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Sample records for limulus polyphemus exhibits

  1. Classroom Applications Using Limulus Polyphemus--The American Horseshoe Crab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Frederick C., III; Weary, Marlys

    1981-01-01

    Provides examples of several classroom activities utilizing the American horseshoe crab (Limulus Polyphemus), including raising fertilized eggs, fertilizing eggs in vitro, and testing water samples. Includes background information on the natural history, life cycle, and breeding habits of this animal. (DS)

  2. Classroom Applications Using Limulus Polyphemus--The American Horseshoe Crab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Frederick C., III; Weary, Marlys

    1981-01-01

    Provides examples of several classroom activities utilizing the American horseshoe crab (Limulus Polyphemus), including raising fertilized eggs, fertilizing eggs in vitro, and testing water samples. Includes background information on the natural history, life cycle, and breeding habits of this animal. (DS)

  3. Laboratory culture and maintenance of the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus).

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen A; Berkson, Jim

    2005-01-01

    Often referred to as a living fossil, the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, is one of the most-studied invertebrate animals in the world. It has served as a model in Nobel Prize-winning eye research, and researchers use a component of its blood to detect bacterial contamination in medical devices and drugs. The authors review the conditions necessary for housing these animals in the laboratory.

  4. Zoothamnium duplicatum infestation of cultured horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus).

    PubMed

    Shinn, Andrew P; Mühlhölzl, Alexander P; Coates, Christopher J; Metochis, Christoforos; Freeman, Mark A

    2015-02-01

    An outbreak of the sessile peritrich Zoothamnium duplicatum in a pilot, commercial-scale Limulus polyphemus hatchery resulted in the loss of ∼96% (40,000) second/third instar larvae over a 61day period. peritrich growth was heavy, leading to mechanical obstruction of the gills and physical damage. The peritrichs were controlled without resultant loss of juvenile crabs by administering 10ppm chlorine in freshwater for 1h and the addition of aquarium grade sand; a medium into which the crabs could burrow and facilitate cleaning of the carapace. Peritrich identity was confirmed from a partial SSU rDNA contiguous sequence of 1343bp (99.7% similarity to Z. duplicatum). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline in the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus.

    PubMed

    Nolan, M W; Smith, S A; Jones, D

    2007-10-01

    The American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, is regularly cultured and maintained in research laboratories and public aquaria. Rising concerns over the health of these captive animals makes the diagnosis and treatment of pathological conditions in L. polyphemus essential. This study investigated the kinetics of oxytetracyline following either intravascular or oral dosing. Oxytetracylcine is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used in the treatment of various bacterial diseases of aquatic animals. A noncompartmental model was developed to describe the pharmacokinetics of oxytetracycline (OTC) in the horseshoe crab. The following parameters were determined for a single intravascular bolus of 25 mg/kg OTC: AUC = 9524.60 microg.h/mL, MRT = 443.65 h, Clb = 0.044 mL/min/kg, Vd(ss) = 1.164 L/kg, t(1/2) = 128.3 h, Cmax = 55.90 microg/mL, C(ave) = 27.39 microg/mL. Following a single oral bolus of 25 mg/kg, these parameters were calculated: AUC = 5861.81 microg.h/mL, MRT = 395.89 h, Clb = 0.071 mL/min/kg, Vd(ss) = 1.688 L/kg, t(1/2) = 210.0 h, Cmax = 7.83 microg/mL, C(ave) = 2.89 microg/mL, F = 61.56%.

  6. Circalunidian clocks control tidal rhythms of locomotion in the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus

    PubMed Central

    Chabot, Christopher C.; Ramberg-Pihl, Nicole C.; Watson, Winsor H.

    2016-01-01

    While many intertidal animals exhibit circatidal rhythms, the nature of the underlying endogenous clocks that control these rhythms has been controversial. In this study American horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus, were used to test the circalunidian hypothesis by exposing them to four different tidal regimes. Overall, the results obtained support the circalunidian hypothesis: each of the twice-daily rhythms of activity appears to be controlled by a separate clock, each with an endogenous period of approximately 24.8h. First, spontaneous “skipping” of one of the daily bouts was observed under several different conditions. Second, the presence of two bouts of activity/day, with different periods, was observed. Lastly, we were able to separately synchronize bouts of activity to two artificial tidal regimes with different periods. These results, taken together, argue in favor of two separate circalunidian clocks in Limulus, each of which controls one of the two bouts of their daily tidal activity rhythms. PMID:27559270

  7. Circalunidian clocks control tidal rhythms of locomotion in the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus.

    PubMed

    Chabot, Christopher C; Ramberg-Pihl, Nicole C; Watson, Winsor H

    While many intertidal animals exhibit circatidal rhythms, the nature of the underlying endogenous clocks that control these rhythms has been controversial. In this study American horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus, were used to test the circalunidian hypothesis by exposing them to four different tidal regimes. Overall, the results obtained support the circalunidian hypothesis: each of the twice-daily rhythms of activity appears to be controlled by a separate clock, each with an endogenous period of approximately 24.8h. First, spontaneous "skipping" of one of the daily bouts was observed under several different conditions. Second, the presence of two bouts of activity/day, with different periods, was observed. Lastly, we were able to separately synchronize bouts of activity to two artificial tidal regimes with different periods. These results, taken together, argue in favor of two separate circalunidian clocks in Limulus, each of which controls one of the two bouts of their daily tidal activity rhythms.

  8. LETHAL HIGH TEMPERATURES FOR THREE MARINE INVERTEBRATES: LIMULUS POLYPHEMUS, LITTORINA LITTOREA AND PAGURUS LONGICARPUS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The lethal high temperatures were determined for three marine invertebrates, Limulus polyphemus, Littorina littorea, and Pagurus longicarpus, by...exposure they were found to be 44 degrees for Limulus, 40 to 41 degrees for Littorina , and 36 degrees for Pagurus. The importance of considering the...considered to be certain indices for normal behavior, in Limulus the habit to dig into sand, in Littorina the tendency to crawl up vertical surfaces

  9. Using the horseshoe crab, Limulus Polyphemus, in vision research.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiahui S; Passaglia, Christopher L

    2009-07-03

    The American horseshoe crab, Limulus Polyphemus is one of the oldest creatures on earth, and the animal continues to play an indispensable role in biomedical research. Not only does their blood contain special cells that scientists use to detect bacteriotoxins in our medicines, but their eyes also contain a neural network that has provided much insight about physiological processes operating in our visual system, such as light adaptation and lateral inhibition. The horseshoe crab remains an attractive model for vision research because the animal is large and hardy for an invertebrate, its retinal neurons are big and easily accessible, its visual system is compact and extensively studied, and its visual behavior is well defined. Moreover, the structure and function of the eyes are modulated on a daily basis by a circadian clock in the animal s brain. In short, the visual system of horseshoe crabs is simple enough to be understood yet complex enough to be interesting. In this video we present three electrophysiological paradigms for investigating the neural basis of vision that can be performed in vivo with Limulus. They are electroretinogram recording, optic nerve recording, and intraretinal recording. Electroretinogram (ERG) recordings measure with a surface electrode the summed electrical response of all cells in the eye to a flash of light. They can be used to monitor the overall sensitivity of the eye for prolong periods of time. Optic nerve recordings measure the spiking activity of single nerve fibers with an extracellular microsuction electrode. They can be used to study visual messages conveyed from the eye to the brain as well as circadian-clock messages fed back from the brain to the eye. Intraretinal recordings measure with an intracellular microelectrode the voltage fluctuations induced by light in individual cells of the eye. They can be used to elucidate cellular mechanisms of retinal processing.

  10. The Draft Genome and Transcriptome of the Atlantic Horseshoe Crab, Limulus polyphemus

    PubMed Central

    Ramsdell, Jordan S.; Watson III, Winsor H.; Chabot, Christopher C.

    2017-01-01

    The horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, exhibits robust circadian and circatidal rhythms, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying those rhythms. In this study, horseshoe crabs were collected during the day and night as well as high and low tides, and their muscle and central nervous system tissues were processed for genome and transcriptome sequencing, respectively. The genome assembly resulted in 7.4 × 105 contigs with N50 of 4,736, while the transcriptome assembly resulted in 9.3 × 104 contigs and N50 of 3,497. Analysis of functional completeness by the identification of putative universal orthologs suggests that the transcriptome has three times more total expected orthologs than the genome. Interestingly, RNA-Seq analysis indicated no statistically significant changes in expression level for any circadian core or accessory gene, but there was significant cycling of several noncircadian transcripts. Overall, these assemblies provide a resource to investigate the Limulus clock systems and provide a large dataset for further exploration into the taxonomy and biology of the Atlantic horseshoe crab. PMID:28265565

  11. The Draft Genome and Transcriptome of the Atlantic Horseshoe Crab, Limulus polyphemus.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Stephen D; Ramsdell, Jordan S; Watson Iii, Winsor H; Chabot, Christopher C

    2017-01-01

    The horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, exhibits robust circadian and circatidal rhythms, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying those rhythms. In this study, horseshoe crabs were collected during the day and night as well as high and low tides, and their muscle and central nervous system tissues were processed for genome and transcriptome sequencing, respectively. The genome assembly resulted in 7.4 × 10(5) contigs with N50 of 4,736, while the transcriptome assembly resulted in 9.3 × 10(4) contigs and N50 of 3,497. Analysis of functional completeness by the identification of putative universal orthologs suggests that the transcriptome has three times more total expected orthologs than the genome. Interestingly, RNA-Seq analysis indicated no statistically significant changes in expression level for any circadian core or accessory gene, but there was significant cycling of several noncircadian transcripts. Overall, these assemblies provide a resource to investigate the Limulus clock systems and provide a large dataset for further exploration into the taxonomy and biology of the Atlantic horseshoe crab.

  12. Effects of Bunkers C oil on juvenile horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus)

    SciTech Connect

    Strobel, C.J.; Brenowitz, A.H.

    1981-06-01

    Newly hatched horseshow crabs (Limulus polyphemus) were exposed to autoclaved Bunker C oil for 8 weeks. Autoclaving served to prevent bacterial degradation of stored oil and to drive off the volatile fraction of the oil. The oil was introduced in the form of a whole oil suspension. Minimum lethal dose was shown to be 2.25 mg per l. Concentrations greater than 0.25 mg per l caused a delay in molting.

  13. Isolation and expression of Pax6 and atonal homologues in the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, David C; Conley, Kevin W; Plachetzki, David C; Kempler, Karen; Battelle, Barbara-Anne; Brown, Nadean L

    2008-08-01

    Pax6 regulates eye development in many animals. In addition, Pax6 activates atonal transcription factors in both invertebrate and vertebrate eyes. Here, we investigate the roles of Pax6 and atonal during embryonic development of Limulus polyphemus rudimentary lateral, medial and ventral eyes, and the initiation of lateral ommatidial eye and medial ocelli formation. Limulus eye development is of particular interest because these animals hold a unique position in arthropod phylogeny and possess multiple eye types. Furthermore, the molecular underpinnings of eye development have yet to be investigated in chelicerates. We characterized a Limulus Pax6 gene, with multiple splice products and predicted protein isoforms, and one atonal homologue. Unexpectedly, neither gene is expressed in the developing eye types examined, although both genes are present in the lateral sense organ, a structure of unknown function. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Isolation and expression of Pax6 and atonal homologues in the American Horseshoe Crab, Limulus polyphemus

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, David C.; Conley, Kevin W.; Plachetzki, David C.; Kempler, Karen; Battelle, Barbara-Anne; Brown, Nadean L.

    2008-01-01

    Pax6 regulates eye development in many animals. In addition, Pax6 activates atonal transcription factors in both invertebrate and vertebrate eyes. Here we investigate the roles of Pax6 and atonal during embryonic development of Limulus polyphemus rudimentary lateral, medial and ventral eyes, and the initiation of lateral ommatidial eye and medial ocelli formation. Limulus eye development is of particular interest because these animals hold a unique position in arthropod phylogeny and possess multiple eye types. Furthermore, the molecular underpinnings of eye development have yet to be investigated in chelicerates. We characterized a Limulus Pax6 gene, with multiple splice products and predicted protein isoforms, and one atonal homologue. Unexpectedly, neither gene is expressed in the developing eye types examined, although both genes are present in the lateral sense organ, a structure of unknown function. PMID:18651657

  15. Identification of putative circadian clock genes in the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus.

    PubMed

    Chesmore, Kevin N; Watson, Winsor H; Chabot, Christopher C

    2016-09-01

    While the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, has robust circadian and circatidal rhythms, virtually nothing is known about the molecular basis of these rhythms in this species or any other chelicerate. In this study, next generation sequencing was used to assemble transcriptomic reads and then putative homologs of known core and accessory circadian genes were identified in these databases. Homologous transcripts were discovered for one circadian clock input gene, five core genes, 22 accessory genes, and two possible output pathways. Alignments and functional domain analyses showed generally high conservation between the putative L. polyphemus clock genes and homologs from Drosophila melanogaster and Daphnia pulex. The presence of both cry1 and cry2 in the L. polyphemus transcriptome would classify its system as an "ancestral", type 2 clock system. In addition, a novel duplication of CYCLE, and a novel triplication of PERIOD were found. Investigations are currently underway to determine if any of these "circadian" genes also participate in the molecular processes that drive the Limulus circatidal clock. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Rhythms of locomotion expressed by Limulus polyphemus, the American horseshoe crab: I. Synchronization by artificial tides.

    PubMed

    Chabot, Christopher C; Skinner, Stephen J; Watson, Winsor H

    2008-08-01

    Limulus polyphemus, the American horseshoe crab, has an endogenous clock that drives circatidal rhythms of locomotor activity. In this study, we examined the ability of artificial tides to entrain the locomotor rhythms of Limulus in the laboratory. In experiments one and two, the activity of 16 individuals of L. polyphemus was monitored with activity boxes and "running wheels." When the crabs were exposed to artificial tides created by changes in water depth, circatidal rhythms were observed in animals exposed to 12.4-h "tidal" cycles of either water depth changes (8 of 8 animals) or inundation (7 of 8 animals). In experiment three, an additional 8 animals were exposed to water depth changes under cyclic conditions of light and dark and then monitored for 10 days with no imposed artificial tides. Most animals (5) clearly synchronized their activity to the imposed artificial tidal cycles, and 3 of these animals showed clear evidence of entrainment after the artificial tides were terminated. Overall, these results demonstrate that the endogenous tidal clock that influences locomotion in Limulus can be entrained by imposed artificial tides. In the laboratory, these tidal cues override the influence of light/dark cycles. In their natural habitat, where both tidal and photoperiod inputs are typically always present, their activity rhythms are likely to be much more complex.

  17. Green algal infection of American horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) exoskeletal structures.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Hillary; Leibovitz, Louis; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2012-09-15

    Degenerative lesions in the dorsum of the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) exoskeleton, eyes, arthrodial membrane, and base of the telson were documented in a population of wild caught laboratory animals. The disease can lead to loss of tissue structure and function, deformed shells, abnormal molting, loss of ocular structures, erosion of interskeletal membranes, and cardiac hemorrhage. Microscopy, histopathology, and in vitro culture confirmed the causative agent to be a green algae of the family Ulvaceae. Further research may explain how green algae overcome horseshoe crab innate immunity leading to external and internal damage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cardiovascular and gastrointestinal radiographic contrast studies in the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus).

    PubMed

    Spotswood, Tim; Smith, Stephen A

    2007-01-01

    Survey and contrast radiographic studies of the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems of the American horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) were undertaken using conventional and flouroscopic techniques. Normal gastrointestinal and cardiovascular structures were difficult to resolve on survey radiographs, but were well visualized with gastrointestinal follow through studies and angiography, respectively. All three contrast agents (iohexol, Gastrografin, and barium sulfate) used for the gastrointestinal studies varied minimally in their radiographic quality and transit times, and all appeared to be safe for use in the horseshoe crab.

  19. GREEN ALGAL INFECTION OF AMERICAN HORSESHOE CRAB (Limulus polyphemus) EXOSKELETAL STRUCTURES

    PubMed Central

    Braverman, Hillary; Leibovitz, Louis; Lewbart, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    Degenerative lesions in the dorsum of the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) exoskeleton, eyes, arthrodial membrane, and base of the telson were documented in a population of wild caught laboratory animals. The disease can lead to loss of tissue structure and function, deformed shells, abnormal molting, loss of ocular structures, erosion of interskeletal membranes, and cardiac hemorrhage. Microscopy, histopathology, and in vitro culture confirmed the causative agent to be a green algae of the family Ulvaceae. Further research may explain how green algae overcome horseshoe crab innate immunity leading to external and internal damage. PMID:22709543

  20. Genetic Variation and Geographic Differentiation in Mitochondrial DNA of the Horseshoe Crab, LIMULUS POLYPHEMUS

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Nancy C.; Kessler, Louis G.; Avise, John C.

    1986-01-01

    Restriction site variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) was surveyed in populations ranging from New Hampshire to the Gulf Coast of Florida. MtDNA clonal diversity was moderately high, particularly in southern samples, and a major genetic "break" (nucleotide sequence divergence approximately 2%) distinguished all sampled individuals which were north vs. south of a region in northeastern Florida. The area of genotypic divergence in Limulus corresponds to a long-recognized zoogeographic boundary between warm-temperate and tropical marine faunas, and it suggests that selection pressures and/or gene flow barriers associated with water mass differences may also influence the evolution of species widely distributed across such transition zones. On the other hand, a comparison of the mtDNA divergence patterns in Limulus with computer models involving stochastic lineage extinction in species with limited gene flow demonstrates that deterministic explanations need not necessarily be invoked to account for the observations. Experiments to distinguish stochastic from deterministic possibilities are suggested. Overall, the pattern and magnitude of mtDNA differentiation in horseshoe crabs is very similar to that typically reported for freshwater and terrestrial species assayed over a comparable geographic range. Results demonstrate for the first time that, geographically, at least some continuously distributed marine organisms can show considerable mtDNA genetic differentiation. PMID:17246319

  1. Opsin Repertoire and Expression Patterns in Horseshoe Crabs: Evidence from the Genome of Limulus polyphemus (Arthropoda: Chelicerata)

    PubMed Central

    Battelle, Barbara-Anne; Ryan, Joseph F.; Kempler, Karen E.; Saraf, Spencer R.; Marten, Catherine E.; Warren, Wesley C.; Minx, Patrick J.; Montague, Michael J.; Green, Pamela J.; Schmidt, Skye A.; Fulton, Lucinda; Patel, Nipam H.; Protas, Meredith E.; Wilson, Richard K.; Porter, Megan L.

    2016-01-01

    Horseshoe crabs are xiphosuran chelicerates, the sister group to arachnids. As such, they are important for understanding the most recent common ancestor of Euchelicerata and the evolution and diversification of Arthropoda. Limulus polyphemus is the most investigated of the four extant species of horseshoe crabs, and the structure and function of its visual system have long been a major focus of studies critical for understanding the evolution of visual systems in arthropods. Likewise, studies of genes encoding Limulus opsins, the protein component of the visual pigments, are critical for understanding opsin evolution and diversification among chelicerates, where knowledge of opsins is limited, and more broadly among arthropods. In the present study, we sequenced and assembled a high quality nuclear genomic sequence of L. polyphemus and used these data to annotate the full repertoire of Limulus opsins. We conducted a detailed phylogenetic analysis of Limulus opsins, including using gene structure and synteny information to identify relationships among different opsin classes. We used our phylogeny to identify significant genomic events that shaped opsin evolution and therefore the visual system of Limulus. We also describe the tissue expression patterns of the 18 opsins identified and show that transcripts encoding a number, including a peropsin, are present throughout the central nervous system. In addition to significantly extending our understanding of photosensitivity in Limulus and providing critical insight into the genomic evolution of horseshoe crab opsins, this work provides a valuable genomic resource for addressing myriad questions related to xiphosuran physiology and arthropod evolution. PMID:27189985

  2. Opsin Repertoire and Expression Patterns in Horseshoe Crabs: Evidence from the Genome of Limulus polyphemus (Arthropoda: Chelicerata).

    PubMed

    Battelle, Barbara-Anne; Ryan, Joseph F; Kempler, Karen E; Saraf, Spencer R; Marten, Catherine E; Warren, Wesley C; Minx, Patrick J; Montague, Michael J; Green, Pamela J; Schmidt, Skye A; Fulton, Lucinda; Patel, Nipam H; Protas, Meredith E; Wilson, Richard K; Porter, Megan L

    2016-06-03

    Horseshoe crabs are xiphosuran chelicerates, the sister group to arachnids. As such, they are important for understanding the most recent common ancestor of Euchelicerata and the evolution and diversification of Arthropoda. Limulus polyphemus is the most investigated of the four extant species of horseshoe crabs, and the structure and function of its visual system have long been a major focus of studies critical for understanding the evolution of visual systems in arthropods. Likewise, studies of genes encoding Limulus opsins, the protein component of the visual pigments, are critical for understanding opsin evolution and diversification among chelicerates, where knowledge of opsins is limited, and more broadly among arthropods. In the present study, we sequenced and assembled a high quality nuclear genomic sequence of L. polyphemus and used these data to annotate the full repertoire of Limulus opsins. We conducted a detailed phylogenetic analysis of Limulus opsins, including using gene structure and synteny information to identify relationships among different opsin classes. We used our phylogeny to identify significant genomic events that shaped opsin evolution and therefore the visual system of Limulus We also describe the tissue expression patterns of the 18 opsins identified and show that transcripts encoding a number, including a peropsin, are present throughout the central nervous system. In addition to significantly extending our understanding of photosensitivity in Limulus and providing critical insight into the genomic evolution of horseshoe crab opsins, this work provides a valuable genomic resource for addressing myriad questions related to xiphosuran physiology and arthropod evolution.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of cefovecin (Convenia) in white bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) and Atlantic horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus).

    PubMed

    Steeil, James C; Schumacher, Juergen; George, Robert H; Bulman, Frank; Baine, Katherine; Cox, Sherry

    2014-06-01

    Cefovecin was administered to six healthy adult white bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium plagiosum) and six healthy adult Atlantic horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) to determine its pharmacokinetics in these species. A single dose of cefovecin at 8 mg/kg was administered subcutaneously in the epaxial region of the bamboo sharks and in the proximal articulation of the lateral leg of the horseshoe crabs. Blood and hemolymph samples were collected at various time points from bamboo sharks and Atlantic horseshoe crabs. High performance liquid chromatography was performed to determine plasma levels of cefovecin. The terminal halflife of cefovecin in Atlantic horseshoe crabs was 37.70 +/- 9.04 hr and in white bamboo sharks was 2.02 +/- 4.62 hr. Cefovecin concentrations were detected for 4 days in white bamboo sharks and for 14 days in Atlantic horseshoe crabs. No adverse effects associated with cefovecin administration were seen in either species.

  4. Chemical attractants in horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, eggs: the potential for an artificial bait.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Kirstin M; Targett, Nancy M

    2003-02-01

    Horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus, are the preferred bait in the eel and conch fisheries along the east coast of the United States. However, recent management measures have restricted the availability of horseshoe crabs to commercial fisheries, creating the need for sustainable, alternative bait sources. In this study, we examined the chemistry underlying the predator-prey attraction to determine if specific, isolable attractant metabolites from the horseshoe crab could be identified and characterized for incorporation into an artifical bait. Initial assays with the mud snail, Hyanassa obsoleta, suggested that the chemoattractants were concentrated in L. polyphemus eggs. Chemical analyses and biological assays of the egg extract indicated the primary cue was a heat-stable, proteinaceous compound (>10 kDa). A carbohydrate-rich fraction of low molecular mass (< 10 kDa) also enhanced mud snail chemotaxis. Analysis of egg digests with SDS-PAGE confirmed the presence of glycoproteins or carbohydrate-binding proteins in the horseshoe crab egg extract. Because the attractant appears to be a complex protein or glycoprotein, conventional chemical synthesis is unlikely. However, the tools of modem biotechnology offer the potential to produce this attractant in a system independent of the horseshoe crab. Such an attractant could be incorporated into an artificial bait, providing an ecologically sound alternative for commercial eel and whelk fisheries.

  5. Survival and development of horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) embryos and larvae in hypersaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Ehlinger, Gretchen S; Tankersley, Richard A

    2004-04-01

    The horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus spawns in the mid- to upper intertidal zone where females deposit eggs in nests below the sediment surface. Although adult crabs generally inhabit subtidal regions of estuaries with salinities from 5 to 34 ppt, developing embryos and larvae within nests are often exposed to more extreme conditions of salinity and temperature during summer spawning periods. To test whether these conditions have a negative impact on early development and survival, we determined development time, survival, and molt cycle duration for L. polyphemus embryos and larvae raised at 20 combinations of salinity (range: 30-60 ppt) and temperature (range: 25-40 degrees C). Additionally, the effect of hyperosmotic and hypoosmotic shock on the osmolarity of the perivitelline fluid of embryos was determined at salinities between 5 and 90 ppt. The embryos completed their development and molted at salinities below 60 ppt, yet failed to develop at temperatures of 35 degrees C or higher. Larval survival was high at salinities of 10-70 ppt but declined significantly at more extreme salinities (i.e., 5, 80, and 90 ppt). Perivitelline fluid remained nearly isoosmotic over the range of salinities tested. Results indicate that temperature and salinity influence the rate of crab development, but only the extremes of these conditions have an effect on survival.

  6. Functional Differences in the Multiple Hemocyanins of the Horseshoe Crab, Limulus polyphemus L

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Bolling; Bonaventura, Joseph; Bonaventura, Celia

    1974-01-01

    Hemocyanin in the hemolymph of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus L., is a high-molecular-weight copper protein which binds oxygen cooperatively and shows a higher oxygen affinity at pH 7 than at pH 9. Treatment with EDTA (ethylenediaminetetra-acetate) disaggregates the hemocyanin molecules and abolishes both the reverse Bohr effect and cooperative oxygen binding. Chloride ions interact with the EDTA-treated material and, in the presence of saturating amounts of NaCl, a reverse Bohr effect is restored, but cooperativity is not. The EDTA-treated hemocyanin contains at least five electrophoretically distinct hemocyanins. These hemocyanins have similar molecular weights (about 66,000) but are functionally dissimilar. They have different oxygen affinities and different responses to chloride ions. The effect of chloride ions on unfractionated hemocyanin is due to pH-dependent chloride interactions with only two of the five hemocyanin components. The functional differences between the hemocyanin components may provide Limulus with a valuable respiratory flexibility in its interaction with the environment. The kinetics of oxygen combination and dissociation for the various hemocyanin preparations show that variations in the rate of oxygen dissociation are primarily responsible for the observed differences in oxygen affinity. The rate of oxygen dissociation varies 20-fold under conditions where the apparent rate of oxygen combination shows less than a 2-fold variation. Cooperative interactions in the untreated hemocyanin are most obvious in the “off” reaction, which increases in rate as successive oxygen molecules are released. Images PMID:4210212

  7. Estimating tag loss of the Atlantic Horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, using a multi-state model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, Catherine Alyssa; McGowan, Conor P.; Grand, James B.; Smith, David

    2012-01-01

    The Atlantic Horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, is a valuable resource along the Mid-Atlantic coast which has, in recent years, experienced new management paradigms due to increased concern about this species role in the environment. While current management actions are underway, many acknowledge the need for improved and updated parameter estimates to reduce the uncertainty within the management models. Specifically, updated and improved estimates of demographic parameters such as adult crab survival in the regional population of interest, Delaware Bay, could greatly enhance these models and improve management decisions. There is however, some concern that difficulties in tag resighting or complete loss of tags could be occurring. As apparent from the assumptions of a Jolly-Seber model, loss of tags can result in a biased estimate and underestimate a survival rate. Given that uncertainty, as a first step towards estimating an unbiased estimate of adult survival, we first took steps to estimate the rate of tag loss. Using data from a double tag mark-resight study conducted in Delaware Bay and Program MARK, we designed a multi-state model to allow for the estimation of mortality of each tag separately and simultaneously.

  8. Multiple-stressor interactions influence embryo development rate in the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, M Christina; Murillo, Andrea; Brockmann, H Jane; Julian, David

    2015-08-01

    Fertilized eggs of the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, are buried in shallow nests above the high tide line, where they are exposed to variations in abiotic conditions during early development. Using a multiple-stressors approach, we examined whether the rate of embryonic development is affected by exposure to combinations of three factors: temperature (25, 30 and 35°C), salinity (5, 15 and 34 ppt) and ambient O2 (5%, 13% and 21% O2). Newly fertilized eggs were incubated under 27 fully factorial stressor combinations for 14 days, then allowed to recover in control conditions (30°C, 34 ppt, 21% O2) for an additional 14 days. Growth rate was measured every 2 days throughout the experiment (N=1289). We found that the effect of isolated stressors (high temperature, low salinity or low O2) reduced developmental success by up to 72% (low salinity), and that stressor combinations showed stronger effects and evidence of complex interactions. For example, low O2 had little effect individually but was lethal in combination with high temperature, and low temperature in isolation slightly decreased the rate of development but reduced the negative effects of low salinity and low O2. Development was delayed under exposure to low O2 but resumed upon return to control conditions after a 10 day lag. These data demonstrate that complex, synergistic interactions among abiotic stressors can substantially alter the development of a coastal invertebrate in ways that may not be predicted from the effects of the stressors in isolation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. The visual fields of American horseshoe crabs: two different eye shapes in Limulus polyphemus.

    PubMed

    Weiner, W W; Chamberlain, S C

    1994-01-01

    The optical alignment of individual cuticular cones in the dioptric array of the lateral eye of Limulus polyphemus was determined with a precision two-circle goniometer constructed and mounted to the stage of a compound microscope and using a new formaldehyde-induced fluorescence procedure. All measurements were made from the corneal surface of the excised eye mounted in seawater through an air/water interface perpendicular to the optic axis of the microscope. Our results revealed two variants of visual field and eye curvature which can actually be discriminated in casual examination of adult animals. We call animals possessing these two variants "morlocks" and "eloi." Adult male and female morlocks about 25 cm across the carapace have eyes which are relatively elongated, often darker in pigmentation, smaller, and relatively flatter in curvature. Morlocks have a monocular field of view of about 3.13 steradians or 50% of a hemisphere. The coverage averages 115 deg along the vertical axis and 168 deg along the horizontal axis of the eye, with maximum resolution in the anteroventral quadrant. Adult male and female eloi of comparable size have eyes which are relatively more round, often lighter in pigmentation, larger with more ommatidia, and relatively more bulged. Eloi have a monocular field of view of approximately 3.83 steradians or 61% of a hemisphere that covers 145 deg vertically and 185 deg horizontally. Eloi have more uniform resolution than morlocks with best resolution in the posteroventral quadrant. All horseshoe crabs examined, whether morlocks or eloi, have an identical orientation of the margin of the eye relative to the animals' coordinates.

  10. Metal levels in horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) from Maine to Florida.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Dixon, Carline; Shukla, Tara; Tsipoura, Nellie; Gochfeld, Michael

    2002-11-01

    There is considerable concern for the health of spawning populations of horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) along the east coast of North America because of an increase in the harvest, an apparent decrease in population levels, and the dependence of migrating shorebirds on a superabundant supply of horseshoe crab eggs during their migratory stopover on Delaware Bay. In addition to overfishing, population declines could be caused or recovery slowed, by pollution. In this paper, we examine the levels of metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium) in the eggs, leg muscle, and apodeme of 100 horseshoe crabs collected at nine sites from Maine to Florida. Arsenic levels were the highest, followed by manganese and selenium, while levels for the other metals averaged below 100ppb for most tissues. Arsenic and mercury levels were highest in the leg muscle; cadmium, lead, manganese, and selenium levels were highest in eggs; and chromium levels were highest in the apodeme. There were significant geographical differences for all metals in all three tissues. No one geographical site had the highest levels of more than two metals. Arsenic, with the highest levels overall, was highest in Florida in all the three tissues. Manganese levels were highest in Massachusetts for eggs and apodeme, but not leg, which was highest in Port Jefferson, New York. Selenium was highest in apodeme from Florida, and in eggs and leg muscle from Prime Hook, Delaware. The patterns among locations and tissues were not as clear for the other metals because the levels generally averaged below 100ppb. The levels of contaminants found in horseshoe crabs, with the possible exceptions of arsenic in Florida, and mercury from Barnegat Bay and Prime Hook, were below those known to cause adverse effects in the crabs themselves or in organisms that consume them or their eggs. Our results indicate that site-specific data are essential for managers to evaluate the potential threat

  11. Maternal transfer of trace elements in the Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus).

    PubMed

    Bakker, Aaron K; Dutton, Jessica; Sclafani, Matthew; Santangelo, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    The maternal transfer of trace elements is a process by which offspring may accumulate trace elements from their maternal parent. Although maternal transfer has been assessed in many vertebrates, there is little understanding of this process in invertebrate species. This study investigated the maternal transfer of 13 trace elements (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) in Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs and compared concentrations to those in adult leg and gill tissue. For the majority of individuals, all trace elements were transferred, with the exception of Cr, from the female to the eggs. The greatest concentrations on average transferred to egg tissue were Zn (140 µg/g), Cu (47.8 µg/g), and Fe (38.6 µg/g) for essential elements and As (10.9 µg/g) and Ag (1.23 µg/g) for nonessential elements. For elements that were maternally transferred, correlation analyses were run to assess if the concentration in the eggs were similar to that of adult tissue that is completely internalized (leg) or a boundary to the external environment (gill). Positive correlations between egg and leg tissue were found for As, Hg, Se, Mn, Pb, and Ni. Mercury, Mn, Ni, and Se were the only elements correlated between egg and gill tissue. Although, many trace elements were in low concentration in the eggs, we speculate that the higher transfer of essential elements is related to their potential benefit during early development versus nonessential trace elements, which are known to be toxic. We conclude that maternal transfer as a source of trace elements to horseshoe crabs should not be overlooked and warrants further investigation.

  12. Proximate causes of sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs (Limulus Polyphemus) of the Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Mandt, M.T.; Macdonald, P.D.M.

    2009-01-01

    The unresolved status of the proximate cause for sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs has practical consequence, because harvest recommendations rely on assumptions about sex-specific growth and maturity. We propose and evaluate competing hypotheses for the proximate cause of sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) by comparing size and estimated age frequencies from spring-captured juveniles (n = 9,075) and adults (n = 36,274) to predictions from the competing hypotheses. We found that the number of identifiable juvenile size distributions was greater for females than males and the probability of remaining a juvenile was higher for females than males among older juveniles. These findings are consistent with males maturing earlier than females. Molt increments and mean sizes were similar for male and female juveniles, which is not consistent with differential growth. Among adults, one size distribution accounted for ???90% of females regardless of carapace wear. Also, size ratio of adult females to males was 1.26, and size ratio of the largest adult to largest juvenile female was 1.28. These observations are not consistent with females continuing to molt as adults. Differential-maturity is the most parsimonious explanation for sexual size dimorphism in Delaware Bay horseshoe crabs. In addition, because of a low frequency of juvenile females >195 mm relative to adult females and male-biased sex ratios starting at 105 mm, we hypothesize that females, more than males, migrate as older juveniles and mature in the ocean. Management implications include that (1) minimum size limits, as previously suggested, would not allocate harvest to older adults as intended because size does not indicate age among adult horseshoe crabs in the Delaware Bay population, and (2) the Shuster Horseshoe Crab Reserve, which has reduced harvest on the continental shelf, could be protecting older juveniles and newly mature females from harvest prior to their first

  13. Sub-lethal behavioral and physiological effects of the biomedical bleeding process on the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rebecca L.; Watson, Winsor H.; Chabot, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    The hemolymph of the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, is harvested from over 500,000 animals annually to produce Limulus Amebocyte Lysate, a medically important product used to detect pathogenic bacteria. Declining abundance of spawning Limulus females in heavily harvested regions suggests deleterious effects of this activity and, while mortality rates of the harvest process are known to be 10–30%, sub-lethal behavioral and physiological effects are not known. In this study, we determined the impact of the harvest process on locomotion and hemocyanin levels of 28 female horseshoe crabs. While mortality rates after bleeding (18%) were similar to previous studies, we found significant decreases in the linear and angular velocity of freely moving animals, as well as changes in their activity levels and expression of circatidal behavioral rhythms. Further, we found reductions in hemocyanin levels, which may alter immune function and cuticle integrity. These previously unrecognized behavioral and physiological deficits suggest that the harvest of Limulus Amebocyte Lysate may decrease female fitness, and thus may contribute to the current population decline. PMID:24445440

  14. Comparative status and assessment of Limulus polyphemus with emphasis on the New England and Delaware Bay populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, David; Millard, Michael J.; Carmichael, Ruth H.

    2009-01-01

    Increases in harvest of the American horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) during the 1990s, particularly for whelk bait, coupled with decreases in species that depend on their eggs has reduced horseshoe crab abundance, threatened their ecological relationships, and dictated precautionary management of the horseshoe crab resource. Accordingly, population assessments and monitoring programs have been developed throughout much of the horseshoe crab’s range. We review and discuss implications for several recent assessments of Delaware Bay and New England populations and a meta-analysis of region-specific trends. These assessments show that the western Atlantic distribution of the horseshoe crab is comprised of regional or estuarine-specific meta-populations, which exhibit distinct population dynamics and require management as separate units. Modeling of Delaware Bay and Cape Cod populations confirmed that overharvest caused declines, but indicated that some harvest levels are sustainable and consistent with population growth. Coast-wide harvest was reduced by 70% from 1998 to 2006, with the greatest reductions within Delaware Bay states. Harvest regulations in Delaware Bay starting in the late 1990s, such as harvest quotas, seasonal closures, male-only harvest, voluntary use of bait-saving devices, and establishment of the Carl N. Shuster Jr. Horseshoe Crab Reserve, were followed by stabilization and recent evidence of increase in abundance of horseshoe crabs in the region. However, decreased harvest of the Delaware Bay population has redirected harvest to outlying populations, particularly in New York and New England. While the recent Delaware Bay assessments indicate positive population growth, increased harvest elsewhere is believed to be unsustainable. Two important considerations for future assessments include (1) managing Delaware Bay horseshoe crab populations within a multi-species context, for example, to help support migratory shorebirds and (2

  15. An evaluation of Mississippi barrier islands as spawning and nesting habitat for the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, with implications for island restoration

    EPA Science Inventory

    The American Horseshoe crab (HSC), Limulus polyphemus, is an economically and ecologically important species in the coastal ecosystem. Horseshoe crabs inhabit the continental shelf and estuaries from Maine to the central Gulf Coast and the Yucatán Peninsula. Although the presen...

  16. An evaluation of Mississippi barrier islands as spawning and nesting habitat for the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, with implications for island restoration

    EPA Science Inventory

    The American Horseshoe crab (HSC), Limulus polyphemus, is an economically and ecologically important species in the coastal ecosystem. Horseshoe crabs inhabit the continental shelf and estuaries from Maine to the central Gulf Coast and the Yucatán Peninsula. Although the presen...

  17. Mitochondrial gene arrangement of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus L.: conservation of major features among arthropod classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staton, J. L.; Daehler, L. L.; Brown, W. M.; Jacobs, D. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Numerous complete mitochondrial DNA sequences have been determined for species within two arthropod groups, insects and crustaceans, but there are none for a third, the chelicerates. Most mitochondrial gene arrangements reported for crustaceans and insect species are identical or nearly identical to that of Drosophila yakuba. Sequences across 36 of the gene boundaries in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of a representative chelicerate. Limulus polyphemus L., also reveal an arrangement like that of Drosophila yakuba. Only the position of the tRNA(LEU)(UUR) gene differs; in Limulus it is between the genes for tRNA(LEU)(CUN) and ND1. This positioning is also found in onychophorans, mollusks, and annelids, but not in insects and crustaceans, and indicates that tRNA(LEU)(CUN)-tRNA(LEU)(UUR)-ND1 was the ancestral gene arrangement for these groups, as suggested earlier. There are no differences in the relative arrangements of protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes between Limulus and Drosophila, and none have been observed within arthropods. The high degree of similarity of mitochondrial gene arrangements within arthropods is striking, since some taxa last shared a common ancestor before the Cambrian, and contrasts with the extensive mtDNA rearrangements occasionally observed within some other metazoan phyla (e.g., mollusks and nematodes).

  18. Mitochondrial gene arrangement of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus L.: conservation of major features among arthropod classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staton, J. L.; Daehler, L. L.; Brown, W. M.; Jacobs, D. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Numerous complete mitochondrial DNA sequences have been determined for species within two arthropod groups, insects and crustaceans, but there are none for a third, the chelicerates. Most mitochondrial gene arrangements reported for crustaceans and insect species are identical or nearly identical to that of Drosophila yakuba. Sequences across 36 of the gene boundaries in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of a representative chelicerate. Limulus polyphemus L., also reveal an arrangement like that of Drosophila yakuba. Only the position of the tRNA(LEU)(UUR) gene differs; in Limulus it is between the genes for tRNA(LEU)(CUN) and ND1. This positioning is also found in onychophorans, mollusks, and annelids, but not in insects and crustaceans, and indicates that tRNA(LEU)(CUN)-tRNA(LEU)(UUR)-ND1 was the ancestral gene arrangement for these groups, as suggested earlier. There are no differences in the relative arrangements of protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes between Limulus and Drosophila, and none have been observed within arthropods. The high degree of similarity of mitochondrial gene arrangements within arthropods is striking, since some taxa last shared a common ancestor before the Cambrian, and contrasts with the extensive mtDNA rearrangements occasionally observed within some other metazoan phyla (e.g., mollusks and nematodes).

  19. Sublethal behavioral and physiological effects of the biomedical bleeding process on the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Rebecca L; Watson, Winsor H; Chabot, Christopher C

    2013-12-01

    The hemolymph of the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, is harvested from over 500,000 animals annually to produce Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL), a medically important product used to detect pathogenic bacteria. Declining abundance of spawning Limulus females in heavily harvested regions suggests deleterious effects of this activity, and while mortality rates of the harvest process are known to be 10%-30%, sublethal behavioral and physiological effects are not known. In this study, we determined the impact of the harvest process on locomotion and hemocyanin levels of 28 female horseshoe crabs. While mortality rates after bleeding (18%) were similar to previous studies, we found significant decreases in the linear and angular velocity of freely moving animals, as well as changes in their activity levels and expression of circatidal behavioral rhythms. Further, we found reductions in hemocyanin levels, which may alter immune function and cuticle integrity. These previously unrecognized behavioral and physiological deficits suggest that the harvest of LAL may decrease female fitness, and thus may contribute to the current population decline.

  20. Lectin-histochemical reactivity of sialic acid in breast cancer and its relationship to prognosis using limulus polyphemus agglutinin.

    PubMed

    Ding, K; Yamaguchi, A; Goi, T; Maehara, M; Nakagawara, G

    1997-04-01

    Studies of circulating sialic acid have revealed its relationship with a variety of malignant tumors. It is not vet clear whether sialic acid could be used as a prognostic marker of breast cancer, and few studies have examined sialic acid expression in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of breast cancer cells by means of the lectin-histochemical technique. In the present study, we used biotinylated limulus polyphemus agglutinin (LPA), a special binding lectin of sialic acid, to stain sialic acid in breast cancer cells. Of the 104 cases of breast cancer examined, 59 (56.7%) positive cases were observed. There was a significant correlation between the LPA staining and the clinicopathologic features of all patients, including pathological stage and lymph node metastasis. Among the 100 patients who underwent curative operation, the mean disease-free survival rate of the 45 patients who were LPA-negative was significantly higher than that of the 55 LPA-positive patients (p<0.05). These results suggest that the positive expression of sialic acid in breast cancer could be used as a marker of malignancy potential, as well as a poor survival factor, and the biotinylated LPA assay may provide a convenient and useful method to predict the prognosis of breast cancer.

  1. Fusarium solani species complex associated with carapace lesions and branchitis in captive American horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus.

    PubMed

    Tuxbury, Kathryn A; Shaw, Gillian C; Montali, Richard J; Clayton, Leigh Ann; Kwiatkowski, Nicole P; Dykstra, Michael J; Mankowski, Joseph L

    2014-07-03

    Captive American horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus housed at the National Aquarium presented with a variety of shell and gill lesions over a 3 yr period. Carapace lesions were located on both the dorsal and ventral prosoma and opisthosoma and included multifocal circular areas of tan discoloration, ulcerations, and/or pitting lesions, extending from superficial to full thickness. Gill lesions involved both the book gill cover (operculum) and individual book gill leaflets and included multifocal circular areas of tan discoloration, tan to off-white opaque proliferative lesions, and/or areas of black discoloration. Histopathology revealed fungal hyphae, with variable morphology throughout the thickened and irregular cuticle of the carapace and occasionally penetrating into subcuticular tissues, with associated amebocytic inflammation. Book gill leaflets were infiltrated by fungal hyphae and contained necrotic debris and amebocytes. Thirty-eight of 39 animals (97%) evaluated via histopathological examination had intralesional fungal hyphae. Fungal cultures of carapace and gill lesions were attempted in 26 tissue samples from 15 individuals and were positive in 13 samples (50%), with 10 cultures (77%) yielding identification to genus. Fusarium sp. was identified in 8 of the 10 cultures (80%) via culture morphology. The Fusarium solani species complex was confirmed in 6 of these 8 (75%) via polymerase chain reaction amplification of 2 different ribosomal-specific sequences of isolated fungal DNA. Ante-mortem systemic and topical treatments were performed on some affected individuals, but no appreciable change in lesions was observed. Mycotic dermatitis and branchitis are serious health issues for captive American horseshoe crabs.

  2. Book gill development in embryos and first and second instars of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus L. (Chelicerata, Xiphosura).

    PubMed

    Farley, Roger D

    2010-09-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the development of the opisthosomal appendages and book gills of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Later embryonic stages were examined as well as the first and second instars. The observations are compared with a much earlier light microscopic description of book gill development in the horseshoe crab and with book lung development in scorpion embryos and first and second instars in a recent study with SEM. After the third embryonic molt in the horseshoe crab, the opisthosomal appendages are of sufficient size so they could be fractured or dissected open so internal cells and other structures could be examined. The opisthosomal appendages and book gill lamellae of first and second instars were also opened. The observations support the earlier histological report that the gill lamellae are a hypodermal outgrowth from the posterior surface of the preceding branchial appendages. The genital operculum, branchial appendages and gill lamellae are very thin and consist of external cuticle, hypodermis and space holders. The latter help hold the cuticle walls in place so hemolymph can flow through the narrow channels. The space holders are formed from cell processes that extend into the lumen from the hypodermis just inside the external cuticle. In the recent SEM study in scorpion embryos and in some histological investigations in spider embryos, the book lung lamellae are formed by alignment of cells from an invaginated sac or mass of cells. This clearly differs from the mode of formation of gill lamellae as observed in this and earlier investigations. These reports of differences in embryology refine but do not preclude hypotheses about book gill/book lung homology since addition, deletion or modification of ancestral features often occur for the benefit of the embryos and larvae. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cellular distributions and functions of histamine, octopamine, and serotonin in the peripheral visual system, brain, and circumesophageal ring of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus.

    PubMed

    Battelle, B A; Calman, B G; Hart, M K

    The data reviewed here show that histamine, octopamine, and serotonin are abundant in the visual system of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus. Anatomical and biochemical evidence, including new biochemical data presented here, indicates that histamine is a neurotransmitter in primary retinal afferents, and that it may be involved in visual information processing within the lateral eye. The presence of histamine in neurons of the central nervous system outside of the visual centers suggests that this amine also has functions unrelated to vision. However, the physiological actions of histamine in the Limulus nervous system are not yet known. Octopamine is present in and released from the axons of neurons that transmit circadian information from the brain to the eyes, and octopamine mimics the actions of circadian input on many retinal functions. In addition, octopamine probably has major functions in other parts of the nervous system as octopamine immunoreactive processes are widely distributed in the central nervous system and in peripheral motor nerves. Indeed, octopamine modulates functions of the heart and exoskeletal muscles as well as the eyes. A surprising finding is that although octopamine is a circulating neurohormone in Limulus, there is no structural evidence for its release into the hemolymph from central sites. The distribution of serotonin in Limulus brain suggests this amine modulates the central processing of visual information. Serotonin modulates cholinergic synapses in the central nervous system, but nothing further is known about its physiological actions.

  4. Response of the blood clotting system of the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, to a novel form of lipopolysaccharide from a green alga.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Mara L; Pardy, R L; Wainwright, Norman; Child, Alice; Armstrong, Peter B

    2006-08-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) is a component of Gram-negative bacteria and is the principal indicator to the innate immune systems of higher animals of a Gram-negative bacterial invasion. LPS activates the blood clotting system of the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. By stimulating blood cell degranulation, LPS triggers the release of the proteins of the clotting system from the cells, and by activating a protease cascade that converts coagulogen, a soluble zymogen, to coagulin, the structural protein of the clot, LPS triggers the production of the fibrillar coagulin blood clot. Although originally thought to be restricted to the Gram-negative bacteria and the cyanobacteria, LPS, or a very similar molecule, has recently been described from a eukaryotic green alga, Chlorella. Here we show that, like LPS from Gram-negative bacteria, the algal molecule stimulates exocytosis of the Limulus blood cell and the clotting of coagulin. The coagulin clot efficiently entraps the cells of Chlorella in a network of fibrils. Invasion and erosion of the carapace by green algae is an important cause of mortality of Limulus, and it is suggested that the cellular response to aLPS may contribute to defense against this pathogen.

  5. Distal-less expression in embryos of Limulus polyphemus (Chelicerata, Xiphosura) and Lepisma saccharina (Insecta, Zygentoma) suggests a role in the development of mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors, and the CNS.

    PubMed

    Mittmann, B; Scholtz, G

    2001-05-01

    The homeobox gene Distal-less (Dll) is well known for its participation in the development of arthropod limbs and their derivatives. Dll activity has been described for all groups of arthropods, but also for molluscs, echinoderms and vertebrates. Generally, Dll participates in the establishment of the proximo-distal-axis and differentiation along this axis. During our investigation of the expression pattern in the silverfish Lepisma saccharina and the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus, we found several expressions in late stages which cannot be explained with the "normal" limb-specific function. The antenna, cerci and terminal filament of the silverfish show a striped expression; single cells on the labrum, mandibles, maxillary palps and anal valves are also strongly stained by the Dll antibody. In addition to cell groups in the developing ganglia of the CNS, in the coxal endites and several nerve cells in femur and the trochanter of the prosomal limbs, the whole prosomal shield of Limulus polyphemus is surrounded by Dll-positive cell clusters. Furthermore, the lateral processes of the opisthosoma and the edges of the opisthosomal appendages are Dll positive. To get an indication of the cell fate of these regions, we examined hatched larvae and juvenile stages of both species with the SEM. We found a striking correlation of these Dll-positive areas and different sense organs, especially mechanoreceptors. Since many sense organs in arthropods are situated on the limbs, interpretation of the Dll expression in limbs is problematical. This has critical implications for comparative analysis of Dll expression patterns between arthropods and for the claim of homology between limb-like structures. Furthermore, we discuss the possibility of convergent appendage evolution in various bilaterian groups based on the improvement of spatial sensory resolution.

  6. Genetic variation and geographic differentiation in the marine triclad Bdelloura candida (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Maricola), ectocommensal on the American horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus.

    PubMed

    Riesgo, Ana; Burke, Emily A; Laumer, Christopher; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2017-01-01

    Bdelloura candida (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Maricola) is an ectocommensal symbiont on the American horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus, living on the book gills and appendages, where it spends its entire life. Given its limited dispersal capabilities and its inability to live outside of the host, we hypothesized a genetic structure that parallels that of its host. We obtained 84 planarian individuals from 19 horseshoe crabs collected from 10 sites from Massachusetts to Florida. We amplified the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and the nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 and conducted phylogeographic and population genetic analyses, which show a clear and strong genetic break between the populations in the Atlantic and the Gulf coasts. Among the Atlantic populations, two additional, weaker barriers located along Cape Hatteras and Cape Cod restrict gene flow. Even though previous studies have suggested that the populations of the host may be in decline, those of B. candida remain stable, and some even shows signatures of expansion. Our results indicate that the phylogeography of these marine ectocommensal triclads closely mirrors that of its Limulus host, and highlight the challenges to both host and symbiont to genetically connect populations across their distribution.

  7. Evolution of arthropod visual systems: development of the eyes and central visual pathways in the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus Linnaeus, 1758 (Chelicerata, Xiphosura).

    PubMed

    Harzsch, Steffen; Vilpoux, Kathia; Blackburn, David C; Platchetzki, David; Brown, Nadean L; Melzer, Roland; Kempler, Karen E; Battelle, Barbara A

    2006-10-01

    Despite ongoing interest into the architecture, biochemistry, and physiology of the visual systems of the xiphosuran Limulus polyphemus, their ontogenetic aspects have received little attention. Thus, we explored the development of the lateral eyes and associated neuropils in late embryos and larvae of these animals. The first external evidence of the lateral eyes was the appearance of white pigment spots-guanophores associated with the rudimentary photoreceptors-on the dorsolateral side of the late embryos, suggesting that these embryos can perceive light. The first brown pigment emerges in the eyes during the last (third) embryonic molt to the trilobite stage. However, ommatidia develop from this field of pigment toward the end of the larval trilobite stage so that the young larvae at hatching do not have object recognition. Double staining with the proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and an antibody against L. polyphemus myosin III, which is concentrated in photoreceptors of this species, confirmed previous reports that, in the trilobite larvae, new cellular material is added to the eye field from an anteriorly located proliferation zone. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that these new cells differentiate into new ommatidia. Examining larval eyes labeled for opsin showed that the new ommatidia become organized into irregular rows that give the eye field a triangular appearance. Within the eye field, the ommatidia are arranged in an imperfect hexagonal array. Myosin III immunoreactivity in trilobite larvae also revealed the architecture of the central visual pathways associated with the median eye complex and the lateral eyes. Double labeling with myosin III and BrdU showed that neurogenesis persists in the larval brain and suggested that new neurons of both the lamina and the medulla originate from a single common proliferation zone. These data are compared with eye development in Drosophila melanogaster and are discussed with regard to new ideas on

  8. Accumulation of nonessential trace elements (Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb) in Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) early life stages.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Aaron K; Dutton, Jessica; Sclafani, Matthew; Santangelo, Nicholas

    2017-10-15

    During early development, benthic organisms can accumulate nonessential trace elements through aqueous and particulate sources. This study investigated the accumulation of Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in Atlantic horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) pre-spawned eggs, embryos, and developing larvae collected from 5 sites on Long Island, NY and compared these concentrations to that found in sediment, pore water, and overlying water. All investigated elements were detected in embryos and larvae at all sites. Arsenic was found at the highest concentration in each life stage across all 5 sites, followed by Ag, whereas Cd, Hg and Pb concentrations varied between sites. Chromium was not detected in pre-spawned eggs, but was present in embryos and larvae at all sites, however, along with Hg, significantly increased from embryo to larvae at most sites. We conclude that observed accumulation patterns are likely a result of abiotic factors, differences in uptake pathways between life stages and the rate of excretion. Future laboratory studies are required to understand the factors influencing the aqueous and dietary uptake of nonessential trace elements in the early life stages of Atlantic horseshoe crabs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of short- and long-term hypoxia on hemolymph gas values in the American horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) using a point-of-care analyzer.

    PubMed

    Allender, Matthew C; Schumacher, Juergen; George, Robert; Milam, Jennifer; Odoi, Agricola

    2010-06-01

    Hemolymph gas parameters were evaluated using a point-of-care analyzer in healthy American horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) at rest and after short- and long-term removal from water. Baseline vascular pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), partial pressure of carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, base excess, total carbon dioxide, and lactate concentrations were determined from hemolymph samples collected from 10 horseshoe crabs (group 1) submerged in water and were compared with values after removal from water for 5 min, and after recovery in water for 10 min and for longer than 60 min (range, 61-221 min). Hemolymph gas parameters were also determined in 12 horseshoe crabs (group 2) after shipment out of water for 24 hr and were compared with values obtained from group 1 animals. Baseline hemolymph gas values of the American horseshoe crab are within range for other aquatic vertebrates. After removal from water for 5 min, all group 1 crabs developed severe hypoxia, with PO2 levels falling below the detectable limit of the analyzer. Group 2 crabs had pronounced respiratory acidosis, and their PO2 values were significantly below baseline values of group 1 animals.

  10. Stable isotope and pen feeding trial studies confirm the value of horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus eggs to spring migrant shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haramis, G.M.; Link, W.A.; Osenton, P.C.; Carter, Daniel B.; Weber, R.G.; Clark, N.A.; Teece, M.A.; Mizrahi, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    We used stable isotope (SI) methods in combination with pen feeding trials to determine the importance of eggs of the Atlantic horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus to migratory fattening of red knots Calidris canutus rufa and ruddy turnstones Arenaria interpres morinella during spring stopover in Delaware Bay. By manifesting measurable fractionation (ca +3?) and rapid turnover, blood plasma *15 nitrogen proved a functional marker for SI diet tracking during the short 3-week stopover. Blood samples from free-ranging knots (3 data sets) and turnstones (1 data set) produced similar convergence of plasma *15 N signatures with increasing body mass that indicated highly similar diets. Asymptotes deviated slightly (0.3? to 0.7?) from that of captive shorebirds fed a diet of only crab eggs during stopover, thus confirming a strong crab egg-shorebird linkage. The plasma *15N crab-egg diet asymptote was enriched ca +4.5? and therefore readily discriminated from that of either blue mussels Mytilus edulis or coquina clams Donax variabilis, the most likely alternative prey of knots in Delaware Bay. Crab eggs were highly palatable to captive knots and turnstones which achieved rates of mass gain (3?11 g/d) comparable to that of free-ranging birds. Peak consumption rates during hyperphagic events were 23,940 and 19,360 eggs/bird/d, respectively. The empirical conversions of eggs consumed to body mass gained (5,017 eggs/g for knots and 4,320 eggs/g for turnstones) indicate the large quantities of crab eggs required for the maintenance of these shorebird populations during stopover.

  11. Physical and chemical changes in the foreshore of an estuarine beach: Implications for viability and development of horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, N.L.; Smith, D.R.; Nordstrom, K.F.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of conditions that favor development of eggs is important for management of species whose population growth is sensitive to early life history survival. Viability and development of the eggs of horseshoe crabs Limulus polyphemus on a sand and gravel beach were evaluated using data gathered on Delaware Bay, USA, from 18 May to 19 June 2004. Eggs were transplanted to pouches and buried in the foreshore for up to 6 wk. Viability and developmental stage were estimated as a function of oxygen and temperature gradients across the foreshore. These gradients were related to the characteristics of the intertidal foreshore sediments, beach water table changes, and frequency of inundation due to tide and swash/backwash processes. Results demonstrate the importance of interstitial temperature for development to larvae and the passive role of sediment characteristics on moisture retention and temperature. Percentage of eggs remaining in egg stage was similar across the foreshore, but more eggs developed to embryos at 0.45 of foreshore width, where moisture and gravel content were greater and interstitial temperature was lower. More eggs developed to larvae at 0.60 and 0.75 of foreshore width, where moisture and gravel content were less but interstitial temperature was higher. The beach above 0.75 of foreshore width came under the influence of wave action or full tidal inundation only during high wave heights or spring tides, and pouches at 0.75 of foreshore width were inundated only 19% of the time. Periodic wetting at this elevation did not reduce overall viability of the eggs. High wave energy events resulted in sediment activation depths to pouches at 0.30 of foreshore width, where loss of eggs due to wave activation was the most important control on the development of eggs. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  12. Electroretinogram characteristics and the spectral mechanisms of the median ocellus and the lateral eye in Limulus polyphemus.

    PubMed

    Chapman, R M; Lall, A B

    1967-10-01

    Electrical responses (ERG) to light flashes of various wavelengths and energies were obtained from the dorsal median ocellus and lateral compound eye of Limulus under dark and chromatic light adaptation. Spectral mechanisms were studied by analyzing (a) response waveforms, e.g. response area, rise, and fall times as functions of amplitude, (b) slopes of amplitude-energy functions, and (c) spectral sensitivity functions obtained by the criterion amplitude method. The data for a single spectral mechanism in the lateral eye are (a) response waveforms independent of wavelength, (b) same slope for response-energy functions at all wavelengths, (c) a spectral sensitivity function with a single maximum near 520 mmicro, and (d) spectral sensitivity invariance in chromatic adaptation experiments. The data for two spectral mechanisms in the median ocellus are (a) two waveform characteristics depending on wavelength, (b) slopes of response-energy functions steeper for short than for long wavelengths, (c) two spectral sensitivity peaks (360 and 530-535 mmicro) when dark-adapted, and (d) selective depression of either spectral sensitivity peak by appropriate chromatic adaptation. The ocellus is 200-320 times more sensitive to UV than to visible light. Both UV and green spectral sensitivity curves agree with Dartnall's nomogram. The hypothesis is favored that the ocellus contains two visual pigments each in a different type of receptor, rather than (a) various absorption bands of a single visual pigment, (b) single visual pigment and a chromatic mask, or (c) fluorescence. With long duration light stimuli a steady-state level followed the transient peak in the ERG from both types of eyes.

  13. Cytoskeletal F-actin polymerization from cytosolic G-actin occurs in the phagocytosing immunocytes of arthropods (Limulus polyphemus and Gromphadorhina portentosa): does [cAMP]i play any role?

    PubMed

    Gupta, A P; Campenot, E S

    1996-09-01

    Phagocytosis is a major defense reaction in arthropods and is accomplished by two blood cells (hemocytes), the granulocyte (GRs) and plasmatocytes (PLs), collectively called immunocytes. Immunocytes (principally the GRs) from two arthropods, Limulus polyphemus (horseshoe crab) and Gromphadorhina portentosa (Madagascar hissing cockroach) effectively phagocytose fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated fluoresbrite microspheres (FITC-FM) and chicken (Gallus domesticus) erythrocytes within 1 hr of incubation. Although actin polymerization and changes in intracellular cAMP ([cAMP]i) levels occur during the early stages of phagocytosis in vertebrates, these two phenomena have not been studied in arthropod immunocytes. Using the DNase I inhibition assay, we found a decrease in cytosolic G-actin and an increase in the cytoskeletal F-actin in the phagocytosing immunocytes; the total actin in both resting and phagocytosing immunocytes remained constant. These results showed an 86% increase in F-actin in G. portentosa immunocytes and a 29% increase in those of L. polyphemus after 1 hr of initial incubation with FITC-FM. As in some vertebrates, the role of [cAMP]i in the early stages of phagocytosis in these two animals- and perhaps in arthropods in general-is variable; although we detected some negligible amounts of [cAMP]i (0.10-0.80 pmol/cell at different time intervals) in L. polyphemus immunocytes, it was inconclusive whether those in G. portentosa also contained [cAMP]i. Even in L. polyphemus, the difference in the amounts of [cAMP]i in resting and phagocytosing cells was insignificant (P > 0.05). It was also inconclusive whether [Ca2+]i and/or [Mg2+]i play any roles in the early stages of phagocytosis in the two arthropods in this study. These results suggest that the two phenomena (F-actin polymerization and levels of [cAMP]i in arthropods) are basically similar to those in vertebrate neutrophils and macrophages, which suggests that certain immunological

  14. Membrane pore formation by pentraxin proteins from Limulus, the American horseshoe crab.

    PubMed

    Harrington, John M; Chou, Hui-Ting; Gutsmann, Thomas; Gelhaus, Christoph; Stahlberg, Henning; Leippe, Matthias; Armstrong, Peter B

    2008-07-15

    The pentraxins are a family of highly conserved plasma proteins of metazoans known to function in immune defence. The canonical members, C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P component, have been identified in arthropods and humans. Mammalian pentraxins are known to bind lipid bilayers, and a pentraxin representative from the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, binds and permeabilizes mammalian erythrocytes. Both activities are Ca(2+)-dependent. Utilizing model liposomes and planar lipid bilayers, in the present study we have investigated the membrane-active properties of the three pentraxin representatives from Limulus and show that all of the Limulus pentraxins permeabilize lipid bilayers. Mechanistically, Limulus C-reactive protein forms transmembrane pores in asymmetric planar lipid bilayers that mimic the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and exhibits a Ca(2+)-independent form of membrane binding that may be sufficient for pore formation.

  15. Development of the nervous system in the "head" of Limulus polyphemus (Chelicerata: Xiphosura): morphological evidence for a correspondence between the segments of the chelicerae and of the (first) antennae of Mandibulata.

    PubMed

    Mittmann, Beate; Scholtz, Gerhard

    2003-02-01

    We investigated brain development in the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus and several other arthropods via immunocytochemical methods, i.e. antibody stainings against acetylated alpha-tubulin and synapsin. According to the traditional view, the first appendage-bearing segment in chelicerates (the chelicerae) is not homologous to the first appendage-bearing segment of mandibulates (first antenna, deutocerebrum) but to the segment of the second antenna (tritocerebrum) or the intercalary segment in hexapods and myriapods. Accordingly, the segment of the deutocerebrum in chelicerates would be completely reduced. The main arguments for this view are: (1) the postoral origin of the cheliceral ganglion, (2) a poststomodaeal commissure, and (3) a connection of the cheliceral ganglion to the stomatogastric system. Our data show that these arguments are not convincing. During the development of horseshoe crabs there is no evidence for a former additional segment in front of the chelicerae. Instead, comparison of the brain structure (neuropil ring) between chelicerates, crustaceans and insects shows remarkable similarities. Furthermore, the cheliceral commissure in horseshoe crabs runs mainly praestomodaeal, which would be unique for a tritocerebral commissure. An unbiased view of the developing nervous system in the "head" of chelicerates, crustaceans and insects leads to a homologisation of the cheliceral segment and that of the (first) antenna (= deutocerebrum) of mandibulates that is also congruous to the interpretation of the Hox gene expression patterns. Thus, our data provide morphological evidence for the existence of a chelicerate deutocerebrum.

  16. A Limulus antilipopolysaccharide factor-derived peptide exhibits a new immunological activity with potential applicability in infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Vallespi, M G; Glaria, L A; Reyes, O; Garay, H E; Ferrero, J; Araña, M J

    2000-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that cyclic peptides corresponding to residues 35 to 52 of the Limulus antilipopolysaccharide (anti-LPS) factor (LALF) bind and neutralize LPS-mediated in vitro and in vivo activities. Therapeutic approaches based on agents which bind and neutralize LPS activities are particularly attractive because these substances directly block the primary stimulus for the entire proinflammatory cytokine cascade. Here we describe new activities of the LALF(31-52) peptide, other than its LPS binding ability. Surprisingly, supernatants from human mononuclear cells stimulated with the LALF peptide are able to induce in vitro antiviral effects on the Hep-2 cell line mediated by gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and IFN-alpha. Analysis of the effect of LALF(31-52) on tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and nitric oxide (NO) production by LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages revealed that a pretreatment with the peptide decreased LPS-induced TNF production but did not affect NO generation. This indicates that the LALF peptide modifies the LPS-induced response. In a model in mice with peritoneal fulminating sepsis, LALF(31-52) protected the mice when administered prophylactically, and this effect is related to reduced systemic TNF-alpha levels. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the anti-inflammatory properties of the LALF-derived peptide. These properties widen the spectrum of the therapeutic potential for this LALF-derived peptide and the molecules derived from it. These agents may be useful in the prophylaxis and therapy of viral and bacterial infectious diseases, as well as for septic shock.

  17. Blood Collection from the American Horseshoe Crab, Limulus Polyphemus

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Peter; Conrad, Mara

    2008-01-01

    The horseshoe crab has the best-characterized immune system of any long-lived invertebrate. The study of immunity in horseshoe crabs has been facilitated by the ease in collecting large volumes of blood and from the simplicity of the blood. Horseshoe crabs show only a single cell type in the general circulation, the granular amebocyte. The plasma has the salt content of sea water and only three abundant proteins, hemocyanin, the respiratory protein, the C-reactive proteins, which function in the cytolytic destruction of foreign cells, including bacterial cells, and α2-macroglobulin, which inhibits the proteases of invading pathogens. Blood is collected by direct cardiac puncture under conditions that minimize contamination by lipopolysaccharide (a.k.a., endotoxin, LPS), a product of the Gram-negative bacteria. A large animal can yield 200 - 400 mL of blood. For the study of the plasma, blood cells are immediately removed from the plasma by centrifugation and the plasma can then be fractionated into its constituent proteins. The blood cells are conveniently studied microscopically by collecting small volumes of blood into LPS-free isotonic saline (0.5 M NaCl) under conditions that permit direct microscopic examination by placing one of more LPS-free coverglasses on the culture dish surface, then mounting those coverglasses in simple observation chambers following cell attachment. A second preparation for direct observation is to collect 3 - 5 mL of blood in a LPS-free embryo dish and then explanting fragments of aggregated amebocytes to a chamber that sandwiches the tissue between a slide and a coverglass. In this preparation, the motile amebocytes migrate onto the coverglass surface, where they can readily be observed. The blood clotting system involves aggregation of amebocytes and the formation of an extracellular clot of a protein, coagulin, which is released from the secretory granules of the blood cells. Biochemical analysis of washed blood cells requires that aggregation and degranulation does not occur, which can be accomplished by collecting blood into 0.1 volumes of 2% Tween-20, 0.5 M LPS-free NaCl, followed by centrifugation of the cells and washing with 0.5 M NaCl. PMID:19078938

  18. Blood collection from the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Peter; Conrad, Mara

    2008-10-13

    The horseshoe crab has the best-characterized immune system of any long-lived invertebrate. The study of immunity in horseshoe crabs has been facilitated by the ease in collecting large volumes of blood and from the simplicity of the blood. Horseshoe crabs show only a single cell type in the general circulation, the granular amebocyte. The plasma has the salt content of sea water and only three abundant proteins, hemocyanin, the respiratory protein, the C-reactive proteins, which function in the cytolytic destruction of foreign cells, including bacterial cells, and alpha2-macroglobulin, which inhibits the proteases of invading pathogens. Blood is collected by direct cardiac puncture under conditions that minimize contamination by lipopolysaccharide (a.k.a., endotoxin, LPS), a product of the Gram-negative bacteria. A large animal can yield 200 - 400 mL of blood. For the study of the plasma, blood cells are immediately removed from the plasma by centrifugation and the plasma can then be fractionated into its constituent proteins. The blood cells are conveniently studied microscopically by collecting small volumes of blood into LPS-free isotonic saline (0.5 M NaCl) under conditions that permit direct microscopic examination by placing one of more LPS-free coverglasses on the culture dish surface, then mounting those coverglasses in simple observation chambers following cell attachment. A second preparation for direct observation is to collect 3 - 5 mL of blood in a LPS-free embryo dish and then explanting fragments of aggregated amebocytes to a chamber that sandwiches the tissue between a slide and a coverglass. In this preparation, the motile amebocytes migrate onto the coverglass surface, where they can readily be observed. The blood clotting system involves aggregation of amebocytes and the formation of an extracellular clot of a protein, coagulin, which is released from the secretory granules of the blood cells. Biochemical analysis of washed blood cells requires that aggregation and degranulation does not occur, which can be accomplished by collecting blood into 0.1 volumes of 2% Tween-20, 0.5 M LPS-free NaCl, followed by centrifugation of the cells and washing with 0.5 M NaCl.

  19. Osmotic properties of Limulus seawaters and organ cultures: an unrecognized issue.

    PubMed

    Lim-Kessler, Corrinne C M; Bolbecker, Amanda R; Li, Jia; Wasserman, Gerald S

    2008-01-01

    Excised eyes of the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) have long provided robust preparations for fundamental studies of the visual neuroscience of photoreceptors. Such preparations are particularly useful for immersion in perfusion chambers whose perfusate can be varied as needed. Little attention has been paid in the past to the osmotic properties of such perfusates because they have generally been virtually isotonic with natural seawater. We here report that (1) some recent Limulus studies have used organ culture perfusates that are severely hypotonic and (2) that that fact has not been adequately disclosed.

  20. The Horseshoe Crab of the Genus Limulus: Living Fossil or Stabilomorph?

    PubMed Central

    Błażejowski, Błażej

    2014-01-01

    A new horseshoe crab species, Limulus darwini, is described from the uppermost Jurassic (ca. 148 Ma) near-shore sediments of the Kcynia Formation, central Poland. The only extant species Limulus polyphemus (Linnaeus) inhabits brackish-marine, shallow water environments of the east coast of the United States. Here it is shown that there are no important morphological differences between the Kcynia Formation specimens and extant juvenile representatives of the genus Limulus. The palaeoecological setting inhabited by the new species and the trophic relationships of extant horseshoe crabs are discussed in an attempt to determine the potential range of food items ingested by these Mesozoic xiphosurans. In this paper we propose the adoption of a new term stabilomorphism, this being: an effect of a specific formula of adaptative strategy among organisms whose taxonomic status does not exceed genus-level. A high effectiveness of adaptation significantly reduces the need for differentiated phenotypic variants in response to environmental changes and provides for long-term evolutionary success. PMID:25275563

  1. The horseshoe crab of the genus Limulus: living fossil or stabilomorph?

    PubMed

    Kin, Adrian; Błażejowski, Błażej

    2014-01-01

    A new horseshoe crab species, Limulus darwini, is described from the uppermost Jurassic (ca. 148 Ma) near-shore sediments of the Kcynia Formation, central Poland. The only extant species Limulus polyphemus (Linnaeus) inhabits brackish-marine, shallow water environments of the east coast of the United States. Here it is shown that there are no important morphological differences between the Kcynia Formation specimens and extant juvenile representatives of the genus Limulus. The palaeoecological setting inhabited by the new species and the trophic relationships of extant horseshoe crabs are discussed in an attempt to determine the potential range of food items ingested by these Mesozoic xiphosurans. In this paper we propose the adoption of a new term stabilomorphism, this being: an effect of a specific formula of adaptative strategy among organisms whose taxonomic status does not exceed genus-level. A high effectiveness of adaptation significantly reduces the need for differentiated phenotypic variants in response to environmental changes and provides for long-term evolutionary success.

  2. Circadian rhythms in Limulus photoreceptors. II. Quantum bumps

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The light response of the lateral eye of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, increases at night, while the frequency of spontaneous discrete fluctuations of its photoreceptor membrane potential (quantum bumps) decreases. These changes are controlled by a circadian clock in the brain, which transmits activity to the eye via efferent optic nerve fibers (Barlow, R. B., S. J. Bolanski, and M. L Brachman. 1977. Science. 197:86-89). Here we report the results of experiments in which we recorded from single Limulus photoreceptors in vivo for several days and studied in detail changes in their physiological and membrane properties. We found that: (a) The shape of (voltage) quantum bumps changes with the time of day. At night, spontaneous bumps and bumps evoked by dim light are prolonged. The return of the membrane potential to its resting level is delayed, but the rise time of the bump is unaffected. On average, the area under a bump is 2.4 times greater at night than during the day. (b) The rate of spontaneous bumps decreases at night by roughly a factor of 3, but their amplitude distribution remains unchanged. (c) The resting potential and resistance of the photoreceptor membrane do not change with the time of day. (d) the relationship between injected current and impulse rate of the second order neuron, the eccentric cell, also remains unchanged with the time of day. Thus the efferent input from the brain to the retina modulates some of the membrane properties of photoreceptor cells. Our findings suggest that the efferent input acts on ionic channels in the membrane to increase the sensitivity of the photoreceptor to light. PMID:2230712

  3. American Horshoe Crab (Limulus polyphemus) : Population Ecology within the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, S. C.; Carmichael, R. H.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; McBarnes, M.

    2016-02-01

    To better understand the occurrence and population structure of horseshoe crabs in the northern Gulf of Mexico, we sampled animals on Petit Bois Island, Dauphin Island, and Fort Morgan. To determine if major life history events such as spawning, molting, or mortality occurred more frequently at certain locations and times, we counted molts, live animals (noted whether animals were alone or amplexed for spawning), and carcasses. We also tested the hypothesis that demographics of molts or carcasses found on local beaches represent nearby live animal populations by tracking the redistribution of tagged molts placed at variable distances from shore (2, 50, 100 m). Overall, our data suggested a greater occurrence of spawning adults and actively molting juveniles on Petit Bois Island compared to other sites. The number of specimens found at Dauphin Island and Fort Morgan declined since 2012, possibly due to a regional-scale change in environmental conditions. Size frequency distributions of molts and carcasses collected during 2015 were similar to values from previous studies, but showed a higher number of subadult horseshoe crab carcasses in 2015 compared to other years. Tagged molts were recovered at a rate of 2.5%, suggesting that few molts deposited in nearby waters make it to local beaches. Tagged molts were recovered at 1 - 22 days following field placement, with the majority of recovered molts found after 1 day. Because smaller crabs (<40 mm size) stay close to natal beaches when molting, their molts are most likely to wash ashore. Data provided by this study will help inform future research on horseshoe crab ecology and assess how natural and anthropogenic perturbaRons may affect horseshoe crab populaRons in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

  4. Evidence for use of chemical cues by male horseshoe crabs when locating nesting females (Limulus polyphemus).

    PubMed

    Hassler, C; Brockmann, H J

    2001-11-01

    Horseshoe crabs come ashore in attached pairs during spring high tides to mate and nest on beaches of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Unattached males also come ashore and crowd around the nesting pairs as satellites and engage in sperm competition with the attached male. Females with no satellites and females with large numbers of satellites nest next to one another on the same tide. When females are removed and replaced by a cement model, satellite males continue to be attracted to the same location. Models over sites where females with many satellites had nested are more attractive to males than sites from which a female with no satellites had been removed or a site where no crab had been nesting recently. A second experiment demonstrated that males are responding to chemical cues. A sponge filled with seawater taken from below a female with many satellites and placed under a model female was more attractive to males than a sponge filled with seawater. This is the first demonstration that horseshoe crabs use chemical cues, in addition to visual cues, to locate mates.

  5. Horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) reproductive activity on Delaware Bay beaches: Interactions with beach characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Pooler, P.S.; Loveland, R.E.; Botton, M.L.; Michels, S.F.; Weber, R.G.; Carter, Daniel B.

    2002-01-01

    We used results from a survey of horseshoe crab reproductive activity that was conducted in 1999 throughout Delaware Bay to examine the relationship between estimates of spawning females and egg deposition and analyze how that relationship varies with geography, time within a spawning season, beach morphology, and wave energy. We found that beach morphology and wave energy interacted with density of spawning females to explain variation in the density and distribution of eggs and larvae. For example, the quantity of eggs in surface sediment (i.e., eggs that are potentially available to foraging shorebirds) was associated with the density of spawning females, beach morphology, and wave energy. The association between beach morphology and live eggs in surface sediment was strong especially in late May (Percent Reduction in Error = 86% from regression tree model) where egg density was an order of magnitude higher on beaches <15 m wide (3.38*105 m-2; 90% CI: 2.29*105, 4.47*105) compared to wider beaches (1.49*104 m-2; 90% CI: 4.47*103, 2.53*104). Results also indicate that, among bay-front beaches, horseshoe crabs prefer to spawn on narrow beaches, possibly because of reduced wave energy. At peak periods of spawning activity, density of spawning females was inversely related to foreshore width on mid-latitude beaches within Delaware Bay (t = -2.68, 7 df, p = 0.03). Because the distribution of eggs across the foreshore varied with beach morphology and widened as the spawning season progressed, methods used to sample eggs need to be robust to variation in beach morphology and applicable regardless of when the samples are taken. Because beach morphology and wave energy were associated with the quantity of eggs in surface sediment, certain beach types may be critical to the conservation of shorebird foraging habitat.

  6. Opsins in Limulus eyes: characterization of three visible light-sensitive opsins unique to and co-expressed in median eye photoreceptors and a peropsin/RGR that is expressed in all eyes.

    PubMed

    Battelle, Barbara-Anne; Kempler, Karen E; Saraf, Spencer R; Marten, Catherine E; Dugger, Donald R; Speiser, Daniel I; Oakley, Todd H

    2015-02-01

    The eyes of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus have long been used for studies of basic mechanisms of vision, and the structure and physiology of Limulus photoreceptors have been examined in detail. Less is known about the opsins Limulus photoreceptors express. We previously characterized a UV opsin (LpUVOps1) that is expressed in all three types of Limulus eyes (lateral compound eyes, median ocelli and larval eyes) and three visible light-sensitive rhabdomeric opsins (LpOps1, -2 and -5) that are expressed in Limulus lateral compound and larval eyes. Physiological studies showed that visible light-sensitive photoreceptors are also present in median ocelli, but the visible light-sensitive opsins they express were unknown. In the current study we characterize three newly identified, visible light-sensitive rhabdomeric opsins (LpOps6, -7 and -8) that are expressed in median ocelli. We show that they are ocellar specific and that all three are co-expressed in photoreceptors distinct from those expressing LpUVOps1. Our current findings show that the pattern of opsin expression in Limulus eyes is much more complex than previously thought and extend our previous observations of opsin co-expression in visible light-sensitive Limulus photoreceptors. We also characterize a Limulus peropsin/RGR (LpPerOps1). We examine the phylogenetic relationship of LpPerOps1 with other peropsins and RGRs, demonstrate that LpPerOps1 transcripts are expressed in each of the three types of Limulus eyes and show that the encoded protein is expressed in membranes of cells closely associated with photoreceptors in each eye type. These finding suggest that peropsin was in the opsin repertoire of euchelicerates.

  7. Opsins in Limulus eyes: characterization of three visible light-sensitive opsins unique to and co-expressed in median eye photoreceptors and a peropsin/RGR that is expressed in all eyes

    PubMed Central

    Battelle, Barbara-Anne; Kempler, Karen E.; Saraf, Spencer R.; Marten, Catherine E.; Dugger, Donald R.; Speiser, Daniel I.; Oakley, Todd H.

    2015-01-01

    The eyes of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus have long been used for studies of basic mechanisms of vision, and the structure and physiology of Limulus photoreceptors have been examined in detail. Less is known about the opsins Limulus photoreceptors express. We previously characterized a UV opsin (LpUVOps1) that is expressed in all three types of Limulus eyes (lateral compound eyes, median ocelli and larval eyes) and three visible light-sensitive rhabdomeric opsins (LpOps1, -2 and -5) that are expressed in Limulus lateral compound and larval eyes. Physiological studies showed that visible light-sensitive photoreceptors are also present in median ocelli, but the visible light-sensitive opsins they express were unknown. In the current study we characterize three newly identified, visible light-sensitive rhabdomeric opsins (LpOps6, -7 and -8) that are expressed in median ocelli. We show that they are ocellar specific and that all three are co-expressed in photoreceptors distinct from those expressing LpUVOps1. Our current findings show that the pattern of opsin expression in Limulus eyes is much more complex than previously thought and extend our previous observations of opsin co-expression in visible light-sensitive Limulus photoreceptors. We also characterize a Limulus peropsin/RGR (LpPerOps1). We examine the phylogenetic relationship of LpPerOps1 with other peropsins and RGRs, demonstrate that LpPerOps1 transcripts are expressed in each of the three types of Limulus eyes and show that the encoded protein is expressed in membranes of cells closely associated with photoreceptors in each eye type. These finding suggest that peropsin was in the opsin repertoire of euchelicerates. PMID:25524988

  8. Opsin expression in Limulus eyes: a UV opsin is expressed in each eye type and co-expressed with a visible light-sensitive opsin in ventral larval eyes.

    PubMed

    Battelle, Barbara-Anne; Kempler, Karen E; Harrison, Alexandra; Dugger, Donald R; Payne, Richard

    2014-09-01

    The eyes of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, are a model for studies of visual function and the visual systems of euarthropods. Much is known about the structure and function of L. polyphemus photoreceptors, much less about their photopigments. Three visible-light-sensitive L. polyphemus opsins were characterized previously (LpOps1, 2 and 5). Here we characterize a UV opsin (LpUVOps1) that is expressed in all three types of L. polyphemus eyes. It is expressed in most photoreceptors in median ocelli, the only L. polyphemus eyes in which UV sensitivity was previously detected, and in the dendrite of eccentric cells in lateral compound eyes. Therefore, eccentric cells, previously thought to be non-photosensitive second-order neurons, may actually be UV-sensitive photoreceptors. LpUVOps1 is also expressed in small photoreceptors in L. polyphemus ventral larval eyes, and intracellular recordings from these photoreceptors confirm that LpUVOps1 is an active, UV-sensitive photopigment. These photoreceptors also express LpOps5, which we demonstrate is an active, long-wavelength-sensitive photopigment. Thus small photoreceptors in ventral larval eyes, and probably those of the other larval eyes, have dual sensitivity to UV and visible light. Interestingly, the spectral tuning of small ventral photoreceptors may change day to night, because the level of LpOps5 in their rhabdoms is lower during the day than during the night, whereas LpUVOps1 levels show no diurnal change. These and previous findings show that opsin co-expression and the differential regulation of co-expressed opsins in rhabdoms is a common feature of L. polyphemus photoreceptors.

  9. Opsin expression in Limulus eyes: a UV opsin is expressed in each eye type and co-expressed with a visible light-sensitive opsin in ventral larval eyes

    PubMed Central

    Battelle, Barbara-Anne; Kempler, Karen E.; Harrison, Alexandra; Dugger, Donald R.; Payne, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The eyes of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, are a model for studies of visual function and the visual systems of euarthropods. Much is known about the structure and function of L. polyphemus photoreceptors, much less about their photopigments. Three visible-light-sensitive L. polyphemus opsins were characterized previously (LpOps1, 2 and 5). Here we characterize a UV opsin (LpUVOps1) that is expressed in all three types of L. polyphemus eyes. It is expressed in most photoreceptors in median ocelli, the only L. polyphemus eyes in which UV sensitivity was previously detected, and in the dendrite of eccentric cells in lateral compound eyes. Therefore, eccentric cells, previously thought to be non-photosensitive second-order neurons, may actually be UV-sensitive photoreceptors. LpUVOps1 is also expressed in small photoreceptors in L. polyphemus ventral larval eyes, and intracellular recordings from these photoreceptors confirm that LpUVOps1 is an active, UV-sensitive photopigment. These photoreceptors also express LpOps5, which we demonstrate is an active, long-wavelength-sensitive photopigment. Thus small photoreceptors in ventral larval eyes, and probably those of the other larval eyes, have dual sensitivity to UV and visible light. Interestingly, the spectral tuning of small ventral photoreceptors may change day to night, because the level of LpOps5 in their rhabdoms is lower during the day than during the night, whereas LpUVOps1 levels show no diurnal change. These and previous findings show that opsin co-expression and the differential regulation of co-expressed opsins in rhabdoms is a common feature of L. polyphemus photoreceptors. PMID:24948643

  10. Habitat Selection by the Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    distribution. Herpetological Review 32:191. Clark, E.E. 2003. Relocation and population modeling for gopher tortoise recovery. M.S. Thesis...Gopherus polyphemus in northern Florida. Journal of Herpetology 26:158-165. Diemer, J.E. 1992b. Demography of the tortoise Gopherus polyphemus...in northern Florida. Journal of Herpetology 26:281-289. ERDC/CERL TR-07-1 33 Dozier, J., and J. Stowe. 1999. Tillman Sand Ridge Heritage

  11. [Biological activity of lipopolysaccharides from clinical Bacteroides fragilis strains isolated in Poland determined in reaction with limulus amoebocyte lysate].

    PubMed

    Rokosz, Alicja; Górska, Paulina; Michałkiewicz, Jacek; Łuczak, Miroslaw

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine a biological activity of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from clinical Bacterioides fragilis strains isolated in Poland by means of quantitative, photometric BET (LAL) method with Limulus polyphemus amoebocyte lysate and chromogenic substrate S-2423. Lipopolysaccharides were extracted from nine clinical B. fragilis strains by the procedure of Westphal and Jann (1965). Crude LPS preparations were purified with ultracentrifugation. Biological activities of bacterial endotoxins were determined by quantitative BET method with chromogenic substrate S-2423 (ENDOCHROME kit). Tests were performed according to the recommendations of the producer (Charles River Endosafe Ltd., USA). E. coli O55:B5 LPS and LPS preparations from reference B. fragilis strains were applied to compare the results of examinations. Activities of endotoxins from clinical B. fragilis strains isolated in Poland determined in reaction with Limulus amoebocyte lysate were differentiated. Among endotoxins of clinical B. fragilis strains the most active was the preparation from strain cultured in the case of pancreatic ulcer (B. fragilis 80/81 LPS). Lipopolysaccharides of examined B. fragilis strains were less active in BET test than E. coli O55:B5 LPS.

  12. Clicking caterpillars: acoustic aposematism in Antheraea polyphemus and other Bombycoidea.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sarah G; Boettner, George H; Yack, Jayne E

    2007-03-01

    Acoustic signals produced by caterpillars have been documented for over 100 years, but in the majority of cases their significance is unknown. This study is the first to experimentally examine the phenomenon of audible sound production in larval Lepidoptera, focusing on a common silkmoth caterpillar, Antheraea polyphemus (Saturniidae). Larvae produce airborne sounds, resembling ;clicks', with their mandibles. Larvae typically signal multiple times in quick succession, producing trains that last over 1 min and include 50-55 clicks. Individual clicks within a train are on average 24.7 ms in duration, often consisting of multiple components. Clicks are audible in a quiet room, measuring 58.1-78.8 dB peSPL at 10 cm. They exhibit a broadband frequency that extends into the ultrasound spectrum, with most energy between 8 and 18 kHz. Our hypothesis that clicks function as acoustic aposematic signals, was supported by several lines of evidence. Experiments with forceps and domestic chicks correlated sound production with attack, and an increase in attack rate was positively correlated with the number of signals produced. In addition, sound production typically preceded or accompanied defensive regurgitation. Bioassays with invertebrates (ants) and vertebrates (mice) revealed that the regurgitant is deterrent to would-be predators. Comparative evidence revealed that other Bombycoidea species, including Actias luna (Saturniidae) and Manduca sexta (Sphingidae), also produce airborne sounds upon attack, and that these sounds precede regurgitation. The prevalence and adaptive significance of warning sounds in caterpillars is discussed.

  13. Delivery and movement of horseshoe crab eggs (Limulus polyphemus) in the breaking waves and swash uprush of an estuarine foreshore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Nancy L.; Nordstrom, Karl F.; Smith, David R.; Saini, Sherestha

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of conditions for entrainment of eggs and larvae from beach spawning sites is critical in determining the likelihood that these food sources will be delivered to shorebirds. The exhumation of horseshoe crab eggs buried within the beach foreshore is a function of changes in wave and current velocities over a tidal cycle. This field study was conducted to evaluate the temporal constraints to egg release at two different locations across the foreshore of a sandy estuarine beach in Delaware Bay, New Jersey. Wind, wave, current characteristics, beach change and eggs in transport were sampled over two tidal cycles. Egg counts were determined using four colors of dyed-egg tracers placed as point sources 5 and 10 m bayward of the expected upper limit of swash. Tracer recovery varied from 1% to 18% of the tracer eggs buried. Wave heights were relatively low (instrumented Hs = 0.09-0.17 m) but with long periods (5.6-8.8 s). Results reveal that egg release is discontinuous and occurs in pulses when the swash and breakers migrate across the injection points on the rising tide and when the breakers migrate past the injection points during the falling tide. A lack of tracer at the upper (5 m) injection point after early stages of high tide is likely due to the maximum disturbance depth being achieved early, leaving no eggs within the swash boundary layer. Peaks in recovery of tracer initially buried at the lower (10 m) location after the breakers migrated up the foreshore well past the injection location are likely from eggs deposited in the wrack on the upper beach or reburied in the sediment near the upper limit of swash and remobilized by high swash uprushes. These results using point sources of tracer eggs suggest that the contribution of eggs from within the beach matrix is temporally variable across the foreshore. Most eggs are released during rising tide, but additional eggs can be released during falling tide if the depth of activation of the bed is greater than on the rise due to net erosion or change to higher wave-energy conditions. Successful shorebird foraging at other times in the falling tide appears due to transport of eggs released earlier in the tidal cycle and delivered alongshore and not due to eggs exhumed in-situ at that time.

  14. Rhythms of locomotion expressed by Limulus polyphemus, the American horseshoe crab: II. Relationship to circadian rhythms of visual sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Watson, Winsor H; Bedford, Lisa; Chabot, Christopher C

    2008-08-01

    In the laboratory, horseshoe crabs express a circadian rhythm of visual sensitivity as well as daily and circatidal rhythms of locomotion. The major goal of this investigation was to determine whether the circadian clock underlying changes in visual sensitivity also modulates locomotion. To address this question, we developed a method for simultaneously recording changes in visual sensitivity and locomotion. Although every animal (24) expressed consistent circadian rhythms of visual sensitivity, rhythms of locomotion were more variable: 44% expressed a tidal rhythm, 28% were most active at night, and the rest lacked statistically significant rhythms. When exposed to artificial tides, 8 of 16 animals expressed circatidal rhythms of locomotion that continued after tidal cycles were stopped. However, rhythms of visual sensitivity remained stable and showed no tendency to be influenced by the imposed tides or locomotor activity. These results indicate that horseshoe crabs possess at least two biological clocks: one circadian clock primarily used for modulating visual sensitivity, and one or more clocks that control patterns of locomotion. This arrangement allows horseshoe crabs to see quite well while mating during both daytime and nighttime high tides.

  15. Ultrastructure of book gill development in embryos and first instars of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus L. (Chelicerata, Xiphosura)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The transmission electron microscope (TEM) is used for the first time to study the development of book gills in the horseshoe crab. Near the end of the nineteenth century the hypothesis was presented for homology and a common ancestry for horseshoe crab book gills and arachnid book lungs. The present developmental study and the author's recent ones of book gills (SEM) and scorpion book lungs (TEM) are intended to clarify early histological work and provide new ultrastructural details for further research and for hypotheses about evolutionary history and relationships. Results The observations herein are in agreement with earlier reports that the book gill lamellae are formed by proliferation and evagination of epithelial cells posterior to opisthosomal branchial appendages. A cartilage-like endoskeleton is produced in the base of the opisthosomal appendages. The lamellar precursor cells in the appendage base proliferate, migrate outward and secrete the lamellar cuticle from their apical surface. A series of external, posteriorly-directed lamellae is formed, with each lamella having a central channel for hemolymph and pillar-type space holders formed from cells of the opposed walls. This repeated, page-like pattern results also in water channels (without space holders) between the sac-like hemolymph lamellae. Conclusions The developmental observations herein and in an earlier study (TEM) of scorpion book lungs show that the lamellae in book gills and book lungs result from some similar activities and features of the precursor epithelial cells: proliferation, migration, alignment and apical/basal polarity with secretion of cuticle from the apical surface and the basal surface in contact with hemolymph. These cellular similarities and the resulting book-like structure suggest a common ancestry, but there are also substantial developmental differences in producing these organs for gas exchange in the different environments, aqueous and terrestrial. For scorpion book lungs, the invaginated precursor cells align in rows and secrete rows of cell fragments that are the basis for the internal, anterior-directed air sacs. The hemolymph sacs of book gills are formed by epithelial evagination or outfolding from the posterior surface of the branchial appendages. PMID:22433580

  16. [Use of reactions with Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) to determine biological activity of lipopolysaccharides from reference and clinical strains of the Bacteroides fragilis group].

    PubMed

    Rokosz, Alicja; Fiejka, Maria; Górska, Paulina; Aleksandrowicz, Janina; Meisel-Mikołajczyk, Felicja; Łuczak, MirosŁaw

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare a biological activity of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from reference and clinical strains of strictly anaerobic bacteria belonging to the Bacteroides fragilis group (BFG) by means of quantitative, photometric BET (LAL) method with Limulus polyphemus amoebocyte lysate and chromogenic substrate S-2423. Lipopolysaccharides of five BFG species were extracted by Westphal and Jann method (1965) from eight reference and two clinical strains of B. fragilis group. Crude LPS preparations were purified according to the procedure described by Gmeiner (1975) with ultracentrifugation and nuclease treatment. Biological activities of bacterial endotoxins were determined by quantitative BET method with chromogenic substrate S-2423 (ENDOCHROME kit, Charles River Endosafe Ltd., USA). Tests were performed according to the producer's recommendations. E. coli O55:B5 LPS was applied to compare its activity in reaction with LAL reagent with activities of LPS preparations from rods of the Bacteroides genus. Among examined bacterial compounds the most active in BET method was E. coli O55:B5 LPS. Activities of lipopolysaccharides from five species of BFG rods in reaction with Limulus amoebocyte lysate were differentiated. Greater ability to activate LAL proenzyme revealed lipopolysaccharides of these species of the Bacteroides genus, which are important from the clinical point of view--B. fragilis and B. thetaiotaomicron.

  17. Mechanism of interaction of optimized Limulus-derived cyclic peptides with endotoxins: thermodynamic, biophysical and microbiological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Andrä, Jörg; Howe, Jörg; Garidel, Patrick; Rössle, Manfred; Richter, Walter; Leiva-León, José; Moriyon, Ignacio; Bartels, Rainer; Gutsmann, Thomas; Brandenburg, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of formerly investigated peptides corresponding to the endotoxin-binding domain from LALF [Limulus anti-LPS (lipopolysaccharide) factor], a protein from Limulus polyphemus, we have designed and synthesized peptides of different lengths with the aim of obtaining potential therapeutic agents against septic shock syndrome. For an understanding of the mechanisms of action, we performed a detailed physicochemical and biophysical analysis of the interaction of rough mutant LPS with these peptides by applying FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared) spectroscopy, SAXS (small-angle X-ray scattering), calorimetric techniques [DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) and ITC (isothermal titration calorimetry)] and FFTEM (freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy). Also, the action of the peptides on bacteria of different origin in microbial assays was investigated. Using FTIR and DSC, our results indicated a strong fluidization of the lipid A acyl chains due to peptide binding, with a decrease in the endothermic melting enthalpy change of the acyl chains down to a complete disappearance in the 1:0.5 to 1:2 [LPS]:[peptide] molar ratio range. Via ITC, it was deduced that the binding is a clearly exothermic process which becomes saturated at a 1:0.5 to 1:2 [LPS]:[peptide] molar ratio range. The results obtained with SAXS indicated a drastic change of the aggregate structures of LPS into a multilamellar stack, which was visualized in electron micrographs as hundreds of lamellar layers. This can be directly correlated with the inhibition of the LPS-induced production of tumour necrosis factor α in human mononuclear cells, but not with the action of the peptides on bacteria. PMID:17501719

  18. Looking like Limulus? - Retinula axons and visual neuropils of the median and lateral eyes of scorpions.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Tobias; Melzer, Roland R

    2013-07-11

    Despite ongoing interest in the neurophysiology of visual systems in scorpions, aspects of their neuroanatomy have received little attention. Lately sets of neuroanatomical characters have contributed important arguments to the discussion of arthropod ground patterns and phylogeny. In various attempts to reconstruct phylogeny (from morphological, morphological + molecular, or molecular data) scorpions were placed either as basalmost Arachnida, or within Arachnida with changing sister-group relationships, or grouped with the extinct Eurypterida and Xiphosura inside the Merostomata. Thus, the position of scorpions is a key to understanding chelicerate evolution. To shed more light on this, the present study for the first time combines various techniques (Cobalt fills, DiI / DiO labelling, osmium-ethyl gallate procedure, and AMIRA 3D-reconstruction) to explore central projections and visual neuropils of median and lateral eyes in Euscorpius italicus (Herbst, 1800) and E. hadzii Di Caporiacco, 1950. Scorpion median eye retinula cells are linked to a first and a second visual neuropil, while some fibres additionally connect the median eyes with the arcuate body. The lateral eye retinula cells are linked to a first and a second visual neuropil as well, with the second neuropil being partly shared by projections from both eyes. Comparing these results to previous studies on the visual systems of scorpions and other chelicerates, we found striking similarities to the innervation pattern in Limulus polyphemus for both median and lateral eyes. This supports from a visual system point of view at least a phylogenetically basal position of Scorpiones in Arachnida, or even a close relationship to Xiphosura. In addition, we propose a ground pattern for the central projections of chelicerate median eyes.

  19. Abundance of adult horseshoe crabs (Limulus polylphemus) in Delaware Bay estimated from a bay-wide mark-recapture study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.R.; Millard, M.J.; Eyler, S.

    2006-01-01

    Estimates of the abundance of American horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) are important to determine egg production and to manage populations for the energetic needs of shorebirds that feed on horseshoe crab eggs. In 2003, over 17,500 horseshoe crabs were tagged and released throughout Delaware Bay, and recaptured crabs came from spawning surveys that were conducted during peak spawning. We used two release cohorts to test for a temporary effect of tagging on spawning behavior and we adjusted the number of releases according to relocation rates from a telemetry study. The abundance estimate was 20 million horseshoe crabs (90% confidence interval: 13-28 million), of which 6.25 million (90% CI: 4.0-8.8 million) were females. The combined harvest rate for Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia, and Maryland in 2003 was 4% (90% CI: 3-6%) of the abundance estimate. Over-wintering of adults in Delaware Bay could explain, in part, differences in estimates from ocean-trawl surveys. Based on fecundity of 88,000 eggs per female, egg production was 5.5??1011 (90% CI: 3.5??1011, 7.7??1011), but egg availability for shorebirds also depended on overlap between horseshoe crab and shorebird migrations, density-dependent bioturbation, and wave-mediated vertical transport.

  20. "Limulus" Psychophysics: Spectral Sensitivity of the Ventral Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Gerald S.

    1976-01-01

    The ventral eye of "Limulus" (horseshoe crab) contains only one type of photoreceptor. Behaviors mediated by the ventral eye provide an unambiguous representation of the function of that single-receptor type. Compares such behaviors with results of acute, single-cell investigations to assay for the contributions of candidate neural codes in the…

  1. "Limulus" Psychophysics: Spectral Sensitivity of the Ventral Eye

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Gerald S.

    1976-01-01

    The ventral eye of "Limulus" (horseshoe crab) contains only one type of photoreceptor. Behaviors mediated by the ventral eye provide an unambiguous representation of the function of that single-receptor type. Compares such behaviors with results of acute, single-cell investigations to assay for the contributions of candidate neural codes in the…

  2. Fungal keratitis in a gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus).

    PubMed

    Myers, Debbie A; Isaza, Ramiro; Ben-Shlomo, Gil; Abbott, Jeffrey; Plummer, Caryn E

    2009-09-01

    A free-ranging gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) presented for trauma and blindness. Fibrinous exudate obscured visualization of the globes. This exudative crust extended from the conjunctival fornices through the palpebral fissure and was manually removed. Ophthalmic examination revealed bilateral corneal ulcerations and scarring and phthisis bulbi of the left globe. Histology of the crust revealed a necrotic conjunctivitis with intralesional fungal hyphae. Culture of the corneal ulcer of the left eye isolated moderate growth of a mixed fungal flora consisting of Curvularia sp. and Aspergillus sp. Miconazole ophthalmic solution was administered and the ulcers in both eyes healed, but corneal edema continued. After 2 mo of treatment with miconazole, tramadol, acetylcysteine, hypertonic saline ointment, artificial tears, and hypertonic saline flushes, the right eye was normal with only a small scar. The left eye remained phthisical. This is the first report of fungal keratitis in a wild reptile and a gopher tortoise.

  3. Looking like Limulus? – Retinula axons and visual neuropils of the median and lateral eyes of scorpions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite ongoing interest in the neurophysiology of visual systems in scorpions, aspects of their neuroanatomy have received little attention. Lately sets of neuroanatomical characters have contributed important arguments to the discussion of arthropod ground patterns and phylogeny. In various attempts to reconstruct phylogeny (from morphological, morphological + molecular, or molecular data) scorpions were placed either as basalmost Arachnida, or within Arachnida with changing sister-group relationships, or grouped with the extinct Eurypterida and Xiphosura inside the Merostomata. Thus, the position of scorpions is a key to understanding chelicerate evolution. To shed more light on this, the present study for the first time combines various techniques (Cobalt fills, DiI / DiO labelling, osmium-ethyl gallate procedure, and AMIRA 3D-reconstruction) to explore central projections and visual neuropils of median and lateral eyes in Euscorpius italicus (Herbst, 1800) and E. hadzii Di Caporiacco, 1950. Results Scorpion median eye retinula cells are linked to a first and a second visual neuropil, while some fibres additionally connect the median eyes with the arcuate body. The lateral eye retinula cells are linked to a first and a second visual neuropil as well, with the second neuropil being partly shared by projections from both eyes. Conclusions Comparing these results to previous studies on the visual systems of scorpions and other chelicerates, we found striking similarities to the innervation pattern in Limulus polyphemus for both median and lateral eyes. This supports from a visual system point of view at least a phylogenetically basal position of Scorpiones in Arachnida, or even a close relationship to Xiphosura. In addition, we propose a ground pattern for the central projections of chelicerate median eyes. PMID:23842208

  4. The spatiotemporal transfer function of the Limulus lateral eye

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    The dynamics of the Limulus retina may be well described by the spatiotemporal transfer function, which measures the response of the eye to moving sinusoidal gratings. We consider a model for this system, which incorporates an excitatory generator potential, and self- and lateral inhibitory processes. Procedures are described which allow estimation of parameters for the model consistent with the empirical transfer function data. Transfer functions calculated from the model show good agreement with laboratory measurements, and may be used to predict accurately the response of the eye to arbitrary moving stimuli. The model allows convenient interpretation of the transfer function measurements in terms of physiological processes which underly the response of the Limulus retina. PMID:211177

  5. Efferent fibers to Limulus eyes synthesize and release octopamine.

    PubMed

    Batelle, B A; Evans, J A; Chamberlain, S C

    1982-06-11

    Octopamine synthesized in vitro from tyramine by Limulus lateral and ventral eyes was located by light microscopic and electron microscopic autoradiography in efferent fibers which innervate ventral photoreceptors and lateral eye ommatidia. Newly synthesized octopamine was released from efferent fibers in response to depolarization in high concentrations of potassium. We propose that octopamine is a neurotransmitter of efferent fibers that may modulate basic retinal processes such as photoreceptor sensitivity, photomechanical movements, and photoreceptive membrane turnover.

  6. Seasonal Acclimation of Constitutive Immunity in Gopher Tortoises Gopherus polyphemus.

    PubMed

    Goessling, Jeffrey M; Guyer, Craig; Mendonça, Mary T

    Studies have suggested a role for natural seasonal change to drive patterns of disease, especially within ectothermic vertebrates. In light of recent climate change, it is important to understand baseline disease resistance in a seasonal context to further understand the role that changes in seasonal weather patterns may have in increasing disease frequency. Herein we found support for the seasonal acclimation hypothesis in Gopherus polyphemus (gopher tortoise), which indicated that natural seasonal variation causes differences in baseline immune function across seasonal acclimation states. We found that an innate immune parameter, bactericidal ability (BA), was significantly elevated in the summer (P < 0.00001). Circulating leukocyte profiles varied significantly among seasons, with heterophils and monocytes increased (P = 0.00019 and P = 0.0001, respectively) and lymphocytes decreased (P < 0.00001) during winter. We assayed baseline glucocorticoid concentration (e.g., corticosterone [CORT]) across seasons and sampling conditions to test whether CORT drove the seasonal pattern in immunological acclimation. CORT was significantly lowest during winter and in animals temporarily maintained in seminatural conditions. These changes in CORT occurred independently of the immunological adjustments, suggesting that the seasonal pattern of immunity was not mediated by CORT secretion. The reduction in lymphocytes and BA and also BA during winter suggest that seasonal acclimation is likely a restraint on energetic output when temperature is low and physiological performance is thermally constrained. While these parameters were reduced in winter, the increase in heterophils and monocytes may indicate a compensatory immune adjustment to increase the number of innate phagocytic cells.

  7. Carbon Nanotubes Activate Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Coagulation by Interface Adsorption.

    PubMed

    Yang, Man; Nie, Xin; Meng, Jie; Liu, Jian; Sun, Zhiwei; Xu, Haiyan

    2017-03-15

    Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay is worldwide requested in the assessment of endotoxin contamination for biomaterials. As carbon nanotubes are one major nanomaterial with multiple potentials in biomedical application, here we investigate whether oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (O-MWCNT) interferes the assessment by LAL assays. We showed that the endotoxin free O-MWCNT dispersing in aqueous solutions could activate both the gel-clotting and the end-point chromogenic LAL assay by converting coagulogen into coagulin through interfacial interactions between O-MWCNT and enzymes in the assays. In conclusion, the O-MWCNT could induce false positive results by activating the enzyme cascade of LAL.

  8. Determination of endotoxins in sugar with the Limulus test.

    PubMed

    Haskå, G; Nystrand, R

    1979-12-01

    The Limulus amebocyte lysate test has been used for determination of pyrogens in sugar of different qualities. All the samples of domestic white sugar and beet raw sugar produced in Sweden during 1976 had a very low content of endotoxins, less than 10 ng/g of sugar. Imported cane raw sugar was, however, highly contaminated. The highest value obtained corresponds to about 100 mg of Escherichia coli endotoxin per g of raw sugar. Such crude sugar cannot, even after refining, be used for medical purposes. Instead, Swedish beet sugar is used as the raw material for production of invert sugar solutions for parenteral administration. The amount of endotoxin in this sugar is less than 1 ng/g.

  9. Mach bands in the lateral eye of Limulus

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    Patterns of optic nerve activity were computed for stationary step patterns of illumination from theoretical models of lateral inhibiton based on revised Hartlin-Ratliff equations. The computed response patterns contain well-defined Mach bands which match closely in amplitude and shape those recorded from single optic nerve fibers of the Limulus lateral eye. Theory and experiment show that the amplitude of the Mach bands is reduced by in inhibitory nonlinearity, the width of the Mach bands is approximately equal to the lateral dimension of the inhibitory field, but the shapes of the Mach bands are poor indices of the precise configuration of the inhibitory field. Theorems are proved establishing the equivalence of Mach-band patterns for models of different dimensions and a uniqueness condition for solutions of the piecewise linear model. PMID:172594

  10. Rapid presumptive diagnosis of gonococcal urethritis in men by the limulus lysate test.

    PubMed Central

    Spagna, V A; Prior, R B; Perkins, R L

    1979-01-01

    In an evaluation of the limulus assay as a method for detecting endotoxin in urethral exudates, positive results of urethral samples at a 1/200 dilution were obtained from 73 out of 73 patients with culture-positive gonococcal urethritis while negative results were obtained from 26 out of 27 patients with cuture-negative urethral specimens. A specimen from one patient, which gave negative results on Gram stain and culture, gave positive results to the limulus test. The overall accuracy of the limulus test for predicting culture results was 99% (p less than 0.001). Thus, in preliminary studies of otherwise healthy men, the results of the limulus assay correlated with those of biological methods for diagnosing urethral gonorrhoea; the test may, therefore, be of use in identifying cases of nongonococcal urethritis. PMID:466383

  11. Inhibition in the Limulus lateral eye in situ

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Inhibition in the Limulus lateral eye in situ is qualitatively similar to that in the excised eye. In both preparations ommatidia mutually inhibit one another, and the magnitude of the inhibitory effects are linear functions of the response rate of individual ommatidia. The strength of inhibition exerted between single ommatidia is also about the same for both preparations; however, stronger effects can converge on a single ommatidium in situ. At high levels of illumination of the retina in situ the inhibitory effects are often strong enough to produce sustained oscillations in the discharge of optic nerve fibers. The weaker inhibitory influences at low levels of illumination do not produce oscillations but decrease the variance of the optic nerve discharge. Thresholds for the inhibitory effects appear to be determined by both presynaptic and postsynaptic cellular processes. Our results are consistent with the idea that a single ommatidium can be inhibited by more of its neighbors in an eye in situ than in an excised eye. Leaving intact the blood supply to the eye appears to preserve the functional integrity of the retinal pathways which mediate inhibition. PMID:670927

  12. Specificity of serotoninergic inhibition in Limulus lateral eye.

    PubMed

    Adolph, A R; Kass, L

    1979-11-01

    The receptor specificity for synaptically mediated lateral inhibition in Limulus lateral eye retina was studied by structure-activity correlations of the action of the putative indoleaminergic neurotransmitter, serotonin (5-HT), and its isomers and structural analogs, tryptamine (TRYP), 6-hydroxytryptamine (6HT), 5,6-dihydroxytryptamine (5,6-DHT), 5-hydroxydimethyltryptamine (5-HDMT), and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP). The 5-HT blockers, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), bromo-LSD (BOL), and cinanserin, were also tested. The inhibitory action of the indoleaminergic agonists is highly structure-specific. An hydroxyl group in the 5 position of the indole nucleus, sterically unencumbered by hydroxyls in neighboing positions, is essential. In order of decreasing potency, 5-HT, 5-HDMT, and 5-HTP are active agonists; TRYP, 6-HT, and 5,6-DHT are inactive. Configuration and mobility of the side chains of the active agonists also affect the interaction, and these side-chain characteristics correlate with agonist potency. The receptors for inhibitory action and for transmembranal transport in reuptake are different. Both active agonists and inactive analogs appear to be taken up (Adolph and Ehinger, 1975. Cell Tissue Res. 163:1-14). LSD and BOL have bimodal actions: direct inhibition and agonist blockade. These actions may be mediated via low-specificity presynaptic uptake receptor sites rather than highly specific, postsynaptic, agonist receptor sites.

  13. Putative synaptic mechanisms of inhibition in Limulus lateral eye.

    PubMed

    Adolph, A R

    1976-04-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) perfusion of a thin section of Limulus lateral eye hyperpolarizes retinular and eccentric cell membrane potential, and blocks spike action potentials fired by the eccenteric cell. The indoleamine does not directly affect retinular cell receptor potential or eccenteric cell generator potential in response to light stimuli. LSD perfusion blocks both this inhibitory action of 5-HT and light-evoked, synaptically mediated, lateral inhibition. Iontophoretic application of 5-HT to the synaptic neuropil produces shorter latency and duration and larger amplitude of inhibition than does the perfusion technique. This inhibition is dose dependent; the accompanying inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) appears to have an equilibrium potential more hyperpolarized than normal resting potential levels of ca. -50 mV. IPSP amplitude is sensitive to extracellular potassium ion concentration: it increases with decreased [K+]0 and decreases with increased [K+]0. LSD blocks the inhibition produced by iontophoretic application of 5-HT. Interaction between light-evoked, natural synaptic transmitter-mediated IPSP's and 5-HT IPSP's suggests a common postsynaptic receptor or transmitter-receptor-permeability change mechanism.

  14. A comparison of artificial incubation and natural incubation hatching success of gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) eggs in southern Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noel, Krista M.; Qualls, Carl P.; Ennen, Joshua R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have found that Gopher Tortoise, Gopherus polyphemus, populations in southern Mississippi exhibit low recruitment, due in part to very low hatching success of their eggs. We sought to determine if the cause(s) of this low hatching success was related to egg quality (intrinsic factors), unsuitability of the nest environment (extrinsic factors), or a combination of the two. In 2003, hatching success was monitored simultaneously for eggs from the same clutches that were incubated in the laboratory and left to incubate in nests. A subset of randomly chosen eggs from each clutch was incubated in the laboratory under physical conditions that were known to be conducive to successful hatching to estimate the proportion of eggs that were capable of hatching in a controlled setting. Hatching success in the laboratory was compared with that of eggs incubated in natural nests to estimate the proportion of eggs that failed to hatch presumably from extrinsic factors. Laboratory hatching success was 58.8%, suggesting that roughly 40% of the eggs were intrinsically incapable of hatching even when incubated under controlled conditions. Hatching success in natural nests, 16.7%, was significantly lower than hatching success in the laboratory, suggesting that approximately 42.1% of eggs were capable of hatching but failed to hatch due to some extrinsic aspect(s) of the nest environment. Thus, the low hatching success of Gopher Tortoise eggs in southern Mississippi appears to be attributable to a combination of intrinsic (egg quality) and extrinsic (nest environment) factors.

  15. Opsin co-expression in Limulus photoreceptors: differential regulation by light and a circadian clock

    PubMed Central

    Katti, C.; Kempler, K.; Porter, M. L.; Legg, A.; Gonzalez, R.; Garcia-Rivera, E.; Dugger, D.; Battelle, B.-A.

    2010-01-01

    A long-standing concept in vision science has held that a single photoreceptor expresses a single type of opsin, the protein component of visual pigment. However, the number of examples in the literature of photoreceptors from vertebrates and invertebrates that break this rule is increasing. Here, we describe a newly discovered Limulus opsin, Limulus opsin5, which is significantly different from previously characterized Limulus opsins, opsins1 and 2. We show that opsin5 is co-expressed with opsins1 and 2 in Limulus lateral and ventral eye photoreceptors and provide the first evidence that the expression of co-expressed opsins can be differentially regulated. We show that the relative levels of opsin5 and opsin1 and 2 in the rhabdom change with a diurnal rhythm and that their relative levels are also influenced by the animal's central circadian clock. An analysis of the sequence of opsin5 suggests it is sensitive to visible light (400–700 nm) but that its spectral properties may be different from that of opsins1 and 2. Changes in the relative levels of these opsins may underlie some of the dramatic day–night changes in Limulus photoreceptor function and may produce a diurnal change in their spectral sensitivity. PMID:20639420

  16. Characterization of Limulus amoebocyte lysate-reactive material from hollow-fiber dialyzers.

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, F C; Bohon, J; Lee, W; Bruszer, G; Sagona, M; Jakubowski, G; Dawe, R; Morrison, D; Dinarello, C

    1984-01-01

    Hollow-fiber hemodialyzers containing cellulose-based membranes have been shown to produce positive results with the Limulus amoebocyte lysate test. This study was undertaken to determine whether endotoxin was causing the reaction. Rinses from 45 parallel-plate and hollow-fiber dialyzers from eight different manufacturers were tested before and after treatment with cellulase, using three lysates and four Limulus amoebocyte lysate methods. In addition, four in vitro cellular methods--human leukocytic pyrogen, lymphocytic activating factor, peritoneal macrophage, and arginase release--were used to evaluate endotoxin activity. The substance causing the reaction was identified by chromatographic methods. Results indicate that the Limulus amoebocyte lysate reactive material is cellulose derived and not pyrogenic. PMID:6517586

  17. The response of the Limulus retina to moving stimuli: a prediction by Fourier synthesis

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    The Limulus retina responds as a linear system to light stimuli which vary moderately about a mean level. The dynamics of such a system may conveniently be summarized by means of a spatiotemporal transfer function, which describes the response of the system to moving sinusoidal gratings. The response of the system to an arbitrary stimulus may then be calculated by adding together the system's responses to suitably weighted sinusoidal stimuli. We have measured such a spatiotemporal transfer function for the Limulus eye. We have then accurately predicted, in a parameter-free calculation, the eye's response to various stimulus patterns which move across it at several different velocities. PMID:690594

  18. Foliage of oaks grown under elevated CO2 reduces performance of Antheraea polyphemus (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae).

    PubMed

    Knepp, Rachel G; Hamilton, Jason G; Zangerl, Arthur R; Berenbaum, May R; DeLucia, Evan H

    2007-06-01

    To understand how the increase in atmospheric CO2 from human activity may affect leaf damage by forest insects, we examined host plant preference and larval performance of a generalist herbivore, Antheraea polyphemus Cram., that consumed foliage developed under ambient or elevated CO2. Larvae were fed leaves from Quercus alba L. and Quercus velutina Lam. grown under ambient or plus 200 microl/liter CO2 using free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE). Lower digestibility of foliage, greater protein precipitation capacity in frass, and lower nitrogen concentration of larvae indicate that growth under elevated CO2 reduced the food quality of oak leaves for caterpillars. Consuming leaves of either oak species grown under elevated CO2 slowed the rate of development of A. polyphemus larvae. When given a choice, A. polyphemus larvae preferred Q. velutina leaves grown under ambient CO2; feeding on foliage of this species grown under elevated CO2 led to reduced consumption, slower growth, and greater mortality. Larvae compensated for the lower digestibility of Q. alba leaves grown under elevated CO2 by increasing the efficiency of conversion of ingested food into larval mass. Despite equivalent consumption rates, larvae grew larger when they consumed Q. alba leaves grown under elevated compared with ambient CO2. Reduced consumption, slower growth rates, and increased mortality of insect larvae may explain lower total leaf damage observed previously in plots in this forest exposed to elevated CO2. By subtly altering aspects of leaf chemistry, the ever-increasing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere will change the trophic dynamics in forest ecosystems.

  19. Differential blocking of coagulation-activating pathways of Limulus amebocyte lysate.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, G H; Baek, L; Buchardt, O; Koch, C

    1994-01-01

    The coagulation of Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) can be activated through two pathways, one initiated by endotoxin and the other by beta-glucans. The two pathways join at the step of activation of the proclotting enzyme. We report here that the endotoxin-activated pathway can be differentially inhibited by two methods in a Limulus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), either by the combined use of dimethyl sulfoxide and polymyxin B or by a monoclonal antibody against Limulus factor C. LAL reactivities to 10 different endotoxin preparations could be inhibited by the former method by a factor of 10(4) to 10(6) and could be blocked almost totally by the latter method, irrespective of the source of endotoxin. The sensitivity of the assay was approximately 50 pg/ml both for curdlan from Alcaligenes faecalis and for laminarin from Laminaria digitata. We also found that the beta-glucan-activated pathway could be totally blocked by laminarin (> 1 microgram/ml) without affecting the endotoxin-activated pathway, allowing endotoxin to be quantitated specifically by the Limulus ELISA with a detection limit of 0.005 endotoxin unit per ml. The use of uninhibited and differentially inhibited ELISAs demonstrated that different LAL preparations showed much greater variation in assaying beta-glucans than in assaying endotoxins. The LAL reactivity of normal human plasma was found to be due to the activation of the beta-glucan pathway, but not the endotoxin pathway, of LAL. PMID:8077400

  20. Rapid detection of contaminated intravenous fluids using the Limulus in vitro endotoxin assay.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, J H; Smith, R F

    1973-10-01

    Intravenous fluids and administration sets may become contaminated with gram-negative bacteria during use and result in a life-threatening situation to the patient. The Limulus in vitro assay for endotoxin was used in two patients whose parenteral fluids had become contaminated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This test allowed rapid detection of the contaminated intravenous fluids and demonstrated a concomitant endotoxemia in both patients. The same strains of pseudomon were subsequently cultured from each patient's blood, intravenous catheter tip, and parenteral fluid and administration set. A different serotype of pseudomonas was unique to each patient, indicating two separate and unrelated cases of accidental contamination of the administration sets. Endotoxin-like activity was also demonstrated from several brands of commercial human serum albumin, which may contribute low-level activity detectable by the Limulus assay.

  1. Estimating Occupancy of Gopher Tortoise (Gorpherus polyphemus) Burrows in Coastal Scrub and Slash Pine Flatwoods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1991-01-01

    One hundred twelve plots were established in coastal scrub and slash pine flatwoods habitats on the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to evaluate relationships between the number of burrows and gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) density. All burrows were located within these plots and were classified according to tortoise activity. Depending on season, bucket trapping, a stick method, a gopher tortoise pulling device, and a camera system were used to estimate tortoise occupancy. Correction factors (% of burrows occupied) were calculated by season and habitat type. Our data suggest that less than 20% of the active and inactive burrows combined were occupied during seasons when gopher tortoises were active. Correction factors were higher in poorly-drained areas and lower in well-drained areas during the winter, when gopher tortoise activity was low. Correction factors differed from studies elsewhere, indicating that population estimates require correction factors specific to the site and season to accurately estimate population size.

  2. Estimating Occupancy of Gopher Tortoise (Gorpherus polyphemus) Burrows in Coastal Scrub and Slash Pine Flatwoods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.; Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1991-01-01

    One hundred twelve plots were established in coastal scrub and slash pine flatwoods habitats on the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) to evaluate relationships between the number of burrows and gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) density. All burrows were located within these plots and were classified according to tortoise activity. Depending on season, bucket trapping, a stick method, a gopher tortoise pulling device, and a camera system were used to estimate tortoise occupancy. Correction factors (% of burrows occupied) were calculated by season and habitat type. Our data suggest that less than 20% of the active and inactive burrows combined were occupied during seasons when gopher tortoises were active. Correction factors were higher in poorly-drained areas and lower in well-drained areas during the winter, when gopher tortoise activity was low. Correction factors differed from studies elsewhere, indicating that population estimates require correction factors specific to the site and season to accurately estimate population size.

  3. Isolation of an iron-binding protein from the hemolymph of the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyhemus)

    SciTech Connect

    Topham, R.; Cooper, B.; Tesh, S.; Bonaventura, C.

    1987-05-01

    The presence of an iron-binding protein in the hemolymph of Limulus was detected by gel-filtration of /sup 59/Fe-labeled hemolymph. This protein was easily separated from hemocyanin, the oxygen transport protein that constitutes greater than 90% of the protein of Limulus hemolymph. The amount of the Limulus iron-binding protein (LIBP) in hemolymph samples prepared under sterile and non-sterile conditions was identical. LIBP was purified to homogeneity by ion-exchange chromatography. The molecular weight of purified LIBP was estimated by gel-filtration to be 282,000 + 10,000. SDS-electrophoresis demonstrated that LIBP was an oligomeric protein composed of subunits with a molecular weight of 28,000 +/- 2000. The isoelectric point of LIBP was 6.5 as determined by electrofocusing. No /sup 49/Fe was removed from purified LIBP by extensive dialysis with EDTA or 2,2'-dipyridyl. Purified, unlabeled LIBP efficiently sequestered /sup 59/Fe in the absence of hemolymph indicating that no other hemolymph factors are required for the incorporation of iron into LIBP. The isolation of LIBP would support the proposal that the development of specific iron-binding and transport proteins was not necessarily coupled to the development of hemoglobin as a means to accomplish oxygen transport.

  4. Head-head Interaction Characterizes the Relaxed State of Limulus Muscle Myosin Filaments

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Fa-Qing; Craig, Roger; Woodhead, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of muscle contraction via the myosin filaments occurs in vertebrate smooth and many invertebrate striated muscles. Studies of unphosphorylated vertebrate smooth muscle myosin suggest that activity is switched off through an intramolecular interaction between the actin-binding region of one head and the converter and essential light chains of the other, inhibiting ATPase activity and actin interaction. The same interaction (and additional interaction with the tail) is seen in three-dimensional reconstructions of relaxed, native myosin filaments from tarantula striated muscle, suggesting that such interactions are likely to underlie the off-state of myosin across a wide spectrum of the animal kingdom. We have tested this hypothesis by carrying out cryo-electron microscopy and 3D image reconstruction of myosin filaments from horseshoe crab (Limulus) muscle. The same head-head and head-tail interactions seen in tarantula are also seen in Limulus, supporting the hypothesis. Other data suggest that this motif may underlie the relaxed state of myosin II in all species (including myosin II in nonmuscle cells), with the possible exception of insect flight muscle. The molecular organization of the myosin tails in the backbone of muscle thick filaments is unknown, and may differ between species. X-ray diffraction data support a general model for crustaceans in which tails associate together to form 4 nm diameter subfilaments, with these subfilaments assembling together to form the backbone. This model is supported by direct observation of 4 nm diameter, elongated strands in the tarantula reconstruction, suggesting that it might be a general structure across the arthropods. We observe a similar backbone organization in the Limulus reconstruction, supporting the general existence of such subfilaments. PMID:18976661

  5. Ambiguities in applying traditional Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate tests to quantify endotoxin in nanoparticle formulations

    PubMed Central

    Dobrovolskaia, Marina A; Neun, Barry W; Clogston, Jeffrey D; Ding, Hui; Ljubimova, Julia; McNeil, Scott E

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology is finding increasing application in biology and medicine. As with other pharmaceutical formulations and medical devices intended for use in animals and human patients, contamination of nanoparticles with bacterial endotoxins should be thoroughly investigated before preclinical in vitro and in vivo characterization. Traditional methods to study endotoxin contamination include the in vitro quantitative limulus amoebocyte lysate test and the in vivo qualitative rabbit pyrogen test. Both of these tests have long history of use for traditional pharmaceuticals and medical devices and are routinely used in drug development. Here we report that nanoparticles often interfere with these traditional endotoxin detection tests and suggest approaches to detect and overcome such interferences. PMID:20528451

  6. Comparison of Limulus assay, standard plate count, and total coliform count for microbiological assessment of renovated wastewater.

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, J H; Lee, J C; Alexander, G A; Wolf, H W

    1979-01-01

    The Limulus endotoxin assay was compared to the standard plate count and total coliform count for assessment of the bacteriological quality of reclaimed wastewater. A total of 48 water samples from an advanced waste treatment plant in Dallas, Tex. were examined by the three techniques. Limulus assays were technically simpler to perform and provided results much sooner than conventional culture methods. However, the endotoxin values did not correlate extremely well with determinations of viable bacterial numbers. This lack of correlation may have been due to alterations in the normal ratio of viable gram-negative cells to endotoxin caused by water reclamation procedures. PMID:384901

  7. Contributions of private landowners to the conservation of the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus).

    PubMed

    Underwood, Vicki J; Ober, Holly K; Miller, Deborah L; Munn, Ian A

    2012-04-01

    Private landowners play a pivotal role in determining whether or not rare species persist in regions where privately owned land is extensive. The range of the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) is confined to the Southeastern U.S., a region predominantly under private ownership, and thus the status of this species is largely dependent upon land management decisions made by private landowners. We sent an anonymous mail survey to 2,584 individuals to examine factors affecting gopher tortoise occurrence on private lands in Mississippi (adjusted response rate of 23%). Few respondents (19%) reported currently having tortoises on their property, although many had them in the past (30%). Tortoises were persisting primarily on larger properties with longleaf pine that were not managed chiefly for timber production. In general, respondents were largely unaware of habitat requirements of tortoises or effects of various land management practices on them, and few reported using management techniques that benefit tortoises, such as prescribed burning. Most respondents (57%) knew of wildlife incentive programs, but were hesitant to enroll because they did not want to commit to managing their property in a particular manner (34%). We suggest actions that could improve the likelihood of tortoise persistence in this region, as well as changes that could be made to incentive programs to increase landowner participation. These suggestions should be relevant to the conservation of other rare species on private lands in other regions.

  8. Contributions of Private Landowners to the Conservation of the Gopher Tortoise ( Gopherus polyphemus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Vicki J.; Ober, Holly K.; Miller, Deborah L.; Munn, Ian A.

    2012-04-01

    Private landowners play a pivotal role in determining whether or not rare species persist in regions where privately owned land is extensive. The range of the gopher tortoise ( Gopherus polyphemus) is confined to the Southeastern U.S., a region predominantly under private ownership, and thus the status of this species is largely dependent upon land management decisions made by private landowners. We sent an anonymous mail survey to 2,584 individuals to examine factors affecting gopher tortoise occurrence on private lands in Mississippi (adjusted response rate of 23%). Few respondents (19%) reported currently having tortoises on their property, although many had them in the past (30%). Tortoises were persisting primarily on larger properties with longleaf pine that were not managed chiefly for timber production. In general, respondents were largely unaware of habitat requirements of tortoises or effects of various land management practices on them, and few reported using management techniques that benefit tortoises, such as prescribed burning. Most respondents (57%) knew of wildlife incentive programs, but were hesitant to enroll because they did not want to commit to managing their property in a particular manner (34%). We suggest actions that could improve the likelihood of tortoise persistence in this region, as well as changes that could be made to incentive programs to increase landowner participation. These suggestions should be relevant to the conservation of other rare species on private lands in other regions.

  9. Intestinal parasites of the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) from eight populations in Georgia.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Jessica L; Miller, Elizabeth A; Norton, Terry M; Raphael, Bonnie L; Spratt, Jeffrey S; Yabsley, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    The gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus), one of five tortoise species endemic in the USA, was recently classified as a candidate for federal listing as a threatened species. Fecal samples collected from 117 tortoises from eight sites in Georgia were examined for endoparasites using a combination of sedimentation and flotation. Samples from an island population were examined for parasitic oocysts and ova only by flotation, protozoan cysts by trichrome-stained direct smear, and Cryptosporidium by direct immunofluorescence assay and ProSpecT rapid assay. A total of 99 tortoises (85, range 0-100%) was infected with pinworms (Alaeuris spp.), 47 (40, 0-86%) with cestodes (Oochorstica sp.), 34 (41, 0-74%) with Chapiniella spp., 2 (3, 0-33%) with Eimeria paynei, and a single tortoise each with a capillarid and ascarid (1%). On the island, Entamoeba was detected in one tortoise (2%) while Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in eight (17%). In conclusion, at least eight species of parasites were detected including Cryptosporidium, a possible pathogen of tortoises. Interestingly, we detected spatial variation in the distribution of several parasites among populations suggesting additional work should be conducted across a gradient of tortoise densities, land use, and habitat characteristics.

  10. Daily energy expenditure in free-ranging Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jodice, P.G.R.; Epperson, D.M.; Visser, G. Henk

    2006-01-01

    Studies of ecological energetics in chelonians are rare. Here, we report the first measurements of daily energy expenditure (DEE) and water influx rates (WIRs) in free-ranging adult Gopher Tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus). We used the doubly labeled water (DLW) method to measure DEE in six adult tortoises during the non-breeding season in south-central Mississippi, USA. Tortoise DEE ranged from 76.7-187.5 kj/day and WIR ranged from 30.6-93.1 ml H2O/day. Daily energy expenditure did not differ between the sexes, but DEE was positively related to body mass. Water influx rates varied with the interaction of sex and body mass. We used a log/log regression model to assess the allometric relationship between DEE and body mass for Gopher Tortoises, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), and Box Turtles (Terrapene carolina), the only chelonians for which DEE has been measured. The slope of this allometric model (0.626) was less than that previously calculated for herbivorous reptiles (0.813), suggesting that chelonians may expend energy at a slower rate per unit of body mass compared to other herbivorous reptiles. We used retrospective power analyses and data from the DLW isotope analyses to develop guidelines for sample sizes and duration of measurement intervals, respectively, for larger-scale energetic studies in this species. ?? 2006 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

  11. Interference of silica nanoparticles with the traditional Limulus amebocyte lysate gel clot assay.

    PubMed

    Kucki, Melanie; Cavelius, Christian; Kraegeloh, Annette

    2014-04-01

    Endotoxin contaminations of engineered nanomaterials can be responsible for observed biological responses, especially for misleading results in in vitro test systems, as well as in vivo studies. Therefore, endotoxin testing of nanomaterials is necessary to benchmark their influence on cells. Here, we tested the traditional Limulus amebocyte lysate gel clot assay for the detection of endotoxins in nanoparticle suspensions with a focus on possible interference of the particles with the test system. We systematically investigated the effects of nanomaterials made of, or covered by, the same material. Different types of bare or PEGylated silica nanoparticles, as well as iron oxide-silica core shell nanoparticles, were tested. Detailed inhibition/enhancement controls revealed enhanced activity in the Limulus coagulation cascade for all particles with bare silica surface. In comparison, PEGylation led to a lower degree of enhancement. These results indicate that the protein-particle interactions are the basis for the observed inhibition and enhancement effects. The enhancement activity of a particle type was positively related to the calculated particle surface area. For most silica particles tested, a dilution of the sample within the maximum valid dilution was sufficient to overcome non-valid enhancement, enabling semi-quantification of the endotoxin contamination.

  12. Ability of gonococcal and meningococcal lipooligosaccharides to clot Limulus amebocyte lysate.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, R I; Yamasaki, R; Mandrell, R E; Griffiss, J M

    1992-01-01

    We investigated whether the striking difference in severity of coagulopathy observed between bacterial sepsis involving Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae species is related to species-dependent abilities to directly activate coagulation. Using lipooligosaccharide (LOS)-activated gelation of Limulus amebocyte lysate, we compared the relative abilities of outer membrane LOS of 10 N. meningitidis and 10 N. gonorrhoeae strains to initiate coagulation. A wide range of procoagulant potencies was observed for each species, and there was significant overlap of potencies between species. Relative biological activities did not correlate with the oligosaccharide components as defined by LOS molecular weight or specific antigenic epitopes. Purified lipid A of two LOS strains of different potency demonstrated relative procoagulant biological activities similar to those of their parent LOSs. When these lipid A preparations were further separated by thin-layer chromatography, the most polar component of each lipid A possessed the majority of the procoagulant activity. We concluded that the ability of neisserial LOS to initiate coagulation of Limulus lysate is a property of the lipid A portion of the molecule and is most likely determined by fine structural differences in the lipid A which are independent of species. Images PMID:1541549

  13. THE DARK ADAPTATION OF THE EYE OF LIMULUS, AS MANIFESTED BY ITS ELECTRIC RESPONSE TO ILLUMINATION.

    PubMed

    Hartline, H K

    1930-01-20

    1. The phenomenon of dark adaptation of the eye of Limulus is reflected in the behavior of the action potentials obtained upon stimulation by light. The method of obtaining and recording these action potentials has been described in an earlier paper. 2. By determining the intensity of stimulus necessary to produce an electric response of a given magnitude (as to maximum action potential), at various times during dark adaptation, a quantitative analysis of the process may be made. This analysis is identical with that of Hecht for the dark adaptation of the human eye. 3. The results of this analysis indicate that the process of dark adaptation in the Limulus eye may be represented by a chemical reaction of the second order-the recombination of products of photolysis to renew the depleted supply of photosensitive material. This is in complete accord with Hecht's conception of the photosensory process, and is in quantitative agreement with the results obtained by other methods, in several different animal forms. 4. The experimental relation between strength of stimulus and magnitude of electric response reduces the assumption originally made by Hecht to account for the data on the human eye to an equivalent form; that the magnitude of electric response, provided it be sufficiently large, is directly proportional to the concentration of the photosensitive material in the sense organ.

  14. Conventional tube and microplate Limulus amoebocyte lysate procedures for determination of gram-negative bacteria in milk.

    PubMed

    May, S A; Mikolajcik, E M; Richter, E R

    1989-05-01

    A comparison was made of the conventional tube and microplate Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay for detection of gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide in milk. Raw whole milk samples were maintained frozen and portions were examined periodically on alternate days during 13-d storage to evaluate the reproducibility of both Limulus amoebocyte lysate procedures and to determine optimum reaction conditions for the microplate method. One-day-old, raw and locally purchased pasteurized milk samples, held at 7 degrees C, were analyzed during storage to establish the correlation of both procedures with aerobic and modified psychrotrophic plate counts. Vitamin- and mineral-fortified dairy-based products were examined using the microplate Limulus amoebocyte lysate test as a potential indicator of raw material or finished product bacterial quality and possible postprocessing contamination. Statistical analysis of the data collected comparing the conventional tube and the microplate Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay demonstrated no significant difference exists between the methods when either the modified psychrotrophic bacterial count or the aerobic plate count was used to determine gram-negative bacteria in pasteurized or raw milk (P less than .91). The microplate method, which uses half the lysate reagent, was a good indicator of the bacterial quality of milk and fortified dairy products, consistently detecting bacterial levels greater than 10(3) to 10(4)/ml.

  15. Routine limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test for endotoxin determination in milk using a Toxinometer ET-201.

    PubMed

    Mottar, J; De Block, J; Merchiers, M; Vantomme, K; Moermans, R

    1993-05-01

    A rapid method of performing the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test in milk is proposed using the Toxinometer ET-201. This instrument measured the increase in turbidity due to the interaction between the endotoxins of the Gram-negative bacteria and the LAL reagent, monitored the ratio Rt of the sequential to the initial transmission at 12 s intervals and quantified endotoxins by determination of the reaction time Tr required to obtain a 5% decrease in Rt. There was a good correlation between the toxinometrically determined endotoxin concentrations and the number of Gram-negative bacteria (SD, 0.18 log(plate count units)), and the repeatability (CV, 6-10%) was high. The assay may be useful for screening raw materials for UHT milk production, as the endotoxin content of the raw material is related to the rest proteinase activity in the UHT milk.

  16. The impact of non-endotoxin LAL-reactive materials on Limulus amebocyte lysate analyses.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J F; Weary, M E; Jordan, F T

    1997-01-01

    Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) is activated by bacterial endotoxins and certain glucans (beta-D-glucan, LAL-RM). The potential for conflicting inter-laboratory results for LAL tests exists because commercial LAL reagents are highly variable in response to LAL-reactive glucans. The nature of beta-D-glucan activation of LAL and means for rendering LAL non-responsive to glucan are reviewed to provide a background for resolving conflicting data. Kinetic LAL methods are particularly useful for screening materials potentially contaminated with glucan. The presence of beta-D-glucan in parenterals is uncommon and is likely limited to products exposed to microbial or cellulosic materials. A scheme is suggested for identifying LAL-reactive glucans and for LAL release-testing without glucan interference.

  17. Sinusoidal and Delta Function Responses of Visual Cells of the Limulus Eye

    PubMed Central

    Pinter, R. B.

    1966-01-01

    Dynamic responses of visual cells of the Limulus eye to stimuli of sinusoids and narrow pulses of light superimposed on a nonzero mean level have been obtained. Amplitudes and phase angles of averaged sinusoidal generator potential are plotted with respect to frequency of intensity modulation for different mean levels of light adaptation. At frequencies above 10 CPS, generator potential amplitudes decrease sharply and phase lag angle increases. At frequencies below 1 CPS, amplitude decreases. A maximum of amplitude in the region of 1 to 2 CPS is apparent with increased mean intensity. The generator potential responses are compared with those of differential equation models. Variation of gain with mean intensity for incremental stimuli is consistent with logarithmic sensitivity of the photoreceptor. Frequency response of the photoreceptor derived from narrow pulses of light predicts the frequency response obtained with sinusoidal stimuli, and the photoreceptor is linear for small signals in the light-adapted state. PMID:5938828

  18. Limulus amebocyte lysate testing: adapting it for determination of bacterial endotoxin in 99mTc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals at a hospital radiopharmacy.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Arpit; Joshi, Sangeeta; Arjun, Chanda; Kulkarni, Savita; Rajan, Ramakrishna

    2014-12-01

    A bacterial endotoxin test (BET) is required to detect or quantify bacterial endotoxin that may be present in radiopharmaceutical preparations. The test uses Limulus amebocyte lysate, which, in the presence of bacterial endotoxin and divalent calcium ions, causes the formation of a coagulin gel. (99m)Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals have chelating ligands such as diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), ethylene dicysteine (EC), L,L-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD), N-[2,4,6-trimethyl-3 bromoacetanilid] iminodiacetic acid (mebrofenin), dimercapto succinic acid-III (DMSA-III), dimercapto succinic acid-V (DMSA-V), and several others, which form a coordination complex with Na-(99m)Tc-O4 in the presence of reducing agents. During BET by the gel-clot method, the free sulfhydryl (-SH) and carboxyl (-COOH) in some of the chelating agents in the final (99m)Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals decrease the free divalent calcium ion concentration, which in turn inhibits coagulin gel formation. This study was designed using the premise that addition of calcium chloride solution to the reaction mixture would nullify this effect. We present here the data obtained from BET assay analysis of (99m)Tc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals and the cold kits from which they are made (EC, ECD, methoxyisobutylisonitrile, DTPA, mebrofenin, methylene diphosphonic acid [MDP], DMSA-III, and DMSA-V) using 2 different dilutions, maximum valid dilution (MVD) and half maximum valid dilution (MVD/2), with and without the addition of calcium chloride at a final concentration of 300 μM. It was observed that at MVD and MVD/2 all of the (99m)Tc-labeled kits exhibited interference in coagulin gel formation with the exception of (99m)Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile, (99m)Tc-MDP, (99m)Tc-mebrofenin, and (99m)Tc-ECD. However, only the cold kits of methoxyisobutylisonitrile and MDP did not show inhibition. An addition of calcium chloride solution nullified this interference at both MVD and MVD/2 in all of the (99m

  19. Exhibiting Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Deborah; Elbaz-Luwisch, Freema

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines some of the dilemmas that accompany the emergence of the personal voice in scholarly work, by taking a close, grounded look at the way in which these unfolded in a specific academic course. As part of the course, entitled "A cultural approach to the life cycle", students were asked to participate in a group exhibition in which…

  20. Exhibiting Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Deborah; Elbaz-Luwisch, Freema

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines some of the dilemmas that accompany the emergence of the personal voice in scholarly work, by taking a close, grounded look at the way in which these unfolded in a specific academic course. As part of the course, entitled "A cultural approach to the life cycle", students were asked to participate in a group exhibition in which…

  1. Museum Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A TSP from NASA Tech Briefs provided the solution to an electrical problem at a Florida museum. When a model train would not start without a jerk, a Marshall Space Flight Center development called pulse width control was adapted. The new circuit enables the train to start smoothly and reduces construction and maintenance costs. The same technology is also used in another hands-on exhibit. Applications of other TSPs are anticipated.

  2. Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay for detection and quantitation of endotoxin in a small-volume parenteral product.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, K; Steindler, K A; Harrison, S J

    1980-01-01

    A Limulus amoebocyte lysate gel-clotting method for the determination of endotoxin in a small-volume parenteral product has been described. Sample dilution with 0.1 M potassium phosphate monobasic buffer (pH 8.0) effectively eliminated assay interference, whereas dilution with water did not. The threshold pyrogenic dose for Escherichia coli EC-2 and O127:B8 endotoxins was determined to be 1.0 ng of endotoxin per kg of body weight. Not more than 1.0 ng of endotoxin (the threshold pyrogenic dose) per the highest recommended human dose or the USP pyrogen test dose per kg of body weight, whichever dose is more stringent, is a logical limit for the quantity of bacterial endotoxin in small-volume parenteral products. Excellent correlation was attained when this criterion was used to compare the Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay with the USP pyrogen test. PMID:6448582

  3. Outdoor Exhibits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) at the John C. Stennis Space Center has exhibits located in front of the Visitors Center. These boat-shaped buoys are moored in areas of the ocean that experience hostile environmental conditions. The instruments installed gather information and relay it to the National Weather Service by satellite. Nomad buoys are 20 feet long and weigh 13,900 pounds. They provide information on wind speed and direction, humidity levels, air and sea surface temperature and air pressure. U.S. Coast Guard ships transport buoys to their mooring sites.

  4. Outdoor Exhibits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) at the John C. Stennis Space Center has exhibits located in front of the Visitors Center. These boat-shaped buoys are moored in areas of the ocean that experience hostile environmental conditions. The instruments installed gather information and relay it to the National Weather Service by satellite. Nomad buoys are 20 feet long and weigh 13,900 pounds. They provide information on wind speed and direction, humidity levels, air and sea surface temperature and air pressure. U.S. Coast Guard ships transport buoys to their mooring sites.

  5. Modification of sample processing for the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay enhances detection of inflammogenic endotoxin in intact bacteria and organic dust.

    PubMed

    Hoppe Parr, Kimberly A; Hađina, Suzana; Kilburg-Basnyat, Brita; Wang, Yifang; Chavez, Dulce; Thorne, Peter S; Weiss, Jerrold P

    2017-04-01

    The pro-inflammatory potency and causal relationship with asthma of inhaled endotoxins have underscored the importance of accurately assessing the endotoxin content of organic dusts. The Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay has emerged as the preferred assay, but its ability to measure endotoxin in intact bacteria and organic dusts with similar sensitivity as purified endotoxin is unknown. We used metabolically radiolabeled Neisseria meningitidis and both rough and smooth Escherichia coli to compare dose-dependent activation in the LAL with purified endotoxin from these bacteria and shed outer membrane (OM) blebs. Labeled [(14)C]-3-OH-fatty acids were used to quantify the endotoxin content of the samples. Purified meningococcal and E. coli endotoxins and OM blebs displayed similar specific activity in the LAL assay to the purified LPS standard. In contrast, intact bacteria exhibited fivefold lower specific activity in the LAL assay but showed similar MD-2-dependent potency as purified endotoxin in inducing acute airway inflammation in mice. Pre-treatment of intact bacteria and organic dusts with 0.1 M Tris-HCl/10 mM EDTA increased by fivefold the release of endotoxin. These findings demonstrate that house dust and other organic dusts should be extracted with Tris/EDTA to more accurately assess the endotoxin content and pro-inflammatory potential of these environmental samples.

  6. Dynamics of Excitation and Inhibition in the Light-Adapted Limulus Eye in situ

    PubMed Central

    Biederman-Thorson, Marguerite; Thorson, John

    1971-01-01

    The dynamics of spike discharge in eccentric cell axons from the in situ lateral eye of Limulus, under small sinusoidal modulation of light to which the eye is adapted, are described over two decades of light intensity and nearly three decades of frequency. Steady-state lateral inhibition coefficients, derived from the very low-frequency response, average 0.04 at three interommatidial spacings. The gain vs. frequency of a singly illuminated ommatidium is described closely from 0.004 to 0.4 cps by the linear transfer function s0.25; this function also accounts approximately for the measured phase leads, the small signal adaptation following small step inputs, and for Pinter's (1966) earlier low-frequency generator potential data. We suggest that such dynamics could arise from a summation in the generator potential of distributed intensity-dependent relaxation processes along the dendrite and rhabdome. Analysis of the dynamic responses of an eccentric cell with and without simultaneously modulated illumination of particular neighbors indicates an effect equivalent to self-inhibition acting via a first-order low-pass filter with time constant 0.42 sec, and steady-state gain near 4.0. The corresponding filters for lateral inhibition required time constants from 0.35 to 1 sec and effective finite delay of 50–90 msec. PMID:5564759

  7. Limulus amebocyte lysate assay for endotoxins by an adsorption method with polycation-immobilized cellulose beads.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Masayo; Inoue, Tomofumi; Todokoro, Masami; Kunitake, Masashi

    2010-01-01

    To assay lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in solutions containing Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL)-inhibiting or LAL-enhancing compounds, we developed a selective endotoxin (LPS) assay using poly(epsilon-lysine)-immobilized cellulose beads (PL-Cellufine) and LAL. The PL-Cellufine can adsorb LPSs in a solution containing certain compounds (NaCl, proteins and amino acids) at an ionic strength of mu = 0.05-0.4 at neutral pH. The LPSs adsorbed on the PL-Cellufine were separated from the compounds by centrifugation and then the PL-Cellufine was suspended in LPS-free water. The LPS activities of the suspension are directly assayed by a turbidimetric time assay with the LAL reagent. The accuracy of the adsorption method was high compared with those of common solution methods. As for the common method, the apparent recovery of LPS from the compounds was 40-95%. This suggests that these compounds inhibit the LAL procedure. By contrast, the adsorption method showed good LPS recovery (88-120%) in all cases, without being inhibited or enhanced by the compounds.

  8. Comparison of limulus amebocyte lysates and correlation with the United States Pharmacopeial pyrogen test.

    PubMed Central

    Wachtel, R E; Tsuji, K

    1977-01-01

    Six limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) preparations obtained from five different suppliers were evaluated for sensitivity, dependability, cost, convenience of use, and correlation with the United States Pharmacopeial (USP) rabbit pyrogen test method. Endotoxins from various gram-negative microorganisms were used for the evaluation. Major differences among the LAL preparations lie in the area of sensitivity. Differences, up to 100-fold, exist in the sensitivity of the various LAL preparations to the same endotoxin. The LAL tests in general were 3 to 300 times more sensitive than was the USP rabbit pyrogen test method. The LAL and the USP rabbit pyrogen test data correlated well when the endotoxin in a relatively pure and undegraded form was examined. However, large discrepancies in correlation were found when partially degraded endotoxins were compared. One LAL preparation responded to both intact and degraded endotoxin, whereas others responded only to intact endotoxin; the latter closely correlated with the febrile response of the rabbit. Therefore, proper selection of an LAL preparation is important for its application in clinical, pharmaceutical, public health, and environmental areas. PMID:327936

  9. New, sensitive rocket immunoelectrophoretic assay for measurement of the reaction between endotoxin and Limulus amoebocyte lysate.

    PubMed Central

    Baek, L

    1983-01-01

    To study the active proteins which participate in the reaction of Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) with lipopolysaccharide, antibody was raised in rabbits against LAL. When LAL was run against rabbit antiserum in crossed immunoelectrophoresis, a complex precipitin pattern appeared. Profound changes took place after reaction of LAL with lipopolysaccharide. The most distinct change was the complete disappearance of the cathodic migrating protein coagulogen, because the antigenicity of coagulogen was lost. Based on this observation, a new rocket immunoelectrophoretic method was developed to detect the disappearance of coagulogen after reaction of LAL with lipopolysaccharide. This assay method was used on clinical specimens (cerebrospinal fluid, plasma, ascites, and urine). It was used as a qualitative test, when a single sample is tested, or as a quantitative assay, when a number of sample dilutions were tested. The new method showed a higher degree of accuracy and sensitivity in comparison with the tube test and it can be used for both research and diagnostic purposes. Images PMID:6348072

  10. Use of magnesium to increase sensitivity of Limulus amoebocyte lysate for detection of endotoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, K; Steindler, K A

    1983-01-01

    Increased sensitivity of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay for the detection of endotoxin was attained by the reconstitution of commercially available LAL reagent with a magnesium-containing solution. As little as 2 to 6 pg (0.002 to 0.006 ng) of Escherichia coli O127:B8 endotoxin per ml was detected, an increase in sensitivity of 10 to 30 times. The optimum magnesium concentration range for the LAL reagent used and the optimum pH range were approximately 50 to 65 mM and pH 6.0 to 8.0, respectively. Reconstitution of five commercially available brands of LAL with a solution containing magnesium resulted in greater assay sensitivity than the identical LAL reconstituted with pyrogen-free water. Use of LAL reconstituted with a solution containing magnesium is crucial for the assay of some parenteral products, wherein increased sensitivity is essential to meet the requirement for the maximum valid dilution criteria. The mode of action of magnesium for enhanced sensitivity of LAL has been postulated. Images PMID:6859851

  11. Three-dimensional reconstruction of thick filaments from Limulus and scorpion muscle

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    We have produced three dimensional reconstructions, at a nominal resolution of 5 nm, of thick filaments from scorpion and Limulus skeletal muscle, both of which have a right-handed four-stranded helical arrangement of projecting subunits. In both reconstructions there was a distinct division of density within projecting subunits consistent with the presence of two myosin heads. Individual myosin heads appeared to be curved, with approximate dimensions of 16 X 5 X 5 nm and seemed more massive at one end. Our reconstructions were consistent with the two heads in a projecting subunit being arranged either antiparallel or parallel to each other and directed away from the bare zone. Although we cannot exclude the second of these interpretations, we favor the first as being more consistent with both filament models and also because it would enable easy phosphorylation of light chains. The antiparallel interpretation requires that the two heads within a subunit derive from different myosin molecules. In either interpretation, the two heads have different orientations relative to the thick filament shaft. PMID:2410430

  12. Electrophysiological basis for the spatial dependence of the inhibitory coupling in the Limulus retina

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    A technique for measuring, with total optical isolation, the inhibition between two individual receptor units in the Limulus lateral eye is described. The extracellular responses of pairs of units were recorded, using light piping microelectrodes. The inhibitory coupling between two units was found to be nonlinear and describable by a simple hyperbolic equation written in terms of saturation rate (S), half saturation (H), and threshold (ft). By plotting reciprocal frequencies, the data could be linearized and compared for different pairs of units. The magnitude of inhibition (in terms of S and H) was found to decrease monotonically as the anatomical distance between receptors increased. An electrical model of the inhibitory system was developed which accounts for many of the properties of the observed inhibitory interactions. Using the equations from the model and the experimental data, it is shown that the "electrical distances" (which are computed in terms of space constants lambda) of the inhibitory synapses from the impulse- generating region of the test unit are directly related to the anatomical distance between receptors. It is also shown that "synaptic strength" is relatively constant with separation. The electrical distances of the inhibitory synapses range from about 0.1lambda to 0.25lambda for adjacent units to greater than 0.5lambda for units seven to nine receptors away. It is concluded that the nonlinear character of the inhibitory coupling is attributable to synaptic effects, and that the decrease of inhibition with distance between receptors is caused primarily by an increase in the electrical distance of the inhibitory synapses from the test unit. PMID:1245834

  13. Injection of guanosine and adenosine nucleotides into Limulus ventral photoreceptor cells

    PubMed Central

    Bolsover, S. R.; Brown, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    1. Several nucleotide and nucleotide analogues had striking effects when pressure-injected into Limulus ventral photoreceptor cells. The poorly hydrolysable GTP analogues guanosine 5′-0-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTPγS), guanylyl imidodiphosphate (Gpp[NH]p) and guanylyl (β, γ methylene) diphosphonate (Gpp[CH2]p) produced large increases in the frequency of `discrete events' that were recorded from photoreceptors in darkness. This effect was only observed after the injected cell was exposed to light. Injection of the ATP analogue ATPγS had effects similar to those of the GTP analogues. 2. We conclude that GTPγS, Gpp[NH]p, Gpp[CH2]p and ATPγS act at a common site to cause a light-dependent, long-term activation of the excitation mechanism of the photoreceptor. 3. Injection of GTP or GDP at pH 4.8 was followed by a smooth, transient depolarization that was observed neither when GTP at pH 7.5 was injected nor when ATP, 5′GMP or 2-[N-morpholino] ethane sulphonic acid (MES) were injected at pH 4.8. The reversal potential of the current induced by GTP injection was significantly more positive than the reversal potential of the light-induced current. 4. We conclude that GTP injection induces changes of membrane conductance either in addition to, or different from, the light-induced change of membrane conductance. 5. Injection of the ATP analogue adenylyl imidodiphosphate (App[NH]p), and the pyrophosphate analogue imidodiphosphate (p[NH]p) produced a drastic decrease in the sensitivity of photoreceptors to light. This decrease in sensitivity was partially reversed when the concentration of calcium ions in the bathing medium was reduced. 6. We suggest that App[NH]p and p[NH]p injections act by increasing the cytoplasmic concentration of calcium ions. PMID:7153930

  14. Influence of fine structure of lipid A on Limulus amebocyte lysate clotting and toxic activities.

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, K; Qureshi, N; Raetz, C R; Ribi, E; Peterson, J; Cantrell, J L; Pearson, F C; Wiggins, J; Johnson, A G

    1984-01-01

    We examined the relationship between the fine structure of lipid A and the toxicity of endotoxin or lipopolysaccharides as measured by the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL), rabbit pyrogenicity, chicken embryo lethal dose, and dermal Shwartzman reaction tests. Lipid A and lipid A-like compounds obtained from deep-rough mutants of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli had a wide range of structural variations. These compounds included native lipopolysaccharides, diphosphoryl and monophosphoryl lipid A's, and lipid X (a monosaccharide). The LAL test was positive for all lipids tested with lysates from Travenol Laboratories and from Associates of Cape Cod (2.9 X 10(3) to 2.6 X 10(7) endotoxin units per mg), except for O-deacylated and dephosphorylated lipid X, which were negative. The Mallinckrodt lysate gave negative tests for lipid X. In the rabbit pyrogenicity and chicken embryo lethal dose tests, only native lipopolysaccharide and diphosphoryl lipid A's were judged toxic. The Shwartzman reaction was positive for a specific purified diphosphoryl lipid A (thin-layer chromatography-3 fraction) but negative for the purified monophosphoryl lipid A (also a thin-layer chromatography-3 fraction). These results show that the LAL test is not a valid measure of all parameters of toxicity of a lipid A or lipid A-like compound and can yield false-positive results. However, these findings are not in conflict with the widespread use of the LAL assay for pyrogens in the pharmaceutical industry since a good correlation exists between LAL results and pyrogenicity when undegraded endotoxin is evaluated in parallel assays. Images PMID:6378795

  15. Surveillance for upper respiratory tract disease and Mycoplasma in free-ranging gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) in Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Jessica L; Smith, Lora L; Guyer, Craig; Lockhart, J Mitchell; Lee, Gregory W; Yabsley, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) in the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) is highly contagious and has been implicated in the reduction of populations throughout the range. With the exception of a few limited studies, the prevalence of URTD in Georgia, USA tortoise populations is poorly known. We found that exposure to Mycoplasma agassizii and Mycoplasma testudineum, associated with URTD, varied geographically among 11 Georgia tortoise populations. The prevalence of antibodies to M. agassizii in individual populations was either very low (0-3%, n=7 populations) or very high (96-100%, n=4 populations), whereas there was variation in the prevalence of antibodies to M. testudineum among populations (20-61%, n=10) with only one site being negative. Five sites had tortoises with antibodies to both pathogens, and these were the only sites where we observed tortoises with clinical signs consistent with URTD. We did not find tortoises with clinical signs of URTD at sites with tortoises with antibodies only to M. testudineum, which provides evidence that this organism may be of limited pathogenicity for gopher tortoises. Collectively, these data indicate that both M. agassizii and M. testudineum are present in Georgia populations of gopher tortoises and that clinical disease is apparent in populations where both pathogens are present. Additional research is needed to better understand the role of these two pathogens, and other potential pathogens, in the overall health of tortoise populations, especially if future conservation efforts involve translocation of tortoises.

  16. Efferent neurotransmission of circadian rhythms in Limulus lateral eye. I. Octopamine-induced increases in retinal sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Kass, L; Barlow, R B

    1984-04-01

    Octopamine increases the sensitivity of the Limulus lateral eye in situ when injected beneath the cornea during the day. The effect of octopamine is dose-dependent with a threshold concentration of about 0.1 microM injected at 1 microliter/min for 15 min. Injection of 40 microM octopamine increases lateral eye sensitivity to approximately 70% of the nighttime level normally caused by the efferent output of a circadian clock. Injections of octopamine analogues and other candidate neurotransmitters indicate that the postsynaptic receptor mediating the increase of retinal sensitivity is relatively specific for the structure of octopamine. The postsynaptic receptor is tentatively classified as a type 2B octopamine receptor (Evans, P. D. (1981) J. Physiol. (Lond.) 318: 99-122). Clozapine suppresses the effects of both exogenous octopamine and the endogenous efferent neurotransmitter. Together with the results from Barlow et al. (Barlow, R. B., Jr., S. J. Bolanowski, Jr., and M. L. Brachman (1977) Science 197: 86-89) and Battelle et al. (Batelle, B. -A., J. A. Evans, and S. C. Chamberlain (1982) Science 216: 1250-1252) our study leads to the following conclusion: retinal efferents, driven by a circadian clock in Limulus brain, release octopamine that increases visual sensitivity.

  17. Endotoxin Detection in Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices with Kinetic-QCL, a Kinetic-Quantitative Chromogenic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Assay.

    PubMed

    Berzofsky, Ronald N.

    1995-01-01

    The observation that endotoxin caused gelation in extracts of Limulus amebocytes has been expanded to the development of an in vitro kinetic, quantitative chromogenic LAL assay (Kinetic-QCL) for the detection of endotoxin in aqueous fluids. Within the last 15 years, the use of Limulus amebocyte lysate to detect and control the presence of pyrogenic substances in pharmaceuticals and medical devices has gained wide international acceptance. Both the United States and European Pharmacopoeias contain descriptions of and requirements for the LAL Bacterial Endotoxin Test. Both pharmacopoeias have begun to remove the rabbit pyrogen test requirement in a majority of drug monographs and have substituted endotoxin limits to be determined by LAL. The use of LAL has proved invaluable in controlling the level of endotoxin in finished product. The endotoxin contribution of raw materials and packaging material can be monitored as well. In-process testing at critical production steps can identify additional sources of endotoxin contamination, and depyrogenation processes can be validated by quantitating the degradation of endotoxin challenges. The speed, reproducibility, sensitivity, and economics of the Kinetic-QCL assay, in conjunction with the ppropriate equipment and software, over both the in vivo rabbit pyrogen test and the more traditional LAL gel-clot assay allow a more in-depth approach to the control of endotoxin in pharmaceuticals and medical devices.

  18. Detection of peptidoglycan and endotoxin in dialysate, using silkworm larvae plasma and limulus amebocyte lysate methods.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, K; Takemoto, Y; Yamagami, S; Edney, H; Niwa, M; Tsuchiya, M; Kishimoto, T; Shaldon, S

    1997-01-01

    Silkworm larvae plasma (SLP) reagent is activated by peptidoglycan (PG), a fragment of both the gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial cell wall, as well as beta-glucan (BG), a component of fungi. It is possible to measure contamination of gram-positive bacteria quantitatively by combining the conventional limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) and PG measurement methods. Therefore, a more highly accurate analysis of dialysate can be made using both SLP and LAL methods to detect endotoxin (ET) and/or PG contamination. We studied the effects of contaminated dialysate on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by producing various cytokines in vitro. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP) was used as the biologically active minimum constituent of PG. A total of 54 dialysate samples were obtained under sterile conditions from 4 sites: (1) reverse osmosis water unit; (2) proportioning unit; (3) multiple dialysate preparation console, and (4) personal dialysate preparation console, at 9 dialysis facilities. To detect bacterial contamination, the samples were measured with LAL(C), LAL(G) and SLP methods. PBMC were collected from 10 healthy controls and from 10 hemodialysis patients and cultured for 24 h with ET, MDP, ET + MDP and contaminated dialysate. IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha in the culture medium supernatants were measured using the ELISA method. PG was not detected in dialysate from sites 1 or 2. However, dialysate from the inlet of the dialyzer at the bedside monitor of the central supply and personal console showed 4.1 +/- 6.1 ng/ml for site 3 (in 7 of 18 samples) and 3.3 +/- 4.6 ng/ml for site 4 (in 3 of 18 samples). Contamination by PG alone and complex contamination by PG and ET were also detected. Furthermore, IL-1Ra, IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha production by PBMC increased in accordance with the concentrations of MDP. Cytokine production was enhanced 5-10 times more where MDP and ET coexisted than where either MDP or ET existed alone, showing

  19. Whole genome sequencing in Drosophila virilis identifies Polyphemus, a recently activated Tc1-like transposon with a possible role in hybrid dysgenesis.

    PubMed

    Blumenstiel, Justin P

    2014-02-20

    Hybrid dysgenic syndromes in Drosophila have been critical for characterizing host mechanisms of transposable element (TE) regulation. This is because a common feature of hybrid dysgenesis is germline TE mobilization that occurs when paternally inherited TEs are not matched with a maternal pool of silencing RNAs that maintain transgenerational TE control. In the face of this imbalance TEs become activated in the germline and can cause F1 sterility. The syndrome of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila virilis was the first to show that the mobilization of one dominant TE, the Penelope retrotransposon, may lead to the mobilization of other unrelated elements. However, it is not known how many different elements contribute and no exhaustive search has been performed to identify additional ones. To identify additional TEs that may contribute to hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila virilis, I analyzed repeat content in genome sequences of inducer and non-inducer lines. Here I describe Polyphemus, a novel Tc1-like DNA transposon, which is abundant in the inducer strain of D. virilis but highly degraded in the non-inducer strain. Polyphemus expression is also increased in the germline of progeny of the dysgenic cross relative to reciprocal progeny. Interestingly, like the Penelope element, it has experienced recent re-activation within the D. virilis lineage. Here I present the results of a comprehensive search to identify additional factors that may cause hybrid dysgenesis in D. virilis. Polyphemus, a novel Tc1-like DNA transposon, has recently become re-activated in Drosophila virilis and likely contributes to the hybrid dysgenesis syndrome. It has been previously shown that the Penelope element has also been re-activated in the inducer strain. This suggests that TE co-reactivation within species may synergistically contribute to syndromes of hybrid dysgenesis.

  20. Whole genome sequencing in Drosophila virilis identifies Polyphemus, a recently activated Tc1-like transposon with a possible role in hybrid dysgenesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hybrid dysgenic syndromes in Drosophila have been critical for characterizing host mechanisms of transposable element (TE) regulation. This is because a common feature of hybrid dysgenesis is germline TE mobilization that occurs when paternally inherited TEs are not matched with a maternal pool of silencing RNAs that maintain transgenerational TE control. In the face of this imbalance TEs become activated in the germline and can cause F1 sterility. The syndrome of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila virilis was the first to show that the mobilization of one dominant TE, the Penelope retrotransposon, may lead to the mobilization of other unrelated elements. However, it is not known how many different elements contribute and no exhaustive search has been performed to identify additional ones. To identify additional TEs that may contribute to hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila virilis, I analyzed repeat content in genome sequences of inducer and non-inducer lines. Results Here I describe Polyphemus, a novel Tc1-like DNA transposon, which is abundant in the inducer strain of D. virilis but highly degraded in the non-inducer strain. Polyphemus expression is also increased in the germline of progeny of the dysgenic cross relative to reciprocal progeny. Interestingly, like the Penelope element, it has experienced recent re-activation within the D. virilis lineage. Conclusions Here I present the results of a comprehensive search to identify additional factors that may cause hybrid dysgenesis in D. virilis. Polyphemus, a novel Tc1-like DNA transposon, has recently become re-activated in Drosophila virilis and likely contributes to the hybrid dysgenesis syndrome. It has been previously shown that the Penelope element has also been re-activated in the inducer strain. This suggests that TE co-reactivation within species may synergistically contribute to syndromes of hybrid dysgenesis. PMID:24555450

  1. Detection of light-induced changes of intracellular ionized calcium concentration in Limulus ventral photoreceptors using arsenazo III

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. E.; Brown, P. K.; Pinto, L. H.

    1977-01-01

    1. The metallochromic indicator dye, arsenazo III, was injected intracellularly into Limulus ventral photoreceptor cells to concentrations greater than 1 mM. 2. The absorption spectrum (450-750 nm) of the dye in single dark-adapted cells was measured by a scanning microspectrophotometer. When a cell was light-adapted, the absorption of the dye changed; the difference spectrum had two maxima at about 610 and 660 nm, a broad minimum at about 540 nm and an isosbestic point at about 585 nm. 3. When intracellular calcium concentration was raised in dark-adapted cells previously injected with arsenazo III, the difference spectum had two maxima at about 610 and 660 nm, a broad minimum at about 530 nm and an isosbestic point at about 585 nm. The injection of Mg2+ into dark-adapted cells previously injected with the dye induced a difference spectrum that had a single maximum at about 620 nm. Also, decreasing the intracellular pH of cells previously injected with the dye induced a difference spectrum that had a minimum at about 620 nm. The evidence suggests that there is a rise of intracellular ionized calcium when a Limulus ventral photoreceptor is light-adapted. 4. The intracellular calcium concentration, [Ca2+]1, in light-adapted photoreceptors was estimated to reach at least 10-4 M by compaing the light-induced difference spectra measured in ventral photoreceptors with a standard curve determined in microcuvettes containing 2mM arsenazo III in 400 mM-KCl, 1 mM-MgCl2 and 25 mM MOPS at pH 7·0. 5. In cells injected to less than 3 mM arsenazo III, light induced a transient decrease in optical transmission at 660 nm (T660). This decrease in T660 indicates that illumination of a ventral photoreceptor normally causes a transient increase of [Ca2+]1. 6. Arsenazo III was found to be sensitive, selective and rapid enough to measure light-induced changes of intracellular ionized calcium in Limulus ventral photoreceptor cells. PMID:17732

  2. A receptor and binding protein interplay in the detection of a distinct pheromone component in the silkmoth Antheraea polyphemus.

    PubMed

    Forstner, Maike; Breer, Heinz; Krieger, Jürgen

    2009-12-03

    Male moths respond to conspecific female-released pheromones with remarkable sensitivity and specificity, due to highly specialized chemosensory neurons in their antennae. In Antheraea silkmoths, three types of sensory neurons have been described, each responsive to one of three pheromone components. Since also three different pheromone binding proteins (PBPs) have been identified, the antenna of Antheraea seems to provide a unique model system for detailed analyzes of the interplay between the various elements underlying pheromone reception. Efforts to identify pheromone receptors of Antheraea polyphemus have led to the identification of a candidate pheromone receptor (ApolOR1). This receptor was found predominantly expressed in male antennae, specifically in neurons located beneath pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea. The ApolOR1-expressing cells were found to be surrounded by supporting cells co-expressing all three ApolPBPs. The response spectrum of ApolOR1 was assessed by means of calcium imaging using HEK293-cells stably expressing the receptor. It was found that at nanomolar concentrations ApolOR1-cells responded to all three pheromones when the compounds were solubilized by DMSO and also when DMSO was substituted by one of the three PBPs. However, at picomolar concentrations, cells responded only in the presence of the subtype ApolPBP2 and the pheromone (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienal. These results are indicative of a specific interplay of a distinct pheromone component with an appropriate binding protein and its related receptor subtype, which may be considered as basis for the remarkable sensitivity and specificity of the pheromone detection system.

  3. Detection of gram-negative bacteremia by limulus amebocyte lysate assay: evaluation in a rat model of peritonitis.

    PubMed

    du Moulin, G C; Lynch, S E; Hedley-Whyte, J; Broitman, S A

    1985-01-01

    A spectrophotometric Limulus amebocyte lysate assay using lysis filtration and centrifugation has been developed for the detection of gram-negative bacteria in blood. The assay is directed at detection of endotoxin in viable and nonviable bacteria present in the blood-stream and not detection of free endotoxin in plasma. The assay was evaluated in a model of peritonitis in which rats were challenged with an inoculum consisting of sterilized human feces, barium sulfate, and one of eight species of bacteria. This assay was able to detect gram-negative bacteremia due to Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae in the rat model when compared with sham-inoculated uninfected rats. The assay failed to detect bacteremia due to Bacteroides fragilis or Staphylococcus aureus, nor was there a significant rise in absorbance when a pellet containing sterilized feces was implanted in the rat.

  4. Light-dependent channels from excised patches of Limulus ventral photoreceptors are opened by cGMP.

    PubMed Central

    Bacigalupo, J; Johnson, E C; Vergara, C; Lisman, J E

    1991-01-01

    The identity of the second messenger that directly activates the light-dependent conductance in invertebrate photoreceptors remains unclear; the available evidence provides some support for cGMP and Ca2+. To resolve this issue we have applied these second messengers to membrane patches excised from the light-sensitive lobe of Limulus ventral photoreceptors. Our results show that these patches contain channels that can be opened by cGMP, but not by Ca2+. These cGMP-activated channels closely resemble the channels activated by light in cell-attached patches. This evidence suggests that cGMP is the messenger that opens the light-dependent channel in invertebrate photoreceptors. PMID:1716765

  5. Facilitation of the responses to injections of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate analogs in Limulus ventral photoreceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Levitan, I; Payne, R; Potter, B V; Hillman, P

    1994-01-01

    Injection of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and its metabolically resistant analogs InsP3S3 and L-chiro-2,3,5-InsP3 into the ventral photoreceptors of Limulus results in the release of calcium from internal stores and in a current flow into the cells. We show here that the dependence of the current response on the amount of analog injected is supralinear. The injections also facilitate the responses to subsequent injections. We analyze the kinetics of the responses either by very slow application of the analogs directly into the lobe that is sensitive to InsP3 and light or by delivering a pulse into the nonsensitive lobe of the cell, in both cases creating a ramp of rising concentration in the sensitive region. Typically, a long latent period was followed by a strong brief inward current. The ratio between the latency and the duration of the response, defined as twice the time from half-amplitude to the peak of the response, reaches values greater than 10. Our analysis shows that this value cannot be attained within realistic models whose only nonlinearity is the cooperative binding of the ligand to its receptor. The observed ratio, however, can be achieved with a positive feedback model. Treatments that lead to partial depletion of calcium stores reversibly increase the latency of the response. We conclude that the mechanisms of the response of Limulus ventral eye to the metabolically resistant analogs of InsP3 probably involves a positive feedback mechanism and that the carrier of the feedback is likely to be Ca2+. PMID:7811929

  6. Actin filaments in the acrosomal reaction of Limulus sperm. Motion generated by alterations in the packing of the filaments

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    When Limulus sperm are induced to undergo the acrosomal reaction, a process, 50 mum in length, is generated in a few seconds. This process rotates as it elongates; thus the acrosomal process literally screws through the jelly of the egg. Within the process is a bundle of filaments which before induction are coiled up inside the sperm. The filament bundle exists in three stable states in the sperm. One of the states can be isolated in pure form. It is composed of only three proteins whose molecular weights (mol wt) are 43,000, 55,000, and 95,000. The 43,000 mol wt protein is actin, based on its molecular weight, net charge, morphology, G-F transformation, and heavy meromyosin (HMM) binding. The 55,000 mol wt protein is in equimolar ratio to actin and is not tubulin, binds tenaciously to actin, and inhibits HMM binding. Evidence is presented that both the 55,000 mol wt protein and the 95,000 mol wt protein (possibly alpha-actinin) are also present in Limulus muscle. Presumably these proteins function in the sperm in holding the actin filaments together. Before the acrosomal reaction, the actin filaments are twisted over one another in a supercoil; when the reaction is completed, the filaments lie parallel to each other and form an actin paracrystal. This change in their packing appears to give rise to the motion of the acrosomal process and is under the control of the 55,000 mol wt protein and the 95,000 mol wt protein. PMID:1117029

  7. Sequence and domain organization of scruin, an actin-cross-linking protein in the acrosomal process of Limulus sperm

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The acrosomal process of Limulus sperm is an 80-microns long finger of membrane supported by a crystalline bundle of actin filaments. The filaments in this bundle are crosslinked by a 102-kD protein, scruin present in a 1:1 molar ratio with actin. Recent image reconstruction of scruin decorated actin filaments at 13-A resolution shows that scruin is organized into two equally sized domains bound to separate actin subunits in the same filament. We have cloned and sequenced the gene for scruin from a Limulus testes cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequence of scruin reflects the domain organization of scruin: it consists of a tandem pair of homologous domains joined by a linker region. The domain organization of scruin is confirmed by limited proteolysis of the purified acrosomal process. Three different proteases cleave the native protein in a 5-kD Protease-sensitive region in the middle of the molecule to generate an NH2-terminal 47-kD and a COOH-terminal 56-kD protease-resistant domains. Although the protein sequence of scruin has no homology to any known actin-binding protein, it has similarities to several proteins, including four open reading frames of unknown function in poxviruses, as well as kelch, a Drosophila protein localized to actin-rich ring canals. All proteins that show homologies to scruin are characterized by the presence of an approximately 50-amino acid residue motif that is repeated between two and seven times. Crystallographic studies reveal this motif represents a four beta-stranded fold that is characteristic of the "superbarrel" structural fold found in the sialidase family of proteins. These results suggest that the two domains of scruin seen in EM reconstructions are superbarrel folds, and they present the possibility that other members of this family may also bind actin. PMID:7822422

  8. The effects of isolation on the demography and genetic diversity of long-lived species: Implications for conservation and management of the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ennen, J.R.; Birkhead, R.D.; Kreiser, B.R.; Gaillard, D.L.; Qualls, C.P.; Lovich, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    In the southeastern United States, habitat loss has fragmented the landscape and isolated many populations of this region's flora and fauna, which has presumably resulted in smaller population sizes and reduced levels of genetic diversity. For example, forestry practices and anthropogenic disturbances are both cited as factors fragmenting the once extensive range of Gopherus polyphemus. One localized, but extreme, source of fragmentation was the impoundment of the Chattahoochee River in 1963 to form Walter F. George Reservoir along the border of Georgia and Alabama. The formation of this reservoir isolated populations of G. polyphemus on two newly created islands providing a natural laboratory to explore the demographics and genetic effects of fragmentation on a long-lived species. These populations were first surveyed in 1984 and, 21 years later, we revisited them to collect demographic data and tissue samples for genetic analysis. We genotyped all individuals for 10 microsatellite loci, and we tested these data for bottlenecks and compared them to levels of genetic diversity for populations from other portions of the range. We found 45 and two individuals on the larger and smaller islands, respectively. On the large island, however, the population size was identical to the 1984 survey. Only the population structure based on estimated age differed between the 1984 and 2004 surveys, while population size structure based on carapace length, sex ratio, and sex-specific growth rates did not differ. The population of the large island showed genetic evidence of a past bottleneck. The genetic diversity indices from the population of the large island, however, were comparable to or greater than those found at mainland sites, in particular from western populations.

  9. Development and use of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of iridovirus exposure in gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) and eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina).

    PubMed

    Johnson, April J; Wendland, Lori; Norton, Terry M; Belzer, Bill; Jacobson, Elliott R

    2010-05-19

    Iridoviruses, pathogens typically associated with fish and amphibians, have recently been shown to cause acute respiratory disease in chelonians including box turtles, red-eared sliders, gopher tortoises, and Burmese star tortoises. Case reports of natural infections in several chelonian species in the United States have been reported, however the prevalence remains unknown in susceptible populations of free-ranging chelonians. To determine the prevalence of iridovirus exposure in free-ranging gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus) in the southeast United States, an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and used to evaluate plasma samples from wild gopher tortoises (G. polyphemus) from: Alabama (n=9); Florida (n=658); Georgia (n=225); Louisiana (n=12); Mississippi (n=28); and unknown locations (68) collected between 2001 and 2006. Eight (1.2%) seropositive tortoises were identified from Florida and seven (3.1%) from Georgia for an overall prevalence of 1.5%. Additionally, a population of eastern box turtles was sampled from a private nature sanctuary in Pennsylvania that experienced an outbreak of iridovirus the previous year, which killed 16 turtles. Only 1 turtle out of 55 survivors tested positive (1.8%). Results suggest a low exposure rate in chelonians to this pathogen; however, it is suspected that this is an underestimate of the true prevalence. Since experimental transmission studies and past outbreaks have shown a high rate of mortality in infected turtles, turtles may die before they develop an antibody response. Further, the duration of the antibody response is unknown and may also cause an underestimate of the true prevalence. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of WRF/Chem-MADRID and WRF/Polyphemus in Europe - Part 2: Evaluation of chemical concentrations and sensitivity simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Sartelet, K.; Zhu, S.; Wang, W.; Wu, S.-Y.; Zhang, X.; Wang, K.; Tran, P.; Seigneur, C.; Wang, Z.-F.

    2013-07-01

    An offline-coupled model (WRF/Polyphemus) and an online-coupled model (WRF/Chem-MADRID) are applied to simulate air quality in July 2001 at horizontal grid resolutions of 0.5° and 0.125° over Western Europe. The model performance is evaluated against available surface and satellite observations. The two models simulate different concentrations in terms of domainwide performance statistics, spatial distribution, temporal variations, and column abundance. WRF/Chem-MADRID at 0.5° gives higher values than WRF/Polyphemus for the domainwide mean and over polluted regions in Central and southern Europe for all surface concentrations and column variables except for the tropospheric ozone residual (TOR). Compared with observations, WRF/Polyphemus gives better statistical performance for daily HNO3, SO2, and NO2 at the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) sites, maximum 1 h O3 at the AirBase sites, PM2.5 at the AirBase sites, maximum 8 h O3 and PM10 composition at all sites, column abundance of CO, NO2, TOR, and aerosol optical depth (AOD), whereas WRF/Chem-MADRID gives better statistical performance for NH3, hourly SO2, NO2, and O3 at the AirBase and BDQA (Base de données de la qualité de l'air) sites, maximum 1 h O3 at the BDQA and EMEP sites, and PM10 at all sites. WRF/Chem-MADRID generally reproduces well the observed high hourly concentrations of SO2 and NO2 at most sites except for extremely high episodes at a few sites, and WRF/Polyphemus performs well for hourly SO2 concentrations at most rural or background sites where pollutant levels are relatively low, but it underpredicts the observed hourly NO2 concentrations at most sites. Both models generally capture well the daytime maximum 8 h O3 concentrations and diurnal variations of O3 with more accurate peak daytime and minimal nighttime values by WRF/Chem-MADRID, but neither model reproduces extremely low nighttime O3 concentrations at several urban and suburban sites due to underpredictions of

  11. The Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay may be unsuitable for detecting endotoxin in blood of healthy female subjects.

    PubMed

    Gnauck, Anne; Lentle, Roger G; Kruger, Marlena C

    2015-01-01

    We examined the factors that may influence the outcome of the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay, when it is used for quantifying Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin, also referred to as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in samples of human blood. We found that the method recommended by the manufacturers, based on the reaction time, was inaccurate with any type of serum samples due to the slowing of the initial phase of reaction, likely by serum proteins. We describe an alternative method that is more accurate for use with heated serum samples. Further, we found that components of fresh serum irreversibly sequester endotoxin but that this action may be largely prevented by dilution and heating, but only if this occurs prior to the addition of endotoxin. The tests also indicated that a number of types of proprietary plastic vacutainers appeared to contain significant amounts of endotoxin. However, even when appropriate blood collection containers and calculation methods were used, the levels of endotoxin in serum samples detected by LAL assay were unlikely to reflect the total quantities of endotoxin in that sample and more likely to reflect the capacity of a given serum sample to sequester endotoxin.

  12. Changing response measures alters temporal summation in the receptor and spike potentials of the Limulus lateral eye.

    PubMed

    Kong, K L; Wasserman, G S

    1978-03-01

    Temporal summation and reciprocity were studied in the retinula and eccentric cells of the excised Limulus lateral eye as a function of variation in response measure: Using the latency instead of the peak of the receptor potential as a response measure produced considerably shorter critical durations. Using the area under the receptor potential as a response measure produced no critical duration up to a stimulus duration of 640 msec; instead, supersummation occurred at long durations. Similar effects were observed in the optic nerve spikes, where the response measures were first spike latency and maximum spike number sampled in time windows that ranged from 40 to 640 msec. The critical durations clearly depended on the response measure used and, when a 640-msec window was used, no critical duration occurred; supersummation again occurred. Increasing the sampling period within which maximum spike number was measured increased the critical duration and changed the formal properties from those characteristic of the receptor potential's peak to those characteristic of the receptor potential's area. The implications of the more central portions of the nervous system using different summation times for different perceptual tasks are discussed; it is suggested that the choice of response measures is crucial in studies of temporal summation.

  13. Setting a standard: the limulus amebocyte lysate assay and the assessment of microbial contamination on spacecraft surfaces.

    PubMed

    Morris, Heather C; Monaco, Lisa A; Steele, Andrew; Wainwright, Norm

    2010-10-01

    Historically, colony-forming units as determined by plate cultures have been the standard unit for microbiological analysis of environmental samples, medical diagnostics, and products for human use. However, the time and materials required make plate cultures expensive and potentially hazardous in the closed environments of future NASA missions aboard the International Space Station and missions to other Solar System targets. The Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay is an established method for ensuring the sterility and cleanliness of samples in the meat-packing and pharmaceutical industries. Each of these industries has verified numerical requirements for the correct interpretation of results from this assay. The LAL assay is a rapid, point-of-use, verified assay that has already been approved by NASA Planetary Protection as an alternate, molecular method for the examination of outbound spacecraft. We hypothesize that standards for molecular techniques, similar to those used by the pharmaceutical and meat-packing industries, need to be set by space agencies to ensure accurate data interpretation and subsequent decision making. In support of this idea, we present research that has been conducted to relate the LAL assay to plate cultures, and we recommend values obtained from these investigations that could assist in interpretation and analysis of data obtained from the LAL assay.

  14. Quantitative lipopolysaccharide analysis using HPLC/MS/MS and its combination with the limulus amebocyte lysate assay[S

    PubMed Central

    Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Gautier, Thomas; Sali, Wahib; Adrie, Christophe; Choubley, Hélène; Charron, Emilie; Lalande, Caroline; Le Guern, Naig; Deckert, Valérie; Monchi, Mehran; Quenot, Jean-Pierre; Lagrost, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Quantitation of plasma lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) might be used to document Gram-negative bacterial infection. In the present work, LPS-derived 3-hydroxymyristate was extracted from plasma samples with an organic solvent, separated by reversed phase HPLC, and quantitated by MS/MS. This mass assay was combined with the limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) bioassay to monitor neutralization of LPS activity in biological samples. The described HPLC/MS/MS method is a reliable, practical, accurate, and sensitive tool to quantitate LPS. The combination of the LAL and HPLC/MS/MS analyses provided new evidence for the intrinsic capacity of plasma lipoproteins and phospholipid transfer protein to neutralize the activity of LPS. In a subset of patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome, with documented infection but with a negative plasma LAL test, significant amounts of LPS were measured by the HPLC/MS/MS method. Patients with the highest plasma LPS concentration were more severely ill. HPLC/MS/MS is a relevant method to quantitate endotoxin in a sample, to assess the efficacy of LPS neutralization, and to evaluate the proinflammatory potential of LPS in vivo. PMID:26023073

  15. Evaluation of the endotoxin binding efficiency of clay minerals using the Limulus Amebocyte lysate test: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Endotoxins are part of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. They are potent immune stimulators and can lead to death if present in high concentrations. Feed additives, which bind endotoxins in the gastrointestinal tract of animals, could help to prevent their negative impact. The objective of our study was to determine the potential of a bentonite (Bentonite 1), a sodium bentonite (Bentonite 2), a chemically treated smectite (Organoclay 1) and a modified attapulgite (Organoclay 2) to bind endotoxins in vitro. Polymyxin B served as positive control. The kinetic chromogenic Limulus Amebocyte lysate test was adapted to measure endotoxin activity. Firstly, a single sorption experiment (10 endotoxin units/mL (EU/mL)) was performed. Polymyxin B and organoclays showed 100% binding efficiency. Secondly, the adsorption efficiency of sorbents in aqueous solution with increasing endotoxin concentrations (2,450 – 51,700 EU/mL) was investigated. Organoclay 1 (0.1%) showed a good binding efficiency in aqueous solution (average 81%), whereas Bentonite 1 (0.1%) obtained a lower binding efficiency (21-54%). The following absorbent capacities were calculated in highest endotoxin concentration: 5.59 mg/g (Organoclay 1) > 3.97 mg/g (Polymyxin B) > 2.58mg/g (Organoclay 2) > 1.55 mg/g (Bentonite 1) > 1.23 mg/g (Bentonite 2). Thirdly, a sorption experiment in artificial intestinal fluid was conducted. Especially for organoclays, which are known to be unspecific adsorbents, the endotoxin binding capacity was significantly reduced. In contrast, Bentonite 1 showed comparable results in artificial intestinal fluid and aqueous solution. Based on the results of this in vitro study, the effect of promising clay minerals will be investigated in in vivo trials. PMID:24383578

  16. Human endothelial cell-based assay for endotoxin as sensitive as the conventional Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay.

    PubMed

    Unger, Ronald E; Peters, Kirsten; Sartoris, Anne; Freese, Christian; Kirkpatrick, C James

    2014-03-01

    Endotoxin, also known as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produced by bacteria can be present in any liquid or on any biomaterial even if the material is sterile. Endotoxin in mammals can cause fever, inflammation, cell and tissue damage and irreversible septic shock and death. In the body, endothelial cells making up the blood vasculature and endothelial cells in vitro rapidly react to minute amounts of endotoxin resulting in a rapid induction of the cell adhesion molecule E-selectin. In this study we have used immunofluorescent staining to evaluate the expression of E-selectin on human microvascular endothelial cells from the skin (HDMEC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) exposed to various concentrations of LPS. In addition, the sensitivity of detection was compared with the most widely used assay for the presence of endotoxin, the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay (LAL). The detection of E-selectin on endothelial cells in the presence of LPS for 4 h was found to be at least as sensitive in detecting the same concentration using the LAL assay. A cell adhesion molecule-enzyme immunosorbent assay was also developed and used to quantify LPS using the endothelial cell model. A comparison of LAL and the immunofluorescent staining method was carried out with solutions, nanoparticles, biomaterial extracts and endothelial cells grown directly on biomaterials. Under all conditions, the endothelial/E-selectin model system was positive for the test samples that were positive by LAL. Thus, we propose the use of this highly sensitive, rapid, reproducible assay for the routine testing of endotoxin in all steps in the manufacturing process of materials destined for use in humans. This can give a rapid feedback and localization of bacterial contamination sources with the LAL being reserved for the testing of the final product.

  17. Ethics on Exhibit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Randy M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses ethical questions raised by an exhibition of work by an artist with a history of mental illness and the exhibition's relevance to art therapy and “outsider art” discourse on the subject. Considerations for how such an exhibit could be handled had the circumstances included an art therapist and art therapy client are…

  18. Ethics on Exhibit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, Randy M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses ethical questions raised by an exhibition of work by an artist with a history of mental illness and the exhibition's relevance to art therapy and “outsider art” discourse on the subject. Considerations for how such an exhibit could be handled had the circumstances included an art therapist and art therapy client are…

  19. An Exhibit for Touching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Susan

    1979-01-01

    An exhibit designed for visually handicapped persons presented by the Kalamazoo (Michigan) Institute of Art included bronze sculptures and oil paintings from the institute's permanent collection. (CL)

  20. An Exhibit for Touching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Susan

    1979-01-01

    An exhibit designed for visually handicapped persons presented by the Kalamazoo (Michigan) Institute of Art included bronze sculptures and oil paintings from the institute's permanent collection. (CL)

  1. A Teaching Aids Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahanja, Salah

    1985-01-01

    Describes an exhibition for the benefit of teachers of English in Arab Primary Schools, which was prepared by third-year students at the Teachers College for Arab Teachers. The exhibition included games, songs, audiovisual aids, crossword puzzles, vocabulary, spelling booklets, preposition aids, and worksheet and lesson planning aids. (SED)

  2. Communicating Science through Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.; Harold, J.; Morrow, C.

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. There are many ways for scientists to help develop science exhibitions. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). Two of its exhibitions, Space Weather Center and MarsQuest, are currently on tour. Another exhibition, Alien Earths, is in development. The Space Weather Center was developed in partnership with various research missions at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. MarsQuest is a 5000 square-foot traveling exhibition. The exhibit's second 3-year tour began this January at the Detroit Science Center. It is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. The 3,000 square-foot traveling exhibition, called Alien Earths, will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. Alien Earths has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, PlanetQuest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in ``habitable zones'' around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. Besides the exhibits, SSI is also developing interactive web sites based on exhibit themes. New technologies are transforming the Web from a static medium to an interactive environment with tremendous

  3. New Hurricane Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A new exhibit in StenniSphere depicting NASA's role in hurricane prediction and research and SSC's role in helping the region recover from Hurricane Katrina. The cyclone-shaped exhibit focuses on the effects of the Aug. 29, 2005 storm and outlines how NASA is working to improve weather forecasting. Through photos, 3-D models and digital animations, the exhibit tells the story of what happened inside the storm and how NASA's scientific research can increase the accuracy of hurricane tracking and modeling.

  4. New Hurricane Exhibit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-08-29

    A new exhibit in StenniSphere depicting NASA's role in hurricane prediction and research and SSC's role in helping the region recover from Hurricane Katrina. The cyclone-shaped exhibit focuses on the effects of the Aug. 29, 2005 storm and outlines how NASA is working to improve weather forecasting. Through photos, 3-D models and digital animations, the exhibit tells the story of what happened inside the storm and how NASA's scientific research can increase the accuracy of hurricane tracking and modeling.

  5. New Hurricane Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A new exhibit in StenniSphere depicting NASA's role in hurricane prediction and research and SSC's role in helping the region recover from Hurricane Katrina. The cyclone-shaped exhibit focuses on the effects of the Aug. 29, 2005 storm and outlines how NASA is working to improve weather forecasting. Through photos, 3-D models and digital animations, the exhibit tells the story of what happened inside the storm and how NASA's scientific research can increase the accuracy of hurricane tracking and modeling.

  6. Communicating Science through Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, Paul

    2005-04-01

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. Science exhibitions also provide a marvelous opportunity for scientists to become engaged in the exhibit development process. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). The focus of this presentation will be on two of its exhibit projects: MarsQuest (on tour for four years) and Alien Earths (its tour began early in 2005). MarsQuest is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. Alien Earths will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. It has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, Planet Quest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in ``habitable zones'' around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. SSI is also developing interactive web sites based on exhibit themes. New technologies are transforming the Web from a static medium to an interactive environment with tremendous potential for informal education and inquiry-based investigations. This talk will focus on the role informal science projects play in effectively communicating science to a broad, public audience.

  7. Test Control Center exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Have you ever wondered how the engineers at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., test fire a Space Shuttle Main Engine? The Test Control Center exhibit at StenniSphere can answer your questions by simulating the test firing of a Space Shuttle Main Engine. A recreation of one of NASA's test control centers, the exhibit explains and portrays the 'shake, rattle and roar' that happens during a real test firing.

  8. A Palaeozoic Puzzle in Cenozoic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikkelsen, Tom

    1982-01-01

    The sword-tailed horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) has developed its own defense against bacteria surrounding it. This defense system, under the name "Limulus test," now provides medicine and hygiene with a valuable means of detecting bacterial endotoxins at extremely low levels. (Author/JN)

  9. A Palaeozoic Puzzle in Cenozoic Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikkelsen, Tom

    1982-01-01

    The sword-tailed horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) has developed its own defense against bacteria surrounding it. This defense system, under the name "Limulus test," now provides medicine and hygiene with a valuable means of detecting bacterial endotoxins at extremely low levels. (Author/JN)

  10. Swamp to Space exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The menacing-looking alligator is really harmless. It is one of the realistic props to help convince visitors that the feel of the swamp is real in StenniSphere's Swamp to Space exhibit at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss. The historical section of the Swamp to Space exhibit tells the story of why and how Stennis Space Center came to be. It also pays tribute to the families who moved their homes to make way for the space age in Mississippi.

  11. 1989 Architectural Exhibition Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Winners of the 1989 Architectural Exhibition sponsored annually by the ASBO International's School Facilities Research Committee include the Brevard Performing Arts Center (Melbourne, Florida), the Capital High School (Santa Fe, New Mexico), Gage Elementary School (Rochester, Minnesota), the Lakewood (Ohio) High School Natatorium, and three other…

  12. "Rocket Park" - exhibits

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1979-12-20

    Overall view at JSC lookin west from atop of Bldg. 1 showing rockets, parking lot and all threee stages of Saturn V. first stage of Saturn V exhibit in "Rocket Park" on west side of center little joe and mercury models are seen 1. JSC- Aerials

  13. 1989 Architectural Exhibition Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Winners of the 1989 Architectural Exhibition sponsored annually by the ASBO International's School Facilities Research Committee include the Brevard Performing Arts Center (Melbourne, Florida), the Capital High School (Santa Fe, New Mexico), Gage Elementary School (Rochester, Minnesota), the Lakewood (Ohio) High School Natatorium, and three other…

  14. Exhibitions in Sight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Burton

    1978-01-01

    Early in the eighteenth century, Pompeii was discovered, a city that had been hidden for sixteen centuries by volcanic lava. There is a traveling exhibition of the sculptures, friezes, mosaics, and paintings being shown around the United States. Described is the history and contents of "Pompeii--A.D. 79." (RK)

  15. Exhibitions in Sight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Burton

    1978-01-01

    Early in the eighteenth century, Pompeii was discovered, a city that had been hidden for sixteen centuries by volcanic lava. There is a traveling exhibition of the sculptures, friezes, mosaics, and paintings being shown around the United States. Described is the history and contents of "Pompeii--A.D. 79." (RK)

  16. Exhibitions in Sight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Burton

    1977-01-01

    Today, few artists make serving vessels on a monumental scale. Here artists compete in this unique area of specialization prompted by the Campbell Museum in Camden, New Jersey, which is dedicated to collecting and exhibiting the very best in soup tureens. (Author/RK)

  17. Pictures at an Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunz, Walter S., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Youth Art Month exhibit in Howard County (Maryland) where students submitted their art focusing on school buildings and their interiors. Their art reveals concerns and desires about overcrowding, space utilization, school building height, outside lighting, solitude needs, and visual stimulation. The artwork is discussed in terms of…

  18. Alan Bean Art Exhibit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Former NASA Astronaut and U.S. Senator John Glenn is seen at the opening of the exhibit "Alan Bean: Painting Apollo, First Artist on Another World" at the National Air and Space Museum, Monday, July 20, 2009 in Washington. The show opening coincided with the 40th anniversary celebration of Apollo. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  19. Alan Bean Art Exhibit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    NASA Apollo 12 Astronaut and Artist Alan Bean gives remarks at the opening of the exhibit "Alan Bean: Painting Apollo, First Artist on Another World" at the National Air and Space Museum, Monday, July 20, 2009 in Washington. The show opening coincided with the 40th anniversary celebration of Apollo. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Exhibition in Sight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Burton

    1978-01-01

    Ludwig Mies van der Rohe is known primarily as an architect. However, he also designed chairs and tables. Discusses an exhibit held in New York City a few months ago which showed how well the famous architect achieved his goals in the area of furniture design. (Author/RK)

  1. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This photograph shows the Starship 2040 leaving the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for the exhibit site. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at MSFC, the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit, automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids and emergency and safety systems, are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  2. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph shows onlookers viewing displays within the Starship 2040 exhibit on display at Joe Davis Stadium in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit (automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids, and emergency and safety systems) are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the Nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  3. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph shows Justin Varnadore, son of a Marshall TV employee, at the controls of one of the many displays within the Starship 2040 exhibit on display at Joe Davis Stadium in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit (automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids, and emergency and safety systems) are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the Nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  4. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph shows onlookers viewing displays within the Starship 2040 exhibit on display at Joe Davis Stadium in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit (automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids, and emergency and safety systems) are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the Nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  5. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph shows Justin Varnadore, son of a Marshall TV employee, at the controls of one of the many displays within the Starship 2040 exhibit on display at Joe Davis Stadium in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit (automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids, and emergency and safety systems) are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the Nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  6. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  7. Space Shuttle Cockpit exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  8. Space Shuttle Cockpit exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  9. Repairing Hubble Exhibit Reception

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-23

    Individuals in attendance who had a hand in the development or servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope pose for a group photo at an event unveiling a new exhibit featuring Hubble's Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR) and the WFPC2 on Wednesday, April 23, 2014 at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC. COSTAR and WFPC2 were installed in Hubble during the first space shuttle servicing mission in 1993 and returned to Earth on the fifth and final servicing mission in 2009. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  10. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph shows the Starship 2040 on display at Joe Davis Stadium in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit (automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids, and emergency and safety systems) are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the Nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  11. Starship 2040 Exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This photograph shows the Starship 2040 on display at Joe Davis Stadium in Huntsville, Alabama. Developed by the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Starship 2040 exhibit is housed in a 48-ft (14.6-m) tractor and trailer rig, permitting it to travel around the Nation, demonstrating NASA's vision of what commercial spaceflight might be like 40 years from now. All the irnovations suggested aboard the exhibit (automated vehicle health monitoring systems, high-energy propulsion drive, navigational aids, and emergency and safety systems) are based on concepts and technologies now being studied at NASA Centers and partner institutions around the Nation. NASA is the Nation's premier agency for development of the space transportation system, including future-generation reusable launch vehicles. Such systems, the keys to a 'real' Starship 2040, require revolutionary advances in critical aerospace technologies, from thermal, magnetic, chemical, and propellantless propulsion systems to new energy sources such as space solar power or antimatter propulsion. These and other advances are now being studied, developed, and tested at NASA field centers and partner institutions all over the Nation.

  12. Heroes and Legends Exhibit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-07

    Inside the Heroes and Legends attraction at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, the Sigma 7 Mercury spacecraft in this exhibit was piloted by astronaut Wally Schirra during his six-orbit mission on Oct. 3, 1962. For display purposes, it is shown here attached to a Redstone launch vehicle like the one that boosted astronauts Alan Shepard and Gus Grissom on sub-orbital flights in 1961. Schirra's capsule was actually launched by the more powerful Atlas rocket in order to reach orbit. The new facility looks back to the pioneering efforts of Mercury, Gemini and Apollo. It sets the stage by providing the background and context for space exploration and the legendary men and women who pioneered the nation's journey into space.

  13. [Development of an endotoxin-specific Limulus amebocyte lysate test blocking beta-glucan-mediated pathway by carboxymethylated curdlan and its application].

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, M; Takaoka, A; Tokioka, N; Matsuura, S

    1990-11-01

    We developed a simple new endotoxin-specific assay method that uses Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) containing a sufficient amount of a water-soluble (1----3)-beta-D-glucan derivative as a blocker of the (1----3)-beta-D-glucan-mediated coagulation pathway. The addition of 0.1 mg/ml or more of carboxymethylated (1----3)-beta-D-glucan completely blocked the activation of LAL by (1----3)-beta-D-glucan itself. The assay of endotoxin was unaffected by the presence of 1 mg/ml carboxymethylated (1----3)-beta-D-glucan. Spiked endotoxin was recovered well from beta-glucans by the turbidimetric kinetic method with LAL containing 1 mg/ml of carboxymethylated (1----3)-beta-D-glucan. Besides, this new LAL formulation was applied for an endotoxin-specific assay by the conventional gel-clot method or the chromogenic method. Gram-negative bacteria were specifically detected by the turbidimetric kinetic method with the LAL formulation. This LAL formulation may be used for an endotoxin-specific assay not only in pharmacology but also in clinical microbiology.

  14. Application of WRF/Chem-MADRID and WRF/Polyphemus in Europe - Part 1: Model description, evaluation of meteorological predictions, and aerosol-meteorology interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Sartelet, K.; Wu, S.-Y.; Seigneur, C.

    2013-07-01

    Comprehensive model evaluation and comparison of two 3-D air quality modeling systems (i.e., the Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF)/Polyphemus and WRF with chemistry and the Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization, and Dissolution (MADRID) (WRF/Chem-MADRID)) are conducted over Western Europe. Part 1 describes the background information for the model comparison and simulation design, the application of WRF for January and July 2001 over triple-nested domains in Western Europe at three horizontal grid resolutions: 0.5°, 0.125°, and 0.025°, and the effect of aerosol/meteorology interactions on meteorological predictions. Nine simulated meteorological variables (i.e., downward shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes (SWDOWN and LWDOWN), outgoing longwave radiation flux (OLR), temperature at 2 m (T2), specific humidity at 2 m (Q2), relative humidity at 2 m (RH2), wind speed at 10 m (WS10), wind direction at 10 m (WD10), and precipitation (Precip)) are evaluated using available observations in terms of spatial distribution, domainwide daily and site-specific hourly variations, and domainwide performance statistics. The vertical profiles of temperature, dew points, and wind speed/direction are also evaluated using sounding data. WRF demonstrates its capability in capturing diurnal/seasonal variations and spatial gradients and vertical profiles of major meteorological variables. While the domainwide performance of LWDOWN, OLR, T2, Q2, and RH2 at all three grid resolutions is satisfactory overall, large positive or negative biases occur in SWDOWN, WS10, and Precip even at 0.125° or 0.025° in both months and in WD10 in January. In addition, discrepancies between simulations and observations exist in T2, Q2, WS10, and Precip at mountain/high altitude sites and large urban center sites in both months, in particular, during snow events or thunderstorms. These results indicate the model's difficulty in capturing meteorological variables in complex terrain and

  15. Evaluation of the limulus amoebocyte lysate test in conjunction with a gram negative bacterial plate count for detecting irradiation of chicken

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotter, Susan L.; Wood, Roger; McWeeny, David J.

    A study to evaluate the potential of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test in conjuction with a Gram negative bacteria (GNB) plate count for detecting the irradiation of chicken is described. Preliminary studies demonstrated that chickens irradiated at an absorbed dose of 2.5 kGy could be differentiated from unirradiated birds by measuring levels of endotoxin and of numbers of GNB on chicken skin. Irradiated birds were found to have endotoxin levels similar to those found in unirradiated birds but significantly lower numbers of GNB. In a limited study the test was found to be applicable to birds from different processors. The effect of temperature abuse on the microbiological profile, and thus the efficacy of the test, was also investigated. After temperature abuse, the irradiated birds were identifiable at worst up to 3 days after irradiation treatment at the 2.5 kGy level and at best some 13 days after irradiation. Temperature abuse at 15°C resulted in rapid recovery of surviving micro-organisms which made differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds using this test unreliable. The microbiological quality of the bird prior to irradiation treatment also affected the test as large numbers of GNB present on the bird prior to irradiation treatment resulted in larger numbers of survivors. In addition, monitoring the developing flora after irradiation treatment and during subsequent chilled storage also aided differentiation of irradiated and unirradiated birds. Large numbers of yeasts and Gram positive cocci were isolated from irradiated carcasses whereas Gram negative oxidative rods were the predominant spoilage flora on unirradiated birds.

  16. Membrane events in the acrosomal reaction of Limulus sperm. Membrane fusion, filament-membrane particle attachment, and the source and formation of new membrane surface

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    The membranes of Limulus (horseshoe crab) sperm were examined before and during the acrosomal reaction by using the technique of freeze- fracturing and thin sectioning. We focused on three areas. First, we examined stages in the fusion of the acrosomal vacuole with the cell surface. Fusion takes place in a particle-free zone which is surrounded by a circlet of particles on the P face of the plasma membrane and an underlying circlet of particles on the P face of the acrosomal vauole membrane. These circlets of particles are present before induction. Up to nine focal points of fusion occur within the particle-free zone. Second, we describe a system of fine filaments, each 30 A in diameter, which lies between the acrosomal vacuole and the plasma membrane. These filaments change their orientation as the vacuole opens, a process that takes place in less than 50 ms. Membrane particles seen on the P face of the acrosomal vacuole membrane change their orientation at the same time and in the same way as do the filaments, thus indicating that the membrane particles and filaments are probably connected. Third, we examined the source and the point of fusion of new membrane needed to cover the acrosomal process. This new membrane is almost certainly derived from the outer nuclear envelope and appears to insert into the plasma membrane in a particle-free area adjacent to an area rich in particles. The latter is the region where the particles are probably connected to the cytoplasmic filaments. The relevance of these observations in relation to the process of fertilization of this fantastic sperm is discussed. PMID:582596

  17. Pre-sampling contamination of filters used in measurements of airborne (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan based on glucan-specific Limulus amebocyte lysate assay.

    PubMed

    Shogren, Elizabeth S; Park, Ju-Hyeong

    2011-04-01

    Air sampling for (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan may be a good method for assessing inhalation exposure to airborne fungi. Pre-sampling contamination of filter media used for sampling (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan may lead to substantial exposure measurement errors. Using the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay, we tested for pre-sampling levels of (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan on three types of filters-mixed cellulose ester (MCE)[1 brand], glass fiber (GF)[1 brand], and polycarbonate (PC)[5 brands]. Levels of (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan on MCE filters exceeded 4586.1 pg per filter. Levels on GF filters averaged 135.3 (± 28.9) pg per filter (range = 94.8-160.4 pg per filter) and levels on PC filters averaged 152.4 (± 236.1) pg per filter (range = non-detectable-1760.7 pg per filter). Efforts to clean MCE and GF filters were unfeasible or unsuccessful. Sonicating PC filters for two hours in ethanol, followed by a wash in pyrogen-free water, effectively eliminated measured levels of (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan on four brands of PC filters, as compared to untreated PC filters. This pretreatment process did not appear to physically damage the PC filters. Air sampling results highlighted the potentially problematic contamination of untreated PC filters. Ensuring that sampling media are free of (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan before sampling is crucial to accurately measure levels of (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan exposure, especially in environments where levels of (1 → 3)-β-D-glucan are low.

  18. Inhibition of high-molecular-weight-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucan-dependent activation of a limulus coagulation factor G by laminaran oligosaccharides and curdlan degradation products.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, S; Aketagawa, J; Takahashi, S; Shibata, Y; Tsumuraya, Y; Hashimoto, Y

    1993-05-21

    Extensive surveys for the effects of various beta-D-glucans on the coagulation cascade in horseshoe crab amebocyte lysates showed that low-mol-wt-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucans and laminaran oligosaccharides inhibit the activation of a limulus coagulation factor G by high-mol-wt-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucans. The inhibitory properties are exclusively dependent upon their number-average mol wt (Mn) in a range of 342-58,100, which correspond to a degree of polymerization (dp) range of 2-359. The most effective is a laminaran dextrin of Mn 5800 (dp of 35-36), which causes 50% inhibition of factor G activation at a concentration of 3.16 ng/mL. The inhibition of the activation of factor G proportional to the concentration of the inhibitor, and the adsorption of factor G by inhibitory beta-D-glucan-conjugated cellulose suggested a high affinity of the inhibitory saccharides for the activator-recognition site of factor G. Branched (1-->6), (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans, laminarans, mixed linkage (1-->3), (1-->4)-beta-D-glucans, and partially substituted curdlan and laminaran were found to be inhibitory, possibly owing to clusters of consecutive (1-->3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl residues as intrachain units. The inhibition appears to be related to the inability of the inhibitory (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans to form ordered conformations and to their tendency to take a random-coil structure in aqueous solution.

  19. Is Endotoxemia in Stable Hemodialysis Patients an Artefact? Limitations of the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Assay and Role of (1→3)-β-D Glucan

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yonglong; Patidar, Ashish; Vilar, Enric; Finkelman, Malcolm; Farrington, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Background Elevated blood endotoxin levels are frequently reported in the dialysis population and are strongly linked with inflammation, a major predictor of mortality. Virtually all studies have employed the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay to detect endotoxin. However this assay is not endotoxin-specific and can be activated by (1→3)-β-glucan (BG), a component of fungal cell walls leading to false positive signals. Very few studies have taken account of this. We examined the influence of BG-based activation of the LAL assay on the detection of endotoxemia in this setting. Method We measured plasma endotoxin levels in 50 hemodialysis patients with and without the use of BG-blocking buffers. These buffers inhibit BG activation of the LAL assay to ensure that any signal detected is endotoxin-specific. Blood samples were measured for BG, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-α) to examine the association between endotoxin signals, BG and inflammation. Results Endotoxin signals were detected in 50% of patients. On repeat measurement with a BG-blocking buffer, all detected endotoxin signals were extinguished. No patient had detectable endotoxemia. Plasma BG levels were significantly elevated in 58% of patients and were higher in those with detectable endotoxin signals using the LAL assay without BG-blocking buffers (78vs.54pg/mL;p<0.001). Endotoxin signal and BG levels did not correlate with levels of TNF-α or IL-6. Conclusion Use of the LAL assay for blood endotoxin detection in dialysis patients has its limitations due to high blood BG. Endotoxemia frequently reported in non-infected hemodialysis patients may be artefactual due to BG interference. PMID:27764208

  20. Traveling Exhibitions: translating current science into effective science exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P.; Morrow, C.; Harold, J.

    The Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, Colorado has recently developed two museum exhibits called the Space Weather Center and MarsQuest. It is currently planning to develop two other exhibitions called Cosmic Origins and InterActive Earth. Museum exhibitions provide research scientists the opportunity to engage in a number of activities that are vital to the success of earth and space outreach programs. The Space Weather Center was developed in partnership with various research missions at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The focus of the presentation will be on the Institute's MarsQuest exhibition. This project is a 5000 square-foot, 2.5M, traveling exhibition that is now touring the country. The exhibit's 3-year tour is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and learn more about their own planet in the process. The associated planetarium show and education program will also be described, with particular emphasis on workshops to orient host museum staff (e.g. museum educators and docents). The workshops make innovative connections between the exhibitions interactive experiences and lesson plans aligned with the National Science Education Standards. SSI is also developing an interactive web site called MarsQuest On-line. The linkage between the web site, education program and exhibit will be discussed. MarsQuest and SSI's other exhibitions are good models for actively involving scientists and their discoveries to help improve informal science education in the museum community and for forging a stronger connection between formal and informal education.

  1. Against the Odds Exhibition Opens

    MedlinePlus

    ... LA and Vox Populi organizations. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson At the exhibition, HIV and AIDS were topics addressed by Dr. Victoria Cargill (right), Director of Clinical Studies and Director of Minority ...

  2. A lingering elevation of Cai accompanies inhibition of inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate-induced Ca release in Limulus ventral photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Injection of inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate (InsP3) into Limulus ventral photoreceptors causes an elevation of intracellular free Ca concentration (Cai) and depolarizes the photoreceptors. When measured with the photoprotein aequorin, the InsP3-induced Cai increase follows the time course of depolarization and declines within 1-2 s. However, sensitivity to further injections of InsP3 remains suppressed for several tens of seconds. The possibility that the suppression of Ca release (feedback inhibition) is due to a small lingering elevation of Cai, below the existing detection limit of aequorin, was investigated by measuring Cai with Ca-sensitive electrodes. Double-barreled, Ca- selective microelectrodes were used to pressure inject InsP3 and measure Cai at the same point. Light or InsP3 injections into the light- sensitive compartment depolarized the photoreceptors and induced an elevation of Cai that persisted for tens of seconds. Injections of InsP3 during the decay of Cai showed that sensitivity to InsP3 recovered as resting Cai approached the prestimulus level. The relationship between elevated Cai and feedback inhibition was very steep. An elevation of Cai of 1 microM or more was associated with inhibitions of 79 +/- 12.4% (SEM; n = 7) for the InsP3-induced Cai increase and of 76 +/- 8% for depolarizations. With a residual Cai elevation of 0.01 microM or less, the mean inhibition was 10 +/- 7.4% for InsP3-induced Cai increase and 6.6 +/- 4% for InsP3-induced depolarization. Injections of InsP3 into a light-insensitive compartment within the cell induced elevations of Cai with no associated depolarizations or feedback inhibition. To verify that a sustained elevation of Cai is necessary for inhibition of InsP3-induced Cai increase and depolarization, we injected ethyleneglycol-bis-(beta- aminoethylether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) between two injections of InsP3. Injection of 1 mM EGTA or the related Ca chelator BAPTA, delivered 750 ms after the first injection

  3. Accuracy of Turbidimetric Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Assay for the Recovery of Endotoxin Interacted with Commonly Used Antimicrobial Agents of Endodontic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Ariane C S; Polay, Ana R O; Gomes, Brenda P F A

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate whether the interaction between the turbidimetric limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) substrate for endotoxin measurement and the substances/antimicrobial agents used in endodontic therapy can lead to the inhibition/enhancement of endotoxin recovery. Ten microliters of a suspension of Escherichia coli endotoxin (O55:B55) was inoculated and kept in contact for 1 hour with different substances categorized as follows: group 1: auxiliary chemical substances: 5.25% and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solutions, 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) (gel and solution), 1% Natrosol gel (Drogal Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil), 17% EDTA, 10% citric acid, 3% hydrogen peroxide, 5% sodium thiosulfate, and 0.5% Tween 80 associated with 0.07% soy lecithin (Drogal Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals Ltd) and group 2: intracanal medications: neomycin/polymyxin B/hydrocortisone (Otosporin; Glaxo Wellcome, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil); calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2); Ca(OH)2 + 2% CHX gel; Ca(OH)2 + 2% CHX gel + zinc oxide eugenol; Ca(OH)2 + camphorated paramonochlorophenol (Calen; S.S. White, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil); triple antibiotic paste; mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA); and iodoform. Positive and negative controls consisted of root canal hemorrhagic exudate and pyrogen-free sterile water, respectively. All samples were diluted up to a 10:4 dilution. Each dilution was individually examined by the turbidimetric LAL assay. Collected data were analyzed through performance characteristics of the LAL assay such as linearity, coefficient of variation percentage, and product positive control (PPC) values. Correlation coefficient (≥0.980) and coefficient of variation percentage (<10%) of the standard curve in triplicate showed the tests' linearity. Spike recovery of auxiliary chemical substances achieved PPC values ranging from 50%-197%, showing no interferences with LAL substrate. Conversely, 3% hydrogen peroxide achieved product inhibition in

  4. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change.

  5. Science on a Sphere exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Students from Xavier University Preparatory School in New Orleans view the newest exhibit at StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center - Science on a Sphere, a 68-inch global presentation of planetary data. StenniSphere is only the third NASA visitor center to offer the computer system, which uses four projectors to display data on a globe and present a dynamic, revolving, animated view of Earth and other planets.

  6. Science on a Sphere exhibit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-03-31

    Students from Xavier University Preparatory School in New Orleans view the newest exhibit at StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center - Science on a Sphere, a 68-inch global presentation of planetary data. StenniSphere is only the third NASA visitor center to offer the computer system, which uses four projectors to display data on a globe and present a dynamic, revolving, animated view of Earth and other planets.

  7. Large holograms in traveling exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christakis, Anne-Marie

    1994-01-01

    The presentation of large holograms in travelling exhibitions has always posed problems, mainly due to lack of space. The Museum of Holography was consequently required to develop, with Jean-Francois Moreau, display consoles which are light, affordable and completely detachable. In a permanent exposition at the Forum des Halles in Paris, the Museum displays a room with 22 holograms, each measuring 1 m X 1 m, in a structure designed by the architect Fabien Vienne. The different systems used by the Museum are presented here.

  8. Thermoelectric device exhibiting decreased stress

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, D.L.; Chou, D.J.

    1985-02-05

    A thermoelectric device exhibiting both structural integrity and decreased stress across the device notwithstanding the application of thermally cycled temperature differentials thereacross includes, electrically interconnected thermoelectric elements and a rigidly affixed substrate. Thermal stress is relieved by using flexible conductors to interconnect the thermoelectric elements, and by the use of a flexile joint to attach a second substrate to the remainder of the device. Complete elimination of the second substrate may also be used to eliminate stress. Presence of the rigidly affixed substrate gives the device sufficient structural integrity to enable it to withstand rugged conditions.

  9. Collaborative virtual environments art exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinsky, Margaret; Anstey, Josephine; Pape, Dave E.; Aguilera, Julieta C.; Kostis, Helen-Nicole; Tsoupikova, Daria

    2005-03-01

    This panel presentation will exhibit artwork developed in CAVEs and discuss how art methodologies enhance the science of VR through collaboration, interaction and aesthetics. Artists and scientists work alongside one another to expand scientific research and artistic expression and are motivated by exhibiting collaborative virtual environments. Looking towards the arts, such as painting and sculpture, computer graphics captures a visual tradition. Virtual reality expands this tradition to not only what we face, but to what surrounds us and even what responds to our body and its gestures. Art making that once was isolated to the static frame and an optimal point of view is now out and about, in fully immersive mode within CAVEs. Art knowledge is a guide to how the aesthetics of 2D and 3D worlds affect, transform, and influence the social, intellectual and physical condition of the human body through attention to psychology, spiritual thinking, education, and cognition. The psychological interacts with the physical in the virtual in such a way that each facilitates, enhances and extends the other, culminating in a "go together" world. Attention to sharing art experience across high-speed networks introduces a dimension of liveliness and aliveness when we "become virtual" in real time with others.

  10. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Developmental changes in the distribution of cecal lectin-binding sites of Balb-c mice.

    PubMed

    Doehrn, S; Breipohl, W; Lierse, W; Romaniuk, K; Young, W

    1992-01-01

    The existence of lectin-binding sites was investigated in the cecum of Balb-c mice at seven developmental stages ranging from 18 days post conception (p.c.) to 8 weeks after birth. Nine horseradish-peroxidase-conjugated lectins (concanavalin A, Triticum vulgaris, Dolichus biflorus, Helix pomatia, Arachis hypogaea, Glycine maximus, Lotus tetragonolobus, Ulex europaeus, Limulus polyphemus) were applied to 5- to 7-microns thin paraffin sections of Bouin-fixed tissue. After DAB staining the sections were evaluated by light microscopy. It was shown that each lectin exhibits a unique developmental pattern. The adult binding patterns were established at the age of 3-4 weeks with only minor changes occurring thereafter. Considerable differences in binding patterns occurred not only between lectins of different groups but also between lectins with the same nominal monosaccharide specificity.

  12. Environmental Windows Associated with Dredging Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-12-01

    Pimpleback Plethobasus cooperlanus LRN Pink Mucket Pearly Mussel Lampsillis orbiculata LRN, NWK Shellfish (Crab/Lobster/Shrimp) Blue Crab Callinectes ... sapidus NAN, NAB Dungeness Crab Cancer magister NWS, NWP NAP Horseshoe Crab Limulus polyphemus Technical Note DOER-E2 December 1998 Table 4

  13. Exhibits Enhanced by Stand-Alone Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rennes, Eve C.

    Both the development and evaluation of one of a set of computer programs designed for use by visitors as adjuncts to museum exhibits are described. Museum displays used were (1) a static, behind-glass exhibit on evolution; (2) a hands-on primitive stone age tools exhibit; and (3) a Foucault pendulum. A computer placed next to each exhibit served…

  14. Exhibits Enhanced by Stand-Alone Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rennes, Eve C.

    Both the development and evaluation of one of a set of computer programs designed for use by visitors as adjuncts to museum exhibits are described. Museum displays used were (1) a static, behind-glass exhibit on evolution; (2) a hands-on primitive stone age tools exhibit; and (3) a Foucault pendulum. A computer placed next to each exhibit served…

  15. Removal of endotoxin from culture media by a polymyxin B sepharose column. The activity of contaminating endotoxin in culture media measured by the interleukin 1 inducing effect on human monocyte cultures and by the Limulus test.

    PubMed

    Mølvig, J; Baek, L

    1987-12-01

    The in vitro study of monocytes (Mo) poses several problems. Minor contamination with endotoxin (ET) of media and utensils as well as adherence to glass or plastic surfaces may activate the cells and cause pronounced production of monokines. Many commercially liquid culture media were found to contain ET in concentrations above 25 X 10(-12) g/ml. A simple system for the removal of ET from media and solutions was established by use of a commercially available Polymyxin B Sepharose gel. To measure the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding capacity of the gel, known concentrations of LPS were added to culture media, which were passed through a column consisting of the Polymyxin B Sepharose gel. The content of ET and added LPS in media was measured by the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test before and after passage of the column. The LPS-binding capacity of the gel was approximately 2.4 X 10(-6) g/10 ml. The biological activity of contaminating ET and added LPS in media, before and after passage of the column, was also characterized by the capacity of the media to induce interleukin 1 (IL-1) secretion in human Mo cultures. The content of IL-1 in Mo culture supernatants was determined by the mouse thymocyte costimulatory (LAF) assay. By comparison of the activity of ET in these different biological systems, it was demonstrated that 15-20 X 10(-12) g/ml of ET stimulate human Mo cultures to IL-1 secretion.

  16. Learning by Doing, Creating a Museum Exhibit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Sarah; Kallquist, Dierdre

    2000-01-01

    Describes an exhibit called Kid's Kitchen, built within a major exhibit called Biodiversity: Life Supporting Life, in order to discuss environmental prompts hidden within the kitchen designed to surprise students and get them thinking. (ASK)

  17. Learning by Doing, Creating a Museum Exhibit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Sarah; Kallquist, Dierdre

    2000-01-01

    Describes an exhibit called Kid's Kitchen, built within a major exhibit called Biodiversity: Life Supporting Life, in order to discuss environmental prompts hidden within the kitchen designed to surprise students and get them thinking. (ASK)

  18. Science Education Through a Museum Exhibit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaparian, Azad; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Describes the polywater exhibit at the Worcester Science Center in Massachusetts. Curiosity and interest are stimulated in young people by allowing them to handle the materials in the exhibit and by providing them with instructions for making polywater. (JR)

  19. Science Education Through a Museum Exhibit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaparian, Azad; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Describes the polywater exhibit at the Worcester Science Center in Massachusetts. Curiosity and interest are stimulated in young people by allowing them to handle the materials in the exhibit and by providing them with instructions for making polywater. (JR)

  20. 29 CFR 2200.70 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION RULES OF PROCEDURE Hearings... separate file designated for rejected exhibits. (e) Return of physical exhibits. A party may on motion request the return of a physical exhibit within 30 days after expiration of the time for filing a petition...

  1. 29 CFR 2200.70 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION RULES OF PROCEDURE Hearings... separate file designated for rejected exhibits. (e) Return of physical exhibits. A party may on motion request the return of a physical exhibit within 30 days after expiration of the time for filing a petition...

  2. 29 CFR 2200.70 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION RULES OF PROCEDURE Hearings... separate file designated for rejected exhibits. (e) Return of physical exhibits. A party may on motion request the return of a physical exhibit within 30 days after expiration of the time for filing a petition...

  3. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Applications: exhibits. 50.7 Section 50.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... elements or matters contained in the exhibit. (a) Exhibit A—Articles of incorporation and bylaws. If the...

  4. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Applications: exhibits. 50.7 Section 50.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... elements or matters contained in the exhibit. (a) Exhibit A—Articles of incorporation and bylaws. If the...

  5. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applications: exhibits. 50.7 Section 50.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... elements or matters contained in the exhibit. (a) Exhibit A—Articles of incorporation and bylaws. If the...

  6. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applications: exhibits. 50.7 Section 50.7 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... elements or matters contained in the exhibit. (a) Exhibit A—Articles of incorporation and bylaws. If the...

  7. Space exhibitions: the science encounters the public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coliolo, F.; Menendez, M.

    The widespread dissemination of science has always been one pillar of the development of human knowledge. There are several methods to structure interaction with the public: media, conferences, various written genres, and exhibitions. But: how to attract the public? How to arouse interest among future generation, insatiable for knowledge? In this paper we focus on space exhibitions, whose content combines mystery, discovery and science. The preparation of an exhibition is based on guidelines discussed between an interdisciplinary team and the exhibition project manager, the purpose of which is to find a coherent "strategy" to select information and to choose a concise, efficient, smart and original way to "visualize" the messages. Exhibition visitors are "privileged" because the interactivity is first emotive, then mental and cultural; the audience is universal. The goal of an exhibition is not to explain the content, but to stimulate the audience's curiosity in an attractive environment. We show some photos of ESA exhibitions, and try to understand if the visual impact is the first step towards a "multi-sensory" approach to communication. "A good exhibition can never be replaced by a book, a film or a lecture. A good exhibition creates a thirst for books, film, lectures. A good exhibition changes the visitors"(J. Wagensberg, Modern scientific museology")

  8. Electroretinographic measures of vision in horseshoe crabs with uniform versus variegated carapaces.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, G S; Cheng, Z

    1996-01-01

    The carapace characteristics of horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) have been correlated by others with male mating performance and it has also been suggested that such mating differences might depend on visual differences. The effect of carapace character on horseshoe crab vision was therefore noninvasively investigated using the electroretinogram (ERG) of the lateral compound eye as a measure. Male Limulus were dichotomized on three carapace dimensions: clear versus dark eyes, light versus dark carapaces, and presence versus absence of barnacles. All dichotomizations gave similar results: No crab was ERG-blind. Analyses based on ERG magnitude yielded trivial sensitivity differences between these groups. However, analyses based on ERG latency indicated that response speeds exhibited reliably different trends between groups: Although responses to dim flashes were similar for all animals, increasing flash intensity produced significantly greater changes in the latencies of the ERGs in uniform males than in variegated males. This interactive dependence of ERG speed differences on flash energy cannot be the result of greater light absorption by the variegated specimens' darkened corneas. The visual capacities of variegated specimens are therefore somewhat altered, but certainly not absent. Equalizing animal size between groups did not measurably affect these results, implying that age was not a factor. The previously reported correlation of an individual male's appearance with its performance in mating competitions is extended by these data to include its sensory functioning as well.

  9. Polyphemus, Odysseus and the ovine milk proteome.

    PubMed

    Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Fasoli, Elisa; Di Francesco, Antonella; Saletti, Rosaria; Muccilli, Vera; Gallina, Serafina; Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Foti, Salvatore

    2017-01-30

    In the last years the amount of ovine milk production, mainly used to formulate a wide range of different and exclusive dairy products often categorized as gourmet food, has been progressively increasing. Taking also into account that sheep milk (SM) also appears to be potentially less allergenic than cow's one, an in-depth information about its protein composition is essential to improve the comprehension of its potential benefits for human consumption. The present work reports the results of an in-depth characterization of SM whey proteome, carried out by coupling the CPLL technology with SDS-PAGE and high resolution UPLC-nESI MS/MS analysis. This approach allowed the identification of 718 different protein components, 644 of which are from unique genes. Particularly, this identification has expanded literature data about sheep whey proteome by 193 novel proteins previously undetected, many of which are involved in the defence/immunity mechanisms or in the nutrient delivery system. A comparative analysis of SM proteome known to date with cow's milk proteome, evidenced that while about 29% of SM proteins are also present in CM, 71% of the identified components appear to be unique of SM proteome and include a heterogeneous group of components which seem to have health-promoting benefits. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier .

  10. Superconductive microstrip exhibiting negative differential resistivity

    DOEpatents

    Huebener, R.P.; Gallus, D.E.

    1975-10-28

    A device capable of exhibiting negative differential electrical resistivity over a range of values of current and voltage is formed by vapor- depositing a thin layer of a material capable of exhibiting superconductivity on an insulating substrate, establishing electrical connections at opposite ends of the deposited strip, and cooling the alloy into its superconducting range. The device will exhibit negative differential resistivity when biased in the current- induced resistive state.

  11. 49 CFR 1331.2 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... organization chart; and (3) As Exhibit 4, a schedule of its charges to members or a statement showing how the... agreement pertains to a conference, bureau, committee, or other organization: (1) As Exhibit 2, a copy of the constitution, bylaws, or other documents or writings specifying the organization's powers, duties...

  12. 49 CFR 1331.2 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... organization chart; and (3) As Exhibit 4, a schedule of its charges to members or a statement showing how the... agreement pertains to a conference, bureau, committee, or other organization: (1) As Exhibit 2, a copy of the constitution, bylaws, or other documents or writings specifying the organization's powers, duties...

  13. Encountering Nanotechnology in an Interactive Exhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murriello, Sandra E.; Knobel, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    This article offers findings from a learning sciences-informed evaluation of a nanoscience and nanotechnology exhibition called Nano-Aventura (NanoAdventure), based on four interactive-collaborative games and two narrated videos. This traveling exhibition was developed in Brazil by the Museu Exploratorio de Ciencias for children and teenagers…

  14. Science Fiction Exhibits as STEM Gateways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robie, Samantha

    Women continue to hold less than a quarter of all STEM jobs in the United States, prompting many museums to develop programs and exhibits with the express goal of interesting young girls in scientific fields. At the same time, a number of recent museum exhibits have harnessed the popularity of pop culture and science fiction in order to interest general audiences in STEM subject matter, as well as using the exhibits as springboards to expand or shift mission goals and focus. Because science fiction appears to be successful at raising interest in STEM fields, it may be an effective way to garner the interest of young girls in STEM in particular. This research seeks to describe the ways in which museums are currently using science fiction exhibits to interest young girls in STEM fields and careers. Research focused on four institutions across the country hosting three separate exhibits, and included staff interviews and content analysis of exhibit descriptions, promotional materials, a summative evaluation and supplementary exhibit productions. In some ways, science fiction exhibits do serve young girls, primarily through the inclusion of female role models, staff awareness, and prototype testing to ensure interactives are attractive to girls as well as to boys. However, STEM appears to be underutilized, which may be partly due to a concern within the field that the outcome of targeting a specific gender could be construed as "stereotyping".

  15. Memory and Mourning: An Exhibit History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberle, Scott G.

    2005-01-01

    Mounted by the Strong Museum in Rochester, New York, in 1993, and traveling nationally thereafter, the exhibit Memory and Mourning provided historical and contemporary perspectives to help museum guests explore their own reactions to loss and grief. In the process the exhibit's development team encountered a range of philosophical, historical,…

  16. 32 CFR 705.24 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.24 Exhibits. (a) Navy exhibits are representations or collections of... concerned, via the chain of command. (3) The official OASD(PA) Request Form for Armed Forces Participation will be used. See Armed Forces Request Form, § 705.36. (4) Requests for exceptions to policy...

  17. Learning4Life on the Exhibit Floor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The exhibit floor is a wealth of knowledge. One can read, view, and listen to information presented in many formats. Somewhere on the exhibit floor there are experts on every topic, ready and waiting for one's questions. But like any research topic, frequently a structured search is required to find the best answers. This article discusses how to…

  18. Evaluation of Clientele Impact of Science Exhibits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talisayon, Vivien M.

    1998-01-01

    Explores the use of an impact evaluation model across time and clientele groups that is used to evaluate exhibits from two science centers in Manila. Questionnaire and interview data indicate that students prefer exhibits that produce sound, light, and motion. (DDR)

  19. 18 CFR 34.4 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the statement of corporate purposes from its articles of incorporation. (b) Exhibit B. A copy of all... stockholders has been obtained. (c) Exhibit C. The Balance Sheet and attached notes for the most recent 12... for the most recent 12-month period for which financial statements have been published, provided that...

  20. 18 CFR 34.4 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the statement of corporate purposes from its articles of incorporation. (b) Exhibit B. A copy of all... stockholders has been obtained. (c) Exhibit C. The Balance Sheet and attached notes for the most recent 12... for the most recent 12-month period for which financial statements have been published, provided that...

  1. 18 CFR 34.4 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the statement of corporate purposes from its articles of incorporation. (b) Exhibit B. A copy of all... stockholders has been obtained. (c) Exhibit C. The Balance Sheet and attached notes for the most recent 12... for the most recent 12-month period for which financial statements have been published, provided that...

  2. Encountering Nanotechnology in an Interactive Exhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murriello, Sandra E.; Knobel, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    This article offers findings from a learning sciences-informed evaluation of a nanoscience and nanotechnology exhibition called Nano-Aventura (NanoAdventure), based on four interactive-collaborative games and two narrated videos. This traveling exhibition was developed in Brazil by the Museu Exploratorio de Ciencias for children and teenagers…

  3. An Attention Model for Museum Exhibits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightner, John W.

    A qualitative study determined which factors in the museum exhibit environment or within the museum visitor may influence the visitor to attend an exhibit. Observations and interviews were conducted of 14 groups that visited a Chesapeake & Ohio steam locomotive at the Henry Ford Museum in Dearborn, Michigan. An inductive or grounded theory…

  4. Strategies for Determining Exhibit Effectiveness. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shettel, Harris H.; And Others

    This project was designed to develop research strategies and hypotheses for evaluating the effectiveness of exhibits. An exhibit on the role of the Federal Government in science and technology was used as the subject matter. Two basic groups of viewers were used, casual viewers and paid experimental viewers. Both were tested on knowledge gained…

  5. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Program Pt. 1980, Subpt. E, Exh. G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Note: The Exhibit is not published...

  6. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Program Pt. 1980, Subpt. E, Exh. G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Note: The Exhibit is not published...

  7. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Program Pt. 1980, Subpt. E, Exh. G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Note: The Exhibit is not published...

  8. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING... Program Pt. 1980, Subpt. E, Exh. G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Note: The Exhibit is not published...

  9. Museum Exhibitions: Optimizing Development Using Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.

    2002-12-01

    The Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, Colorado, has recently developed two museum exhibits called the Space Weather Center and MarsQuest. It is currently planning to develop a third exhibit called InterActive Earth. The Space Weather Center was developed in partnership with various research missions at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The development of these exhibitions included a comprehensive evaluation plan. I will report on the important role evaluation plays in exhibit design and development using MarsQuest and InterActive Earth as models. The centerpiece of SSI's Mars Education Program is the 5,000-square-foot traveling exhibition, MarsQuest: Exploring the Red Planet, which was developed with support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), NASA, and several corporate donors. The MarsQuest exhibit is nearing the end of a highly successful, fully-booked three-year tour. The Institute plans to send an enhanced and updated MarsQuest on a second three-year tour and is also developing Destination: Mars, a mini-version of MarsQuest designed for smaller venues. They are designed to inspire and empower participants to extend the excitement and science content of the exhibitions into classrooms and museum-based education programs in an ongoing fashion. The centerpiece of the InterActive Earth project is a traveling exhibit that will cover about 4,000 square feet. The major goal of the proposed exhibit is to introduce students and the public to the complexity of the interconnections in the Earth system, and thereby, to inspire them to better understand planet Earth. Evaluation must be an integral part of the exhibition development process. For MarsQuest, a 3-phase evaluation (front end, formative and summative) was conducted by Randi Korn and Associates in close association with the development team. Sampling procedures for all three evaluation phases ensured the participation of all audiences, including family groups, students, and adults. Each phase of

  10. The Making of a Museum Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleecker, Samuel E.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the preparation of the Reptile and Amphibian exhibition at the American Museum of Natural History. Various steps involved in developing the ten showcases in a six-year period are presented. (SA)

  11. The Making of a Museum Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleecker, Samuel E.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the preparation of the Reptile and Amphibian exhibition at the American Museum of Natural History. Various steps involved in developing the ten showcases in a six-year period are presented. (SA)

  12. 43 CFR 4.824 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Procedural Rules Applicable to Practice and Procedure for Hearings, Decisions, and Administrative Review... Interior-Effectuation of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Procedures § 4.824 Exhibits....

  13. 18 CFR 32.2 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of operating such facilities. Exhibit B. A general or key map on a scale not greater than 20 miles to... facilities used for the generation and transmission of electric energy, indicating on said map the...

  14. 18 CFR 153.8 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Exhibit D. If the proposal is for a pipeline interconnection to import or export natural gas, a copy of... authority, that will issue each required authorization; the date each request for authorization...

  15. Communicating Complex Sciences by Means of Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, S.

    2011-12-01

    Earth Sciences will have to take over the leading role in global sustainable policy and in discussions about climate change. Efforts to raise attention within the politically responsible communities as well as in the public are getting more and more support by executive and advisory boards all over the world. But how can you successfully communicate complex sciences? For example, to start communication about climate change, the first step is to encourage people to be concerned about climate change. After that, one has to start thinking about how to present data and how to include the presented data into an unprejudiced context. Therefore, the communication toolbox offers various methods to reach diverse audiences. The R&D programme GEOTECHNOLOGIEN conducts roving exhibitions as one of its most successful communication tools. With roving exhibitions GEOTECHNOLOGIEN is able to get in touch with different audiences at once. The main purpose and theme of these exhibitions is to convey the everyday means of climate change to the visitors. It is within the responsibility of science to communicate the effects of a phenomenon like climate change as well as the impact of research results to the everyday life of people. Currently, a GEOTECHNOLOGIEN roving exhibition on remote sensing with satellites deals with various issues of environmental research, including a chapter on climate change. By following the 3M-concept (Meaning - Memorable - Moving), exhibitions allow to connect the visitors daily environment and personal experiences with the presented issues and objects. Therefore, hands-on exhibits, exciting multimedia effects and high-tech artefacts have to be combined with interpretive text elements to highlight the daily significance of the scientific topics and the exhibition theme respectively. To create such an exhibition, strong conceptual planning has to be conducted. This includes the specification of stern financial as well as time wise milestones. In addition

  16. When Do Children Exhibit a "Yes" Bias?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okanda, Mako; Itakura, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether one hundred and thirty-five 3- to 6-year-old children exhibit a yes bias to various yes-no questions and whether their knowledge status affects the production of a yes bias. Three-year-olds exhibited a yes bias to all yes-no questions such as "preference-object" and "knowledge-object" questions pertaining to…

  17. An Astrobiology Microbes Exhibit and Education Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Allen, Jaclyn S.; Stocco, Karen; Tobola, Kay; Olendzenski, Lorraine

    2001-01-01

    Telling the story of NASA-sponsored scientific research to the public in exhibits is best done by partnerships of scientists and museum professionals. Likewise, preparing classroom activities and training teachers to use them should be done by teams of teachers and scientists. Here we describe how we used such partnerships to develop a new astrobiology augmentation to the Microbes! traveling exhibit and a companion education module. "Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract."

  18. Reaching the Public through Traveling Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Harold, J. B.; Morrow, C. A.

    2004-11-01

    The Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, Colorado has recently developed two museum exhibits called Alien Earths and MarsQuest. It has just started to develop another exhibit called Giant Planets. These exhibitions provide research scientists the opportunity to engage in a number of activities that are vital to the success of these major outreach programs. Alien Earths was developed in partnership with various research missions. The focus of the presentation will be on MarsQuest and Giant Planets. MarsQuest is a 5000 square-foot, \\$3M, traveling exhibition that is now touring the country. The exhibit's second 3-year tour will enable millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and learn more about their own planet in the process. The associated planetarium show and education program will also be described, with particular emphasis on workshops to orient museum staff (e.g. museum educators and docents) and workshops for master educators near host museums and science centers. The workshops make innovative connections between the exhibition's interactive experiences and lesson plans aligned with the National Science Education Standards. These exhibit programs are good models for actively involving scientists and their discoveries to help improve informal science education in the museum community and for forging a stronger connection between formal and informal education. The presentation will also discuss how Giant Planets, a proposed 3500 square-foot traveling exhibition on the mysteries and discoveries of the outer planets, will be able to take advantage of the connections and resources that have been developed by the MarsQuest project.

  19. When Do Children Exhibit a "Yes" Bias?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okanda, Mako; Itakura, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether one hundred and thirty-five 3- to 6-year-old children exhibit a yes bias to various yes-no questions and whether their knowledge status affects the production of a yes bias. Three-year-olds exhibited a yes bias to all yes-no questions such as "preference-object" and "knowledge-object" questions pertaining to…

  20. An Astrobiology Microbes Exhibit and Education Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Allen, Jaclyn S.; Stocco, Karen; Tobola, Kay; Olendzenski, Lorraine

    2001-01-01

    Telling the story of NASA-sponsored scientific research to the public in exhibits is best done by partnerships of scientists and museum professionals. Likewise, preparing classroom activities and training teachers to use them should be done by teams of teachers and scientists. Here we describe how we used such partnerships to develop a new astrobiology augmentation to the Microbes! traveling exhibit and a companion education module. "Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract."

  1. Sex differences in science museum exhibit attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arámbula Greenfield, Teresa

    This study examines the relative attraction of hands-on, interactive science museum exhibits for females and males. Studies have demonstrated that such exhibits can be effective learning experiences for children, with both academic and affective benefits. Other studies have shown that girls and boys do not always experience the same science-related educational opportunities and that, even when they do, they do not necessarily receive the same benefits from them. These early differences can lead to more serious educational and professional disparities later in life. As interactive museum exhibits represent a science experience that is-readily available to both girls and boys, the question arose as to whether they were being used similarly by the two groups as well as by adult women and men. It was found that both girls and boys used all types of exhibits, but that girls were more likely than boys to use puzzles and exhibits focusing on the human body; boys were more likely than girls to use computers and exhibits illustrating physical science principles. However, this was less true of children accompanied by adults (parents) than it was of unaccompanied children on school field trips who roamed the museum more freely.Received: 16 February 1994; Revised: 3 February 1995;

  2. Using Comparative Planetology in Exhibit Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Harold, J. B.; Morrow, C. A.

    2004-12-01

    It is critically important for the public to better understand the scientific process. Museum exhibitions are an important part of informal science education that can effectively reach public audiences as well as school groups. They provide an important gateway for the public to learn about compelling scientific endeavors. The Space Science Institute (SSI) is a national leader in producing traveling science exhibitions and their associated educational programming (i.e. interactive websites, educator workshops, public talks, instructional materials). The focus of this presentation will be on three of its exhibit projects: MarsQuest (currently on tour), Alien Earths (in fabrication), and Giant Planets (in development). MarsQuest is enabling millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and to learn more about their own planet in the process. Alien Earths will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. It has four interrelated exhibit areas: Our Place in Space, Star Birth, PlanetQuest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in "habitable zones" around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. Giant Planets: Exploring the Outer Solar System will take advantage of the excitement generated by the Cassini mission and bring planetary and origins research and discoveries to students and the public. It will be organized around four thematic areas: Our Solar System; Colossal Worlds; Moons, Rings, and Fields; and Make Space for Kids. Giant Planets will open in 2007. This talk will focus on the importance of making Earth comparisons in the conceptual design of each exhibit and will show several examples of how these comparisons were manifested in

  3. The Gravity- Powered Calculator, a Galilean Exhibit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerreta, Pietro

    2014-04-01

    The Gravity-Powered Calculator is an exhibit of the Exploratorium in San Francisco. It is presented by its American creators as an amazing device that extracts the square roots of numbers, using only the force of gravity. But if you analyze his concept construction one can not help but recall the research of Galileo on falling bodies, the inclined plane and the projectile motion; exactly what the American creators did not put into prominence with their exhibit. Considering the equipment only for what it does, in my opinion, is very reductive compared to the historical roots of the Galilean mathematical physics contained therein. Moreover, if accurate deductions are contained in the famous study of S. Drake on the Galilean drawings and, in particular on Folio 167 v, the parabolic paths of the ball leaping from its launch pad after descending a slope really actualize Galileo's experiments. The exhibit therefore may be best known as a `Galilean calculator'.

  4. Localized pulses exhibiting a missilelike slow decay.

    PubMed

    Shaarawi, Amr M; Maged, Maha A; Besieris, Ioannis M; Hashish, Essam

    2006-08-01

    We investigate the quasi-missile behavior of known localized wave solutions, such as the modified power spectrum and splash pulses. We demonstrate that source-free localized waves can exhibit slow decay rates analogous to Wu's missile solutions, which are characterized by an amplitude decay rate slower than 1/R over an unlimited range. When excited from a finite aperture, the missilelike decay is not exhibited by all localized waves showing such behavior in the source-free situation. On the other hand, localized wave missiles generated from a finite aperture have peaks that exhibit quasi-missile decay. In an extended intermediate range between the near- and the far-field regions, these pulses decay at a rate slower than 1/R before switching to the usual 1/R decay.

  5. Localized pulses exhibiting a missilelike slow decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaarawi, Amr M.; Maged, Maha A.; Besieris, Ioannis M.; Hashish, Essam

    2006-08-01

    We investigate the quasi-missile behavior of known localized wave solutions, such as the modified power spectrum and splash pulses. We demonstrate that source-free localized waves can exhibit slow decay rates analogous to Wu's missile solutions, which are characterized by an amplitude decay rate slower than 1/R over an unlimited range. When excited from a finite aperture, the missilelike decay is not exhibited by all localized waves showing such behavior in the source-free situation. On the other hand, localized wave missiles generated from a finite aperture have peaks that exhibit quasi-missile decay. In an extended intermediate range between the near- and the far-field regions, these pulses decay at a rate slower than 1/R before switching to the usual 1/R decay.

  6. The exploration of the exhibition informatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiankang

    2017-06-01

    The construction and management of exhibition informatization is the main task and choke point during the process of Chinese exhibition industry’s transformation and promotion. There are three key points expected to realize a breakthrough during the construction of Chinese exhibition informatization, and the three aspects respectively are adopting service outsourcing to construct and maintain the database, adopting advanced chest card technology to collect various kinds of information, developing statistics analysis to maintain good cutomer relations. The success of Chinese exhibition informatization mainly calls for mature suppliers who can provide construction and maintenance of database, the proven technology, a sense of data security, advanced chest card technology, the ability of data mining and analysis and the ability to improve the exhibition service basing on the commercial information got from the data analysis. Several data security measures are expected to apply during the process of system developing, including the measures of the terminal data security, the internet data security, the media data security, the storage data security and the application data security. The informatization of this process is based on the chest card designing. At present, there are several types of chest card technology: bar code chest card; two-dimension code card; magnetic stripe chest card; smart-chip chest card. The information got from the exhibition data will help the organizers to make relevant service strategies, quantify the accumulated indexes of the customers, and improve the level of the customer’s satisfaction and loyalty, what’s more, the information can also provide more additional services like the commercial trips, VIP ceremonial reception.

  7. 18 CFR 156.5 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... such enterprises or operations, a detailed explanation of each such relationship, including the... relationship. (5) Exhibit F—Location of facilities. A geographical map of suitable scale and detail showing all... proposed customers; derivation of numbers of customers proposed to be served; individual consumer peak...

  8. 18 CFR 32.2 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... facilities used for the generation and transmission of electric energy, indicating on said map the points... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Required exhibits. 32.2 Section 32.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT...

  9. 18 CFR 32.2 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... facilities used for the generation and transmission of electric energy, indicating on said map the points... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Required exhibits. 32.2 Section 32.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT...

  10. 49 CFR 250.2 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; number of units of locomotives, freight cars, and passenger cars owned and leased; principal commodities... for each of the last 5 calendar years and for each month of the current year to latest available date... to the date of the latest balance sheet furnished as Exhibit 8, together with a monthly forecast...

  11. 49 CFR 250.2 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...; number of units of locomotives, freight cars, and passenger cars owned and leased; principal commodities... for each of the last 5 calendar years and for each month of the current year to latest available date... to the date of the latest balance sheet furnished as Exhibit 8, together with a monthly forecast...

  12. 49 CFR 250.2 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...; number of units of locomotives, freight cars, and passenger cars owned and leased; principal commodities... for each of the last 5 calendar years and for each month of the current year to latest available date... to the date of the latest balance sheet furnished as Exhibit 8, together with a monthly forecast...

  13. 49 CFR 250.2 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...; number of units of locomotives, freight cars, and passenger cars owned and leased; principal commodities... for each of the last 5 calendar years and for each month of the current year to latest available date... to the date of the latest balance sheet furnished as Exhibit 8, together with a monthly forecast...

  14. 49 CFR 250.2 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...; number of units of locomotives, freight cars, and passenger cars owned and leased; principal commodities... for each of the last 5 calendar years and for each month of the current year to latest available date... to the date of the latest balance sheet furnished as Exhibit 8, together with a monthly forecast...

  15. Creating Cross-Cultural Exhibits in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Kazuyo; Erickson, Virginia; Ford, Viktoria

    Theory and practice of the Cross-Cultural Arts Exhibit project initiated by the Krannert Art Museum at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (Illinois) is described in this paper. The project was developed based on the concept of post-museum. Instead of transmitting values and knowledge, communication in the post-museum stresses the…

  16. After Terror Charges, Artist Exhibits Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Steven Kurtz, a professor of visual studies at the State University of New York, has been working with various bacteria as part of his counterculture exhibit artworks for nearly 20 years. Four years ago, federal agents raided his home in a bioterrorism investigation. The federal agents had been called to the house by local police officers…

  17. The medial prefrontal cortex exhibits money illusion

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Bernd; Rangel, Antonio; Wibral, Matthias; Falk, Armin

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral economists have proposed that money illusion, which is a deviation from rationality in which individuals engage in nominal evaluation, can explain a wide range of important economic and social phenomena. This proposition stands in sharp contrast to the standard economic assumption of rationality that requires individuals to judge the value of money only on the basis of the bundle of goods that it can buy—its real value—and not on the basis of the actual amount of currency—its nominal value. We used fMRI to investigate whether the brain's reward circuitry exhibits money illusion. Subjects received prizes in 2 different experimental conditions that were identical in real economic terms, but differed in nominal terms. Thus, in the absence of money illusion there should be no differences in activation in reward-related brain areas. In contrast, we found that areas of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), which have been previously associated with the processing of anticipatory and experienced rewards, and the valuation of goods, exhibited money illusion. We also found that the amount of money illusion exhibited by the vmPFC was correlated with the amount of money illusion exhibited in the evaluation of economic transactions. PMID:19307555

  18. Graduation by Exhibition: Assessing Genuine Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Joseph P.; And Others

    This book describes a strategy for school reform, "planning backwards from exhibitions," which is a collective invention of the Coalition of Essential Schools. The strategy is based on the principle that graduation from high school should be based on genuine achievement. The first article, by Joseph P. McDonald, explains that the purpose of…

  19. 32 CFR 705.24 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhibits. 705.24 Section 705.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS... be displayed in any appropriate location or event (including commercially owned spaces such as...

  20. 18 CFR 153.8 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... LNG, evidence that an appropriate and qualified concern will properly and safely receive or deliver such LNG, including a report containing detailed engineering and design information. The Commission... Office of Energy Projects, 888 First Street, NE., Washington, DC 20426; (6) Exhibit E-1. If the...

  1. FluxBase: An Interactive Art Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huntley, Joan S.; Partridge, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Describes a computer program that gives Fluxus exhibition attendees an opportunity to experience the Flux objects in the spirit in which they were originally created. Suggests that the computer program provides a virtual approximation to the original art works without damaging them. (RS)

  2. 32 CFR 705.24 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be displayed in any appropriate location or event (including commercially owned spaces such as... for Navy exhibits in events of international or national scope, or those requiring major coordination... will be used. See Armed Forces Request Form, § 705.36. (4) Requests for exceptions to policy...

  3. 32 CFR 705.24 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be displayed in any appropriate location or event (including commercially owned spaces such as... for Navy exhibits in events of international or national scope, or those requiring major coordination... will be used. See Armed Forces Request Form, § 705.36. (4) Requests for exceptions to policy...

  4. 18 CFR 34.4 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Required exhibits. 34.4 Section 34.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT APPLICATION FOR AUTHORIZATION OF THE ISSUANCE...

  5. Comic Strips to Accompany Science Museum Exhibits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Beom Sun; Park, Eun-mi; Kim, Sang-Hee; Cho, Sook-kyoung; Chung, Min Suk

    2016-01-01

    Science museums make the effort to create exhibits with amusing explanations. However, existing explanation signs with lengthy text are not appealing, and as such, visitors do not pay attention to them. In contrast, conspicuous comic strips composed of simple drawings and humors can attract science museum visitors. This study attempted to reveal…

  6. Do Online Students Exhibit Different Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausler, Joel; Sanders, John W.; Young, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    We examined the relationship between learning styles and student type. This research seeks to examine if online students exhibit different learning styles from onsite students; and, if so, what accommodations relating to learning style differences may be made for online students? Students (N = 80) were asked to complete an online survey in order…

  7. Do Online Students Exhibit Different Learning Styles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausler, Joel; Sanders, John W.; Young, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Do online students exhibit different learning styles from onsite students; and if so, what accommodations relating to learning style differences may be made for online students? Our ideas of best practices within this area have been evolving to keep up with our students. Various tactics have been used to make sure students understand what kinds of…

  8. 18 CFR 153.8 - Required exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... LNG, evidence that an appropriate and qualified concern will properly and safely receive or deliver such LNG, including a report containing detailed engineering and design information. The Commission... Office of Energy Projects, 888 First Street, NE., Washington, DC 20426; (6) Exhibit E-1. If the...

  9. 18 CFR 156.5 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... separate volume or volumes shall indicate on the cover thereof applicant's name and bear Docket No. CP... an equivalent Btu basis. (12) Exhibit K—Cost of facilities. A detailed estimate of total capital cost.... (vii) A balance sheet and income statement (12 months) of most recent date available....

  10. 18 CFR 156.5 - Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... separate volume or volumes shall indicate on the cover thereof applicant's name and bear Docket No. CP... an equivalent Btu basis. (12) Exhibit K—Cost of facilities. A detailed estimate of total capital cost.... (vii) A balance sheet and income statement (12 months) of most recent date available....

  11. After Terror Charges, Artist Exhibits Academic Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Steven Kurtz, a professor of visual studies at the State University of New York, has been working with various bacteria as part of his counterculture exhibit artworks for nearly 20 years. Four years ago, federal agents raided his home in a bioterrorism investigation. The federal agents had been called to the house by local police officers…

  12. MarsQuest: A National Traveling Exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. W.; Dusenbery, P. B.

    1998-09-01

    With the successful landing of Mars Pathfinder and the arrival of Mars Global Surveyor, a new decade of Mars exploration has commenced. MarsQuest, a 5000 square foot traveling exhibition, is being developed to further bring the excitement and discoveries of this "Decade of Mars Exploration" to the public. MarsQuest is partially funded by the Informal Science Education Program of the National Science Foundation and NASA's Office of Space Science. The Space Science Institute (SSI) in Boulder, CO, is leading the project. Scientific and educational advisors from many different universities and government laboratories, most of whom are directly involved in the active and planned Mars missions, will ensure the scientific accuracy, timeliness, and relevance of the key concepts presented in the exhibition and accompanying programs. The traveling exhibit is the primary element of the MarsQuest project. The exhibition experience, carefully keyed to current events in Mars exploration, will transport visitors to the surface of the Red Planet via large murals, dioramas, and numerous interactive displays. There they will have the opportunity to share in the spirit and thrill of exploration, and come to appreciate the similarities and differences between Earth and Mars. A planetarium show, geared to the goals of the MarsQuest project, will be an important sensory addition to the traveling exhibit. The planetarium/star-theater venue presents a unique environment where audience members can literally be surrounded by Mars images. Education and outreach programs comprise the remainder of the MarsQuest project. The goal of these is to make scientific concepts and scientific and engineering processes understandable to students via Mars-inspired curricula. MarsQuest will open in late-1999, traveling to about nine sites throughout the United States and reaching an estimated two to three million children and adults during its planned three-year tour. Mars - coming soon to a museum near

  13. Barium hexaferrite (M-phase) exhibiting superstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Ganapathi, L.; Gopalakrishnan, J.; Rao, C.N.R.

    1984-05-01

    Barium hexaferrite (M-phase) prepared by the flux method is found to exhibit a ..sqrt..3a x ..sqrt..3a superstructure similar to barium hexaaluminate. Morgan and Shaw as well as Iyi et al have recently reported the formation of a barium-rich phase of barium hexaaluminate possessing a ..sqrt..3a x ..sqrt..3a superstructure of the magnetoplumbite structure. In view of the similarities between the layer structures of ..beta..-aluminas and the corresponding ferrites the authors have been carrying out electron microscopic investigations of potassium ..beta..-alumina and BaA1/sub 12/O/sub 19/ along with ferrites of similar compositions. They have obtained electron diffraction patterns of barium hexaaluminate identical to those obtained by Morgan and Shaw and Iyi et al, but more interestingly, they have found a phase of barium hexaferrite (M-phase) exhibiting the ..sqrt..3a x ..sqrt..3a superstructure.

  14. The palaeontological exhibition: a venue for dialogue.

    PubMed

    Murriello, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the dialogue between museums and their visitors enables museums to subsist, undergo transformations and become consolidated as socially valued cultural venues. The Museo de La Plata (Argentina) was created in the late nineteenth century as a natural history museum, and this study shows that currently the museum is valued socially as a venue for family leisure and education, at which people make sense to the objects exhibited through characteristics conferred upon them by both the institution and the visitor. Nevertheless, such dialogue is somehow affected by the museographic proposal and the public interpretation of the institutional narrative, which could be analysed within the frame of contextual learning. As a consequence, the evolutionary idea that the museum aims to communicate is distorted by the public. This article highlights the importance of considering the visitors' interpretations when planning museum exhibitions, a perspective that has been rather absent in the Argentinian museums. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  16. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  17. 2005 Armaments Technology Seminar and Exhibition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-13

    collaboration with COCOMS(s) and all JFHQ-State, takes lead and stands up JCCSE JCCSE evolves as part of the larger DoD enterprise, leveraging the GIG and...Regiment LTC Andre Kirnes, USA, Program Manager, Mortar Systems Dr. Raymond M. Bateman , Science Advisor to Commander III Corps, US Army Research Laboratory... Bateman , Science Advisor to the Commander III Corps Report from the Field Break in Exhibit Area Ms. Angela Messer, Booz Allen Hamilton Mr. Brian Newman

  18. When do children exhibit a "yes" bias?

    PubMed

    Okanda, Mako; Itakura, Shoji

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether one hundred and thirty-five 3- to 6-year-old children exhibit a yes bias to various yes-no questions and whether their knowledge status affects the production of a yes bias. Three-year-olds exhibited a yes bias to all yes-no questions such as preference-object and knowledge-object questions pertaining to objects, and knowledge-face questions pertaining to facial expressions. Four-year-olds tended to say "yes" only to knowledge-object questions. Five-year-olds did not show any strong response tendency. Six-year-olds exhibited a nay-saying bias to knowledge-face questions. Also, 3-year-olds could indicate the correct option when asked questions with 2 response options. It suggested that 3-year-olds tended to inappropriately say "yes" to yes-no questions, although they knew the answers to the questions. The mechanism of a yes bias was discussed.

  19. Bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, Nicholas R. T.; Song, Jeremy; Nieh, James C.

    2009-10-01

    Associative learning is key to how bees recognize and return to rewarding floral resources. It thus plays a major role in pollinator floral constancy and plant gene flow. Honeybees are the primary model for pollinator associative learning, but bumblebees play an important ecological role in a wider range of habitats, and their associative learning abilities are less well understood. We assayed learning with the proboscis extension reflex (PER), using a novel method for restraining bees (capsules) designed to improve bumblebee learning. We present the first results demonstrating that bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect. They improve their associative learning of odor and nectar reward by exhibiting increased memory acquisition, a component of long-term memory formation, when the time interval between rewarding trials is increased. Bombus impatiens forager memory acquisition (average discrimination index values) improved by 129% and 65% at inter-trial intervals (ITI) of 5 and 3 min, respectively, as compared to an ITI of 1 min. Memory acquisition rate also increased with increasing ITI. Encapsulation significantly increases olfactory memory acquisition. Ten times more foragers exhibited at least one PER response during training in capsules as compared to traditional PER harnesses. Thus, a novel conditioning assay, encapsulation, enabled us to improve bumblebee-learning acquisition and demonstrate that spaced learning results in better memory consolidation. Such spaced learning likely plays a role in forming long-term memories of rewarding floral resources.

  20. Art exhibit focuses on African astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-07-01

    Connections between Africans and astronomy are the focus of a new exhibition in the National Museum of African Art in Washington, D. C. "African Cosmos: Stellar Arts," which includes artwork, cultural items, and scientific displays from ancient to contemporary times, is the first major exhibit "that brings together arts and science focused on Africa's contribution to keen observations of the heavens over time," curator Christine Mullen Kreamer said at a 20 June news briefing. Among the exhibit's nearly 100 objects are an ancient Egyptian mummy board that includes a representation of the sky goddess Nut, sculptures by the Dogon people of Mali depicting figures in relation to the cosmos, a video that uses data from two square degrees of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Evolution Survey, and a nearly floor-to-ceiling "Rainbow Serpent" constructed of plastic containers by Benin artist Hazoume. An untitled acrylic painting (Figure 1) by South African Gavin Jantjes evokes a myth of the Khoi San people of southern Africa, as it portrays a girl throwing evening fire embers into the night sky, where they remained as the Milky Way.

  1. The E = mc{sup 2} exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, D.; Peshkin, M.

    1995-08-01

    The goal of this DOE-supported exhibition is to demystify Einstein`s formula E = mc{sup 2} by illustrating the interchangeability of matter (m) and energy (E), c{sup 2} being the exchange rate. The exhibition has two major parts, {open_quotes}matter into energy{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}energy into matter{close_quotes}, plus a video to connect them. {open_quotes}Matter into energy{close_quotes} has now been completed and has been placed on the museum floor. Positrons from a {sup 22}Na source are annihilated to produce gamma rays that are caught in NaI detectors. The viewer can alter the alignment of the detectors and observe the consequences for the rates of single and coincident counts. The viewer can also observe the effects of placing absorbers in front of the counters. Prototype explanatory graphics were placed around the exhibit and those will probably be changed after we have some experience with their effectiveness. The connecting video is in the process of being produced in collaboration with Fermilab. A cloud chamber for {open_quotes}energy into matter{close_quotes}, where gamma rays from a small Th source will produce observable pairs, was purchased and work to make the pairs visible has commenced.

  2. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart E of... - Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 G Exhibit G to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY,...

  3. Mars in their eyes - a cartoon exhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillinger, Pi.

    Recently a collection of 120 cartoons which tell the story of Mars exploration and scientific discovery, past, present and future, was held in London. We discuss the aims of the exhibition, to what extent we believe the original aims were met and report on additional outreach opportunities resulting from the project. The overriding aim was to capitalise on the popular appeal of accessible art - most people admit to enjoying cartoons. This was strengthened by hanging the originals of cartoons which had, mostly, been published in newspapers and magazines in a wide selection of countries. The provenances served to indicate the attraction of Mars to a wide public. We were fortunate to work with the Cartoon Art Trust of the UK who was in the process of relocating to new premises and opening as The Cartoon Museum, in the tourist area of Bloomsbury, central London, very close to the British Museum. "Mars in their Eyes" ran for 10 weeks during April to July 2006; immediately following which a selection of the cartoons was displayed at the week-long Royal Society Summer Exhibition. We explore the differences between the two exhibitions and comment on the various audience responses. We use this comparison to discuss whether a project which is primarily art can be extended to explain science. Does the coupling merely result in dumbing-down of both cultures or is there a true synergy? The experience has led us to coin the phrase "extreme outreach". Projects which are as ambitious as "Mars in their Eyes", without the security of a safe, captive audience, for example at a Science Centre, must be judged by different criteria. Indeed if the project does not meet comparable targets like large visitor numbers, then the honest evaluation of such details can only inform future activities and must not be reflected in the future funding of only "safe" outreach activities.

  4. Turbidimetric studies of Limulus coagulin gel formation.

    PubMed Central

    Moody, T P; Donovan, M A; Laue, T M

    1996-01-01

    The turbidity during trypsin-induced coagulin gel formation was studied over a range of wavelengths. The range of wavelengths used (686-326 nm) also made it possible to investigate the dependence of turbidity on wavelength (the wavelength exponent). Using the results from that work, and structural information on coagulin and the coagulin gel from other studies, a model gel-forming system was designed that consists of species for which the turbidity can be calculated relatively simply. These species include small particles (small in all dimensions relative to the wavelength of incident light); long rods and long random coils (particles that are large in just one dimension relative to the wavelength of incident light); and reflective regions (aggregated material that is large in more than one dimension relative to the wavelength of incident light). The turbidimetric characteristics of the real coagulin gel-forming system are compared with those of the model system. PMID:8889175

  5. Contrast adaptation in the Limulus lateral eye

    PubMed Central

    Valtcheva, Tchoudomira M.

    2015-01-01

    Luminance and contrast adaptation are neuronal mechanisms employed by the visual system to adjust our sensitivity to light. They are mediated by an assortment of cellular and network processes distributed across the retina and visual cortex. Both have been demonstrated in the eyes of many vertebrates, but only luminance adaptation has been shown in invertebrate eyes to date. Since the computational benefits of contrast adaptation should apply to all visual systems, we investigated whether this mechanism operates in horseshoe crab eyes, one of the best-understood neural networks in the animal kingdom. The spike trains of optic nerve fibers were recorded in response to light stimuli modulated randomly in time and delivered to single ommatidia or the whole eye. We found that the retina adapts to both the mean luminance and contrast of a white-noise stimulus, that luminance- and contrast-adaptive processes are largely independent, and that they originate within an ommatidium. Network interactions are not involved. A published computer model that simulates existing knowledge of the horseshoe crab eye did not show contrast adaptation, suggesting that a heretofore unknown mechanism may underlie the phenomenon. This mechanism does not appear to reside in photoreceptors because white-noise analysis of electroretinogram recordings did not show contrast adaptation. The likely site of origin is therefore the spike discharge mechanism of optic nerve fibers. The finding of contrast adaption in a retinal network as simple as the horseshoe crab eye underscores the broader importance of this image processing strategy to vision. PMID:26445869

  6. Art Therapy Exhibitions: Exploitation or Advocacy?

    PubMed

    Davis, Terri

    2017-01-01

    Promoting awareness of human trafficking by sharing trauma survivors' art and summaries of their life stories suggests ethical complexities that have been typically neglected by bioethicists. Although these survivors voluntarily share the objects they created during art therapy sessions, they are still at risk of harm, including further exploitation, due to their vulnerability, high rates of victim sensitivity, and the mental health consequences of their traumatic experiences. While some argue that the benefits of sublimation and art therapy for human trafficking survivors make sharing their art worth the risk, anti-trafficking organizations and supporters of such art exhibitions have responsibilities to be trauma informed. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  7. EarthScope Exhibit on Capitol Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folger, Peter

    2004-08-01

    Politicians got a chance to see why funding the National Science Foundation is crucial to the nation's scientific enterprise during an annual exhibit and reception showcasing NSF-sponsored research, held on 22 June in the Rayburn House Office Building on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C. AGU teamed with the American Geological Institute and the Geological Society of America to co-sponsor a display about EarthScope that outlined the NSF-supported multi-year investigation into the structure and evolution of the North American continent and the physical processes controlling earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

  8. A metafluid exhibiting strong optical magnetism.

    PubMed

    Sheikholeslami, Sassan N; Alaeian, Hadiseh; Koh, Ai Leen; Dionne, Jennifer A

    2013-09-11

    Advances in the field of metamaterials have enabled unprecedented control of light-matter interactions. Metamaterial constituents support high-frequency electric and magnetic dipoles, which can be used as building blocks for new materials capable of negative refraction, electromagnetic cloaking, strong visible-frequency circular dichroism, and enhancing magnetic or chiral transitions in ions and molecules. While all metamaterials to date have existed in the solid-state, considerable interest has emerged in designing a colloidal metamaterial or "metafluid". Such metafluids would combine the advantages of solution-based processing with facile integration into conventional optical components. Here we demonstrate the colloidal synthesis of an isotropic metafluid that exhibits a strong magnetic response at visible frequencies. Protein-antibody interactions are used to direct the solution-phase self-assembly of discrete metamolecules comprised of silver nanoparticles tightly packed around a single dielectric core. The electric and magnetic response of individual metamolecules and the bulk metamaterial solution are directly probed with optical scattering and spectroscopy. Effective medium calculations indicate that the bulk metamaterial exhibits a negative effective permeability and a negative refractive index at modest fill factors. This metafluid can be synthesized in large-quantity and high-quality and may accelerate development of advanced nanophotonic and metamaterial devices.

  9. Nematic liquid crystals exhibiting high birefringence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thingujam, Kiranmala; Bhattacharjee, Ayon; Choudhury, Basana; Dabrowski, Roman

    2016-06-01

    Two fluorinated isothiocyanato nematic liquid crystalline compounds, 4'-butylcyclohexyl-3, 5-difluoro-4-isothiocyanatobiphenyl and 4'-pentylcyclohexyl-3, 5-difluoro-4-isothiocynatobiphenyl are studied in detail to obtain their different physical parameters. Optical polarizing microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, density and dielectric studies have been carried out for the two samples. Both the samples were found to have high clearing temperature (>100 °C) and exhibit small enthalpy of transition. The two samples exhibit high optical birefringence (Δ n > 0.2). The values of order parameters for the two samples were obtained using different approaches, namely, Vuks', Neugebauer's, modified Vuks' and direct extrapolation method from birefringence data. Experimentally obtained values of order parameters have also been compared with theoretical Maier-Saupe values. The parallel and perpendicular components of dielectric permittivity values of the two compounds were also calculated and their anisotropy values were found to be small. The effect of temperature on the molecular dipole moment μ and the angle of inclination β of the dipole axis with the director have also been investigated in this work.

  10. Circular dichroism study of the hemocyanin thermostability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolova Georgieva, Dessislava; Stoeva, Stanka; Abid Ali, Syed; Abbasi, Atiya; Genov, Nicolay; Voelter, Wolfgang

    1998-05-01

    Circular dichroism spectroscopy is used to investigate the thermostability of six arthropod hemocyanins (Hcs), representatives of the subphyla Crustacea (infraorder Brachyura) and Chelicerate (infraorders Xiphosura and Arachnida), and three molluscan Hcs from gastropod organisms. Melting points ( Tm) are determined from the temperature dependence of ellipticity of dioxygen-binding proteins from Maia squinado, Callinectes sapidus, Carcinus maenas, Limulus polyphemus, Buthus sindicus, Androctonus australis, Megathura crenulata, Haliotis tuberculata, and Rapana thomasiana. Both, arthropod and molluscan Hcs, are thermostable proteins with melting temperatures in the region 68-91°C. Binuclear dioxygen-binding sites contribute significantly to the thermostability and increase the Tm values of the apo-forms by 3-16°C. An elevated thermostability is observed in the case of the Limulus polyphemus Hc. One of the reasons is the high degree of hemocyanin oligomerization.

  11. 17 CFR 229.601 - (Item 601) Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... by reference, the exhibits required in the exhibit table shall be filed as indicated, as part of the... exhibit table. The exhibit index shall indicate, by handwritten, typed, printed, or other legible form of... index is located. For a description of each of the exhibits included in the exhibit table, see...

  12. Supercomputing meets seismology in earthquake exhibit

    ScienceCinema

    Blackwell, Matt; Rodger, Arthur; Kennedy, Tom

    2016-07-12

    When the California Academy of Sciences created the "Earthquake: Evidence of a Restless Planet" exhibit, they called on Lawrence Livermore to help combine seismic research with the latest data-driven visualization techniques. The outcome is a series of striking visualizations of earthquakes, tsunamis and tectonic plate evolution. Seismic-wave research is a core competency at Livermore. While most often associated with earthquakes, the research has many other applications of national interest, such as nuclear explosion monitoring, explosion forensics, energy exploration, and seismic acoustics. For the Academy effort, Livermore researchers simulated the San Andreas and Hayward fault events at high resolutions. Such calculations require significant computational resources. To simulate the 1906 earthquake, for instance, visualizing 125 seconds of ground motion required over 1 billion grid points, 10,000 time steps, and 7.5 hours of processor time on 2,048 cores of Livermore's Sierra machine.

  13. Supercomputing meets seismology in earthquake exhibit

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, Matt; Rodger, Arthur; Kennedy, Tom

    2013-10-03

    When the California Academy of Sciences created the "Earthquake: Evidence of a Restless Planet" exhibit, they called on Lawrence Livermore to help combine seismic research with the latest data-driven visualization techniques. The outcome is a series of striking visualizations of earthquakes, tsunamis and tectonic plate evolution. Seismic-wave research is a core competency at Livermore. While most often associated with earthquakes, the research has many other applications of national interest, such as nuclear explosion monitoring, explosion forensics, energy exploration, and seismic acoustics. For the Academy effort, Livermore researchers simulated the San Andreas and Hayward fault events at high resolutions. Such calculations require significant computational resources. To simulate the 1906 earthquake, for instance, visualizing 125 seconds of ground motion required over 1 billion grid points, 10,000 time steps, and 7.5 hours of processor time on 2,048 cores of Livermore's Sierra machine.

  14. Virtual auditorium concepts for exhibition halls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Jack; Himmel, Chad; Knight, Sarah

    2002-11-01

    Many communities lack good performance facilities for symphonic music, opera, dramatic and musical arts, but have basic convention, exhibition or assembly spaces. It should be possible to develop performance space environments within large multipurpose facilities that will accommodate production and presentation of dramatic arts. Concepts for moderate-cost, temporary enhancements that transform boxy spaces into more intimate, acoustically articulated venues will be presented. Acoustical criteria and design parameters will be discussed in the context of creating a virtual auditorium within the building envelope. Physical, economic, and logistical limitations affect implementation. Sound reinforcement system augmentation can supplement the room conversion. Acceptable control of reflection patterns, reverberation, and to some extent, ambient noise, may be achieved with an array of nonpermanent reflector and absorber elements. These elements can sculpture an enclosure to approach the shape and acoustic characteristics of an auditorium. Plan and section illustrations will be included.

  15. Arabidopsis thaliana telomeres exhibit euchromatic features

    PubMed Central

    Vaquero-Sedas, María I.; Gámez-Arjona, Francisco M.; Vega-Palas, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    Telomere function is influenced by chromatin structure and organization, which usually involves epigenetic modifications. We describe here the chromatin structure of Arabidopsis thaliana telomeres. Based on the study of six different epigenetic marks we show that Arabidopsis telomeres exhibit euchromatic features. In contrast, subtelomeric regions and telomeric sequences present at interstitial chromosomal loci are heterochromatic. Histone methyltransferases and the chromatin remodeling protein DDM1 control subtelomeric heterochromatin formation. Whereas histone methyltransferases are required for histone H3K92Me and non-CpG DNA methylation, DDM1 directs CpG methylation but not H3K92Me or non-CpG methylation. These results argue that both kinds of proteins participate in different pathways to reinforce subtelomeric heterochromatin formation. PMID:21071395

  16. A Traveling Exhibit of Cassini Image Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Joseph A.; Hedman, M. M.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Ebel, D.; Mac Low, M.; Lovett, L. E.; Burns, J. K.; Schaff, N.; Bilson, E. M.

    2007-10-01

    An exhibit of Cassini's images will open at NYC's American Museum of Natural History in March 2008 and then visit the Johnson Art Museum (Cornell) throughout fall 2008, including during next year's DPS. It is under consideration by several other venues in the States and overseas. The exhibit will feature 40-50 images, ranging from letter size to large posters, taken by remote-sensing instruments aboard Cassini and Huygens. Photos will be organized into a half-dozen thematic clusters (e.g., organized by celestial target or by physical process); a panel will introduce each grouping with individual images identified briefly. The Saturn system is a perfect vehicle to educate citizens about planetary science and origins. The images’ beauty should capture the public's attention, allowing us to then engage their curiosity about the relevant science. Among the Saturn system's broad suite of objects are Enceladus and Titan, two satellites of astrobiological interest; moreover, the rings display many processes active in other astrophysical disks. Several auxiliary ideas will be implemented. In Ithaca, we will project images at night against the museum's sand-colored exterior walls. A 10-12 minute musical composition has been commissioned from Roberto Sierra to open the show. We will encourage school children to participate in a human orrery circling the museum and will seek volunteers to participate in several Saturnalia. At Cornell we will involve the university and local communities, by taping their reactions to the images’ exquisite beauty as well as to their scientific content. Cassini will be the E/PO focus of next year's DPS meeting; those materials will be employed throughout the fall at New York schools and be available to travel with the show. We intend to work with NYC partners to offer teacher credits for associated weekend courses. We will produce classroom materials, including a DVD, for teacher use.

  17. Application of an imaging system to a museum exhibition for developing interactive exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyata, Kimiyoshi; Inoue, Yuka; Takiguchi, Takahiro; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Miyake, Yoichi

    2009-10-01

    In the National Museum of Japanese History, 215,759 artifacts are stored and used for research and exhibitions. In museums, due to the limitation of space in the galleries, a guidance system is required to satisfy visitors' needs and to enhance their understanding of the artifacts. We introduce one exhibition using imaging technology to improve visitors' understanding of a kimono (traditional Japanese clothing) exhibition. In the imaging technology introduced, one data projector, one display with touch panel interface, and magnifiers were used as exhibition tools together with a real kimono. The validity of this exhibition method was confirmed by results from a visitors' interview survey. Second, to further develop the interactive guidance system, an augmented reality system that consisted of cooperation between the projector and a digital video camera was also examined. A white paper board in the observer's hand was used as a projection screen and also as an interface to control the images projected on the board. The basic performance of the proposed system was confirmed; however continuous development was necessary for applying the system to actual exhibitions.

  18. Enzyme Amplified Detection of Microbial Cell Wall Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wainwright, Norman R.

    2004-01-01

    This proposal is MBL's portion of NASA's Johnson Space Center's Astrobiology Center led by Principal Investigator, Dr. David McKay, entitled: 'Institute for the Study of Biomarkers in Astromaterials.' Dr. Norman Wainwright is the principal investigator at MBL and is responsible for developing methods to detect trace quantities of microbial cell wall chemicals using the enzyme amplification system of Limulus polyphemus and other related methods.

  19. Enzyme Amplified Detection of Microbial Cell Wall Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wainwright, Norman R.

    2004-01-01

    This proposal is MBL's portion of NASA's Johnson Space Center's Astrobiology Center led by Principal Investigator, Dr. David McKay, entitled: 'Institute for the Study of Biomarkers in Astromaterials.' Dr. Norman Wainwright is the principal investigator at MBL and is responsible for developing methods to detect trace quantities of microbial cell wall chemicals using the enzyme amplification system of Limulus polyphemus and other related methods.

  20. Exhibition of Stochastic Resonance in Vestibular Perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galvan-Garza, R. C.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Oman, C. M.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during spaceflight, particularly during G-transitions. Post flight sensorimotor changes include spatial disorientation, along with postural and gait instability that may degrade operational capabilities of the astronauts and endanger the crew. A sensorimotor countermeasure that mitigates these effects would improve crewmember safety and decrease risk. The goal of this research is to investigate the potential use of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a technology to improve sensorimotor function. We hypothesize that low levels of SVS will improve sensorimotor perception through the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is enhanced by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. This study aims to advance the development of SVS as a potential countermeasure by 1) demonstrating the exhibition of stochastic resonance in vestibular perception, a vital component of sensorimotor function, 2) investigating the repeatability of SR exhibition, and 3) determining the relative contribution of the semicircular canals (SCC) and otolith (OTO) organs to vestibular perceptual SR. A constant current stimulator was used to deliver bilateral bipolar SVS via electrodes placed on each of the mastoid processes, as previously done. Vestibular perceptual motion recognition thresholds were measured using a 6-degree of freedom MOOG platform and a 150 trial 3-down/1-up staircase procedure. In the first test session, we measured vestibular perceptual thresholds in upright roll-tilt at 0.2 Hz (SCC+OTO) with SVS ranging from 0-700 µA. In a second test session a week later, we re-measured roll-tilt thresholds with 0, optimal (from test session 1), and 1500 µA SVS levels. A subset of these subjects, plus naive subjects, participated in two additional test sessions in which we measured thresholds in supine roll-rotation at 0.2 Hz (SCC) and upright y-translation at 1 Hz

  1. Quantum Nonlocal Boxes Exhibit Stronger Distillability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Høyer, Peter; Rashid, Jibran

    2013-06-01

    The hypothetical nonlocal box (NLB) proposed by Popescu and Rohrlich allows two spatially separated parties, Alice and Bob, to exhibit stronger than quantum correlations. If the generated correlations are weak, they can sometimes be distilled into a stronger correlation by repeated applications of the NLB. Motivated by the limited distillability of NLBs, we initiate here a study of the distillation of correlations for nonlocal boxes that output quantum states rather than classical bits (qNLBs). We propose a new protocol for distillation and show that it asymptotically distills a class of correlated quantum nonlocal boxes to the value (1)/(2)(3√ {3}+1) ≈ 3.098076, whereas in contrast, the optimal non-adaptive parity protocol for classical nonlocal boxes asymptotically distills only to the value 3.0. We show that our protocol is an optimal non-adaptive protocol for 1, 2 and 3 qNLB copies by constructing a matching dual solution for the associated primal semidefinite program (SDP). We conclude that qNLBs are a stronger resource for nonlocality than NLBs. The main premise that develops from this conclusion is that the NLB model is not the strongest resource to investigate the fundamental principles that limit quantum nonlocality. As such, our work provides strong motivation to reconsider the status quo of the principles that are known to limit nonlocal correlations under the framework of qNLBs rather than NLBs.

  2. Chemically responsive fluorophores exhibiting large color changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collette, Jeremy C.; Harper, Aaron W.

    2002-11-01

    The design, synthesis, and characterization of a series of styryl pyrazine derivatives as chemically responsive fluorophores are reported. These styryl pyrazines were ideal for structure-property relationship studies designed to elucidate the role of molecular symmetry, polarity, planarity and cooperative and competitive intramolecular charge transfer interactions in determining their colorimetric or fluorimetric responses. These fluorophores were designed to exhibit large changes in emission in response to changes in solvent composition or addition of various analyte species. The large solvatochromic and analyte-induced changes in their spectra were related to the nature of molecular polarization upon excitation, as well as stabilization of the excited state by the molecular environment. Several of these molecules shared the structural and electronic features common to quadupolar two-photon chromophores, and were thus expected to function as chemically responsive two-photon fluorophores, as well. Calculations of their second hyperpolarizabilities (γ(-ωω,-ω,ω))and comparison to known two-photon molecules showed that these molecules were expected to be exceptional two-photon active molecules.

  3. Plant shoots exhibit synchronized oscillatory motions.

    PubMed

    Ciszak, Marzena; Masi, Elisa; Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    In animals, the ability to move has evolved as an important means of protection from predators and for enhancing nutrient uptake. In the animal kingdom, an individual's movements may become coordinated with those of other individuals that belong to the same group, which leads, for example, to the beautiful collective patterns that are observed in flocks of birds and schools of fish or in animal migration. Land plants, however, are fixed to the ground, which limits their movement and, apparently, their interactions and collective behaviors. We show that emergent maize plants grown in a group exhibit synchronized oscillatory motions that may be in-phase or anti-phase. These oscillations occur in short bursts and appear when the leaves rupture from the coleoptile tip. The appearance of these oscillations indicates an abrupt increase in the plant growth rate, which may be associated with a sudden change in the energy uptake for photosynthesis. Our results suggest that plant shoots behave as a complex network of biological oscillators, interacting through biophysical links, e.g. chemical substances or electric signals.

  4. Agitated Honeybees Exhibit Pessimistic Cognitive Biases

    PubMed Central

    Bateson, Melissa; Desire, Suzanne; Gartside, Sarah E.; Wright, Geraldine A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Whether animals experience human-like emotions is controversial and of immense societal concern [1–3]. Because animals cannot provide subjective reports of how they feel, emotional state can only be inferred using physiological, cognitive, and behavioral measures [4–8]. In humans, negative feelings are reliably correlated with pessimistic cognitive biases, defined as the increased expectation of bad outcomes [9–11]. Recently, mammals [12–16] and birds [17–20] with poor welfare have also been found to display pessimistic-like decision making, but cognitive biases have not thus far been explored in invertebrates. Here, we ask whether honeybees display a pessimistic cognitive bias when they are subjected to an anxiety-like state induced by vigorous shaking designed to simulate a predatory attack. We show for the first time that agitated bees are more likely to classify ambiguous stimuli as predicting punishment. Shaken bees also have lower levels of hemolymph dopamine, octopamine, and serotonin. In demonstrating state-dependent modulation of categorization in bees, and thereby a cognitive component of emotion, we show that the bees' response to a negatively valenced event has more in common with that of vertebrates than previously thought. This finding reinforces the use of cognitive bias as a measure of negative emotional states across species and suggests that honeybees could be regarded as exhibiting emotions. Video Abstract PMID:21636277

  5. Rotating pigment cells exhibit an intrinsic chirality.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Kondo, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, cell properties, such as shape, size and function are important in morphogenesis and physiological functions. Recently, 'cellular chirality' has attracted attention as a cellular property because it can cause asymmetry in the bodies of animals. In recent in vitro studies, the left-right bias of cellular migration and of autonomous arrangement of cells under some specific culture conditions were discovered. However, it is difficult to identify the molecular mechanism underlying their intrinsic chirality because the left-right bias observed to date is subtle or is manifested in the stable orientation of cells. Here, we report that zebrafish (Danio rerio) melanophores exhibit clear cellular chirality by unidirectional counterclockwise rotational movement under isolated conditions without any special settings. The chirality is intrinsic to melanophores because the direction of the cellular rotation was not affected by the type of extracellular matrix. We further found that the cellular rotation was generated as a counter action of the clockwise movement of actin cytoskeleton. It suggested that the mechanism that directs actin cytoskeleton in the clockwise direction is pivotal for determining cellular chirality.

  6. Plant shoots exhibit synchronized oscillatory motions

    PubMed Central

    Ciszak, Marzena; Masi, Elisa; Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In animals, the ability to move has evolved as an important means of protection from predators and for enhancing nutrient uptake. In the animal kingdom, an individual's movements may become coordinated with those of other individuals that belong to the same group, which leads, for example, to the beautiful collective patterns that are observed in flocks of birds and schools of fish or in animal migration. Land plants, however, are fixed to the ground, which limits their movement and, apparently, their interactions and collective behaviors. We show that emergent maize plants grown in a group exhibit synchronized oscillatory motions that may be in-phase or anti-phase. These oscillations occur in short bursts and appear when the leaves rupture from the coleoptile tip. The appearance of these oscillations indicates an abrupt increase in the plant growth rate, which may be associated with a sudden change in the energy uptake for photosynthesis. Our results suggest that plant shoots behave as a complex network of biological oscillators, interacting through biophysical links, e.g. chemical substances or electric signals. PMID:27829981

  7. Manufacturing of peptides exhibiting biological activity.

    PubMed

    Zambrowicz, Aleksandra; Timmer, Monika; Polanowski, Antoni; Lubec, Gert; Trziszka, Tadeusz

    2013-02-01

    Numerous studies have shown that food proteins may be a source of bioactive peptides. Those peptides are encrypted in the protein sequence. They stay inactive within the parental protein until release by proteolytic enzymes (Mine and Kovacs-Nolan in Worlds Poult Sci J 62(1):87-95, 2006; Hartman and Miesel in Curr Opin Biotechnol 18:163-169, 2007). Once released the bioactive peptides exhibit several biofunctionalities and may serve therapeutic roles in body systems. Opioid peptides, peptides lowering high blood pressure, inhibiting platelet aggregation as well as being carriers of metal ions and peptides with immunostimulatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities have been described (Hartman and Miesel in Curr Opin Biotechnol 18:163-169, 2007). The biofunctional abilities of the peptides have therefore aroused a lot of scientific, technological and consumer interest with respect to the role of dietary proteins in controlling and influencing health (Möller et al. in Eur J Nutr 47(4):171-182, 2008). Biopeptides may find wide application in food production, the cosmetics industry as well as in the prevention and treatment of various medical conditions. They are manufactured by chemical and biotechnological methods (Marx in Chem Eng News 83(11):17-24. 2005; Hancock and Sahl in Nat Biotechnol 24(12):1551-1557, 2006). Depending on specific needs (food or pharmaceutical industry) different degrees of peptide purifications are required. This paper discusses the practicability of manufacturing bioactive peptides, especially from food proteins.

  8. Virtual Exhibition and Fruition of Archaeological Finds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manferdini, A. M.; Garagnani, S.

    2011-09-01

    During the last two decades, since digital technologies have become more sophisticated in acquiring real data and building faithful copies of them, their improvements have suggested interesting applications in the field of valorisation of Historical, Cultural and Artistic Heritage, with significant consequences in the share and widespread of knowledge. But although several technologies and methodologies for 3d digitization have recently been developed and improved, the lack of a standard procedure and the costs connected to their use still doesn't encourage the systematic digital acquisition of wide collections and heritage. The aim of this paper is to show the state of the art of a project whose aim is to provide a methodology and a procedure to create digital reproductions of artefacts for Institutions called to preserve, manage and enhance the fruition of archaeological finds inside museums or through digital exhibitions. Our project's aim is to find the most suitable procedure to digitally acquire archaeo logical artefacts that usually have small dimensions and have very complex and detailed surfaces. Within our methodology, particular attention has been paid to the use of widely shared and open-source visualization systems that enhance the involvement of the user by emphasizing three-dimensional characteristics of artefacts through virtual reality.

  9. Marine bacteria exhibit a bipolar distribution.

    PubMed

    Sul, Woo Jun; Oliver, Thomas A; Ducklow, Hugh W; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2013-02-05

    The microbial cosmopolitan dispersion hypothesis often invoked to explain distribution patterns driven by high connectivity of oceanographic water masses and widespread dispersal ability has never been rigorously tested. By using a global marine bacterial dataset and iterative matrix randomization simulation, we show that marine bacteria exhibit a significantly greater dispersal limitation than predicted by our null model using the "everything is everywhere" tenet with no dispersal limitation scenario. Specifically, marine bacteria displayed bipolar distributions (i.e., species occurring exclusively at both poles and nowhere else) significantly less often than in the null model. Furthermore, we observed fewer taxa present in both hemispheres but more taxa present only in a single hemisphere than expected under the null model. Each of these trends diverged further from the null expectation as the compared habitats became more geographically distant but more environmentally similar. Our meta-analysis supported a latitudinal gradient in bacterial diversity with higher richness at lower latitudes, but decreased richness toward the poles. Bacteria in the tropics also demonstrated narrower latitudinal ranges at lower latitudes and relatively larger ranges in higher latitudes, conforming to the controversial macroecological pattern of the "Rapoport rule." Collectively, our findings suggest that bacteria follow biogeographic patterns more typical of macroscopic organisms, and that dispersal limitation, not just environmental selection, likely plays an important role. Distributions of microbes that deliver critical ecosystem services, particularly those in polar regions, may be vulnerable to the same impacts that environmental stressors, climate warming, and degradation in habitat quality are having on biodiversity in animal and plant species.

  10. Waves in geomaterials exhibiting negative stiffness behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esin, Maxim; Dyskin, Arcady; Pasternak, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Negative stiffness denotes the type of material behaviour when the force applied to the body decreases the body's deformation increases. Some geomaterials, for instance, rocks, demonstrate behaviour of this type at certain loads: during the compression tests the loading curves exhibit descending branch (post-peak softening). One of the possible mechanisms of the negative stiffness appearance in geomaterials is rotation of non-spherical grains. It is important to emphasize that in this case the descending branch may be reversible given that the testing machine is stiff enough (in general case it means an importance of boundary conditions). Existence of geomaterials with a negative modulus associated with rotations may have significant importance. In particular, important is understanding of the wave propagation in such materials. We study the stability of geomaterials with negative stiffness inclusions and wave propagation in it using two approaches: Cosserat continuum and discrete mass-spring models. In both cases we consider the rotational degrees of freedom in addition to the conventional translational ones. We show that despite non positiveness of the energy the materials with negative stiffness elements can be stable if certain conditions are met. In the case of Cosserat continuum the Cosserat shear modulus (the modulus relating the non-symmetrical part of shear stress and internal rotations) is allowed to assume negative values as long as its value does not exceed the value of the standard (positive) shear modulus. In the case of discrete mass-spring systems (with translational and rotational springs) the concentration of negative stiffness springs and the absolute values of negative spring stiffness are limited. The critical concentration when the system loses stability and the amplitude of the oscillations tends to infinity is equal to 1/2 and 3/5 for two- and three-dimensional cases respectively.

  11. 32 CFR 705.26 - Exhibit availability report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of all exhibits is required. (b) A current inventory of exhibits headquartered in Washington, DC, and...: Officer-in-Charge, Navy Recruiting Exhibit Center, Washington Navy Yard, Washington, DC 20374. ...

  12. Joint assembly and genetic mapping of the Atlantic horseshoe crab genome reveals ancient whole genome duplication

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Horseshoe crabs are marine arthropods with a fossil record extending back approximately 450 million years. They exhibit remarkable morphological stability over their long evolutionary history, retaining a number of ancestral arthropod traits, and are often cited as examples of “living fossils.” As arthropods, they belong to the Ecdysozoa, an ancient super-phylum whose sequenced genomes (including insects and nematodes) have thus far shown more divergence from the ancestral pattern of eumetazoan genome organization than cnidarians, deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans. However, much of ecdysozoan diversity remains unrepresented in comparative genomic analyses. Results Here we apply a new strategy of combined de novo assembly and genetic mapping to examine the chromosome-scale genome organization of the Atlantic horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. We constructed a genetic linkage map of this 2.7 Gbp genome by sequencing the nuclear DNA of 34 wild-collected, full-sibling embryos and their parents at a mean redundancy of 1.1x per sample. The map includes 84,307 sequence markers grouped into 1,876 distinct genetic intervals and 5,775 candidate conserved protein coding genes. Conclusions Comparison with other metazoan genomes shows that the L. polyphemus genome preserves ancestral bilaterian linkage groups, and that a common ancestor of modern horseshoe crabs underwent one or more ancient whole genome duplications 300 million years ago, followed by extensive chromosome fusion. These results provide a counter-example to the often noted correlation between whole genome duplication and evolutionary radiations. The new, low-cost genetic mapping method for obtaining a chromosome-scale view of non-model organism genomes that we demonstrate here does not require laboratory culture, and is potentially applicable to a broad range of other species. PMID:24987520

  13. Joint assembly and genetic mapping of the Atlantic horseshoe crab genome reveals ancient whole genome duplication.

    PubMed

    Nossa, Carlos W; Havlak, Paul; Yue, Jia-Xing; Lv, Jie; Vincent, Kimberly Y; Brockmann, H Jane; Putnam, Nicholas H

    2014-01-01

    Horseshoe crabs are marine arthropods with a fossil record extending back approximately 450 million years. They exhibit remarkable morphological stability over their long evolutionary history, retaining a number of ancestral arthropod traits, and are often cited as examples of "living fossils." As arthropods, they belong to the Ecdysozoa, an ancient super-phylum whose sequenced genomes (including insects and nematodes) have thus far shown more divergence from the ancestral pattern of eumetazoan genome organization than cnidarians, deuterostomes and lophotrochozoans. However, much of ecdysozoan diversity remains unrepresented in comparative genomic analyses. Here we apply a new strategy of combined de novo assembly and genetic mapping to examine the chromosome-scale genome organization of the Atlantic horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. We constructed a genetic linkage map of this 2.7 Gbp genome by sequencing the nuclear DNA of 34 wild-collected, full-sibling embryos and their parents at a mean redundancy of 1.1x per sample. The map includes 84,307 sequence markers grouped into 1,876 distinct genetic intervals and 5,775 candidate conserved protein coding genes. Comparison with other metazoan genomes shows that the L. polyphemus genome preserves ancestral bilaterian linkage groups, and that a common ancestor of modern horseshoe crabs underwent one or more ancient whole genome duplications 300 million years ago, followed by extensive chromosome fusion. These results provide a counter-example to the often noted correlation between whole genome duplication and evolutionary radiations. The new, low-cost genetic mapping method for obtaining a chromosome-scale view of non-model organism genomes that we demonstrate here does not require laboratory culture, and is potentially applicable to a broad range of other species.

  14. Development of Exhibit on Arctic Climate Change Called The Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely Exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, Barbara W.

    2006-04-01

    The exhibition, The Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely, was developed at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of Natural History (NMNH) as a part of the museum’s Forces of Change exhibit series on global change. It opened to the public in Spring 2006, in conjunction with another Forces of Change exhibit on the Earth’s atmosphere called Change Is in the Air. The exhibit was a 2000 square-foot presentation that explored the forces and consequences of the changing Arctic as documented by scientists and native residents alike. Native peoples of the Arctic have always lived with year-to-year fluctuations in weather and ice conditions. In recent decades, they have witnessed that the climate has become unpredictable, the land and sea unfamiliar. An elder in Arctic Canada recently described the weather as uggianaqtuq —an Inuit word that can suggest strange, unexpected behavior, sometimes described as that of “a friend acting strangely.” Scientists too have been documenting dramatic changes in the Arctic. Air temperatures have warmed over most—though not all—of the Arctic since the 1950s; Arctic precipitation may have increased by as much as 8%; seasonal melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet has increased on average by 16% since 1979; polar-orbiting satellites have measured a 15¬–20% decline in sea ice extent since the 1970s; aircraft reconnaissance and ship observations show a steady decrease in sea ice since the 1950s. In response to this warming, plant distributions have begun to shift and animals are changing their migration routes. Some of these changes may have beneficial effects while others may bring hardship or have costly implications. And, many scientists consider arctic change to be a ‘bell-weather’ for large-scale changes in other regions of the world. The exhibition included text, photos artifacts, hands-on interactives and other exhibitry that illustrated the changes being documented by indigenous people and scientists alike.

  15. 37 CFR 1.95 - Copies of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Models, Exhibits, Specimens § 1.95 Copies of exhibits. Copies of models or other physical exhibits will not ordinarily be furnished by the Office, and any model or exhibit in an application or patent shall not be taken from...

  16. 76 FR 68808 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Exhibition Determinations: ``Transition to Christianity: Art of Late Antiquity, 3rd-7th Century AD'' SUMMARY... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Transition to Christianity: Art of Late Antiquity, 3rd-7th...

  17. 32 CFR 705.25 - Navy Exhibit Center.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.25 Navy Exhibit Center. (a) The center is a... mission is to produce, transport and display U.S. Navy exhibits throughout the United States. It...

  18. 32 CFR 705.25 - Navy Exhibit Center.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.25 Navy Exhibit Center. (a) The center is a... mission is to produce, transport and display U.S. Navy exhibits throughout the United States. It...

  19. 32 CFR 705.25 - Navy Exhibit Center.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.25 Navy Exhibit Center. (a) The center is a... mission is to produce, transport and display U.S. Navy exhibits throughout the United States. It...

  20. 48 CFR 204.7105 - Contract exhibits and attachments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... attachments. 204.7105 Section 204.7105 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... 204.7105 Contract exhibits and attachments. Follow the procedures at PGI 204.7105 for use and numbering of contract exhibits and attachments....

  1. 75 FR 6079 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Compass and Rule: Architecture as...: Architecture as Mathematical Practice in England, 1500-1750,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition...

  2. 48 CFR 6101.17 - Exhibits [Rule 17].

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... quality as the originals, and such copies shall have the same force and effect as if they were the... a proceeding. (d) Disposition of physical exhibits. Any physical (as opposed to documentary) exhibit...

  3. 45 CFR 1160.5 - Eligibility for domestic exhibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Eligibility for domestic exhibitions. 1160.5... AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.5 Eligibility for domestic exhibitions. An indemnity agreement for a domestic exhibition made under these regulations shall cover eligible items from the United...

  4. 45 CFR 1160.5 - Eligibility for domestic exhibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility for domestic exhibitions. 1160.5... AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.5 Eligibility for domestic exhibitions. An indemnity agreement for a domestic exhibition made under these regulations shall cover eligible items from the United...

  5. A Major Children's Educational Art Exhibit: An Evaluative Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenk, George W.; Shrock, Sharon A.

    Results of a case study of an exhibit of art and artifacts designed for children are presented. The focus of the study was to apply the principles of instructional-message design to the evaluation of the exhibit. The exhibit, "Art Inside Out: Exploring Art and Culture through Time," was displayed at the Art Institute of Chicago. Textual…

  6. African Past: Migrant Present. A Guide to the Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twining, Mary Arnold; Roark-Calnek, Sue

    This exhibit guide describes an exhibition of African folk arts produced by seasonal migrant farmworkers in western New York State. Workers come from the American South, Haiti, Puerto Rico, and Jamaica. The exhibition pieces were collected through the BOCES Geneseo Migrant Center's Folk Arts Program and Creative Artists Migrant Program Services…

  7. Weight lifting can facilitate appreciative comprehension for museum exhibits.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yuki; Harada, Shinya; Choi, Wonje; Fujino, Rika; Tokunaga, Akinobu; Gao, Yueyun; Miura, Kayo

    2014-01-01

    Appreciation of exhibits in a museum can be equated to a virtual experience of lives in the contexts originally surrounding the exhibits. Here we focus on the importance of weight information, and hence tested whether experiencing a weight during museum exhibit appreciation affects the beholders' satisfaction and recognition memory for the exhibits. An experiment was performed at a museum exhibiting skeletal preparations of animals. We used nine preparations and prepared four weight stimuli as weight cues in accordance with the actual weight of four of the preparations: Remaining five preparations was displayed without weight stimuli. In the cued condition, participants were asked to lift up the weight stimuli during their observation of the four exhibits. In the uncued condition, participants observed the exhibits without touching the weight stimuli. After observation of the exhibits, the participants responded to a questionnaire that measured their impressions of the exhibits and the museum, and performed a recognition test on the exhibits. Results showed that memory performance was better and viewing duration was longer with weight lifting instruction than without instruction. A factor analysis on the questionnaires revealed four factors (likeability, contentment, value, and quality). A path analysis showed indirect effects of viewing duration on memory performance and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for the museum appreciation through the impression factors. Our findings provide insight into a new interactive exhibition that enables long appreciation producing positive effects on visitors' impression, memory, and value estimation for exhibits.

  8. 14 CFR Appendix to Part 1274 - Listing of Exhibits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Listing of Exhibits Appendix to Part 1274 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Pt. 1274, App. Appendix to Part 1274—Listing of Exhibits Exhibit A to Part...

  9. 14 CFR Appendix to Part 1274 - Listing of Exhibits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Listing of Exhibits Appendix to Part 1274 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS WITH COMMERCIAL FIRMS Pt. 1274, App. Appendix to Part 1274—Listing of Exhibits Exhibit A to Part...

  10. 14 CFR Appendix to Subpart A of... - Listing of Exhibits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Listing of Exhibits Appendix to Subpart A of Part 1260 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Pt. 1260, Subpt. A, App. Appendix to Subpart A of Part 1260—Listing of Exhibits Exhibit...

  11. Online Cultural Heritage Exhibitions: A Survey of Strategic Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Chern Li

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to report findings from a study that looked at a range of strategic issues faced in the development, management and maintenance of online cultural heritage exhibitions. The study examined exhibitions from different types of cultural agencies and asked questions about whether, for instance, the exhibitions are part of the…

  12. 37 CFR 1.95 - Copies of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copies of exhibits. 1.95 Section 1.95 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., Specimens § 1.95 Copies of exhibits. Copies of models or other physical exhibits will not ordinarily be...

  13. 47 CFR 1.356 - Copies of exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copies of exhibits. 1.356 Section 1.356....356 Copies of exhibits. No document or exhibit, or part thereof, shall be received as, or admitted in... offered in evidence, copies shall be furnished to other counsel unless the presiding officer otherwise...

  14. Online Cultural Heritage Exhibitions: A Survey of Strategic Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Chern Li

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to report findings from a study that looked at a range of strategic issues faced in the development, management and maintenance of online cultural heritage exhibitions. The study examined exhibitions from different types of cultural agencies and asked questions about whether, for instance, the exhibitions are part of the…

  15. A Phenomenological Investigation of Science Center Exhibition Developers' Expertise Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Denise L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the exhibition developer role in the context of United States (U.S.) science centers, and more specifically, to investigate the way science center exhibition developers build their professional expertise. This research investigated how successfully practicing exhibition developers described their current…

  16. A Phenomenological Investigation of Science Center Exhibition Developers' Expertise Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Denise L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the exhibition developer role in the context of United States (U.S.) science centers, and more specifically, to investigate the way science center exhibition developers build their professional expertise. This research investigated how successfully practicing exhibition developers described their current…

  17. Weight lifting can facilitate appreciative comprehension for museum exhibits

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yuki; Harada, Shinya; Choi, Wonje; Fujino, Rika; Tokunaga, Akinobu; Gao, YueYun; Miura, Kayo

    2014-01-01

    Appreciation of exhibits in a museum can be equated to a virtual experience of lives in the contexts originally surrounding the exhibits. Here we focus on the importance of weight information, and hence tested whether experiencing a weight during museum exhibit appreciation affects the beholders' satisfaction and recognition memory for the exhibits. An experiment was performed at a museum exhibiting skeletal preparations of animals. We used nine preparations and prepared four weight stimuli as weight cues in accordance with the actual weight of four of the preparations: Remaining five preparations was displayed without weight stimuli. In the cued condition, participants were asked to lift up the weight stimuli during their observation of the four exhibits. In the uncued condition, participants observed the exhibits without touching the weight stimuli. After observation of the exhibits, the participants responded to a questionnaire that measured their impressions of the exhibits and the museum, and performed a recognition test on the exhibits. Results showed that memory performance was better and viewing duration was longer with weight lifting instruction than without instruction. A factor analysis on the questionnaires revealed four factors (likeability, contentment, value, and quality). A path analysis showed indirect effects of viewing duration on memory performance and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for the museum appreciation through the impression factors. Our findings provide insight into a new interactive exhibition that enables long appreciation producing positive effects on visitors' impression, memory, and value estimation for exhibits. PMID:24782807

  18. [Review of the pharmaceutical exhibitions in the Meiji Era (Supplement)].

    PubMed

    Koyama, T

    1994-01-01

    The author described (Jpn. J. History Pharm. 16(1), 9-20 (1981) the Review of the Pharmaceutical Exhibitions in the Meiji era. But afterwards the author found there were omissions of three exhibitions. These are the Nagaoka, the Osaka, and the Akita Exhibitions. The Nagaoka Exhibition was organized by the Nagaoka Pharmacists Association in June, 1890. The Osaka Exhibition opened on Jan. 18, 1891 by Osaka Branch of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan. The Akita Pharmaceutical Exhibition was held on Sept. 24-26, 1892, as the chief event of the opening ceremony of the Akita Drug-Trader Association, united pharmacists, druggists, and drug-manufacturers throughout Akita Prefecture. It is the most large-scaled of the three. The exhibits were 1,419, and the visitors were above 8,830. The planning originated with a young pharmacist Masayasu Hanyu.

  19. [Energy education exhibits for Insights El Paso Science Museum

    SciTech Connect

    Shubinski, R.

    1998-05-27

    The grant in question, DE-FG03-94ER75954, was awarded to Insights El Paso Science Museum to build key exhibits. These exhibits helped the Museum fulfill its mission to ``promote curiosity and stimulate interest by exploratory, entertaining, exciting, and participatory learning in a broad range of scientific disciplines to persons of all ages regionally and internationally.`` There are several current Board of Directors members who also were Board members during the grant period and who helped construct some of the exhibits. Through speaking with them and reviewing minutes of Board meetings during 1994, it has been determined that seven of the ten proposed exhibits were constructed, with an eighth exhibit constructed as an alternative. Photos of seven of the exhibits and preliminary sketches of some are attached. Following is a list of the constructed exhibits: Hot or Cold, Give and Take, Conduction, Convection, Sources of Energy, Wind Generator, Solar Tracker, and Perpetual Motion.

  20. Responses to an interactive science exhibit in a school setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerrison, A. Rex; Jones, Brian L.

    1994-12-01

    Unattended science and technology exhibits of both static and operational types have been an integral part of museum displays for many years. More recently interactive exhibits in which observers are encouraged to become part of the system of exhibits have become more common. A study was commenced to explore the impact and potential of low cost, unattended, interactive exhibits set up singly in a normal school classroom without the distractions of a multiplicity of activities as is common in ‘science museums’. Three small groups of Grade 5/6 primary school children interacted with a ‘Falling Towers’ exhibit and their voluntary activities were recorded on videotape for later analysis. Children appeared to state the results of their activity in ways consistent with their expectations rather than with their most recent experience with the exhibit. The responses of girls, boys and mixed groups are reported.

  1. The Eugenides Foundation Interactive Exhibition of Science and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontogiannis, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    The Interactive Exhibition of Science and Technology is installed in an area of 1200 m2 at the Eugenides Foundation. 65 interactive exhibits, designed by the "Cites des Science et de l' Industrie" are organised in themes, stimulate the visitors' mind and provoke scientific thinking. Parallel activities take place inside the exhibition, such as live science demonstrations, performed by young scientists. Extra material such as news bulletins (short news, science comics and portraits), educational paths and treasure-hunting based games, all available online as well, are prepared on a monthly basis and provided along with the visit to the exhibition. Through these exhibits and activities, scientific facts are made simple and easy to comprehend using modern presentation tools. We present details on how this exhibition acts complementary to the science education provided by schools, making it a highly sophisticated educational tool.

  2. Evolutionary Dynamics of Influenza A Viruses in US Exhibition Swine.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Martha I; Wentworth, David E; Das, Suman R; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Killian, Mary L; Nolting, Jacqueline M; Slemons, Richard D; Bowman, Andrew S

    2016-01-15

    The role of exhibition swine in influenza A virus transmission was recently demonstrated by >300 infections with influenza A(H3N2) variant viruses among individuals who attended agricultural fairs. Through active influenza A virus surveillance in US exhibition swine and whole-genome sequencing of 380 isolates, we demonstrate that exhibition swine are actively involved in the evolution of influenza A viruses, including zoonotic strains. First, frequent introduction of influenza A viruses from commercial swine populations provides new genetic diversity in exhibition pigs each year locally. Second, genomic reassortment between viruses cocirculating in exhibition swine increases viral diversity. Third, viral migration between exhibition swine in neighboring states demonstrates that movements of exhibition pigs contributes to the spread of genetic diversity. The unexpected frequency of viral exchange between commercial and exhibition swine raises questions about the understudied interface between these populations. Overall, the complexity of viral evolution in exhibition swine indicates that novel viruses are likely to continually reemerge, presenting threats to humans.

  3. Evolutionary Dynamics of Influenza A Viruses in US Exhibition Swine

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Martha I.; Wentworth, David E.; Das, Suman R.; Sreevatsan, Srinand; Killian, Mary L.; Nolting, Jacqueline M.; Slemons, Richard D.; Bowman, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    The role of exhibition swine in influenza A virus transmission was recently demonstrated by >300 infections with influenza A(H3N2) variant viruses among individuals who attended agricultural fairs. Through active influenza A virus surveillance in US exhibition swine and whole-genome sequencing of 380 isolates, we demonstrate that exhibition swine are actively involved in the evolution of influenza A viruses, including zoonotic strains. First, frequent introduction of influenza A viruses from commercial swine populations provides new genetic diversity in exhibition pigs each year locally. Second, genomic reassortment between viruses cocirculating in exhibition swine increases viral diversity. Third, viral migration between exhibition swine in neighboring states demonstrates that movements of exhibition pigs contributes to the spread of genetic diversity. The unexpected frequency of viral exchange between commercial and exhibition swine raises questions about the understudied interface between these populations. Overall, the complexity of viral evolution in exhibition swine indicates that novel viruses are likely to continually reemerge, presenting threats to humans. PMID:26243317

  4. 18. INTERIOR OF CIVIL RIGHTS INSTITUTE, MILESTONE GALLERY EXHIBITION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR OF CIVIL RIGHTS INSTITUTE, MILESTONE GALLERY EXHIBITION OF THE SIXTEENTH STREET CHURCH, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, 1530 Sixth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  5. Multispecies modeling for adaptive management of horseshoe crabs and red knots in the Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, Conor P.; Smith, David; Sweka, John A.; Martin, Julien; Nichols, James D.; Wong, Richard; Lyons, James E.; Niles, Lawrence J.; Kalasz, Kevin; Brust, Jeffrey; Klopfer, Michelle; Spear, Braddock

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management requires that predictive models be explicit and transparent to improve decisions by comparing management actions, directing further research and monitoring, and facilitating learning. The rufa subspecies of red knots (Calidris canutus rufa), which has recently exhibited steep population declines, relies on horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs as their primary food source during stopover in Delaware Bay during spring migration. We present a model with two different parameterizations for use in the adaptive management of horseshoe crab harvests in the Delaware Bay that links red knot mass gain, annual survival, and fecundity to horseshoe crab dynamics. The models reflect prevailing hypotheses regarding ecological links between these two species. When reported crab harvest from 1998 to 2008 was applied, projections corresponded to the observed red knot population abundances depending on strengths of the demographic relationship between these species. We compared different simulated horseshoe crab harvest strategies to evaluate whether, given this model, horseshoe crab harvest management can affect red knot conservation and found that restricting harvest can benefit red knot populations. Our model is the first to explicitly and quantitatively link these two species and will be used within an adaptive management framework to manage the Delaware Bay system and learn more about the specific nature of the linkage between the two species.

  6. 14 CFR 77.59 - Subpoenas of witnesses and exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subpoenas of witnesses and exhibits. 77.59 Section 77.59 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... for any witness or exhibit that he determines may be material and relevant to the issues of...

  7. Informing the Development of Science Exhibitions through Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laherto, Antti

    2013-01-01

    This paper calls for greater use of educational research in the development of science exhibitions. During the past few decades, museums and science centres throughout the world have placed increasing emphasis on their educational function. Although exhibitions are the primary means of promoting visitors' learning, educational research is not…

  8. A Critical Appraisal of State Level Science Exhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Baiju K.

    2007-01-01

    Science exhibitions are really great opportunities to students as well as teachers to disseminate knowledge that they have, and to experience a variety of new inventions and innovations that also need wide dissemination. The great significance of exhibition is that it fosters acquisition of different process skills leading to the development of…

  9. A Commemorative History of the George Rogers Clark Bicentennial Exhibit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Museum Society, Inc., Indianapolis.

    This pamphlet provides an illustrated narrative history of the George Rogers Clark Bicentennial Exhibit at the Indiana State Museum. George Rogers Clark was a frontier hero of the American Revolution who explored and conquered territory in Kentucky, Ohio, and Illinois. The multimedia exhibit is open to the public from February 25, 1976 through…

  10. Making Your Trade Fair Exhibit More Productive and More Interesting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Jack

    1982-01-01

    Suggestions for producing a successful exhibit booth include the following: the effectiveness of an exhibit depends on the effectiveness of the people staffing it; avoid games and unrelated giveaway items; demonstrate product in the booth; give special attention to existing customers; and make literature available only from the booth personnel.…

  11. 18 CFR 385.508 - Exhibits (Rule 508).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exhibits (Rule 508). 385.508 Section 385.508 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Hearings § 385.508 Exhibits (Rule...

  12. Using Museum Exhibits: An Innovation in Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Satarupa

    2015-01-01

    Museum exhibits can be a tool in experiential learning. While instructors have documented various methods of experiential learning, they have not sufficiently explored such learning from museum exhibits. Museum researchers, however, have long found a satisfying cognitive component to museum visits. This paper narrates the author's design to…

  13. 7 CFR Exhibit F to Subpart A of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true F Exhibit F to Subpart A of Part 1962 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PERSONAL PROPERTY Servicing and Liquidation of Chattel Security Exhibit F to Subpart...

  14. 7 CFR Exhibit F to Subpart A of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false F Exhibit F to Subpart A of Part 1962 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PERSONAL PROPERTY Servicing and Liquidation of Chattel Security Exhibit F to Subpart...

  15. 7 CFR Exhibit F to Subpart A of... - Payment Bond

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment Bond F Exhibit F to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS.... A, Exh. F Exhibit F to Subpart A of Part 1924—Payment Bond KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS:...

  16. 7 CFR Exhibit F to Subpart A of... - Payment Bond

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Payment Bond F Exhibit F to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS.... A, Exh. F Exhibit F to Subpart A of Part 1924—Payment Bond KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS:...

  17. How Children View Their World: Three Exhibitions of Children's Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Judith

    1979-01-01

    Describes three traveling art exhibitions assembled by the U.S. Committee for UNICEF from its collection to mark the International Year of the Child. Exhibitions of children's paintings, drawings, and prints from virtually every nation in the world will tour American cities through the spring of 1980. (RH)

  18. Outreach to Science Faculty and Students through Research Exhibitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Tina; Hebblethwaite, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Penfield Library at the State University of New York at Oswego (SUNY Oswego) has a gallery exhibit space near the front entrance that is used to showcase student-faculty research and art class projects. This article features the library's outreach efforts to science faculty and students through research exhibitions. The library held an exhibition…

  19. Data Collection Methods for Evaluating Museum Programs and Exhibitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Amy Crack; Cohn, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Museums often evaluate various aspects of their audiences' experiences, be it what they learn from a program or how they react to an exhibition. Each museum program or exhibition has its own set of goals, which can drive what an evaluator studies and how an evaluation evolves. When designing an evaluation, data collection methods are purposefully…

  20. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart A of... - Performance Bond

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance Bond G Exhibit G to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL.... 1924, Subpt. A, Exh. G Exhibit G to Subpart A of Part 1924—Performance Bond KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE...

  1. 7 CFR Exhibit G to Subpart G of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true [Reserved] G Exhibit G to Subpart G of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program Exhibit G to Subpart G of Part 1940...

  2. Designing Art Exhibitions in an Educational Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julian, June; Crooks, Julian

    2011-01-01

    Demonstrating the multiple features of the Cerulean Gallery in Second Life, this research report showcases several exemplar exhibits created by students, artists, and museums. Located in The Educational Media Center, a Second Life teaching and social space, the Cerulean Gallery exhibits functioned as case studies that tested its effectiveness as…

  3. Champions of American Sport--A Major Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorani, Bob

    1981-01-01

    An exhibit of 100 photographs, portraits, and sculptures, entitled "Champions of American Sport", is the first major art exhibit ever devoted to outstanding American sports personalities and to the aesthetic qualities of sport and human movement. The Smithsonian Institution is sponsoring the traveling collection, which includes works from the…

  4. A Content-Oriented Model for Science Exhibit Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achiam, Marianne Foss

    2013-01-01

    Recently, science museums have begun to review their educational purposes and redesign their pedagogies. At the most basic level, this entails accounting for the performance of individual exhibits, and indeed, in some cases, research indicates shortcomings in exhibit design: While often successful in prompting visitors to carry out intended…

  5. Data Collection Methods for Evaluating Museum Programs and Exhibitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Amy Crack; Cohn, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Museums often evaluate various aspects of their audiences' experiences, be it what they learn from a program or how they react to an exhibition. Each museum program or exhibition has its own set of goals, which can drive what an evaluator studies and how an evaluation evolves. When designing an evaluation, data collection methods are purposefully…

  6. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart C of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false A Exhibit A to Subpart C of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR Planning and Performing Site Development Work Exhibit A to Subpart C of Part 1924 ...

  7. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart L of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true A Exhibit A to Subpart L of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Exhibit A to Subpart L of Part 1940...

  8. 18 CFR 385.508 - Exhibits (Rule 508).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exhibits (Rule 508). 385.508 Section 385.508 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Hearings § 385.508 Exhibits (Rule...

  9. 18 CFR 385.508 - Exhibits (Rule 508).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exhibits (Rule 508). 385.508 Section 385.508 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Hearings § 385.508 Exhibits (Rule...

  10. 18 CFR 385.508 - Exhibits (Rule 508).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exhibits (Rule 508). 385.508 Section 385.508 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Hearings § 385.508 Exhibits (Rule...

  11. Exhibitions: Connecting Classroom Assessment with Culminating Demonstrations of Mastery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Jill

    2009-01-01

    Exhibitions are public demonstrations of mastery that occur at culminating moments, such as at the conclusion of a unit of study, the transition from one level of schooling to the next, and graduation. Exhibitions require students to speak publicly, use evidence, present engaging visual displays, and otherwise demonstrate mastery to educators,…

  12. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart N of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false C Exhibit C to Subpart N of Part 1944 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants Exhibit C to Subpart N of Part 1944 ...

  13. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart N of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true C Exhibit C to Subpart N of Part 1944 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants Exhibit C to Subpart N of Part 1944 ...

  14. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart N of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false C Exhibit C to Subpart N of Part 1944 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants Exhibit C to Subpart N of Part 1944 ...

  15. Outreach to Science Faculty and Students through Research Exhibitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Tina; Hebblethwaite, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Penfield Library at the State University of New York at Oswego (SUNY Oswego) has a gallery exhibit space near the front entrance that is used to showcase student-faculty research and art class projects. This article features the library's outreach efforts to science faculty and students through research exhibitions. The library held an exhibition…

  16. Using Museum Exhibits: An Innovation in Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Das, Satarupa

    2015-01-01

    Museum exhibits can be a tool in experiential learning. While instructors have documented various methods of experiential learning, they have not sufficiently explored such learning from museum exhibits. Museum researchers, however, have long found a satisfying cognitive component to museum visits. This paper narrates the author's design to…

  17. Learning Times Two: Creating Learning through a Children's Museum Exhibit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharon, Tanya

    2012-01-01

    This article describes an innovative lab course in which students designed and constructed five developmentally (and locally) appropriate museum exhibits around the theme "Healthy Living." They installed these at a local children's museum, designed a pretest/posttest to assess children's learning from the exhibit, conducted children through the…

  18. Modelling the Future: Exhibitions and the Materiality of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawn, Martin, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The role of World Exhibitions in the 19th and early 20th centuries was to confirm a relation between the nation state and modernity. As a display about industries, inventions and identities, the Exhibition, in a sense, put entire nations into an elevated, viewable space. It is a significant element in modernity as comparisons can be made, progress…

  19. Modelling the Future: Exhibitions and the Materiality of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawn, Martin, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The role of World Exhibitions in the 19th and early 20th centuries was to confirm a relation between the nation state and modernity. As a display about industries, inventions and identities, the Exhibition, in a sense, put entire nations into an elevated, viewable space. It is a significant element in modernity as comparisons can be made, progress…

  20. 22 CFR Exhibit B to Part 204 - Assignment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment B Exhibit B to Part 204 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Pt. 204, Exh. B Exhibit B to Part 204—Assignment The undersigned, being the registered owner of a Note in...

  1. 75 FR 3862 - Photography in Public Exhibit Space

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION 36 CFR Part 1280 RIN 3095-AB60 Photography in Public Exhibit Space AGENCY: National... 2003, NARA completed a two year renovation of the Rotunda and constructed additional exhibit space...

  2. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart A of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false A Exhibit A to Subpart A of Part 1902 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... SUPERVISED BANK ACCOUNTS Supervised Bank Accounts of Loan, Grant, and Other Funds Exhibit A to Subpart A of...

  3. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true [Reserved] A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... Acquisition of Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 [Reserved] ...

  4. Cooperative Exhibition: A New Concept for the Apparel Design Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furer, Gloria

    1982-01-01

    Explains how an apparel and textile exhibition can benefit the institution that underwrites the project, the department that sponsors it, the community, and the apparel design teacher (through the chance for professional recognition). Methods for planning such an exhibition are given. (CT)

  5. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart L of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true A Exhibit A to Subpart L of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Exhibit A to Subpart L of Part 1940 ...

  6. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart L of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false A Exhibit A to Subpart L of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Exhibit A to Subpart L of Part 1940 ...

  7. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart L of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true A Exhibit A to Subpart L of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Exhibit A to Subpart L of Part 1940 ...

  8. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart L of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false A Exhibit A to Subpart L of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Exhibit A to Subpart L of Part 1940 ...

  9. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart B of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false A Exhibit A to Subpart B of Part 1900 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... GENERAL Adverse Decisions and Administrative Appeals Exhibit A to Subpart B of Part 1900...

  10. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart N of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true C Exhibit C to Subpart N of Part 1944 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants Exhibit C to Subpart N of Part 1944...

  11. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart N of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true [Reserved] C Exhibit C to Subpart N of Part 1944 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants Exhibit C to Subpart N of Part 1944...

  12. Champions of American Sport--A Major Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorani, Bob

    1981-01-01

    An exhibit of 100 photographs, portraits, and sculptures, entitled "Champions of American Sport", is the first major art exhibit ever devoted to outstanding American sports personalities and to the aesthetic qualities of sport and human movement. The Smithsonian Institution is sponsoring the traveling collection, which includes works from the…

  13. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart A of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true A Exhibit A to Subpart A of Part 1902 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... SUPERVISED BANK ACCOUNTS Supervised Bank Accounts of Loan, Grant, and Other Funds Exhibit A to Subpart A...

  14. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  15. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  16. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart A of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false A Exhibit A to Subpart A of Part 1902 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... SUPERVISED BANK ACCOUNTS Supervised Bank Accounts of Loan, Grant, and Other Funds Exhibit A to Subpart A...

  17. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  18. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart A of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false A Exhibit A to Subpart A of Part 1902 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... SUPERVISED BANK ACCOUNTS Supervised Bank Accounts of Loan, Grant, and Other Funds Exhibit A to Subpart A...

  19. 7 CFR Exhibit A to Subpart A of... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false A Exhibit A to Subpart A of Part 1902 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... SUPERVISED BANK ACCOUNTS Supervised Bank Accounts of Loan, Grant, and Other Funds Exhibit A to Subpart A...

  20. 7 CFR Exhibits A-F to Subpart A... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false A Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... Real and Chattel Property Exhibits A-F to Subpart A of Part 1955...

  1. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart B of... - Servicing Company

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Servicing Company B Exhibit B to Subpart B of Part 1806 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL... GENERAL REGULATIONS INSURANCE National Flood Insurance Pt. 1806, Subpt. B, Exh. B Exhibit B to Subpart B...

  2. First major museum exhibit on the science of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Nary, G

    1995-05-01

    The Chicago Museum of Science and Industry recently opened its 4,000-square-foot permanent exhibit on the science of AIDS. The exhibit is designed to educate visitors about immunology and virology by presenting AIDS as an example of an immune system breakdown and showing advances made in research and prevention of diseases caused by viruses. The exhibit also seeks to engage preteens with compelling graphics and interactive displays in the hope of motivating them to pursue careers in science. One exhibit, called Frontline, allows visitors to question several physicians and researchers specializing in HIV/AIDS through a touch-screen video program. The exhibit allows these professionals to reveal their commitment and explain their views on the future of the pandemic.

  3. Cosmic Origins: A Traveling Science Exhibit and Education Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Morrow, C. A.; Harold, J.

    2003-12-01

    The Space Science Institute of Boulder, Colorado, is developing a 3,000 square-foot traveling exhibition, called Cosmic Origins, which will bring origins-related research and discoveries to students and the American public. Cosmic Origins will have three interrelated exhibit areas: Star Formation, Planet Quest, and Search for Life. Exhibit visitors will explore the awesome events surrounding the birth of stars and planets; they will join scientists in the hunt for planets outside our solar system including those that may be in "habitable zones" around other stars; and finally they will be able to learn about the wide range of conditions for life on Earth and how scientists are looking for signs of life beyond Earth. Visitors will also learn about the tools scientists' use, such as space-based and ground-based telescopes, to improve our understanding of the cosmos. Exhibit content will address age-old questions that form the basis of NASA's Origins and Astrobiology programs: Where did we come from? Are we alone? In addition to the exhibit, our project will include workshops for educators and docents at host sites, as well as a public Web site that will use a virtual rendering of exhibit content. The exhibit's size will permit it to visit medium sized museums in underserved regions of the country. It will begin its 3-year tour to 9 host museums and science centers in early 2005. A second 3-year tour is also planned for 2008. The Association of Science-Technology Centers (ASTC) will manage the exhibit's national tour. Current partners in the Cosmic Origins project include ASTC, the Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Lawrence Hall of Science, NASA Astrobiology Institute, NASA missions (e.g. PlanetQuest, SIRTF, and Kepler), New York Hall of Science, the SETI Institute, and the Space Telescope Science Institute. The exhibition is supported by grants from NSF and NASA. This report will focus on the Planet Quest part of the exhibition.

  4. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart C of... - Checklist of Visual Exhibits and Documentation for RRH, RCH, and LH Proposals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... exhibit lists visual exhibits and documentation necessary for FmHA or its successor agency under Public... adjacent land zoning and uses, the present and future access roads to the site as well as the proximity to... water, sewer, gas, and electricity and whether each is public, community, or individually owned. II...

  5. Statistical properties of chaotic dynamical systems which exhibit strange attractors

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, R.V.; Oberman, C.R.

    1981-07-01

    A path integral method is developed for the calculation of the statistical properties of turbulent dynamical systems. The method is applicable to conservative systems which exhibit a transition to stochasticity as well as dissipative systems which exhibit strange attractors. A specific dissipative mapping is considered in detail which models the dynamics of a Brownian particle in a wave field with a broad frequency spectrum. Results are presented for the low order statistical moments for three turbulent regimes which exhibit strange attractors corresponding to strong, intermediate, and weak collisional damping.

  6. Field Test of Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus Polyphemus) Population Estimation Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    transect surveys of dung: Sika deer in southern Scotland. Journal of Applied Ecology 38:349-363. McCoy, E. D., and H. R. Mushinsky. 1992. Studying a...Marques, F. F. C., S. T. Buckland, D. Goffin, C. E. Dixon, D. L. Borchers, B. A. Mayle, and A. J. Peace. 2001. Estimating deer abundance from line

  7. Generations of Families: A Teaching Project and Photograph Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Carolyn Pope; Springate, Kay

    1998-01-01

    Family-and-consumer-sciences students worked with community agencies and residents to prepare an exhibit of family photographs. The project supported development of students' cross-cultural competence and professional skills. (SK)

  8. Assessment of Oral Reading Which Exhibits Dialect and Language Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamberg, Walter J.

    1979-01-01

    Describes specific training, using taped readings, designed to prepare teachers to accurately assess the oral reading of students who exhibit dialect or second language influences in their speech. (MKM)

  9. 27 CFR 7.42 - Exhibiting certificates to Government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Requirements for Approval of Labels of Malt Beverages Domestically Bottled or Packed § 7.42 Exhibiting certificates...

  10. 27 CFR 7.42 - Exhibiting certificates to Government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Requirements for Approval of Labels of Malt Beverages Domestically Bottled or Packed § 7.42 Exhibiting certificates...

  11. 27 CFR 7.42 - Exhibiting certificates to Government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Requirements for Approval of Labels of Malt Beverages Domestically Bottled or Packed § 7.42 Exhibiting certificates...

  12. 27 CFR 7.42 - Exhibiting certificates to Government officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Requirements for Approval of Labels of Malt Beverages Domestically Bottled or Packed § 7.42 Exhibiting certificates...

  13. 54. ALDER CREEK DIVERSION, PROJECT 1933, EXHIBIT F, SANTA ANA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. ALDER CREEK DIVERSION, PROJECT 1933, EXHIBIT F, SANTA ANA POWERHOUSE NO. 2 SCE drawing no. 5206858, no date (FERC no. 1933-48). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  14. 56. CROSS SECTION OF POWERHOUSE, PROJECT 1933, EXHIBIT F, SANTA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. CROSS SECTION OF POWERHOUSE, PROJECT 1933, EXHIBIT F, SANTA ANA POWERHOUSE NO. 1. SCE drawing no. 5206856 (no date; FERC no. 1933-46). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  15. 54. PLAN OF POWERHOUSE, PROJECT 1933, EXHIBIT F, SANTA ANA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. PLAN OF POWERHOUSE, PROJECT 1933, EXHIBIT F, SANTA ANA POWERHOUSE NO. 1. SCE drawing no. 5206855 (no date; FERC no. 1933-45). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  16. Science, providence, and progress at the Great Exhibition.

    PubMed

    Cantor, Geoffrey

    2012-09-01

    The Great Exhibition of 1851 is generally interpreted as a thoroughly secular event that celebrated progress in science, technology, and industry. In contrast to this perception, however, the exhibition was viewed by many contemporaries as a religious event of considerable importance. Although some religious commentators were highly critical of the exhibition and condemned the display of artifacts in the Crystal Palace as giving succor to materialism, others incorporated science and technology into their religious frameworks. Drawing on sermons, tracts, and the religious periodical press, this essay pays close attention to the ways in which science and technology were endowed with providentialist significance and particularly examines the notion of human progress used by a number of Christian writers, especially Congregationalists, who set scientific and technological progress within a teleological religious perspective. This discussion sheds fresh light not only on the Great Exhibition itself but also on the deployment of natural theology in mid-nineteenth-century Britain.

  17. 17. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT EXHIBITION OF EVENTS OF CIVIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT EXHIBITION OF EVENTS OF CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT AND THE 1963 BOMBING OF THE CHURCH, LOOKING SOUTH - Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, 1530 Sixth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  18. 2016 National Training Conference Exhibit Booths and Poster Displays

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Exhibit Booths and Poster Displays for the 2016 National Training Conference on the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and Environmental Conditions in Communities. Identifies presentation topics and speakers for October 19 and 20.

  19. EPAs Educational Exhibit Honored at Philadelphia Flower Show

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PHILADELPHIA (March 8, 2016) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's exhibit at the 2016 Philadelphia Flower Show was recognized with three prestigious awards. The awards include a Gold Medal Award by the Pennsylvania Horticultural Society for

  20. 49 CFR 1016.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... objects to public disclosure of information in any portion of the exhibit and believes that there are legal grounds for withholding it from disclosure may file a motion to withhold the information from...

  1. 39 CFR 960.10 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... However, an applicant that objects to public disclosure of information in any portion of the exhibit and...”, accompanied by a motion to withhold the information from public disclosure. The motion shall describe the...

  2. 39 CFR 960.10 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... However, an applicant that objects to public disclosure of information in any portion of the exhibit and...”, accompanied by a motion to withhold the information from public disclosure. The motion shall describe the...

  3. 14 CFR 1262.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... applicant that objects to public disclosure of information in any portion of the exhibit and believes there...,” accompanied by a motion to withhold the information from public disclosure. The motion shall describe the...

  4. 39 CFR 960.10 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... However, an applicant that objects to public disclosure of information in any portion of the exhibit and...”, accompanied by a motion to withhold the information from public disclosure. The motion shall describe the...

  5. 39 CFR 960.10 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... However, an applicant that objects to public disclosure of information in any portion of the exhibit and...”, accompanied by a motion to withhold the information from public disclosure. The motion shall describe the...

  6. 49 CFR 1016.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... objects to public disclosure of information in any portion of the exhibit and believes that there are legal grounds for withholding it from disclosure may file a motion to withhold the information from...

  7. 14 CFR § 1262.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... However, an applicant that objects to public disclosure of information in any portion of the exhibit and...,” accompanied by a motion to withhold the information from public disclosure. The motion shall describe the...

  8. 14 CFR 14.11 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... that objects to public disclosure of the net worth exhibit, or any part of it, may submit that portion... Financial Information,” accompanied by a motion to withhold the information. (1) The motion shall describe...

  9. Translating land use science to a museum exhibit

    PubMed Central

    Arce-Nazario, Javier A.

    2016-01-01

    For land use science to engage the general public it must successfully translate its concepts and conclusions and make them public outside of traditional scientific venues. Here we explore science-art exhibits, which blend artistic presentations with specific scientific data or themes, as a possible effective way of communicating scientific information and disrupting misconceptions. We describe the process of producing a science-art exhibit on remote sensing and Puerto Rican landscape history from 1937 to the present, sited at a rural Puerto Rican community museum, and examine the visitor experience and educational outcomes of the museum exhibit through analysis of survey data. The exhibit project engaged undergraduate students from a variety of academic backgrounds, introduced land use science concepts to the public in an engaging format, and was effective at reshaping visitors’ misconceptions of Puerto Rico's landscape change history. PMID:28191029

  10. Unimode metamaterials exhibiting negative linear compressibility and negative thermal expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudek, Krzysztof K.; Attard, Daphne; Caruana-Gauci, Roberto; Wojciechowski, Krzysztof W.; Grima, Joseph N.

    2016-02-01

    Unimode metamaterials made from rotating rigid triangles are analysed mathematically for their mechanical and thermal expansion properties. It is shown that these unimode systems exhibit positive Poisson’s ratios irrespective of size, shape and angle of aperture, with the Poisson’s ratio exhibiting giant values for certain conformations. When the Poisson’s ratio in one loading direction is larger than +1, the systems were found to exhibit the anomalous property of negative linear compressibility along this direction, that is, the systems expand in this direction when hydrostatically compressed. Also discussed are the thermal expansion properties of these systems under the assumption that the units exhibit increased rotational agitation once subjected to an increase in temperature. The effect of the geometric parameters on the aforementioned thermo-mechanical properties of the system, are discussed, with the aim of identifying negative behaviour.

  11. 76 FR 61472 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Chessmen From the Isle of Lewis'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant... Kings: Medieval Ivory Chessmen from the Isle of Lewis,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition...

  12. 4. PENSTOCKS. EXHIBIT L, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 1 PROJECT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PENSTOCKS. EXHIBIT L, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 1 PROJECT, APR. 30, 1945. SCE drawing no. 523197 (sheet no. 7; for filing with Federal Power Commission). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Forebay & Penstock, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  13. "Wenn die Erde bebt", an educational public exhibition in Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parithusta, Rizkita; Brueckl, Ewald; Heuer, Rudolf; Mitterbauer, Ulrike

    2010-05-01

    Natural disasters can cause the loss of human lives, an economic crisis and also the loss of irreplaceable cultural heritage. Earthquakes can mean instantaneous destruction without warning, causing extensive and often irreparable damage to our heritage. An exhibition with the title "Wenn die Erde bebt" (i.e. "When the Earth shakes") which was held at the Natural History Museum, Vienna; in an effort to introduce understanding, awareness, and preparedness to the public, facing earthquake phenomenon. The exhibition compiled and classified examples of large earthquakes and introduces into the basic principles of seismology. It further addresses earthquake impact and how to live with earthquakes, giving access to the most suitable procedure of safety education. The idea of the exhibition is communicated by the means of posters, videos, and physical models which support the understanding of seismometry, elastic rebound theory and earthquake resistant construction. The exhibition is an Austrian contribution to IYPE - International Year of Planet Earth and is now on tour through Austria.

  14. Bringing Planetary Science to the Public through Traveling Exhibitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.

    2001-11-01

    The Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, Colorado has recently developed two museum exhibits called the Space Weather Center and MarsQuest. It is currently planning to develop another exhibit called Gas Giants. These exhibitions provide research scientists the opportunity to engage in a number of activities that are vital to the success of these major outreach programs. The Space Weather Center was developed in partnership with various research missions at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The focus of the presentation will be on MarsQuest and Gas Giants. MarsQuest is a 5000 square-foot, 3M, traveling exhibition that is now touring the country. The exhibit's 3-year tour will enable millions of Americans to share in the excitement of the scientific exploration of Mars and learn more about their own planet in the process. The associated planetarium show and education program will also be described, with particular emphasis on workshops to orient museum staff (e.g. museum educators and docents) and workshops for master educators near host museums and science centers. The workshops make innovative connections between the exhibitions interactive experiences and lesson plans aligned with the National Science Education Standards. These exhibit programs are good models for actively involving scientists and their discoveries to help improve informal science education in the museum community and for forging a stronger connection between formal and informal education. The presentation will also discuss how Gas Giants, a proposed 4000 square-foot traveling exhibition on the mysteries and discoveries of the outer planets, will be able to take advantage of the connections and resources that have been developed by the MarsQuest project.

  15. 17 CFR 229.601 - (Item 601) Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... specific exhibit filing requirements applicable thereto. (4) If a material contract or plan of acquisition... forms 10 8-K 2 10-D 10-Q 10-K (1) Underwriting agreement X X X X X X X X (2) Plan of acquisition... (100) XBRL-Related Documents X X X X (101) Interactive Data File X X X X X X X X X X 1 An exhibit need...

  16. Evaluating Education and Science in the KSC Visitor Complex Exhibits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Lance K.

    2000-01-01

    The continuing development of exhibits at the Kennedy Space Center's Visitor Complex is an excellent opportunity for NASA personnel to promote science and provide insight into NASA programs and projects for the approximately 3 million visitors that come to KSC annually. Stated goals for the Visitor Complex, in fact, emphasize science awareness and recommend broadening the appeal of the displays and exhibits for all age groups. To this end, this summer project seeks to evaluate the science content of planned exhibits/displays in relation to these developing opportunities and identify specific areas for enhancement of existing or planned exhibits and displays. To help expand the educational and science content within the developing exhibits at the Visitor Complex, this project was structured to implement the goals of the Visitor Center Director. To accomplish this, the exhibits and displays planned for completion within the year underwent review and evaluation for science content and educational direction. Planning emphasis for the individual displays was directed at combining the elements of effective education with fundamental scientific integrity, within an appealing format.

  17. University / Science Center Exhibit Development Collaboration: Strategies and Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddick, M. J.; Carliles, S.; Bartelme, L.; Patterson, J.

    2008-06-01

    Through funding from the NSF's Internship in Public Science Education (IPSE) program, Johns Hopkins University (JHU) and the Maryland Science Center (MSC) have worked together to create an exhibit based on JHU's research with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, a project to map the universe. The exhibit is a kiosk-based interactive presentation that connects to online data about the sky. It is currently displayed in SpaceLink, an area at the MSC that focuses on current events and research in astronomy. The person primarily responsible for the exhibit was a graduate student in computer science in the JHU Physics and Astronomy department. He worked with an EPO professional in the department and two members of the MSC's planetarium and exhibit staff to plan the exhibit. The team also worked with a coordinator in the JHU chemistry department, and an external evaluator. Along with increased public understanding of science, our goal was to create and evaluate a sustainable partnership between a research university and a local science center. We are producing an evaluation report discussing our collaboration and detailing lessons learned. We hope that our experience can be a model for other university / science center collaborations in the future. Some lessons that we have learned in our development effort are: start all design decisions with learning goals and objectives, write goals with evaluation in mind, focus on the process of science, and do not underestimate the challenges of working with the web as part of the exhibit technology.

  18. A phenomenological investigation of science center exhibition developers' expertise development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Denise L.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the exhibition developer role in the context of United States (U.S.) science centers, and more specifically, to investigate the way science center exhibition developers build their professional expertise. This research investigated how successfully practicing exhibition developers described their current practices, how they learned to be exhibition developers, and what factors were the most important to the developers in building their professional expertise. Qualitative data was gathered from 10 currently practicing exhibition developers from three science centers: the Exploratorium, San Francisco, California; the Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois; and the Science Museum of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota. In-depth, semistructured interviews were used to collect the data. The study embraced aspects of the phenomenological tradition and sought to derive a holistic understanding of the position and how expertise was built for it. The data were methodically coded and organized into themes prior to analysis. The data analysis found that the position consisted of numerous and varied activities, but the developers' primary roles were advocating for the visitor, storytelling, and mediating information and ideas. They conducted these activities in the context of a team and relied on an established exhibition planning process to guide their work. Developers described a process of learning exhibition development that was experiential in nature. Learning through daily practice was key, though they also consulted with mentors and relied on visitor studies to gauge the effectiveness of their work. They were adept at integrating prior knowledge gained from many aspects of their lives into their practice. The developers described several internal factors that contributed to their expertise development including the desire to help others, a natural curiosity about the world, a commitment to learning, and the ability to accept critique. They

  19. Black Holes Traveling Exhibition: This Time, It's Personal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussault, Mary E.; Braswell, E. L.; Sunbury, S.; Wasser, M.; Gould, R. R.

    2012-01-01

    How can you make a topic as abstract as black holes seem relevant to the life of the average museum visitor? In 2009, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics developed a 2500 square foot interactive museum exhibition, "Black Holes: Space Warps & Time Twists,” with funding from the National Science Foundation and NASA. The exhibition has been visited by more than a quarter million museum-goers, and is about to open in its sixth venue at the Reuben H. Fleet Science Center in San Diego, California. We have found that encouraging visitors to adopt a custom black hole explorer's identity can help to make the science of black holes more accessible and meaningful. The Black Holes exhibition uses networked exhibit technology that serves to personalize the visitor experience, to support learning over time including beyond the gallery, and to provide a rich quantitative source of embedded evaluation data. Visitors entering the exhibition create their own bar-coded "Black Holes Explorer's Card” which they use throughout the exhibition to collect and record images, movies, their own predictions and conclusions, and other black hole artifacts. This digital database of personal discoveries grows as visitors navigate through the gallery, and an automated web-content authoring system creates a personalized online journal of their experience that they can access once they get home. We report here on new intriguing results gathered from data generated by 112,000 visitors across five different venues. For example, an initial review of the data reveals correlations between visitors’ black hole explorer identity choices and their engagement with the exhibition. We will also discuss correlations between learning gains and personalization.

  20. The Powerful Educational Potential of Traveling Space Science Exhibits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, C. A.; Dusenbery, P. B.; Harold, J. H.

    2003-04-01

    Five traveling exhibits (both large and small) related to space science are currently touring the U. S., and two more have recently been funded by the National Science Foundation and NASA. These extraordinary educational resources address topics like space weather, Mars exploration, cosmology, the results of Hubble Space Telescope, and the origins of stars, planets, and life. The Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, Colorado, plays leadership roles in four of the seven exhibits. This paper will summarize the nature and itineraries of these exhibits, and how they serve as rallying points for education and public outreach activities across the entire spectrum of science communication. The talk will give special attention to workshops SSI has conducted at MarsQuest host sites for museum educators, docents, and local educators to bolster the host site's ability to do programming around the exhibit content. These workshops have shown promise of leaving a host site with a legacy of new educational capabilities and enhanced connectivity with space scientists and educators in the region. The talk will also address progress on the MarsQuest On-Line project which uses the 5000 sq ft (500 sq m) exhibit as a conceptual framework for an interactive website.

  1. Liberty Bell 7 Space Capsule Exhibit previews at Visitor Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Children on a tour at the KSC Visitor Complex get an early look at the Discovery Channel's Liberty Bell 7 Space Capsule Exhibit, which opens to the public on Saturday, June 17. They are on a re- creation of the deck of Ocean Project, the ship that located and recovered the space capsule from the floor of the Atlantic Ocean. Liberty Bell 7 launched U.S. Air Force Captain Virgil '''Gus''' Grissom July 21, 1961, on a mission that lasted 15 minutes and 37 seconds before sinking. It lay undetected for nearly four decades before a Discovery Channel expedition located it and recovered it. The space capsule, now restored and preserved, is part of an interactive exhibit touring science centers and museums in 12 cities throughout the United States until 2003. The exhibit also includes hands-on elements such as a capsule simulator, a centrifuge, and ROV pilot.

  2. Space Research Institute (IKI) Exhibition as an Educational Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovski, Andrei; Antonenko, Elena

    2016-07-01

    The Exhibition "Space Science: Part and Future" in Space Research Institute (IKI) was opened in 2007 in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of the first man-made satellite launch. It covers the latest and the most important findings in space research, shows instruments which are used in space exploration, and presents past, current, and future Russian science missions. Prototypes of space instruments developed by Russian specialists and mockups of spacecraft and spaceships flown to space are displayed, together with information posters, describing space missions, their purposes and results. The Exhibition takes a great part in school space education. Its stuff actively works with schoolchildren, undergraduate students and also makes a great contribution in popularization of space researches. Moreover the possibility to learn about scientific space researches first-hand is priceless. We describe the main parts of the Exhibition and forms of it work and also describe the collaboration with other museums and educational organizations.

  3. Visions of the Universe: How Library Exhibits Impact Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhamer, Bonnie; McCallister, D.; Summers, F.; Smith, D.; Ryer, H.

    2010-01-01

    In turning his telescope to the heavens in 1609, Galileo Galilei embarked upon a journey that would revolutionize science and culture alike, profoundly changing our view of our place in the universe. In celebration of this achievement and the International Year of Astronomy (IYA), the Space Telescope Science Institute produced the "Visions of the Universe: Four Centuries of Discovery” exhibit in partnership with the American Library Association. The "Visions of the Universe” exhibit shows how humanity's views and understanding of the universe have changed over the past four hundred years, and addresses topics such as storms on the sun, Saturn's rings, the nature of comets, star birth, and distant galaxies. As part of its evaluation program, STScI's Office of Public Outreach has been conducting an evaluation of the exhibit to determine its effectiveness in meeting the needs of libraries across the United States. This poster will highlight data collected from libraries and preliminary findings.

  4. View of Soyuz spacecraft which was part of exhibit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-08

    S73-27666 (May-June 1973) --- A close-up view of the Soyuz spacecraft which was part of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project exhibit at the 30th International Aeronautics and Space Exhibition held May 24 ? June 3, 1973 at the Le Bourget Airport in Paris, France. The ASTP exhibit was co-sponsored by the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. An agreement between the U.S. and the USSR provides for the docking in Earth orbit of the Soyuz and Apollo in the summer of 1975. The Apollo spacecraft is out of view to the left. At the far left, a mock-up of a Docking Module connects the Apollo with the Soyuz. The spherical-shaped portion of the Soyuz is called the orbital section. The middle section with the lettering ?CCCP? (USSR) on it is called the cosmonauts? cabin. Two solar panels extend out from the machines and panel section.

  5. Liberty Bell 7 Space Capsule Exhibit previews at Visitor Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Children on a tour at the KSC Visitor Complex get an early look at the Discovery Channel's Liberty Bell 7 Space Capsule Exhibit, which opens to the public on Saturday, June 17. They are on a re- creation of the deck of Ocean Project, the ship that located and recovered the space capsule from the floor of the Atlantic Ocean. Liberty Bell 7 launched U.S. Air Force Captain Virgil '''Gus''' Grissom July 21, 1961, on a mission that lasted 15 minutes and 37 seconds before sinking. It lay undetected for nearly four decades before a Discovery Channel expedition located it and recovered it. The space capsule, now restored and preserved, is part of an interactive exhibit touring science centers and museums in 12 cities throughout the United States until 2003. The exhibit also includes hands-on elements such as a capsule simulator, a centrifuge, and ROV pilot.

  6. One exhibition, many goals. Combining scientific research and risk communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charrière, Marie; Bogaard, Thom; Junier, Sandra; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mostert, Erik

    2015-04-01

    How effective is visual communication to increase awareness of natural hazards and risks? To answer this research question, we developed a research design that was at the same time an experimental setting and an actual communication effort. Throughout the full length of the 2-years project held in the Ubaye valley (southeastern France), we collaborated with local and regional stakeholders (politicians and technicians). During a consultation phase, the communication context was determined, the audience of the project was defined and finally the testing activity-communication effort was determined. We were offered the opportunity to design an exhibition for the local public library. In a consultation phase that corresponded to the design of the exhibition, the stakeholders contributed to its content as well as helping with the funding of the exhibition. Finally, during the experimentation phase, the stakeholders participated in advertising the activity, gathering of participants and designing the scientific survey. In order to assess the effects of the exhibition on risk awareness, several groups of children, teenagers and adults were submitted to a research design, consisting of 1) a pre-test, 2) the visit of the exhibition and 3) a post-test similar to the pre-test. In addition, the children answered a second post-test 3 months after the visit. Close ended questions addressed the awareness indicators mentioned in the literature, i.e. worry level, previous experiences with natural hazards events, exposure to awareness raising, ability to mitigate/respond/prepare, attitude to risk, and demographics. In addition, the post-test included several satisfaction questions concerning the visual tools displayed in the exhibition. A statistical analysis of the changes between the pre- and post- tests (paired t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and bootstrapping) allowed to verify whether the exhibition had an impact on risk awareness or not. In order to deduce which variable

  7. Meeting Report: Ordinary Meeting and Exhibition Meeting, 2006 June 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, H.; Mobberley, M.

    2007-06-01

    Prior to the Ordinary Meeting, the annual Exhibition was opened by Richard Miles, President, who said he was pleased to report that all but two of the Sections had display stands this year, and that most of the Directors had also been able to attend and were available for members who wished to discuss their work. Although we had almost a full day of talks to enjoy, members should not be shy of coming and going from the lecture theatre at will, and in particular must make sure they took sufficient time to do justice to the excellent Exhibition on offer.

  8. Computerizing Museum Exhibits: The Beginnings of the Essential Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdick, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    Examples are given of some types of interaction between viewed and museum provided by an experimental computer based nutrition exhibit at the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry. Plans are being developed for a museum in which most of the information conveyed will appear through the use of video systems tied to a computer. (CMV)

  9. Grandma Moses in the 21st Century. Learning from Exhibitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2001-01-01

    Provides background information on the life and career of Grandma Moses who was born as Anna Mary Robertson and painted in the style of folk or naive art. Addresses the art exhibition entitled "Grandma Moses in the 21st Century" that explores the recurring themes in her artwork. (CMK)

  10. 45 CFR 1160.4 - Eligibility for international exhibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... include more than 150 works of art by Impressionist painter Auguste Renoir. Museums in Paris and London have agreed to lend 125 works of art, covering every aspect of his career, many of which have not been...- and domestic-owned objects in an international exhibition. The foreign-owned objects are eligible...

  11. 7 CFR 28.126 - Loaning of forms and exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loaning of forms and exhibits. 28.126 Section 28.126 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  12. 49 CFR 1016.202 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net worth exhibit. 1016.202 Section 1016.202... BY PARTIES TO BOARD ADJUDICATORY PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 1016.202 Net... worth of the applicant and any affiliates (as defined in § 1016.105(f) of this part) when the proceeding...

  13. 63. View of Klystron tube cutaway exhibit located at mezzanine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. View of Klystron tube cut-away exhibit located at mezzanine level transmitter building no. 102, directly above RF power generation systems located on first floor. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  14. 7 CFR Appendix - Exhibits to Subpart E of Part 1951

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Exhibits to Subpart E of Part 1951 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SERVICING AND...

  15. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart B of... - Servicing Company

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Servicing Company B Exhibit B to Subpart B of Part 1806 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL... of Part 1806—Servicing Company The servicing company office to be contacted for information...

  16. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart B of... - Servicing Company

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Servicing Company B Exhibit B to Subpart B of Part 1806 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL... of Part 1806—Servicing Company The servicing company office to be contacted for information...

  17. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart B of... - Servicing Company

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Servicing Company B Exhibit B to Subpart B of Part 1806 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL... of Part 1806—Servicing Company The servicing company office to be contacted for information...

  18. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart B of... - Servicing Company

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Servicing Company B Exhibit B to Subpart B of Part 1806 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL... of Part 1806—Servicing Company The servicing company office to be contacted for information...

  19. Take To the Streets: Guide To Planning Outdoor, Public Exhibits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Jennifer McGregor; And Others

    Placing exhibits in public places provides a unique opportunity to reach a broad non-museum-going audience. It offers marketing and publicity opportunities as well as the potential to develop relationships with agencies and individuals who are stakeholders in the public site. The purpose of this guidebook is to describe the steps in creating an…

  20. 40 CFR 17.12 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 17.12 Section 17.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 17.12 Net worth...

  1. 40 CFR 17.12 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 17.12 Section 17.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 17.12 Net worth...

  2. 40 CFR 17.12 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 17.12 Section 17.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 17.12 Net worth...

  3. 40 CFR 17.12 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 17.12 Section 17.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 17.12 Net worth...

  4. 40 CFR 17.12 - Net worth exhibit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Net worth exhibit. 17.12 Section 17.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Information Required From Applicants § 17.12 Net worth...

  5. Herbert Hoover Library & Museum: A Guide to the Exhibit Galleries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard Norton; And Others

    This guide book is used to accompany the exhibits at the Herbert Hoover Presidential Library and Museum. The guide provides a basic overview of the life and contributions of Herbert Hoover and can be read independent of a tour of the galleries. The book contains the following chapters: (1) "Years of Adventure"; (2) "The Great…

  6. 22 CFR Exhibit A to Part 204 - Application for Compensation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Programs, Agency for International Development, International Development Cooperation Agency, Washington... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for Compensation A Exhibit A to Part 204 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND...

  7. Do Online Learning Patterns Exhibit Regional and Demographic Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Tsui-Chuan; Yang, Chyan

    2012-01-01

    This paper used a multi-level latent class model to evaluate whether online learning patterns exhibit regional differences and demographics. This study discovered that the Internet learning pattern consists of five segments, and the region of Taiwan is divided into two segments and further found that both the user and the regional segments are…

  8. Take To the Streets: Guide To Planning Outdoor, Public Exhibits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutting, Jennifer McGregor; And Others

    Placing exhibits in public places provides a unique opportunity to reach a broad non-museum-going audience. It offers marketing and publicity opportunities as well as the potential to develop relationships with agencies and individuals who are stakeholders in the public site. The purpose of this guidebook is to describe the steps in creating an…

  9. (Un)Disturbing Exhibitions: Indigenous Historical Memory at the NMAI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpio, Myla Vicenti

    2006-01-01

    Museums in particular are educational tools used to create and perpetuate specific ideologies and historical memories. They have played a prominent role in defining the visibility of Indigenous peoples and cultures in America historical memory by creating exhibits of Indigenous peoples based on perceptions and views that benefit and justify…

  10. Peasants on display: the Czechoslavic Ethnographic Exhibition of 1895.

    PubMed

    Filipová, Marta

    2011-01-01

    In the increasingly modernized Central Europe of the late nineteenth century, folk culture, with its alleged ancient character, was still understood by some scholars as the bearer of national identity. The Czechoslavic [sic] Ethnographic Exhibition, which took place in Prague in 1895, aimed to promote the idea of the ethnically unified, but at the same time regionally diverse, identity of the Czech-speaking people living in Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia. Having to negotiate their identity with the ethnic Germans of Bohemia, the Czechs consciously excluded them from the event both as organizers and as exhibitors. The exhibition could therefore be seen as a symptom of its time—in the late nineteenth century Central Europe, locating national heritage was crucial and folk culture played an important role in the national politics, and not only for the Czechs. This article focuses mainly on the ethnographic exhibit entitled ‘the Exhibition Village’, which consisted of an eclectic selection of village houses and their imitations from Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia. On this basis, it explores the political intentions behind the display of folk culture to both urban and rural audiences and brings attention to the question of integration of the diverse regional objects in a utopian national whole. The article thus also aims to demonstrate issues related to the use of folk artefacts for the purposes of cultural nationalism in Austria-Hungary in the late nineteenth century.

  11. A new MOF-505 analog exhibiting high acetylene storage.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yunxia; Xiang, Shengchang; Zhang, Wenwei; Zhang, Zhuxiu; Wang, Lei; Bai, Junfeng; Chen, Banglin

    2009-12-28

    A new microporous metal-organic framework Cu(2)(EBTC)(H(2)O)(2) x xG (EBTC = 1,1'-ethynebenzene-3,3',5,5'-tetracarboxylate; G = guest molecule) was rationally designed with a NbO net, exhibiting significantly high acetylene storage of 252 and 160 cm(3) g(-1) at 273 and 295 K under 1 bar, respectively.

  12. 18 CFR 157.16 - Exhibits relating to acquisitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exhibits relating to acquisitions. 157.16 Section 157.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Infrastructure Information (CEII), as defined by § 388.113(c) of this chapter, to any person, the applicant...

  13. 23. WWP, 27 August 1965 'EXHIBIT L, SHEET 13 OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. WWP, 27 August 1965 'EXHIBIT L, SHEET 13 OF 27,' SHOWING CUTAWAY ELEVATIONS OF THE WWP LOWER SPOKANE FALLS DAM AND EAST AND NORTH FACADES OF THE MONROE STREET PLANT - Washington Water Power Company Monroe Street Plant, Units 4 & 5, South Bank Spokane River, below Monroe Street Bridge, Spokane, Spokane County, WA

  14. 17 CFR 229.601 - (Item 601) Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false (Item 601) Exhibits. 229.601 Section 229.601 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD... sales agency agreements. (2) Agreements with managers of stores in a chain organization or...

  15. 17 CFR 229.601 - (Item 601) Exhibits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false (Item 601) Exhibits. 229.601 Section 229.601 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD... agreements. (2) Agreements with managers of stores in a chain organization or similar organization....

  16. (Un)Disturbing Exhibitions: Indigenous Historical Memory at the NMAI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpio, Myla Vicenti

    2006-01-01

    Museums in particular are educational tools used to create and perpetuate specific ideologies and historical memories. They have played a prominent role in defining the visibility of Indigenous peoples and cultures in America historical memory by creating exhibits of Indigenous peoples based on perceptions and views that benefit and justify…

  17. 9. COPY OF PHOTOGRAPHIC EXHIBIT BOARD CREATED 19481949 SHOWING CONSTRUCTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. COPY OF PHOTOGRAPHIC EXHIBIT BOARD CREATED 1948-1949 SHOWING CONSTRUCTION OF ARCH HANGAR. BOARD LOCATED AT AIR FORCE BASE CONVERSION AGENCY, LORING AIR FORCE BASE, MAINE. - Loring Air Force Base, Arch Hangar, East of Arizona Road near southern end of runway, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  18. 45 CFR 1160.4 - Eligibility for international exhibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS... whole. (d)(1) Example. An American art museum is organizing a retrospective exhibition which will include more than 150 works of art by Impressionist painter Auguste Renoir. Museums in Paris and...

  19. 45 CFR 1160.4 - Eligibility for international exhibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS... whole. (d)(1) Example. An American art museum is organizing a retrospective exhibition which will include more than 150 works of art by Impressionist painter Auguste Renoir. Museums in Paris and...

  20. 45 CFR 1160.4 - Eligibility for international exhibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS... whole. (d)(1) Example. An American art museum is organizing a retrospective exhibition which will include more than 150 works of art by Impressionist painter Auguste Renoir. Museums in Paris and...