stains and immunohistochemistry for ruling out adenocarcinoma metastasis. PMID:27847666

  6. Effects of amiodarone on sinus node in man.

    PubMed Central

    Touboul, P; Atallah, G; Gressard, A; Kirkorian, G

    1979-01-01

    The effects of amiodarone on the sinuatrial node were studied in 24 patients after an intravenous injection of the drug (5 mg/kg). Sinuatrial function was assessed by rapid atrial pacing and premature atrial stimulation. Sinus cycle length did not change significantly, but the corrected sinus node recovery time was prolonged. While there was no significant change in sinuatrial conduction time, prolongation of the non-reset zone in 14 cases, as well as the abolition of the platesu in 2/24 patients, suggested that conduction of the atrial responses to the sinus node might have been depressed. PMID:518781

  7. Clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangement in the infarcted lymph node syndrome.

    PubMed

    Laszewski, M J; Belding, P J; Feddersen, R M; Lutz, C T; Goeken, J A; Kemp, J D; Dick, F R

    1991-07-01

    The authors report a case of complete lymph node infarction in which a specific etiology could not be determined by morphologic or immunophenotypic studies; however, clonal rearrangement of the immunoglobulin gene was demonstrated by Southern blot hybridization of DNA extracted from the necrotic tissue. A subsequent lymph node biopsy later was diagnosed as malignant lymphoma, using morphologic, immunophenotypic and genotypic criteria. Identical clonally rearranged bands were present in DNA from both the infarcted nodal and the subsequent tissue biopsies. In the setting of lymph node necrosis, gene rearrangement studies may provide diagnostic information concerning clonality, even if morphologic and immunophenotypic studies are indeterminate for a lymphoproliferative process.

  8. Lipid Histiocytosis of the Gallbladder Neck Lymph Node.

    PubMed

    Handra-Luca, Adriana; Ben Romdhane, Mohamed Habib; Straub, Beate Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Lipid histiocytosis of the gallbladder neck lymph node is rarely reported nowadays. Two obese patients presented with gallbladder lithiasis detected on CT scan. The treatment consisted in coelioscopic cholecystectomy. Microscopy revealed subacute/chronic lithiasic cholecystitis and foci of vacuolated cells in the gallbladder neck lymph node. These cells were positive for CD68, CD31, S100 protein, and adipophilin and negative for cytokeratin and Alcian blue. In conclusion, we report lymph node lipid histiocytosis diagnosed microscopically after cholecystectomy. While such lesions may remain unidentified on imaging procedures, the microscopic analysis may require special stains and immunohistochemistry for ruling out adenocarcinoma metastasis.

  9. Cascading failures in networks with proximate dependent nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornbluth, Yosef; Lowinger, Steven; Cwilich, Gabriel; Buldyrev, Sergey V.

    2014-03-01

    We study the mutual percolation of a system composed of two interdependent random regular networks. We introduce a notion of distance to explore the effects of the proximity of interdependent nodes on the cascade of failures after an initial attack. We find a nontrivial relation between the nature of the transition through which the networks disintegrate and the parameters of the system, which are the degree of the nodes and the maximum distance between interdependent nodes. We explain this relation by solving the problem analytically for the relevant set of cases. In the process, we solve a variant of Rényi's parking problem on treelike graphs.

  10. Node of Ranvier disruption as a cause of neurological diseases

    PubMed Central

    Susuki, Keiichiro

    2013-01-01

    Dysfunction and/or disruption of nodes of Ranvier are now recognized as key contributors to the pathophysiology of various neurological diseases. One reason is that the excitable nodal axolemma contains a high density of Nav (voltage-gated Na+ channels) that are required for the rapid and efficient saltatory conduction of action potentials. Nodal physiology is disturbed by altered function, localization, and expression of voltage-gated ion channels clustered at nodes and juxtaparanodes, and by disrupted axon–glial interactions at paranodes. This paper reviews recent discoveries in molecular/cellular neuroscience, genetics, immunology, and neurology that highlight the critical roles of nodes of Ranvier in health and disease. PMID:23834220

  11. Optimization of MSB for future technology nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doering, Hans-Joachim; Elster, Thomas; Klein, Matthias; Heinitz, Joachim; Schneider, Marc; Weidenmüller, Ulf; Slodowski, Matthias; Stolberg, Ines A.; Dorl, Wolfgang

    2012-03-01

    In the ITRS roadmap [1] increasingly long mask write and cycle time is explicitly addressed as a difficult challenge in mask fabrication for the 16nm technology node and beyond. Write time reduction demands have to be seen in relation to corresponding performance parameters like Line Width Roughness (LWR), resolution, placement as well as CD Uniformity. The previously presented Multi Shaped Beam (MSB) approach [2, 3] is considered a potential solution for high throughput mask write application. In order to fully adapt the MSB concept to future industry's requirements specific optimizations are planned. The key element for achieving write time reduction is a higher probe current at the target, which can be obtained by increasing the number of beamlets as well as applying a higher current density. In the present paper the approach of a 256 beamlet MSB design will be discussed. For a given image field size along with a beamlet number increase both beamlet pitch and size have to be optimized. Out of previous investigations, one finding was that by changing the demagnification after the beam forming section of the MSB column the overall performance can be optimized. Based on first electron-optical simulations for a new final lens a larger demagnification turned out to be advantageous. Stochastic beam blur simulation results for the MSB reduction optics will be presented. During the exposure of a pattern layout the number of used beams, their shape and their distribution within the image field varies, which can lead to space charge distortion effects. In regard to this MSB simulation results obtained for an image field of approximately 10x10ìm² will be presented. For the 256 beamlet MSB design and resist sensitivities of 20μC/cm2, 40μC/cm2 and 100μC/cm2 write time and LWR simulations have been performed. For MSB pattern data fracturing an optimized algorithm has been used, which increased the beamlet utilization factor (indicates the mean number of beamlets which

  12. Role of microRNA-141 in colorectal cancer with lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Li; Ma, Hongqing; Chang, Liang; Zhou, Xinliang; Wang, Na; Zhao, Lianmei; Zuo, Jing; Wang, Yudong; Han, Jing; Wang, Guiying

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of microRNA (miR)-141 in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). In total, 58 CRC patients were included in the present study. The mRNA and protein expression levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase 4 (MAP4K4) were detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis, respectively. The miRNA-141 expression was measured by RT-qPCR, while serum MAP4K4 content was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Natural killer (NK) cells and T cells in peripheral blood were detected by flow cytometry. The results indicated that the mRNA and protein expression levels of MAP4K4 were significantly elevated in the tumor tissues, lymph nodes (P<0.01) and serum (P<0.05) in CRC. Furthermore, the expression levels of MAP4K4 in CRC patients with lymph node metastasis were higher compared with those in patients without metastasis. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that MAP4K4 may be the target gene of miRNA-141. The expression levels of miRNA-141 in the tumor tissues, lymph nodes and serum were significantly decreased in CRC patients, with a more evident decline in cases with lymph node metastasis. In addition, the percentage of NK, CD3+ T and CD4+ T cells was significantly decreased, whilst the number of CD8+ T cells was significantly increased, in the peripheral blood in CRC. The present results showed that miRNA-141 was downregulated in CRC, which increased the expression levels of MAP4K4 and altered the anti-tumor response, further increasing the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of the tumors. These findings may contribute to improving the current understanding of the pathogenesis of CRC, and lead to the development of therapies involving miRNA-141. PMID:27882171

  13. Is blue dye still required during sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Peek, Mirjam CL; Kovacs, Tibor; Baker, Rose; Hamed, Hisham; Kothari, Ash; Douek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background In early breast cancer, the optimal technique for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the combined technique (radioisotope and Patent Blue V) which achieves high identification rates. Despite this, many centres have decided to stop using blue dye due to blue-dye-related complications (tattoo, anaphylaxis). We evaluated the SLNB identification rate using the combined technique with and without Patent Blue V and the blue-dye-related complication rates. Methods Clinical and histological data were analysed on patients undergoing SLNB between March 2014 and April 2015. SLNB was performed following standard hospital protocols using the combined technique. Results A total of 208 patients underwent SLNB and 160 patients (342 nodes) with complete operation notes were available for final analysis. The identification rate with the combined technique was 98.8% (n = 158/160), with blue dye alone 92.5% (n = 148/160) and with radioisotope alone 97.5% (n = 156/160). A total of 76.9% (263/342) of nodes were radioactive and blue, 15.5% (53/342) only radioactive and 2.3% (8/342) only blue, 5.3% (18/342) were neither radioactive nor blue. No anaphylactic reactions were reported and blue skin staining was reported in six (3.8%) patients. Conclusion The combined technique should continue be the preferred technique for SLNB and should be standardised. Radioisotope alone (but not blue dye alone) has comparable sentinel node identification rates in experienced hands. National guidelines are required to optimise operative documentation. PMID:27729939

  14. Factors associated with involvement of four or more axillary nodes for sentinel lymph node-positive patients

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Angela . E-mail: abkatz@partners.org; Niemierko, Andrzej; Gage, Irene; Evans, Sheila; Shaffer, Margaret; Smith, Frederick P.; Taghian, Alphonse; Magnant, Colette

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: Sentinel lymph node-positive (SLN+) patients who are unlikely to have 4 or more involved axillary nodes might be treated with less extensive regional nodal radiation. The purpose of this study was to define possible predictors of having 4 or more involved axillary nodes. Methods and Materials: The records of 224 patients with breast cancer and 1 to 3 involved SLNs, who underwent completion axillary dissection without neoadjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapy were reviewed. Factors associated with the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes (SLNs plus non-SLNs) were evaluated by Pearson chi-square test of association and by simple and multiple logistic-regression analysis. Results: Of 224 patients, 42 had involvement of 4 or more axillary nodes. On univariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was positively associated with increased tumor size, lobular histology, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), increased number of involved SLNs, decreased number of uninvolved SLNs, and increased size of SLN metastasis. On multivariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was associated with LVSI, increased number of involved SLNs, increased size of SLN metastasis, and lobular histology. Conclusions: Patients with 1 or more involved SLN, LVSI, or SLN macrometastasis should be treated to the supraclavicular fossa/axillary apex if they do not undergo completion axillary dissection. Other SLN+ patients might be adequately treated with less extensive radiation fields.

  15. A rare case of coexistence of metastasis from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and tuberculosis within a neck lymph node.

    PubMed

    Caroppo, Danila; Russo, Daniela; Merolla, Francesco; Ilardi, Gennaro; Del Basso de Caro, Marialaura; Di Lorenzo, PierPaolo; Varricchio, Silvia; Mascolo, Massimo; Staibano, Stefania

    2015-10-29

    Coexistence of metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma and tuberculosis within lymph nodes is rare. We report a case of 86 years old woman with a mass in the left laterocervical region. The patient had undergone excision of a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma from the mucosa of the left cheek, a few months before. Histological examination of a mass of few fused lymph nodes, isolated from left laterocervical lymphadenectomy, showed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma with concomitant granulomatous inflammation. A diagnosis of tuberculosis associated with malignancy was posed. The suspect was confirmed by a positive anamnestic finding of a previous tuberculosis infection. The granulomatous reaction may be associated with many types of tumor, and can be found in the draining lymph nodes. The possibility that this reaction is also due to a tuberculosis infection should be kept in mind for elderly oncology patient.

  16. Regional Seismic Travel Time Node Get and Set

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S. C.

    2012-10-24

    RSTT_NOGS allows users to easily get and set seismic velocity vs. depth profiles at specified model tessellation nodes. RSTT_NOGS uses the Sandia Seismic Location Baseline Model code that was released under BSD license in 2009.

  17. Browsing schematics: Query-filtered graphs with context nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciccarelli, Eugene C.; Nardi, Bonnie A.

    1988-01-01

    The early results of a research project to create tools for building interfaces to intelligent systems on the NASA Space Station are reported. One such tool is the Schematic Browser which helps users engaged in engineering problem solving find and select schematics from among a large set. Users query for schematics with certain components, and the Schematic Browser presents a graph whose nodes represent the schematics with those components. The query greatly reduces the number of choices presented to the user, filtering the graph to a manageable size. Users can reformulate and refine the query serially until they locate the schematics of interest. To help users maintain orientation as they navigate a large body of data, the graph also includes nodes that are not matches but provide global and local context for the matching nodes. Context nodes include landmarks, ancestors, siblings, children and previous matches.

  18. [Low-power Wireless Micro Ambulatory Electrocardiogram Node].

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhipeng; Luo, Kan; Li, Jianqing

    2016-02-01

    Ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring can effectively reduce the risk and death rate of patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The Body Sensor Network (BSN) based ECG monitoring is a new and efficien method to protect the CVDs patients. To meet the challenges of miniaturization, low power and high signal quality of the node, we proposed a novel 50 mmX 50 mmX 10 mm, 30 g wireless ECG node, which includes the single-chip an alog front-end AD8232, ultra-low power microprocessor MSP430F1611 and Bluetooth module HM-11. The ECG signal quality is guaranteed by the on-line digital filtering. The difference threshold algorithm results in accuracy of R-wave detection and heart rate. Experiments were carried out to test the node and the results showed that the pro posed node reached the design target, and it has great potential in application of wireless ECG monitoring.

  19. A Reconfiguration Strategy of Distribution Networks Considering Node Importance

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Juan; Tan, Yanghong; Jiang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Node importance degree is a vital index in distribution network reconfiguration because it reflects the robustness of the network structure by evaluating node importance. Since the traditional reconfiguration ignores this index, the reconstructed network structure may be vulnerable which would reduce the security and stability of the distribution systems. This paper presents a novel reconfiguration strategy considering the node importance. The optimization objectives are the improvement of the node importance degree and the reduction of power loss. To balance the objectives, the reconfiguration mathematical model is formulated as a compound objective function with weight coefficients. Then the quantum particle swarm algorithm is employed to address this compound objective optimization problem. The strategy can model different scenarios network reconfiguration by adjusting the weight vector based on the tendencies of the utility decision maker. Illustrative examples verify the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. PMID:27992589

  20. Experimental demonstration of EON node supporting reconfigurable optical superchannel multicasting.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Paikun; Li, Juhao; Chen, Yuanxiang; Chen, Xin; Wu, Zhongying; Ge, Dawei; Chen, Zhangyuan; He, Yongqi

    2015-08-10

    Elastic optical networks (EON) based on optical superchannel enables higher spectral flexibility, in which the network nodes should provide multiple all-optical functionalities to manipulate bandwidth-variable data traffic. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate an EON node structure supporting reconfigurable optical superchannel multicasting. The node structure incorporates a shared multicasting module, which performs reconfigurable selection of target incoming/outgoing superchannels/replicas and leverages a group of nonlinear devices to satisfy multiple multicast requests. Moreover, an optical comb is utilized to efficiently provide and manage all pump resources for multicasting with potential cost reduction and phase noise inhibition. Based on the node structure, we experimentally demonstrate polarization division multiplexing (PDM) superchannel multicasting scenarios with different replica amount, input/output locations, and modulation formats. Less than 0.7 dB optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalties are demonstrated in multiple multicasting scenarios.

  1. Lymph node dissection for gastric cancer: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Thales Paulo; Martins, Mário Rino

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common neoplasms and an important cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Efforts to reduce its high mortality rates are currently focused on multidisciplinary management. However, surgery remains a cornerstone in the management of patients with resectable disease. There is still some controversy as to the extent of lymph node dissection for potentially curable stomach cancer. Surgeons in eastern countries favor more extensive lymph node dissection, whereas those in the West favor less extensive dissection. Thus, extent of lymph node dissection remains one of the most hotly discussed aspects of gastric surgery, particularly because most stomach cancers are now often comprehensively treated by adding some perioperative chemotherapy or chemo-radiation. We provide a critical review of lymph nodes dissection for gastric cancer with a particular focus on its benefits in a multimodal approach. PMID:25992202

  2. Fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo method for lithium systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasch, K. M.; Mitas, L.

    2015-07-01

    We study lithium systems over a range of a number of atoms, specifically atomic anion, dimer, metallic cluster, and body-centered-cubic crystal, using the fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo method. The focus is on analysis of the fixed-node errors of each system, and for that purpose we test several orbital sets in order to provide the most accurate nodal hypersurfaces. The calculations include both core and valence electrons in order to avoid any possible impact by pseudopotentials. To quantify the fixed-node errors, we compare our results to other highly accurate calculations, and wherever available, to experimental observations. The results for these Li systems show that the fixed-node diffusion Monte Carlo method achieves accurate total energies, recovers 96 -99 % of the correlation energy, and estimates binding energies with errors bounded by 0.1 eV /at .

  3. Error recovery to enable error-free message transfer between nodes of a computer network

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Coteus, Paul W.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Takken, Todd; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2016-01-26

    An error-recovery method to enable error-free message transfer between nodes of a computer network. A first node of the network sends a packet to a second node of the network over a link between the nodes, and the first node keeps a copy of the packet on a sending end of the link until the first node receives acknowledgment from the second node that the packet was received without error. The second node tests the packet to determine if the packet is error free. If the packet is not error free, the second node sets a flag to mark the packet as corrupt. The second node returns acknowledgement to the first node specifying whether the packet was received with or without error. When the packet is received with error, the link is returned to a known state and the packet is sent again to the second node.

  4. Modelling the Energy Efficient Sensor Nodes for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahiya, R.; Arora, A. K.; Singh, V. R.

    2015-09-01

    Energy is an important requirement of wireless sensor networks for better performance. A widely employed energy-saving technique is to place nodes in sleep mode, corresponding to low-power consumption as well as to reduce operational capabilities. In this paper, Markov model of a sensor network is developed. The node is considered to enter a sleep mode. This model is used to investigate the system performance in terms of energy consumption, network capacity and data delivery delay.

  5. Nodes and Codes: The Reality of Cyber Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    Nodes and Codes explores the reality of cyber warfare through the story of Stuxnet, a string of weaponized code that reached through a domain...nodes. Stuxnet served as a proof-of-concept for cyber weapons and provided a comparative laboratory to study the reality of cyber warfare from the...military powers most often associated with advanced, offensive cyber attack capabilities. The reality of cyber warfare holds significant operational

  6. Patterns of Retropharyngeal Node Metastasis in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiaoshen; Hu Chaosu Ying Hongmei; Zhou Zhengrong; Ding Jianhui; Feng Yan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the pattern of metastasis to retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RLN) and its relationship with tumor range in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients by using magnetic resonance imaging. Methods and Materials: Magnetic resonance images of 618 NPC patients were reviewed. Nodes were classified as metastatic on the basis of size criteria, the presence of nodal necrosis, and extracapsular spread. Results: A total of 597 involved RLN were detected in 392 patients (63.4%). The sites of RLN metastasis included occipital bone, 37 (6.2%); first cervical vertebra (C1), 453 (75.9%); second cervical vertebra (C2), 104 (17.4%); and third cervical vertebra (C3), 3 (0.5%). The incidence of RLN involvement was less than that of Level IIb node involvement (72.2% vs. 86.5%) in 543 patients with lymphadenopathy. The incidence of RLN metastasis was significantly higher in cases of parapharyngeal space invasion or involvement of Level II, Level III, Level IV, and/or Level V nodes and significantly lower in N0 and Stage I disease. Conversely, the incidence of RLN metastasis did not differ significantly among T1, 2, 3, and 4 disease or among Stage II, III, and IV disease. Conclusions: Level IIb nodes, rather than RLN, seem to be the first-echelon nodes in NPC. The incidence of RLN metastasis decreases steadily from level C1 to level C3. Retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis correlates well with involvement of the parapharyngeal space and metastases to Level II, III, IV, and/or V nodes but not with T stage.

  7. Molecular Mechanism of Lymph Node Metastasis in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    modulated mammary tumor growth and spontaneous metastasis. Moreover, expression of CCR7 had no effect on primary tumor growth, but affects lymph node...express CCL21, which is not affected following treatment with hyaluronan. Together, these data suggest an important role of HAS2, LYVE1 and CCR7 in a...lym ph nodes. CCL21 is primarily expressed in LECs and functions as a ch emoattractant for CCR7 -expressi ng dendritic cells and T cells. W e

  8. Morphology of Neptune Node Sites, Barkley Canyon, Cascadia Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.; Riedel, M.

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution multibeam bathymetry and chirp seismic reflection profiles collected with MBARI's mapping autonomous underwater vehicle reveal the fine-scale morphology and shallow seafloor structure of the flanks and floor of Barkley Canyon on the Cascadia continental margin off British Columbia. The surveys characterize the environment surrounding three nodes on the Neptune Canada cabled observatory located within the canyon. The canyon floor between 960 and 1020 m water depth lacks channeling and contains ≥ 24 m of acoustically uniform sediment fill, which is ponded between the canyon's steep sidewalls. The fill overlies a strong reflector that outlines an earlier, now buried, canyon floor channel system. Debris flow tongues contain meter scale blocks sticking-up through the fill. Apparently the present geomorphology surrounding the Canyon Axis node in 985 m is attributable to local debris flows, rather than organized down canyon processes. In the survey area the canyon sidewalls extend ~300 m up and in places the slope of the canyons sides exceed 40°. Both the Hydrate node in 870 m water depths and the Mid-Canyon node at 890 m are located on a headland that forms intermediate depth terraces on the canyon's western flank. While the seafloor immediately surrounding the Mid-canyon node is smooth, the Hydrate node is marked by 10 circular mounds up to 2 m high and 10 m in diameter, presumable associated with hydrate formation. Although wedges of sediment drape occur in places on the canyon sides, the chirp profiles show no detectible sediment drape at either node site and suggest these nodes are situated on older, presumably pre-Quaternary strata. The lack of reflectors in the chirp profiles indicates most of the canyon's sidewalls are largely sediment-bare. Lineations in the bathymetry mark the exposed edges of truncated beds. Rough, apparently fresh textures, within slide scarps show the importance of erosion on the development of the canyon flanks.

  9. [Cytological structure of the lymph nodes after administration of foreign protein].

    PubMed

    Iurina, S A; Rusina, A K

    1976-12-01

    Changes in the cellular compositon of popliteal lymphatic nodes of albino rats were studied in normality and after injection of a foreign protein. Allergic inflammation was caused by injection of 0,25 ml of the horse serum. Observations were made on the 1, 3, 8, 19 and 30 days after the beginning of experiment. The cellular composition was counted in 30 visual fileds in the cortical plateu, follicles and myelinated cords. The average percentage of cellular elements has been determined. It has been shown that the reticular cells have less changes as compared with other cells in response to antigen stimulation. An inverse correlative relationship was noted between small and medium-sized lymphocytes. The greatest percentage of plasmic cells was noted in myelinated cords; in the follicles they are found as solitary units. In the primary immunization the cellular composition of follicles was little changed as compared with the cellular composition of the cortical and medullary substance. The cellular reaction was most pronounced in myelinated cords. Thus, the investigation of the cellular composition of different structure components of the rat's lymphatic nodes after injection of the foreign protein has revealed a different degree of their reaction.

  10. Medical image archive node simulation and architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Ted T.; Tang, Yau-Kuo

    1996-05-01

    access time, number of drives, number of exams per patient, number of Central Processing Units, patient grouping, and priority impacts. The MIADS, which could be a key component of a broader data repository system, will be able to communicate with and obtain data from existing hospital information systems. We will discuss the external interfaces enabling MIADS to communicate with and obtain data from existing Radiology Information Systems such as the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). Our system design encompasses the broader aspects of the archive node, which could include multimedia data such as image, audio, video, and free text data. This system is designed to be integrated with current hospital PACS through a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine interface. However, the system can also be accessed through the Internet using Hypertext Transport Protocol or Simple File Transport Protocol. Our design and simulation work will be key to implementing a successful, scalable medical image archive and distribution system.

  11. Dirac node arcs in PtSn4

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yun; Wang, Lin -Lin; Mun, Eundeok; Johnson, D. D.; Mou, Daixiang; Huang, Lunan; Lee, Yongbin; Bud’ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Kaminski, Adam

    2016-04-04

    In topological quantum materials1,2,3 the conduction and valence bands are connected at points or along lines in the momentum space. A number of studies have demonstrated that several materials are indeed Dirac/Weyl semimetals4,5,6,7,8. However, there is still no experimental confirmation of materials with line nodes, in which the Dirac nodes form closed loops in the momentum space2,3. Here we report the discovery of a novel topological structure—Dirac node arcs—in the ultrahigh magnetoresistive material PtSn4 using laser-based angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data and density functional theory calculations. Unlike the closed loops of line nodes, the Dirac node arc structure arises owing to the surface states and resembles the Dirac dispersion in graphene that is extended along a short line in the momentum space. Here, we propose that this reported Dirac node arc structure is a novel topological state that provides an exciting platform for studying the exotic properties of Dirac fermions.

  12. Rapid identifying high-influence nodes in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bo; Jiang, Guo-Ping; Song, Yu-Rong; Xia, Ling-Ling

    2015-10-01

    A tiny fraction of influential individuals play a critical role in the dynamics on complex systems. Identifying the influential nodes in complex networks has theoretical and practical significance. Considering the uncertainties of network scale and topology, and the timeliness of dynamic behaviors in real networks, we propose a rapid identifying method (RIM) to find the fraction of high-influential nodes. Instead of ranking all nodes, our method only aims at ranking a small number of nodes in network. We set the high-influential nodes as initial spreaders, and evaluate the performance of RIM by the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model. The simulations show that in different networks, RIM performs well on rapid identifying high-influential nodes, which is verified by typical ranking methods, such as degree, closeness, betweenness, and eigenvector centrality methods. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61374180 and 61373136), the Ministry of Education Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences Planning Fund Project, China (Grant No. 12YJAZH120), and the Six Projects Sponsoring Talent Summits of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. RLD201212).

  13. The imaging node for the Planetary Data System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eliason, E.M.; LaVoie, S.K.; Soderblom, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Planetary Data System Imaging Node maintains and distributes the archives of planetary image data acquired from NASA's flight projects with the primary goal of enabling the science community to perform image processing and analysis on the data. The Node provides direct and easy access to the digital image archives through wide distribution of the data on CD-ROM media and on-line remote-access tools by way of Internet services. The Node provides digital image processing tools and the expertise and guidance necessary to understand the image collections. The data collections, now approaching one terabyte in volume, provide a foundation for remote sensing studies for virtually all the planetary systems in our solar system (except for Pluto). The Node is responsible for restoring data sets from past missions in danger of being lost. The Node works with active flight projects to assist in the creation of their archive products and to ensure that their products and data catalogs become an integral part of the Node's data collections.

  14. Sentinel lymph node biopsy indications and controversies in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wiatrek, Rebecca; Kruper, Laura

    2011-05-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become the standard of care for early breast cancer. Its use in breast cancer has been evaluated in several randomized controlled trials and validated in multiple prospective studies. Additionally, it has been verified that SLNB has decreased morbidity when compared to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). The technique used to perform sentinel lymph node mapping was also evaluated in multiple studies and the accuracy rate increases when radiocolloid and blue dye are used in combination. As SLNB became more accepted, contraindications were delineated and are still debated. Patients who have clinically positive lymph nodes or core biopsy-proven positive lymph nodes should not have SLNB, but should have an ALND as their staging procedure. The safety of SLNB in pregnant patients is not fully established. However, patients with multifocal or multicentric breast cancer and patients having neoadjuvant chemotherapy are considered candidates for SLNB. However, the details of which specific neoadjuvant patients should have SLNB are currently being evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. Patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) benefit from SLNB when mastectomy is planned and when there is a high clinical suspicion of invasion. With the advent of SLNB, pathologic review of breast cancer lymph nodes has evolved. The significance of occult metastasis in SLNB patients is currently being debated. Additionally, the most controversial subject with regards to SLNB is determining which patients with positive SLNs benefit from further axillary dissection.

  15. Measures of node centrality in mobile social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhenxiang; Shi, Yan; Chen, Shanzhi

    2015-02-01

    Mobile social networks exploit human mobility and consequent device-to-device contact to opportunistically create data paths over time. While links in mobile social networks are time-varied and strongly impacted by human mobility, discovering influential nodes is one of the important issues for efficient information propagation in mobile social networks. Although traditional centrality definitions give metrics to identify the nodes with central positions in static binary networks, they cannot effectively identify the influential nodes for information propagation in mobile social networks. In this paper, we address the problems of discovering the influential nodes in mobile social networks. We first use the temporal evolution graph model which can more accurately capture the topology dynamics of the mobile social network over time. Based on the model, we explore human social relations and mobility patterns to redefine three common centrality metrics: degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality. We then employ empirical traces to evaluate the benefits of the proposed centrality metrics, and discuss the predictability of nodes' global centrality ranking by nodes' local centrality ranking. Results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed centrality metrics.

  16. Dirac node arcs in PtSn4

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Yun; Wang, Lin -Lin; Mun, Eundeok; ...

    2016-04-04

    In topological quantum materials1,2,3 the conduction and valence bands are connected at points or along lines in the momentum space. A number of studies have demonstrated that several materials are indeed Dirac/Weyl semimetals4,5,6,7,8. However, there is still no experimental confirmation of materials with line nodes, in which the Dirac nodes form closed loops in the momentum space2,3. Here we report the discovery of a novel topological structure—Dirac node arcs—in the ultrahigh magnetoresistive material PtSn4 using laser-based angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data and density functional theory calculations. Unlike the closed loops of line nodes, the Dirac node arc structure arises owing tomore » the surface states and resembles the Dirac dispersion in graphene that is extended along a short line in the momentum space. Here, we propose that this reported Dirac node arc structure is a novel topological state that provides an exciting platform for studying the exotic properties of Dirac fermions.« less

  17. Neural node network and model, and method of teaching same

    DOEpatents

    Parlos, A.G.; Atiya, A.F.; Fernandez, B.; Tsai, W.K.; Chong, K.T.

    1995-12-26

    The present invention is a fully connected feed forward network that includes at least one hidden layer. The hidden layer includes nodes in which the output of the node is fed back to that node as an input with a unit delay produced by a delay device occurring in the feedback path (local feedback). Each node within each layer also receives a delayed output (crosstalk) produced by a delay unit from all the other nodes within the same layer. The node performs a transfer function operation based on the inputs from the previous layer and the delayed outputs. The network can be implemented as analog or digital or within a general purpose processor. Two teaching methods can be used: (1) back propagation of weight calculation that includes the local feedback and the crosstalk or (2) more preferably a feed forward gradient decent which immediately follows the output computations and which also includes the local feedback and the crosstalk. Subsequent to the gradient propagation, the weights can be normalized, thereby preventing convergence to a local optimum. Education of the network can be incremental both on and off-line. An educated network is suitable for modeling and controlling dynamic nonlinear systems and time series systems and predicting the outputs as well as hidden states and parameters. The educated network can also be further educated during on-line processing. 21 figs.

  18. Neural node network and model, and method of teaching same

    DOEpatents

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Atiya, Amir F.; Fernandez, Benito; Tsai, Wei K.; Chong, Kil T.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is a fully connected feed forward network that includes at least one hidden layer 16. The hidden layer 16 includes nodes 20 in which the output of the node is fed back to that node as an input with a unit delay produced by a delay device 24 occurring in the feedback path 22 (local feedback). Each node within each layer also receives a delayed output (crosstalk) produced by a delay unit 36 from all the other nodes within the same layer 16. The node performs a transfer function operation based on the inputs from the previous layer and the delayed outputs. The network can be implemented as analog or digital or within a general purpose processor. Two teaching methods can be used: (1) back propagation of weight calculation that includes the local feedback and the crosstalk or (2) more preferably a feed forward gradient decent which immediately follows the output computations and which also includes the local feedback and the crosstalk. Subsequent to the gradient propagation, the weights can be normalized, thereby preventing convergence to a local optimum. Education of the network can be incremental both on and off-line. An educated network is suitable for modeling and controlling dynamic nonlinear systems and time series systems and predicting the outputs as well as hidden states and parameters. The educated network can also be further educated during on-line processing.

  19. The Imaging Node for the Planetary Data System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliason, Eric M.; LaVoie, Susan K.; Soderblom, Laurence A.

    1996-01-01

    The Planetary Data System Imaging Node maintains and distributes the archives of planetary image data acquired from NASA's flight projects with the primary goal of enabling the science community to perform image processing and analysis on the data. The Node provides direct and easy access to the digital image archives through wide distribution of the data on CD-ROM media and on-line remote-access tools by way of Internet services. The Node provides digital image processing tools and the expertise and guidance necessary to understand the image collections. The data collections, now approaching one terabyte in volume, provide a foundation for remote sensing studies for virtually all the planetary systems in our solar system (except for Pluto). The Node is responsible for restoring data sets from past missions in danger of being lost. The Node works with active flight projects to assist in the creation of their archive products and to ensure that their products and data catalogs become an integral part of the Node's data collections.

  20. Node Augmentation Technique in Bayesian Network Evidence Analysis and Marshaling

    SciTech Connect

    Keselman, Dmitry; Tompkins, George H; Leishman, Deborah A

    2010-01-01

    Given a Bayesian network, sensitivity analysis is an important activity. This paper begins by describing a network augmentation technique which can simplifY the analysis. Next, we present two techniques which allow the user to determination the probability distribution of a hypothesis node under conditions of uncertain evidence; i.e. the state of an evidence node or nodes is described by a user specified probability distribution. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of three criteria for ranking evidence nodes based on their influence on a hypothesis node. All of these techniques have been used in conjunction with a commercial software package. A Bayesian network based on a directed acyclic graph (DAG) G is a graphical representation of a system of random variables that satisfies the following Markov property: any node (random variable) is independent of its non-descendants given the state of all its parents (Neapolitan, 2004). For simplicities sake, we consider only discrete variables with a finite number of states, though most of the conclusions may be generalized.

  1. Information-based self-organization of sensor nodes of a sensor network

    DOEpatents

    Ko, Teresa H.; Berry, Nina M.

    2011-09-20

    A sensor node detects a plurality of information-based events. The sensor node determines whether at least one other sensor node is an information neighbor of the sensor node based on at least a portion of the plurality of information-based events. The information neighbor has an overlapping field of view with the sensor node. The sensor node sends at least one communication to the at least one other sensor node that is an information neighbor of the sensor node in response to at least one information-based event of the plurality of information-based events.

  2. Ascending colon cancer with synchronous external iliac and inguinal lymph node metastases but without regional lymph node metastasis: a case report and brief literature review.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Yuki; Kuramoto, Masafumi; Masuda, Toshiro; Kuroda, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Kenichiro; Ikeshima, Satoshi; Iyama, Ken-Ichi; Shimada, Shinya; Baba, Hideo

    2017-12-01

    Lymph node metastasis to the iliac or inguinal region of colon cancer is extremely rare. We experienced a case of ascending colon cancer with synchronous isolated right external iliac and inguinal lymph node metastases but without any regional lymph node metastasis. An 83-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to anemia. Colonoscopy and computed tomography revealed an ascending colon cancer and also right external iliac and inguinal lymph node swelling. Further examination by F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography strongly suggested that these lymph nodes were metastatic. Right hemicolectomy with lymph node dissection along the superior mesenteric artery, and right external iliac and inguinal lymph node dissection were performed. Histological examination revealed that both lymph nodes were metastasized from colon cancer, and there was no evidence of regional lymph node metastasis. The patient has shown no sign of recurrence at 27 months after surgery.

  3. A nomogram improves AJCC stages for colorectal cancers by introducing CEA, modified lymph node ratio and negative lymph node count

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen-yu; Gao, Wei; Luo, Qi-feng; Yin, Xiao-wei; Basnet, Shiva; Dai, Zhen-ling; Ge, Hai-yan

    2016-01-01

    Lymph node stages (pN stages) are primary contributors to survival heterogeneity of the 7th AJCC staging system for colorectal cancer (CRC), indicating spaces for modifications. To implement the modifications, we selected eligible CRC patients from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database as participants in a training (n = 6675) and a test cohort (n = 6760), and verified tumor deposits to be metastatic lymph nodes to derive modified lymph node count (mLNC), lymph node ratio (mLNR), and positive lymph node count (mPLNC). After multivariate Cox regression analyses with forward stepwise elimination of the mLNC and mPLNC for the training cohort, a nomogram was constructed to predict overall survival (OS) via incorporating preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen, pT stages, negative lymph node count, mLNR and metastasis. Internal validations of the nomogram showed concordance indexes (c-index) of 0.750 (95% CI, 0.736–0.764) and 0.749 before and after corrections for overfitting. Serial performance evaluations indicated that the nomogram outperformed the AJCC stages (c-index = 0.725) with increased accuracy, net benefits, risk assessment ability, but comparable complexity and clinical validity. All the results were reproducible in the test cohort. In summary, the proposed nomogram may serve as an alternative to the AJCC stages. However, validations with longer follow-up periods are required. PMID:27941905

  4. Risk of node metastasis of sentinel lymph nodes detected in level II/III of the axilla by single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    SHIMA, HIROAKI; KUTOMI, GORO; SATOMI, FUKINO; MAEDA, HIDEKI; TAKAMARU, TOMOKO; KAMESHIMA, HIDEKAZU; OMURA, TOSEI; MORI, MITSURU; HATAKENAKA, MASAMITSU; HASEGAWA, TADASHI; HIRATA, KOICHI

    2014-01-01

    In breast cancer, single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) shows the exact anatomical location of sentinel nodes (SN). SPECT/CT mainly exposes axilla and partly exposes atypical sites of extra-axillary lymphatic drainage. The mechanism of how the atypical hot nodes are involved in lymphatic metastasis was retrospectively investigated in the present study, particularly at the level II/III region. SPECT/CT was performed in 92 clinical stage 0-IIA breast cancer patients. Sentinel lymph nodes are depicted as hot nodes in SPECT/CT. Patients were divided into two groups: With or without hot node in level II/III on SPECT/CT. The existence of metastasis in level II/III was investigated and the risk factors were identified. A total of 12 patients were sentinel lymph node biopsy metastasis positive and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was performed. These patients were divided into two groups: With and without SN in level II/III, and nodes in level II/III were pathologically proven. In 11 of the 92 patients, hot nodes were detected in level II/III. There was a significant difference in node metastasis depending on whether there were hot nodes in level II/III (P=0.0319). Multivariate analysis indicated that the hot nodes in level II/III and lymphatic invasion were independent factors associated with node metastasis. There were 12 SN-positive patients followed by ALND. In four of the 12 patients, hot nodes were observed in level II/III. Two of the four patients with hot nodes depicted by SPECT/CT and metastatic nodes were pathologically evident in the same lesion. Therefore, the present study indicated that the hot node in level II/III as depicted by SPECT/CT may be a risk of SN metastasis, including deeper nodes. PMID:25289038

  5. Multiple-node basin stability in complex dynamical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Chiranjit; Choudhary, Anshul; Sinha, Sudeshna; Kurths, Jürgen; Donner, Reik V.

    2017-03-01

    Dynamical entities interacting with each other on complex networks often exhibit multistability. The stability of a desired steady regime (e.g., a synchronized state) to large perturbations is critical in the operation of many real-world networked dynamical systems such as ecosystems, power grids, the human brain, etc. This necessitates the development of appropriate quantifiers of stability of multiple stable states of such systems. Motivated by the concept of basin stability (BS) [P. J. Menck et al., Nat. Phys. 9, 89 (2013), 10.1038/nphys2516], we propose here the general framework of multiple-node basin stability for gauging the global stability and robustness of networked dynamical systems in response to nonlocal perturbations simultaneously affecting multiple nodes of a system. The framework of multiple-node BS provides an estimate of the critical number of nodes that, when simultaneously perturbed, significantly reduce the capacity of the system to return to the desired stable state. Further, this methodology can be applied to estimate the minimum number of nodes of the network to be controlled or safeguarded from external perturbations to ensure proper operation of the system. Multiple-node BS can also be utilized for probing the influence of spatially localized perturbations or targeted attacks to specific parts of a network. We demonstrate the potential of multiple-node BS in assessing the stability of the synchronized state in a deterministic scale-free network of Rössler oscillators and a conceptual model of the power grid of the United Kingdom with second-order Kuramoto-type nodal dynamics.

  6. Methods and apparatus using commutative error detection values for fault isolation in multiple node computers

    DOEpatents

    Almasi, Gheorghe [Ardsley, NY; Blumrich, Matthias Augustin [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton-On-Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul [Yorktown, NY; Gara, Alan [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk I [Ossining, NY; Singh, Sarabjeet [Mississauga, CA; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Wernau, DE; Takken, Todd [Brewster, NY; Vranas, Pavlos [Bedford Hills, NY

    2008-06-03

    Methods and apparatus perform fault isolation in multiple node computing systems using commutative error detection values for--example, checksums--to identify and to isolate faulty nodes. When information associated with a reproducible portion of a computer program is injected into a network by a node, a commutative error detection value is calculated. At intervals, node fault detection apparatus associated with the multiple node computer system retrieve commutative error detection values associated with the node and stores them in memory. When the computer program is executed again by the multiple node computer system, new commutative error detection values are created and stored in memory. The node fault detection apparatus identifies faulty nodes by comparing commutative error detection values associated with reproducible portions of the application program generated by a particular node from different runs of the application program. Differences in values indicate a possible faulty node.

  7. CXCR5+CD4+ follicular helper T cells accumulate in resting human lymph nodes and have superior B cell helper activity.

    PubMed

    Havenith, Simone H C; Remmerswaal, Ester B M; Idu, Mirza M; van Donselaar-van der Pant, Karlijn A M I; van der Bom, Nelly; Bemelman, Fréderike J; van Leeuwen, Ester M M; ten Berge, Ineke J M; van Lier, René A W

    2014-03-01

    Although many relevant immune reactions are initiated in the lymph nodes, this compartment has not been systematically studied in humans. Analyses have been performed on immune cells derived from tonsils, but as this tissue is most often inflamed, generalization of these data is difficult. Here, we analyzed the phenotype and function of the human CD4(+) T-cell subsets and lineages in paired resting lymph node and peripheral blood samples. Naive, central memory cells and effector memory cells as well as Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg cells were equally represented in both compartments. On the other hand, cytotoxic CD4(+) T cells were strikingly absent in the lymph nodes. CXCR5(+)CD4(+) T cells, representing putative follicular Th (Tfh) cells were over-represented in lymph nodes and expressed higher levels of Tfh markers than their peripheral blood counterparts. Compared with the circulating pool, lymph-node-derived CXCR5(+)CD4(+) T cells were superior in providing help to B cells. Thus, functionally competent Tfh cells accumulate in resting human lymph nodes, providing a swift induction of naive and memory antibody responses upon antigenic challenge.

  8. Pigmentation in the sentinel node correlates with increased sentinel node tumor burden in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    van Lanschot, Cornelia G F; Koljenović, Senada; Grunhagen, Dirk-Jan; Verhoef, Cornelis; van Akkooi, Alexander C J

    2014-06-01

    The prognosis of sentinel node (SN)-positive melanoma patients is predicted by a number of characteristics such as size and site of the metastases in the SN. The pathway and prognosis of strong pigmentation of melanoma metastases in the SN is unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of pigmentation and growth pattern of metastases in the SN with respect to survival. A total of 389 patients underwent an SN procedure (1997-2011). Ninety-five patients had a positive SN and material from 75 patients was available for review. The median follow-up time was 75 months (range 6-164). Pigmentation was scored from 0 to 2 using the following scale: 0=absent, 1=slight, and 2=strong. Growth pattern was scored as either eccentric (1) or infiltrative (2). SN tumor burden was measured according to the Rotterdam criteria. The primary melanoma had a median Breslow thickness of 2.90 mm (0.8-12.00 mm). Ulceration was present in 34 patients (45.3%). There was a median SN tumor burden of 0.5 mm (0.05-7.00 mm). In a total of 75 patients, 59 patients (79%) had no pigmentation, 13 patients (17%) had slight pigmentation, and three patients (4%) had strong pigmentation in the SN. Because of the small numbers, the classification was modified to either absent 59 (79%) or present 16 (21%) pigmentation, respectively. The SN tumor burden was significantly higher (P=0.031) for patients with pigmentation. Patients with pigmentation had a 5-year melanoma-specific survival (MSS) of 47% and a 10-year MSS of 33%. Patients without pigmentation had a 5-year MSS of 70% and a 10-year MSS of 59% (P=0.06). There was no difference in MSS for patients with an eccentric or an infiltrative growth pattern, nor did it correlate with other prognostic factors. Multivariate analysis for MSS showed five significant factors associated with worse prognosis: male sex (P=0.036), nodular melanoma (P=0.001), truncal site (P=0.0001), SN tumor burden more than 1.0 mm (P=0.022), and positive completion lymph node

  9. Impact of clinical pharmacy interventions on medication error nodes.

    PubMed

    Chamoun, Nibal R; Zeenny, Rony; Mansour, Hanine

    2016-12-01

    Background Pharmacists' involvement in patient care has improved the quality of care and reduced medication errors. However, this has required a lot of work that could not have been accomplished without documentation of interventions. Several means of documenting errors have been proposed in the literature but without a consistent comprehensive process. Recently, the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) recognized that pharmacy practice lacks a consistent process for direct patient care and discussed several options for a pharmaceutical care plan, essentially encompassing medication therapy assessment, development and implementation of a pharmaceutical care plan and finally evaluation of the outcome. Therefore, as per the recommendations of ACCP, we sought to retrospectively analyze interventions by grouping them according to medication related problems (MRP) and their nodes such as prescribing; administering; monitoring; documenting and dispensing. Objective The aim of this study is to report interventions according to medication error (ME) nodes and show the impact of pharmacy interventions in reducing MRPs. Setting The study was conducted at the cardiology and infectious diseases services at a teaching hospital located in Beirut, Lebanon. Methods Intervention documentation was completed by pharmacy students on infectious diseases and cardiology rotations then reviewed by clinical pharmacists with respective specialties. Before data analysis, a new pharmacy reporting sheet was developed in order to link interventions according to MRP. Then, MRPs were grouped in the five ME nodes. During the documentation process, whether MRP had reached the patient or not may have not been reported which prevented the classification to the corresponding medication error nodes as ME. Main outcome Reduction in medication related problems across all ME nodes. Results A total of n = 1174 interventions were documented. N = 1091 interventions were classified as MRPs

  10. Identifying Controlling Nodes in Neuronal Networks in Different Scales

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yang; Gao, Huijun; Zou, Wei; Kurths, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have detected hubs in neuronal networks using degree, betweenness centrality, motif and synchronization and revealed the importance of hubs in their structural and functional roles. In addition, the analysis of complex networks in different scales are widely used in physics community. This can provide detailed insights into the intrinsic properties of networks. In this study, we focus on the identification of controlling regions in cortical networks of cats’ brain in microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic scales, based on single-objective evolutionary computation methods. The problem is investigated by considering two measures of controllability separately. The impact of the number of driver nodes on controllability is revealed and the properties of controlling nodes are shown in a statistical way. Our results show that the statistical properties of the controlling nodes display a concave or convex shape with an increase of the allowed number of controlling nodes, revealing a transition in choosing driver nodes from the areas with a large degree to the areas with a low degree. Interestingly, the community Auditory in cats’ brain, which has sparse connections with other communities, plays an important role in controlling the neuronal networks. PMID:22848475

  11. Deployment of check-in nodes in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Ma, Jian-Feng

    2017-01-01

    In many real complex networks such as the city road networks and highway networks, vehicles often have to pass through some specially functioned nodes to receive check-in like services such as gas supplement at gas stations. Based on existing network structures, to guarantee every shortest path including at least a check-in node, the location selection of all check-in nodes is very essential and important to make vehicles to easily visit these check-in nodes, and it is still remains an open problem in complex network studies. In this work, we aim to find possible solutions for this problem. We first convert it into a set cover problem which is NP-complete and propose to employ the greedy algorithm to achieve an approximate result. Inspired by heuristic information of network structure, we discuss other four check-in node location deployment methods including high betweenness first (HBF), high degree first (HDF), random and low degree first (LDF). Finally, we compose extensive simulations in classical scale-free networks, random networks and real network models, and the results can well confirm the effectiveness of the greedy algorithm. This work has potential applications into many real networks.

  12. Deployment of check-in nodes in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Ma, Jian-Feng

    2017-01-11

    In many real complex networks such as the city road networks and highway networks, vehicles often have to pass through some specially functioned nodes to receive check-in like services such as gas supplement at gas stations. Based on existing network structures, to guarantee every shortest path including at least a check-in node, the location selection of all check-in nodes is very essential and important to make vehicles to easily visit these check-in nodes, and it is still remains an open problem in complex network studies. In this work, we aim to find possible solutions for this problem. We first convert it into a set cover problem which is NP-complete and propose to employ the greedy algorithm to achieve an approximate result. Inspired by heuristic information of network structure, we discuss other four check-in node location deployment methods including high betweenness first (HBF), high degree first (HDF), random and low degree first (LDF). Finally, we compose extensive simulations in classical scale-free networks, random networks and real network models, and the results can well confirm the effectiveness of the greedy algorithm. This work has potential applications into many real networks.

  13. Deployment of check-in nodes in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Ma, Jian-Feng

    2017-01-01

    In many real complex networks such as the city road networks and highway networks, vehicles often have to pass through some specially functioned nodes to receive check-in like services such as gas supplement at gas stations. Based on existing network structures, to guarantee every shortest path including at least a check-in node, the location selection of all check-in nodes is very essential and important to make vehicles to easily visit these check-in nodes, and it is still remains an open problem in complex network studies. In this work, we aim to find possible solutions for this problem. We first convert it into a set cover problem which is NP-complete and propose to employ the greedy algorithm to achieve an approximate result. Inspired by heuristic information of network structure, we discuss other four check-in node location deployment methods including high betweenness first (HBF), high degree first (HDF), random and low degree first (LDF). Finally, we compose extensive simulations in classical scale-free networks, random networks and real network models, and the results can well confirm the effectiveness of the greedy algorithm. This work has potential applications into many real networks. PMID:28074861

  14. Automatic detection and segmentation of lymph nodes from CT data.

    PubMed

    Barbu, Adrian; Suehling, Michael; Xu, Xun; Liu, David; Zhou, S Kevin; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2012-02-01

    Lymph nodes are assessed routinely in clinical practice and their size is followed throughout radiation or chemotherapy to monitor the effectiveness of cancer treatment. This paper presents a robust learning-based method for automatic detection and segmentation of solid lymph nodes from CT data, with the following contributions. First, it presents a learning based approach to solid lymph node detection that relies on marginal space learning to achieve great speedup with virtually no loss in accuracy. Second, it presents a computationally efficient segmentation method for solid lymph nodes (LN). Third, it introduces two new sets of features that are effective for LN detection, one that self-aligns to high gradients and another set obtained from the segmentation result. The method is evaluated for axillary LN detection on 131 volumes containing 371 LN, yielding a 83.0% detection rate with 1.0 false positive per volume. It is further evaluated for pelvic and abdominal LN detection on 54 volumes containing 569 LN, yielding a 80.0% detection rate with 3.2 false positives per volume. The running time is 5-20 s per volume for axillary areas and 15-40 s for pelvic. An added benefit of the method is the capability to detect and segment conglomerated lymph nodes.

  15. Wireless and Powerless Sensing Node System Developed for Monitoring Motors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dasheng

    2008-01-01

    Reliability and maintainability of tooling systems can be improved through condition monitoring of motors. However, it is difficult to deploy sensor nodes due to the harsh environment of industrial plants. Sensor cables are easily damaged, which renders the monitoring system deployed to assure the machine's reliability itself unreliable. A wireless and powerless sensing node integrated with a MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical System) sensor, a signal processor, a communication module, and a self-powered generator was developed in this study for implementation of an easily mounted network sensor for monitoring motors. A specially designed communication module transmits a sequence of electromagnetic (EM) pulses in response to the sensor signals. The EM pulses can penetrate through the machine's metal case and delivers signals from the sensor inside the motor to the external data acquisition center. By using induction power, which is generated by the motor's shaft rotation, the sensor node is self-sustaining; therefore, no power line is required. A monitoring system, equipped with novel sensing nodes, was constructed to test its performance. The test results illustrate that, the novel sensing node developed in this study can effectively enhance the reliability of the motor monitoring system and it is expected to be a valuable technology, which will be available to the plant for implementation in a reliable motor management program. PMID:27873798

  16. [Axillary lymph node dissection in clinically occult breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Le Bouëdec, G; Pomel, C; Chamussy, E; Feillel, V; de Latour, M; Dauplat, J

    1996-07-01

    The study concerns 265 patients with axillary lymph node dissection for non-palpable breast cancer. The mammographically detected breast tumors were: 36 ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS), 23 microinvasive carcinomas, 206 invasive carcinomas of which 179 were invasive ductal cancers (IDC), 25 invasive lobular cancers (ILC) and 2 mucinous invasive carcinomas. The histologic size of the invasive component was < or = 5 mm in 38 cases, 6-10 mm in 84 cases, 11-15 mm in 53 cases, 16-20 mm in 16 cases, > 20 mm in 15 cases. Axillary dissection was performed immediately during the initial surgical procedure in 209 patients (79%) or secondarily in 56 (21%) according to the results of intraoperative examination of surgical specimens on frozen sections. Axillary lymph node involvement was not found in DCIS, microinvasive carcinomas or invasive carcinomas < or = 5 mm in size. Among all 206 invasive breast carcinomas, lymph node involvement was found in 7.8% (16/206) of cases. There were 9/84 (10.7%) in tumors > 10 mm, 7/122 (5.8%) in tumors < or = 10 mm. Thus, it is concluded that lymph node involvement is unlikely to be found in patients with non palpable breast cancers, specially those with carcinoma in situ, microinvasive breast tumors and invasive breast cancer with less than 5 mm maximum diameter size. Axillary dissection may be avoided in these patients. However, the use of new prognostic factors of lymph node involvement may help in the definition of patient group.

  17. A new measure of identifying influential nodes: Efficiency centrality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shasha; Du, Yuxian; Deng, Yong

    2017-06-01

    Identifying the influential nodes in complex networks is a fundamental and practical topic at the moment. Local metric like degree centrality measure is relatively simple and of less effectiveness, although the global metrics such as closeness and betweenness centrality measure can better identify influential nodes, still, there are some disadvantages and limitations. In this paper, a new efficiency centrality (EffC) to rank the spreaders in the whole network is proposed, which identify influential nodes by removing each node and meanwhile considering the changing degree of the whole network efficiency after removal. To evaluate the performance of our method, Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model is used to simulate the epidemic spreading in four real networks. The experimental and simulated results show the efficiency and practicability of the proposed method. Thus, it is significant to rank spreaders in complex networks by using Network Efficiency. And our proposed EffC is proved to be a feasible and effective measure to identify influential nodes.

  18. Modeling lymphocyte homing and encounters in lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The efficiency of lymph nodes depends on tissue structure and organization, which allow the coordination of lymphocyte traffic. Despite their essential role, our understanding of lymph node specific mechanisms is still incomplete and currently a topic of intense research. Results In this paper, we present a hybrid discrete/continuous model of the lymph node, accounting for differences in cell velocity and chemotactic response, influenced by the spatial compartmentalization of the lymph node and the regulation of cells migration, encounter, and antigen presentation during the inflammation process. Conclusion Our model reproduces the correct timing of an immune response, including the observed time delay between duplication of T helper cells and duplication of B cells in response to antigen exposure. Furthermore, we investigate the consequences of the absence of dendritic cells at different times during infection, and the dependence of system dynamics on the regulation of lymphocyte exit from lymph nodes. In both cases, the model predicts the emergence of an impaired immune response, i.e., the response is significantly reduced in magnitude. Dendritic cell removal is also shown to delay the response time with respect to normal conditions. PMID:19939270

  19. Node similarity within subgraphs of protein interaction networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penner, Orion; Sood, Vishal; Musso, Gabriel; Baskerville, Kim; Grassberger, Peter; Paczuski, Maya

    2008-06-01

    We propose a biologically motivated quantity, twinness, to evaluate local similarity between nodes in a network. The twinness of a pair of nodes is the number of connected, labeled subgraphs of size n in which the two nodes possess identical neighbours. The graph animal algorithm is used to estimate twinness for each pair of nodes (for subgraph sizes n=4 to n=12) in four different protein interaction networks (PINs). These include an Escherichia coli PIN and three Saccharomyces cerevisiae PINs - each obtained using state-of-the-art high-throughput methods. In almost all cases, the average twinness of node pairs is vastly higher than that expected from a null model obtained by switching links. For all n, we observe a difference in the ratio of type A twins (which are unlinked pairs) to type B twins (which are linked pairs) distinguishing the prokaryote E. coli from the eukaryote S. cerevisiae. Interaction similarity is expected due to gene duplication, and whole genome duplication paralogues in S. cerevisiae have been reported to co-cluster into the same complexes. Indeed, we find that these paralogous proteins are over-represented as twins compared to pairs chosen at random. These results indicate that twinness can detect ancestral relationships from currently available PIN data.

  20. Wireless sensor node for detection of freight train derailment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Andrea; Milani, Damiano; Resta, Ferruccio; Tomasini, Gisella

    2016-04-01

    The target of the research activity presented in this paper is to design, to realize and to test an autonomous sensor node able to measure the accelerations in correspondence of the axle box of a freight train. The final goal of the sensor is to identify the derailment conditions by observing the variations in the spectra of the box accelerations, around the frequencies associated to the wheel revolution and its multiples. The sensor node embeds an accelerometer, a microprocessor, a transmission system, a piezoelectric bimorph energy harvester and an integrated circuit for managing the power distribution to each component of the node. In particular, a mechanical filter to be applied to the node was specifically designed to increment the energy recovered by the harvester and to filter out the high frequency components of the axle-box acceleration, allowing the use of a more sensitive accelerometer. The harvesting system was setup by means of laboratory tests carried out with an electromechanical shaker and the sensor node was finally tested through field tests on freight trains.

  1. Role of parathymic lymph nodes in metastatic tumor development.

    PubMed

    Banfalvi, Gaspar

    2012-06-01

    Parathymic lymph nodes as potential sites of tumor progression have been neglected in humans. We have established a rat renal capsule-parathymic lymph node model to study in vivo metastasis. Epithelial liver carcinoma (HeDe) and mesenchymal mesoblastic nephroma (NeDe) cell lines have been established after inducing chemical carcinogenesis in newborn Fisher 344 inbred rats by N-nitrosodimethylamine. Implanting the exact number of tumor cells (HeDe, NeDe) under the renal capsule allowed the standardization and timing of metastatic development. Tumor cells released from the primary tumor in the peritoneal cavity were drained to the parathymic lymph nodes (PTNs) as sentinel lymph nodes. Similarly, tumor cells injected i.p. were engulfed by macrophages, drained through the transdiaphragmatic channels, and transported to the thoracal lymphatics, primarily to PTNs. Tumor cells after transdiaphragmic drainage can enter both anterior mammary and parathymic sentinel lymph nodes. The potential common origin can shed new light on the metastatic cell progression of PTNs and mammary tumors.

  2. Automatic Network Fingerprinting through Single-Node Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Echtermeyer, Christoph; da Fontoura Costa, Luciano; Rodrigues, Francisco A.; Kaiser, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Complex networks have been characterised by their specific connectivity patterns (network motifs), but their building blocks can also be identified and described by node-motifs—a combination of local network features. One technique to identify single node-motifs has been presented by Costa et al. (L. D. F. Costa, F. A. Rodrigues, C. C. Hilgetag, and M. Kaiser, Europhys. Lett., 87, 1, 2009). Here, we first suggest improvements to the method including how its parameters can be determined automatically. Such automatic routines make high-throughput studies of many networks feasible. Second, the new routines are validated in different network-series. Third, we provide an example of how the method can be used to analyse network time-series. In conclusion, we provide a robust method for systematically discovering and classifying characteristic nodes of a network. In contrast to classical motif analysis, our approach can identify individual components (here: nodes) that are specific to a network. Such special nodes, as hubs before, might be found to play critical roles in real-world networks. PMID:21297963

  3. Node 3 Relocation Environmental Control and Life Support System Modification Kit Verification and Updated Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Spector Lawrence N.

    2010-01-01

    Node 1 (Unity) flew to International Space Station (ISS) on Flight 2A. Node 1 was the first module of the United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) launched to ISS. The Node 1 ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) design featured limited ECLS capability. The main purpose of Node 1 was to provide internal storage by providing four stowage rack locations within the module and to allow docking of multiple modules and a truss segment to it. The ECLS subsystems inside Node 1 were routed through the element prior to launch to allow for easy integration of the attached future elements, particularly the Habitation Module which was planned to be located at the nadir docking port of Node 1. After Node I was on-orbit, the Program decided not to launch the Habitation Module and instead, to replace it with Node 3 (Tranquility). In 2007, the Program became concerned with a potential Russian docking port approach issue for the Russian FGB nadir docking port after Node 3 is attached to Node 1. To solve this concern the Program decided to relocate Node 3 from Node I nadir to Node 1 port. To support the movement of Node 3 the Program decided to build a modification kit for Node 1, an on-orbit feedthrough leak test device, and new vestibule jumpers to support the ECLS part of the relocation. This paper provides a design overview of the modification kit for Node 1, a summary of the Node 1 ECLS re-verification to support the Node 3 relocation from Node 1 nadir to Node 1 port, and a status of the ECLS modification kit installation into Node 1.

  4. Weyl Node and Spin Texture in Trigonal Tellurium and Selenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Motoaki; Okugawa, Ryo; Ishibashi, Shoji; Murakami, Shuichi; Miyake, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    We study Weyl nodes in materials with broken inversion symmetry. We find based on first-principles calculations that trigonal Te and Se have multiple Weyl nodes near the Fermi level. The conduction bands have a spin splitting similar to the Rashba splitting around the H points, but unlike the Rashba splitting the spin directions are radial, forming a hedgehog spin texture around the H points, with a nonzero Pontryagin index for each spin-split conduction band. The Weyl semimetal phase, which has never been observed in real materials without inversion symmetry, is realized under pressure. The evolution of the spin texture by varying the pressure can be explained by the evolution of the Weyl nodes in k space.

  5. Sentinel node in cancer diagnosis with surgical probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazandjian, Anne; Prat, Vincent; Simon, Herve; Ricard, Marcel; Bede, Jessica

    1999-10-01

    A probe system has been designed for the accurate location of areas of increased radionuclide uptake. Different type of applications are possible i.e. when precise position or even identification of the radionuclide is needed, like in wound investigation. In this paper, we restrict ourself to a system incorporating two probes, for the identification of `hot' lymph nodes, close to the surface of the body. Axillary lymph node involvement is a major prognostic indicator and treatment planning factor in both melanoma and breast cancer. However, sentinel node localization is relatively difficult often due to close proximity of the primary tumor. The developed instrument has a very sensitive detector, with good spatial resolution, able to discriminate between primary and scattered radiations.

  6. Saddle-Node Bifurcations in Classical and Memristive Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García de La Vega, Ignacio; Riaza, Ricardo

    This paper addresses a systematic characterization of saddle-node bifurcations in nonlinear electrical and electronic circuits. Our approach is a circuit-theoretic one, meaning that the bifurcation is analyzed in terms of the devices’ characteristics and the graph-theoretic properties of the digraph underlying the circuit. The analysis is based on a reformulation of independent interest of the saddle-node theorem of Sotomayor for semiexplicit index one differential-algebraic equations (DAEs), which define the natural context to set up nonlinear circuit models. The bifurcation is addressed not only for classical circuits, but also for circuits with memristors. The presence of this device systematically leads to nonisolated equilibria, and in this context the saddle-node bifurcation is shown to yield a bifurcation of manifolds of equilibria; in cases with a single memristor, this phenomenon describes the splitting of a line of equilibria into two, with different stability properties.

  7. Node contribution to the permeability of liquid foams.

    PubMed

    Pitois, O; Louvet, N; Lorenceau, E; Rouyer, F

    2008-06-15

    This paper deals with the drainage of liquid foams. The liquid velocity is known to be related to viscous dissipation occurring within the elements of the liquid network, i.e. the channels and the nodes. When compared together, available values for the hydrodynamic resistance of a foam node appear to span over more than one order of magnitude. To clarify this point, we propose an alternative experimental method to estimate the value of this parameter. In contrast to previous experimental work performed on the foam scale, the node resistance is not treated as a fitting parameter, but instead it is measured directly on the microscopic scale. The results allow a consistent range of values to emerge for this parameter.

  8. Axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer patients: sonographic evaluation*

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Denise Joffily Pereira da Costa; Elias, Simone; Nazário, Afonso Celso Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Axillary staging of patients with early-stage breast cancer is essential in the treatment planning. Currently such staging is intraoperatively performed, but there is a tendency to seek a preoperative and less invasive technique to detect lymph node metastasis. Ultrasonography is widely utilized for this purpose, many times in association with fine-needle aspiration biopsy or core needle biopsy. However, the sonographic criteria for determining malignancy in axillary lymph nodes do not present significant predictive values, producing discrepant results in studies evaluating the sensitivity and specificity of this method. The present study was aimed at reviewing the literature approaching the utilization of ultrasonography in the axillary staging as well as the main morphological features of metastatic lymph nodes. PMID:25741091

  9. Topological Node-Line Semimetal in Three Dimensional Graphene Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Hongming; Liang, Yunye; Xu, Qiunan; Yu, Rui; Fang, Zhong; Dai, Xi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2015-03-01

    Graphene, a two dimensional (2D) carbon sheet, acquires many of its amazing properties from the Dirac point nature of its electronic structures with negligible spin-orbit coupling. Extending to 3D space, graphene networks with negative curvature, called Mackay-Terrones crystals (MTC), have been proposed and experimentally explored, yet their topological properties remain to be discovered. Based on the first-principle calculations, we report an all-carbon MTC with topologically non-trivial electronic states by exhibiting node-lines in bulk. When the node-lines are projected on to surfaces to form circles, ``drumhead'' like flat surface bands nestled inside of the circles are formed. The bulk node-line can evolve into 3D Dirac point in the absence of inversion symmetry, which has shown its plausible existence in recent experiments.

  10. Effect of Coagulation of Nodes in an Evolving Complex Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Wataru; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2012-04-01

    We propose a new type of stochastic network evolution model based on annihilation, creation, and coagulation of nodes, together with the preferential attachment rule. The system reaches a unique quasistatistically steady state in which the distribution of links follows a power law, lifetime of nodes follows an exponential distribution, and the mean number of links grows exponentially with time. The master equation of the model is solved analytically by applying Smoluchowski’s coagulation equation for aerosols. The results indicate that coagulation of nodes in complex networks and mean field analysis of aerosols are similar in both the growth dynamics with irreversible processes and in the steady state statistics. We confirm that the basic properties of the model are consistent with the empirical results of a business transaction network having about 1×106 firms.

  11. Topological node-line semimetal in compressed black phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jianzhou; Yu, Rui; Weng, Hongming; Fang, Zhong

    2016-11-01

    Based on first-principles calculations and tight-binding model analysis, we propose that black phosphorus (BP) can host a three-dimensional topological node-line semimetal state under pressure when spin-orbit coupling (SOC) is ignored. A closed topological node line exists in the first Brillouin zone (BZ) near the Fermi energy, which is protected by the coexistence of time-reversal and spatial inversion symmetry with band inversion driven by pressure. Drumheadlike surface states have been obtained on the beard (100) surface. Due to the weak intrinsic SOC of a phosphorus atom, a band gap less than 10 meV is opened along the node line in the presence of SOC, and the surface states are almost unaffected by SOC.

  12. Handling Irreducible Loops: Optimized Node Splitting vs. DJ-Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Unger, S; Mueller, F

    2001-05-10

    This paper addresses the question of how to handle irreducible regions during optimization, which has become even more relevant for contemporary processors since recent VLIW-like architectures highly rely on instruction scheduling. The contributions of this paper are twofold. First, a method of optimized node splitting to transform irreducible regions of control flow into reducible regions is derived. This method is superior to approaches previously published since it reduces the number of replicated nodes by comparison. Second, three methods that handle regions of irreducible control flow are evaluated with respect to their impact on compiler optimizations: traditional and optimized node splitting as well as loop analysis through DJ graphs. Measurements show improvements of 1-40% for these methods of handling irreducible loop over the unoptimized case.

  13. Ranking the spreading ability of nodes in network core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Xiao-Lei; Liu, Jian-Guo; Wang, Jiang-Pan; Guo, Qiang; Ni, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Ranking nodes by their spreading ability in complex networks is of vital significance to better understand the network structure and more efficiently spread information. The k-shell decomposition method could identify the most influential nodes, namely network core, with the same ks values regardless to their different spreading influence. In this paper, we present an improved method based on the k-shell decomposition method and closeness centrality (CC) to rank the node spreading influence of the network core. Experiment results on the data from the scientific collaboration network and U.S. aviation network show that the accuracy of the presented method could be increased by 31% and 45% than the one obtained by the degree k, 32% and 31% than the one by the betweenness.

  14. The paranodal cytoskeleton clusters Na(+) channels at nodes of Ranvier.

    PubMed

    Amor, Veronique; Zhang, Chuansheng; Vainshtein, Anna; Zhang, Ao; Zollinger, Daniel R; Eshed-Eisenbach, Yael; Brophy, Peter J; Rasband, Matthew N; Peles, Elior

    2017-01-30

    A high density of Na(+) channels at nodes of Ranvier is necessary for rapid and efficient action potential propagation in myelinated axons. Na+ channel clustering is thought to depend on two axonal cell adhesion molecules that mediate interactions between the axon and myelinating glia at the nodal gap (i.e., NF186) and the paranodal junction (i.e., Caspr). Here we show that while Na(+) channels cluster at nodes in the absence of NF186, they fail to do so in double conditional knockout mice lacking both NF186 and the paranodal cell adhesion molecule Caspr, demonstrating that a paranodal junction-dependent mechanism can cluster Na(+) channels at nodes. Furthermore, we show that paranode-dependent clustering of nodal Na(+) channels requires axonal βII spectrin which is concentrated at paranodes. Our results reveal that the paranodal junction-dependent mechanism of Na(+)channel clustering is mediated by the spectrin-based paranodal axonal cytoskeleton.

  15. Abnormal Behavior in Cascading Dynamics with Node Weight

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianwei; Cai, Lin; Xu, Bo; Wu, Yuedan

    2015-01-01

    Considering a preferential selection mechanism of load destination, we introduce a new method to quantify initial load distribution and subsequently construct a simple cascading model. By attacking the node with the highest load, we investigate the cascading dynamics in some synthetic networks. Surprisingly, we observe that for several networks of different structural patterns, a counterintuitive phenomenon emerges if the highest load attack is applied to the system, i.e., investing more resources to protect every node in a network inversely makes the whole network more vulnerable. We explain this ability paradox by analyzing the micro-structural components of the underlying network and therefore reveals how specific structural patterns may influence the cascading dynamics. We discover that the robustness of the network oscillates as the capacity of each node increases. The conclusion of the paper may shed lights on future investigations to avoid the demonstrated ability paradox and subsequent cascading failures in real-world networks. PMID:26451594

  16. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for cutaneous head and neck malignancies.

    PubMed

    Dwojak, Sunshine; Emerick, Kevin S

    2015-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a procedure that can provide critical information regarding pathologic lymph node status and accurate regional staging. This is very important for developing treatment plans and providing prognostic guidance for cutaneous malignancies. The head and neck (HN) region is unique from other body sites due to its complex lymphatic drainage pathways, multiple lymph node basins, proximity of important cranial nerves and potential for contralateral or bilateral drainage. These unique aspects of the HN previously created some uncertainty about the use of SLNB in the HN. This review will discuss the current reliable status of HN SLNB and provide a guide for its current application in cutaneous malignancy of the HN.

  17. Multilayer Extreme Learning Machine With Subnetwork Nodes for Representation Learning.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yimin; Wu, Q M Jonathan

    2015-10-09

    The extreme learning machine (ELM), which was originally proposed for ''generalized'' single-hidden layer feedforward neural networks, provides efficient unified learning solutions for the applications of clustering, regression, and classification. It presents competitive accuracy with superb efficiency in many applications. However, ELM with subnetwork nodes architecture has not attracted much research attentions. Recently, many methods have been proposed for supervised/unsupervised dimension reduction or representation learning, but these methods normally only work for one type of problem. This paper studies the general architecture of multilayer ELM (ML-ELM) with subnetwork nodes, showing that: 1) the proposed method provides a representation learning platform with unsupervised/supervised and compressed/sparse representation learning and 2) experimental results on ten image datasets and 16 classification datasets show that, compared to other conventional feature learning methods, the proposed ML-ELM with subnetwork nodes performs competitively or much better than other feature learning methods.

  18. Multilayer Extreme Learning Machine With Subnetwork Nodes for Representation Learning.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yimin; Wu, Q M Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    The extreme learning machine (ELM), which was originally proposed for "generalized" single-hidden layer feedforward neural networks, provides efficient unified learning solutions for the applications of clustering, regression, and classification. It presents competitive accuracy with superb efficiency in many applications. However, ELM with subnetwork nodes architecture has not attracted much research attentions. Recently, many methods have been proposed for supervised/unsupervised dimension reduction or representation learning, but these methods normally only work for one type of problem. This paper studies the general architecture of multilayer ELM (ML-ELM) with subnetwork nodes, showing that: 1) the proposed method provides a representation learning platform with unsupervised/supervised and compressed/sparse representation learning and 2) experimental results on ten image datasets and 16 classification datasets show that, compared to other conventional feature learning methods, the proposed ML-ELM with subnetwork nodes performs competitively or much better than other feature learning methods.

  19. Lymph node staging in prostate cancer: perspective for the pathologist.

    PubMed

    Prendeville, Susan; van der Kwast, Theodorus H

    2016-12-01

    Pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) currently represents the gold standard method for nodal staging in the setting of localised prostate cancer and may also have a therapeutic benefit in certain patients. The histopathological evaluation of PLND specimens plays a critical role in accurate lymph node staging, however there is currently a lack of consensus regarding the optimum approach and no quality parameters are in place. In addition, there are no guidelines as to the handling of less commonly encountered nodal specimens such as those identified within the anterior fat pad. This summary provides an overview of pertinent issues regarding lymph node staging in prostate cancer, with a focus on the histopathological evaluation of resected nodal specimens. We hope that this review will further the discussion on how to achieve a more standardised approach to the processing and reporting of PLND specimens in the setting of prostate cancer.

  20. [Advances in Lymph Node Metastasis and the Modes of Lymph Node 
Dissection in Early Stage Non-small Cell Lung Caner].

    PubMed

    Ding, Ningning; Mao, Yousheng

    2016-06-20

    Lung cancer ranks the first position in morbidity and mortality among all malignances in China. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for nearly 80% of all lung malignancies. Surgical resection is still the current major treatment method for early stage NSCLC. Lymph node stages together with the extent of lymph node dissection directly affect the prognosis. Anatomical lobectomy with systematic mediastinal lymph node dissection have been the standard surgical treatment for NSCLC. However, it is controversial in the extent of lymph node dissection for early stage NSCLC. Accurate nodes stage and the extent of mediatinal nodes dissection affect the peri-operative complications and the prognosis of NSCLC greatly. In the past decade, more and more surgeons demostrated that lobe-specific or selective mediastinal lymph node dissection is suitable for clinical stage I NSCLC, especially the stage Ia lesions, and may become the standard lymph node dissection mode in the future.

  1. Comparison between Ultrasound and Pathologic Status of Axillary Lymph Nodes in Clinically Node-negative Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Amanda; Layne, Ginger; Shahan, Cimmie; Zhang, Jianjun; Wen, Siji; Radis, Sarah; Richmond, Bryan; Partin, Jessica; Hazard, Hannah

    2015-09-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the standard of care for axillary staging in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients. Ultrasound (US) has shown promise when used to assess axillary lymph nodes preoperatively, thus aiding surgical decision making. We examined the correlation between preoperative US and SLNB results to further clarify the role of US in clinicopathologic staging of breast cancer when the axilla is clinically negative on physical examination. Our institutional cancer registry was used to identify clinically node-negative patients diagnosed with breast cancer from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2012. Variables including age, body mass index, date of surgery, date of diagnosis, US results, US-directed biopsy results, SLNB results, and final pathology were recorded. Incomplete charts were excluded. In all, 249 patients were included. Sensitivity/specificity of US in the clinically negative axilla were 7.4 per cent and 91.8 per cent, respectively. The false-positive rate was 80 per cent, whereas the negative predictive value was 78 per cent. The effect of time from diagnosis/US to SLNB, interpreting radiologist, year in which US was performed, and body mass index were not statistically significant. US in the clinically node-negative patient, although useful when it leads to a positive needle biopsy result, is unlikely to replace SLNB owing to its low sensitivity and a high false-positive rate. Further prospective study into the role of US in the evaluation of the clinically negative axilla is warranted.

  2. Robust automated lymph node segmentation with random forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, David; Lu, Le; Yao, Jianhua; Liu, Jiamin; Turkbey, Evrim; Summers, Ronald M.

    2014-03-01

    Enlarged lymph nodes may indicate the presence of illness. Therefore, identification and measurement of lymph nodes provide essential biomarkers for diagnosing disease. Accurate automatic detection and measurement of lymph nodes can assist radiologists for better repeatability and quality assurance, but is challenging as well because lymph nodes are often very small and have a highly variable shape. In this paper, we propose to tackle this problem via supervised statistical learning-based robust voxel labeling, specifically the random forest algorithm. Random forest employs an ensemble of decision trees that are trained on labeled multi-class data to recognize the data features and is adopted to handle lowlevel image features sampled and extracted from 3D medical scans. Here we exploit three types of image features (intensity, order-1 contrast and order-2 contrast) and evaluate their effectiveness in random forest feature selection setting. The trained forest can then be applied to unseen data by voxel scanning via sliding windows (11×11×11), to assign the class label and class-conditional probability to each unlabeled voxel at the center of window. Voxels from the manually annotated lymph nodes in a CT volume are treated as positive class; background non-lymph node voxels as negatives. We show that the random forest algorithm can be adapted and perform the voxel labeling task accurately and efficiently. The experimental results are very promising, with AUCs (area under curve) of the training and validation ROC (receiver operating characteristic) of 0.972 and 0.959, respectively. The visualized voxel labeling results also confirm the validity.

  3. LEGION: Lightweight Expandable Group of Independently Operating Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burl, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    LEGION is a lightweight C-language software library that enables distributed asynchronous data processing with a loosely coupled set of compute nodes. Loosely coupled means that a node can offer itself in service to a larger task at any time and can withdraw itself from service at any time, provided it is not actively engaged in an assignment. The main program, i.e., the one attempting to solve the larger task, does not need to know up front which nodes will be available, how many nodes will be available, or at what times the nodes will be available, which is normally the case in a "volunteer computing" framework. The LEGION software accomplishes its goals by providing message-based, inter-process communication similar to MPI (message passing interface), but without the tight coupling requirements. The software is lightweight and easy to install as it is written in standard C with no exotic library dependencies. LEGION has been demonstrated in a challenging planetary science application in which a machine learning system is used in closed-loop fashion to efficiently explore the input parameter space of a complex numerical simulation. The machine learning system decides which jobs to run through the simulator; then, through LEGION calls, the system farms those jobs out to a collection of compute nodes, retrieves the job results as they become available, and updates a predictive model of how the simulator maps inputs to outputs. The machine learning system decides which new set of jobs would be most informative to run given the results so far; this basic loop is repeated until sufficient insight into the physical system modeled by the simulator is obtained.

  4. 28nm node process optimization: a lithography centric view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seltmann, Rolf

    2014-10-01

    Many experts claim that the 28nm technology node will be the most cost effective technology node forever. This results from primarily from the cost of manufacturing due to the fact that 28nm is the last true Single Patterning (SP) node. It is also affected by the dramatic increase of design costs and the limited shrink factor of the next following nodes. Thus, it is assumed that this technology still will be alive still for many years. To be cost competitive, high yields are mandatory. Meanwhile, leading edge foundries have optimized the yield of the 28nm node to such a level that that it is nearly exclusively defined by random defectivity. However, it was a long way to go to come to that level. In my talk I will concentrate on the contribution of lithography to this yield learning curve. I will choose a critical metal patterning application. I will show what was needed to optimize the process window to a level beyond the usual OPC model work that was common on previous nodes. Reducing the process (in particular focus) variability is a complementary need. It will be shown which improvements were needed in tooling, process control and design-mask-wafer interaction to remove all systematic yield detractors. Over the last couple of years new scanner platforms were introduced that were targeted for both better productivity and better parametric performance. But this was not a clear run-path. It needed some extra affords of the tool suppliers together with the Fab to bring the tool variability down to the necessary level. Another important topic to reduce variability is the interaction of wafer none-planarity and lithography optimization. Having an accurate knowledge of within die topography is essential for optimum patterning. By completing both the variability reduction work and the process window enhancement work we were able to transfer the original marginal process budget to a robust positive budget and thus ensuring high yield and low costs.

  5. Formation of technical requirements for flexible rotary machine nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulenkov, Y.; Mikhaylov, A.

    2016-11-01

    The method of parameters determining for the flexible rotary machines and lines and its individual components is described in this article. The method is based on the analysis of the fail safe performance probability. It allows determining the fail safe performance probability for tools, transportation and tool changing device nodes, elements of flexible rotary machine and is based on the analysis of flexible rotor line structure. The relationships between rational flexible rotary line structure and parameters of the individual nodes are shown on the flexible rotor line for the screws processing.

  6. Malakoplakia of the pancreas with diffuse lymph-node involvement.

    PubMed

    Nuciforo, Paolo Giovanni; Moneghini, Laura; Braidotti, Paola; Castoldi, Laura; De Rai, Paolo; Bosari, Silvano

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of malakoplakia involving the pancreas in a 74-year-old man with associated regional lymphoadenopathy. Histological examination of both pancreas and lymph nodes revealed a diffuse histiocytic infiltrate containing numerous Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. Electron microscopy supported the diagnosis of malakoplakia and showed bacterial-like structures. Differential diagnosis includes myofibroblastic inflammatory tumor and histiocytic neoplasms. Lymph-node involvement during malakoplakia is extremely rare and it has never been documented microscopically. Lymphohematogenous spread of bacteria may be the cause of the nodal involvement, which, however, does not appear to influence the clinical course of the disease.

  7. [Appendiceal neuroendocrine tumor with lymph node metastasis in a teenager].

    PubMed

    Kim, Keun Young; Park, Won Cheol

    2015-02-01

    Neuroendocrine tumor (NET) is a cancer-like tumor that occurs mostly in the gastrointestinal system. Within the gastrointestinal tract, NET most commonly occurs in the rectum whereas appendix is very rarely involved. In most cases of appendiceal NET, it is found at a relatively early stage compared to other NETs because appendiceal NET frequently presents with acute appendicitis because appendiceal NET frequently presents with acute appendicitis even when the size is smaller than 1 cm. Therefore, it is very rare for lymph node metastasis to occur in a young adult. Herein, we report a rare case of grade 1 appendiceal NET with lymph node metastasis which developed in a teenage male.

  8. Microfluidic ultrasonic particle separators with engineered node locations and geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Klint A.; Fisher, Karl A.; Wajda, Douglas A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher; Dehlinger, Dietrich; Shusteff, Maxim; Jung, Byoungsok; Ness, Kevin D.

    2016-04-26

    An ultrasonic microfluidic system includes a separation channel for conveying a sample fluid containing small particles and large particles, flowing substantially parallel, adjacent to a recovery fluid, with which it is in contact. An acoustic transducer produces an ultrasound standing wave, that generates a pressure field having at least one node of minimum pressure amplitude. An acoustic extension structure is located proximate to said separation channel for positioning said acoustic node off center in said acoustic area and concentrating the large particles in said recovery fluid stream.

  9. Empowering smartphone users with sensor node for air quality measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oletic, Dinko; Bilas, Vedran

    2013-06-01

    We present an architecture of a sensor node developed for use with smartphones for participatory sensing of air quality in urban environments. Our solution features inexpensive metal-oxide semiconductor gas sensors (MOX) for measurement of CO, O3, NO2 and VOC, along with sensors for ambient temperature and humidity. We focus on our design of sensor interface consisting of power-regulated heater temperature control, and the design of resistance sensing circuit. Accuracy of the sensor interface is characterized. Power consumption of the sensor node is analysed. Preliminary data obtained from the CO gas sensors in laboratory conditions and during the outdoor field-test is shown.

  10. Fuzzy nodes recognition based on spectral clustering in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yang; Cheng, Guangquan; Liu, Zhong; Xie, Fuli

    2017-01-01

    In complex networks, information regarding the nodes is usually incomplete because of the effects of interference, noise, and other factors. This results in parts of the network being blurred and some information having an unknown source. In this paper, a spectral clustering algorithm is used to identify fuzzy nodes and solve network reconstruction problems. By changing the fuzzy degree of placeholders, we achieve various degrees of credibility and accuracy for the restored network. Our approach is verified by experiments using open source datasets and simulated data.

  11. Microfluidic ultrasonic particle separators with engineered node locations and geometries

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Klint A; Fisher, Karl A; Wajda, Douglas A; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P; Bailey, Christopher; Dehlinger, Dietrich; Shusteff, Maxim; Jung, Byoungsok; Ness, Kevin D

    2015-03-31

    An ultrasonic microfluidic system includes a separation channel for conveying a sample fluid containing small particles and large particles, flowing substantially parallel, adjacent to a recovery fluid, with which it is in contact. An acoustic transducer produces an ultrasound standing wave, that generates a pressure field having at least one node of minimum, pressure amplitude. An acoustic extension structure is located proximate to said separation channel for positioning said acoustic node off center in said acoustic area and concentrating the large particles in said recovery fluid stream.

  12. Microfluidic ultrasonic particle separators with engineered node locations and geometries

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Klint A; Fisher, Karl A; Wajda, Douglas A; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P; Bailey, Christoppher; Dehlinger, Dietrich; Shusteff, Maxim; Jung, Byoungsok; Ness, Kevin D

    2014-05-20

    An ultrasonic microfluidic system includes a separation channel for conveying a sample fluid containing small particles and large particles, flowing substantially parallel, adjacent to a recovery fluid, with which it is in contact. An acoustic transducer produces an ultrasound standing wave, that generates a pressure field having at least one node of minimum pressure amplitude. An acoustic extension structure is located proximate to said separation channel for positioning said acoustic node off center in said acoustic area and concentrating the large particles in said recovery fluid stream.

  13. [Lymph node involvement in œsophageal cancer: surgical approach].

    PubMed

    Gronnier, C; Mariette, C

    2014-10-01

    Lymph node invasion is an early event in the oesophageal carcinogenesis and represents the main prognostic factor in the curative setting. Even though the primacy of surgical resection has been challenged by the definitive radiochemotherapy for locally advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the oesophagus, surgery is now again a gold standard, in combination with (radio)chemotherapy, to improve locoregional disease control and long term survival. Surgery, especially lymphadenectomy, has consequently to be standardized through quality criteria. Lymph node stations invaded in œsophageal and junctional cancers, lymphadenectomy, and its impact on outcomes are discussed in this review based on the highest level of evidence published data.

  14. [Factor analysis and method exploring for lymph nodes harvest in gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Wang, P P; Xi, H Q; Zhang, K C; Chen, L

    2017-04-01

    The number of lymph node dissection and positive lymph nodes are the necessary guarantees for patients to achieve accurate staging after gastric cancer surgery. On the basis of the minimum number of lymph nodes dissection recommended by the NCCN guidelines, as many as possible lymph node yields will be most likely to benefit patients. Many factors can influence the number of lymph node yields including surgery, patient, tumor pathology and postoperative sorting factors. Compared with traditional manual nodal dissection method, fat-clearing technique and methylene blue staining method can improve the number of lymph nodes detection, while lymphatic tracers, such as carbon nanoparticles, are conducive to show lymphatic vessels, contributing to the dissection of small lymph nodes. The initial results from People's Liberation Army General Hospital show that lymph node packet submission after isolation by surgeon yields more lymph nodes. For the establishment of standards, lymph node retrieval-related procedures need further in-depth exploration and investigation.

  15. Performing an allreduce operation on a plurality of compute nodes of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Faraj, Ahmad

    2013-07-09

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for performing an allreduce operation on a plurality of compute nodes of a parallel computer, each node including at least two processing cores, that include: establishing, for each node, a plurality of logical rings, each ring including a different set of at least one core on that node, each ring including the cores on at least two of the nodes; iteratively for each node: assigning each core of that node to one of the rings established for that node to which the core has not previously been assigned, and performing, for each ring for that node, a global allreduce operation using contribution data for the cores assigned to that ring or any global allreduce results from previous global allreduce operations, yielding current global allreduce results for each core; and performing, for each node, a local allreduce operation using the global allreduce results.

  16. Performing an allreduce operation on a plurality of compute nodes of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Faraj, Ahmad

    2013-02-12

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for performing an allreduce operation on a plurality of compute nodes of a parallel computer, each node including at least two processing cores, that include: performing, for each node, a local reduction operation using allreduce contribution data for the cores of that node, yielding, for each node, a local reduction result for one or more representative cores for that node; establishing one or more logical rings among the nodes, each logical ring including only one of the representative cores from each node; performing, for each logical ring, a global allreduce operation using the local reduction result for the representative cores included in that logical ring, yielding a global allreduce result for each representative core included in that logical ring; and performing, for each node, a local broadcast operation using the global allreduce results for each representative core on that node.

  17. A New Node Deployment and Location Dispatch Algorithm for Underwater Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Peng; Liu, Jun; Ruan, Binfeng; Jiang, Lurong; Wu, Feng

    2016-01-09

    Considering that deployment strategies for underwater sensor networks should contribute to fully connecting the networks, a Guaranteed Full Connectivity Node Deployment (GFCND) algorithm is proposed in this study. The GFCND algorithm attempts to deploy the coverage nodes according to the greedy iterative strategy, after which the connectivity nodes are used to improve network connectivity and fully connect the whole network. Furthermore, a Location Dispatch Based on Command Nodes (LDBCN) algorithm is proposed, which accomplishes the location adjustment of the common nodes with the help of the SINK node and the command nodes. The command nodes then dispatch the common nodes. Simulation results show that the GFCND algorithm achieves a comparatively large coverage percentage and a fully connected network; furthermore, the LDBCN algorithm helps the common nodes preserve more total energy when they reach their destination locations.

  18. Cervical Lymph Nodes as a Selective Niche for Brucella during Oral Infections

    PubMed Central

    von Bargen, Kristine; Gagnaire, Aurélie; Arce-Gorvel, Vilma; de Bovis, Béatrice; Baudimont, Fannie; Chasson, Lionel; Bosilkovski, Mile; Papadopoulos, Alexia; Martirosyan, Anna; Henri, Sandrine; Mège, Jean-Louis; Malissen, Bernard; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Cervical lymph nodes (CLN) are the first lymph nodes encountered by material taking the oral route. To study their role in orally acquired infections, we analyzed 307 patients of up to 14 years treated in the university clinic of Skopje, Macedonia, for brucellosis, a zoonotic bacterial disease frequently acquired by ingestion of contaminated dairy products. From these children, 36% had lymphadenopathy. Among orally infected children, lymphadenopathy with CLN being the only lymph nodes affected was significantly more frequent as compared to those infected by contact with animals (83% vs. 63%), suggesting a possible involvement of CLN during orally acquired human brucellosis. Using a murine model where bacteria are delivered into the oral cavity, we show that Brucella quickly and selectively colonize the CLN where they proliferate and persist over long periods of time for up to 50 days post-infection. A similar efficient though less specific drainage to CLN was found for Brucella, Salmonella typhimurium and fluorescent microspheres delivered by gavage, a pathway likely representing a mixed infection mode of intragastric and oral infection, suggesting a central pathway of drained material. Microspheres as well as bacteria drained to CLN predominately reside in cells expressing CD68 and no or low levels of CD11c. Even though no systemic response could be detected, Brucella induced a locally restricted inflammatory reaction with increased expression levels of interferon γ, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, granzyme B and a delayed induction of Nos2. Inflammation led to pronounced lymphadenopathy, infiltration of macrophages/monocytes expressing high levels of major histocompatibility complex II and to formation of epitheloid granulomas. Together, these results highlight the role of CLN in oral infections as both, an initial and efficient trap for bacterial invaders and as possible reservoir for chronic pathogens. They likewise cast a new light on the significance of oral

  19. Cervical Lymph Nodes as a Selective Niche for Brucella during Oral Infections.

    PubMed

    von Bargen, Kristine; Gagnaire, Aurélie; Arce-Gorvel, Vilma; de Bovis, Béatrice; Baudimont, Fannie; Chasson, Lionel; Bosilkovski, Mile; Papadopoulos, Alexia; Martirosyan, Anna; Henri, Sandrine; Mège, Jean-Louis; Malissen, Bernard; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Cervical lymph nodes (CLN) are the first lymph nodes encountered by material taking the oral route. To study their role in orally acquired infections, we analyzed 307 patients of up to 14 years treated in the university clinic of Skopje, Macedonia, for brucellosis, a zoonotic bacterial disease frequently acquired by ingestion of contaminated dairy products. From these children, 36% had lymphadenopathy. Among orally infected children, lymphadenopathy with CLN being the only lymph nodes affected was significantly more frequent as compared to those infected by contact with animals (83% vs. 63%), suggesting a possible involvement of CLN during orally acquired human brucellosis. Using a murine model where bacteria are delivered into the oral cavity, we show that Brucella quickly and selectively colonize the CLN where they proliferate and persist over long periods of time for up to 50 days post-infection. A similar efficient though less specific drainage to CLN was found for Brucella, Salmonella typhimurium and fluorescent microspheres delivered by gavage, a pathway likely representing a mixed infection mode of intragastric and oral infection, suggesting a central pathway of drained material. Microspheres as well as bacteria drained to CLN predominately reside in cells expressing CD68 and no or low levels of CD11c. Even though no systemic response could be detected, Brucella induced a locally restricted inflammatory reaction with increased expression levels of interferon γ, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, granzyme B and a delayed induction of Nos2. Inflammation led to pronounced lymphadenopathy, infiltration of macrophages/monocytes expressing high levels of major histocompatibility complex II and to formation of epitheloid granulomas. Together, these results highlight the role of CLN in oral infections as both, an initial and efficient trap for bacterial invaders and as possible reservoir for chronic pathogens. They likewise cast a new light on the significance of oral

  20. A Topological Characterization of Medium-Dependent Essential Metabolic Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenschein, Nikolaus; Marr, Carsten; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    Metabolism has frequently been analyzed from a network perspective. A major question is how network properties correlate with biological features like growth rates, flux patterns and enzyme essentiality. Using methods from graph theory as well as established topological categories of metabolic systems, we analyze the essentiality of metabolic reactions depending on the growth medium and identify the topological footprint of these reactions. We find that the typical topological context of a medium-dependent essential reaction is systematically different from that of a globally essential reaction. In particular, we observe systematic differences in the distribution of medium-dependent essential reactions across three-node subgraphs (the network motif signature of medium-dependent essential reactions) compared to globally essential or globally redundant reactions. In this way, we provide evidence that the analysis of metabolic systems on the few-node subgraph scale is meaningful for explaining dynamic patterns. This topological characterization of medium-dependent essentiality provides a better understanding of the interplay between reaction deletions and environmental conditions. PMID:24957651

  1. Node 3 Relocation Environmental Control and Life Support System Modification Kit Verification and Updated Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Spector, Lawrence N.

    2009-01-01

    Node 1 (Unity) flew to International Space Station (ISS) on Flight 2A. Node 1 was the first module of the United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) launched to ISS. The Node 1 ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) design featured limited ECLS capability. The main purpose of Node 1 was to provide internal storage by providing four stowage rack locations within the module and to allow docking of multiple modules and a truss segment to it. The ECLS subsystems inside Node 1 were routed through the element prior to launch to allow for easy integration of the attached future elements, particularly the Habitation Module which was planned to be located at the nadir docking port of Node 1. After Node 1 was on-orbit, the Program decided not to launch the Habitation Module and instead, to replace it with Node 3 (Tranquility). In 2007, the Program became concerned with a potential Russian docking port approach issue for the Russian FGB nadir docking port after Node 3 is attached to Node 1. To solve this concern the Program decided to relocate Node 3 from Node 1 nadir to Node 1 port. To support the movement of Node 3 the Program decided to build a modification kit for Node 1, an on-orbit feedthrough leak test device, and new vestibule jumpers to support the ECLS part of the relocation. This paper provides a design overview of the modification kit, a summary of the Node 1 ECLS re-verification to support the Node 3 relocation from Node 1 nadir to Node 1 port, and a status of the ECLS modification kit installation into Node 1.

  2. Extended lymph node dissection in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: lymph node yield and distribution of metastases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Hyun; Lim, Sey Kiat; Koo, Kyo Chul; Han, Woong Kyu; Hong, Sung Joon; Rha, Koon Ho

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we reported our experience performing robotic extended lymph node dissection (eLND) in patients with prostate cancer. A total of 147 patients with intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer who underwent robotic eLND from May 2008 to December 2011 were included in this analysis. The dissection template extended to the ureter crossing the iliac vessels. We assessed lymph node yield, lymph node positivity, and perioperative outcomes. Lymph node positivity was also evaluated according to the number of lymph nodes (LNs) removed (<22 vs ≥22). The median number of LNs removed was 22 (11-51), and 97 positive LNs were found in 24 patients (16.3%). While the obturator fossa was the most common site for LN metastases (42.3%, 41/97), the internal iliac area was the most common area for a single positive LN packet (20.8%, 5/24). Eight patients (33.3%, 8/24) had positive LNs at the common iliac area. The incidence of positive LNs did not differ according to the number of LNs removed. Complications associated with eLND occurred in 21 patients (14.3%) and symptomatic lymphocele was found in five patients (3.4%). In conclusion, robotic eLND can be performed with minimal morbidity. Furthermore, LN yield and the node positive rate achieved using this robotic technique are comparable to those of open series. In addition, the extent of dissection is more important than the absolute number of LNs removed in eLND, and the robotic technique is not a prohibitive factor for performing eLND.

  3. Lymph node staging of oral and maxillofacial neoplasms in 31 dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Herring, Erin S; Smith, Mark M; Robertson, John L

    2002-09-01

    A retrospective study was performed to report the histologic examination results of regional lymph nodes of dogs and cats with oral or maxillofacial neoplasms. Twenty-eight dogs and 3 cats were evaluated. Histologic examination results of standard and serial tissue sectioning of regional lymph nodes were recorded. When available, other clinical parameters including mandibular lymph node palpation, thoracic radiographs, and pre- and postoperative fine needle aspiration of lymph nodes were compared with the histologic results. Squamous cell carcinoma, fibrosarcoma, and melanoma were the most common neoplasms diagnosed in dogs. Squamous cell carcinoma and fibrosarcoma were diagnosed in cats. Of the palpably enlarged mandibular lymph nodes, 17.0% had metastatic disease histologically. Radiographically evident thoracic metastatic disease was present in 7.4% of cases. Preoperative cytologic evaluation of the mandibular lymph node based on fine needle aspiration concurred with the histologic results in 90.5% of lymph nodes examined. Postoperative cytologic evaluation of fine needle aspirates of regional lymph nodes concurred with the histologic results in 80.6% of lymph nodes examined. Only 54.5% of cases with metastatic disease to regional lymph nodes had metastasis that included the mandibular lymph node. Serial lymph node sectioning provided additional information or metastasis detection. Cytologic evaluation of the mandibular lymph node correlates positively with histology, however results may fail to indicate the presence of regional metastasis. Assessment of all regional lymph nodes in dogs and cats with oral or maxillofacial neoplasms will detect more metastatic disease than assessing the mandibular lymph node only.

  4. A wireless laser displacement sensor node for structural health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyo Seon; Kim, Jong Moon; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

    2013-09-30

    This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM). The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA) communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements.

  5. Quality metric for accurate overlay control in <20nm nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Dana; Amit, Eran; Cohen, Guy; Amir, Nuriel; Har-Zvi, Michael; Huang, Chin-Chou Kevin; Karur-Shanmugam, Ramkumar; Pierson, Bill; Kato, Cindy; Kurita, Hiroyuki

    2013-04-01

    The semiconductor industry is moving toward 20nm nodes and below. As the Overlay (OVL) budget is getting tighter at these advanced nodes, the importance in the accuracy in each nanometer of OVL error is critical. When process owners select OVL targets and methods for their process, they must do it wisely; otherwise the reported OVL could be inaccurate, resulting in yield loss. The same problem can occur when the target sampling map is chosen incorrectly, consisting of asymmetric targets that will cause biased correctable terms and a corrupted wafer. Total measurement uncertainty (TMU) is the main parameter that process owners use when choosing an OVL target per layer. Going towards the 20nm nodes and below, TMU will not be enough for accurate OVL control. KLA-Tencor has introduced a quality score named `Qmerit' for its imaging based OVL (IBO) targets, which is obtained on the-fly for each OVL measurement point in X & Y. This Qmerit score will enable the process owners to select compatible targets which provide accurate OVL values for their process and thereby improve their yield. Together with K-T Analyzer's ability to detect the symmetric targets across the wafer and within the field, the Archer tools will continue to provide an independent, reliable measurement of OVL error into the next advanced nodes, enabling fabs to manufacture devices that meet their tight OVL error budgets.

  6. Statistical Mechanics of Node-Perturbation Learning for Nonlinear Perceptron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Kazuyuki; Katahira, Kentaro; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okada, Masato

    2013-05-01

    Node-perturbation learning is a type of statistical gradient descent algorithm that can be applied to problems where the objective function is not explicitly formulated, including reinforcement learning. Node-perturbation learning with M linear perceptrons has previously been analyzed using the methods of statistical mechanics. It was shown that cross-talk noise, which originates from the error of the other outputs, increases the generalization error as the number of outputs increases. On the other hand, a nonlinear perceptron has several advantages over a linear perceptron, such as the ability to use nonlinear outputs, learnability, storage capacity, and so forth. However, node-perturbation for a nonlinear perceptron has yet to be analyzed theoretically. In this paper, we derive a learning rule of node-perturbation learning for a nonlinear perceptron within the framework of REINFORCE learning and analyze the learning behavior by using statistical mechanical methods. From the results, we found that the signal and cross-talk terms of the order parameter Q have different forms for a nonlinear perceptron. Moreover, the increase in the generalization error with increasing number of outputs is less than for a linear perceptron.

  7. Restoration of Apollo Data by the PDS Lunar Data Node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. R.; Schultz, A. B.; Hills, H. K.; Guinness, E. A.; Lowman, P. D.; Taylor, P. T.

    2009-03-01

    The Lunar Data Node (LDN) has been formed to put relevant, scientifically important Apollo data into accessible digital form for use by researchers and mission planners. We will report on progress made since last year and plans for future data restorations.

  8. Process liability evaluation for beyond 22nm node using EUVL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawarayama, Kazuo; Aoyama, Hajime; Matsunaga, Kentaro; Arisawa, Yukiyasu; Uno, Taiga; Magoshi, Shunko; Kyoh, Suigen; Nakajima, Yumi; Inanami, Ryoichi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Kobiki, Ayumi; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Kawamura, Daisuke; Takai, Kosuke; Murano, Koji; Hayashi, Yumi; Mori, Ichiro

    2010-04-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is the most promising candidate for the manufacture of devices with a half pitch of 32 nm and beyond. We are now evaluating the process liability of EUVL in view of the current status of lithography technology development. In a previous study, we demonstrated the feasibility of manufacturing 32-nm-node devices by means of a wafer process that employed the EUV1, a full-field step-and-scan exposure tool. To evaluate yield, a test pattern was drawn on a multilayer resist and exposed. After development, the pattern was replicated in SiO2 film by etching, and metal wires were formed by a damascene process. Resolution enhancement is needed to advance to the 22- nm node and beyond, and a practical solution is off-axis illumination (OAI). This paper presents the results of a study on yield improvement that used a 32-nm-node test chip, and also clarifies a critical issue in the use of EUVL in a wafer process for device manufacture at the 22-nm node and beyond.

  9. Space station freedom resource nodes internal thermal control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merhoff, Paul; Dellinger, Brent; Taggert, Shawn; Cornwell, John

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the design and operation of the internal thermal control system (ITCS) developed for Space Station Freedom by the NASA-Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace to provide cooling for the resource nodes, airlock, and pressurized logistics modules. The ITCS collects, transports and rejects waste heat from these modules by a dual-loop, single-phase water cooling system. ITCS performance, cooling, and flow rate requirements are presented. An ITCS fluid schematic is shown and an overview of the current baseline system design and its operation is presented. Assembly sequence of the ITCS is explained as its configuration develops from Man Tended Capability (MTC), for which node 2 alone is cooled, to Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) where the airlock, a pressurized logistics module, and node 1 are cooled, in addition to node 2. A SINDA/FLUINT math model of the ITCS is described, and results of analyses for an MTC and a PMC case are shown and discussed.

  10. A Wind Energy Powered Wireless Temperature Sensor Node

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chuang; He, Xue-Feng; Li, Si-Yu; Cheng, Yao-Qing; Rao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    A wireless temperature sensor node composed of a piezoelectric wind energy harvester, a temperature sensor, a microcontroller, a power management circuit and a wireless transmitting module was developed. The wind-induced vibration energy harvester with a cuboid chamber of 62 mm × 19.6 mm × 10 mm converts ambient wind energy into electrical energy to power the sensor node. A TMP102 temperature sensor and the MSP430 microcontroller are used to measure the temperature. The power management module consists of LTC3588-1 and LT3009 units. The measured temperature is transmitted by the nRF24l01 transceiver. Experimental results show that the critical wind speed of the harvester was about 5.4 m/s and the output power of the harvester was about 1.59 mW for the electrical load of 20 kΩ at wind speed of 11.2 m/s, which was sufficient to power the wireless sensor node to measure and transmit the temperature every 13 s. When the wind speed increased from 6 m/s to 11.5 m/s, the self-powered wireless sensor node worked normally. PMID:25734649

  11. Detection of node group membership in networks with group overlap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawardecker, E. N.; Sales-Pardo, M.; Amaral, L. A. N.

    2009-02-01

    Most networks found in social and biochemical systems have modular structures. An important question prompted by the modularity of these networks is whether nodes can be said to belong to a single group. If they cannot, we would need to consider the role of “overlapping communities.” Despite some efforts in this direction, the problem of detecting overlapping groups remains unsolved because there is neither a formal definition of overlapping community, nor an ensemble of networks with which to test the performance of group detection algorithms when nodes can belong to more than one group. Here, we introduce an ensemble of networks with overlapping groups. We then apply three group identification methods - modularity maximization, k-clique percolation, and modularity-landscape surveying - to these networks. We find that the modularity-landscape surveying method is the only one able to detect heterogeneities in node memberships, and that those heterogeneities are only detectable when the overlap is small. Surprisingly, we find that the k-clique percolation method is unable to detect node membership for the overlapping case.

  12. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Early Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    The role of axillary surgery for the treatment of primary breast cancer is in a process of constant change. During the last decade, axillary dissection with removal of at least 10 lymph nodes (ALD) was replaced by sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) as a staging procedure. Since then, the indication for SLNB rapidly expanded. Today's surgical strategies aim to minimize the rate of patients with a negative axillary status who undergo ALD. For some subgroups of patients, the indication for SLNB (e.g. multicentric disease, large tumors) or its implication for treatment planning (micrometastatic involvement, neoadjuvant chemotherapy) is being discussed. Although the indication for ALD is almost entirely restricted to patients with positive axillary lymph nodes today, the therapeutic effect of completion ALD is more and more questioned. On the other hand, the diagnostic value of ALD in node-positive patients is discussed. This article reflects today's standards in axillary surgery and discusses open issues on the diagnostic and therapeutic role of SLNB and ALD in the treatment of early breast cancer.

  13. Popliteal lymph node dissection for metastases of cutaneous malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Frederico; Moutinho, Vitor; Akaishi, Eduardo; Mendes, Gabriella; Perina, Andre; Lima, Tiberio; Lallee, Margareth; Couto, Sergio; Utiyama, Edivaldo; Rasslan, Samir

    2014-05-01

    Popliteal lymph node dissection is performed when grossly metastatic nodal disease is encountered in the popliteal fossa or after microscopic metastasis is found in interval sentinel nodes during clinical staging of cutaneous malignant melanoma. Initially, an S-shaped incision is made to gain access to the popliteal fossa. A careful en bloc removal of fat tissue and lymph nodes is made to preserve and avoid the injury of peroneal and tibial nerves as well as popliteal vessels, following the previous recommendations. This rare surgical procedure was successfully employed in a patient with cutaneous malignant melanoma and nodal metastases at the popliteal fossa. The technique described by Karakousis was reproduced in a step-by-step fashion to allow anatomical identification of the neurovascular structures and radical resection with no post-operative morbidity and prompt recovery. Popliteal lymph node dissection is a rarely performed operative procedure. Following a lymphoscintigraphic examination of the popliteal nodal station, surgeons can be asked to explore the popliteal fossa. Detailed familiarity of the operative procedure is necessary, however, to avoid complications.

  14. Weighted Markov Chains and Graphic State Nodes for Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, G.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses users' search behavior and decision making in data mining and information retrieval. Describes iterative information seeking as a Markov process during which users advance through states of nodes; and explains how the information system records the decision as weights, allowing the incorporation of users' decisions into the Markov…

  15. A Wireless Laser Displacement Sensor Node for Structural Health Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyo Seon; Kim, Jong Moon; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM). The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA) communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements. PMID:24084114

  16. Autonomous solutions for powering wireless sensor nodes in rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenar, E.; Maćešić, S.; Gregov, G.; Blažević, D.; Zelenika, S.; Marković, K.; Glažar, V.

    2015-05-01

    There is an evident need for monitoring pollutants and/or other conditions in river flows via wireless sensor networks. In a typical wireless sensor network topography, a series of sensor nodes is to be deployed in the environment, all wirelessly connected to each other and/or their gateways. Each sensor node is composed of active electronic devices that have to be constantly powered. In general, batteries can be used for this purpose, but problems may occur when they have to be replaced. In the case of large networks, when sensor nodes can be placed in hardly accessible locations, energy harvesting can thus be a viable powering solution. The possibility to use three different small-scale river flow energy harvesting principles is hence thoroughly studied in this work: a miniaturized underwater turbine, a so-called `piezoelectric eel' and a hybrid turbine solution coupled with a rigid piezoelectric beam. The first two concepts are then validated experimentally in laboratory as well as in real river conditions. The concept of the miniaturised hydro-generator is finally embedded into the actual wireless sensor node system and its functionality is confirmed.

  17. Smart Data Node in the Sky (SDNITS): communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, A.; Lansing, F.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we will discuss: the steps for adequately designing such a complex telecommunications system 'Smart Data Node In The Sky (SDNITS)'; algorithm development for this process; specifications to be levied on the interfacing subsystems; type of the system e.g., the usual Radio Frequency system or a laser communications system.

  18. Dynamic adjustment of hidden node parameters for extreme learning machine.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guorui; Lan, Yuan; Zhang, Xinpeng; Qian, Zhenxing

    2015-02-01

    Extreme learning machine (ELM), proposed by Huang et al., was developed for generalized single hidden layer feedforward networks with a wide variety of hidden nodes. ELMs have been proved very fast and effective especially for solving function approximation problems with a predetermined network structure. However, it may contain insignificant hidden nodes. In this paper, we propose dynamic adjustment ELM (DA-ELM) that can further tune the input parameters of insignificant hidden nodes in order to reduce the residual error. It is proved in this paper that the energy error can be effectively reduced by applying recursive expectation-minimization theorem. In DA-ELM, the input parameters of insignificant hidden node are updated in the decreasing direction of the energy error in each step. The detailed theoretical foundation of DA-ELM is presented in this paper. Experimental results show that the proposed DA-ELM is more efficient than the state-of-art algorithms such as Bayesian ELM, optimally-pruned ELM, two-stage ELM, Levenberg-Marquardt, sensitivity-based linear learning method as well as the preliminary ELM.

  19. A wind energy powered wireless temperature sensor node.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuang; He, Xue-Feng; Li, Si-Yu; Cheng, Yao-Qing; Rao, Yang

    2015-02-27

    A wireless temperature sensor node composed of a piezoelectric wind energy harvester, a temperature sensor, a microcontroller, a power management circuit and a wireless transmitting module was developed. The wind-induced vibration energy harvester with a cuboid chamber of 62 mm × 19.6 mm × 10 mm converts ambient wind energy into electrical energy to power the sensor node. A TMP102 temperature sensor and the MSP430 microcontroller are used to measure the temperature. The power management module consists of LTC3588-1 and LT3009 units. The measured temperature is transmitted by the nRF24l01 transceiver. Experimental results show that the critical wind speed of the harvester was about 5.4 m/s and the output power of the harvester was about 1.59 mW for the electrical load of 20 kΩ at wind speed of 11.2 m/s, which was sufficient to power the wireless sensor node to measure and transmit the temperature every 13 s. When the wind speed increased from 6 m/s to 11.5 m/s, the self-powered wireless sensor node worked normally.

  20. [Sentinel node in melanoma and breast cancer. Current considerations].

    PubMed

    Vidal-Sicart, S; Vilalta Solsona, A; Alonso Vargas, M I

    2015-01-01

    The main objectives of sentinel node (SN) biopsy is to avoid unnecessary lymphadenectomies and to identify the 20-25% of patients with occult regional metastatic involvement. This technique reduces the associated morbidity from lymphadenectomy and increases the occult lymphatic metastases identification rate by offering the pathologist the or those lymph nodes with the highest probability of containing metastatic cells. Pre-surgical lymphoscintigraphy is considered a "road map" to guide the surgeon towards the sentinel nodes and to localize unpredictable lymphatic drainage patterns. The SPECT/CT advantages include a better SN detection rate than planar images, the ability to detect SNs in difficult to interpret studies, better SN depiction, especially in sites closer to the injection site and better anatomic localization. These advantages may result in a change in the patient's clinical management both in melanoma and breast cancer. The correct SN evaluation by pathology implies a tumoral load stratification and further prognostic implication. The use of intraoperative imaging devices allows the surgeon a better surgical approach and precise SN localization. Several studies reports the added value of such devices for more sentinel nodes excision and a complete monitoring of the whole procedure. New techniques, by using fluorescent or hybrid tracers, are currently being developed.

  1. Enabling 22-nm logic node with advanced RET solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farys, V.; Depre, L.; Finders, J.; Arnoux, V.; Trouiller, Y.; Liu, H. Y.; Yesilada, E.; Zeggaoui, N.; Alleaume, C.

    2011-04-01

    The 22-nm technology node presents a real breakthrough compared to previous nodes in the way that state of the art scanner will be limited to a numerical aperture of 1.35. Thus we cannot "simply" apply a shrink factor from the previous node, and tradeoffs have to be found between Design Rules, Process integration and RET solutions in order to maintain the 50% density gain imposed by the Moore's law. One of the most challenging parts to enable the node is the ability to pattern Back-End Holes and Metal layers with sufficient process window. It is clearly established that early process for these layers will be performed by double patterning technique coupled with advanced OPC solutions. In this paper we propose a cross comparison between possible double patterning solutions: Pitch Splitting (PS) and Sidewall Image Transfer (SIT) and their implication on design rules and CD Uniformity. Advanced OPC solutions such as Model Based SRAF and Source Mask Optimization will also be investigated in order to ensure good process control. This work is a part of the Solid's JDP between ST, ASML and Brion in the framework of Nano2012 sponsored by the French government.

  2. Soft-core processor study for node-based architectures.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Houten, Jonathan Roger; Jarosz, Jason P.; Welch, Benjamin James; Gallegos, Daniel E.; Learn, Mark Walter

    2008-09-01

    Node-based architecture (NBA) designs for future satellite projects hold the promise of decreasing system development time and costs, size, weight, and power and positioning the laboratory to address other emerging mission opportunities quickly. Reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based modules will comprise the core of several of the NBA nodes. Microprocessing capabilities will be necessary with varying degrees of mission-specific performance requirements on these nodes. To enable the flexibility of these reconfigurable nodes, it is advantageous to incorporate the microprocessor into the FPGA itself, either as a hardcore processor built into the FPGA or as a soft-core processor built out of FPGA elements. This document describes the evaluation of three reconfigurable FPGA based processors for use in future NBA systems--two soft cores (MicroBlaze and non-fault-tolerant LEON) and one hard core (PowerPC 405). Two standard performance benchmark applications were developed for each processor. The first, Dhrystone, is a fixed-point operation metric. The second, Whetstone, is a floating-point operation metric. Several trials were run at varying code locations, loop counts, processor speeds, and cache configurations. FPGA resource utilization was recorded for each configuration. Cache configurations impacted the results greatly; for optimal processor efficiency it is necessary to enable caches on the processors. Processor caches carry a penalty; cache error mitigation is necessary when operating in a radiation environment.

  3. Electron beam inspection of 16nm HP node EUV masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura, Takeya; Narukawa, Shogo; Abe, Tsukasa; Takikawa, Tadahiko; Hayashi, Naoya; Wang, Fei; Ma, Long; Lin, Chia-Wen; Zhao, Yan; Kuan, Chiyan; Jau, Jack

    2012-11-01

    EUV lithography (EUVL) is the most promising solution for 16nm HP node semiconductor device manufacturing and beyond. The fabrication of defect free EUV mask is one of the most challenging roadblocks to insert EUVL into high volume manufacturing (HVM). To fabricate and assure the defect free EUV masks, electron beam inspection (EBI) tool will be likely the necessary tool since optical mask inspection systems using 193nm and 199nm light are reaching a practical resolution limit around 16nm HP node EUV mask. For production use of EBI, several challenges and potential issues are expected. Firstly, required defect detection sensitivity is quite high. According to ITRS roadmap updated in 2011, the smallest defect size needed to detect is about 18nm for 15nm NAND Flash HP node EUV mask. Secondly, small pixel size is likely required to obtain the high sensitivity. Thus, it might damage Ru capped Mo/Si multilayer due to accumulated high density electron beam bombardments. It also has potential of elevation of nuisance defects and reduction of throughput. These challenges must be solved before inserting EBI system into EUV mask HVM line. In this paper, we share our initial inspection results for 16nm HP node EUV mask (64nm HP absorber pattern on the EUV mask) using an EBI system eXplore® 5400 developed by Hermes Microvision, Inc. (HMI). In particularly, defect detection sensitivity, inspectability and damage to EUV mask were assessed. As conclusions, we found that the EBI system has capability to capture 16nm defects on 64nm absorber pattern EUV mask, satisfying the sensitivity requirement of 15nm NAND Flash HP node EUV mask. Furthermore, we confirmed there is no significant damage to susceptible Ru capped Mo/Si multilayer. We also identified that low throughput and high nuisance defect rate are critical challenges needed to address for the 16nm HP node EUV mask inspection. The high nuisance defect rate could be generated by poor LWR and stitching errors during EB writing

  4. LCP nanoparticle for tumor and lymph node metastasis imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yu-Cheng

    A lipid/calcium/phosphate (LCP) nanoparticle formulation (particle diameter ˜25 nm) has previously been developed to delivery siRNA with superior efficiency. In this work, 111In was formulated into LCP nanoparticles to form 111In-LCP for SPECT/CT imaging. With necessary modifications and improvements of the LCP core-washing and surface-coating methods, 111In-LCP grafted with polyethylene glycol exhibited reduced uptake by the mononuclear phagocytic system. SPECT/CT imaging supported performed biodistribution studies, showing clear tumor images with accumulation of 8% or higher injected dose per gram tissue (ID/g) in subcutaneous, human-H460, lung-cancer xenograft and mouse-4T1, breast cancer metastasis models. Both the liver and the spleen accumulated ˜20% ID/g. Accumulation in the tumor was limited by the enhanced permeation and retention effect and was independent of the presence of a targeting ligand. A surprisingly high accumulation in the lymph nodes (˜70% ID/g) was observed. In the 4T1 lymph node metastasis model, the capability of intravenously injected 111In-LCP to visualize the size-enlarged and tumor-loaded sentinel lymph node was demonstrated. By analyzing the SPECT/CT images taken at different time points, the PK profiles of 111In-LCP in the blood and major organs were determined. The results indicated that the decrement of 111In-LCP blood concentration was not due to excretion, but to tissue penetration, leading to lymphatic accumulation. Larger LCP (diameter ˜65 nm) nanoparticles were also prepared for the purpose of comparison. Results indicated that larger LCP achieved slightly lower accumulation in the tumor and lymph nodes, but much higher accumulation in the liver and spleen; thus, larger nanoparticles might not be favorable for imaging purposes. We also demonstrated that LCP with a diameter of ˜25 nm were better able to penetrate into tissues, travel in the lymphatic system and preferentially accumulate in the lymph nodes due to 1) small

  5. Cascade reactions catalyzed by metal organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Dhakshinamoorthy, Amarajothi; Garcia, Hermenegildo

    2014-09-01

    Cascade or tandem reactions where two or more individual reactions are carried out in one pot constitute a clear example of process intensification, targeting the maximization of spatial and temporal productivity with mobilization of minimum resources. In the case of catalytic reactions, cascade processes require bi-/multifunctional catalysts that contain different classes of active sites. Herein, we show that the features and properties of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) make these solids very appropriate materials for the development of catalysts for cascade reactions. Due to composition and structure, MOFs can incorporate different types of sites at the metal nodes, organic linkers, or at the empty internal pores, allowing the flexible design and synthesis of multifunctional catalysts. After some introductory sections on the relevance of cascade reactions from the point of view of competitiveness, sustainability, and environmental friendliness, the main part of the text provides a comprehensive review of the literature reporting the use of MOFs as heterogeneous catalysts for cascade reactions including those that combine in different ways acid/base, oxidation/reduction, and metal-organic centers. The final section summarizes the current state of the art, indicating that the development of a first commercial synthesis of a high-added-value fine chemical will be a crucial milestone in this area.

  6. Exploiting node mobility for energy optimization in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Moukaddem, Fatme Mohammad

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have become increasingly available for data-intensive applications such as micro-climate monitoring, precision agriculture, and audio/video surveillance. A key challenge faced by data-intensive WSNs is to transmit the sheer amount of data generated within an application's lifetime to the base station despite the fact that sensor nodes have limited power supplies such as batteries or small solar panels. The availability of numerous low-cost robotic units (e.g. Robomote and Khepera) has made it possible to construct sensor networks consisting of mobile sensor nodes. It has been shown that the controlled mobility offered by mobile sensors can be exploited to improve the energy efficiency of a network. In this thesis, we propose schemes that use mobile sensor nodes to reduce the energy consumption of data-intensive WSNs. Our approaches differ from previous work in two main aspects. First, our approaches do not require complex motion planning of mobile nodes, and hence can be implemented on a number of low-cost mobile sensor platforms. Second, we integrate the energy consumption due to both mobility and wireless communications into a holistic optimization framework. We consider three problems arising from the limited energy in the sensor nodes. In the first problem, the network consists of mostly static nodes and contains only a few mobile nodes. In the second and third problems, we assume essentially that all nodes in the WSN are mobile. We first study a new problem called max-data mobile relay configuration (MMRC ) that finds the positions of a set of mobile sensors, referred to as relays, that maximize the total amount of data gathered by the network during its lifetime. We show that the MMRC problem is surprisingly complex even for a trivial network topology due to the joint consideration of the energy consumption of both wireless communication and mechanical locomotion. We present optimal MMRC algorithms and practical distributed

  7. Chemoselective single-site Earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal-organic framework nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, Kuntal; Ji, Pengfei; Lin, Zekai; Greene, Francis X.; Urban, Ania; Thacker, Nathan C.; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-08-01

    Earth-abundant metal catalysts are critically needed for sustainable chemical synthesis. Here we report a simple, cheap and effective strategy of producing novel earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal-organic framework (MOF) nodes for broad-scope organic transformations. The straightforward metalation of MOF secondary building units (SBUs) with cobalt and iron salts affords highly active and reusable single-site solid catalysts for a range of organic reactions, including chemoselective borylation, silylation and amination of benzylic C-H bonds, as well as hydrogenation and hydroboration of alkenes and ketones. Our structural, spectroscopic and kinetic studies suggest that chemoselective organic transformations occur on site-isolated, electron-deficient and coordinatively unsaturated metal centres at the SBUs via σ-bond metathesis pathways and as a result of the steric environment around the catalytic site. MOFs thus provide a novel platform for the development of highly active and affordable base metal catalysts for the sustainable synthesis of fine chemicals.

  8. Clinical significance of molecular diagnosis for gastric cancer lymph node micrometastasis

    PubMed Central

    Sonoda, Hiromichi; Tani, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    Advances in molecular diagnostic tools have allowed the identification of lymph node micrometastasis (LNM), including isolated tumor cells, in cancer patients. While immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction have been used to identify LNM in patients with gastric cancer, the clinical significance of this finding remains unclear. Recently, minimally invasive treatments, such as endoscopic submucosal dissection and laparoscopic surgery, are widely performed to help improve postsurgical quality of life (QOL). However, it is important to maintain the balance between QOL and curability when making treatments decision for patients with gastric cancer. If minimally invasive surgery based on accurate intraoperative LNM diagnosis was established, it could be performed safely. Therefore, we reviewed the clinical significance of LNM detected by molecular techniques as an important target for treatment decision making with gastric cancer patients. PMID:25320510

  9. Chemoselective single-site Earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal-organic framework nodes.

    PubMed

    Manna, Kuntal; Ji, Pengfei; Lin, Zekai; Greene, Francis X; Urban, Ania; Thacker, Nathan C; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-08-30

    Earth-abundant metal catalysts are critically needed for sustainable chemical synthesis. Here we report a simple, cheap and effective strategy of producing novel earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal-organic framework (MOF) nodes for broad-scope organic transformations. The straightforward metalation of MOF secondary building units (SBUs) with cobalt and iron salts affords highly active and reusable single-site solid catalysts for a range of organic reactions, including chemoselective borylation, silylation and amination of benzylic C-H bonds, as well as hydrogenation and hydroboration of alkenes and ketones. Our structural, spectroscopic and kinetic studies suggest that chemoselective organic transformations occur on site-isolated, electron-deficient and coordinatively unsaturated metal centres at the SBUs via σ-bond metathesis pathways and as a result of the steric environment around the catalytic site. MOFs thus provide a novel platform for the development of highly active and affordable base metal catalysts for the sustainable synthesis of fine chemicals.

  10. Chemoselective single-site Earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal–organic framework nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Manna, Kuntal; Ji, Pengfei; Lin, Zekai; Greene, Francis X.; Urban, Ania; Thacker, Nathan C.; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-08-30

    Earth-abundant metal catalysts are critically needed for sustainable chemical synthesis. Here we report a simple, cheap and effective strategy of producing novel earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal–organic framework (MOF) nodes for broad-scope organic transformations. The straightforward metalation of MOF secondary building units (SBUs) with cobalt and iron salts affords highly active and reusable single-site solid catalysts for a range of organic reactions, including chemoselective borylation, silylation and amination of benzylic C–H bonds, as well as hydrogenation and hydroboration of alkenes and ketones. Our structural, spectroscopic and kinetic studies suggest that chemoselective organic transformations occur on site-isolated, electron-deficient and coordinatively unsaturated metal centres at the SBUs via σ-bond metathesis pathways and as a result of the steric environment around the catalytic site. MOFs thus provide a novel platform for the development of highly active and affordable base metal catalysts for the sustainable synthesis of fine chemicals.

  11. Using high hydraulic conductivity nodes to simulate seepage lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Mary P.; Hunt, Randall J.; Krohelski, James T.; Chung, Kuopo

    2002-01-01

    In a typical ground water flow model, lakes are represented by specified head nodes requiring that lake levels be known a priori. To remove this limitation, previous researchers assigned high hydraulic conductivity (K) values to nodes that represent a lake, under the assumption that the simulated head at the nodes in the high-K zone accurately reflects lake level. The solution should also produce a constant water level across the lake. We developed a model of a simple hypothetical ground water/lake system to test whether solutions using high-K lake nodes are sensitive to the value of K selected to represent the lake. Results show that the larger the contrast between the K of the aquifer and the K of the lake nodes, the smaller the error tolerance required for the solution to converge. For our test problem, a contrast of three orders of magnitude produced a head difference across the lake of 0.005 m under a regional gradient of the order of 10−3 m/m, while a contrast of four orders of magnitude produced a head difference of 0.001 m. The high-K method was then used to simulate lake levels in Pretty Lake, Wisconsin. Results for both the hypothetical system and the application to Pretty Lake compared favorably with results using a lake package developed for MODFLOW (Merritt and Konikow 2000). While our results demonstrate that the high-K method accurately simulates lake levels, this method has more cumbersome postprocessing and longer run times than the same problem simulated using the lake package.

  12. Using high hydraulic conductivity nodes to simulate seepage lakes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mary P; Hunt, Randall J; Krohelski, James T; Chung, Kuopo

    2002-01-01

    In a typical ground water flow model, lakes are represented by specified head nodes requiring that lake levels be known a priori. To remove this limitation, previous researchers assigned high hydraulic conductivity (K) values to nodes that represent a lake, under the assumption that the simulated head at the nodes in the high-K zone accurately reflects lake level. The solution should also produce a constant water level across the lake. We developed a model of a simple hypothetical ground water/lake system to test whether solutions using high-K lake nodes are sensitive to the value of K selected to represent the lake. Results show that the larger the contrast between the K of the aquifer and the K of the lake nodes, the smaller the error tolerance required for the solution to converge. For our test problem, a contrast of three orders of magnitude produced a head difference across the lake of 0.005 m under a regional gradient of the order of 10(-3) m/m, while a contrast of four orders of magnitude produced a head difference of 0.001 m. The high-K method was then used to simulate lake levels in Pretty Lake, Wisconsin. Results for both the hypothetical system and the application to Pretty Lake compared favorably with results using a lake package developed for MODFLOW (Merritt and Konikow 2000). While our results demonstrate that the high-K method accurately simulates lake levels, this method has more cumbersome postprocessing and longer run times than the same problem simulated using the lake package.

  13. 32nm node technology development using interference immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sewell, Harry; McCafferty, Diane; Markoya, Louis; Hendrickx, Eric; Hermans, Jan; Ronse, Kurt

    2005-05-01

    The 38nm and 32nm lithography nodes are the next major targets for optical lithography on the Semiconductor Industry Roadmap. The recently developed water-based immersion lithography using ArF illumination will be able to provide an optical solution for lithography at the 45nm node, but it will not be able to achieve the 38nm or the 32nm nodes as currently defined. To achieve these next lithographic nodes will require new, very high refractive index fluids to replace the water used in current immersion systems. This paper describes tests and experiments using an interference immersion lithography test jig to develop key technology for the 32nm node. Interference imaging printers have been available for years, and with the advent of Immersion Lithography, they have a new use. Interference immersion image printing offers users a rapid, cost-effective way to develop immersion lithography, particularly at extremely high resolutions. Although it can never replace classical lens-based lithography systems for semiconductor device production, it does offer a way to develop resist and fluid technology at a relatively low cost. Its simple image-forming format offers easy access to the basic physics of advanced imaging. Issues such as: Polarization of the image forming light rays; Fluid/resist interaction during exposure; Topcoat film performance; and the Line Edge Roughness (LER) of resists at extremely high resolutions can all be readily studied. Experiments are described and results are provided for work on: 32nm imaging tests; high refractive index fluid testing using 193nm wavelength at resolutions well beyond current lens-based system capabilities; and polarization configuration testing on 45nm, 38nm, and 32nm L/S features. Results on the performance of resists and topcoats are reported for 32nm L/S features.

  14. Executing scatter operation to parallel computer nodes by repeatedly broadcasting content of send buffer partition corresponding to each node upon bitwise OR operation

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Ratterman, Joseph D.

    2009-11-06

    Executing a scatter operation on a parallel computer includes: configuring a send buffer on a logical root, the send buffer having positions, each position corresponding to a ranked node in an operational group of compute nodes and for storing contents scattered to that ranked node; and repeatedly for each position in the send buffer: broadcasting, by the logical root to each of the other compute nodes on a global combining network, the contents of the current position of the send buffer using a bitwise OR operation, determining, by each compute node, whether the current position in the send buffer corresponds with the rank of that compute node, if the current position corresponds with the rank, receiving the contents and storing the contents in a reception buffer of that compute node, and if the current position does not correspond with the rank, discarding the contents.

  15. Glide dislocation nucleation from dislocation nodes at semi-coherent {111} Cu–Ni interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Shuai; Wang, Jian; Beyerlein, Irene J.; Misra, Amit

    2015-07-23

    Using atomistic simulations and dislocation theory on a model system of semi-coherent {1 1 1} interfaces, we show that misfit dislocation nodes adopt multiple atomic arrangements corresponding to the creation and redistribution of excess volume at the nodes. We identified four distinctive node structures: volume-smeared nodes with (i) spiral or (ii) straight dislocation patterns, and volume-condensed nodes with (iii) triangular or (iv) hexagonal dislocation patterns. Volume-smeared nodes contain interfacial dislocations lying in the Cu–Ni interface but volume-condensed nodes contain two sets of interfacial dislocations in the two adjacent interfaces and jogs across the atomic layer between the two adjacent interfaces. Finally, under biaxial tension/compression applied parallel to the interface, we show that the nucleation of lattice dislocations is preferred at the nodes and is correlated with the reduction of excess volume at the nodes.

  16. Glide dislocation nucleation from dislocation nodes at semi-coherent {111} Cu–Ni interfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Shao, Shuai; Wang, Jian; Beyerlein, Irene J.; ...

    2015-07-23

    Using atomistic simulations and dislocation theory on a model system of semi-coherent {1 1 1} interfaces, we show that misfit dislocation nodes adopt multiple atomic arrangements corresponding to the creation and redistribution of excess volume at the nodes. We identified four distinctive node structures: volume-smeared nodes with (i) spiral or (ii) straight dislocation patterns, and volume-condensed nodes with (iii) triangular or (iv) hexagonal dislocation patterns. Volume-smeared nodes contain interfacial dislocations lying in the Cu–Ni interface but volume-condensed nodes contain two sets of interfacial dislocations in the two adjacent interfaces and jogs across the atomic layer between the two adjacent interfaces.more » Finally, under biaxial tension/compression applied parallel to the interface, we show that the nucleation of lattice dislocations is preferred at the nodes and is correlated with the reduction of excess volume at the nodes.« less

  17. Self-pacing direct memory access data transfer operations for compute nodes in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A

    2015-02-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for self-pacing DMA data transfer operations for nodes in a parallel computer that include: transferring, by an origin DMA on an origin node, a RTS message to a target node, the RTS message specifying an message on the origin node for transfer to the target node; receiving, in an origin injection FIFO for the origin DMA from a target DMA on the target node in response to transferring the RTS message, a target RGET descriptor followed by a DMA transfer operation descriptor, the DMA descriptor for transmitting a message portion to the target node, the target RGET descriptor specifying an origin RGET descriptor on the origin node that specifies an additional DMA descriptor for transmitting an additional message portion to the target node; processing, by the origin DMA, the target RGET descriptor; and processing, by the origin DMA, the DMA transfer operation descriptor.

  18. Reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda E [Cambridge, MA; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2012-04-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application that include: beginning, by each compute node, performance of a blocking operation specified by the parallel application, each compute node beginning the blocking operation asynchronously with respect to the other compute nodes; reducing, for each compute node, power to one or more hardware components of that compute node in response to that compute node beginning the performance of the blocking operation; and restoring, for each compute node, the power to the hardware components having power reduced in response to all of the compute nodes beginning the performance of the blocking operation.

  19. Reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda A [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2012-01-10

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application that include: beginning, by each compute node, performance of a blocking operation specified by the parallel application, each compute node beginning the blocking operation asynchronously with respect to the other compute nodes; reducing, for each compute node, power to one or more hardware components of that compute node in response to that compute node beginning the performance of the blocking operation; and restoring, for each compute node, the power to the hardware components having power reduced in response to all of the compute nodes beginning the performance of the blocking operation.

  20. Completion of axillary dissection for a positive sentinel node: necessary or not?

    PubMed

    Erb, Kathleen M; Julian, Thomas B

    2009-01-01

    Sentinel node excision has been widely accepted as the initial surgical step for evaluating the axilla for metastatic breast cancer. When the nodes are positive, the standard of care is to complete the axillary node dissection, a more extended procedure that carries an increased risk for morbidity. This article reviews data from sentinel lymph node trials, case series reports of outcomes when axillary node dissection was not performed in the setting of positive sentinel nodes, models for predicting the status of nonsentinel nodes, and the morbidity associated with axillary operations. Despite an approximate 10% false-negative rate, early results indicate that there is a much lower local recurrence rate after sentinel node excision alone and that systemic therapy may sterilize the axilla. In selected patients, it may be appropriate to forgo an axillary node dissection, although there are no randomized clinical trial data to support or refute this suggestion.

  1. Implementing asyncronous collective operations in a multi-node processing system

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Eisley, Noel A.; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Salapura, Valentina; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2014-07-08

    A method, system, and computer program product are disclosed for implementing an asynchronous collective operation in a multi-node data processing system. In one embodiment, the method comprises sending data to a plurality of nodes in the data processing system, broadcasting a remote get to the plurality of nodes, and using this remote get to implement asynchronous collective operations on the data by the plurality of nodes. In one embodiment, each of the nodes performs only one task in the asynchronous operations, and each nodes sets up a base address table with an entry for a base address of a memory buffer associated with said each node. In another embodiment, each of the nodes performs a plurality of tasks in said collective operations, and each task of each node sets up a base address table with an entry for a base address of a memory buffer associated with the task.

  2. Catalysis of Photochemical Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albini, A.

    1986-01-01

    Offers a classification system of catalytic effects in photochemical reactions, contrasting characteristic properties of photochemical and thermal reactions. Discusses catalysis and sensitization, examples of catalyzed reactions of excepted states, complexing ground state substrates, and catalysis of primary photoproducts. (JM)

  3. Anaphylaxis-Like Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Conditions Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis-Like Reactions Anaphylaxis-Like Reactions Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask a ... exposed to a foreign substance, some people suffer reactions identical to anaphylaxis, but no allergy (IgE antibody) ...

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Patterns of spread

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Lizhi; Zhang Guoyi; Xie Chuangmiao; Liu Xuewen; Cui Chunyan; Li Li . E-mail: lililixj@hotmail.com

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence, distribution, and spread pattern of retropharyngeal lymph node (RLN) involvement in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: The MR images of 275 patients with newly diagnosed NPC were reviewed retrospectively. Nodes were classified as metastatic based on size criteria, the presence of nodal necrosis, and extracapsular spread. Results: Retropharyngeal lymph node involvement was detected in 175 (63.6%) patients. Metastatic RLNs were seen at the following levels: occipital bone, 24 (9.6%) nodes; C1, 157 (62.5%) nodes; C1/2, 40 (15.9%) nodes; C2, 27 (10.8%) nodes; C2/3, 1 (0.4%) node; and C3, 2 (0.8%) nodes. The incidence of RLN involvement was equal to the incidence of cervical lymph node involvement (81.4% vs. 81.4%) in 215 patients with nodal metastases. A significantly higher incidence of metastatic RLNs was observed in the presence of oropharynx, prestyloid parapharyngeal space, post-styloid parapharyngeal space, longus colli muscle, medial pterygoid muscle, levator muscle of velum palatini, tensor muscle of velum palatini, Level II node, Level III node, and Level V node involvement. A significantly lower incidence of metastatic RLNs was found in T1, N0, and Stage I disease. Conversely, no significant difference in the incidence of metastatic RLNs was observed between T1, 2, and, 3; N2 and N3; or Stage II, III, and IV disease. Conclusions: There is an orderly decrease in the incidence of metastatic lateral RLNs from the C1 to C3 level. Metastatic RLNs associate well with involvement of certain structures in early stage primary tumors and lymph node metastases of the upper jugular chain (Level II, Level III nodes) and the posterior triangle (Level V nodes). Both RLNs and cervical Level II nodes appear to be the first-echelon nodes in NPC.

  5. Experimental Study of Magnetic Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Doxorubicin Conjugate in a Lymph Node Metastatic Model of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jian; Liu, Minfeng; Meng, Yue; Liu, Runqi; Yan, Yan; Dong, Jianyu; Guo, Zhaoze; Ye, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    Background The lymphatic system plays a significant role in the defense of a subject against breast cancer and is one of the major pathways for the metastasis of breast cancer. To improve the prognosis, many means, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, have been used. However, the combination of all these modalities has limited efficacy. Lymph nodes, therefore, have become an exceptionally potential target organ in cancer chemotherapy. Material/Methods A lymph node metastatic model of breast cancer was established in BALB/c mice. Magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube carrier with good adsorption and lymph node-targeting capacity was prepared and conjugated with doxorubicin to make the magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin suspension. Dispersions of doxorubicin, magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin, and magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube were injected into lymph node metastatic mice to compare their inhibitory effects on tumor cells in vivo. Inhibition of these dispersions on EMT-6 breast cancer cells was detected via MTT assay in vitro. Results Although no significant difference was found between the effects of doxorubicin and magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin with the same concentration of doxorubicin on EMT-6 breast cancer cells in vitro, in terms of sizes of metastatic lymph nodes and xenograft tumors, apoptosis in metastatic lymph nodes, and adverse reactions, the magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin group differed significantly from the other groups. Conclusions The magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin clearly played an inhibitory role in lymph node metastases to EMT-6 breast cancer cells. PMID:27385226

  6. Experimental Study of Magnetic Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Doxorubicin Conjugate in a Lymph Node Metastatic Model of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jian; Liu, Minfeng; Meng, Yue; Liu, Runqi; Yan, Yan; Dong, Jianyu; Guo, Zhaoze; Ye, Changsheng

    2016-07-07

    BACKGROUND The lymphatic system plays a significant role in the defense of a subject against breast cancer and is one of the major pathways for the metastasis of breast cancer. To improve the prognosis, many means, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, have been used. However, the combination of all these modalities has limited efficacy. Lymph nodes, therefore, have become an exceptionally potential target organ in cancer chemotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS A lymph node metastatic model of breast cancer was established in BALB/c mice. Magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube carrier with good adsorption and lymph node-targeting capacity was prepared and conjugated with doxorubicin to make the magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin suspension. Dispersions of doxorubicin, magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin, and magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube were injected into lymph node metastatic mice to compare their inhibitory effects on tumor cells in vivo. Inhibition of these dispersions on EMT-6 breast cancer cells was detected via MTT assay in vitro. RESULTS Although no significant difference was found between the effects of doxorubicin and magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin with the same concentration of doxorubicin on EMT-6 breast cancer cells in vitro, in terms of sizes of metastatic lymph nodes and xenograft tumors, apoptosis in metastatic lymph nodes, and adverse reactions, the magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin group differed significantly from the other groups. CONCLUSIONS The magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin clearly played an inhibitory role in lymph node metastases to EMT-6 breast cancer cells.

  7. Association of GUCY2C Expression in Lymph Nodes and Time to Recurrence and Disease-Free Survival in pN0 Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Waldman, Scott A.; Hyslop, Terry; Schulz, Stephanie; Barkun, Alan; Nielsen, Karl; Haaf, Janis; Bonaccorso, Christine; Li, Yanyan; Weinberg, David S.

    2009-01-01

    Context The established relationship between lymph node metastasis and prognosis in colorectal cancer suggests that recurrence in 25% of patients with lymph nodes free of tumor cells by histopathology (pN0) reflects the presence of occult metastases. GUCY2C is a marker expressed by colorectal tumors that could reveal occult metastases in lymph nodes and better estimate recurrence risk. Objective To examine the association of occult lymph node metastases detected by quantifying GUCY2C mRNA, employing the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, with recurrence and survival in patients with colorectal cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective enrollment of 257 patients with pN0 colorectal cancer enrolled between March 2002 and June 2007 at 9 centers provided 2,570 fresh lymph nodes ≥5 mm for histopathology and GUCY2C mRNA analysis. Patients were followed for a median of 24 months (range: 2–63) for disease recurrence or death. Main Outcome Measures Time to recurrence (primary outcome) and disease-free survival (secondary outcome) relative to expression of GUCY2C in lymph nodes. Results Thirty-two (12.5%) patients had lymph nodes negative for GUCY2C [pN0(mol−)], and all but two remained free of disease during follow-up (recurrence rate 6.3% [95%CI 0.8–20.8%]). Conversely, 225 (87.5%) patients had lymph nodes positive for GUCY2C [pN0(mol+)], and 47 (20.9% [15.8–26.8%]) developed recurrent disease (p=0.006). Multivariable analyses revealed that GUCY2C in lymph nodes was an independent marker of prognosis. Patients who were pN0(mol+) exhibited earlier time to recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio 4.66 [1.11–19.57]; p=0.035) and reduced disease-free survival (adjusted hazard ratio 3.27 [1.15–9.29]; p=0.026). Conclusion Expression of GUCY2C in histologically negative lymph nodes appears to be independently associated with time to recurrence and disease-free survival in patients with pN0 colorectal cancer. PMID:19224751

  8. An improved label propagation algorithm using average node energy in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hao; Zhao, Dandan; Li, Lin; Lu, Jianfeng; Han, Jianmin; Wu, Songyang

    2016-10-01

    Detecting overlapping community structure can give a significant insight into structural and functional properties in complex networks. In this Letter, we propose an improved label propagation algorithm (LPA) to uncover overlapping community structure. After mapping nodes into random variables, the algorithm calculates variance of each node and the proposed average node energy. The nodes whose variances are less than a tunable threshold are regarded as bridge nodes and meanwhile changing the given threshold can uncover some latent bridge node. Simulation results in real-world and artificial networks show that the improved algorithm is efficient in revealing overlapping community structures.

  9. Sinus node dysfunction during long-term lithium treatment.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenqvist, M; Bergfeldt, L; Aili, H; Mathé, A A

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE--Lithium has occasionally been reported to cause symptomatic sinus node bradyarrhythmias. The prevalence and mechanism of these arrhythmias during long-term treatment are unknown. The aims of this study were (a) to evaluate the systemic effects of lithium treatment on cardiac conduction in individuals who were free from cardiovascular disorders; (b) to assess the prevalence of lithium treatment in a group of patients with pacemakers; and (c) to evaluate the interaction between the parasympathetic limb of the autonomous nervous system and the sinus node cells during long-term lithium treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS--45 patients who had been treated with lithium for > 12 months were investigated in a long-term electrocardiography study. Only patients without cardiovascular disease, or concomitant chronotropic medication, or metabolic disorders known to cause rhythm disturbances were included. An age-stratified population was used as a reference group. 21 patients also underwent analysis of carotid sinus pressure and sinus cycle length before and after atropine to clarify whether neural mechanisms were involved. The prevalence of lithium treated patients was determined in 650 patients with pacemakers. RESULTS--(a) Signs of moderate sinus node dysfunction (sinus arrest > 1.5 s, minimum heart rate < 50 beats/min) were found in 56% and 78% respectively in the lithium-treated group compared with 30% and 30% respectively in the reference group (p < 0.01). Severe sinus node dysfunction was equally common in both groups. (b) The prevalence of chronic lithium treatment in the pacemaker population was 0.46%. (c) Sinus cycle variations were abnormal in the basal state in three (14%) patients and in 11 (52%) patients after atropine despite signs of intact and normal parasympathetic innervation. CONCLUSIONS--Depressed sinus node function was significantly more common in a lithium-treated population than in an age-stratified reference group. Clinically

  10. Lymph node dissection for Siewert II esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiao-Feng; Yue, Jie; Tang, Peng; Shang, Xiao-Bin; Jiang, Hong-Jing; Yu, Zhen-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The present study was aimed to investigate the application of right thansthoracic Ivor–Lewis (IL), left transthoracic (LTT), and left thoracoabdominal (LTA) approach in Siewert type II adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction (AEG). The data of 196 patients with Siewert type II AEG received surgical resection in our cancer center between January 2014 and April 2016 was retrospectively analyzed. Finally, 136 patients met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study and divided into the IL (47 cases), LTT (51 cases), and LTA group (38 cases). Clinical and short-term treatment effects were compared among the 3 groups. The patients with weight loss, diabetes, and heart disease increased in the LTT group (P = 0.054, P = 0.075, and P = 0.063, respectively). Operation time was significantly longest in the IL group (P < 0.001), but the amount of bleeding and tumor size did not significantly differ among the 3 groups (P = 0.176 and P = 0.228, respectively). The IL group had the significantly longest proximal surgical margin (P < 0.001) and most number of total (P < 0.001) and thoracic lymph nodes (P < 0.001) dissected. Both the IL and LTA groups had more abdominal lymph nodes dissected than the LTT group (P < 0.001). In general, the IL and LTT groups had the highest dissection rates of every station of thoracic (P < 0.05) and lower mediastinal lymph nodes (P < 0.05), respectively. The dissection rate of the paracardial, left gastric artery, and gastric lesser curvature lymph nodes did not differ significantly among the 3 groups (P > 0.05), but the dissection rate of the hepatic artery, splenic artery, and celiac trunk lymph nodes was significantly highest in the IL group (P < 0.05). Postoperative hospital stay, perioperative complications, and mortality did not differ significantly among the 3 groups (P > 0.05). Compared with the traditional left transthoracic approach, the Ivor–Lewis approach

  11. Severe ASIA syndrome associated with lymph node, thoracic, and pulmonary silicone infiltration following breast implant rupture: experience with four cases.

    PubMed

    Nesher, G; Soriano, A; Shlomai, G; Iadgarov, Y; Shulimzon, T R; Borella, E; Dicker, D; Shoenfeld, Y

    2015-04-01

    Silicone has been considered biologically inert; thus it has been employed in many medical devices and nowadays is commonly used in plastic surgery for mammary prosthesis. It is well tolerated in most cases. However, autoimmune disorders and siliconomas with granulomatous reactions after silicone implant rupture have been described. We report cases of four women who developed systemic disorders following rupture of silicone breast implants resulting in lymph node and thoracic silicone infiltration. The symptoms in these cases, including arthralgia, myalgia, generalized weakness, severe fatigue, sleeping disturbances, cognitive impairment, memory loss, irritable bowel syndrome, and weight loss, clearly match the criteria of the recently defined autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA).

  12. Supraclavicular Lymph Node Excision Biopsy in Patients with Suspected Supraclavicular Lymph Node Metastasis of Lung Cancer: Experience in a Tertiary Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lim, Sang Chul

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness and accuracy of supraclavicular lymph node excision biopsy in the diagnosis of suspected supraclavicular lymph node metastasis of lung cancer. A retrospective review was performed to evaluate patients with suspected supraclavicular lymph node metastasis of lung cancer who underwent supraclavicular lymph node excision biopsy from January 2011 to July 2014. Forty-six patients with suspected supraclavicular lymph node metastasis of lung cancer underwent supraclavicular lymph node excision biopsy, which diagnosed benign diseases in 6 patients and malignant diseases in 40 patients. Supraclavicular lymph node excision biopsy was usually performed on patients during their first clinical visit under local anesthesia. For diagnosing suspected lung cancer, supraclavicular lymph node excision biopsy had a diagnostic sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 97.6%, positive-predictive value of 83.3%, negative-predictive value of 100%, and accuracy of 97.8%. No major complication resulted from surgical intervention. Supraclavicular lymph node excision biopsy is a useful and accurate adjunct for the evaluation of suspected supraclavicular lymph node metastasis of lung cancer in a tertiary hospital. PMID:28184341

  13. Supraclavicular Lymph Node Excision Biopsy in Patients with Suspected Supraclavicular Lymph Node Metastasis of Lung Cancer: Experience in a Tertiary Hospital.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Lim, Sang Chul

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness and accuracy of supraclavicular lymph node excision biopsy in the diagnosis of suspected supraclavicular lymph node metastasis of lung cancer. A retrospective review was performed to evaluate patients with suspected supraclavicular lymph node metastasis of lung cancer who underwent supraclavicular lymph node excision biopsy from January 2011 to July 2014. Forty-six patients with suspected supraclavicular lymph node metastasis of lung cancer underwent supraclavicular lymph node excision biopsy, which diagnosed benign diseases in 6 patients and malignant diseases in 40 patients. Supraclavicular lymph node excision biopsy was usually performed on patients during their first clinical visit under local anesthesia. For diagnosing suspected lung cancer, supraclavicular lymph node excision biopsy had a diagnostic sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 97.6%, positive-predictive value of 83.3%, negative-predictive value of 100%, and accuracy of 97.8%. No major complication resulted from surgical intervention. Supraclavicular lymph node excision biopsy is a useful and accurate adjunct for the evaluation of suspected supraclavicular lymph node metastasis of lung cancer in a tertiary hospital.

  14. Preparation of (99m)Tc-isosulfan blue for lymph node localization in rats (99m)Tc-isosulfan blue for lymph node localization.

    PubMed

    İlem-Özdemir, Derya; Yararbas, Ulkem; Zengel, Baha; Ertan, Gökhan; Asikoglu, Makbule

    2016-12-01

    The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as the first regional lymph node to receive lymphatic drainage from a malignant tumor. Therefore, this node is a "sentinel" for second metastatic lymph node stations and for labeling regional tumor spread. For SLN detection, many surgeons preferred a combination of a preoperative injection of radiolabeled colloid and the intraoperative injection of blue dye. Under this combination protocol, nodes are considered to be "sentinel nodes" if they are radioactive and blue. The aim of this study is to develop a new single agent that combines both detection methods. For this purpose Isosulfan Blue (ISB) was radiolabeled by (99m)Tc with high labeling yield and stability. In vivo gamma scintigraphy studies were performed with rats. According to the scintigraphic studies, (99m)Tc-ISB shows rapid and high accumulation in both axillary (ALN) and popliteal lymph node (PLN). After the imaging study, extremity was opened and nodes were scanned for the radioactivity. According to performed study the lymph nodes were clearly seen to become blue and carried compound was sufficient to allow identification with a gamma probe. In conclusion, (99m)Tc-ISB has the potential to facilitate lymphatic mapping and subsequent sentinel node biopsy for solid malignancies such as breast cancer and melanoma.

  15. Node Redeployment Algorithm Based on Stratified Connected Tree for Underwater Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Jiang, Peng; Wu, Feng; Yu, Shanen; Song, Chunyue

    2016-01-01

    During the underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) operation, node drift with water environment causes network topology changes. Periodic node location examination and adjustment are needed to maintain good network monitoring quality as long as possible. In this paper, a node redeployment algorithm based on stratified connected tree for UWSNs is proposed. At every network adjustment moment, self-examination and adjustment on node locations are performed firstly. If a node is outside the monitored space, it returns to the last location recorded in its memory along straight line. Later, the network topology is stratified into a connected tree that takes the sink node as the root node by broadcasting ready information level by level, which can improve the network connectivity rate. Finally, with synthetically considering network coverage and connectivity rates, and node movement distance, the sink node performs centralized optimization on locations of leaf nodes in the stratified connected tree. Simulation results show that the proposed redeployment algorithm can not only keep the number of nodes in the monitored space as much as possible and maintain good network coverage and connectivity rates during network operation, but also reduce node movement distance during node redeployment and prolong the network lifetime. PMID:28029124

  16. The International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes Mission Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Bassler, J. A.; McDougal, J. M.; Harris, D. W.; Hill, L.; Hammond, M. S.; Morse, B. J.; Reed, C. L. B.; Kirby, K. W.; Morgan, T. H.

    2009-01-01

    NASA s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) established the Lunar Quest Program (LQP) to accomplish lunar science objectives embodied in the National Academies report The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon (2007) and the NASA Advisory Council-sponsored Workshop on Science Associated with the Lunar Exploration Architecture (2007). A major element of LQP's lunar flight projects is the International Lunar Network (ILN), a network of small geophysical nodes on the lunar surface. NASA plans to provide the first two stations around 2014 and a second pair in the 2016-2017 timeframe. International involvement to provide additional stations will build up the network so that 8-10 nodes could be simultaneously operating. This flight project complements SMD's initiatives to build a robust lunar science community through R&A lines and increases international participation in NASA's robotic exploration of the moon.

  17. Lunar Data Node: Apollo Data Restoration and Archiving Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David R.; Hills, Howard K.; Guiness, Edward A.; Taylor, Patrick T.; McBride, Marie Julia

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Data Node (LDN) of the Planetary Data System (PDS) is responsible for the restoration and archiving of Apollo data. The LDN is located at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), which holds much of the extant Apollo data on microfilm, microfiche, hard-copy documents, and magnetic tapes in older formats. The goal of the restoration effort is to convert the data into user-accessible PDS formats, create a full set of explanatory supporting data (metadata), archive the full data sets through PDS, and post the data online at the PDS Geosciences Node. This will both enable easy use of the data by current researchers and ensure that the data and metadata are securely preserved for future use. We are also attempting to locate and preserve Apollo data which were never archived at NSSDC. We will give a progress report on the data sets we have been restoring and future work.

  18. Peritoneal malignant mesothelioma metastatic to supraclavicular lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Zannella, Stefano; Testi, Maria Adele; Cattoretti, Giorgio; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Zucchini, Nicola

    2014-09-01

    Distinguishing between malignant mesothelioma and reactive mesothelial hyperplasia is often inestimable, but may be a challenging gauntlet for pathologists. A 62-year-old man underwent appendectomy after the identification of a peritoneal mass and the histological examination showed mesothelial proliferation along the appendix surface with no clear images of infiltration. After a few months the patient developed mediastinal and supraclavicular lymphadenopathies, and a nodal biopsy showed mesothelial cell proliferation invading lymphatic sinuses, consistent with the cells seen in the abdominal cavity. Since overt morphologic criteria for malignancy were lacking and reactive mesothelial cell deposits have been documented in lymph nodes, a molecular investigation of the CDKN2A (henceforth simply p16) gene status via fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed, which showed homozygous deletion in 100% tumor cells. These data ruled out the hypothesis of reactive mesothelial cells inclusion in lymph nodes, thus confirming the diagnosis of epithelioid malignant mesothelioma.

  19. Weyl points and line nodes in gapless gyroid photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ling; Fu, Liang; Joannopoulos, John; Soljacic, Marin; MIT Team

    2013-03-01

    Weyl points and line nodes are three-dimensional linear point- and line-degeneracies between two bands. In contrast to Dirac points, which are their two-dimensional analogues, Weyl points are stable in the momentum space and the associated surface states are predicted to be topologically non-trivial. However, Weyl points are yet to be discovered in nature. Here, we report photonic crystals, based on the double-gyroid structures, exhibiting frequency-isolated Weyl points with complete phase diagrams by breaking the parity and time-reversal symmetries. The surface states associated with the non-zero Chern numbers are demonstrated. Line nodes are also found in similar geometries; the associated surface states are shown to be at bands. Our results are based on realistic ``numerical experiments'' with true predictive power and should be readily experimentally realizable at both microwave and optical frequencies.

  20. Weyl points and line nodes in gyroid photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ling; Fu, Liang; Joannopoulos, John D.; Soljačić, Marin

    2013-04-01

    Weyl points and line nodes are three-dimensional linear point and line degeneracies between two bands. In contrast to two-dimensional Dirac points, which are their lower-dimensional analogues, Weyl points are stable in momentum space, and the associated surface states are predicted to be topologically non-trivial. However, Weyl points are yet to be discovered in nature. Here, we report photonic crystals based on double-gyroid structures, exhibiting frequency-isolated Weyl points with complete phase diagrams by breaking the parity and time-reversal symmetries. Gapless surface dispersions associated with non-zero Chern numbers are demonstrated. Line nodes are also found in similar geometries, the associated surface states forming flat dispersion bands. Our results are based on realistic ab initio calculations with true predictive power and should be readily realizable experimentally from microwave to optical frequencies.

  1. Sentinel lymph node imaging by a fluorescently labeled DNA tetrahedron.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Ran; Lee, Yong-Deok; Lee, Taemin; Kim, Byeong-Su; Kim, Sehoon; Ahn, Dae-Ro

    2013-07-01

    Sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are the first lymph nodes which cancer cells reach after traveling through lymphatic vessels from the primary tumor. Evaluating the nodal status is crucial in accurate staging of human cancers and accordingly determines prognosis and the most appropriate treatment. The commonly used methods for SLN identification in clinics are based on employment of a colloid of radionuclide or injection of a small dye. Although these methods have certainly contributed to improve surgical practice, new imaging materials are still required to overcome drawbacks of the techniques such as inconvenience of handling radioactive materials and short retention time of small dyes in SLNs. Here, we prepare a fluorescence-labeled DNA tetrahedron and perform SLN imaging by using the DNA nanoconstruct. With a successful identification of SLNs by the DNA nanoconstruct, we suggest that DNA tetrahedron hold great promises for clinical applications.

  2. A coherent Ising machine for 2000-node optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, Takahiro; Haribara, Yoshitaka; Igarashi, Koji; Sonobe, Tomohiro; Tamate, Shuhei; Honjo, Toshimori; Marandi, Alireza; McMahon, Peter L.; Umeki, Takeshi; Enbutsu, Koji; Tadanaga, Osamu; Takenouchi, Hirokazu; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Kawarabayashi, Ken-ichi; Inoue, Kyo; Utsunomiya, Shoko; Takesue, Hiroki

    2016-11-01

    The analysis and optimization of complex systems can be reduced to mathematical problems collectively known as combinatorial optimization. Many such problems can be mapped onto ground-state search problems of the Ising model, and various artificial spin systems are now emerging as promising approaches. However, physical Ising machines have suffered from limited numbers of spin-spin couplings because of implementations based on localized spins, resulting in severe scalability problems. We report a 2000-spin network with all-to-all spin-spin couplings. Using a measurement and feedback scheme, we coupled time-multiplexed degenerate optical parametric oscillators to implement maximum cut problems on arbitrary graph topologies with up to 2000 nodes. Our coherent Ising machine outperformed simulated annealing in terms of accuracy and computation time for a 2000-node complete graph.

  3. Optimal selection of nodes to propagate influence on networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yifan

    2016-11-01

    How to optimize the spreading process on networks has been a hot issue in complex networks, marketing, epidemiology, finance, etc. In this paper, we investigate a problem of optimizing locally the spreading: identifying a fixed number of nodes as seeds which would maximize the propagation of influence to their direct neighbors. All the nodes except the selected seeds are assumed not to spread their influence to their neighbors. This problem can be mapped onto a spin glass model with a fixed magnetization. We provide a message-passing algorithm based on replica symmetrical mean-field theory in statistical physics, which can find the nearly optimal set of seeds. Extensive numerical results on computer-generated random networks and real-world networks demonstrate that this algorithm has a better performance than several other optimization algorithms.

  4. Nonlinear Krylov and moving nodes in the method of lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Keith

    2005-11-01

    We report on some successes and problem areas in the Method of Lines from our work with moving node finite element methods. First, we report on our "nonlinear Krylov accelerator" for the modified Newton's method on the nonlinear equations of our stiff ODE solver. Since 1990 it has been robust, simple, cheap, and automatic on all our moving node computations. We publicize further trials with it here because it should be of great general usefulness to all those solving evolutionary equations. Second, we discuss the need for reliable automatic choice of spatially variable time steps. Third, we discuss the need for robust and efficient iterative solvers for the difficult linearized equations (Jx=b) of our stiff ODE solver. Here, the 1997 thesis of Zulu Xaba has made significant progress.

  5. IEEE 342 Node Low Voltage Networked Test System

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Phanivong, Phillippe K.; Lacroix, Jean-Sebastian

    2014-07-31

    The IEEE Distribution Test Feeders provide a benchmark for new algorithms to the distribution analyses community. The low voltage network test feeder represents a moderate size urban system that is unbalanced and highly networked. This is the first distribution test feeder developed by the IEEE that contains unbalanced networked components. The 342 node Low Voltage Networked Test System includes many elements that may be found in a networked system: multiple 13.2kV primary feeders, network protectors, a 120/208V grid network, and multiple 277/480V spot networks. This paper presents a brief review of the history of low voltage networks and how they evolved into the modern systems. This paper will then present a description of the 342 Node IEEE Low Voltage Network Test System and power flow results.

  6. Performance of wireless sensor networks under random node failures

    SciTech Connect

    Bradonjic, Milan; Hagberg, Aric; Feng, Pan

    2011-01-28

    Networks are essential to the function of a modern society and the consequence of damages to a network can be large. Assessing network performance of a damaged network is an important step in network recovery and network design. Connectivity, distance between nodes, and alternative routes are some of the key indicators to network performance. In this paper, random geometric graph (RGG) is used with two types of node failure, uniform failure and localized failure. Since the network performance are multi-facet and assessment can be time constrained, we introduce four measures, which can be computed in polynomial time, to estimate performance of damaged RGG. Simulation experiments are conducted to investigate the deterioration of networks through a period of time. With the empirical results, the performance measures are analyzed and compared to provide understanding of different failure scenarios in a RGG.

  7. Dendronized iron oxide colloids for imaging the sentinel lymph node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouhannaud, J.; Garofalo, A.; Felder-Flesch, D.; Pourroy, G.

    2015-03-01

    Various methods have been used in medicine for more than one century to explore the lymphatic system. Radioactive colloids (RuS labelled with 99mTc) or/and Vital Blue dye are injected around the primary tumour and detected by means of nuclear probe or visual colour inspection respectively. The simultaneous clinical use of both markers (dye and radionuclide) improves the sensitivity of detection close to 100%. Superparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIOs) are currently receiving much attention as strong T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents that can be potentially used for preoperative localization of sentinel nodes, but also for peroperative detection of sentinel node using hand-held probes. In that context, we present the elaboration of dendronized iron oxide nanoparticles elaborated at the Institute of Physics and Chemistry of Materials of Strasbourg.

  8. A Clinico-Pathological Study of Cervical Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Batni, Gaurav; Gaur, Sushil; Sinha, O N; Agrawal, Siddhant Priya; Srivasatva, Abhinav

    2016-12-01

    Cervical lymphadenopathy is one of the commonest presenting complaint of patient in ENT OPD Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is one of the most reliable, less expensive, and basic diagnostic procedure for the definitive and conclusive diagnosis for the immune system which reciprocates in the form of enlarged lymph nodes. A study was conducted in ENT Department of Santosh Medical College, Ghazibad from August 2015 to May 2016 on 64 patients with enlarged cervical lymph nodes. FNAC was done to make the diagnosis. Out of 64 patients (51.5 %) was reactive non-specific, 28 % tubercular, 3.1 % lymphoma and 17 % were malignant. FNAC is one of the most dependable diagnostic tools in case of cervical lymphadenopathy for early diagnosis and detection for the better management.

  9. A lunar orbiting Node in support of missions to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butterfield, A.; Wrobel, J. R.; Garrett, L. B.

    1989-01-01

    A conceptual design study yielded an approximate size for the platform needed to support typical oxygen-transfer rates which were based upon NASA studies of Mars missions. The Node consists of a gravity gradient stabilized lunar orbiting tank-farm with a storage capacity of 100,000 kg of lunar oxygen, 3300 kg of lunar cargo, and 9300 kg of earth-supplied hydrogen. An emergency-habitat configuration accommodates 14 persons on-board for 110 days. The Node supports an annual lunar oxygen production of 10 exp 6 kg with 220,000 kg of oxygen delivered to earth orbit for an expenditure of 109,000 kg of earth-supplied hydrogen.

  10. Statistical Mechanics of Node-perturbation Learning with Noisy Baseline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Kazuyuki; Katahira, Kentaro; Okada, Masato

    2017-02-01

    Node-perturbation learning is a type of statistical gradient descent algorithm that can be applied to problems where the objective function is not explicitly formulated, including reinforcement learning. It estimates the gradient of an objective function by using the change in the object function in response to the perturbation. The value of the objective function for an unperturbed output is called a baseline. Cho et al. proposed node-perturbation learning with a noisy baseline. In this paper, we report on building the statistical mechanics of Cho's model and on deriving coupled differential equations of order parameters that depict learning dynamics. We also show how to derive the generalization error by solving the differential equations of order parameters. On the basis of the results, we show that Cho's results are also apply in general cases and show some general performances of Cho's model.

  11. Dynamical robustness of networks against multi-node attacked

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Chang-Chun; Si, Shu-Bin; Duan, Dong-Li; Zhan, Ren-Jun

    2017-04-01

    A question in the robustness research of networks, which has not been addressed previously but may be more important and of wider interest, is how to consider spatio-temporal tolerance against failure propagation after a fraction f of nodes attacked. Here we develop a quantitative approach to examine the cascading overload condition based on the structure connectivity when a fraction f of nodes is attacked randomly. We also explore the critical threshold against cascading failures with two types of load redistribution rule. Fixing the value of β (the redistribution parameter) or τ (the initial load distribution parameter), we prove that the network shows the strongest robustness when the values of β is equal to τ, and the network robustness shows a growth trend with the decrease of f. We get a striking conclusion within the global load preferential sharing rule that the network robustness is independent of the network topology.

  12. Certain implementative applications of Separate Node Ascending Derivatives Expansion (SNADE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodur, Derya; Demiralp, Metin

    2017-01-01

    In this work we have focused on a very recently developed method called as Separate Node Ascending Derivatives Expansion (SNADE). SNADE can be considered as an infinite interpolation like Taylor Series Expansion. A Taylor Series is an infinite sum representation whose terms are calculated from the values of the functions derivatives at a single point. This newly proposed method involves denumerable infinitely many nodes in contrast to Taylor Series Expansion. SNADE is based on derivative integration formula for a univariate function. Integral of derivative identity is not only required to be used for the target function but repetitiously for its all derivatives. It may not be required to be used in the same interval. In addition to all these, each derivative value becomes evaluated at a different independent variable value. This work is designed to emphasize on the methods interpolatory nature. For this purpose certain implementation results are given and compared with well-known interpolation methods.

  13. Traffic congestion and the lifetime of networks with moving nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xianxia; Li, Jie; Pu, Cunlai; Yan, Meichen; Sharafat, Rajput Ramiz; Yang, Jian; Gakis, Konstantinos; Pardalos, Panos M.

    2017-01-01

    For many power-limited networks, such as wireless sensor networks and mobile ad hoc networks, maximizing the network lifetime is the first concern in the related designing and maintaining activities. We study the network lifetime from the perspective of network science. In our model, nodes are initially assigned a fixed amount of energy moving in a square area and consume the energy when delivering packets. We obtain four different traffic regimes: no, slow, fast, and absolute congestion regimes, which are basically dependent on the packet generation rate. We derive the network lifetime by considering the specific regime of the traffic flow. We find that traffic congestion inversely affects network lifetime in the sense that high traffic congestion results in short network lifetime. We also discuss the impacts of factors such as communication radius, node moving speed, routing strategy, etc., on network lifetime and traffic congestion.

  14. Ranking important nodes in complex networks by simulated annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu; Yao, Pei-Yang; Wan, Lu-Jun; Shen, Jian; Zhong, Yun

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, based on simulated annealing a new method to rank important nodes in complex networks is presented. First, the concept of an importance sequence (IS) to describe the relative importance of nodes in complex networks is defined. Then, a measure used to evaluate the reasonability of an IS is designed. By comparing an IS and the measure of its reasonability to a state of complex networks and the energy of the state, respectively, the method finds the ground state of complex networks by simulated annealing. In other words, the method can construct a most reasonable IS. The results of experiments on real and artificial networks show that this ranking method not only is effective but also can be applied to different kinds of complex networks. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61573017) and the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2016JQ6062).

  15. Traffic congestion and the lifetime of networks with moving nodes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xianxia; Li, Jie; Pu, Cunlai; Yan, Meichen; Sharafat, Rajput Ramiz; Yang, Jian; Gakis, Konstantinos; Pardalos, Panos M

    2017-01-01

    For many power-limited networks, such as wireless sensor networks and mobile ad hoc networks, maximizing the network lifetime is the first concern in the related designing and maintaining activities. We study the network lifetime from the perspective of network science. In our model, nodes are initially assigned a fixed amount of energy moving in a square area and consume the energy when delivering packets. We obtain four different traffic regimes: no, slow, fast, and absolute congestion regimes, which are basically dependent on the packet generation rate. We derive the network lifetime by considering the specific regime of the traffic flow. We find that traffic congestion inversely affects network lifetime in the sense that high traffic congestion results in short network lifetime. We also discuss the impacts of factors such as communication radius, node moving speed, routing strategy, etc., on network lifetime and traffic congestion.

  16. The Rings Node for the Planetary Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Showalter, Mark R.; Bollinger, Kenneth J.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Nicholson, Philip D.

    1994-01-01

    The Planetary Data System's Rings Node is devoted to the archiving and distributing of scientific data sets relevant to planetary ring systems. The two major classes of ring data are images and occultation profiles, although a variety of additional data types (e.g. spectra, particle absorption signatures, etc.) are also of interest. A large fraction of our data sets are from the Voyager missions to the outer planets, but Earth-based and Hubble Space Telescope data sets are also represented. Archiving work often includes re-formatting the data into standardized formats and reconstructing some of the data processing steps. The Rings Node also performs a variety of services to support research into these data sets. These services include developing on-line catalogs and information systems, filling orders for data, developing software tools, and coordinating special observing campaigns.

  17. Characteristics of Three-Node Smoothing Element under Penalty Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobel, Seth S.

    1995-01-01

    The project is based upon research of Tessler et al. (1994) on an improved variational formulation for post-processing stress predictions in Finite Element Analysis. The methodology, called Smoothing Element Analysis (SEA), employs a three-node smoothing finite element. The present effort focused on verifying the basic constant strain criterion for the three-node smoothing element subject to a set of internal penalty constraints. The convergence characteristics of the element are assessed by first deriving the constrained form of the assumed element stress and stress gradient fields, and then by verifying the validity of the constant strain criterion once the element penalty constraints are explicitly imposed. The analytical investigation is carried out with the use of the symbolic manipulation code 'Mathematica'.

  18. Possible functions of CD169-positive sinus macrophages in lymph nodes in anti-tumor immune responses.

    PubMed

    Komohara, Yoshihiro; Ohnishi, Koji; Takeya, Motohiro

    2016-12-21

    The lymph node (LN) is an important immune system in which a number of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are present that induce rapid immune responses to foreign antigens. While a great number of macrophages exist in lymph nodes, recent studies using animal models have shown that lymph node sinus macrophages are associated with the induction of anti-tumor immunity, playing a significant role in host immune responses against tumor cells. In colorectal tumor, malignant melanoma, and endometrial tumor, it was shown that a high density of CD169-positive macrophages in the LN sinus was a predictive factor for better clinical prognosis. The observations that the density of CD169-positive macrophages in the LN sinus was positively associated with the density of infiltrating T or NK cells in tumor tissues, indicates the significance of CD169-positive macrophages in anti-tumor immune reactions of tumor patients. Moreover, antigen delivery targeting LN macrophages is also considered to be promising approach for vaccination. In this article, we have summarized the significance of CD169-positive LN macrophages in anti-tumor immunity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Anatomy and nomenclature of murine lymph nodes: Descriptive study and nomenclatory standardization in BALB/cAnNCrl mice.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, Wim; Derore, Annie; Simoens, Paul

    2006-05-30

    Murine lymph nodes are intensively studied but often assigned incorrectly in scientific papers. In BALB/cAnNCrl mice, we characterized a total of 22 different lymph nodes. Peripheral nodes were situated in the head and neck region (mandibular, accessory mandibular, superficial parotid, cranial deep cervical nodes), and at the forelimb (proper axillary, accessory axillary nodes) and hindlimb (subiliac, sciatic, popliteal nodes). Intrathoracic lymph nodes included the cranial mediastinal, tracheobronchal and caudal mediastinal nodes. Abdominal lymph nodes were associated with the gastrointestinal tract (gastric, pancreaticoduodenal, jejunal, colic, caudal mesenteric nodes) or were located along the major intra-abdominal blood vessels (renal, lumbar aortic, lateral iliac, medial iliac and external iliac nodes). Comparative and nomenclative aspects of murine lymph nodes are discussed. The position of the lymph nodes of BALB/cAnNCrl mice is summarized and illustrated in an anatomical chart containing proposals for both an official nomenclature according to the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria and English terms.

  20. Weyl Points and Line Nodes in Gyroid Photonic Crystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Weyl points and line nodes in gyroid photonic crystals Ling Lu*, Liang Fu, John D...are predicted to be topologically non-trivial. However, Weyl points are yet to be discovered in nature. Here, we report photonic crystals based on...2D periodic systems. For example, most of the remarkable properties of graphene are tied to the Dirac points at its Fermi level1,2. In photonics , 2D

  1. Lambda network having 2.sup.m-1 nodes in each of m stages with each node coupled to four other nodes for bidirectional routing of data packets between nodes

    DOEpatents

    Napolitano, Jr., Leonard M.

    1995-01-01

    The Lambda network is a single stage, packet-switched interprocessor communication network for a distributed memory, parallel processor computer. Its design arises from the desired network characteristics of minimizing mean and maximum packet transfer time, local routing, expandability, deadlock avoidance, and fault tolerance. The network is based on fixed degree nodes and has mean and maximum packet transfer distances where n is the number of processors. The routing method is detailed, as are methods for expandability, deadlock avoidance, and fault tolerance.

  2. Mesenteric lymph nodes at the center of immune anatomy.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Andrew J; Smith, Karen

    2006-03-20

    The surface of the intestinal mucosa is constantly assaulted by food antigens and enormous numbers of commensal microbes and their products, which are sampled by dendritic cells (DCs). Recent work shows that the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) are the key site for tolerance induction to food proteins and that they also act as a firewall to prevent live commensal intestinal bacteria from penetrating the systemic immune system.

  3. Lumped Node Thermal Modeling of EMA with FEA Validation (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    minor heat path. For forced convection, the Nusselt number for a cylinder is determined from[6], ⁄ (3) where and are based on the Reynold’s...of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number . PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE...SUBTITLE LUMPED NODE THERMAL MODELING OF EMA WITH FEA VALIDATION (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-09-2-2940 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  4. Prognostic implication of hepatoduodenal ligament lymph nodes in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sung Eun; Choi, Min-Gew; Lee, Jun Ho; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Sung

    2017-01-01

    Abstract There has been controversy regarding whether hepatoduodenal lymph node (HDLN) metastasis in gastric cancer is distant or regional metastasis. HDLN positivity was classified as distant metastasis in the 7th American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) classification, but it was reclassified as regional lymph node metastasis in the 8th AJCC classification. The aim of our study is to verify prognostic significance of HDLN metastasis in gastric cancer. This retrospective study enrolled patients with gastric cancer who underwent D2 gastrectomy from January 2007 to June 2010. HDLN was classified as a regional lymph node. Total number of patients was 3175; 143 (4.5%) of them had HDLN metastasis. The HDLN positivity was significantly associated with older age, more advanced tumor stage, undifferentiated histologic type, and pathologic diagnosis of lymphatic, vascular, and perineural invasions. Five-year survival rate of HDLN-positive patients with stages I to III disease was significantly higher than that of stage IV group (59.3% vs 18.8%, P = 0.001). In patients with stage III disease, 5-year survival rate of HDLN-positive group was significantly lower than that of HDLN-negative group (51.7% vs 66.3%, P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that HDLN metastasis was an independent prognostic factor. HDLN has a different prognostic significance from other regional lymph nodes in advanced stage of gastric cancer though its positivity is not considered as distant metastasis. HDLN positivity itself seems to be an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer, and the survival outcomes of patients with stage III disease need to be reconsidered according to HDLN positivity. PMID:28353581

  5. Locating influential nodes via dynamics-sensitive centrality.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2016-02-24

    With great theoretical and practical significance, locating influential nodes of complex networks is a promising issue. In this paper, we present a dynamics-sensitive (DS) centrality by integrating topological features and dynamical properties. The DS centrality can be directly applied in locating influential spreaders. According to the empirical results on four real networks for both susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) and susceptible-infected (SI) spreading models, the DS centrality is more accurate than degree, k-shell index and eigenvector centrality.

  6. Molecular Mechanism of Lymph Node Metastasis in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    inflammatory leukocytes to lymph nodes. CXCL21 is primarily expressed in LECs and functions as a chemoattractant for CCR7 -expressing dendritic cells and T...binding of HA to LYVE-1 regulates SLC production in LECs, which functions as chemoattractant for CCR7 - expressing breast cancer cells. Results...regulates SLC production in LECs, which functions as chemoattractant for CCR7 -expressing breast cancer cells. (Months 1-12) Generation of 4T1 cells

  7. Wireless Sensor Node Data Gathering and Location Mapping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    xi LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Coding and modulation in IEEE 802.11 standard (From [6]). ..........................6 Table 2. SD card to...devices involve adding GPS modules to each device or having prior knowledge of fixed access point locations in order to build location maps. The viability...by noise in the environment or as distances between nodes increase. The modulation and data rates for this standard are summarized in Table 1

  8. Node Based Adaptive Sampling and Advanced AUV Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-30

    is to develop and refine node based adaptive sampling and hovering technology using FAU Morpheus vehicle as a test platform. The former one is a...included two days of testing with a “dummy” vehicle followed by two days of testing with the real Morpheus . The initial tests were done with the dummy...vehicle because the Morpheus was unavailable for docking experiments at the time. These tests were conducted in order to get a better sense of

  9. Node Based Adaptive Sampling and Advanced AUV Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-30

    is to develop and refine node based adaptive sampling and hovering technology using FAU Morpheus vehicle as a test platform. The former one is a...dummy” vehicle followed by two days of testing with the real Morpheus . The initial tests were done with the dummy vehicle because the Morpheus was... Morpheus when it became available. The dummy vehicle was constructed from empty Morpheus modules with weight placed inside each at a calculated

  10. Method and apparatus for obtaining stack traceback data for multiple computing nodes of a massively parallel computer system

    DOEpatents

    Gooding, Thomas Michael; McCarthy, Patrick Joseph

    2010-03-02

    A data collector for a massively parallel computer system obtains call-return stack traceback data for multiple nodes by retrieving partial call-return stack traceback data from each node, grouping the nodes in subsets according to the partial traceback data, and obtaining further call-return stack traceback data from a representative node or nodes of each subset. Preferably, the partial data is a respective instruction address from each node, nodes having identical instruction address being grouped together in the same subset. Preferably, a single node of each subset is chosen and full stack traceback data is retrieved from the call-return stack within the chosen node.

  11. Whole proteome analysis of mouse lymph nodes in cutaneous anthrax.

    PubMed

    Popova, Taissia G; Espina, Virginia; Zhou, Weidong; Mueller, Claudius; Liotta, Lance; Popov, Serguei G

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize a soluble proteome of popliteal lymph nodes during lymphadenitis induced by intradermal injection of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores in mice using tandem LC-MS/MS and reverse-phase protein microarray with antibodies specific to epitopes of phosphorylated proteins. More than 380 proteins were detected in the normal intra-nodal lymph, while the infectious process resulted in the profound changes in the protein abundances and appearance of 297 unique proteins. These proteins belong to an array of processes reflecting response to wounding, inflammation and perturbations of hemostasis, innate immune response, coagulation and fibrinolysis, regulation of body fluid levels and vascular disturbance among others. Comparison of lymph and serum revealed 83 common proteins. Also, using 71 antibodies specific to total and phosphorylated forms of proteins we carried initial characterization of circulating lymph phosphoproteome which brought additional information regarding signaling pathways operating in the lymphatics. The results demonstrate that the proteome of intra-nodal lymph serves as a sensitive sentinel of the processes occurring within the lymph nodes during infection. The acute innate response of the lymph nodes to anthrax is accompanied by cellular damage and inflammation with a large number of up- and down-regulated proteins many of which are distinct from those detected in serum. MS data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001342.

  12. Sentinel node in cancer diagnosis with surgical probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fougères, Paul; Kazandjian, Anne; Prat, Vincent; Simon, Hervé; Ricard, Marcel; Bede, Jessica

    2001-02-01

    A probe system has been designed for the accurate location of areas of increased radionuclide uptake. Different types of applications are possible, i.e. when the precise position or even identification of the radionuclide is needed, like in wound investigation. In this paper, we restrict ourselves to a system incorporating two probes, for the identification of "hot" lymph nodes, close to the surface of the body. Axillary lymph node involvement is a major prognostic indicator and treatment planning factor in both melanoma and breast cancer. However, sentinel node localisation is relatively difficult often due to close proximity of the primary tumour. The developed instrument has a very sensitive detector, with good spatial resolution, able to discriminate between primary and scattered radiation. In the first part of the paper the instrument arrangement will be presented, including the two probes, CdTe /CZT and CsI(Tl) coupled to a photodiode. In the second part results will be given, demonstrating the performance of the system.

  13. Hidden Connectivity in Networks with Vulnerable Classes of Nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Sebastian M.; Danziger, Michael M.; Zlatić, Vinko

    2016-10-01

    In many complex systems representable as networks, nodes can be separated into different classes. Often these classes can be linked to a mutually shared vulnerability. Shared vulnerabilities may be due to a shared eavesdropper or correlated failures. In this paper, we show the impact of shared vulnerabilities on robust connectivity and how the heterogeneity of node classes can be exploited to maintain functionality by utilizing multiple paths. Percolation is the field of statistical physics that is generally used to analyze connectivity in complex networks, but in its existing forms, it cannot treat the heterogeneity of multiple vulnerable classes. To analyze the connectivity under these constraints, we describe each class as a color and develop a "color-avoiding" percolation. We present an analytic theory for random networks and a numerical algorithm for all networks, with which we can determine which nodes are color-avoiding connected and whether the maximal set percolates in the system. We find that the interaction of topology and color distribution implies a rich critical behavior, with critical values and critical exponents depending both on the topology and on the color distribution. Applying our physics-based theory to the Internet, we show how color-avoiding percolation can be used as the basis for new topologically aware secure communication protocols. Beyond applications to cybersecurity, our framework reveals a new layer of hidden structure in a wide range of natural and technological systems.

  14. Whole Proteome Analysis of Mouse Lymph Nodes in Cutaneous Anthrax

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Weidong; Mueller, Claudius; Liotta, Lance; Popov, Serguei G.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize a soluble proteome of popliteal lymph nodes during lymphadenitis induced by intradermal injection of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores in mice using tandem LC-MS/MS and reverse-phase protein microarray with antibodies specific to epitopes of phosphorylated proteins. More than 380 proteins were detected in the normal intra-nodal lymph, while the infectious process resulted in the profound changes in the protein abundances and appearance of 297 unique proteins. These proteins belong to an array of processes reflecting response to wounding, inflammation and perturbations of hemostasis, innate immune response, coagulation and fibrinolysis, regulation of body fluid levels and vascular disturbance among others. Comparison of lymph and serum revealed 83 common proteins. Also, using 71 antibodies specific to total and phosphorylated forms of proteins we carried initial characterization of circulating lymph phosphoproteome which brought additional information regarding signaling pathways operating in the lymphatics. The results demonstrate that the proteome of intra-nodal lymph serves as a sensitive sentinel of the processes occurring within the lymph nodes during infection. The acute innate response of the lymph nodes to anthrax is accompanied by cellular damage and inflammation with a large number of up- and down-regulated proteins many of which are distinct from those detected in serum. MS data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001342. PMID:25329596

  15. Critical node analysis (CNA) of electrical infrastructure networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkateswaran, Venkat; Bennette, Walter

    2016-05-01

    This work addresses the problem of identifying the set of nodes in a power network critical to system operation. Formally, the CNA problem is the problem of identifying a minimum cardinality set of nodes to target in a power network in order to reduce throughput by a given factor. Since the defender may reroute flows in an attempt to restore throughput, the attack must anticipate and defeat this possibility. We develop here an algorithm to solve this problem. In our approach we model the problem as a bi-level optimization problem where the master problem attempts different attack combinations and the sub-problem responds with the best routing. The optimization problems that result from such a framework are mixed integer programs (MIPs), which we solve in our implementation using IBM CPLEX. The algorithm has been tested on several benchmark networks and appears to perform well. We have also developed variants that can be used for determining optimal restoration configuration post damage on large networks (4000 nodes, 8000 links) and for modeling propagation of failures after the initial attack. We report on computational experiments with these variants as well.

  16. A new mutually reinforcing network node and link ranking algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenghua; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo; Padgett, Jamie E.

    2015-10-01

    This study proposes a novel Normalized Wide network Ranking algorithm (NWRank) that has the advantage of ranking nodes and links of a network simultaneously. This algorithm combines the mutual reinforcement feature of Hypertext Induced Topic Selection (HITS) and the weight normalization feature of PageRank. Relative weights are assigned to links based on the degree of the adjacent neighbors and the Betweenness Centrality instead of assigning the same weight to every link as assumed in PageRank. Numerical experiment results show that NWRank performs consistently better than HITS, PageRank, eigenvector centrality, and edge betweenness from the perspective of network connectivity and approximate network flow, which is also supported by comparisons with the expensive N-1 benchmark removal criteria based on network efficiency. Furthermore, it can avoid some problems, such as the Tightly Knit Community effect, which exists in HITS. NWRank provides a new inexpensive way to rank nodes and links of a network, which has practical applications, particularly to prioritize resource allocation for upgrade of hierarchical and distributed networks, as well as to support decision making in the design of networks, where node and link importance depend on a balance of local and global integrity.

  17. The Node Monitoring Component of a Scalable Systems Software Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Samuel James

    2006-01-01

    This research describes Fountain, a suite of programs used to monitor the resources of a cluster. A cluster is a collection of individual computers that are connected via a high speed communication network. They are traditionally used by users who desire more resources, such as processing power and memory, than any single computer can provide. A common drawback to effectively utilizing such a large-scale system is the management infrastructure, which often does not often scale well as the system grows. Large-scale parallel systems provide new research challenges in the area of systems software, the programs or tools that manage the system from boot-up to running a parallel job. The approach presented in this thesis utilizes a collection of separate components that communicate with each other to achieve a common goal. While systems software comprises a broad array of components, this thesis focuses on the design choices for a node monitoring component. We will describe Fountain, an implementation of the Scalable Systems Software (SSS) node monitor specification. It is targeted at aggregate node monitoring for clusters, focusing on both scalability and fault tolerance as its design goals. It leverages widely used technologies such as XML and HTTP to present an interface to other components in the SSS environment.

  18. The paranodal cytoskeleton clusters Na+ channels at nodes of Ranvier

    PubMed Central

    Amor, Veronique; Zhang, Chuansheng; Vainshtein, Anna; Zhang, Ao; Zollinger, Daniel R; Eshed-Eisenbach, Yael; Brophy, Peter J; Rasband, Matthew N; Peles, Elior

    2017-01-01

    A high density of Na+ channels at nodes of Ranvier is necessary for rapid and efficient action potential propagation in myelinated axons. Na+ channel clustering is thought to depend on two axonal cell adhesion molecules that mediate interactions between the axon and myelinating glia at the nodal gap (i.e., NF186) and the paranodal junction (i.e., Caspr). Here we show that while Na+ channels cluster at nodes in the absence of NF186, they fail to do so in double conditional knockout mice lacking both NF186 and the paranodal cell adhesion molecule Caspr, demonstrating that a paranodal junction-dependent mechanism can cluster Na+ channels at nodes. Furthermore, we show that paranode-dependent clustering of nodal Na+ channels requires axonal βII spectrin which is concentrated at paranodes. Our results reveal that the paranodal junction-dependent mechanism of Na+channel clustering is mediated by the spectrin-based paranodal axonal cytoskeleton. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21392.001 PMID:28134616

  19. Fluorescence spectroscopy using indocyanine green for lymph node mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haj-Hosseini, Neda; Behm, Pascal; Shabo, Ivan; Wârdell, Karin

    2014-02-01

    The principles of cancer treatment has for years been radical resection of the primary tumor. In the oncologic surgeries where the affected cancer site is close to the lymphatic system, it is as important to detect the draining lymph nodes for metastasis (lymph node mapping). As a replacement for conventional radioactive labeling, indocyanine green (ICG) has shown successful results in lymph node mapping; however, most of the ICG fluorescence detection techniques developed are based on camera imaging. In this work, fluorescence spectroscopy using a fiber-optical probe was evaluated on a tissue-like ICG phantom with ICG concentrations of 6-64 μM and on breast tissue from five patients. Fiber-optical based spectroscopy was able to detect ICG fluorescence at low intensities; therefore, it is expected to increase the detection threshold of the conventional imaging systems when used intraoperatively. The probe allows spectral characterization of the fluorescence and navigation in the tissue as opposed to camera imaging which is limited to the view on the surface of the tissue.

  20. Discovering Influential Nodes for SIS Models in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Kazumi; Kimura, Masahiro; Motoda, Hiroshi

    We address the problem of efficiently discovering the influential nodes in a social network under the susceptible/infected/susceptible (SIS) model, a diffusion model where nodes are allowed to be activated multiple times. The computational complexity drastically increases because of this multiple activation property. We solve this problem by constructing a layered graph from the original social network with each layer added on top as the time proceeds, and applying the bond percolation with pruning and burnout strategies. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed method gives much better solutions than the conventional methods that are solely based on the notion of centrality for social network analysis using two large-scale real-world networks (a blog network and a wikipedia network). We further show that the computational complexity of the proposed method is much smaller than the conventional naive probabilistic simulation method by a theoretical analysis and confirm this by experimentation. The properties of the influential nodes discovered are substantially different from those identified by the centrality-based heuristic methods.

  1. A new mutually reinforcing network node and link ranking algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenghua; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo; Padgett, Jamie E.

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes a novel Normalized Wide network Ranking algorithm (NWRank) that has the advantage of ranking nodes and links of a network simultaneously. This algorithm combines the mutual reinforcement feature of Hypertext Induced Topic Selection (HITS) and the weight normalization feature of PageRank. Relative weights are assigned to links based on the degree of the adjacent neighbors and the Betweenness Centrality instead of assigning the same weight to every link as assumed in PageRank. Numerical experiment results show that NWRank performs consistently better than HITS, PageRank, eigenvector centrality, and edge betweenness from the perspective of network connectivity and approximate network flow, which is also supported by comparisons with the expensive N-1 benchmark removal criteria based on network efficiency. Furthermore, it can avoid some problems, such as the Tightly Knit Community effect, which exists in HITS. NWRank provides a new inexpensive way to rank nodes and links of a network, which has practical applications, particularly to prioritize resource allocation for upgrade of hierarchical and distributed networks, as well as to support decision making in the design of networks, where node and link importance depend on a balance of local and global integrity. PMID:26492958

  2. Independent Analysis of the Space Station Node Modal Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappa, Richard S.

    1997-01-01

    With complex structures, comparison of independently derived sets of experimental modal parameters is an excellent way to increase confidence in the results. This paper presents modal identification results using the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA) on frequency response functions from the modal test of the Space Station Resource Node. The Resource Node is the first U.S.-built structure for the International Space Station. The modal test was conducted by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in January 1997 for the Boeing Company, who designed and built the Node. The ERA-calculated parameters are compared with independent results obtained by the MSFC test team using commercial software. There was excellent correlation of mode shapes between the two sets of results for the first 21 vibration modes of the structure up to 35 Hz. From 35 to 50 Hz, about 60 percent of 25 additional modes had excellent correlation. Natural frequencies and damping factors of most modes agreed within 0.1 Hz and 0.2 percent, respectively.

  3. Identifying important nodes by adaptive LeaderRank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shuang; Wang, Pei

    2017-03-01

    Spreading process is a common phenomenon in complex networks. Identifying important nodes in complex networks is of great significance in real-world applications. Based on the spreading process on networks, a lot of measures have been proposed to evaluate the importance of nodes. However, most of the existing measures are appropriate to static networks, which are fragile to topological perturbations. Many real-world complex networks are dynamic rather than static, meaning that the nodes and edges of such networks may change with time, which challenge numerous existing centrality measures. Based on a new weighted mechanism and the newly proposed H-index and LeaderRank (LR), this paper introduces a variant of the LR measure, called adaptive LeaderRank (ALR), which is a new member of the LR-family. Simulations on six real-world networks reveal that the new measure can well balance between prediction accuracy and robustness. More interestingly, the new measure can better adapt to the adjustment or local perturbations of network topologies, as compared with the existing measures. By discussing the detailed properties of the measures from the LR-family, we illustrate that the ALR has its competitive advantages over the other measures. The proposed algorithm enriches the measures to understand complex networks, and may have potential applications in social networks and biological systems.

  4. Development of a Sensor Node for Precision Horticulture

    PubMed Central

    López, Juan A.; Soto, Fulgencio; Sánchez, Pedro; Iborra, Andrés; Suardiaz, Juan; Vera, Juan A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a new wireless sensor node (GAIA Soil-Mote) for precision horticulture applications which permits the use of precision agricultural instruments based on the SDI-12 standard. Wireless communication is achieved with a transceiver compliant with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The GAIA Soil-Mote software implementation is based on TinyOS. A two-phase methodology was devised to validate the design of this sensor node. The first phase consisted of laboratory validation of the proposed hardware and software solution, including a study on power consumption and autonomy. The second phase consisted of implementing a monitoring application in a real broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Marathon) crop in Campo de Cartagena in south-east Spain. In this way the sensor node was validated in real operating conditions. This type of application was chosen because there is a large potential market for it in the farming sector, especially for the development of precision agriculture applications. PMID:22412309

  5. Cardiac Sarcoidosis Diagnosed by Incidental Lymph Node Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Jun; Fujiu, Katsuhito; Roh, Solji; Tajima, Miyu; Maki, Hisataka; Kojima, Toshiya; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Nawata, Kan; Takeda, Norihiko; Watanabe, Masafumi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei

    2017-02-07

    Cardiac involvement in systemic sarcoidosis sometimes provokes life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmia. Steroid administration is one of the fundamental anti-arrhythmia therapies. For an indication of steroid therapy, a definitive diagnosis of sarcoidosis is required.(1)) However, cases that are clearly suspected of cardiac sarcoidosis based on their clinical courses sometimes do not meet the current diagnostic criteria and result in the loss of an appropriate opportunity to perform steroid therapy.Here we report a case that was diagnosed as sarcoidosis by incidental biopsy of an inguinal lymph node during cardiac resuscitation for cardiac tamponade.(2)) While the inguinal lymph node was not swollen on computed tomography, a specimen obtained from an incidental biopsy during the exposure of a femoral vessel for the establishment of extracorporeal cardio-pulmonary resuscitation showed a non-caseating granuloma.This findings suggest a non-swelling lymph node biopsy might be an alternative strategy for the diagnosis for sarcoidosis if other standard strategies do not result in a diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

  6. Sandia Compact Sensor Node (SCSN) v. 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    HARRINGTON, JOHN

    2009-01-07

    The SCSN communication protocol is implemented in software and incorporates elements of Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA), and Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) to reduce radio message collisions, latency, and power consumption. Alarm messages are expeditiously routed to a central node as a 'star' network with minimum overhead. Other messages can be routed along network links between any two nodes so that peer-to-peer communication is possible. Broadcast messages can be composed that flood the entire network or just specific portions with minimal radio traffic and latency. Two-way communication with sensor nodes, which sleep most of the time to conserve battery life, can occur at seven second intervals. SCSN software also incorporates special algorithms to minimize superfluous radio traffic that can result from excessive intrusion alarm messages. A built-in seismic detector is implemented with a geophone and software that distinguishes between pedestrian and vehicular targets. Other external sensors can be attached to a SCSN using supervised interface lines that are controlled by software. All software is written in the ANSI C language for ease of development, maintenance, and portability.

  7. Development of a sensor node for precision horticulture.

    PubMed

    López, Juan A; Soto, Fulgencio; Sánchez, Pedro; Iborra, Andrés; Suardiaz, Juan; Vera, Juan A

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a new wireless sensor node (GAIA Soil-Mote) for precision horticulture applications which permits the use of precision agricultural instruments based on the SDI-12 standard. Wireless communication is achieved with a transceiver compliant with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The GAIA Soil-Mote software implementation is based on TinyOS. A two-phase methodology was devised to validate the design of this sensor node. The first phase consisted of laboratory validation of the proposed hardware and software solution, including a study on power consumption and autonomy. The second phase consisted of implementing a monitoring application in a real broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var Marathon) crop in Campo de Cartagena in south-east Spain. In this way the sensor node was validated in real operating conditions. This type of application was chosen because there is a large potential market for it in the farming sector, especially for the development of precision agriculture applications.

  8. Skin reactions to sunscreens.

    PubMed

    Nixon, R L; Frowen, K E; Lewis, A E

    1997-06-01

    Sunscreen reactions are said not to be uncommon. A population referred to a patch testing clinic was evaluated for reactions to sunscreen by questionnaire initially and then, if relevant, by patch testing to sunscreen products and their components. Irritant reactions were more common than allergic contact dermatitis. Allergic reactions to sunscreens were less common than to non-sunscreen chemicals present in sunscreen products.

  9. The Glyoxal Clock Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ealy, Julie B.; Negron, Alexandra Rodriguez; Stephens, Jessica; Stauffer, Rebecca; Furrow, Stanley D.

    2007-01-01

    Research on the glyoxal clock reaction has led to adaptation of the clock reaction to a general chemistry experiment. This particular reaction is just one of many that used formaldehyde in the past. The kinetics of the glyoxal clock makes the reaction suitable as a general chemistry lab using a Calculator Based Laboratory (CBL) or a LabPro. The…

  10. Initial results of imaging melanoma metastasis in resected human lymph nodes using photoacoustic computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Jithin; Grootendorst, Diederik J.; Vijn, Thomas W.; Wouters, Michel W.; van Boven, Hester; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Ruers, Theo J. M.; Manohar, Srirang

    2011-09-01

    The pathological status of the sentinel lymph node is important for accurate melanoma staging, ascertaining prognosis and planning treatment. The standard procedure involves biopsy of the node and histopathological assessment of its status. Drawbacks of this examination include a finite sampling of the node with the likelihood of missing metastases, and a significant time-lag before histopathological results are available to the surgeon. We studied the applicability of photoacoustic computed tomographic imaging as an intraoperative modality for examining the status of resected human sentinel lymph nodes. We first applied the technique to image ex vivo pig lymph nodes carrying metastases-simulating melanoma cells using multiple wavelengths. The experience gained was applied to image a suspect human lymph node. We validated the photoacoustic imaging results by comparing a reconstructed slice with a histopathological section through the node. Our results suggest that photoacoustics has the potential to develop into an intraoperative imaging method to detect melanoma metastases in sentinel lymph nodes.

  11. Node Non-Uniform Deployment Based on Clustering Algorithm for Underwater Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Peng; Liu, Jun; Wu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    A node non-uniform deployment based on clustering algorithm for underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) is proposed in this study. This algorithm is proposed because optimizing network connectivity rate and network lifetime is difficult for the existing node non-uniform deployment algorithms under the premise of improving the network coverage rate for UWSNs. A high network connectivity rate is achieved by determining the heterogeneous communication ranges of nodes during node clustering. Moreover, the concept of aggregate contribution degree is defined, and the nodes with lower aggregate contribution degrees are used to substitute the dying nodes to decrease the total movement distance of nodes and prolong the network lifetime. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve a better network coverage rate and network connectivity rate, as well as decrease the total movement distance of nodes and prolong the network lifetime. PMID:26633408

  12. System and method for merging clusters of wireless nodes in a wireless network

    DOEpatents

    Budampati, Ramakrishna S [Maple Grove, MN; Gonia, Patrick S [Maplewood, MN; Kolavennu, Soumitri N [Blaine, MN; Mahasenan, Arun V [Kerala, IN

    2012-05-29

    A system includes a first cluster having multiple first wireless nodes. One first node is configured to act as a first cluster master, and other first nodes are configured to receive time synchronization information provided by the first cluster master. The system also includes a second cluster having one or more second wireless nodes. One second node is configured to act as a second cluster master, and any other second nodes configured to receive time synchronization information provided by the second cluster master. The system further includes a manager configured to merge the clusters into a combined cluster. One of the nodes is configured to act as a single cluster master for the combined cluster, and the other nodes are configured to receive time synchronization information provided by the single cluster master.

  13. Analysis on Node Position of Imperfect Resonators for Cylindrical Shell Gyroscopes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zidan; Wu, Yulie; Xi, Xiang; Zhang, Yongmeng; Wu, Xuezhong

    2016-01-01

    For cylindrical shell gyroscopes, node position of their operating eigenmodes has an important influence on the gyroscopes’ performance. It is considered that the nodes are equally separated from each other by 90° when the resonator vibrates in the standing wave eigenmode. However, we found that, due to manufacturing errors and trimming, the nodes may not be equally distributed. This paper mainly analyzes the influences of unbalanced masses on the cylindrical resonators’ node position, by using FEM simulation and experimental measurement. PMID:27483284

  14. Method and Circuit for Injecting a Precise Amount of Charge onto a Circuit Node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method and circuit for injecting charge into a circuit node, comprising (a) resetting a capacitor's voltage through a first transistor; (b) after the resetting, pre-charging the capacitor through the first transistor; and (c) after the pre-charging, further charging the capacitor through a second transistor, wherein the second transistor is connected between the capacitor and a circuit node, and the further charging draws charge through the second transistor from the circuit node, thereby injecting charge into the circuit node.

  15. Metastasis to the popliteal lymph nodes in lower extremity melanoma and their management.

    PubMed

    Morcos, Basem; Al-Ahmad, Firas

    2011-06-01

    Melanomas located anywhere below the knee can drain to the popliteal fossa. Sentinel nodes in the popliteal fossa are found in 1-9.6% of cases. The positivity rate in these nodes is 12.5-30%, which is comparable to rates in conventional nodal basins. Formal dissection of the popliteal fossa for a positive sentinel node is indicated. Inguinal dissection based only on the presence of involved popliteal lymph nodes is not warranted.

  16. Reducing power consumption while performing collective operations on a plurality of compute nodes

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Peters, Amanda E.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2011-10-18

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while performing collective operations on a plurality of compute nodes that include: receiving, by each compute node, instructions to perform a type of collective operation; selecting, by each compute node from a plurality of collective operations for the collective operation type, a particular collective operation in dependence upon power consumption characteristics for each of the plurality of collective operations; and executing, by each compute node, the selected collective operation.

  17. Software Defined Network Monitoring Scheme Using Spectral Graph Theory and Phantom Nodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    that is used to determine changes in node health and capacity due to network traffic . Multiple phantom nodes are used to produce multiple congestion ...that is used to determine changes in node health and capacity due to network traffic . Multiple phantom nodes are used to produce multiple congestion ...with network traffic . An attack is different from congestion because it is malicious in nature, but the result of a denial-of-service (DoS) attack

  18. Normal lymph node size in the mediastinum: a retrospective study in two patient groups.

    PubMed

    Ingram, C E; Belli, A M; Lewars, M D; Reznek, R H; Husband, J E

    1989-01-01

    The size and number of normal mediastinal lymph nodes seen on computed tomography were studied retrospectively in 110 patients from the Royal Marsden Hospital, Sutton, and St Bartholomew's Hospital, London. The mediastinum was divided into four areas. Lymph nodes were seen in 81% of patients. The number of patients with nodes in a specific area varied from 28% in the right superior mediastinum to 46% in the pretracheal retrocaval space. Seventeen per cent of the areas studied contained one node, 11% contained two or three nodes and 4% had three nodes. Fewer nodes were seen in patients with sparse mediastinal fat. Sixty-seven per cent of patients had nodes measuring 5 mm or less in maximum transverse diameter and 21% of patients had one or more nodes of 6-10 mm. Only a single calcified node measured more than 10 mm. We conclude that the majority of nodes are 5 mm or less in diameter and that almost all normal nodes measure 10 mm or less.

  19. The congestion control algorithm based on queue management of each node in mobile ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yifei; Chang, Lin; Wang, Yali; Wang, Gaoping

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposes an active queue management mechanism, considering the node's own ability and its importance in the network to set the queue threshold. As the network load increases, local congestion of mobile ad hoc network may lead to network performance degradation, hot node's energy consumption increase even failure. If small energy nodes congested because of forwarding data packets, then when it is used as the source node will cause a lot of packet loss. This paper proposes an active queue management mechanism, considering the node's own ability and its importance in the network to set the queue threshold. Controlling nodes buffer queue in different levels of congestion area probability by adjusting the upper limits and lower limits, thus nodes can adjust responsibility of forwarding data packets according to their own situation. The proposed algorithm will slow down the send rate hop by hop along the data package transmission direction from congestion node to source node so that to prevent further congestion from the source node. The simulation results show that, the algorithm can better play the data forwarding ability of strong nodes, protect the weak nodes, can effectively alleviate the network congestion situation.

  20. Prevalence and Characterization of Salmonella in Bovine Lymph Nodes Potentially Destined for Use in Ground Beef

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A potential source of pathogenic bacteria in ground beef is the lymphatic system, specifically the lymph nodes. There are several reports of bacteria isolated from the lymph nodes of cattle at slaughter; however, most of the studies have dealt with mesenteric lymph nodes that are not normally incor...

  1. Lymph node-positive prostate cancer: current issues, emerging technology and impact on clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Adams, Julia; Cheng, Liang

    2011-09-01

    Lymph node metastasis in patients with prostate cancer indicates a poorer prognosis compared with patients without lymph node metastasis; however, some patients with node-positive disease have long-term survival. Many studies have attempted to discern what characteristics of lymph node metastasis are prognostically significant. These characteristics include nodal tumor volume, number of positive lymph nodes, lymph node density, extranodal extension, lymphovascular invasion and tumor dedifferentiation. Favorable characteristics of regional lymph node involvement included a smaller tumor size and smaller tumor volume. However, the current staging system for prostate cancer does not provide different subclassifications for patients with node-positive prostate cancer. In recent years numerous advanced technologies for the detection of lymph node metastasis have been developed, including molecular imaging techniques and the CellSearch Circulating Tumor Cell System. With the increased detection of patients with prostate cancer, emergence of new technology to identify lymph node metastasis and the number of radical prostatectomies being performed on the rise, subclassifying patients with lymph node-positive disease is imperative. Subclassification would provide a better picture of patient prognosis and allow for a better understanding of targeted therapies to treat patients with lymph node metastasis.

  2. Comparison of Positron Emission Tomography Scanning and Sentinel Node Biopsy in the Detection of Inguinal Node Metastases in Patients With Anal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mistrangelo, Massimiliano; Pelosi, Ettore; Bello, Marilena; Castellano, Isabella; Cassoni, Paola; Ricardi, Umberto; Munoz, Fernando; Racca, Patrizia; Contu, Viviana; Beltramo, Giancarlo; Morino, Mario; Mussa, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    Background: Inguinal lymph node metastases in patients with anal cancer are an independent prognostic factor for local failure and overall mortality. Inguinal lymph node status can be adequately assessed with sentinel node biopsy, and the radiotherapy strategy can subsequently be changed. We compared this technique vs. dedicated 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) to determine which was the better tool for staging inguinal lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: In our department, 27 patients (9 men and 18 women) underwent both inguinal sentinel node biopsy and PET-CT. PET-CT was performed before treatment and then at 1 and 3 months after treatment. Results: PET-CT scans detected no inguinal metastases in 20 of 27 patients and metastases in the remaining 7. Histologic analysis of the sentinel lymph node detected metastases in only three patients (four PET-CT false positives). HIV status was not found to influence the results. None of the patients negative at sentinel node biopsy developed metastases during the follow-up period. PET-CT had a sensitivity of 100%, with a negative predictive value of 100%. Owing to the high number of false positives, PET-CT specificity was 83%, and positive predictive value was 43%. Conclusions: In this series of patients with anal cancer, inguinal sentinel node biopsy was superior to PET-CT for staging inguinal lymph nodes.

  3. Identifying messaging completion in a parallel computer by checking for change in message received and transmitted count at each node

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Hardwick, Camesha R.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Wallenfelt, Brian P.

    2009-06-23

    Methods, parallel computers, and products are provided for identifying messaging completion on a parallel computer. The parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes, the compute nodes coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks including a binary tree data communications network optimal for collective operations that organizes the nodes as a tree and a torus data communications network optimal for point to point operations that organizes the nodes as a torus. Embodiments include reading all counters at each node of the torus data communications network; calculating at each node a current node value in dependence upon the values read from the counters at each node; and determining for all nodes whether the current node value for each node is the same as a previously calculated node value for each node. If the current node is the same as the previously calculated node value for all nodes of the torus data communications network, embodiments include determining that messaging is complete and if the current node is not the same as the previously calculated node value for all nodes of the torus data communications network, embodiments include determining that messaging is currently incomplete.

  4. Identifying Understudied Nuclear Reactions by Text-mining the EXFOR Experimental Nuclear Reaction Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirdt, J. A.; Brown, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    The EXFOR library contains the largest collection of experimental nuclear reaction data available as well as the data's bibliographic information and experimental details. We text-mined the REACTION and MONITOR fields of the ENTRYs in the EXFOR library in order to identify understudied reactions and quantities. Using the results of the text-mining, we created an undirected graph from the EXFOR datasets with each graph node representing a single reaction and quantity and graph links representing the various types of connections between these reactions and quantities. This graph is an abstract representation of the connections in EXFOR, similar to graphs of social networks, authorship networks, etc. We use various graph theoretical tools to identify important yet understudied reactions and quantities in EXFOR. Although we identified a few cross sections relevant for shielding applications and isotope production, mostly we identified charged particle fluence monitor cross sections. As a side effect of this work, we learn that our abstract graph is typical of other real-world graphs.

  5. Identifying Understudied Nuclear Reactions by Text-mining the EXFOR Experimental Nuclear Reaction Library

    SciTech Connect

    Hirdt, J.A.; Brown, D.A.

    2016-01-15

    The EXFOR library contains the largest collection of experimental nuclear reaction data available as well as the data's bibliographic information and experimental details. We text-mined the REACTION and MONITOR fields of the ENTRYs in the EXFOR library in order to identify understudied reactions and quantities. Using the results of the text-mining, we created an undirected graph from the EXFOR datasets with each graph node representing a single reaction and quantity and graph links representing the various types of connections between these reactions and quantities. This graph is an abstract representation of the connections in EXFOR, similar to graphs of social networks, authorship networks, etc. We use various graph theoretical tools to identify important yet understudied reactions and quantities in EXFOR. Although we identified a few cross sections relevant for shielding applications and isotope production, mostly we identified charged particle fluence monitor cross sections. As a side effect of this work, we learn that our abstract graph is typical of other real-world graphs.

  6. Evaluation of the immunosensitizing potential of chlorogenic acid using a popliteal lymph node assay in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaohua; Liu, Zhaoping; Shi, Yanqiu; Zhou, Gengyin

    2010-04-01

    It has yet to be established whether chlorogenic acid (CGA), a common xenobiotic with potential exposure risk to humans, is associated with immune-mediated hypersensitivity reactions (HRs). The primary limitation in evaluating this potential relationship is the lack of an effective animal model for use in predicting the immunosensitizing potential of low molecular weight compounds (LMWCs). Currently, the popliteal lymph node assay (PLNA) is considered a very promising tool for assessing immunosensitizing potential of LMWCs. To determine whether CGA may possess an intrinsic capacity to stimulate or dysregulate immune responses, and if so, what mechanisms may be involved, we characterized the popliteal lymph node reaction induced by CGA in naive female BALB/c mice using both a direct PLNA (d-PLNA) and a reporter antigen PLNA (RA-PLNA) method. Our results show that CGA failed to induce immunoreactivity following a single subcutaneous injection either alone or when combined with TNP-OVA or TNP-Ficoll. These results indicated that CGA lacks the intrinsic capacity to sensitize or stimulate immune responses in BALB/c mice. Moreover, these results suggest that exposure to CGA may not represent a safety concern for humans and that removal of CGA from Traditional Chinese Medicine Injections may not significantly decrease the prevalence of HRs.

  7. Challenges in the Plasma Etch Process Development in the sub-20nm Technology Nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Kaushik

    2013-09-01

    For multiple generations of semiconductor technologies, RF plasmas have provided a reliable platform for critical and non-critical patterning applications. The electron temperature of processes in a RF plasma is typically several electron volts. A substantial portion of the electron population is within the energy range accessible for different types of electron collision processes, such as electron collision dissociation and dissociative electron attachment. When these electron processes occur within a small distance above the wafer, the neutral species, radicals and excited molecules, generated from these processes take part in etching reactions impacting selectivity, ARDE and micro-loading. The introduction of finFET devices at 22 nm technology node at Intel marks the transition of planar devices to 3-dimensional devices, which add to the challenges to etch process in fabricating such devices. In the sub-32 nm technology node, Back-end-of-the-line made a change with the implementation of Trench First Metal Hard Mask (TFMHM) integration scheme, which has hence gained traction and become the preferred integration of low-k materials for BEOL. This integration scheme also enables Self-Aligned Via (SAV) patterning which prevents via CD growth and confines via by line trenches to better control via to line spacing. In addition to this, lack of scaling of 193 nm Lithography and non-availability of EUV based lithography beyond concept, has placed focus on novel multiple patterning schemes. This added complexity has resulted in multiple etch schemes to enable technology scaling below 80 nm Pitches, as shown by the memory manufacturers. Double-Patterning and Quad-Patterning have become increasingly used techniques to achieve 64 nm, 56 nm and 45 nm Pitch technologies in Back-end-of-the-line. Challenges associated in the plasma etching of these multiple integration schemes will be discussed in the presentation. In collaboration with A. Ranjan, TEL Technology Center, America

  8. Adaptive Connectivity Restoration from Node Failure(s) in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huaiyuan; Ding, Xu; Huang, Cheng; Wu, Xiaobei

    2016-09-28

    Recently, there is a growing interest in the applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). A set of sensor nodes is deployed in order to collectively survey an area of interest and/or perform specific surveillance tasks in some of the applications, such as battlefield reconnaissance. Due to the harsh deployment environments and limited energy supply, nodes may fail, which impacts the connectivity of the whole network. Since a single node failure (cut-vertex) will destroy the connectivity and divide the network into disjoint blocks, most of the existing studies focus on the problem of single node failure. However, the failure of multiple nodes would be a disaster to the whole network and must be repaired effectively. Only few studies are proposed to handle the problem of multiple cut-vertex failures, which is a special case of multiple node failures. Therefore, this paper proposes a comprehensive solution to address the problems of node failure (single and multiple). Collaborative Single Node Failure Restoration algorithm (CSFR) is presented to solve the problem of single node failure only with cooperative communication, but CSFR-M, which is the extension of CSFR, handles the single node failure problem more effectively with node motion. Moreover, Collaborative Connectivity Restoration Algorithm (CCRA) is proposed on the basis of cooperative communication and node maneuverability to restore network connectivity after multiple nodes fail. CSFR-M and CCRA are reactive methods that initiate the connectivity restoration after detecting the node failure(s). In order to further minimize the energy dissipation, CCRA opts to simplify the recovery process by gridding. Moreover, the distance that an individual node needs to travel during recovery is reduced by choosing the nearest suitable candidates. Finally, extensive simulations validate the performance of CSFR, CSFR-M and CCRA.

  9. Adaptive Connectivity Restoration from Node Failure(s) in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huaiyuan; Ding, Xu; Huang, Cheng; Wu, Xiaobei

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there is a growing interest in the applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). A set of sensor nodes is deployed in order to collectively survey an area of interest and/or perform specific surveillance tasks in some of the applications, such as battlefield reconnaissance. Due to the harsh deployment environments and limited energy supply, nodes may fail, which impacts the connectivity of the whole network. Since a single node failure (cut-vertex) will destroy the connectivity and divide the network into disjoint blocks, most of the existing studies focus on the problem of single node failure. However, the failure of multiple nodes would be a disaster to the whole network and must be repaired effectively. Only few studies are proposed to handle the problem of multiple cut-vertex failures, which is a special case of multiple node failures. Therefore, this paper proposes a comprehensive solution to address the problems of node failure (single and multiple). Collaborative Single Node Failure Restoration algorithm (CSFR) is presented to solve the problem of single node failure only with cooperative communication, but CSFR-M, which is the extension of CSFR, handles the single node failure problem more effectively with node motion. Moreover, Collaborative Connectivity Restoration Algorithm (CCRA) is proposed on the basis of cooperative communication and node maneuverability to restore network connectivity after multiple nodes fail. CSFR-M and CCRA are reactive methods that initiate the connectivity restoration after detecting the node failure(s). In order to further minimize the energy dissipation, CCRA opts to simplify the recovery process by gridding. Moreover, the distance that an individual node needs to travel during recovery is reduced by choosing the nearest suitable candidates. Finally, extensive simulations validate the performance of CSFR, CSFR-M and CCRA. PMID:27690030

  10. Immune modulation by cadmium and lead in the acute reporter antigen-popliteal lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Carey, John B; Allshire, Ashley; van Pelt, Frank N

    2006-05-01

    Immune modulation by heavy metals may cause serious adverse health effects in humans, although the mechanisms involved are not well understood. Both cadmium and lead are important environmental and occupational toxins. Therefore, in the current study, the costimulatory/adjuvant effects and the T-cell-activating potential of these metals (i.e., CdCl2 and PbCl2), are examined. These immune-modulating properties are critical in the development of conditions such as allergy, hypersensitivity, and autoimmunity. Using the direct popliteal lymph node assay (PLNA) and reporter antigen-popliteal lymph node assay (RA-PLNA) both metals were examined individually for immunotoxicity. Mercury (i.e., HgCl2) was included for comparative purposes as its effects in the RA-PLNA are well documented. Seven days following a single footpad injection containing metal and/or RA (trinitrophenyl-ovalbumin [TNP-OVA] or TNP-Ficoll), BALB/c mice were sacrificed and the popliteal lymph nodes (PLNs) removed. PLN cellularity, TNP-specific antibody-secreting cells (ASCs), and lymphocyte subsets were assessed. All three metals strongly stimulated T- and B-cell proliferation and ASC production following coinjection with the RA TNP-OVA. In each case, ASC production was skewed towards the IgG1 isotype. In addition, all three metals induced IgG production to TNP-Ficoll (although relatively weakly in the case of Cd). These results show that each of these metals can provide adjuvant signals to promote lymphocyte proliferation and enhance adaptive immune responses to unrelated antigens. Skewing of immune responses towards T helper type 2 responses suggests that each of these metals can enhance allergic and hypersensitivity reactions to environmental antigens. Furthermore, the induction of IgG responses to TNP-Ficoll, a T-cell-independent antigen, indicates that each of these metals can activate neoantigen-specific T cells. T-cell activation by metals can lead to metal hypersensitivity and has been

  11. [Sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer: techniques and indications].

    PubMed

    Haid, Anton; Knauer, Michael; Köberle-Wührer, Roswitha; Wenzl, Etienne

    2005-02-01

    Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) has proved to be a useful and accurate procedure for lymph node staging in breast cancer and melanoma and should be standard of care in the treatment of these tumors. In other malignancies (colon, rectum, stomach, esophagus, head and neck and thyroid, cervix uteri) it is still under investigation. SNB in breast cancer was accepted as a sole and reliable diagnostic method in breast cancer from the panel of distinguished experts at the 8th international conference of primary therapy of early breast cancer 2003 in St. Gallen. Combination of the current techniques with radiocolloids and blue dye, applicated superficially (intradermal, subdermal, peri- and subareolar) and deeply (peritumoral, intratumoral, subtumoral) enables high identification rates and negative predictive values. It should be performed by teams consisting of surgeons, pathologists and nuclear medicine specialists with appropriate training and experience. Accepted indications are uni- and multifocal tumors smaller than 3 cm without suspicious findings in the axilla, furthermore SNB is indicated in patients with large ductal carcinoma in situ (>2cm) and/or with assumed microinvasion. Albeit SNB could be shown to be safe after preoperative chemotherapy and in multicentric breast cancer, due to lack of sufficient data it is still under discussion in these cases. Expedience of this procedure in other lymph node basins, along the mammaria interna vessels or in the infra- and supraclavicular region is considered to be at an investigative stage as well. SNB allows the pathologist to focus on a small number of nodes most likely to contain metastases. Application of serial sectioning and immunhistochemistry results in a more accurate staging than routine examination. Detection of additional micrometastases that are found in 10-15% leads to an upgrading from N0 to N1. Broad application and refurbishment led to scientific discussion of prognostic importance of micrometastases and its

  12. Reducing power consumption during execution of an application on a plurality of compute nodes

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda E [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2012-06-05

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption during execution of an application on a plurality of compute nodes that include: executing, by each compute node, an application, the application including power consumption directives corresponding to one or more portions of the application; identifying, by each compute node, the power consumption directives included within the application during execution of the portions of the application corresponding to those identified power consumption directives; and reducing power, by each compute node, to one or more components of that compute node according to the identified power consumption directives during execution of the portions of the application corresponding to those identified power consumption directives.

  13. Profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a compute node

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Peters, Amanda E; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2013-09-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a compute node that include: receiving an application for execution on a compute node; identifying a hardware power consumption profile for the compute node, the hardware power consumption profile specifying power consumption for compute node hardware during performance of various processing operations; determining a power consumption profile for the application in dependence upon the application and the hardware power consumption profile for the compute node; and reporting the power consumption profile for the application.

  14. Profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a plurality of compute nodes

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Peters, Amanda E.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2012-08-21

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for profiling an application for power consumption during execution on a compute node that include: receiving an application for execution on a compute node; identifying a hardware power consumption profile for the compute node, the hardware power consumption profile specifying power consumption for compute node hardware during performance of various processing operations; determining a power consumption profile for the application in dependence upon the application and the hardware power consumption profile for the compute node; and reporting the power consumption profile for the application.

  15. Boeing technicians join Node 1 for ISS to PMA-1 in the SSPF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Boeing technicians join Node 1 for the International Space Station (ISS) with the Pressurized Mating Adapter (PMA)-1 in KSC's Space Station Processing Facility. This PMA, identifiable by its bright red ring, is a cone-shaped connector for the space station's structural building block, known as Node 1. Seen here surrounded by scaffolding, Node 1 will have two PMAs attached, the second of which is scheduled for mating to the node in January 1998. The node and PMAs, which will be the first element of the ISS, are scheduled to be launched aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-88 in July 1998.

  16. Reliability model of fault-tolerant data processing system with primary and backup nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, P. A.; Bobkova, E. Yu

    2016-04-01

    This paper deals with the fault-tolerant data processing systems, which are widely used in modern world of information technologies and have acceptable overhead expenses in hardware implementation. A simplified reliability model for duplex systems and the offered by authors advanced model for data processing systems with primary and backup nodes based on a three-state model of recoverable elements, which takes into consideration different failure rates of passive and active nodes and finite time of node activation, are also given. A calculation formula for the availability factor of the dual-node data processing system with primary and backup nodes and calculation examples are also provided.

  17. Retroperitoneal Lymph Nodes in Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Kidney and Ureter

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Shilajit D.; Eggener, Scott E.

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of transitional cell carcinoma of the kidney and ureter is low and for that reason limited data exists regarding the appropriate management of regional retroperitoneal lymph nodes. Lymph node metastases have consistently been associated with an adverse prognosis. However, five-year cancer-specific survival following nephroureterectomy and lymphadenectomy for patients with lymph node involvement ranges from 0–39%, suggesting a therapeutic benefit. This review covers the primary tumor characteristics associated with lymph node involvement, imaging of the lymph nodes, as well as the rationale, role, patient selection, suggested anatomic templates, and technical considerations for lymphadenectomy. PMID:19190765

  18. Intradermal administration of fluorescent contrast agents for delivery to axillary lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, John C.; Meric-Berstam, Funda; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Tan, I.-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Wagner, Jamie L.; Babiera, Gildy V.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2014-05-01

    In this proof-of-concept study we seek to demonstrate the delivery of fluorescent contrast agent to the tumor-draining lymph node basin following intraparenchymal breast injections and intradermal arm injection of micrograms of indocyanine green in 20 breast cancer patients undergoing complete axillary lymph node dissection. Individual lymph nodes were assessed ex vivo for presence of fluorescent signal. In all, 88% of tumor-negative lymph nodes and 81% of tumor-positive lymph nodes were fluorescent. These results indicate that future studies utilizing targeted fluorescent contrast agents may demonstrate improved surgical and therapeutic intervention.

  19. Renal cell carcinoma: Atypical metastasis to inguinal lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Qamar Saeed; Bhatty, Tanweer Ahmed Naveed; Khan, Ziauddin; Osman, Elsawi Medani

    2017-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common tumor of the urinary tract. It is known to have variable presentations due to the extremely vascular nature of the organ. RCC are known to metastasize to lungs, bone, and brain commonly but atypical metastasis to various sites are reported in literature but as very rare pathology. We report a case of a 60-year-old female who presented with multiple inguinal and axillary lymph node enlargements which on excision biopsy showed metastatic RCC. RCC can present with synchronous metastatic deposits in the various organs. RCC can metastasize to some atypical sites as well such as thyroid, orbit, and neck as mentioned earlier in literature. The patient presenting with extra-regional lymph nodes like inguinal and axillary is extremely rare, and so far only one clinical case could be found from India in 2008. A 61-year-old female presented in the emergency department with left flank pain and hematuria. Imaging showed left swollen kidney but multiple lymph nodes in retroperitoneum, left inguinal and axillary region. Excisional biopsy confirmed metastatic renal clear cell carcinoma. The case was referred to an oncologist after left radical nephrectomy for further treatment. Renal cancer is quite common aggressive disease. Due to its vascular nature, it may present quite atypically as evident from literature. Although treatment of metastatic carcinoma is still controversial surgery is the mainstay of treatment and guidelines consider metastasectomy and cytoreductive nephrectomy as valid option followed by targeted systemic therapies. RCC has quite a high potential to metastasize in the versatile pattern, in our case, it is evident that valid management is still surgery but needs support from the multidisciplinary team. PMID:28216937

  20. Contact Trees: Network Visualization beyond Nodes and Edges.

    PubMed

    Sallaberry, Arnaud; Fu, Yang-chih; Ho, Hwai-Chung; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2016-01-01

    Node-Link diagrams make it possible to take a quick glance at how nodes (or actors) in a network are connected by edges (or ties). A conventional network diagram of a "contact tree" maps out a root and branches that represent the structure of nodes and edges, often without further specifying leaves or fruits that would have grown from small branches. By furnishing such a network structure with leaves and fruits, we reveal details about "contacts" in our ContactTrees upon which ties and relationships are constructed. Our elegant design employs a bottom-up approach that resembles a recent attempt to understand subjective well-being by means of a series of emotions. Such a bottom-up approach to social-network studies decomposes each tie into a series of interactions or contacts, which can help deepen our understanding of the complexity embedded in a network structure. Unlike previous network visualizations, ContactTrees highlight how relationships form and change based upon interactions among actors, as well as how relationships and networks vary by contact attributes. Based on a botanical tree metaphor, the design is easy to construct and the resulting tree-like visualization can display many properties at both tie and contact levels, thus recapturing a key ingredient missing from conventional techniques of network visualization. We demonstrate ContactTrees using data sets consisting of up to three waves of 3-month contact diaries over the 2004-2012 period, and discuss how this design can be applied to other types of datasets.

  1. Rapid immunohistochemistry of sentinel lymph nodes for metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Eudy, Grant E; Carlson, Grant W; Murray, Douglas R; Waldrop, Sandra M; Lawson, Dianne; Cohen, Cynthia

    2003-08-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is performed on patients with malignant melanoma (MM) to assess the need for selective complete lymphadenectomy. Melanoma metastasis to regional lymph nodes is an important prognostic indicator in patients with MM. This study assesses the sensitivity and specificity of rapid immunohistochemistry (RIHC) in intraoperative delineation of melanoma metastasis to SLN. RIHC for S-100 protein, HMB45, and a melanoma marker cocktail (melan A, HMB45, and tyrosinase) was performed on 71 SLNs obtained from 28 patients with MM. Frozen sections (6 micro thick) on plus slides were fixed for 2 to 3 minutes in cold acetone and then stored at -70 degrees C. The EnVision kit (Dako, Carpinteria, CA) for rapid immunohistochemistry (RIHC) on frozen tissue sections was used, and the staining technique took 19 minutes. Together with preparation of the frozen sections and fixation in acetone, immunostained slides were available in approximately 25 minutes. Of the 71 SNLs examined, 7 showed melanoma metastasis in permanent sections. RIHC of frozen sections detected metastatic melanoma in 6 SLNs, with a sensitivity of 86% for HMB45 and 71% for S-100 protein and the melanoma cocktail and a specificity of 97% for HMB45 and 100% for S-100 and the melanoma cocktail. We conclude that RIHC for HMB45, S-100 protein, and the melanoma cocktail may help detect melanoma metastasis in SLN intraoperatively, leading to total lymph node dissection and obviating the need for 2 surgical procedures. Section folds and background stain can make interpretation difficult. Intraoperative time constraints require a more rapid technique. A recent consensus group has discouraged frozen-section examination of SLN.

  2. Photomask technology for 32nm node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikichi, Ryugo; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Migita, Hidekazu; Kakehi, Noriko; Shimizu, Mochihiro; Takamizawa, Hideyoshi; Nagano, Tsugumi; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Iwashita, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Toshiyuki; Hosoya, Morio; Ohkubo, Yasushi; Ushida, Masao; Mitsui, Hideaki

    2008-05-01

    193nm-immersion lithography is the most promising technology for 32nm-node device fabrication. At the 32nm technology-node, the performance of photomasks, not only phase-shift masks but also binary masks, needs to be improved, especially in "resolution" and "CD accuracy". To meet sub-100nm resolution with high precision, further thinning of resist thickness will be needed. To improve CD performance, we have designed a new Cr-on-glass (COG) blank for binary applications, having OD-3 at 193nm. This simple Cr structure can obtain superior performance with the conventional mask-making process. Since the hardmask concept is one of the alternative solutions, we have also designed a multilayered binary blank. The new COG blank (NTARC) was fully dry-etched with over 25% shorter etching time than NTAR7, which is a conventional COG blank. Thinner resist (up to 200nm) was possible for NTARC. NTARC with 200nm-thick resist showed superior resolution and CD linearity in all pattern categories. On the other hand, the multilayered binary stack gives us a wide etching margin for several etching steps. Super thin resist (up to 100nm) was suitable by using a Cr-hardmask on a MoSi-absorber structure (COMS). The COMS blanks showed superior performance, especially in tiny clear patterns, such as the isolated hole pattern. We confirmed that these new photomask blanks, NTARC and COMS, will meet the requirements for 32nm-node and beyond, for all aspects of mask-making.

  3. Process variation aware OPC modeling for leading edge technology nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiaolin; Croffie, Ebo; Fan, Yongfa; Li, Jianliang; Lucas, Kevin; Falch, Brad; Melvin, Lawerence

    2009-03-01

    As the semiconductor industry moves to the 45nm node and beyond, the tolerable lithography process window significantly shrinks due to the combined use of high NA and low k1 factor. This is exacerbated by the fact that the usable depth of focus at 45nm node for critical layer is 200nm or less. Traditional Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) only computes the optimal pattern layout to optimize its lithography patterning at nominal process condition (nominal defocus and nominal exposure dose) according to an OPC model calibrated at this nominal condition, and this may put the post-OPC layout at non-negligible patterning failure risk due to the inevitable process variation (mainly defocus and dose variations). With a little sacrifice at the nominal condition, process variation aware OPC can greatly enhance the robustness of post-OPC layout patterning in the presence of defocus and dose variation. There is also an increasing demand for through process window lithography verification for post-OPC circuit layout. The corner stone for successful process variation aware OPC and lithography verification is an accurately calibrated continuous process window model which is a continuous function of defocus and dose. This calibrated model needs to be able to interpolate and extrapolate in the usable process window. Based on Synopsys' OPC modeling software package-ProGen and ProGenPlus, we developed an automated process window (PW) modeling module, which can build process variation aware process window OPC model with continuously adjustable process parameters: defocus and dose. The calibration of this continuous PW model was performed in a single calibration process using silicon measurement at nominal condition and off-focus-off-dose conditions. Through the example of several process window models for layers at 45nm technology nodes, we demonstrated that this novel continuous PW modeling approach can achieve very good performance both at nominal condition and at interpolated or

  4. Contact Trees: Network Visualization beyond Nodes and Edges

    PubMed Central

    Sallaberry, Arnaud; Fu, Yang-chih; Ho, Hwai-Chung; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2016-01-01

    Node-Link diagrams make it possible to take a quick glance at how nodes (or actors) in a network are connected by edges (or ties). A conventional network diagram of a “contact tree” maps out a root and branches that represent the structure of nodes and edges, often without further specifying leaves or fruits that would have grown from small branches. By furnishing such a network structure with leaves and fruits, we reveal details about “contacts” in our ContactTrees upon which ties and relationships are constructed. Our elegant design employs a bottom-up approach that resembles a recent attempt to understand subjective well-being by means of a series of emotions. Such a bottom-up approach to social-network studies decomposes each tie into a series of interactions or contacts, which can help deepen our understanding of the complexity embedded in a network structure. Unlike previous network visualizations, ContactTrees highlight how relationships form and change based upon interactions among actors, as well as how relationships and networks vary by contact attributes. Based on a botanical tree metaphor, the design is easy to construct and the resulting tree-like visualization can display many properties at both tie and contact levels, thus recapturing a key ingredient missing from conventional techniques of network visualization. We demonstrate ContactTrees using data sets consisting of up to three waves of 3-month contact diaries over the 2004-2012 period, and discuss how this design can be applied to other types of datasets. PMID:26784350

  5. Decreased identification rate of sentinel lymph node after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seok Hyung; Kim, Seok-Ki; Kwon, Youngmee; Kang, Han-Sung; Kang, Jae Hee; Ro, Jungsil; Lee, Eun Sook

    2004-10-01

    We prospectively studied the feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy by comparing the identification rate and the false-negative rate (FNR) with the results obtained from the patients without chemotherapy. From October 2001 to March 2003, a total of 284 consecutive patients who underwent SLNB and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) at the Center for Breast Cancer, National Cancer Center were enrolled. Of the 284 patients, 54 underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to operation. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) was mapped by radioactive colloid alone or in combination with blue dye. All SLNs were evaluated by 2 mm serial sections after hematoxylin-eosin staining. The overall SLN identification rate was 91.9% (261/284): 72.2% (39/54) of the patients after chemotherapy and 96.5% (222/230) of the patients without chemotherapy. These results suggest that preoperative chemotherapy significantly affects lymphatic mapping ( p< 0.001). Among the patients with chemotherapy, there were 3 false negatives in 39 successfully mapped tumors, yielding an FNR of 11.1% (3/27), a negative prediction value (NPV) of 80.0% (12/15), and an accuracy of 92.3% (36/39). There were 10 false negatives among 222 successfully detected patients without chemotherapy, yielding an FNR of 9.9% (10/101), an NPV of 92.4% (121/131), and an accuracy of 95.5% (212/222). These results were not statistically different when compared ( p > 0.05). Although the SLN identification rate significantly decreased after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, SLNB could accurately predict axillary status. Thus SLNB can be an alternative to ALND even after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in cases of successful identification of the SLN.

  6. Inversion of potential fields on nodes for large grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcotte, Denis; Shamsipour, Pejman; Coutant, Olivier; Chouteau, Michel

    2014-11-01

    The non-iterative direct inversion of potential field data by stochastic approach enables to incorporate in a coherent way a priori geological knowledge, the known densities on any support size and the gravity data. The weakness of the method is the necessary computation of the parameter covariance matrix. For a large mesh made of prisms, the matrix is simply too large to fit in memory. The new approach approximates the prism covariance matrix by a surrogate matrix computed from the covariance matrix of a reduced set of nodes aimed at representing the whole domain of inversion. Care is taken to preserve the properties of direct stochastic inversion on the whole set of prisms. Hence, the approach accounts in a consistent way for the support effect, the inversion remains exact in the absence of noise on data, point and block known densities are exactly reproduced, any set of linear constraints can be applied, and the inversion is non-iterative in all cases. It is shown on synthetic examples that the number of nodes needs not to be very large to ensure a good approximation of the parameter covariance matrix or to ensure similarity of the inversion solutions. An application to a gravity survey including borehole density data shows the applicability of the method for a large number of cells in the inversion domain. Even with as much as 10,000 nodes and one million prisms, the computing time remained acceptable at less than two hours on a workstation. The inverted solution obtained with the nodes approach is compared to a direct kriging of borehole density data and to direct inversion using only the gravity data. The solution combining both information is different from the inversion using only gravity, but only in the area where borehole data are numerous. Although shown for the gravity-density potential, the approach is general and can be extended to magnetic-susceptibility and joint inversion. The proposed approach helps solving the recurrent problem of the

  7. A Sixteen Node Shell Element with a Matrix Stabilization Scheme.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-22

    coordinates with components x, y and z are defined on the shell midsurface in addition to global coordinates with components X, Y and Z. The x, y and z axes... midsurface while a3 is normal to the surface. The al, A2 and a3 vectors are given at each node as an input. In addition, they are defined at each integra...drawn from the point on the midsurface to the generic material point, t is the shell thickness and the nondimenslonal coordinate C runs from -1 to 1

  8. Overview on In-Space Internet Node Testbed (ISINT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Alan M.; Kachmar, Brian A.; Fabian, Theodore; Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    The Satellite Networks and Architecture Branch has developed the In-Space Internet Node Technology testbed (ISINT) for investigating the use of commercial Internet products for NASA missions. The testbed connects two closed subnets over a tabletop Ka-band transponder by using commercial routers and modems. Since many NASA assets are in low Earth orbits (LEO's), the testbed simulates the varying signal strength, changing propagation delay, and varying connection times that are normally experienced when communicating to the Earth via a geosynchronous orbiting (GEO) communications satellite. Research results from using this testbed will be used to determine which Internet technologies are appropriate for NASA's future communication needs.

  9. Locating influential nodes via dynamics-sensitive centrality

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    With great theoretical and practical significance, locating influential nodes of complex networks is a promising issue. In this paper, we present a dynamics-sensitive (DS) centrality by integrating topological features and dynamical properties. The DS centrality can be directly applied in locating influential spreaders. According to the empirical results on four real networks for both susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) and susceptible-infected (SI) spreading models, the DS centrality is more accurate than degree, k-shell index and eigenvector centrality. PMID:26905891

  10. Lambda network having 2{sup m{minus}1} nodes in each of m stages with each node coupled to four other nodes for bidirectional routing of data packets between nodes

    DOEpatents

    Napolitano, L.M. Jr.

    1995-11-28

    The Lambda network is a single stage, packet-switched interprocessor communication network for a distributed memory, parallel processor computer. Its design arises from the desired network characteristics of minimizing mean and maximum packet transfer time, local routing, expandability, deadlock avoidance, and fault tolerance. The network is based on fixed degree nodes and has mean and maximum packet transfer distances where n is the number of processors. The routing method is detailed, as are methods for expandability, deadlock avoidance, and fault tolerance. 14 figs.

  11. Accelerometer Placement for the International Space Station Node Modal Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    Accelerometer location analysis for the modal survey test of the International Space Station Node is described. Three different approaches were utilized: (1) Guyan reduction; (2) Iterative Guyan reduction; and (3) The average driving point residue (ADPR) method. Both Guyan approaches worked well, but poor results were observed for the ADPR method. Although the iterative Guyan approach appears to provide the best set of sensor locations, it is intensive computationally, becoming impractical for large initial location sets. While this is computer dependent, it appears that initial sets larger than about 1500 degrees of freedom are impractical for the iterative technique.

  12. Underwater Multi-Node Radio Communication Solutions for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawar, Zaid Fares Yousef; Haddad, Sanad Atef Sari; Mestariheh, Feras R. M.; Jonsson, Lars Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The exploration of the presumably life harboring subsurface ocean of Europa will provide scientists with extensive new knowledge in the search for extraterrestrial life. A highly miniaturized payload is required to penetrate a narrow passage through the thick ice crust covering Europa's surface. Underwater wireless communications may be the most viable means of communication for such exploratory missions, accounting for size and weight restrictions. This presents a challenge to achieve satisfactory data rates and a range that permits autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) to communicate within their region of operation, as well as with a surface lander or orbiter. This work presents thorough prototype experimentation on an underwater communication system established between several nodes using RF signals. During an eight-week internship experience at NASA's Ames Research Center in September-October 2014, our team developed a Europa exploration mission concept, built representative hardware, and carried out tests to assess the feasibility of key aspects of the concept. Experiments demonstrating the viability of RF communication underwater comprised inspecting the effect of depth and horizontal distance on signal strength as well as the optimum positioning of antennas. To test the system's performance, two submersibles were designed and built. A commercially available remotely operated vehicle (ROV) was also modified and used as a main communication node. The two submersibles were wirelessly connected and accommodated sensors capable of characterizing water properties and equipped with 2.4 GHz, 1 mW transceivers to communicate the measured data. The communication procedure is that the main communication node requests the collected data from the two submersibles when in range and receives it instantly through RF. This work models what may take place during an actual mission to Europa. The developed mission concept involved a hybrid communication system consisting of

  13. Astronaut Susan Helms in the ISS Unity Node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    In this photograph, Astronaut Susan Helms, Expedition Two flight engineer, is positioned near a large amount of water temporarily stored in the Unity Node aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Astronaut Helms accompanied the STS-105 crew back to Earth after having spent five months with two crewmates aboard the ISS. The 11th ISS assembly flight, the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery STS-105 mission was launched on August 10, 2001, and landed on August 22, 2001 at the Kennedy Space Center after the completion of the successful 12-day mission.

  14. Ranking and clustering of nodes in networks with smart teleportation.

    PubMed

    Lambiotte, R; Rosvall, M

    2012-05-01

    Random teleportation is a necessary evil for ranking and clustering directed networks based on random walks. Teleportation enables ergodic solutions, but the solutions must necessarily depend on the exact implementation and parametrization of the teleportation. For example, in the commonly used PageRank algorithm, the teleportation rate must trade off a heavily biased solution with a uniform solution. Here we show that teleportation to links rather than nodes enables a much smoother trade-off and effectively more robust results. We also show that, by not recording the teleportation steps of the random walker, we can further reduce the effect of teleportation with dramatic effects on clustering.

  15. Novel high sensitivity EUV photoresist for sub-7nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Tomoki; Nakagawa, Hisashi; Naruoka, Takehiko; Tagawa, Seiichi; Oshima, Akihiro; Nagahara, Seiji; Shiraishi, Gosuke; Yoshihara, Kosuke; Terashita, Yuichi; Minekawa, Yukie; Buitrago, Elizabeth; Ekinci, Yasin; Yildirim, Oktay; Meeuwissen, Marieke; Hoefnagels, Rik; Rispens, Gijsbert; Verspaget, Coen; Maas, Raymond

    2016-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) has been recognized as the most promising candidate for the manufacture of semiconductor devices for the 7 nm node and beyond. A key point in the successful introduction of EUV lithography in high volume manufacture (HVM) is the effective EUV dose utilization while simultaneously realizing ultra-high resolution and low line edge roughness (LER). Here we show EUV resist sensitivity improvement with the use of a photosensitized chemically amplified resist PSCARTM system. The evaluation of this new chemically amplified resist (CAR) as performed using EUV interference lithography (EUV-IL) is described and the fundamentals are discussed.

  16. Sentinel node biopsy in the management of malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Russell-Jones, R; Acland, K

    2001-09-01

    The technique of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has been in use for almost a decade, but its effect on survival has not yet been established. It is however the most accurate method for staging patients with primary cutaneous melanoma who lack clinical evidence of metastatic disease. This article discusses the rationale and logistics of SLN biopsy, and the management strategies that can be employed in those patients who are SLN positive. Future therapeutic trial in patients with primary cutaneous melanoma will only be meaningful if the SLN status of the subjects is established.

  17. Efficacy of Methylene Blue in Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Altan; Mayir, Burhan; Demirbakan, Kenan; Oygür, Nezihi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the recommended approach in the evaluation of axilla during breast cancer surgery. In this study, results of patients who underwent methylene blue sentinel lymph node biopsy were evaluated. Materials and Methods The study included 32 female patients with T1 and T2 tumors. 5 ml of 1% methylene blue was injected into the peritumoral area or around the cavity. The axillary sentinel lymph node was found and removed, and then axillary dissection was performed. The sentinel lymph node and axillary dissection specimen were histopathologically examined and the results were compared. Results The sentinel lymph node was found in 30 (94%) patients. Lymph node metastasis was not observed in 17 patients in both the sentinel lymph node and axilla. Two patients had metastasis in the axilla although this was not detected in sentinel lymph node. Eleven patients had metastasis both in the sentinel lymph node and in the axilla. The accuracy rate was 93%, and the false negativity rate was identified as 15%. Conclusion Sentinel lymph node biopsy by methylene blue is a method that can be applied with high accuracy. Methylene blue can be considered as an alternative to isosulphane blue in sentinel lymph node biopsy.

  18. Tumor-induced sentinel lymph node lymphangiogenesis and increased lymph flow precede melanoma metastasis.

    PubMed

    Harrell, Maria I; Iritani, Brian M; Ruddell, Alanna

    2007-02-01

    Lymphangiogenesis is associated with human and murine cancer metastasis, suggesting that lymphatic vessels are important for tumor dissemination. Lymphatic vessel alterations were examined using B16-F10 melanoma cells implanted in syngeneic C57Bl/6 mice, which form tumors metastasizing to draining lymph nodes and subsequently to the lungs. Footpad tumors showed no lymphatic or blood vessel growth; however, the tumor-draining popliteal lymph node featured greatly increased lymphatic sinuses. Lymph node lymphangiogenesis began before melanoma cells reached draining lymph nodes, indicating that primary tumors induce these alterations at a distance. Lymph flow imaging revealed that nanoparticle transit was greatly increased through tumor-draining relative to nondraining lymph nodes. Lymph node lymphatic sinuses and lymph flow were increased in mice implanted with unmarked or with foreign antigen-expressing melanomas, indicating that these effects are not due to foreign antigen expression. However, tumor-derived immune signaling could promote lymph node alterations, as macrophages infiltrated footpad tumors, whereas lymphocytes accumulated in tumor-draining lymph nodes. B lymphocytes are required for lymphangiogenesis and increased lymph flow through tumor-draining lymph nodes, as these alterations were not observed in mice deficient for B cells. Lymph node lymphangiogenesis and increased lymph flow through tumor-draining lymph nodes may actively promote metastasis via the lymphatics.

  19. Quantitative analysis of the central-chest lymph nodes based on 3D MDCT image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kongkuo; Bascom, Rebecca; Mahraj, Rickhesvar P. M.; Higgins, William E.

    2009-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. In lung-cancer staging, central-chest lymph nodes and associated nodal stations, as observed in three-dimensional (3D) multidetector CT (MDCT) scans, play a vital role. However, little work has been done in relation to lymph nodes, based on MDCT data, due to the complicated phenomena that give rise to them. Using our custom computer-based system for 3D MDCT-based pulmonary lymph-node analysis, we conduct a detailed study of lymph nodes as depicted in 3D MDCT scans. In this work, the Mountain lymph-node stations are automatically defined by the system. These defined stations, in conjunction with our system's image processing and visualization tools, facilitate lymph-node detection, classification, and segmentation. An expert pulmonologist, chest radiologist, and trained technician verified the accuracy of the automatically defined stations and indicated observable lymph nodes. Next, using semi-automatic tools in our system, we defined all indicated nodes. Finally, we performed a global quantitative analysis of the characteristics of the observed nodes and stations. This study drew upon a database of 32 human MDCT chest scans. 320 Mountain-based stations (10 per scan) and 852 pulmonary lymph nodes were defined overall from this database. Based on the numerical results, over 90% of the automatically defined stations were deemed accurate. This paper also presents a detailed summary of central-chest lymph-node characteristics for the first time.

  20. Parallel-aware, dedicated job co-scheduling within/across symmetric multiprocessing nodes

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Terry R.; Watson, Pythagoras C.; Tuel, William; Brenner, Larry; ,Caffrey, Patrick; Fier, Jeffrey

    2010-10-05

    In a parallel computing environment comprising a network of SMP nodes each having at least one processor, a parallel-aware co-scheduling method and system for improving the performance and scalability of a dedicated parallel job having synchronizing collective operations. The method and system uses a global co-scheduler and an operating system kernel dispatcher adapted to coordinate interfering system and daemon activities on a node and across nodes to promote intra-node and inter-node overlap of said interfering system and daemon activities as well as intra-node and inter-node overlap of said synchronizing collective operations. In this manner, the impact of random short-lived interruptions, such as timer-decrement processing and periodic daemon activity, on synchronizing collective operations is minimized on large processor-count SPMD bulk-synchronous programming styles.

  1. Sentinel node staging of early breast cancer using lymphoscintigraphy and the intraoperative gamma-detecting probe.

    PubMed

    Alazraki, N P; Styblo, T; Grant, S F; Cohen, C; Larsen, T; Aarsvold, J N

    2000-01-01

    Sentinel node staging for breast cancer is increasingly used in place of axillary lymph node dissection but is not yet universally accepted. The problems of non-standardized methodologies and lack of consensus on the optimum techniques to identify sentinel nodes are being addressed. Complementary use of radionuclide imaging before surgery, intraoperative probe detection, and blue dye have yielded the best reported sensitivities for finding a sentinel node (94%). The importance of imaging is summarized as identifying sentinel node(s), distinguishing sentinel from secondary nodes, guiding surgical incision planning, and facilitating lower doses. The learning curve phenomenon, which applies to the surgeon and the nuclear medicine physician, has been recognized; measures to minimize it are being implemented. Radiation exposure to operating room and pathology personnel is very low; estimates of exposure to the surgeon's hands are 0.2% of the annual whole body dose received by every human being from natural background and cosmic sources.

  2. Chaining direct memory access data transfer operations for compute nodes in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.

    2010-09-28

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for chaining DMA data transfer operations for compute nodes in a parallel computer that include: receiving, by an origin DMA engine on an origin node in an origin injection FIFO buffer for the origin DMA engine, a RGET data descriptor specifying a DMA transfer operation data descriptor on the origin node and a second RGET data descriptor on the origin node, the second RGET data descriptor specifying a target RGET data descriptor on the target node, the target RGET data descriptor specifying an additional DMA transfer operation data descriptor on the origin node; creating, by the origin DMA engine, an RGET packet in dependence upon the RGET data descriptor, the RGET packet containing the DMA transfer operation data descriptor and the second RGET data descriptor; and transferring, by the origin DMA engine to a target DMA engine on the target node, the RGET packet.

  3. Node Deployment Algorithm for Underwater Sensor Networks Based on Connected Dominating Set

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Peng; Liu, Jun; Wu, Feng; Wang, Jianzhong; Xue, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Existing node deployment algorithms for underwater sensor networks are nearly unable to improve the network coverage rate under the premise of ensuring the full network connectivity and do not optimize the communication and move energy consumption during the deployment. Hence, a node deployment algorithm based on connected dominating set (CDS) is proposed. After randomly sowing the nodes in 3D monitoring underwater space, disconnected nodes move to the sink node until the network achieves full connectivity. The sink node then performs centralized optimization to determine the CDS and adjusts the locations of dominated nodes. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve a high coverage rate while ensuring full connectivity and decreases the communication and movement energy consumption during deployment. PMID:26999147

  4. Low latency, high bandwidth data communications between compute nodes in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A

    2014-04-01

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for data transfers between nodes in a parallel computer that include: receiving, by an origin DMA on an origin node, a buffer identifier for a buffer containing data for transfer to a target node; sending, by the origin DMA to the target node, a RTS message; transferring, by the origin DMA, a data portion to the target node using a memory FIFO operation that specifies one end of the buffer from which to begin transferring the data; receiving, by the origin DMA, an acknowledgement of the RTS message from the target node; and transferring, by the origin DMA in response to receiving the acknowledgement, any remaining data portion to the target node using a direct put operation that specifies the other end of the buffer from which to begin transferring the data, including initiating the direct put operation without invoking an origin processing core.

  5. Low latency, high bandwidth data communications between compute nodes in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A

    2013-07-02

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for data transfers between nodes in a parallel computer that include: receiving, by an origin DMA on an origin node, a buffer identifier for a buffer containing data for transfer to a target node; sending, by the origin DMA to the target node, a RTS message; transferring, by the origin DMA, a data portion to the target node using a memory FIFO operation that specifies one end of the buffer from which to begin transferring the data; receiving, by the origin DMA, an acknowledgement of the RTS message from the target node; and transferring, by the origin DMA in response to receiving the acknowledgement, any remaining data portion to the target node using a direct put operation that specifies the other end of the buffer from which to begin transferring the data, including initiating the direct put operation without invoking an origin processing core.

  6. Low latency, high bandwidth data communications between compute nodes in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A

    2014-04-22

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for data transfers between nodes in a parallel computer that include: receiving, by an origin DMA on an origin node, a buffer identifier for a buffer containing data for transfer to a target node; sending, by the origin DMA to the target node, a RTS message; transferring, by the origin DMA, a data portion to the target node using a memory FIFO operation that specifies one end of the buffer from which to begin transferring the data; receiving, by the origin DMA, an acknowledgement of the RTS message from the target node; and transferring, by the origin DMA in response to receiving the acknowledgement, any remaining data portion to the target node using a direct put operation that specifies the other end of the buffer from which to begin transferring the data, including initiating the direct put operation without invoking an origin processing core.

  7. Wireless Sensor Node for Autonomous Monitoring and Alerts in Remote Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monacos, Steve P. (Inventor); Panangadan, Anand V. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method, apparatus, system, and computer program products provides personal alert and tracking capabilities using one or more nodes. Each node includes radio transceiver chips operating at different frequency ranges, a power amplifier, sensors, a display, and embedded software. The chips enable the node to operate as either a mobile sensor node or a relay base station node while providing a long distance relay link between nodes. The power amplifier enables a line-of-sight communication between the one or more nodes. The sensors provide a GPS signal, temperature, and accelerometer information (used to trigger an alert condition). The embedded software captures and processes the sensor information, provides a multi-hop packet routing protocol to relay the sensor information to and receive alert information from a command center, and to display the alert information on the display.

  8. Pacing a data transfer operation between compute nodes on a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.

    2011-09-13

    Methods, systems, and products are disclosed for pacing a data transfer between compute nodes on a parallel computer that include: transferring, by an origin compute node, a chunk of an application message to a target compute node; sending, by the origin compute node, a pacing request to a target direct memory access (`DMA`) engine on the target compute node using a remote get DMA operation; determining, by the origin compute node, whether a pacing response to the pacing request has been received from the target DMA engine; and transferring, by the origin compute node, a next chunk of the application message if the pacing response to the pacing request has been received from the target DMA engine.

  9. Performing an allreduce operation on a plurality of compute nodes of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Faraj, Ahmad [Rochester, MN

    2012-04-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for performing an allreduce operation on a plurality of compute nodes of a parallel computer. Each compute node includes at least two processing cores. Each processing core has contribution data for the allreduce operation. Performing an allreduce operation on a plurality of compute nodes of a parallel computer includes: establishing one or more logical rings among the compute nodes, each logical ring including at least one processing core from each compute node; performing, for each logical ring, a global allreduce operation using the contribution data for the processing cores included in that logical ring, yielding a global allreduce result for each processing core included in that logical ring; and performing, for each compute node, a local allreduce operation using the global allreduce results for each processing core on that compute node.

  10. Perlecan is recruited by dystroglycan to nodes of Ranvier and binds the clustering molecule gliomedin

    PubMed Central

    Colombelli, Cristina; Palmisano, Marilena; Eshed-Eisenbach, Yael; Zambroni, Desirée; Pavoni, Ernesto; Ferri, Cinzia; Saccucci, Stefania; Nicole, Sophie; Soininen, Raija; McKee, Karen K.; Yurchenco, Peter D.; Peles, Elior; Wrabetz, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Fast neural conduction requires accumulation of Na+ channels at nodes of Ranvier. Dedicated adhesion molecules on myelinating cells and axons govern node organization. Among those, specific laminins and dystroglycan complexes contribute to Na+ channel clustering at peripheral nodes by unknown mechanisms. We show that in addition to facing the basal lamina, dystroglycan is found near the nodal matrix around axons, binds matrix components, and participates in initial events of nodogenesis. We identify the dystroglycan-ligand perlecan as a novel nodal component and show that dystroglycan is required for the selective accumulation of perlecan at nodes. Perlecan binds the clustering molecule gliomedin and enhances clustering of node of Ranvier components. These data show that proteoglycans have specific roles in peripheral nodes and indicate that peripheral and central axons use similar strategies but different molecules to form nodes of Ranvier. Further, our data indicate that dystroglycan binds free matrix that is not organized in a basal lamina. PMID:25646087

  11. Microscale Thermite Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnaiz, Francisco J.; Aguado, Rafael; Arnaiz, Susana

    1998-01-01

    Describes the adaptation of thermite (aluminum with metal oxides) reactions from whole-class demonstrations to student-run micro-reactions. Lists detailed directions and possible variations of the experiment. (WRM)

  12. Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chung-cheng; Sui, Guodong; Elizarov, Arkadij; Kolb, Hartmuth C; Huang, Jiang; Heath, James R; Phelps, Michael E; Quake, Stephen R; Tseng, Hsian-rong; Wyatt, Paul; Daridon, Antoine

    2012-06-26

    New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

  13. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction is a sensitivity to a specific substance, called an allergen, that is contacted through the skin, inhaled into the lungs, swallowed or injected. The body's reaction to an allergen can be mild, such as ...

  14. Allergic reactions (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Allergic reaction can be provoked by skin contact with poison plants, chemicals and animal scratches, as well as by ... dust, nuts and shellfish, may also cause allergic reaction. Medications such as penicillin and other antibiotics are ...

  15. To Identify Predictors of Central Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients with Clinically Node-Negative Conventional Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Gang; Du, Jialin; Chen, Xiaoyi; Lin, Xiaodong; Chen, Zhengbo

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with central lymph node metastasis (CLNM) in patients with clinically node-negative conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma (cN0 CPTC). Methods. A total of 190 cN0 CPTC patients who underwent thyroidectomy with prophylactic central neck dissection (pCND) in the Department of General Surgery at Guangdong General Hospital between March 2014 and December 2015 were assessed retrospectively. The relations of CLNM with clinicopathologic characteristics of cN0 CPTC were analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results. The incidence of CLNM in patients with cN0 CPTC was 63.2% (120 of 190 cases). Univariate analysis showed that age <45 years (P = 0.000), tumor size >2 cm (P = 0.009), multifocality (P = 0.001), and bilaterality (P = 0.000) were significantly associated with the increased incidence of CLNM in cN0 CPTC. No significant correlations were found between CLNM and other variables such as gender (P = 0.150), capsular invasion (P = 0.973), extrathyroidal invasion (P = 0.616), and lymphadenectomy (P = 0.062). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age <45 years (P = 0.000), tumor size >2 cm (P = 0.025), and bilaterality (P = 0.000) were independent risk factors of CLNM in patients with cN0 CPTC. Conclusions. Metastatic disease to central compartment lymph nodes is prevalent in patients with cN0 CPTC. Age <45 years, tumor size >2 cm, and bilaterality are independent risk factors of CLNM, which allow for selective CND in patients with cN0 CPTC. PMID:28074094

  16. Taking the X Architecture to the 65-nm technology node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Robin C.; Smayling, Michael C.; Arora, Narain; Nagata, Toshiyuki; Duane, Michael P.; Shah, Santosh; Keston, Harris J.; Oemardani, Shiany

    2004-05-01

    The X Architecture is a new way of orienting the interconnect on an integrated circuit using diagonal pathways, as well as the traditional right-angle, or Manhattan, configuration. By enabling designs with significantly less wire and fewer vias, the X Architecture can provide substantial improvements in chip performance, power consumption and cost. Members of the X Initiative semiconductor supply chain consortium have demonstrated the production worthiness of the X Architecture at the 130-nm and 90-nm process technology nodes. This paper presents an assessment of the manufacturing readiness of the X Architecture for the 65-nm technology node. The extent to which current production capabilities in mask writing, lithography, wafer processing, inspection and metrology can be used is discussed using the results from a 65-nm test chip. The project was a collaborative effort amongst a number of companies in the IC fabrication supply chain. Applied Materials fabricated the 65-nm X Architecture test chip at its Maydan Technology Center and leveraged the technology of other X Initiative members. Cadence Design Systems provided the test structure design and chip validation tools, Dai Nippon Printing produced the masks and Canon"s imaging system was employed for the photolithography.

  17. Node synchronization of viterbi decoders using state metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, U.

    1988-01-01

    The concept of node synchronization using state metrics is investigated. The branch metrics are integrated over a fixed time interval and the results are compared to the detection threshold. If the threshold is exceeded, the out-of-sync hypothesis is accepted; otherwise, the in-sync hypothesis is accepted. It is shown that the detection threshold can be chosen independent of any particular convolutional code with fixed code rate and constant length if the code has reasonably good bit error rate performance. Three node synchronization schemes are compared: (1) a scheme using the syndrome; (2) a scheme using the frame-sync patterns; and (3) a scheme using the state metrics. At very low signal to noise ratios (SNR), scheme 2 can be faster than scheme 1. For Voyager's rate 1/2 and constraint length 7 convolutional code, this happens for SNRs of less than 0.7 dB. This result is obtained by assuming that the code frame-sync pattern has good aperiodic autocorrelation properties. For a fixed false alarm probability, the sequential detection scheme based on the syndrome is faster than scheme 3 with fixed integration time. A sequential detection technique is needed to improve the speed of scheme 3.

  18. Dynamic-Sensitive centrality of nodes in temporal networks

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Da-Wen; Yu, Zu-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Locating influential nodes in temporal networks has attracted a lot of attention as data driven and diverse applications. Classic works either looked at analysing static networks or placed too much emphasis on the topological information but rarely highlighted the dynamics. In this paper, we take account the network dynamics and extend the concept of Dynamic-Sensitive centrality to temporal network. According to the empirical results on three real-world temporal networks and a theoretical temporal network for susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) models, the temporal Dynamic-Sensitive centrality (TDC) is more accurate than both static versions and temporal versions of degree, closeness and betweenness centrality. As an application, we also use TDC to analyse the impact of time-order on spreading dynamics, we find that both topological structure and dynamics contribute the impact on the spreading influence of nodes, and the impact of time-order on spreading influence will be stronger when spreading rate b deviated from the epidemic threshold bc, especially for the temporal scale-free networks. PMID:28150735

  19. Long Term Mean Local Time of the Ascending Node Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKinley, David P.

    2007-01-01

    Significant error has been observed in the long term prediction of the Mean Local Time of the Ascending Node on the Aqua spacecraft. This error of approximately 90 seconds over a two year prediction is a complication in planning and timing of maneuvers for all members of the Earth Observing System Afternoon Constellation, which use Aqua's MLTAN as the reference for their inclination maneuvers. It was determined that the source of the prediction error was the lack of a solid Earth tide model in the operational force models. The Love Model of the solid Earth tide potential was used to derive analytic corrections to the inclination and right ascension of the ascending node of Aqua's Sun-synchronous orbit. Additionally, it was determined that the resonance between the Sun and orbit plane of the Sun-synchronous orbit is the primary driver of this error. The analytic corrections have been added to the operational force models for the Aqua spacecraft reducing the two-year 90-second error to less than 7 seconds.

  20. Image classification based on scheme of principal node analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Feng; Ma, Zheng; Xie, Mei

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a scheme of principal node analysis (PNA) with the aim to improve the representativeness of the learned codebook so as to enhance the classification rate of scene image. Original images are normalized into gray ones and the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) descriptors are extracted from each image in the preprocessing stage. Then, the PNA-based scheme is applied to the SIFT descriptors with iteration and selection algorithms. The principal nodes of each image are selected through spatial analysis of the SIFT descriptors with Manhattan distance (L1 norm) and Euclidean distance (L2 norm) in order to increase the representativeness of the codebook. With the purpose of evaluating the performance of our scheme, the feature vector of the image is calculated by two baseline methods after the codebook is constructed. The L1-PNA- and L2-PNA-based baseline methods are tested and compared with different scales of codebooks over three public scene image databases. The experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme of PNA with a higher categorization rate.

  1. Marseillevirus in lymphoma: a giant in the lymph node.

    PubMed

    Aherfi, Sarah; Colson, Philippe; Audoly, Gilles; Nappez, Claude; Xerri, Luc; Valensi, Audrey; Million, Matthieu; Lepidi, Hubert; Costello, Regis; Raoult, Didier

    2016-10-01

    The family Marseilleviridae is a new clade of giant viruses whose original member, marseillevirus, was described in 2009. These viruses were isolated using Acanthamoeba spp primarily from the environment. Subsequently, a close relative of marseillevirus was isolated from the faeces of a healthy young man, and others were detected in blood samples of blood donors and recipients and in a child with lymph node adenitis. In this Grand Round we describe the detection of marseillevirus by PCR, fluorescence in-situ hybridisation, direct immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry in the lymph node of a 30-year-old woman diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma, together with IgG antibodies to marseillevirus. A link with viruses and bacteria has been reported for many lymphomas. We review the literature describing these associations, the criteria used to consider a causal association, and the underlying mechanisms of lymphomagenesis. Our observations suggest that consideration should be given to marseillevirus infections as an additional viral cause or consequence of Hodgkin's lymphoma, and that this hypothesis should be tested further.

  2. Functional genomics identifies negative regulatory nodes controlling phagocyte oxidative burst

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Daniel B.; Becker, Christine E.; Doan, Aivi; Goel, Gautam; Villablanca, Eduardo J.; Knights, Dan; Mok, Amanda; Ng, Aylwin C.Y.; Doench, John G.; Root, David E.; Clish, Clary B.; Xavier, Ramnik J.

    2015-01-01

    The phagocyte oxidative burst, mediated by Nox2 NADPH oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species, confers host defense against a broad spectrum of bacterial and fungal pathogens. Loss-of-function mutations that impair function of the Nox2 complex result in a life-threatening immunodeficiency, and genetic variants of Nox2 subunits have been implicated in pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Thus, alterations in the oxidative burst can profoundly impact host defense, yet little is known about regulatory mechanisms that fine-tune this response. Here we report the discovery of regulatory nodes controlling oxidative burst by functional screening of genes within loci linked to human inflammatory disease. Implementing a multi-omics approach, we define transcriptional, metabolic and ubiquitin-cycling nodes controlled by Rbpj, Pfkl and Rnf145, respectively. Furthermore, we implicate Rnf145 in proteostasis of the Nox2 complex by endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. Consequently, ablation of Rnf145 in murine macrophages enhances bacterial clearance, and rescues the oxidative burst defects associated with Ncf4 haploinsufficiency. PMID:26194095

  3. Development of an intelligent wireless sensor network with mobile nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. Pierre, Joseph; Michel, Howard E.

    2009-05-01

    Wireless sensor networks have become viable solutions to many commercial and military applications. This research focuses on utilizing the I-TRM to develop an architecture which supports adaptive, self-healing, and self-aware intelligent wireless sensor networks capable of supporting mobile nodes. Sensor subsystems are crucial in the development of projects to test complex systems such as the Future Combat System, a multi-layered system consisting of soldiers and 18 subsystems connected by a network. The proposed architecture utilizes the Sensor Web Enablement (SWE), a standard for sensor networks being developed by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), and the Integrated Technical Reference Model (I-TRM), a multi-layered technical reference model consisting of a behavior-centric technical reference model, information-centric technical reference model, and control technical reference model. The designed architecture has been implemented on MPR2400CA motes using the nesC programming language. Preliminary results show the architecture meets needs of systems such as the Future Combat System. The architecture supports standard and tailored sensors, mobile and immobile sensors nodes, and is scalable. Also, functionality was implemented which produces adaptive, self-healing, and self-aware behavior in the wireless sensor network.

  4. Features Predicting Sentinel Lymph Node Positivity in Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jennifer L.; Griffith, Kent A.; Lowe, Lori; Wong, Sandra L.; McLean, Scott A.; Fullen, Douglas R.; Lao, Christopher D.; Hayman, James A.; Bradford, Carol R.; Rees, Riley S.; Johnson, Timothy M.; Bichakjian, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a relatively rare, potentially aggressive cutaneous malignancy. We examined the clinical and histologic features of primary MCC that may correlate with the probability of a positive sentinel lymph node (SLN). Methods Ninety-five patients with MCC who underwent SLN biopsy at the University of Michigan were identified. SLN biopsy was performed on 97 primary tumors, and an SLN was identified in 93 instances. These were reviewed for clinical and histologic features and associated SLN positivity. Univariate associations between these characteristics and a positive SLN were tested for by using either the χ2 or the Fisher's exact test. A backward elimination algorithm was used to help create a best multiple variable model to explain a positive SLN. Results SLN positivity was significantly associated with the clinical size of the lesion, greatest horizontal histologic dimension, tumor thickness, mitotic rate, and histologic growth pattern. Two competing multivariate models were generated to predict a positive SLN. The histologic growth pattern was present in both models and combined with either tumor thickness or mitotic rate. Conclusion Increasing clinical size, increasing tumor thickness, increasing mitotic rate, and infiltrative tumor growth pattern were significantly associated with a greater likelihood of a positive SLN. By using the growth pattern and tumor thickness model, no subgroup of patients was predicted to have a lower than 15% to 20% likelihood of a positive SLN. This suggests that all patients presenting with MCC without clinical evidence of regional lymph node disease should be considered for SLN biopsy. PMID:21300936

  5. Observation of Weyl nodes and Fermi arcs in tantalum phosphide

    PubMed Central

    Xu, N.; Weng, H. M.; Lv, B. Q.; Matt, C. E.; Park, J.; Bisti, F.; Strocov, V. N.; Gawryluk, D.; Pomjakushina, E.; Conder, K.; Plumb, N. C.; Radovic, M.; Autès, G.; Yazyev, O. V.; Fang, Z.; Dai, X.; Qian, T.; Mesot, J.; Ding, H.; Shi, M.

    2016-01-01

    A Weyl semimetal possesses spin-polarized band-crossings, called Weyl nodes, connected by topological surface arcs. The low-energy excitations near the crossing points behave the same as massless Weyl fermions, leading to exotic properties like chiral anomaly. To have the transport properties dominated by Weyl fermions, Weyl nodes need to locate nearly at the chemical potential and enclosed by pairs of individual Fermi surfaces with non-zero Fermi Chern numbers. Combining angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and first-principles calculation, here we show that TaP is a Weyl semimetal with only a single type of Weyl fermions, topologically distinguished from TaAs where two types of Weyl fermions contribute to the low-energy physical properties. The simple Weyl fermions in TaP are not only of fundamental interests but also of great potential for future applications. Fermi arcs on the Ta-terminated surface are observed, which appear in a different pattern from that on the As-termination in TaAs and NbAs. PMID:26983910

  6. Lymph node biophysical remodeling is associated with melanoma lymphatic drainage.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Nathan Andrew; McClain, Jacob; Tuell, Sara Lydia; Warner, Alex; Smith, Blair; Yun, Youngho; Mohan, Abhinav; Sushnitha, Manuela; Thomas, Susan Napier

    2015-11-01

    Tissue remodeling is a characteristic of many solid tumor malignancies including melanoma. By virtue of tumor lymphatic transport, remodeling pathways active within the local tumor microenvironment have the potential to be operational within lymph nodes (LNs) draining the tumor interstitium. Here, we show that lymphatic drainage from murine B16 melanomas in syngeneic, immune-competent C57Bl/6 mice is associated with LN enlargement as well as nonuniform increases in bulk tissue elasticity and viscoelasticity, as measured by the response of whole LNs to compression. These remodeling responses, which quickly manifest in tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs) after tumor inoculation and before apparent metastasis, were accompanied by changes in matrix composition, including up to 3-fold increases in the abundance of soluble collagen and hyaluronic acid. Intranodal pressures were also significantly increased in TDLNs (+1 cmH2O) relative to both non-tumor-draining LNs (-1 cmH2O) and LNs from naive animals (-1 to 2 cmH2O). These data suggest that the reorganization of matrix structure, composition, and fluid microenvironment within LNs associated with tumor lymphatic drainage parallels remodeling seen in primary malignancies and has the potential to regulate the adhesion, proliferation, and signaling function of LN-resident cells involved in directing melanoma disease progression.

  7. Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails

    PubMed Central

    Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm’s efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank’s performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes. PMID:26553630

  8. An Embedded Sensor Node Microcontroller with Crypto-Processors.

    PubMed

    Panić, Goran; Stecklina, Oliver; Stamenković, Zoran

    2016-04-27

    Wireless sensor network applications range from industrial automation and control, agricultural and environmental protection, to surveillance and medicine. In most applications, data are highly sensitive and must be protected from any type of attack and abuse. Security challenges in wireless sensor networks are mainly defined by the power and computing resources of sensor devices, memory size, quality of radio channels and susceptibility to physical capture. In this article, an embedded sensor node microcontroller designed to support sensor network applications with severe security demands is presented. It features a low power 16-bitprocessor core supported by a number of hardware accelerators designed to perform complex operations required by advanced crypto algorithms. The microcontroller integrates an embedded Flash and an 8-channel 12-bit analog-to-digital converter making it a good solution for low-power sensor nodes. The article discusses the most important security topics in wireless sensor networks and presents the architecture of the proposed hardware solution. Furthermore, it gives details on the chip implementation, verification and hardware evaluation. Finally, the chip power dissipation and performance figures are estimated and analyzed.

  9. An Embedded Sensor Node Microcontroller with Crypto-Processors

    PubMed Central

    Panić, Goran; Stecklina, Oliver; Stamenković, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor network applications range from industrial automation and control, agricultural and environmental protection, to surveillance and medicine. In most applications, data are highly sensitive and must be protected from any type of attack and abuse. Security challenges in wireless sensor networks are mainly defined by the power and computing resources of sensor devices, memory size, quality of radio channels and susceptibility to physical capture. In this article, an embedded sensor node microcontroller designed to support sensor network applications with severe security demands is presented. It features a low power 16-bitprocessor core supported by a number of hardware accelerators designed to perform complex operations required by advanced crypto algorithms. The microcontroller integrates an embedded Flash and an 8-channel 12-bit analog-to-digital converter making it a good solution for low-power sensor nodes. The article discusses the most important security topics in wireless sensor networks and presents the architecture of the proposed hardware solution. Furthermore, it gives details on the chip implementation, verification and hardware evaluation. Finally, the chip power dissipation and performance figures are estimated and analyzed. PMID:27128925

  10. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for conjunctival malignant melanoma: surgical techniques

    PubMed Central

    Wainstein, Alberto JA; Drummond-Lage, Ana P; Kansaon, Milhem JM; Bretas, Gustavo O; Almeida, Rodrigo F; Gloria, Ana LF; Figueiredo, Ana RP

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this report is to examine the viability and safety of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and radio guided sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for conjunctival melanoma, and to identify the best technique to perform this procedure. Methods Three patients diagnosed with malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva underwent lymphoscintigraphy and SLN biopsy using a dual technique comprising isosulfan blue dye and technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid. Each patient was anesthetized and the conjunctival melanoma was excised. SLNs were localized by a gamma probe, identified according to radioactivity and sentinel blue printing, and dissected, along with drainage of the associated lymphatic basins. The SLNs were evaluated by a pathologist using hematoxylin-eosin staining following serial sectioning and immunohistochemistry using a triple melanoma cocktail (S-100, Melan-A, and HMB-45 antigens). Results Two SLNs were stained in the jugular chain during preoperative lymphoscintigraphy in the first patient, two SLNs were identified in the preauricular and submandibular areas in the second patient, and two SLNs were identified in the submandibular and parotid areas in the third patient. All lymph nodes identified by lymphoscintigraphy were dissected and identified at surgery with 100% accuracy in all three patients. All SLNs were histologically and immunohistochemically negative. Patients had good cosmetic and functional results, and maintained their visual acuity and ocular motility. Conclusion Patients with conjunctival melanoma can undergo preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and SLN biopsy safely using radioactive technetium and isosulfan blue dye. PMID:25565762

  11. Dynamic-Sensitive centrality of nodes in temporal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Da-Wen; Yu, Zu-Guo

    2017-02-01

    Locating influential nodes in temporal networks has attracted a lot of attention as data driven and diverse applications. Classic works either looked at analysing static networks or placed too much emphasis on the topological information but rarely highlighted the dynamics. In this paper, we take account the network dynamics and extend the concept of Dynamic-Sensitive centrality to temporal network. According to the empirical results on three real-world temporal networks and a theoretical temporal network for susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) models, the temporal Dynamic-Sensitive centrality (TDC) is more accurate than both static versions and temporal versions of degree, closeness and betweenness centrality. As an application, we also use TDC to analyse the impact of time-order on spreading dynamics, we find that both topological structure and dynamics contribute the impact on the spreading influence of nodes, and the impact of time-order on spreading influence will be stronger when spreading rate b deviated from the epidemic threshold bc, especially for the temporal scale-free networks.

  12. Providing Runtime Clock Synchronization With Minimal Node-to-Node Time Deviation on XT4s and XT5s

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Terry R; Koenig, Gregory A

    2011-01-01

    We present a new high precision clock synchronization algorithm designed for large XT4 and XT5 leadership-class machines. The algorithm, which is designed to support OS noise reduction through co-scheduling, is suitable for usage cases requiring low overhead and minimal time deviation between nodes. Unlike most high-precision algorithms which reach their precision in a post-mortem analysis after the application has completed, the new ORNL developed algorithm rapidly provides precise results during runtime. Previous to our work, the leading high-precision clock synchronization algorithms that made results available during runtime relied on probabilistic schemes that are not guaranteed to result in an answer.

  13. Age and Axillary Lymph Node Ratio in Postmenopausal Women with T1-T2 Node Positive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Sue A.; Coutty, Nadege; Ly, Bevan Hong; Vlastos, Georges; Nguyen, Nam Phong

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this article was to examine the relationship between age and lymph node ratio (LNR, number of positive nodes divided by number of examined nodes), and to determine their effects on breast cancer (BC) and overall mortality. Methods. Women aged ≥50 years, diagnosed in 1988–1997 with a unilateral histologically confirmed T1-T2 node positive surgically treated primary nonmetastatic BC, were selected from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER). Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) were used to evaluate the age-LNR relationship. Cumulative incidence functions and multivariate competing risks analysis based on model selection by the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) were used to examine the effect of age and LNR on mortality. Low LNR was defined as ≤0.20, mid-LNR 0.21–0.65, and high LNR >0.65. Results. GAMLSS showed a nonlinear LNR-age relationship, increasing from mean LNR 0.26–0.28 at age 50–70 years to 0.30 at 80 years and 0.40 at 90 years. Compared with a 9.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.8%–10.8%] risk of BC death at 5 years in women aged 50–59 years with low LNR, the risk in women ≥80 years with low LNR was 12.6% [95% CI 10.1%–15.0%], mid-LNR 18.1% [13.9%–22.1%], high LNR 29.8% [22.7%–36.1%]. Five-years overall risk of death increased from 40.8% [37.5%–43.9%] by low LNR to 67.4% [61.4%–72.4%] by high LNR. The overall mortality hazard ratio for age ≥80 years with high LNR was 7.49 [6.54–8.59], as compared with women aged 50–59 years with low LNR. Conclusion. High LNR combined with older age was associated with a threefold increased risk of BC death and a sevenfold increased hazard ratio of overall mortality. PMID:20930094

  14. Axillary Irradiation as an Imperative Alternative to Axillary Dissection in Clinically Lymph Node-Negative but Sentinel Node-Positive Breast Cancer Patients?

    PubMed

    Nitsche, Mirko; Hermann, Robert

    2011-10-01

    At the moment, positive sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) of the axilla is followed by axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) as standard of care. Recent data proves that omitting ALND after positive SLND in clinically lymph node-negative early stage breast cancer patients is feasible with low recurrence rates. The well known effect of radiotherapy to destroy occult tumor cells highly contributes to these results as a large extent of level I and II lymph nodes are unavoidably included in standard tangential radiation treatment fields. Reviewing the up to date published data on axillary lymph node treatment with radiotherapy, we hypothesize that full dosage coverage of level I and II of the axilla in early stage breast cancer will improve outcome and should be further evaluated.

  15. The Influence of Total Nodes Examined, Number of Positive Nodes, and Lymph Node Ratio on Survival After Surgical Resection and Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Pancreatic Cancer: A Secondary Analysis of RTOG 9704

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Timothy N.; Winter, Kathryn A.; Berger, Adam C.; Regine, William F.; Abrams, Ross A.; Safran, Howard; Hoffman, John P.; Benson, Al B.; MacDonald, John S.; Willett, Christopher G.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Lymph node status is an important predictor of survival in pancreatic cancer. We performed a secondary analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9704, an adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiation trial, to determine the influence of lymph node factors-number of positive nodes (NPN), total nodes examined (TNE), and lymph node ratio (LNR ratio of NPN to TNE)-on OS and disease-free survival (DFS). Patient and Methods: Eligible patients from RTOG 9704 form the basis of this secondary analysis of lymph node parameters. Actuarial estimates for OS and DFS were calculated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to evaluate associations of NPN, TNE, and LNR with OS and DFS. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were also performed. Results: There were 538 patients enrolled in the RTOG 9704 trial. Of these, 445 patients were eligible with lymph nodes removed. Overall median NPN was 1 (min-max, 0-18). Increased NPN was associated with worse OS (HR = 1.06, p = 0.001) and DFS (HR = 1.05, p = 0.01). In multivariate analyses, both NPN and TNE were associated with OS and DFS. TNE > 12, and >15 were associated with increased OS for all patients, but not for node-negative patients (n = 142). Increased LNR was associated with worse OS (HR = 1.01, p < 0.0001) and DFS (HR = 1.006, p = 0.002). Conclusion: In patients who undergo surgical resection followed by adjuvant chemoradiation, TNE, NPN, and LNR are associated with OS and DFS. This secondary analysis of a prospective, cooperative group trial supports the influence of these lymph node parameters on outcomes after surgery and adjuvant therapy using contemporary techniques.

  16. Comparison of morphological changes in efferent lymph nodes after implantation of resorbable and non-resorbable implants in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Magnesium alloys as biodegradable implant materials received much interest in recent years. It is known that products of implant degradation can induce several types of immune response. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine the morphological changes of efferent lymph nodes after implantation of different resorbable magnesium alloys (MgCa0.8, LAE442) in comparison to commercially available resorbable (PLA) and non-resorbable (titanium) implant materials as well as control groups without implant material. Methods The different implant materials were inserted intramedullary into the rabbit tibia. After postoperative observation periods of three and six months, popliteal lymph nodes were examined histologically and immunhistologically and compared to lymph nodes of sham operated animals and animals without surgery. Haematoxylin and eosin staining was performed for cell differentiation. Mouse anti-CD79α and rat anti-CD3 monoclonal primary antibodies were used for B- and T-lymphocyte detection, mouse anti-CD68 primary antibodies for macrophage detection. Evaluation of all sections was performed applying a semi quantitative score. Results The histological evaluation demonstrated low and moderate levels of morphological changes for both magnesium alloys (LAE442 and MgCa0.8). Higher than moderate values were reached for titanium in sinus histiocytosis and histiocytic apoptosis (3 months) and for PLA in histiocytic apoptosis (3 and 6 months). The immune response to all investigated implants had a non-specific character and predominantly was a foreign-body reaction. LAE442 provoked the lowest changes which might be due to a lower degradation rate in comparison to MgCa0.8. Therewith it is a promising candidate for implants with low immunogenic potential. Conclusion Both examined magnesium alloys did not cause significantly increased morphological changes in efferent lymph nodes in comparison to the widely used implant materials titanium and PLA. LAE442

  17. Node Detection and Internode Length Estimation of Tomato Seedlings Based on Image Analysis and Machine Learning

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Guo, Wei; Ninomiya, Seishi

    2016-01-01

    Seedling vigor in tomatoes determines the quality and growth of fruits and total plant productivity. It is well known that the salient effects of environmental stresses appear on the internode length; the length between adjoining main stem node (henceforth called node). In this study, we develop a method for internode length estimation using image processing technology. The proposed method consists of three steps: node detection, node order estimation, and internode length estimation. This method has two main advantages: (i) as it uses machine learning approaches for node detection, it does not require adjustment of threshold values even though seedlings are imaged under varying timings and lighting conditions with complex backgrounds; and (ii) as it uses affinity propagation for node order estimation, it can be applied to seedlings with different numbers of nodes without prior provision of the node number as a parameter. Our node detection results show that the proposed method can detect 72% of the 358 nodes in time-series imaging of three seedlings (recall = 0.72, precision = 0.78). In particular, the application of a general object recognition approach, Bag of Visual Words (BoVWs), enabled the elimination of many false positives on leaves occurring in the image segmentation based on pixel color, significantly improving the precision. The internode length estimation results had a relative error of below 15.4%. These results demonstrate that our method has the ability to evaluate the vigor of tomato seedlings quickly and accurately. PMID:27399708

  18. Energy Efficient Sensor Scheduling with a Mobile Sink Node for the Target Tracking Application

    PubMed Central

    Maheswararajah, Suhinthan; Halgamuge, Saman; Premaratne, Malin

    2009-01-01

    Measurement losses adversely affect the performance of target tracking. The sensor network's life span depends on how efficiently the sensor nodes consume energy. In this paper, we focus on minimizing the total energy consumed by the sensor nodes whilst avoiding measurement losses. Since transmitting data over a long distance consumes a significant amount of energy, a mobile sink node collects the measurements and transmits them to the base station. We assume that the default transmission range of the activated sensor node is limited and it can be increased to maximum range only if the mobile sink node is out-side the default transmission range. Moreover, the active sensor node can be changed after a certain time period. The problem is to select an optimal sensor sequence which minimizes the total energy consumed by the sensor nodes. In this paper, we consider two different problems depend on the mobile sink node's path. First, we assume that the mobile sink node's position is known for the entire time horizon and use the dynamic programming technique to solve the problem. Second, the position of the sink node is varied over time according to a known Markov chain, and the problem is solved by stochastic dynamic programming. We also present sub-optimal methods to solve our problem. A numerical example is presented in order to discuss the proposed methods' performance PMID:22399934

  19. Lymph node revealing solutions in colorectal cancer: should they be used routinely?

    PubMed

    Horne, Joanne; Bateman, Adrian C; Carr, Norman J; Ryder, Isobel

    2014-05-01

    The Royal College of Pathologists (RCPath) and College of American Pathologists recommend that at least 12 lymph nodes should be harvested for adequate staging of colorectal carcinoma. Just one nodal tumour deposit upstages the malignancy from pN0 to pN1. This is critically important as node-positive patients (pN1) are considered for adjuvant chemotherapy whereas node-negative patients (pN0) may not be. It is not always easy to harvest the required number, especially in patients with rectal carcinoma who may have received neoadjuvant therapy-an increasingly common treatment. The use of neoadjuvant therapy is known to further decrease the number and size of identifiable lymph nodes within specimens, meaning that the lymph node harvest often fails to reach RCPath guidelines. Lymph node revealing solutions consisting of either single chemicals such as alcohol or acetone or compounds have been investigated to help improve the lymph node harvest in difficult specimens, for example, those received following neoadjuvant therapy. Published research evidence reviewed here suggests that lymph node revealing solutions significantly improve lymph node harvesting, and that glacial acetic acid, ethanol, water and formalin is advantageous in comparison with other revealing solutions in that it is safe, cheap, easy to use and relatively quick. However, the quantity of good evidence is limited and the clinical implications of improving lymph node harvesting require further research.

  20. Using Link Disconnection Entropy Disorder to Detect Fast Moving Nodes in MANETs

    PubMed Central

    Palafox, Luis E.; Aguilar, Leocundo; Sanchez, Mauricio A.; Martinez, Luis G.

    2016-01-01

    Mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) are dynamic by nature; this dynamism comes from node mobility, traffic congestion, and other transmission conditions. Metrics to evaluate the effects of those conditions shine a light on node’s behavior in an ad-hoc network, helping to identify the node or nodes with better conditions of connection. In this paper, we propose a relative index to evaluate a single node reliability, based on the link disconnection entropy disorder using neighboring nodes as reference. Link disconnection entropy disorder is best used to identify fast moving nodes or nodes with unstable communications, this without the need of specialized sensors such as GPS. Several scenarios were studied to verify the index, measuring the effects of Speed and traffic density on the link disconnection entropy disorder. Packet delivery ratio is associated to the metric detecting a strong relationship, enabling the use of the link disconnection entropy disorder to evaluate the stability of a node to communicate with other nodes. To expand the utilization of the link entropy disorder, we identified nodes with higher speeds in network simulations just by using the link entropy disorder. PMID:27219671