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Sample records for linaire qui relie

  1. LinAir: A multi-element discrete vortex Weissinger aerodynamic prediction method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durston, Donald A.

    1993-01-01

    LinAir is a vortex lattice aerodynamic prediction method similar to Weissinger's extended lifting-line theory, except that the circulation around a wing is represented by discrete horseshoe vortices, not a continuous distribution of vorticity. The program calculates subsonic longitudinal and lateral/directional aerodynamic forces and moments for arbitrary aircraft geometries. It was originally written by Dr. Ilan Kroo of Stanford University, and subsequently modified by the author to simplify modeling of complex configurations. The Polhamus leading-edge suction analogy was added by the author to extend the range of applicability of LinAir to low aspect ratio (i.e., fighter-type) configurations. A brief discussion of the theory of LinAir is presented, and details on how to run the program are given along with some comparisons with experimental data to validate the code. Example input and output files are given in the appendices to aid in understanding the program and its use. This version of LinAir runs in the VAX/VMS, Cray UNICOS, and Silicon Graphics Iris workstation environments at the time of this writing.

  2. Maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Margaret; Takaro, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Passer en revue les facteurs de risque, la prise en charge et la prévention des maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques en pratique familiale. Sources des données Des articles originaux et de synthèse entre janvier 1998 et février 2012 ont été identifiés à l’aide de PubMed et des expressions de recherche en anglais water-related illness, recreational water illness et swimmer illness. Message principal Il y a un risque de 3 % à 8 % de maladies gastrointestinales (MGI) après la baignade. Les groupes à risque élevé de MGI sont les enfants de moins de 5 ans, surtout s’ils n’ont pas été vaccinés contre le rotavirus, les personnes âgées et les patients immunodéficients. Les enfants sont à plus grand risque parce qu’ils avalent plus d’eau quand ils nagent, restent dans l’eau plus longtemps et jouent dans l’eau peu profonde et le sable qui sont plus contaminés. Les adeptes des sports dans lesquels le contact avec l’eau est abondant comme le triathlon et le surf cerf-volant sont aussi à risque élevé et même ceux qui s’adonnent à des activités impliquant un contact partiel avec l’eau comme la navigation de plaisance et la pêche ont un risque de 40 % à 50 % fois plus grand de MGI par rapport à ceux qui ne pratiquent pas de sports aquatiques. Il y a lieu de faire une culture des selles quand on soupçonne une maladie reliée aux loisirs aquatiques et l’échelle clinique de la déshydratation est utile pour l’évaluation des besoins de traitement chez les enfants affectés. Conclusion Les maladies reliées aux loisirs aquatiques est la principale cause de MGI durant la saison des baignades. La reconnaissance que la baignade est une source importante de maladies peut aider à prévenir les cas récurrents et secondaires. On recommande fortement le vaccin contre le rotavirus chez les enfants qui se baignent souvent.

  3. Lying relies on the truth.

    PubMed

    Debey, Evelyne; De Houwer, Jan; Verschuere, Bruno

    2014-09-01

    Cognitive models of deception focus on the conflict-inducing nature of the truth activation during lying. Here we tested the counterintuitive hypothesis that the truth can also serve a functional role in the act of lying. More specifically, we examined whether the construction of a lie can involve a two-step process, where the first step entails activating the truth, based upon which a lie response can be formulated in a second step. To investigate this hypothesis, we tried to capture the covert truth activation in a reaction-time based deception paradigm. Together with each question, we presented either the truth or lie response as distractors. If lying depends on the covert activation of the truth, deceptive responses would thus be facilitated by truth distractors relative to lie distractors. Our results indeed revealed such a "covert congruency" effect, both in errors and reaction times (Experiment 1). Moreover, stimulating participants to use the distractor information by increasing the proportion of truth distractor trials enlarged the "covert congruency" effects, and as such confirmed that the effects operate at a covert response level (Experiment 2). Our findings lend support to the idea that lying relies on a first step of truth telling, and call for a shift in theoretical thinking that highlights both the functional and interfering properties of the truth activation in the lying process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Flood Control Project Lac Qui Parle, Emergency Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-01

    Illinois 60605-1592 1MAR 19 FOR: Commander, St. Paul District, ATTN: CENCS-ED-M We have reviewed the subject emergency plan and find it to be generally...15 9. Computation of Outflow Hydrographs for Lac qui Parle Dam ................................. 17 10. Routing of Outflow Hydrographs for Lac qui...Parle Dam ................................. 20 11. Computation of Outflow Hydrographs for Marsh Lake Dam .................................... 23 12

  5. The Problem with Relying on Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meserve, Lee A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines problems that arise when society comes to rely on the technology of its time and provides support for this contention through data about unintended effects of polychlorinated biphenyl. Argues that reliance on technology results in a loss of previously accumulated knowledge, and the general public becomes convinced it can have anything…

  6. Supervised calibration relies on the multisensory percept

    PubMed Central

    Zaidel, Adam; Ma, Wei Ji; Angelaki, Dora E.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Multisensory plasticity enables us to dynamically adapt sensory cues to one another and to the environment. Without external feedback, “unsupervised” multisensory calibration reduces cue conflict in a manner largely independent of cue-reliability. But environmental feedback regarding cue-accuracy (“supervised”) also affects calibration. Here we measured the combined influence of cue-accuracy and cue-reliability on supervised multisensory calibration, using discrepant visual and vestibular motion stimuli. When the less-reliable cue was inaccurate, it alone got calibrated. However, when the more-reliable cue was inaccurate, cues were yoked and calibrated together in the same direction. Strikingly, the less-reliable cue shifted away from external feedback, becoming less accurate. A computational model in which supervised and unsupervised calibration work in parallel, where the former only relies on the multisensory percept, but the latter can calibrate cues individually, accounts for the observed behavior. In combination, they could ultimately achieve the optimal solution of both external accuracy and internal consistency. PMID:24290205

  7. Photons indiscernables : qui se ressemble, s'assemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert-Philip, I.; Laurent, S.; Varoutsis, S.; Lemaître, A.; Le Gratiet, L.; Sagnes, I.; Abram, I.

    2006-10-01

    Les boîtes quantiques semi-conductrices sont des candidats prometteurs pour la génération d'états quantiques de la lumière, tels que des photons uniques. En isolant ces nano-émetteurs dans des microcavités optiques, ces émetteurs uniques peuvent produire des photons identiques: l'exaltation du taux d'émission spontanée permet de contourner les effets de perte de cohérence de l'émetteur, qui marquent aléatoirement les photons émis. L'indiscernabilité entre photons est sondée via des expériences d'interférence à deux photons. La visibilité du processus d'interférence indique des taux d'indiscernabilité supérieurs à 70% entre photons émis par une boîte isolée en cavité micropilier ou à cristal photonique.

  8. Rely and Toxic Shock Syndrome: A Technological Health Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Vostral, Sharra L.

    2011-01-01

    This essay examines factors leading to the identification of Toxic Shock Syndrome with the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus in 1978 and the specific role of Rely tampons in generating a technologically rooted health crisis. The concept biologically incompatible technology is offered to explain the relationship between constituent bacteria, women’s menstrual cycles, and a reactive technology that converged to create the ideal environment for the S. aureus bacteria to live and flourish in some women. The complicated and reactive relationship of the Rely tampon to emergent disease, corporate interests, public health, and injury law reveals the dangers of naturalizing technologies. PMID:22180682

  9. The Biosynthesis of UDP-D-QuiNAc in Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Soyoun; Aronov, Avi; Bar-Peled, Maor

    2015-01-01

    N-acetylquinovosamine (2-acetamido-2,6-di-deoxy-D-glucose, QuiNAc) is a relatively rare amino sugar residue found in glycans of few pathogenic gram-negative bacteria where it can play a role in infection. However, little is known about QuiNAc-related polysaccharides in gram-positive bacteria. In a routine screen for bacillus glycan grown at defined medium, it was surprising to identify a QuiNAc residue in polysaccharides isolated from this gram-positive bacterium. To gain insight into the biosynthesis of these glycans, we report the identification of an operon in Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 that contains two genes encoding activities not previously described in gram-positive bacteria. One gene encodes a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine C4,6-dehydratase, (abbreviated Pdeg) that converts UDP-GlcNAc to UDP-4-keto-4,6-D-deoxy-GlcNAc (UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-α-D-xylo-4-hexulose); and the second encodes a UDP-4-reductase (abbr. Preq) that converts UDP-4-keto-4,6-D-deoxy-GlcNAc to UDP-N-acetyl-quinovosamine in the presence of NADPH. Biochemical studies established that the sequential Pdeg and Preq reaction product is UDP-D-QuiNAc as determined by mass spectrometry and one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments. Also, unambiguous evidence for the conversions of the dehydratase product, UDP-α-D-4-keto-4,6-deoxy-GlcNAc, to UDP-α-D-QuiNAc was obtained using real-time 1H-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The two genes overlap by 4 nucleotides and similar operon organization and identical gene sequences were also identified in a few other Bacillus species suggesting they may have similar roles in the lifecycle of this class of bacteria important to human health. Our results provide new information about the ability of Bacilli to form UDP-QuiNAc and will provide insight to evaluate their role in the biology of Bacillus.

  10. The Biosynthesis of UDP-d-QuiNAc in Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Soyoun; Aronov, Avi; Bar-Peled, Maor

    2015-01-01

    N-acetylquinovosamine (2-acetamido-2,6-di-deoxy-d-glucose, QuiNAc) is a relatively rare amino sugar residue found in glycans of few pathogenic gram-negative bacteria where it can play a role in infection. However, little is known about QuiNAc-related polysaccharides in gram-positive bacteria. In a routine screen for bacillus glycan grown at defined medium, it was surprising to identify a QuiNAc residue in polysaccharides isolated from this gram-positive bacterium. To gain insight into the biosynthesis of these glycans, we report the identification of an operon in Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 that contains two genes encoding activities not previously described in gram-positive bacteria. One gene encodes a UDP-N-acetylglucosamine C4,6-dehydratase, (abbreviated Pdeg) that converts UDP-GlcNAc to UDP-4-keto-4,6-d-deoxy-GlcNAc (UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-α-d-xylo-4-hexulose); and the second encodes a UDP-4-reductase (abbr. Preq) that converts UDP-4-keto-4,6-d-deoxy-GlcNAc to UDP-N-acetyl-quinovosamine in the presence of NADPH. Biochemical studies established that the sequential Pdeg and Preq reaction product is UDP-d-QuiNAc as determined by mass spectrometry and one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments. Also, unambiguous evidence for the conversions of the dehydratase product, UDP-α-d-4-keto-4,6-deoxy-GlcNAc, to UDP-α-d-QuiNAc was obtained using real-time 1H-NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The two genes overlap by 4 nucleotides and similar operon organization and identical gene sequences were also identified in a few other Bacillus species suggesting they may have similar roles in the lifecycle of this class of bacteria important to human health. Our results provide new information about the ability of Bacilli to form UDP-QuiNAc and will provide insight to evaluate their role in the biology of Bacillus. PMID:26207987

  11. Covert face recognition relies on affective valence in congenital prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Bate, Sarah; Haslam, Catherine; Jansari, Ashok; Hodgson, Timothy L

    2009-06-01

    Dominant accounts of covert recognition in prosopagnosia assume subthreshold activation of face representations created prior to onset of the disorder. Yet, such accounts cannot explain covert recognition in congenital prosopagnosia, where the impairment is present from birth. Alternatively, covert recognition may rely on affective valence, yet no study has explored this possibility. The current study addressed this issue in 3 individuals with congenital prosopagnosia, using measures of the scanpath to indicate recognition. Participants were asked to memorize 30 faces paired with descriptions of aggressive, nice, or neutral behaviours. In a later recognition test, eye movements were monitored while participants discriminated studied from novel faces. Sampling was reduced for studied--nice compared to studied--aggressive faces, and performance for studied--neutral and novel faces fell between these two conditions. This pattern of findings suggests that (a) positive emotion can facilitate processing in prosopagnosia, and (b) covert recognition may rely on emotional valence rather than familiarity.

  12. Robust sensing of approaching vehicles relying on acoustic cues.

    PubMed

    Mizumachi, Mitsunori; Kaminuma, Atsunobu; Ono, Nobutaka; Ando, Shigeru

    2014-05-30

    The latest developments in automobile design have allowed them to be equipped with various sensing devices. Multiple sensors such as cameras and radar systems can be simultaneously used for active safety systems in order to overcome blind spots of individual sensors. This paper proposes a novel sensing technique for catching up and tracking an approaching vehicle relying on an acoustic cue. First, it is necessary to extract a robust spatial feature from noisy acoustical observations. In this paper, the spatio-temporal gradient method is employed for the feature extraction. Then, the spatial feature is filtered out through sequential state estimation. A particle filter is employed to cope with a highly non-linear problem. Feasibility of the proposed method has been confirmed with real acoustical observations, which are obtained by microphones outside a cruising vehicle.

  13. Robust Sensing of Approaching Vehicles Relying on Acoustic Cues

    PubMed Central

    Mizumachi, Mitsunori; Kaminuma, Atsunobu; Ono, Nobutaka; Ando, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    The latest developments in automobile design have allowed them to be equipped with various sensing devices. Multiple sensors such as cameras and radar systems can be simultaneously used for active safety systems in order to overcome blind spots of individual sensors. This paper proposes a novel sensing technique for catching up and tracking an approaching vehicle relying on an acoustic cue. First, it is necessary to extract a robust spatial feature from noisy acoustical observations. In this paper, the spatio-temporal gradient method is employed for the feature extraction. Then, the spatial feature is filtered out through sequential state estimation. A particle filter is employed to cope with a highly non-linear problem. Feasibility of the proposed method has been confirmed with real acoustical observations, which are obtained by microphones outside a cruising vehicle. PMID:24887038

  14. Human children rely more on social information than chimpanzees do

    PubMed Central

    van Leeuwen, Edwin J. C.; Call, Josep; Haun, Daniel B. M.

    2014-01-01

    Human societies are characterized by more cultural diversity than chimpanzee communities. However, it is currently unclear what mechanism might be driving this difference. Because reliance on social information is a pivotal characteristic of culture, we investigated individual and social information reliance in children and chimpanzees. We repeatedly presented subjects with a reward-retrieval task on which they had collected conflicting individual and social information of equal accuracy in counterbalanced order. While both species relied mostly on their individual information, children but not chimpanzees searched for the reward at the socially demonstrated location more than at a random location. Moreover, only children used social information adaptively when individual knowledge on the location of the reward had not yet been obtained. Social information usage determines information transmission and in conjunction with mechanisms that create cultural variants, such as innovation, it facilitates diversity. Our results may help explain why humans are more culturally diversified than chimpanzees. PMID:25392309

  15. da Vinci decoded: does da Vinci stereopsis rely on disparity?

    PubMed

    Tsirlin, Inna; Wilcox, Laurie M; Allison, Robert S

    2012-11-01

    In conventional stereopsis, the depth between two objects is computed based on the retinal disparity in the position of matching points in the two eyes. When an object is occluded by another object in the scene, so that it is visible only in one eye, its retinal disparity cannot be computed. Nakayama and Shimojo (1990) found that a precept of quantitative depth between the two objects could still be established for such stimuli and proposed that this precept is based on the constraints imposed by occlusion geometry. They named this and other occlusion-based depth phenomena "da Vinci stereopsis." Subsequent research found quantitative depth based on occlusion geometry in several other classes of stimuli grouped under the term da Vinci stereopsis. However, Nakayama and Shimojo's findings were later brought into question by Gillam, Cook, and Blackburn (2003), who suggested that quantitative depth in their stimuli was perceived based on conventional disparity. In order to understand whether da Vinci stereopsis relies on one type of mechanism or whether its function is stimulus dependent we examine the nature and source of depth in the class of stimuli used by Nakayama and Shimojo (1990). We use three different psychophysical and computational methods to show that the most likely source for depth in these stimuli is occlusion geometry. Based on these experiments and previous data we discuss the potential mechanisms responsible for processing depth from monocular features in da Vinci stereopsis.

  16. 78 FR 3911 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN; Final Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN... (CCP) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) for the environmental assessment (EA) for Big Stone.../FONSI on the planning Web site at http://www.fws.gov/midwest/planning/BigStoneNWR/index.html . A...

  17. Control of human African trypanosomiasis in the Quiçama focus, Angola.

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, José Antonio; Simarro, Pere P.; Josenando, Teofilo

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To update the epidemiological status of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also known as sleeping sickness, in the Quiçama focus, province of Bengo, Angola, and to establish a HAT control programme. METHODS: In 1997, 8796 people (the population of 31 villages) were serologically screened for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, the causative agent of HAT. In 1998 and 1999, surveys were carried out in villages where HAT cases had been identified in 1997. Individuals were screened using the card agglutination trypanosomiasis test (CATT), and then examined for the presence of the parasite. CATT- positive individuals in whom the presence of the parasite could not be confirmed were further tested with the CATT using serum dilutions, and those with a positive antibody end titre of 1-in-4 or above were followed-up. Patients with < or =10 white cells/micro l and no trypanosomes in their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were classified as being in the first stage of the disease. Vector control was not considered necessary or feasible. FINDINGS: The main transmission areas were on the Kwanza riverbanks, where 5042 inhabitants live. In 1997, the HAT prevalence was 1.97%, but this decreased to 0.55% in 1998 and to 0.33% in 1999. The relapse rate was 3% in patients treated with pentamidine and 3.5% in patients treated with melarsoprol. In patients treated with pentamidine, there was no difference in the relapse rate for patients with initial CSF white cell counts of 0-5 cells/ micro l or 6-10 cells/micro l. The overall mortality rate was 0.6% and the rate of reactive arsenical encephalopathy among the melarsoprol-treated patients was 1.7%. CONCLUSION: The epidemiological status of the disease was updated and the transmission areas were defined. The control methods implemented allowed the disease prevalence to be reduced. PMID:12378293

  18. 71 FR 56344 - Facility Change Process Involving Items Relied on for Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-09-27

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 70 RIN 3150-AH96 Facility Change Process Involving Items Relied on for Safety AGENCY... facility change process involving items relied on for safety. Additionally, the 10 CFR part 70 subpart H...) is amending its regulations to clarify a requirement pertaining to items relied on for safety...

  19. 47 CFR 15.717 - TVBDs that rely on spectrum sensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false TVBDs that rely on spectrum sensing. 15.717... Television Band Devices § 15.717 TVBDs that rely on spectrum sensing. (a) Applications for certification. Parties may submit applications for certification of TVBDs that rely solely on spectrum sensing...

  20. 47 CFR 15.717 - TVBDs that rely on spectrum sensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false TVBDs that rely on spectrum sensing. 15.717... Television Band Devices § 15.717 TVBDs that rely on spectrum sensing. (a) Applications for certification. Parties may submit applications for certification of TVBDs that rely solely on spectrum sensing...

  1. 47 CFR 15.717 - TVBDs that rely on spectrum sensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false TVBDs that rely on spectrum sensing. 15.717... Television Band Devices § 15.717 TVBDs that rely on spectrum sensing. (a) Applications for certification. Parties may submit applications for certification of TVBDs that rely solely on spectrum sensing...

  2. 47 CFR 15.717 - TVBDs that rely on spectrum sensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false TVBDs that rely on spectrum sensing. 15.717... Television Band Devices § 15.717 TVBDs that rely on spectrum sensing. (a) Applications for certification. Parties may submit applications for certification of TVBDs that rely solely on spectrum sensing...

  3. 47 CFR 15.717 - TVBDs that rely on spectrum sensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TVBDs that rely on spectrum sensing. 15.717... Television Band Devices § 15.717 TVBDs that rely on spectrum sensing. (a) Parties may submit applications for certification of TVBDs that rely solely on spectrum sensing to identify available channels. Devices...

  4. Overstepping the garnet isograd: a comparison of QuiG barometry and thermodynamic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spear, Frank S.; Thomas, Jay B.; Hallett, Benjamin W.

    2014-09-01

    The consequences of overstepping the garnet isograd reaction have been investigated by comparing the composition of garnet formed at overstepped P-T conditions (the overstep or "OS" model) with the P-T conditions that would be inferred by assuming garnet nucleated in equilibrium with the matrix assemblage at the isograd (the equilibrium or "EQ" model). The garnet nucleus composition formed at overstepped conditions is calculated as the composition that produces the maximum decrease in Gibbs free energy from the equilibrated, garnet-absent, matrix assemblage for the bulk composition under study. Isopleths were then calculated for this garnet nucleus composition assuming equilibrium with the matrix assemblage (the EQ model). Comparison of the actual P-T conditions of nucleation (the OS model) with those inferred from the EQ model reveals considerable discrepancy between the two. In general, the inferred garnet nucleation P-T conditions (the EQ model) are at a lower temperature and higher or lower pressure (depending on the coexisting calcic phase(s)) than the actual (OS model) nucleation conditions. Moreover, the degree of discrepancy increases with the degree of overstepping. Independent estimates of the pressure of nucleation of garnet were made using the Raman shift of quartz inclusions in garnet (quartz-in-garnet or QuiG barometry). To test the validity of this method, an experimental synthesis of garnet containing quartz inclusions was made at 800 °C, 20 kbar, and the measured Raman shift reproduced the synthesis conditions to within 120 bars. Raman band shifts from three natural samples were then used to calculate an isochore along which garnet was presumed to have nucleated. Model calculations were made at several temperatures along this isochore (the OS model), and these P-T conditions were compared to those computed assuming equilibrium nucleation (the EQ model) to estimate the degree of overstepping displayed by these samples. A sample from the garnet

  5. 71 FR 69430 - Facility Change Process Involving Items Relied on for Safety: Confirmation of Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-12-01

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 70 RIN 3150-AH96 Facility Change Process Involving Items Relied on for Safety... requirement pertaining to items relied on for safety (IROFS). This rulemaking corrected an inconsistency in... for safety (IROFS). In the direct final rule, NRC stated that if no significant adverse comments...

  6. The thirty gigahertz instrument receiver for the Q-U-I Joint Tenerife experiment: concept and experimental results.

    PubMed

    Villa, Enrique; Cano, Juan L; Cagigas, Jaime; Ortiz, David; Casas, Francisco J; Pérez, Ana R; Aja, Beatriz; Terán, J Vicente; de la Fuente, Luisa; Artal, Eduardo; Hoyland, Roger; Mediavilla, Ángel

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents the analysis, design, and characterization of the thirty gigahertz instrument receiver developed for the Q-U-I Joint Tenerife experiment. The receiver is aimed to obtain polarization data of the cosmic microwave background radiation from the sky, obtaining the Q, U, and I Stokes parameters of the incoming signal simultaneously. A comprehensive analysis of the theory behind the proposed receiver is presented for a linearly polarized input signal, and the functionality tests have demonstrated adequate results in terms of Stokes parameters, which validate the concept of the receiver based on electronic phase switching.

  7. The thirty gigahertz instrument receiver for the Q-U-I Joint Tenerife experiment: Concept and experimental results

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Enrique Cano, Juan L.; Cagigas, Jaime; Pérez, Ana R.; Aja, Beatriz; Terán, J. Vicente; Fuente, Luisa de la; Artal, Eduardo; Mediavilla, Ángel

    2015-02-15

    This paper presents the analysis, design, and characterization of the thirty gigahertz instrument receiver developed for the Q-U-I Joint Tenerife experiment. The receiver is aimed to obtain polarization data of the cosmic microwave background radiation from the sky, obtaining the Q, U, and I Stokes parameters of the incoming signal simultaneously. A comprehensive analysis of the theory behind the proposed receiver is presented for a linearly polarized input signal, and the functionality tests have demonstrated adequate results in terms of Stokes parameters, which validate the concept of the receiver based on electronic phase switching.

  8. DISCOURS QUI RÉSISTENT À L’OBJECTIVATION : QUE PEUT-ON EN TIRER POUR L’ÉVALUATION?

    PubMed Central

    Brousselle, Astrid

    2013-01-01

    Résumé L’évaluateur doit porter attention aux distorsions qu’il contribue à créer lorsqu’il utilise l’entrevue comme méthode de collecte de données. L’évaluation est un exercice politique qui, placé dans un contexte politique, peut favoriser l’émergence de discours de résistance à l’objectivation. À partir des entrevues que nous avons effectuées lors de l’évaluation du processus d’implantation de l’initiative ONUSIDA d’accès aux médicaments au Chili, nous illustrons différentes tactiques que les acteurs utilisent et qui peuvent soit attirer la sympathie de l’évaluateur, soit faire obstacle à son besoin d’information. Nous présentons une méthode d’analyse que l’évaluateur peut utiliser pour redonner du sens aux discours de résistance. PMID:23997421

  9. The QUiPP App: a safe alternative to a treat-all strategy for threatened preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Watson, H A; Carter, J; Seed, P T; Tribe, R M; Shennan, A H

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of triaging women at risk of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) using the QUiPP App, which incorporates a predictive model combining history of sPTB, gestational age and quantitative measurements of fetal fibronectin, compared with a treat-all policy (advocated by the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) among women with threatened preterm labor before 30 weeks' gestation. Prospectively collected data of pregnant women presenting with symptoms of preterm labor (abdominal pain or tightening) at 24-34 weeks' gestation were retrieved from the research databases of the EQUIPP and PETRA studies for subanalysis. Each episode of threatened preterm labor was retrospectively assigned a risk for sPTB within 7 days using the QUiPP App. A primary outcome of delivery within 7 days was used to model the performance accuracy of the QUiPP App compared with a treat-all policy. Using a 5% risk of delivery within 7 days according to the QUiPP App as the threshold for intervention, 9/9 women who presented with threatened preterm labor < 34 weeks would have been treated correctly, giving a sensitivity of 100% (one-sided 97.5% CI, 66.4%) and a negative predictive value of 100% (97.5% CI, 98.9-100%). The positive predictive value for delivery within 7 days was 30.0% (95% CI, 11.9-54.3%) for women presenting before 30 weeks and 20.0% (95% CI, 12.7-30.1%) for women presenting between 30 + 0 and 34 + 0 weeks. If this 5% threshold had been used to triage women presenting between 24 + 0 and 29 + 6 weeks, 89.4% (n = 168) of admissions could have been safely avoided, compared with 0% for a treat-all strategy. No true case of preterm labor would have been missed, as no woman who was assigned a risk of < 10% delivered within 7 days. For women with threatened preterm labor, the QUiPP App can accurately guide management at risk thresholds for sPTB of 1%, 5% and 10%, allowing outpatient management in the vast majority of cases. A treat-all approach would not

  10. Physical characteristics of stream subbasins in the Lac qui Parle River basin, southwestern Minnesota and eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenz, D.L.; Sanocki, C.A.; Winterstein, Thomas A.

    1994-01-01

    Data describing the physical characteristics of stream subbasins upstream from selected points on streams in the Lac qui Parle River basin, located in southwestern Minnesota and eastern South Dakota, are presented in this report. The physical charac- teristics are the drainage area of the subbasin, the percentage area of the subbasin covered only by lakes, the percentage area of the subbasin covered by both lakes and wetlands, the main-channel length. and the main-channel slope. The points on the stream include outlets of subbasins of at least 5 square miles, outfalls of sewage treatment plants, and locations of U.S. Geological Survey low-flow, high-flow, and continuous-record gaging stations.

  11. 71 FR 56413 - Facility Change Process Involving Items Relied on for Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-09-27

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 70 RIN 3150-AH96 Facility Change Process Involving Items Relied on for Safety AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Nuclear... on for safety (IROFS). This rulemaking corrects an inconsistency in the regulations pertaining...

  12. 77 FR 39561 - Advanced Braking Technologies That Rely on Forward-Looking Sensors; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... Sensors; Request for Comments AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department... technologies that rely on forward-looking sensors to supplement driver braking or to actuate automatic braking... information from forward-looking sensors, usually a camera or radar, to determine whether or not a crash...

  13. Investigating the Acquisition of Software Systems that Rely on Open Architecture and Open Source Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Investigating the Acquisition of Software Systems that Rely on Open Architecture and Open Source Software March 2010 by Dr. Walt Scacchi ...including project teams operating as virtual organizations [ Scacchi 2002, 2007]. There is a basic need to understand how to identify an optimal mix of OSS...ecosystem. However, the relationship among OA, OSS, requirements, and acquisition is poorly understood [cf. Scacchi 2002, Naegle and Petross 2007

  14. 40 CFR 26.1706 - Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable research. 26.1706 Section 26.1706 Protection of... Assessing Whether To Rely on the Results of Human Research in EPA Actions § 26.1706 Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable research. This section...

  15. 25 CFR 582.6 - When will I receive a copy of the record on which the Chair relied?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Chair relied? 582.6 Section 582.6 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... AMENDMENTS § 582.6 When will I receive a copy of the record on which the Chair relied? Within 10 days of the filing of a notice of appeal, or as soon thereafter as practicable, the record on which the Chair relied...

  16. 25 CFR 582.6 - When will I receive a copy of the record on which the Chair relied?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Chair relied? 582.6 Section 582.6 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... AMENDMENTS § 582.6 When will I receive a copy of the record on which the Chair relied? Within 10 days of the filing of a notice of appeal, or as soon thereafter as practicable, the record on which the Chair relied...

  17. 12 CFR 221.117 - When bank in “good faith” has not relied on stock as collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... bank in “good faith” has not relied on stock as collateral. (a) The Board has received questions... question of whether or not a bank has relied upon particular stock as collateral is necessarily a question... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When bank in âgood faithâ has not relied on...

  18. Bidirectional Regulation of Innate and Learned Behaviors That Rely on Frequency Discrimination by Cortical Inhibitory Neurons.

    PubMed

    Aizenberg, Mark; Mwilambwe-Tshilobo, Laetitia; Briguglio, John J; Natan, Ryan G; Geffen, Maria N

    2015-12-01

    The ability to discriminate tones of different frequencies is fundamentally important for everyday hearing. While neurons in the primary auditory cortex (AC) respond differentially to tones of different frequencies, whether and how AC regulates auditory behaviors that rely on frequency discrimination remains poorly understood. Here, we find that the level of activity of inhibitory neurons in AC controls frequency specificity in innate and learned auditory behaviors that rely on frequency discrimination. Photoactivation of parvalbumin-positive interneurons (PVs) improved the ability of the mouse to detect a shift in tone frequency, whereas photosuppression of PVs impaired the performance. Furthermore, photosuppression of PVs during discriminative auditory fear conditioning increased generalization of conditioned response across tone frequencies, whereas PV photoactivation preserved normal specificity of learning. The observed changes in behavioral performance were correlated with bidirectional changes in the magnitude of tone-evoked responses, consistent with predictions of a model of a coupled excitatory-inhibitory cortical network. Direct photoactivation of excitatory neurons, which did not change tone-evoked response magnitude, did not affect behavioral performance in either task. Our results identify a new function for inhibition in the auditory cortex, demonstrating that it can improve or impair acuity of innate and learned auditory behaviors that rely on frequency discrimination.

  19. The Effect of Instruction on Children's Perceived Musical Tension in Debussy's "Noel des enfants qui n'ont plus de maisons"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackworth, Rhonda S.; Fredrickson, William E.

    2012-01-01

    The study explored possible effects of instruction (highlighting a choral composition's historical and social context) on perceived musical tension recorded by children (N = 62). Children listened to a recording of Debussy's "Noel des enfants qui n'ont plus de maisons" (The Christmas Carol of the Children who No Longer Have a House/Home)…

  20. Poison frogs rely on experience to find the way home in the rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Pašukonis, Andrius; Warrington, Ian; Ringler, Max; Hödl, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Among vertebrates, comparable spatial learning abilities have been found in birds, mammals, turtles and fishes, but virtually nothing is known about such abilities in amphibians. Overall, amphibians are the most sedentary vertebrates, but poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) routinely shuttle tadpoles from terrestrial territories to dispersed aquatic deposition sites. We hypothesize that dendrobatid frogs rely on learning for flexible navigation. We tested the role of experience with the local cues for poison frog way-finding by (i) experimentally displacing territorial males of Allobates femoralis over several hundred metres, (ii) using a harmonic direction finder with miniature transponders to track these small frogs, and (iii) using a natural river barrier to separate the translocated frogs from any familiar landmarks. We found that homeward orientation was disrupted by the translocation to the unfamiliar area but frogs translocated over similar distances in their local area showed significant homeward orientation and returned to their territories via a direct path. We suggest that poison frogs rely on spatial learning for way-finding in their local area. PMID:25411379

  1. Anemonefishes rely on visual and chemical cues to correctly identify conspecifics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Nicole K.; Dixson, Danielle L.

    2017-09-01

    Organisms rely on sensory cues to interpret their environment and make important life-history decisions. Accurate recognition is of particular importance in diverse reef environments. Most evidence on the use of sensory cues focuses on those used in predator avoidance or habitat recognition, with little information on their role in conspecific recognition. Yet conspecific recognition is essential for life-history decisions including settlement, mate choice, and dominance interactions. Using a sensory manipulated tank and a two-chamber choice flume, anemonefish conspecific response was measured in the presence and absence of chemical and/or visual cues. Experiments were then repeated in the presence or absence of two heterospecific species to evaluate whether a heterospecific fish altered the conspecific response. Anemonefishes responded to both the visual and chemical cues of conspecifics, but relied on the combination of the two cues to recognize conspecifics inside the sensory manipulated tank. These results contrast previous studies focusing on predator detection where anemonefishes were found to compensate for the loss of one sensory cue (chemical) by utilizing a second cue (visual). This lack of sensory compensation may impact the ability of anemonefishes to acclimate to changing reef environments in the future.

  2. Poison frogs rely on experience to find the way home in the rainforest.

    PubMed

    Pašukonis, Andrius; Warrington, Ian; Ringler, Max; Hödl, Walter

    2014-11-01

    Among vertebrates, comparable spatial learning abilities have been found in birds, mammals, turtles and fishes, but virtually nothing is known about such abilities in amphibians. Overall, amphibians are the most sedentary vertebrates, but poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) routinely shuttle tadpoles from terrestrial territories to dispersed aquatic deposition sites. We hypothesize that dendrobatid frogs rely on learning for flexible navigation. We tested the role of experience with the local cues for poison frog way-finding by (i) experimentally displacing territorial males of Allobates femoralis over several hundred metres, (ii) using a harmonic direction finder with miniature transponders to track these small frogs, and (iii) using a natural river barrier to separate the translocated frogs from any familiar landmarks. We found that homeward orientation was disrupted by the translocation to the unfamiliar area but frogs translocated over similar distances in their local area showed significant homeward orientation and returned to their territories via a direct path. We suggest that poison frogs rely on spatial learning for way-finding in their local area.

  3. Wild chimpanzees rely on cultural knowledge to solve an experimental honey acquisition task.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Thibaud; Muller, Martin N; Strimling, Pontus; Wrangham, Richard; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2009-11-17

    Population and group-specific behavioral differences have been taken as evidence for animal cultures, a notion that remains controversial. Skeptics argue that ecological or genetic factors, rather than social learning, provide a more parsimonious explanation. Work with captive chimpanzees has addressed this criticism by showing that experimentally created traditions can be transmitted through social learning. Recent fieldwork further suggests that ecological and genetic factors are insufficient to explain the behavioral differences seen between communities, but the data are only observational. Here, we present the results of a field experiment that compared the performance of chimpanzees (P. t. schweinfurthii) from two Ugandan communities, Kanyawara and Sonso, on an identical task in the physical domain-extracting honey from holes drilled into horizontal logs. Kanyawara chimpanzees, who occasionally use sticks to acquire honey, spontaneously manufactured sticks to extract the experimentally provided honey. In contrast, Sonso chimpanzees, who possess a considerable leaf technology but no food-related stick use, relied on their fingers, but some also produced leaf sponges to access the honey. Our results indicate that, when genetic and environmental factors are controlled, wild chimpanzees rely on their cultural knowledge to solve a novel task.

  4. Improving web access for individuals who rely on augmentative and alternative communication.

    PubMed

    Bryen, Diane Nelson; Heake, George; Semenuk, Amy; Segal, Mary

    2010-03-01

    People with significant speech and motor disabilities often face obstacles attempting to navigate the World Wide Web. This is especially true for the millions of children and adults worldwide who rely on or could benefit from augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). This study was designed to test the usability of WebAACcess, an accessibility enhancement tool designed to bypass some of the barriers to navigating the web. Using a repeated-measures research design, whereby subjects were their own controls, each of the 12 participants (7 with motor disabilities who used AAC and 5 peers without disabilities) navigated equivalent web pages using Internet Explorer alone and Internet Explorer with WebAACcess. Results consistently demonstrated that navigating using WebAACess with Internet Explorer was more efficient, easier, and equally effective for all of the participants than navigating with Internet Explorer alone.

  5. Unconscious and conscious processing of color rely on activity in early visual cortex: a TMS study.

    PubMed

    Railo, Henry; Salminen-Vaparanta, Niina; Henriksson, Linda; Revonsuo, Antti; Koivisto, Mika

    2012-04-01

    Chromatic information is processed by the visual system both at an unconscious level and at a level that results in conscious perception of color. It remains unclear whether both conscious and unconscious processing of chromatic information depend on activity in the early visual cortex or whether unconscious chromatic processing can also rely on other neural mechanisms. In this study, the contribution of early visual cortex activity to conscious and unconscious chromatic processing was studied using single-pulse TMS in three time windows 40-100 msec after stimulus onset in three conditions: conscious color recognition, forced-choice discrimination of consciously invisible color, and unconscious color priming. We found that conscious perception and both measures of unconscious processing of chromatic information depended on activity in early visual cortex 70-100 msec after stimulus presentation. Unconscious forced-choice discrimination was above chance only when participants reported perceiving some stimulus features (but not color).

  6. Fully automatic assignment of small molecules' NMR spectra without relying on chemical shift predictions.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Andrés M; Bernal, Andrés; Patiny, Luc; Wist, Julien

    2015-08-01

    We present a method for the automatic assignment of small molecules' NMR spectra. The method includes an automatic and novel self-consistent peak-picking routine that validates NMR peaks in each spectrum against peaks in the same or other spectra that are due to the same resonances. The auto-assignment routine used is based on branch-and-bound optimization and relies predominantly on integration and correlation data; chemical shift information may be included when available to fasten the search and shorten the list of viable assignments, but in most cases tested, it is not required in order to find the correct assignment. This automatic assignment method is implemented as a web-based tool that runs without any user input other than the acquired spectra. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Effect of clock jitter on plasma density measurements relying on direct digital demodulation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamming, B. W.; Colio, R. A.; Finkenthal, D. F.; van Zeeland, M. A.; Deterly, T. M.

    2011-10-01

    Real-time measurement of plasma density is essential to effective closed-loop plasma control systems in fusion-type reactors. The DIII-D tokamak currently employs a Michelson-type interferometer in combination with heterodyned lasers to make real-time density measurements utilizing embedded digital signal processing (DSP) techniques. This technique relies on high-speed analog-to-digital converters clocking at four times the 40 MHz reference frequency, and clock jitter becomes a critical source of noise in the measurement indistinguishable from phase noise of the interferometer signals. We present a study of the effect of clock jitter on system noise and recommendations for improvement. Work supported in part by US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698 and the National Undergraduate Fellowship in Fusion Science and Engineering.

  8. Perseveration effects in reaching and grasping rely on motor priming and not perception.

    PubMed

    Glover, Scott; Dixon, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Perseveration effects in grasping were examined in two experiments. In both experiments, participants reached and grasped different versions of a novel object with their thumb and forefinger using either a horizontal or vertical pincer grasp. The dependent variable was the choice of grasp. In Experiment 1, trials were performed either with or without visual feedback. In Experiment 2, trials were performed either physically or using motor imagery. In both experiments, participants tended to perseverate in their choice of grip. Further, there was no evidence that either the availability of visual feedback during the preceding or current action modulated this effect; mode of responding was similarly inconsequential. The results were interpreted as evidence for a motor priming explanation of perseveration and against an account that relies on perceptual priming.

  9. Thirteen-month-olds rely on shared labels and shape similarity for inductive inferences.

    PubMed

    Graham, Susan A; Kilbreath, Cari S; Welder, Andrea N

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the influence of shape similarity and labels on 13-month-olds' inductive inferences. In 3 experiments, 123 infants were presented with novel target objects with or without a nonvisible property, followed by test objects that varied in shape similarity. When objects were not labeled, infants generalized the nonvisible property to high-similarity objects (Experiment 1). When objects were labeled with the same noun, infants generalized the nonvisible property to high- and low-similarity objects (Experiment 2). Finally, when objects were labeled with different nouns, infants generalized the nonvisible property to high-similarity objects (Experiment 3). Thus, infants who are beginning to acquire productive language rely on shared shape similarity and shared names to guide their inductive inferences.

  10. Do conscious perception and unconscious processing rely on independent mechanisms? A meta-contrast study.

    PubMed

    Peremen, Ziv; Lamy, Dominique

    2014-02-01

    There is currently no consensus regarding what measures are most valid to demonstrate perceptual processing without awareness. Likewise, whether conscious perception and unconscious processing rely on independent mechanisms or lie on a continuum remains a matter of debate. Here, we addressed these issues by comparing the time courses of subjective reports, objective discrimination performance and response priming during meta-contrast masking, under similar attentional demands. We found these to be strikingly similar, suggesting that conscious perception and unconscious processing cannot be dissociated by their time course. Our results also demonstrate that unconscious processing, indexed by response priming, occurs, and that objective discrimination performance indexes the same conscious processes as subjective visibility reports. Finally, our results underscore the role of attention by showing that how much attention the stimulus receives relative to the mask, rather than whether processing is measured by conscious discrimination or by priming, determines the time course of meta-contrast masking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Skill acquisition via motor imagery relies on both motor and perceptual learning.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Tony G J; Kraeutner, Sarah N; Solomon, Jack P; Westwood, David A; Boe, Shaun G

    2016-04-01

    Motor imagery (MI), the mental rehearsal of movement, is an effective means for acquiring a novel skill, even in the absence of physical practice (PP). The nature of this learning, be it perceptual, motor, or both, is not well understood. Understanding the mechanisms underlying MI-based skill acquisition has implications for its use in numerous disciplines, including informing best practices regarding its use. Here we used an implicit sequence learning (ISL) task to probe whether MI-based skill acquisition can be attributed to perceptual or motor learning. Participants (n = 60) randomized to 4 groups were trained through MI or PP, and were then tested in either perceptual (altering the sensory cue) or motor (switching the hand) transfer conditions. Control participants (n = 42) that did not perform a transfer condition were utilized from previous work. Learning was quantified through effect sizes for reaction time (RT) differences between implicit and random sequences. Generally, PP-based training led to lower RTs compared with MI-based training for implicit and random sequences. All groups demonstrated learning (p < .05), the magnitude of which was reduced by transfer conditions relative to controls. For MI-based training perceptual transfer disrupted performance more than for PP. Motor transfer disrupted performance equally for MI- and PP-based training. Our results suggest that MI-based training relies on both perceptual and motor learning, while PP-based training relies more on motor processes. These results reveal details regarding the mechanisms underlying MI, and inform its use as a modality for skill acquisition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Parkinson's patients can rely on perspective cues to perceive 3D space.

    PubMed

    Séverac Cauquil, Alexandra; Ory-Magne, Fabienne; Jardiné, Vincent; Galitzky, Monique; Rosito, Maxime; Brefel-Courbon, Christine; Celebrini, Simona

    2017-05-15

    3D perception, which is necessary for an optimal navigation in our environment, relies on 2 complementary kinds of cues; binocular cues allowing precise depth localization near the point of visual interest and monocular ones that are necessary for correct global perception of visual space. Recent studies described deficient binocular 3D vision in PD patients; here we tested 3D vision in PD patients when based on monocular cues (m3D). Sixteen PD patients and 16 controls had to categorize visual stimuli as perceived in 2D (flat) or 3D (with depth). Both performance and response times were measured. EEGs were recorded to extract Visual Evoked Potentials. Effects of PD were tested by comparing psychometric and electrophysiological data obtained in controls and PD patients evaluated without dopaminergic treatment. Effects of Levodopa were tested by comparing data in PD patients with and without dopaminergic treatment. We didn't find statistical differences between PD patients and controls' performance. Severity of PD (UPDRS III) in OFF condition is positively correlated with P1 amplitudes and latencies for both 2D and m3D stimuli. Levodopa administration didn't modify either PD patients' performances although it increases principal visual components latencies for both 2D and m3D stimuli. Unlike binocular 3D vision, monocular 3D vision does not seem to get affected by PD. However given the correlation between severity of PD and VEPs' modifications, alteration of visual cortical processing might have nonetheless begun. PD patients reporting trouble in perceiving space must rely more on m3D cues present in the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cochlear implant users rely on tempo rather than on pitch information during perception of musical emotion.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Meredith; Rankin, Summer K; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Carver, Courtney; Limb, Charles J

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which cochlear implant (CI) users rely on tempo and mode in perception of musical emotion when compared with normal hearing (NH) individuals. A test battery of novel four-bar melodies was created and adapted to four permutations with alterations of tonality (major vs. minor) and tempo (presto vs. largo), resulting in non-ambiguous (major key/fast tempo and minor key/slow tempo) and ambiguous (major key/slow tempo, and minor key/fast tempo) musical stimuli. Both CI and NH participants listened to each clip and provided emotional ratings on a Likert scale of +5 (happy) to -5 (sad). A three-way ANOVA demonstrated an overall effect for tempo in both groups, and an overall effect for mode in the NH group. The CI group rated stimuli of the same tempo similarly, regardless of changes in mode, whereas the NH group did not. A subgroup analysis indicated the same effects in both musician and non-musician CI users and NH listeners. The results suggest that the CI group relied more heavily on tempo than mode in making musical emotion decisions. The subgroup analysis further suggests that level of musical training did not significantly impact this finding. CI users weigh temporal cues more heavily than pitch cues in inferring musical emotion. These findings highlight the significant disadvantage of CI users in comparison with NH listeners for music perception, particularly during recognition of musical emotion, a critically important feature of music.

  14. The pca-pob supraoperonic cluster of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus contains quiA, the structural gene for quinate-shikimate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Elsemore, D A; Ornston, L N

    1994-01-01

    An 18-kbp Acinetobacter calcoaceticus chromosomal segment contains the pcaIJFBDKCHG operon, which is required for catabolism of protocatechuate, and pobSRA, genes associated with conversion of p-hydroxybenzoate to protocatechuate. The genetic function of the 6.5 kbp of DNA between pcaG and pobS was unknown. Deletions in this DNA were designed by removal of fragments between restriction sites, and the deletion mutations were introduced into A. calcoaceticus by natural transformation. The mutations prevented growth with either quinate or shikimate, growth substrates that depend upon qui gene function for their catabolism to protocatechuate. The location of quiA, a gene encoding quinate-shikimate dehydrogenase, was indicated by its expression in one of the deletion mutants, and the position of the gene was confirmed by determination of its 2,427-bp nucleotide sequence. The deduced amino acid sequence of QuiA confirmed that it is a member of a family of membrane-associated, pyrrolo-quinoline quinone-dependent dehydrogenases, as had been suggested by earlier biochemical investigations. Catabolism of quinate and skikimate is initiated by NAD(+)-dependent dehydrogenases in other microorganisms, so it is evident that different gene pools were called upon to provide the ancestral enzyme for this metabolic step. Images PMID:8002591

  15. The Prescription Pattern of Chinese Herbal Products That Contain Dang-Qui and Risk of Endometrial Cancer among Tamoxifen-Treated Female Breast Cancer Survivors in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chien-Tung; Lai, Jung-Nien; Tsai, Yueh-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The increased practice of traditional Chinese medicine worldwide has raised concerns regarding herb-drug interactions. We analyzed the usage of Chinese herbal products containing dang-qui and investigated whether dang-qui therapy increases endometrial cancer risk among tamoxifen-treated breast cancer survivors in Taiwan. Methods All patients newly diagnosed with invasive breast cancer who received tamoxifen treatment from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2008 were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The usage, frequency of service and type of Chinese herbal products containing dang-qui prescribed across the 31,970 survivors were evaluated. Logistic regression method was employed to estimate the odds ratios for utilization of Chinese herbal products containing dang-qui. Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to calculate the hazard ratio of endometrial cancer associated with dang-qui use within the cohort. Results Almost one in two study subjects had used dang-qui. Among 31,938 tamoxifen-treated breast cancer survivors, 157 cases of subsequent endometrial cancer were identified. The hazard ratio for development of endometrial cancer among breast cancer survivors aged 20–79 years who had taken dang-qui after tamoxifen treatment was decreased compared to survivors who had never used dang-qui (HR: 0.61, 95%CI: 0.44–0.84). To minimise potential confounding factors, women with breast cancer in the reproductive age were excluded from further analysis, and the negative relationship between dang-qui consumption and subsequent endometrial cancer among breast cancer survivors aged 55–79 years was still observed, although not significantly (HR: 0.74, 95%CI: 0.46–1.17). Conclusions Dang-qui consumption is common among breast cancer survivors aged 20–79 years and seems decrease the risk of subsequent endometrial cancer after less than a cumulative dose of 7,500 mg of tamoxifen treatment. PMID:25485843

  16. 40 CFR 26.1706 - Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable research. 26.1706 Section 26.1706 Protection of... decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable research. This section establishes... stringent regulatory restriction that would improve protection of public health, such as a limitation on the...

  17. 40 CFR 26.1706 - Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable research. 26.1706 Section 26.1706 Protection of... for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable research. This section... would impose a more stringent regulatory restriction that would improve protection of public health...

  18. 40 CFR 26.1706 - Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable research. 26.1706 Section 26.1706 Protection of... for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable research. This section... would impose a more stringent regulatory restriction that would improve protection of public health...

  19. 40 CFR 26.1706 - Criteria and procedure for decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable research. 26.1706 Section 26.1706 Protection of... decisions to protect public health by relying on otherwise unacceptable research. This section establishes... stringent regulatory restriction that would improve protection of public health, such as a limitation on the...

  20. 25 CFR 583.5 - When will I receive a copy of the record on which the Chair relied?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When will I receive a copy of the record on which the Chair relied? 583.5 Section 583.5 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Chair relied? Within 10 days of the filing of a notice of appeal, or as soon thereafter as practicable...

  1. 25 CFR 583.5 - When will I receive a copy of the record on which the Chair relied?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When will I receive a copy of the record on which the Chair relied? 583.5 Section 583.5 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Chair relied? Within 10 days of the filing of a notice of appeal, or as soon thereafter as practicable...

  2. 25 CFR 585.6 - When will I receive a copy of the record on which the Chair relied?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Chair relied? 585.6 Section 585.6 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATION, PROPOSED CIVIL FINE ASSESSMENTS, ORDERS OF TEMPORARY CLOSURE, THE CHAIR'S DECISIONS TO VOID OR... the Chair relied? Within 10 days of the filing of a notice of appeal, or as soon thereafter as...

  3. 39 CFR 3050.12 - Obsolescence of special studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obsolescence of special studies relied on to... studies relied on to produce the Postal Service's annual periodic reports to the Commission. The Postal Service shall provide a list of special studies whose results are used to produce the estimates in...

  4. Defining the buffering process by a triprotic acid without relying on Stewart-electroneutrality considerations.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Minhtri K; Kao, Liyo; Kurtz, Ira

    2011-08-17

    Upon the addition of protons to an aqueous solution, a component of the H+ load will be bound i.e. buffered. In an aqueous solution containing a triprotic acid, H+ can be bound to three different states of the acid as well as to OH- ions that are derived from the auto-ionization of H2O. In quantifying the buffering process of a triprotic acid, one must define the partitioning of H+ among the three states of the acid and also the OH- ions in solution in order to predict the equilibrium pH value. However, previous quantitative approaches that model triprotic acid titration behaviour and used to predict the equilibrium pH rely on the mathematical convenience of electroneutrality/charge balance considerations. This fact has caused confusion in the literature, and has led to the assumption that charge balance/electroneutrality is a causal factor in modulating proton buffering (Stewart formulation). However, as we have previously shown, although charge balance can be used mathematically as a convenient tool in deriving various formulae, electroneutrality per se is not a fundamental physicochemical parameter that is mechanistically involved in the underlying buffering and proton transfer reactions. The lack of distinction between a mathematical tool, and a fundamental physicochemical parameter is in part a reason for the current debate regarding the Stewart formulation of acid-base analysis. We therefore posed the following question: Is it possible to generate an equation that defines and predicts the buffering of a triprotic acid that is based only on H+ partitioning without incorporating electroneutrality in the derivation? Towards this goal, we derived our new equation utilizing: 1) partitioning of H+ buffering; 2) conservation of mass; and 3) acid-base equilibria. In validating this model, we compared the predicted equilibrium pH with the measured pH of an aqueous solution consisting of Na2HPO4 to which HCl was added. The measured pH values were in excellent agreement

  5. Defining the buffering process by a triprotic acid without relying on stewart-electroneutrality considerations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Upon the addition of protons to an aqueous solution, a component of the H+ load will be bound i.e. buffered. In an aqueous solution containing a triprotic acid, H+ can be bound to three different states of the acid as well as to OH- ions that are derived from the auto-ionization of H2O. In quantifying the buffering process of a triprotic acid, one must define the partitioning of H+ among the three states of the acid and also the OH- ions in solution in order to predict the equilibrium pH value. However, previous quantitative approaches that model triprotic acid titration behaviour and used to predict the equilibrium pH rely on the mathematical convenience of electroneutrality/charge balance considerations. This fact has caused confusion in the literature, and has led to the assumption that charge balance/electroneutrality is a causal factor in modulating proton buffering (Stewart formulation). However, as we have previously shown, although charge balance can be used mathematically as a convenient tool in deriving various formulae, electroneutrality per se is not a fundamental physicochemical parameter that is mechanistically involved in the underlying buffering and proton transfer reactions. The lack of distinction between a mathematical tool, and a fundamental physicochemical parameter is in part a reason for the current debate regarding the Stewart formulation of acid-base analysis. We therefore posed the following question: Is it possible to generate an equation that defines and predicts the buffering of a triprotic acid that is based only on H+ partitioning without incorporating electroneutrality in the derivation? Towards this goal, we derived our new equation utilizing: 1) partitioning of H+ buffering; 2) conservation of mass; and 3) acid-base equilibria. In validating this model, we compared the predicted equilibrium pH with the measured pH of an aqueous solution consisting of Na2HPO4 to which HCl was added. The measured pH values were in excellent agreement

  6. Premotor Cortex Activation Elicited during Word Comprehension Relies on Access of Specific Action Concepts.

    PubMed

    Lin, Nan; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhao, Ying; Liu, Yanping; Li, Xingshan; Bi, Yanchao

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between the lexical-semantic and sensory-motor systems is an important topic in cognitive neuroscience. An important finding indicating that these two systems interact is that reading action verbs activates the motor system of the human brain. Two constraints have been proposed to modulate this activation: the effector information associated with the action concepts and statistical regularities between sublexical features and grammatical classes. Using fMRI, we examined whether these two types of information can activate the motor system in the absence of specific motor-semantic content by manipulating the existence of a sublexical cue, called the hand radical, which strongly indicates the semantic feature "hand-related" and grammatical class "verb." Although hand radical characters referring to specific manual actions evoked stronger activation in the premotor cortex than the control characters, hand radical pseudocharacters did not evoke specific activation within the motor system. These results indicated that activation of the premotor cortex during word reading relies on the access of specific action concepts.

  7. Sensory map transfer to the neocortex relies on pretarget ordering of thalamic axons.

    PubMed

    Lokmane, Ludmilla; Proville, Rémi; Narboux-Nême, Nicolas; Györy, Ildiko; Keita, Maryama; Mailhes, Caroline; Léna, Clément; Gaspar, Patricia; Grosschedl, Rudolf; Garel, Sonia

    2013-05-06

    Sensory maps, such as the representation of mouse facial whiskers, are conveyed throughout the nervous system by topographic axonal projections that preserve neighboring relationships between adjacent neurons. In particular, the map transfer to the neocortex is ensured by thalamocortical axons (TCAs), whose terminals are topographically organized in response to intrinsic cortical signals. However, TCAs already show a topographic order early in development, as they navigate toward their target. Here, we show that this preordering of TCAs is required for the transfer of the whisker map to the neocortex. Using Ebf1 conditional inactivation that specifically perturbs the development of an intermediate target, the basal ganglia, we scrambled TCA topography en route to the neocortex without affecting the thalamus or neocortex. Notably, embryonic somatosensory TCAs were shifted toward the visual cortex and showed a substantial intermixing along their trajectory. Somatosensory TCAs rewired postnatally to reach the somatosensory cortex but failed to form a topographic anatomical or functional map. Our study reveals that sensory map transfer relies not only on positional information in the projecting and target structures but also on preordering of axons along their trajectory, thereby opening novel perspectives on brain wiring.

  8. Cell Sorting Enriches Escherichia coli Mutants That Rely on Peptidoglycan Endopeptidases To Suppress Highly Aberrant Morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Laubacher, Mary E.; Melquist, Amy L.; Chandramohan, Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial morphology imparts physiological advantages to cells in different environments and, judging by the fidelity with which shape is passed to daughter cells, is a tightly regulated characteristic. Surprisingly, only in the past 10 to 15 years has significant headway been made in identifying the mechanisms by which cells create and maintain particular shapes. One reason for this is that the relevant discoveries have relied heavily on the arduous, somewhat subjective process of manual microscopy. Here, we show that flow cytometry, coupled with the sorting capability of fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), can detect, quantify, and enrich bacteria with morphological alterations. The light scattering properties of several highly aberrant morphological mutants of Escherichia coli were characterized by flow cytometry. Cells from a region that overlapped the distribution of normal rod-shaped cells were collected by FACS and reincubated. After 4 to 15 iterations of this enrichment process, suppressor mutants were isolated that returned almost all the population to a near-normal shape. Suppressors were successfully isolated from strains lacking three or four penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) but not from a mutant lacking a total of seven PBPs. The peptidoglycan endopeptidase, AmpH, was identified as being important for the suppression process, as was a related endopeptidase, MepA. The results validate the use of cell sorting as a means for studying bacterial morphology and identify at least one new class of enzymes required for the suppression of cell shape defects. PMID:23243305

  9. Organogenesis relies on SoxC transcription factors for the survival of neural and mesenchymal progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Bhattaram, Pallavi; Penzo-Méndez, Alfredo; Sock, Elisabeth; Colmenares, Clemencia; Kaneko, Kotaro J.; Vassilev, Alex; DePamphilis, Melvin L.; Wegner, Michael; Lefebvre, Véronique

    2010-01-01

    During organogenesis, neural and mesenchymal progenitor cells give rise to many cell lineages, but their molecular requirements for self-renewal and lineage decisions are incompletely understood. In this study, we show that their survival critically relies on the redundantly acting SoxC transcription factors Sox4, Sox11 and Sox12. The more SoxC alleles that are deleted in mouse embryos, the more severe and widespread organ hypoplasia is. SoxC triple-null embryos die at midgestation unturned and tiny, with normal patterning and lineage specification, but with massively dying neural and mesenchymal progenitor cells. Specific inactivation of SoxC genes in neural and mesenchymal cells leads to selective apoptosis of these cells, suggesting SoxC cell-autonomous roles. Tead2 functionally interacts with SoxC genes in embryonic development, and is a direct target of SoxC proteins. SoxC genes therefore ensure neural and mesenchymal progenitor cell survival, and function in part by activating this transcriptional mediator of the Hippo signalling pathway. PMID:20596238

  10. Robust Cortical Entrainment to the Speech Envelope Relies on the Spectro-temporal Fine Structure

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Nai; Chatterjee, Monita; Simon, Jonathan Z.

    2013-01-01

    Speech recognition is robust to background noise. One underlying neural mechanism is that the auditory system segregates speech from the listening background and encodes it reliably. Such robust internal representation has been demonstrated in auditory cortex by neural activity entrained to the temporal envelope of speech. A paradox, however, then arises, as the spectro-temporal fine structure rather than the temporal envelope is known to be the major cue to segregate target speech from background noise. Does the reliable cortical entrainment in fact reflect a robust internal “synthesis” of the attended speech stream rather than direct tracking of the acoustic envelope? Here, we test this hypothesis by degrading the spectro-temporal fine structure while preserving the temporal envelope using vocoders. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings reveal that cortical entrainment to vocoded speech is severely degraded by background noise, in contrast to the robust entrainment to natural speech. Furthermore, cortical entrainment in the delta-band (1–4 Hz) predicts the speech recognition score at the level of individual listeners. These results demonstrate that reliable cortical entrainment to speech relies on the spectro-temporal fine structure, and suggest that cortical entrainment to the speech envelope is not merely a representation of the speech envelope but a coherent representation of multiscale spectro-temporal features that are synchronized to the syllabic and phrasal rhythms of speech. PMID:24188816

  11. Chlamydia trachomatis Relies on Autonomous Phospholipid Synthesis for Membrane Biogenesis*♦

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jiangwei; Cherian, Philip T.; Frank, Matthew W.; Rock, Charles O.

    2015-01-01

    The obligate intracellular parasite Chlamydia trachomatis has a reduced genome and is thought to rely on its mammalian host cell for nutrients. Although several lines of evidence suggest C. trachomatis utilizes host phospholipids, the bacterium encodes all the genes necessary for fatty acid and phospholipid synthesis found in free living Gram-negative bacteria. Bacterially derived phospholipids significantly increased in infected HeLa cell cultures. These new phospholipids had a distinct molecular species composition consisting of saturated and branched-chain fatty acids. Biochemical analysis established the role of C. trachomatis-encoded acyltransferases in producing the new disaturated molecular species. There was no evidence for the remodeling of host phospholipids and no change in the size or molecular species composition of the phosphatidylcholine pool in infected HeLa cells. Host sphingomyelin was associated with C. trachomatis isolated by detergent extraction, but it may represent contamination with detergent-insoluble host lipids rather than being an integral bacterial membrane component. C. trachomatis assembles its membrane systems from the unique phospholipid molecular species produced by its own fatty acid and phospholipid biosynthetic machinery utilizing glucose, isoleucine, and serine. PMID:25995447

  12. Perceiving racism in ambiguous situations: who relies on easy-to-use information?

    PubMed

    Corning, Alexandra F; Bucchianeri, Michaela M

    2010-01-01

    In situations that are ambiguous with regard to the presence of discrimination, how do people arrive at their conclusions that discrimination has (or has not) taken place? This question was examined from a motivated social cognition perspective via the interaction of two factors: the prototype effect--the notion that ambiguously discriminatory behavior is more likely to be perceived as discriminatory when the executor is prototypical and the need for cognitive closure--the tendency to jump hastily to and seize on an answer. Results provided replicating evidence of the prototype effect among European American participants but not among African American participants. Specifically, European Americans were likely to perceive ambiguously racist behavior enacted by a prototypical executor (i.e., a White person) as more discriminatory than the same behavior exhibited by a non-prototypical executor (i.e., a Black person). African American participants, on the other hand, showed no reliance on this simple cognitive heuristic. Furthermore, results showed that European Americans with a higher need for cognitive closure were more likely to rely on the easy-to-use information offered by prototypes. These findings are discussed from a motivated social cognition perspective.

  13. Activation of G Proteins by Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors Relies on GTPase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Rob J.; Thomas, Geraint M. H.

    2016-01-01

    G proteins are an important family of signalling molecules controlled by guanine nucleotide exchange and GTPase activity in what is commonly called an ‘activation/inactivation cycle’. The molecular mechanism by which guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) catalyse the activation of monomeric G proteins is well-established, however the complete reversibility of this mechanism is often overlooked. Here, we use a theoretical approach to prove that GEFs are unable to positively control G protein systems at steady-state in the absence of GTPase activity. Instead, positive regulation of G proteins must be seen as a product of the competition between guanine nucleotide exchange and GTPase activity—emphasising a central role for GTPase activity beyond merely signal termination. We conclude that a more accurate description of the regulation of G proteins via these processes is as a ‘balance/imbalance’ mechanism. This result has implications for the understanding of intracellular signalling processes, and for experimental strategies that rely on modulating G protein systems. PMID:26986850

  14. Organogenesis relies on SoxC transcription factors for the survival of neural and mesenchymal progenitors.

    PubMed

    Bhattaram, Pallavi; Penzo-Méndez, Alfredo; Sock, Elisabeth; Colmenares, Clemencia; Kaneko, Kotaro J; Vassilev, Alex; Depamphilis, Melvin L; Wegner, Michael; Lefebvre, Véronique

    2010-04-12

    During organogenesis, neural and mesenchymal progenitor cells give rise to many cell lineages, but their molecular requirements for self-renewal and lineage decisions are incompletely understood. In this study, we show that their survival critically relies on the redundantly acting SoxC transcription factors Sox4, Sox11 and Sox12. The more SoxC alleles that are deleted in mouse embryos, the more severe and widespread organ hypoplasia is. SoxC triple-null embryos die at midgestation unturned and tiny, with normal patterning and lineage specification, but with massively dying neural and mesenchymal progenitor cells. Specific inactivation of SoxC genes in neural and mesenchymal cells leads to selective apoptosis of these cells, suggesting SoxC cell-autonomous roles. Tead2 functionally interacts with SoxC genes in embryonic development, and is a direct target of SoxC proteins. SoxC genes therefore ensure neural and mesenchymal progenitor cell survival, and function in part by activating this transcriptional mediator of the Hippo signalling pathway.

  15. Toward a Better Nutritional Aiding in Disasters: Relying on Lessons Learned during the Bam Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Nekouie Moghadam, Mahmoud; Amiresmaieli, Mohammadreza; Hassibi, Mohammad; Doostan, Farideh; Khosravi, Sajad

    2017-08-01

    Introduction Examining various problems in the aftermath of disasters is very important to the disaster victims. Managing and coordinating food supply and its distribution among the victims is one of the most important problems after an earthquake. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to recognize problems and experiences in the field of nutritional aiding during an earthquake. This qualitative study was of phenomenological type. Using the purposive sampling method, 10 people who had experienced nutritional aiding during the Bam Earthquake (Iran; 2003) were interviewed. Colaizzi's method of analysis was used to analyze interview data. The findings of this study identified four main categories and 19 sub-categories concerning challenges in the nutritional aiding during the Bam Earthquake. The main topics included managerial, aiding, infrastructural, and administrative problems. The major problems in nutritional aiding include lack of prediction and development of a specific program of suitable nutritional pattern and nutritional assessment of the victims in critical conditions. Forming specialized teams, educating team members about nutrition, and making use of experts' knowledge are the most important steps to resolve these problems in the critical conditions; these measures are the duties of the relevant authorities. Nekouie Moghadam M , Amiresmaieli M , Hassibi M , Doostan F , Khosravi S . Toward a better nutritional aiding in disasters: relying on lessons learned during the Bam Earthquake. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):382-386.

  16. Proposal for a Laue lens relying on hybrid quasi-mosaic curved crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, Valerio; Camattari, Riccardo; Guidi, Vincenzo

    2013-12-01

    A promising method of concentrating X- and soft γ-rays from celestial sources is a Laue lens. A new scheme for this lens, relying on diffraction in curved Si and Ge crystals, is introduced here. The proposed Laue lens is based on high-efficiency diffraction of curved (111) or (22overline{4}) crystalline planes, which are bent through quasi-mosaic effect. While diffraction in curved (111) quasi-mosaic crystals is well known and has recently been proposed for a Laue lens, diffraction by quasi-mosaic (22overline{4}) planes is suggested and demonstrated here through experimental work carried out at the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL, Grenoble, France) at DIGRA, a facility specifically built for characterizing instrumentation in Astrophysics. Results show that the diffraction efficiency in the (22overline{4}) quasi-mosaic sample is amplified by more than one order of magnitude with respect to an equivalent crystal without quasi-mosaic effect. The lens has been designed in such a way as to maximize and smoothen its sensitivity, thanks to a custom-made code based on a genetic algorithm.

  17. Do common ravens (Corvus corax) rely on human or conspecific gaze cues to detect hidden food?

    PubMed

    Schloegl, Christian; Kotrschal, Kurt; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2008-04-01

    The ability of non-human animals to use experimenter-given cues in object-choice tasks has recently gained interest. In such experiments, the location of hidden food is indicated by an experimenter, e.g. by gazing, pointing or touching. Whereas dogs apparently outperform all other species so far tested, apes and monkeys have problems in using such cues. Since only mammalian species have been tested, information is lacking about the evolutionary origin of these abilities. We here present the first data on object-choice tasks conducted with an avian species, the common raven. Ravens are highly competitive scavengers, possessing sophisticated cognitive skills in protecting their food caches and pilfering others' caches. We conducted three experiments, exploring (i) which kind of cues ravens use for choosing a certain object, (ii) whether ravens use humans' gaze for detecting hidden food and (iii) whether ravens would find hidden food in the presence of an informed conspecific who potentially provides gaze cues. Our results indicate that ravens reliably respond to humans' touching of an object, but they hardly use point and gaze cues for their choices. Likewise, they do not perform above chance level in the presence of an informed conspecific. These findings mirror those obtained for primates and suggest that, although ravens may be aware of the gaze direction of humans and conspecifics, they apparently do not rely on this information to detect hidden food.

  18. Keratin degradation by dermatophytes relies on cysteine dioxygenase and a sulfite efflux pump.

    PubMed

    Grumbt, Maria; Monod, Michel; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Hertweck, Christian; Kunert, Jiri; Staib, Peter

    2013-06-01

    Millions of people suffer from superficial infections caused by dermatophytes. Intriguingly, these filamentous fungi exclusively infect keratin-rich host structures such as hair, nails, and skin. Keratin is a hard, compact protein, and its utilization by dermatophytes for growth has long been discussed as a major virulence attribute. Here, we provide strong support for the hypothesis that keratin degradation is facilitated by the secretion of the reducing agent sulfite, which can cleave keratin-stabilizing cystine bonds. We discovered that sulfite is produced by dermatophytes from environmental cysteine, which at elevated concentrations is toxic for microbes and humans. We found that sulfite formation from cysteine relies on the key enzyme cysteine dioxygenase Cdo1. Sulfite secretion is supported by the sulfite efflux pump Ssu1. Targeted mutagenesis proved that dermatophyte mutants in either Cdo1 or Ssu1 were highly growth-sensitive to cysteine, and mutants in Ssu1 were specifically sensitive to sulfite. Most notably, dermatophyte mutants in Cdo1 and Ssu1 were specifically growth-defective on hair and nails. As keratin is rich in cysteine, our identified mechanism of cysteine conversion and sulfite efflux supports both cysteine and sulfite tolerance per se and progression of keratin degradation. These in vitro findings have implications for dermatophyte infection pathogenesis.

  19. Host adaptation to viruses relies on few genes with different cross-resistance properties

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Nelson E.; Faria, Vítor G.; Nolte, Viola; Schlötterer, Christian; Teixeira, Luis; Sucena, Élio; Magalhães, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Host adaptation to one parasite may affect its response to others. However, the genetics of these direct and correlated responses remains poorly studied. The overlap between these responses is instrumental for the understanding of host evolution in multiparasite environments. We determined the genetic and phenotypic changes underlying adaptation of Drosophila melanogaster to Drosophila C virus (DCV). Within 20 generations, flies selected with DCV showed increased survival after DCV infection, but also after cricket paralysis virus (CrPV) and flock house virus (FHV) infection. Whole-genome sequencing identified two regions of significant differentiation among treatments, from which candidate genes were functionally tested with RNAi. Three genes were validated—pastrel, a known DCV-response gene, and two other loci, Ubc-E2H and CG8492. Knockdown of Ubc-E2H and pastrel also led to increased sensitivity to CrPV, whereas knockdown of CG8492 increased susceptibility to FHV infection. Therefore, Drosophila adaptation to DCV relies on few major genes, each with different cross-resistance properties, conferring host resistance to several parasites. PMID:24711428

  20. Learning Similar Actions by Reinforcement or Sensory-Prediction Errors Rely on Distinct Physiological Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shintaro; Mawase, Firas; Celnik, Pablo

    2017-09-14

    Humans can acquire knowledge of new motor behavior via different forms of learning. The two forms most commonly studied have been the development of internal models based on sensory-prediction errors (error-based learning) and success-based feedback (reinforcement learning). Human behavioral studies suggest these are distinct learning processes, though the neurophysiological mechanisms that are involved have not been characterized. Here, we evaluated physiological markers from the cerebellum and the primary motor cortex (M1) using noninvasive brain stimulations while healthy participants trained finger-reaching tasks. We manipulated the extent to which subjects rely on error-based or reinforcement by providing either vector or binary feedback about task performance. Our results demonstrated a double dissociation where learning the task mainly via error-based mechanisms leads to cerebellar plasticity modifications but not long-term potentiation (LTP)-like plasticity changes in M1; while learning a similar action via reinforcement mechanisms elicited M1 LTP-like plasticity but not cerebellar plasticity changes. Our findings indicate that learning complex motor behavior is mediated by the interplay of different forms of learning, weighing distinct neural mechanisms in M1 and the cerebellum. Our study provides insights for designing effective interventions to enhance human motor learning. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Frugivorous Bats Maintain Functional Habitat Connectivity in Agricultural Landscapes but Rely Strongly on Natural Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Ripperger, Simon P.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Mayer, Frieder; Tschapka, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in land use threaten biodiversity and ecosystem functioning by the conversion of natural habitat into agricultural mosaic landscapes, often with drastic consequences for the associated fauna. The first step in the development of efficient conservation plans is to understand movement of animals through complex habitat mosaics. Therefore, we studied ranging behavior and habitat use in Dermanura watsoni (Phyllostomidae), a frugivorous bat species that is a valuable seed disperser in degraded ecosystems. Radio-tracking of sixteen bats showed that the animals strongly rely on natural forest. Day roosts were exclusively located within mature forest fragments. Selection ratios showed that the bats foraged selectively within the available habitat and positively selected natural forest. However, larger daily ranges were associated with higher use of degraded habitats. Home range geometry and composition of focal foraging areas indicated that wider ranging bats performed directional foraging bouts from natural to degraded forest sites traversing the matrix over distances of up to three hundred meters. This behavior demonstrates the potential of frugivorous bats to functionally connect fragmented areas by providing ecosystem services between natural and degraded sites, and highlights the need for conservation of natural habitat patches within agricultural landscapes that meet the roosting requirements of bats. PMID:25830222

  2. Regulatory theory: commercially sustainable markets rely upon satisfying the public interest in obtaining credible goods.

    PubMed

    Warren-Jones, Amanda

    2017-10-01

    Regulatory theory is premised on the failure of markets, prompting a focus on regulators and industry from economic perspectives. This article argues that overlooking the public interest in the sustainability of commercial markets risks markets failing completely. This point is exemplified through health care markets - meeting an essential need - and focuses upon innovative medicines as the most desired products in that market. If this seemingly invulnerable market risks failure, there is a pressing need to consider the public interest in sustainable markets within regulatory literature and practice. Innovative medicines are credence goods, meaning that the sustainability of the market fundamentally relies upon the public trusting regulators to vouch for product quality. Yet, quality is being eroded by patent bodies focused on economic benefits from market growth, rather than ensuring innovatory value. Remunerative bodies are not funding medicines relative to market value, and market authorisation bodies are not vouching for robust safety standards or confining market entry to products for 'unmet medical need'. Arguably, this failure to assure quality heightens the risk of the market failing where it cannot be substituted by the reputation or credibility of providers of goods and/or information such as health care professionals/institutions, patient groups or industry.

  3. Pneumococcal Competence Coordination Relies on a Cell-Contact Sensing Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Prudhomme, Marc; Berge, Mathieu; Martin, Bernard; Polard, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria have evolved various inducible genetic programs to face many types of stress that challenge their growth and survival. Competence is one such program. It enables genetic transformation, a major horizontal gene transfer process. Competence development in liquid cultures of Streptococcus pneumoniae is synchronized within the whole cell population. This collective behavior is known to depend on an exported signaling Competence Stimulating Peptide (CSP), whose action generates a positive feedback loop. However, it is unclear how this CSP-dependent population switch is coordinated. By monitoring spontaneous competence development in real time during growth of four distinct pneumococcal lineages, we have found that competence shift in the population relies on a self-activated cell fraction that arises via a growth time-dependent mechanism. We demonstrate that CSP remains bound to cells during this event, and conclude that the rate of competence development corresponds to the propagation of competence by contact between activated and quiescent cells. We validated this two-step cell-contact sensing mechanism by measuring competence development during co-cultivation of strains with altered capacity to produce or respond to CSP. Finally, we found that the membrane protein ComD retains the CSP, limiting its free diffusion in the medium. We propose that competence initiator cells originate stochastically in response to stress, to form a distinct subpopulation that then transmits the CSP by cell-cell contact. PMID:27355362

  4. Hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale Relies on a Different Metal Storage Mechanism for Cobalt than for Nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Tappero, R.; Peltier, E; Grafe, M; Heidel, K; Ginder-Vogel, M; Livi, K; Rivers, M; Marcus, M; Chaney, R; Sparks, D

    2007-01-01

    The nickel (Ni) hyperaccumulator Alyssum murale has been developed as a commercial crop for phytoremediation/phytomining Ni from metal-enriched soils. Here, metal co-tolerance, accumulation and localization were investigated for A. murale exposed to metal co-contaminants. A. murale was irrigated with Ni-enriched nutrient solutions containing basal or elevated concentrations of cobalt (Co) or zinc (Zn). Metal localization and elemental associations were investigated in situ with synchrotron X-ray microfluorescence (SXRF) and computed-microtomography (CMT). A. murale hyperaccumulated Ni and Co (> 1000 {micro}g g{sup -1} dry weight) from mixed-metal systems. Zinc was not hyperaccumulated. Elevated Co or Zn concentrations did not alter Ni accumulation or localization. SXRF images showed uniform Ni distribution in leaves and preferential localization of Co near leaf tips/margins. CMT images revealed that leaf epidermal tissue was enriched with Ni but devoid of Co, that Co was localized in the apoplasm of leaf ground tissue and that Co was sequestered on leaf surfaces near the tips/margins. Cobalt-rich mineral precipitate(s) form on leaves of Co-treated A. murale. Specialized biochemical processes linked with Ni (hyper)tolerance in A. murale do not confer (hyper)tolerance to Co. A. murale relies on a different metal storage mechanism for Co (exocellular sequestration) than for Ni (vacuolar sequestration).

  5. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and chemometrics for classification of toys relying on toxic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoi, Quienly; Leme, Flavio O.; Trevizan, Lilian C.; Pereira Filho, Edenir R.; Rufini, Iolanda A.; Santos, Dario, Jr.; Krug, Francisco J.

    2011-02-01

    Quality control of toys for avoiding children exposure to potentially toxic elements is of utmost relevance and it is a common requirement in national and/or international norms for health and safety reasons. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was recently evaluated at authors' laboratory for direct analysis of plastic toys and one of the main difficulties for the determination of Cd, Cr and Pb was the variety of mixtures and types of polymers. As most norms rely on migration (lixiviation) protocols, chemometric classification models from LIBS spectra were tested for sampling toys that present potential risk of Cd, Cr and Pb contamination. The classification models were generated from the emission spectra of 51 polymeric toys and by using Partial Least Squares - Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN). The classification models and validations were carried out with 40 and 11 test samples, respectively. Best results were obtained when KNN was used, with corrected predictions varying from 95% for Cd to 100% for Cr and Pb.

  6. Skilled reaching relies on a V2a propriospinal internal copy circuit

    PubMed Central

    Azim, Eiman; Jiang, Juan; Alstermark, Bror; Jessell, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    The precision of skilled forelimb movement has long been presumed to rely on rapid feedback corrections triggered by internally-directed copies of outgoing motor commands – but the functional relevance of inferred internal copy circuits has remained unclear. One class of spinal interneurons implicated in the control of mammalian forelimb movement, cervical propriospinal neurons (PNs), has the potential to convey an internal copy of pre-motor signals through dual innervation of forelimb-innervating motor neurons and pre-cerebellar neurons of the lateral reticular nucleus. We have examined whether the PN internal copy pathway functions in the control of goal-directed reaching. In mice, PNs include a genetically-accessible subpopulation of cervical V2a interneurons, and their targeted ablation perturbs reaching while leaving intact other elements of forelimb movement. Moreover, optogenetic activation of the PN internal copy branch recruits a rapid cerebellar feedback loop that modulates forelimb motor neuron activity and severely disrupts reaching kinematics. Our findings implicate V2a PNs as the focus of an internal copy pathway assigned to the rapid updating of motor output during reaching behavior. PMID:24487617

  7. Guanylate cyclase 1 relies on rhodopsin for intracellular stability and ciliary trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Pearring, Jillian N; Spencer, William J; Lieu, Eric C; Arshavsky, Vadim Y

    2015-01-01

    Sensory cilia are populated by a select group of signaling proteins that detect environmental stimuli. How these molecules are delivered to the sensory cilium and whether they rely on one another for specific transport remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether the visual pigment, rhodopsin, is critical for delivering other signaling proteins to the sensory cilium of photoreceptor cells, the outer segment. Rhodopsin is the most abundant outer segment protein and its proper transport is essential for formation of this organelle, suggesting that such a dependency might exist. Indeed, we demonstrated that guanylate cyclase-1, producing the cGMP second messenger in photoreceptors, requires rhodopsin for intracellular stability and outer segment delivery. We elucidated this dependency by showing that guanylate cyclase-1 is a novel rhodopsin-binding protein. These findings expand rhodopsin’s role in vision from being a visual pigment and major outer segment building block to directing trafficking of another key signaling protein. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12058.001 PMID:26590321

  8. Mouse V1 population correlates of visual detection rely on heterogeneity within neuronal response patterns

    PubMed Central

    Montijn, Jorrit S; Goltstein, Pieter M; Pennartz, Cyriel MA

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of the primary sensory cortex for the detection, discrimination, and awareness of visual stimuli, but it is unknown how neuronal populations in this area process detected and undetected stimuli differently. Critical differences may reside in the mean strength of responses to visual stimuli, as reflected in bulk signals detectable in functional magnetic resonance imaging, electro-encephalogram, or magnetoencephalography studies, or may be more subtly composed of differentiated activity of individual sensory neurons. Quantifying single-cell Ca2+ responses to visual stimuli recorded with in vivo two-photon imaging, we found that visual detection correlates more strongly with population response heterogeneity rather than overall response strength. Moreover, neuronal populations showed consistencies in activation patterns across temporally spaced trials in association with hit responses, but not during nondetections. Contrary to models relying on temporally stable networks or bulk signaling, these results suggest that detection depends on transient differentiation in neuronal activity within cortical populations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10163.001 PMID:26646184

  9. Listerin-dependent nascent protein ubiquitination relies on ribosome subunit dissociation.

    PubMed

    Shao, Sichen; von der Malsburg, Karina; Hegde, Ramanujan S

    2013-06-06

    Quality control of defective mRNAs relies on their translation to detect the lesion. Aberrant proteins are therefore an obligate byproduct of mRNA surveillance and must be degraded to avoid disrupting protein homeostasis. These defective translation products are thought to be ubiquitinated at the ribosome, but the mechanism of ubiquitin ligase selectivity for these ribosomes is not clear. Here, we in vitro reconstitute ubiquitination of nascent proteins produced from aberrant mRNAs. Stalled 80S ribosome-nascent chain complexes are dissociated by the ribosome recycling factors Hbs1/Pelota/ABCE1 to a unique 60S-nascent chain-tRNA complex. The ubiquitin ligase Listerin preferentially recognizes 60S-nascent chains and triggers efficient nascent chain ubiquitination. Interfering with Hbs1 function stabilizes 80S complexes, precludes efficient Listerin recruitment, and reduces nascent chain ubiquitination. Thus, ribosome recycling factors control Listerin localization, explaining how translation products of mRNA surveillance are efficiently ubiquitinated while sparing translating ribosomes.

  10. Frugivorous bats maintain functional habitat connectivity in agricultural landscapes but rely strongly on natural forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Ripperger, Simon P; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Mayer, Frieder; Tschapka, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in land use threaten biodiversity and ecosystem functioning by the conversion of natural habitat into agricultural mosaic landscapes, often with drastic consequences for the associated fauna. The first step in the development of efficient conservation plans is to understand movement of animals through complex habitat mosaics. Therefore, we studied ranging behavior and habitat use in Dermanura watsoni (Phyllostomidae), a frugivorous bat species that is a valuable seed disperser in degraded ecosystems. Radio-tracking of sixteen bats showed that the animals strongly rely on natural forest. Day roosts were exclusively located within mature forest fragments. Selection ratios showed that the bats foraged selectively within the available habitat and positively selected natural forest. However, larger daily ranges were associated with higher use of degraded habitats. Home range geometry and composition of focal foraging areas indicated that wider ranging bats performed directional foraging bouts from natural to degraded forest sites traversing the matrix over distances of up to three hundred meters. This behavior demonstrates the potential of frugivorous bats to functionally connect fragmented areas by providing ecosystem services between natural and degraded sites, and highlights the need for conservation of natural habitat patches within agricultural landscapes that meet the roosting requirements of bats.

  11. Does the rejection of wrongful life claims rely on a conceptual error?

    PubMed

    Muriithi, Paul Mutuanyingi

    2011-07-01

    There are four major arguments raised against wrongful life claims: first, that it is impossible to establish harm in wrongful life claims; second, that wrongful life claims are illogical or incoherent; third, that life is inviolable and sacred no matter the quality; and fourth, that there are no rights and duties towards non-existent persons. In this paper, I will examine and evaluate critically the first two arguments. I will reject these objections against wrongful life claims and demonstrate that they rely on a conceptual error/mistake. In doing so, I will reject the logic of comparing existence with non-existence in wrongful life claims. Instead, I will maintain that recognition of the infant's cause of action and recognition of the infant's harmed condition need not imply any preference for non-existence over existence, and it need not to be so severe as to make life not worth living. I will conclude by briefly giving an account of what seems to me to be the right conception of what it is to be harmed.

  12. Preschoolers' brains rely on semantic cues prior to the mastery of syntax during sentence comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chiao-Yi; Vissiennon, Kodjo; Friederici, Angela D.; Brauer, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Sentence comprehension requires the integration of both syntactic and semantic information, the acquisition of which seems to have different trajectories in the developing brain. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined the neural correlates underlying syntactic and semantic processing during auditory sentence comprehension as well as its development in preschool children by manipulating case marking and animacy hierarchy cues, respectively. A functional segregation was observed within Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus for adults, where the pars opercularis was involved in syntactic processing and the pars triangularis in semantic processing. By contrast, five-year-old children sensitive to animacy hierarchy cues showed diffuse activation for semantic processing in the left inferior frontal and posterior temporal cortices. While no main effect of case marking was found in the left fronto-temporal language network, children with better syntactic skills showed greater neural responses for syntactically complex sentences, most prominently in the posterior superior temporal cortex. The current study provides both behavioral and neural evidence that five-year-old children compared to adults rely more on semantic information than on syntactic cues during sentence comprehension, but with the development of syntactic abilities, their brain activation in the left fronto-temporal network increases for syntactic processing. PMID:26497266

  13. Echolocating bats rely on audiovocal feedback to adapt sonar signal design.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jinhong; Moss, Cynthia F

    2017-09-25

    Many species of bat emit acoustic signals and use information carried by echoes reflecting from nearby objects to navigate and forage. It is widely documented that echolocating bats adjust the features of sonar calls in response to echo feedback; however, it remains unknown whether audiovocal feedback contributes to sonar call design. Audiovocal feedback refers to the monitoring of one's own vocalizations during call production and has been intensively studied in nonecholocating animals. Audiovocal feedback not only is a necessary component of vocal learning but also guides the control of the spectro-temporal structure of vocalizations. Here, we show that audiovocal feedback is directly involved in the echolocating bat's control of sonar call features. As big brown bats tracked targets from a stationary position, we played acoustic jamming signals, simulating calls of another bat, timed to selectively perturb audiovocal feedback or echo feedback. We found that the bats exhibited the largest call-frequency adjustments when the jamming signals occurred during vocal production. By contrast, bats did not show sonar call-frequency adjustments when the jamming signals coincided with the arrival of target echoes. Furthermore, bats rapidly adapted sonar call design in the first vocalization following the jamming signal, revealing a response latency in the range of 66 to 94 ms. Thus, bats, like songbirds and humans, rely on audiovocal feedback to structure sonar signal design.

  14. Regulation of Carotenoid Biosynthesis by Shade Relies on Specific Subsets of Antagonistic Transcription Factors and Cofactors.

    PubMed

    Bou-Torrent, Jordi; Toledo-Ortiz, Gabriela; Ortiz-Alcaide, Miriam; Cifuentes-Esquivel, Nicolas; Halliday, Karen J; Martinez-García, Jaime F; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel

    2015-11-01

    Carotenoids are photosynthetic pigments essential for the protection against excess light. During deetiolation, their production is regulated by a dynamic repression-activation module formed by PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR1 (PIF1) and LONG HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5). These transcription factors directly and oppositely control the expression of the gene encoding PHYTOENE SYNTHASE (PSY), the first and main rate-determining enzyme of the carotenoid pathway. Antagonistic modules also regulate the responses of deetiolated plants to vegetation proximity and shade (i.e. to the perception of far-red light-enriched light filtered through or reflected from neighboring plants). These responses, aimed to adapt to eventual shading from plant competitors, include a reduced accumulation of carotenoids. Here, we show that PIF1 and related photolabile PIFs (but not photostable PIF7) promote the shade-triggered decrease in carotenoid accumulation. While HY5 does not appear to be required for this process, other known PIF antagonists were found to modulate the expression of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PSY gene and the biosynthesis of carotenoids early after exposure to shade. In particular, PHYTOCHROME-RAPIDLY REGULATED1, a transcriptional cofactor that prevents the binding of true transcription factors to their target promoters, was found to interact with PIF1 and hence directly induce PSY expression. By contrast, a change in the levels of the transcriptional cofactor LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR RED1, which also binds to PIF1 and other PIFs to regulate shade-related elongation responses, did not impact PSY expression or carotenoid accumulation. Our data suggest that the fine-regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in response to shade relies on specific modules of antagonistic transcriptional factors and cofactors.

  15. NEPHTIS: Core depletion validation relying on 2D transport core calculations with the APOLLO2 code

    SciTech Connect

    Damian, F.; Raepsaet, X.; Groizard, M.; Poinot, C.

    2006-07-01

    The CEA, in collaboration with EDF and AREVA-NP, is developing a core modelling tool called NEPHTIS, for Neutronic Process for HTGR Innovating Systems and dedicated at present day to the prismatic block-type HTGR (High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors). Due to the lack of usable HTGR experimental results, the confidence in this neutronic computational tool relies essentially on comparisons to reference or best-estimate calculations. In the present analysis, the Aleppo deterministic transport code has been selected as reference for validating core depletion simulations carried out within NEPHTIS. These reference calculations were performed on fully detailed 2D core configurations using the Method of Characteristics. The latter has been validated versus Monte Carlo method for different static core configurations [1], [2] and [3]. All the presented results come from an annular HTGR core loaded with uranium-based fuel (15% enrichment). During the core depletion validation, reactivity, reaction rates distributions and nuclei concentrations have been compared. In addition, the impact of various physical and geometrical parameters such as the core loading (one-through or batch-wise reloading) and the amount of burnable poison has been investigated during the validation phases. The results confirm that NEPHTIS is able to predict the core reactivity with uncertainties of {+-}350 pcm. At the end of the core irradiation, the U-235 consumption is calculated within {+-} 0, 7 % while the plutonium mass discharged from the core is calculated within {+-}1 %. As far as the core power distributions are concerned, small discrepancies ( and < 2.3 %) can be observed on the fuel block-averaged power distribution in the core. (authors)

  16. Traceable quantum sensing and metrology relied up a quantum electrical triangle principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yan; Wang, Hengliang; Yang, Xinju; Wei, Jingsong

    2016-11-01

    Hybrid quantum state engineering in quantum communication and imaging1-2 needs traceable quantum sensing and metrology, which are especially critical to quantum internet3 and precision measurements4 that are important across all fields of science and technology-. We aim to set up a mode of traceable quantum sensing and metrology. We developed a method by specially transforming an atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) into a conducting atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) with a feedback control loop, wherein quantum entanglement enabling higher precision was relied upon a set-point, a visible light laser beam-controlled an interferometer with a surface standard at z axis, diffractometers with lateral standards at x-y axes, four-quadrant photodiode detectors, a scanner and its image software, a phase-locked pre-amplifier, a cantilever with a kHz Pt/Au conducting tip, a double barrier tunneling junction model, a STM circuit by frequency modulation and a quantum electrical triangle principle involving single electron tunneling effect, quantum Hall effect and Josephson effect5. The average and standard deviation result of repeated measurements on a 1 nm height local micro-region of nanomedicine crystal hybrid quantum state engineering surface and its differential pA level current and voltage (dI/dV) in time domains by using C-AFM was converted into an international system of units: Siemens (S), an indicated value 0.86×10-12 S (n=6) of a relative standard uncertainty was superior over a relative standard uncertainty reference value 2.3×10-10 S of 2012 CODADA quantized conductance6. It is concluded that traceable quantum sensing and metrology is emerging.

  17. Fruit production in three masting tree species does not rely on stored carbon reserves.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Günter; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Keel, Sonja G; Körner, Christian; Han, Qingmin

    2013-03-01

    Fruiting is typically considered to massively burden the seasonal carbon budget of trees. The cost of reproduction has therefore been suggested as a proximate factor explaining observed mast-fruiting patterns. Here, we used a large-scale, continuous (13)C labeling of mature, deciduous trees in a temperate Swiss forest to investigate to what extent fruit formation in three species with masting reproduction behavior (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea) relies on the import of stored carbon reserves. Using a free-air CO2 enrichment system, we exposed trees to (13)C-depleted CO2 during 8 consecutive years. By the end of this experiment, carbon reserve pools had significantly lower δ(13)C values compared to control trees. δ(13)C analysis of new biomass during the first season after termination of the CO2 enrichment allowed us to distinguish the sources of built-in carbon (old carbon reserves vs. current assimilates). Flowers and expanding leaves carried a significant (13)C label from old carbon stores. In contrast, fruits and vegetative infructescence tissues were exclusively produced from current, unlabeled photoassimilates in all three species, including F. sylvatica, which had a strong masting season. Analyses of δ(13)C in purified starch from xylem of fruit-bearing shoots revealed a complete turn-over of starch during the season, likely due to its usage for bud break. This study is the first to directly demonstrate that fruiting is independent from old carbon reserves in masting trees, with significant implications for mechanistic models that explain mast seeding.

  18. Motor imagery modulation of body sway is task-dependent and relies on imagery ability

    PubMed Central

    Lemos, Thiago; Souza, Nélio S.; Horsczaruk, Carlos H. R.; Nogueira-Campos, Anaelli A.; de Oliveira, Laura A. S.; Vargas, Claudia D.; Rodrigues, Erika C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigate to what extent the effects of motor imagery on postural sway are constrained by movement features and the subject's imagery ability. Twenty-three subjects were asked to imagine three movements using the kinesthetic modality: rising on tiptoes, whole-body forward reaching, and whole-body lateral reaching. After each task, subjects reported the level of imagery vividness and were subsequently grouped into a HIGH group (scores ≥3, “moderately intense” imagery) or a LOW group (scores ≤2, “mildly intense” imagery). An eyes closed trial was used as a control task. Center of gravity (COG) coordinates were collected, along with surface EMG of the deltoid (medial and anterior portion) and lateral gastrocnemius muscles. COG variability was quantified as the amount of fluctuations in position and velocity in the forward-backward and lateral directions. Changes in COG variability during motor imagery were observed only for the HIGH group. COG variability in the forward-backward direction was increased during the rising on tiptoes imagery, compared with the control task (p = 0.01) and the lateral reaching imagery (p = 0.02). Conversely, COG variability in the lateral direction was higher in rising on tiptoes and lateral reaching imagery than during the control task (p < 0.01); in addition, COG variability was higher during the lateral reaching imagery than in the forward reaching imagery (p = 0.02). EMG analysis revealed no effects of group (p > 0.08) or task (p > 0.46) for any of the tested muscles. In summary, motor imagery influences body sway dynamics in a task-dependent manner, and relies on the subject' imagery ability. PMID:24847241

  19. Motor imagery modulation of body sway is task-dependent and relies on imagery ability.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Thiago; Souza, Nélio S; Horsczaruk, Carlos H R; Nogueira-Campos, Anaelli A; de Oliveira, Laura A S; Vargas, Claudia D; Rodrigues, Erika C

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigate to what extent the effects of motor imagery on postural sway are constrained by movement features and the subject's imagery ability. Twenty-three subjects were asked to imagine three movements using the kinesthetic modality: rising on tiptoes, whole-body forward reaching, and whole-body lateral reaching. After each task, subjects reported the level of imagery vividness and were subsequently grouped into a HIGH group (scores ≥3, "moderately intense" imagery) or a LOW group (scores ≤2, "mildly intense" imagery). An eyes closed trial was used as a control task. Center of gravity (COG) coordinates were collected, along with surface EMG of the deltoid (medial and anterior portion) and lateral gastrocnemius muscles. COG variability was quantified as the amount of fluctuations in position and velocity in the forward-backward and lateral directions. Changes in COG variability during motor imagery were observed only for the HIGH group. COG variability in the forward-backward direction was increased during the rising on tiptoes imagery, compared with the control task (p = 0.01) and the lateral reaching imagery (p = 0.02). Conversely, COG variability in the lateral direction was higher in rising on tiptoes and lateral reaching imagery than during the control task (p < 0.01); in addition, COG variability was higher during the lateral reaching imagery than in the forward reaching imagery (p = 0.02). EMG analysis revealed no effects of group (p > 0.08) or task (p > 0.46) for any of the tested muscles. In summary, motor imagery influences body sway dynamics in a task-dependent manner, and relies on the subject' imagery ability.

  20. Secreted autotransporter toxin (Sat) triggers autophagy in epithelial cells that relies on cell detachment.

    PubMed

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Comenge, Yannick; Ruby, Vincent; Amsellem, Raymonde; Nicolas, Valérie; Servin, Alain L

    2011-07-01

    The secreted autotransporter toxin, Sat, which belongs to the subfamily of serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae, acts as a virulence factor in extraintestinal and intestinal pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli. We observed that HeLa cells exposed to the cell-free culture supernatant of recombinant strain AAEC185p(Sat-IH11128) producing the Sat toxin (CFCS(Sat) ), displayed dramatic disorganization of the F-actin cytoskeleton before loosening cell-to-cell junctions and detachment. Examination of the effect of Sat on GFP-microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) HeLa cells revealed that CFCS(Sat) -induced autophagy follows CFCS(Sat) -induced F-actin cytoskeleton rearrangement. The induced autophagy shows an acceleration of the autophagy flux soon after Sat treatment, followed later by a blockade of the flux leading to the accumulation of large GFP-LC3-positive vacuoles in the cell cytoplasm. CFCS(Sat) did not induce cell detachment in autophagy-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts in contrast with wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The CFCS(Sat) -induced large GFP-LC3 dots do not display the characteristics of autophagolysosomes including expression of cathepsin D and Lamp-1 and 2 proteins, and Lysotracker Red- and DQ-BSA-positive labelling. We provide evidences that CFCS(Sat) -induced autophagy is not a cell response intended to get rid of the intracellular toxin. By a pharmacological blockers approach, we found that the blockade of Erk1/2 and p38 MAPKs, but not JNK, inhibited the CFCS(Sat) -induced autophagy and cell detachment whereas phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase blockers inhibiting canonical autophagy were inactive. When attached CFCS(Sat) -treated cells start to detach they showed caspase-independent cell death and rearrangements of the focal adhesion-associated vinculin and paxillin. Collectively, our results support that Sat triggers autophagy in epithelial cells that relies on its cell-detachment effect. © 2011 Blackwell

  1. A zinc(II) quinolinone complex (Et3NH)[Zn(qui)Cl2]: Synthesis, X-ray structure, spectral properties and in vitro cytotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchtík, Roman; Nemec, Ivan; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2014-02-01

    A new zinc(II) complex with 2-phenyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolinone (Hqui) of the composition (Et3NH)[Zn(qui)Cl2] was prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, FT IR, 1D and 2D NMR, and fluorescence spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and single crystal X-ray analysis. The molecular structure is composed of the triethylammonium (Et3NH+) cations and tetrahedral [ZnII(qui)Cl2]- complex anions, in which the Zn(II) atoms are bidentate coordinated by one qui ligand through keto (OK) and phenolate (OP) oxygen atoms and by two chlorido ligands, thus forming the {O2Cl2} donor set, with Zn-OK = 1.9860(14) Å, Zn-OP 1.9961(14) Å and Zn-Cl = 2.2509(6) Å and 2.2266(6) Å. The complex cations are aligned into 1D supramolecular chains through the NH⋯Cl hydrogen bonding between the amine group of the quinolinone ligand and the chlorido ligand of the adjacent complex anion. The amine group from the Et3NH+ cations provides the NH⋯OP hydrogen bond with the phenolate oxygen atoms from the complex anion. Screening of in vitro cytotoxicity of the compound was studied on human osteosarcoma (HOS) and human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) cell lines, with IC50 > 50 μM. The fluorescence study showed that the complex exhibits a relatively high integral intensity (29%) as compared to the standard quinine sulfate, and 1.6-fold enhancement of emission with respect to free Hqui.

  2. Report: EPA Relying on Existing Clean Air Act Regulations to Reduce Atmospheric Deposition to the Chesapeake Bay and its Watershed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2007-P-00009, February 28, 2007. EPA’s Chesapeake Bay Program Office is relying on anticipated nitrogen deposition reductions from Clean Air Act (CAA) regulations already issued by EPA, combined with other non-air sources' anticipated reductions.

  3. You can't rely on color, yet we all do 2.0 (Manuscript Only)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Nes, Floris L.

    2014-01-01

    Everybody views and uses color from early childhood onwards. But this magnificent property of all objects around us turns out to be elusive if you try to specify it and communicate it to another person. Also, people often don't know what effects color may have under different conditions. However, color is so important and omnipresent, that people can hardly avoid to 'rely on it' - so they do, in particular on its predictability. Thus, there is a discrepancy between the seeming self-evidence of color and the difficulty in specifying it accurately, for the prevailing circumstances. In order to analyze this situation, and possibly remedy it, a short historic perspective of the utilization and specification of color is given. The 'utilization' includes the emotional effects of color, which are important in, for instance, interior decorating but also play a role in literature and religion. 'Specification' begins with the early efforts by scientists, philosophers and artists to bring some order and understanding in what was observed with and while using color. Color has a number of basic functions: embellishment; attracting attention; coding; and bringing order in text by causing text parts presented in the same color to be judged as belonging together. People with a profession that involves color choices for many others, such as designers and manufacturers of products, including electronic visual displays, should have a fairly thorough knowledge of colorimetry and color perception. Unfortunately, they often don't, simply because for 'practitioners' whose work involves different aspects, applying color being only one of those, the available tools for specifying and applying color turn out to be too difficult to use. Two consequences of an insufficient knowledge of the effects color may have are given here. The first of these consequences, on color blindness, relates to 8% of the population, but the second one, on reading colored text, bears on everyone. Practical

  4. Importance of persistent elevation of cardiac biomarkers in atrial fibrillation: a RE-LY substudy.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Ziad; Oldgren, Jonas; Andersson, Ulrika; Connolly, Stuart J; Ezekowitz, Michael D; Hohnloser, Stefan H; Reilly, Paul A; Siegbahn, Agneta; Yusuf, Salim; Wallentin, Lars

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the prognostic importance of transient or persistent elevations of cardiac troponin-I (cTnI) and N-terminal-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in atrial fibrillation (AF). Plasma samples were obtained at randomisation and after 3 months in 2514 patients with AF in the RE-LY trial; median follow-up was 2.0 years. Patients were grouped based on levels at the two time points according to detectable cTnI levels (≥0.01 µg/L) or NT-proBNP levels above median (≥778 ng/L). These groups were related to occurrence of stroke or cardiovascular events evaluated with Cox models adjusting for established risk factors. The proportion of patients with detectable cTnI levels at both time points was 48.5%, at one time point 28.5% and at neither time point 21.0%. Patients with detectable cTnI at both time points had substantially higher rates of stroke compared with those with transient elevations and those with no elevation at either time point (p<0.005, effect of cTnI). Persistent elevation of either or both cardiac biomarkers at baseline and 3 months was associated with a higher risk for cardiovascular events and mortality (p<0.0001). Prognostic prediction improved most with the use of repeated measurements of both cardiac biomarkers simultaneously (p<0.05) and achieved C-statistic 0.644 for stroke compared with 0.611 for CHADS2-score. Persistent elevation of troponin and NT-proBNP indicates a worse prognosis than transient elevations or no elevations of either marker. Prognostication of stroke, death and thromboembolic events is improved by the use of repeated determinations of cardiac biomarkers. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00262600. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Structure and properties of RELiGe2 (RE = La-Nd, Sm-Gd, Yb) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Abishek K.; Subbarao, Udumula; Peter, Sebastian C.

    2013-02-01

    Single phase samples of RELiGe2 (RE = La-Nd, Sm-Gd, Yb) were synthesized in niobium tubes by high-frequency (HF) heating method. RELiGe2 compounds crystallize in the CaLiSi2 type structure, space group Pnma. LaLiGe2 is diamagnetic, while PrLiGe2, NdLiGe2, EuLiGe2, GdLiGe2 and YbLiGe2 follow Curie-Weiss behavior above 50 K. All compounds are metallic conductors with a specific resistivity at room temperature within the range of 250-900 μωcm.

  6. 78 FR 29392 - Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems Important to Safety, and Items Relied...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... COMMISSION Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems Important to Safety, and Items Relied... Regulatory Issue Summary (RIS) 2013-XX, ``Embedded Digital Devices in Safety-Related Systems, Systems... basic components with embedded digital devices. DATES: Submit comments by July 19, 2013....

  7. 25 CFR 584.7 - When will I receive a copy of the record on which the Chair relied?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Chair relied? 584.7 Section 584.7 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR..., PROPOSED CIVIL FINE ASSESSMENTS, ORDERS OF TEMPORARY CLOSURE, THE CHAIR'S DECISIONS TO VOID OR MODIFY... LATE FEES AND LATE FEE ASSESSMENTS § 584.7 When will I receive a copy of the record on which the Chair...

  8. 25 CFR 585.6 - When will I receive a copy of the record on which the Chair relied?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Chair relied? 585.6 Section 585.6 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATION, PROPOSED CIVIL FINE ASSESSMENTS, ORDERS OF TEMPORARY CLOSURE, THE CHAIR'S DECISIONS TO VOID OR... CHAIR'S DECISIONS TO APPROVE OR OBJECT TO THE ADOPTION OF ALTERNATE STANDARDS FROM THOSE REQUIRED BY THE...

  9. 25 CFR 584.7 - When will I receive a copy of the record on which the Chair relied?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Chair relied? 584.7 Section 584.7 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR..., PROPOSED CIVIL FINE ASSESSMENTS, ORDERS OF TEMPORARY CLOSURE, THE CHAIR'S DECISIONS TO VOID OR MODIFY MANAGEMENT CONTRACTS, THE COMMISSION'S PROPOSALS TO REMOVE A CERTIFICATE OF SELF-REGULATION, THE CHAIR'S...

  10. L’expérience d’une patiente qui reçoit des soins pour la démence

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Christopher; Forbes, Rev Faye

    2017-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Permettre aux médecins de famille de comprendre « l’expérience vécue » de la démence de la bouche d’une personne atteinte de démence—Faye Forbes, ministre anglicane de 64 ans atteinte de la maladie d’Alzheimer, qui donne son point de vue sur comment vivre avec la démence—et utiliser cette information pour améliorer les soins et les résultats. Sources d’information Une recherche a été effectuée dans MEDLINE sur Ovid entre janvier 2005 et février 2015, à l’aide des mots-clés anglais suivants : dementia, caregiver, perspectives et quality of health care. Les articles qui s’adressaient aux médecins de famille ont été sélectionnés. Des revues pertinentes et des articles de recherche originaux ont été utilisés, le cas échéant, s’ils s’appliquaient aux personnes atteintes de démence et à leurs soignants. Message principal Plusieurs cadres de référence organisent les principales expériences décrites par les patients et leurs soignants. Nous avons utilisé une revue de la littérature qualitative pour fournir un cadre de référence résumant l’expérience de Faye, en fonction des thèmes suivants : tenter d’obtenir un diagnostic, accéder au soutien et aux services, besoins en matière d’information, prise en charge de la maladie, et communication et attitudes. Conclusion Les médecins doivent tenir compte de ces thèmes lorsqu’ils planifient la prise en charge des personnes atteintes de démence. Il importe de tenter de comprendre l’expérience et le point de vue des personnes atteintes de démence et de leurs soignants afin de pouvoir dispenser des soins optimaux. PMID:28115451

  11. Characterization of the dTDP-Fuc3N and dTDP-Qui3N biosynthetic pathways in Campylobacter jejuni 81116†.

    PubMed

    Li, Zack Z; Riegert, Alexander S; Goneau, Marie-France; Cunningham, Anna M; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Li, Jianjun; Schoenhofen, Ian C; Thoden, James B; Holden, Hazel M; Gilbert, Michel

    2017-01-16

    The Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter jejuni 81116 (Penner serotype HS:6) has a class E lipooligosaccharide (LOS) biosynthesis locus containing 19 genes, which encode for 11 putative glycosyltransferases, 1 lipid A acyltransferase and 7 enzymes thought to be involved in the biosynthesis of dideoxyhexosamine (ddHexN) moieties. Although the LOS outer core structure of C. jejuni 81116 is still unknown, recent mass spectrometry analyses suggest that it contains acetylated forms of two ddHexN residues. For this investigation, five of the genes encoding enzymes reportedly involved in the biosyntheses of these sugar residues were examined, rmlA, rmlB, wlaRA, wlaRB and wlaRG Specifically, these genes were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the corresponding enzymes were purified and tested for biochemical activity. Here we present data demonstrating that RmlA functions as a glucose-1-phosphate thymidylyltransferase and that RmlB is a thymidine diphosphate (dTDP)-glucose 4,6-dehydratase. We also show, through nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry analyses, that WlaRG, when utilized in coupled assays with either WlaRA or WlaRB and dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose, results in the production of either dTDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-d-galactose (dTDP-Fuc3N) or dTDP-3-amino-3,6-dideoxy-d-glucose (dTDP-Qui3N), respectively. In addition, the X-ray crystallographic structures of the 3,4-ketoisomerases, WlaRA and WlaRB, were determined to 2.14 and 2.0 Å resolutions, respectively. Taken together, the data reported herein demonstrate that C. jejuni 81116 utilizes five enzymes to synthesize dTDP-Fuc3N or dTDP-Qui3N and that WlaRG, an aminotransferase, can function on sugars with differing stereochemistry about their C-4' carbons. Importantly, the data reveal that C. jejuni 81116 has the ability to synthesize two isomeric ddHexN forms.

  12. Safety Relies on Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Patti

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important challenges of a principal's day is that of building and maintaining a school culture that promotes safety and supports learning. So it should come as no surprise to experienced educators that school safety and positive school climate directly affect academic achievement. This article discusses how principals can build an…

  13. Rely-Guarantee Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 1School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. 2Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia ...additional examples that are not in the ECOOP paper. This work was partially supported by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (Portuguese Foundation

  14. Relying on known or exploring for new? Movement patterns and reproductive resource use in a tadpole-transporting frog

    PubMed Central

    Loretto, Matthias-Claudio; Ringler, Max; Hödl, Walter; Pašukonis, Andrius

    2017-01-01

    Animals relying on uncertain, ephemeral and patchy resources have to regularly update their information about profitable sites. For many tropical amphibians, widespread, scattered breeding pools constitute such fluctuating resources. Among tropical amphibians, poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) exhibit some of the most complex spatial and parental behaviors—including territoriality and tadpole transport from terrestrial clutches to ephemeral aquatic deposition sites. Recent studies have revealed that poison frogs rely on spatial memory to successfully navigate through their environment. This raises the question of when and how these frogs gain information about the area and suitable reproductive resources. To investigate the spatial patterns of pool use and to reveal potential explorative behavior, we used telemetry to follow males of the territorial dendrobatid frog Allobates femoralis during tadpole transport and subsequent homing. To elicit exploration, we reduced resource availability experimentally by simulating desiccated deposition sites. We found that tadpole transport is strongly directed towards known deposition sites and that frogs take similar direct paths when returning to their home territory. Frogs move faster during tadpole transport than when homing after the deposition, which probably reflects different risks and costs during these two movement phases. We found no evidence for exploration, neither during transport nor homing, and independent of the availability of deposition sites. We suggest that prospecting during tadpole transport is too risky for the transported offspring as well as for the transporting male. Relying on spatial memory of multiple previously discovered pools appears to be the predominant and successful strategy for the exploitation of reproductive resources in A. femoralis. Our study provides for the first time a detailed description of poison frog movement patterns during tadpole transport and corroborates recent findings on the

  15. Phonological memory in sign language relies on the visuomotor neural system outside the left hemisphere language network.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Yuji; Nakamura, Kimihiro; Ishii, Toru; Aso, Toshihiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Omori, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Sign language is an essential medium for everyday social interaction for deaf people and plays a critical role in verbal learning. In particular, language development in those people should heavily rely on the verbal short-term memory (STM) via sign language. Most previous studies compared neural activations during signed language processing in deaf signers and those during spoken language processing in hearing speakers. For sign language users, it thus remains unclear how visuospatial inputs are converted into the verbal STM operating in the left-hemisphere language network. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, the present study investigated neural activation while bilinguals of spoken and signed language were engaged in a sequence memory span task. On each trial, participants viewed a nonsense syllable sequence presented either as written letters or as fingerspelling (4-7 syllables in length) and then held the syllable sequence for 12 s. Behavioral analysis revealed that participants relied on phonological memory while holding verbal information regardless of the type of input modality. At the neural level, this maintenance stage broadly activated the left-hemisphere language network, including the inferior frontal gyrus, supplementary motor area, superior temporal gyrus and inferior parietal lobule, for both letter and fingerspelling conditions. Interestingly, while most participants reported that they relied on phonological memory during maintenance, direct comparisons between letters and fingers revealed strikingly different patterns of neural activation during the same period. Namely, the effortful maintenance of fingerspelling inputs relative to letter inputs activated the left superior parietal lobule and dorsal premotor area, i.e., brain regions known to play a role in visuomotor analysis of hand/arm movements. These findings suggest that the dorsal visuomotor neural system subserves verbal learning via sign language by relaying gestural inputs to

  16. The immune toxicity of titanium dioxide on primary pulmonary alveolar macrophages relies on their surface area and crystal structure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ran; Yin, Li-hong; Pu, Yue-pu; Li, Yun-hui; Zhang, Xiao-qiang; Liang, Ge-yu; Li, Xiao-bo; Zhang, Juan; Li, Yan-fen; Zhang, Xue-yan

    2010-12-01

    Surface properties are critical to assess effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) primary nanoparticles on the immune function of pulmonary alveolar macrophage (PAMs). In this study the immune toxicity of TiO2 primary nanoparticles on PAMs relies on their surface area and crystal structure were determined. The primary PAMs of rats exposed to different sizes and crystal structure of TiO2 particles at different dosages for 24 hrs were evaluated for cytokines, phagocytosis, chemotaxis and surface molecules expression. Nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) level of PAMs significantly increased when exposed to TiO2 primary particles and there were significant association with the exposure total surface area and crystal structure of TiO2 particles in the former. TiO2 particles showed significant inhibiting effects on phagocytotic ability, chemotactic ability, Fc receptors and MHC-II molecular expression of macrophages compared with control. Exposure dosage and crystal structure of TiO2 particles play effects on phagocytotic ability and chemotactic ability of PAMs. These results suggested that TiO2 nanoparticles could induce the release of inflammatory mediators, initiate the inflammation development and inhibit the immune function of PAMs associated with non-specific immunity and specific immunity relies on surface area and crystal structure. NO activity might be a candidate marker indicating the TiO2 exposure burden and cell damage in PAMs.

  17. Polyploid species rely on vegetative reproduction more than diploids: a re-examination of the old hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Herben, Tomáš; Suda, Jan; Klimešová, Jitka

    2017-08-01

    Polyploidy is arguably the single most important genetic mechanism in plant speciation and diversification. It has been repeatedly suggested that polyploids show higher vegetative reproduction than diploids (to by-pass low fertility after the polyploidization), but there are no rigorous tests of it. Data were analysed by phylogenetic regressions of clonal growth parameters, and vegetative reproduction in culture on the ploidy status of a large set of species (approx. 900) from the Central European Angiosperm flora. Further, correlated evolution of ploidy and clonal traits was examined to determine whether or not polyploidy precedes vegetative reproduction. The analyses showed that polyploidy is strongly associated with vegetative reproduction, whereas diploids rely more on seed reproduction. The rate of polyploid speciation is strongly enhanced by the existence of vegetative reproduction (namely extensive lateral spread), whereas the converse is not true. These findings confirm the old hypothesis that polyploids can rely on vegetative reproduction which thus may save many incipient polyploids from extinction. A closer analysis also shows that the sequence of events begins with development of vegetative reproduction, which is then followed by polyploidy. Vegetative reproduction is thus likely to play an important role in polyploid speciation.

  18. Cortical control of object-specific grasp relies on adjustments of both activity and effective connectivity: a common marmoset study.

    PubMed

    Tia, Banty; Takemi, Mitsuaki; Kosugi, Akito; Castagnola, Elisa; Ansaldo, Alberto; Nakamura, Takafumi; Ricci, Davide; Ushiba, Junichi; Fadiga, Luciano; Iriki, Atsushi

    2017-08-09

    The cortical mechanisms of grasping have been extensively studied in macaques and humans; here, we investigated whether common marmosets could rely on similar mechanisms despite strong differences in hand morphology and grip diversity. We recorded electrocorticographic activity over the sensorimotor cortex of two common marmosets during the execution of different grip types, which allowed us to study cortical activity (power spectrum) and physiologically inferred connectivity (phase-slope index). Analyses were performed in beta (16-35 Hz) and gamma (75-100 Hz) frequency bands and our results showed that beta power varied depending on grip type, whereas gamma power displayed clear epoch-related modulation. Strength and direction of inter-area connectivity varied depending on grip type and epoch. These findings suggest that fundamental control mechanisms are conserved across primates and, in future research, marmosets could represent an adequate model to investigate primate brain mechanisms. The cortical mechanisms of grasping have been extensively studied in macaques and humans. Here, we investigated whether common marmosets could rely on similar mechanisms despite striking differences in manual dexterity. Two common marmosets were trained to grasp-and-pull three objects eliciting different hand configurations: whole-hand, finger and scissor grips. The animals were then chronically implanted with 64-channel electrocorticogram arrays positioned over the left premotor, primary motor and somatosensory cortex. Power spectra, reflecting predominantly cortical activity, and phase-slope index, reflecting the direction of information flux, were studied in beta (16-35 Hz) and gamma (75-100 Hz) bands. Differences related to grip type, epoch (reach, grasp) and cortical area were statistically assessed. Results showed that whole-hand and scissor grips triggered stronger beta desynchronization than finger grip. Task epochs clearly modulated gamma power, especially for finger

  19. Influence of Computerized Sounding Out on Spelling Performance for Children who do and not rely on AAC

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Jillian H.; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Beukelman, David R.; Schwarz, Ilsa E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Spelling is an important skill for individuals who rely on augmentative alternative communication (AAC). The purpose of this study was to investigate how computerized sounding out influenced spelling accuracy of pseudo-words. Computerized sounding out was defined as a word elongated, thus providing an opportunity for a child to hear all the sounds in the word at a slower rate. Methods Seven children with cerebral palsy, four who use AAC and three who do not, participated in a single subject AB design. Results The results of the study indicated that the use of computerized sounding out increased the phonologic accuracy of the pseudo-words produced by participants. Conclusion The study provides preliminary evidence for the use of computerized sounding out during spelling tasks for children with cerebral palsy who do and do not use AAC. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:24512195

  20. Dopamine D2 receptor relies upon PPM/PP2C protein phosphatases to dephosphorylate huntingtin protein.

    PubMed

    Marion, Sébastien; Urs, Nikhil M; Peterson, Sean M; Sotnikova, Tatyana D; Beaulieu, Jean-Martin; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Caron, Marc G

    2014-04-25

    Striatal dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) relies upon G protein- and β-arrestin-dependent signaling pathways to convey its action on motor control and behavior. Considering that D2R activation inhibits Akt in the striatum and that huntingtin physiological functions are affected by Akt phosphorylation, we sought to investigate whether D2R-mediated signaling could regulate huntingtin phosphorylation. We demonstrate that D2R activation decreases huntingtin phosphorylation on its Akt site. This dephosphorylation event depends upon the Gαi-dependent engagement of specific members of the protein phosphatase metallo-dependent (PPM/PP2C) family and is independent of β-arrestin 2. These observations identify the PPM/PP2C family as a mediator of G protein-coupled receptor signaling and thereby suggest a novel mechanism of dopaminergic signaling.

  1. Humans rely on the same rules to assess emotional valence and intensity in conspecific and dog vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Faragó, Tamás; Andics, Attila; Devecseri, Viktor; Kis, Anna; Gácsi, Márta; Miklósi, Adám

    2014-01-01

    Humans excel at assessing conspecific emotional valence and intensity, based solely on non-verbal vocal bursts that are also common in other mammals. It is not known, however, whether human listeners rely on similar acoustic cues to assess emotional content in conspecific and heterospecific vocalizations, and which acoustical parameters affect their performance. Here, for the first time, we directly compared the emotional valence and intensity perception of dog and human non-verbal vocalizations. We revealed similar relationships between acoustic features and emotional valence and intensity ratings of human and dog vocalizations: those with shorter call lengths were rated as more positive, whereas those with a higher pitch were rated as more intense. Our findings demonstrate that humans rate conspecific emotional vocalizations along basic acoustic rules, and that they apply similar rules when processing dog vocal expressions. This suggests that humans may utilize similar mental mechanisms for recognizing human and heterospecific vocal emotions.

  2. CCR2 dependent neutrophil activation and mobilization rely on TLR4-p38 axis during liver ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Peng; Zhang, Junbin; Wang, Hui; Wang, Guoliang; Wang, Cong-Yi; Zhang, Jinxiang

    2017-01-01

    Liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a common clinical problem in which neutrophil recruitment is an essential event. Our previous study revealed the important role of C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) in neutrophils during liver IRI. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the underlying mechanisms mediating the changes in CCR2 expression in neutrophils during this pathophysiological process. Herein, we found that TLR4 ablation reduced neutrophil mobilization from the bone marrow and the subsequent infiltration into the liver during liver IRI; neutrophil-derived CCR2 expression was also repressed. In addition, neutrophil mobilization was dependent on CCR2 expression in neutrophils, which in turn relied on activation of the TLR4-p38 axis during liver IRI. In conclusion, neutrophil-derived CCR2 expression regulates neutrophil mobilization from the bone marrow and infiltration into the liver, which requires activation of the TLR4-p38 axis during liver IRI. PMID:28670376

  3. Optimal myelin elongation relies on YAP activation by axonal growth and inhibition by Crb3/Hippo pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Ruani N.; Cotter, Laurent; Perrin-Tricaud, Claire; Berthelot, Jade; Bartolami, Sylvain; Pereira, Jorge A.; Gonzalez, Sergio; Suter, Ueli; Tricaud, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Fast nerve conduction relies on successive myelin segments that electrically isolate axons. Segment geometry—diameter and length—is critical for the optimization of nerve conduction and the molecular mechanisms allowing this optimized geometry are partially known. We show here that peripheral myelin elongation is dynamically regulated by stimulation of YAP (Yes-associated protein) transcription cofactor activity during axonal elongation and limited by inhibition of YAP activity via the Hippo pathway. YAP promotes myelin and non-myelin genes transcription while the polarity protein Crb3, localized at the tips of the myelin sheath, activates the Hippo pathway to temper YAP activity, therefore allowing for optimal myelin growth. Dystrophic Dy2j/2j mice mimicking human peripheral neuropathy with reduced internodal lengths have decreased nuclear YAP which, when corrected, leads to longer internodes. These data show a novel mechanism controlling myelin growth and nerve conduction, and provide a molecular ground for disease with short myelin segments. PMID:27435623

  4. Synthesis, structure, chemical bonding, and magnetism of the series RELiGe2 (RE = La-Nd, Sm, Eu).

    PubMed

    Bobev, Svilen; You, Tae-Soo; Suen, Nian-Tzu; Saha, Shanta; Greene, Richard; Paglione, Johnpierre

    2012-01-02

    This article focuses on the synthesis and the crystal chemistry of six members of a series of rare-earth metal based germanides with general formula RELiGe(2) (RE = La-Nd, Sm, and Eu). The structures of these compounds have been established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (CaLiSi(2) structure type, space group Pnma, Z = 4, Pearson symbol oP16). The chemical bonding within this atomic arrangement can be rationalized in terms of anionic germanium zigzag chains, conjoined via chains of edge-shared LiGe(4) tetrahedra and separated by rare-earth metal cations. The structure can also be viewed as an intergrowth of AlB(2)-like and TiNiSi-like fragments, or as the result of the replacement of 50% of the rare-earth metal atoms by lithium in the parent structure of the REGe monogermanides. Except for LaLiGe(2) and SmLiGe(2), the remaining four RELiGe(2) phases exhibit Curie-Weiss paramagnetism above about 50 K. In the low temperature regime, the localized 4f electrons in CeLiGe(2), PrLiGe(2), and SmLiGe(2) order ferromagnetically, while antiferromagnetic ordering is observed for NdLiGe(2) and EuLiGe(2). The calculated effective magnetic moments confirm RE(3+) ground states in all cases excluding EuLiGe(2), in which the magnetic response is consistent with Eu(2+) configuration (J = S = 7/2). The experimental results have been complemented by tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital (TB-LMTO) band structure calculations.

  5. Can we rely on the antiretroviral treatment as the only means for human immunodeficiency virusprevention? A Public Health perspective.

    PubMed

    Mozalevskis, Antons; Manzanares-Laya, Sandra; García de Olalla, Patricia; Moreno, Antonio; Jacques-Aviñó, Constanza; Caylà, Joan A

    2015-11-01

    The evidence that supports the preventive effect of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) in HIV sexual transmission suggested the so-called 'treatment as prevention' (TAP) strategy as a promising tool for slowing down HIV transmission. As the messages and attitudes towards condom use in the context of TAP appear to be somehow confusing, the aim here is to assess whether relying on cART alone to prevent HIV transmission can currently be recommended from the Public Health perspective. A review is made of the literature on the effects of TAP strategy on HIV transmission and the epidemiology of other sexual transmitted infections (STIs) in the cART era, and recommendations from Public Health institutions on the TAP as of February 2014. The evolution of HIV and other STIs in Barcelona from 2007 to 2012 has also been analysed. Given that the widespread use of cART has coincided with an increasing incidence of HIV and other STIs, mainly amongst men who have sex with men, a combination and diversified prevention methods should always be considered and recommended in counselling. An informed decision on whether to stop using condoms should only be made by partners within stable couples, and after receiving all the up-to-date information regarding TAP. From the public health perspective, primary prevention should be a priority; therefore relying on cART alone is not a sufficient strategy to prevent new HIV and other STIs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  6. 21 CFR 314.122 - Submitting an abbreviated application for, or a 505(j)(2)(C) petition that relies on, a listed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 505(j)(2)(C) petition that relies on, a listed drug that is no longer marketed. 314.122 Section 314... Abbreviated Applications § 314.122 Submitting an abbreviated application for, or a 505(j)(2)(C) petition that... to, or a petition under section 505(j)(2)(C) of the act and § 314.93 that relies on, a listed...

  7. 21 CFR 314.122 - Submitting an abbreviated application for, or a 505(j)(2)(C) petition that relies on, a listed...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 505(j)(2)(C) petition that relies on, a listed drug that is no longer marketed. 314.122 Section 314... Abbreviated Applications § 314.122 Submitting an abbreviated application for, or a 505(j)(2)(C) petition that... to, or a petition under section 505(j)(2)(C) of the act and § 314.93 that relies on, a listed drug...

  8. Social Plasticity Relies on Different Neuroplasticity Mechanisms across the Brain Social Decision-Making Network in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Teles, Magda C; Cardoso, Sara D; Oliveira, Rui F

    2016-01-01

    Social living animals need to adjust the expression of their behavior to their status within the group and to changes in social context and this ability (social plasticity) has an impact on their Darwinian fitness. At the proximate level social plasticity must rely on neuroplasticity in the brain social decision-making network (SDMN) that underlies the expression of social behavior, such that the same neural circuit may underlie the expression of different behaviors depending on social context. Here we tested this hypothesis in zebrafish by characterizing the gene expression response in the SDMN to changes in social status of a set of genes involved in different types of neural plasticity: bdnf, involved in changes in synaptic strength; npas4, involved in contextual learning and dependent establishment of GABAergic synapses; neuroligins (nlgn1 and nlgn2) as synaptogenesis markers; and genes involved in adult neurogenesis (wnt3 and neurod). Four social phenotypes were experimentally induced: Winners and Losers of a real-opponent interaction; Mirror-fighters, that fight their own image in a mirror and thus do not experience a change in social status despite the expression of aggressive behavior; and non-interacting fish, which were used as a reference group. Our results show that each social phenotype (i.e., Winners, Losers, and Mirror-fighters) present specific patterns of gene expression across the SDMN, and that different neuroplasticity genes are differentially expressed in different nodes of the network (e.g., BDNF in the dorsolateral telencephalon, which is a putative teleost homolog of the mammalian hippocampus). Winners expressed unique patterns of gene co-expression across the SDMN, whereas in Losers and Mirror-fighters the co-expression patterns were similar in the dorsal regions of the telencephalon and in the supracommissural nucleus of the ventral telencephalic area, but differents in the remaining regions of the ventral telencephalon. These results

  9. Social Plasticity Relies on Different Neuroplasticity Mechanisms across the Brain Social Decision-Making Network in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Teles, Magda C.; Cardoso, Sara D.; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2016-01-01

    Social living animals need to adjust the expression of their behavior to their status within the group and to changes in social context and this ability (social plasticity) has an impact on their Darwinian fitness. At the proximate level social plasticity must rely on neuroplasticity in the brain social decision-making network (SDMN) that underlies the expression of social behavior, such that the same neural circuit may underlie the expression of different behaviors depending on social context. Here we tested this hypothesis in zebrafish by characterizing the gene expression response in the SDMN to changes in social status of a set of genes involved in different types of neural plasticity: bdnf, involved in changes in synaptic strength; npas4, involved in contextual learning and dependent establishment of GABAergic synapses; neuroligins (nlgn1 and nlgn2) as synaptogenesis markers; and genes involved in adult neurogenesis (wnt3 and neurod). Four social phenotypes were experimentally induced: Winners and Losers of a real-opponent interaction; Mirror-fighters, that fight their own image in a mirror and thus do not experience a change in social status despite the expression of aggressive behavior; and non-interacting fish, which were used as a reference group. Our results show that each social phenotype (i.e., Winners, Losers, and Mirror-fighters) present specific patterns of gene expression across the SDMN, and that different neuroplasticity genes are differentially expressed in different nodes of the network (e.g., BDNF in the dorsolateral telencephalon, which is a putative teleost homolog of the mammalian hippocampus). Winners expressed unique patterns of gene co-expression across the SDMN, whereas in Losers and Mirror-fighters the co-expression patterns were similar in the dorsal regions of the telencephalon and in the supracommissural nucleus of the ventral telencephalic area, but differents in the remaining regions of the ventral telencephalon. These results

  10. Analysis of complete genomes suggests that many prokaryotes do not rely on hairpin formation in transcription termination.

    PubMed

    Washio, T; Sasayama, J; Tomita, M

    1998-12-01

    Free energy values of mRNA tertiary structures around stop codons were systematically calculated to surmise the hairpin-forming potential for all genes in each of the 16 complete prokaryote genomes. Instead of trying to detect each individual hairpin, we averaged the free energy values around the stop codons over the entire genome to predict how extensively the organism relies on hairpin formation in the process of transcription termination. The free energy values of Escherichia coli K-12 shows a sharp drop, as expected, at 30 bp downstream of the stop codon, presumably due to hairpin-forming sequences. Similar drops are observed for Haemophilus influenzae Rd, Bacillus subtilis and Chlamydia trachomatis, suggesting that these organisms also form hairpins at their transcription termination sites. On the other hand, 12 other prokaryotes- Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Synechocystis PCC6803, Helicobacter pylori, Borrelia burgdorferi, Methanococcus jannaschii, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, Aquifex aeolicus, Pyrococcus horikoshii, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Treponema pallidum -show no apparent decrease in free energy value at the corresponding regions. This result suggests that these prokaryotes, or at least some of them, may never form hairpins at their transcription termination sites.

  11. Aberrant activity in retinal degeneration impairs central visual processing and relies on Cx36-containing gap junctions.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Elena; Yee, Christopher W; Baldoni, Robert; Sagdullaev, Botir T

    2016-09-01

    In retinal degenerative disease (RD), the diminished light signal from dying photoreceptors has been considered the sole cause of visual impairment. Recent studies show a 10-fold increase in spontaneous activity in the RD network, challenging this paradigm. This aberrant activity forms a new barrier for the light signal, and not only exacerbates the loss of vision, but also may stand in the way of visual restoration. This activity originates in AII amacrine cells and relies on excessive activation of gap junctions. However, it remains unclear whether aberrant activity affects central visual processing and what mechanisms lead to this excessive activation of gap junctions. By combining genetic manipulation with electrophysiological recordings of light-induced activity in both living mice and isolated wholemount retina, we demonstrate that aberrant activity extends along retinotectal projections to alter activity in higher brain centers. Next, to selectively eliminate Cx36-containing gap junctions, which are the primary type expressed by AII amacrine cells, we crossed rd10 mice, a slow-degenerating model of RD, with Cx36 knockout mice. We found that retinal aberrant activity was reduced in the rd10/Cx36KO mice compared to rd10 controls, a direct evidence for involvement of Cx36-containing gap junctions in generating aberrant activity in RD. These data provide an essential support for future experiments to determine if selectively targeting these gap junctions could be a valid strategy for reducing aberrant activity and restoring light responses in RD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Kinetochore function and chromosome segregation rely on critical residues in histones H3 and H4 in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tessie M; Lenstra, Tineke L; Duggan, Nicole; Jiang, Shuangying; Ceto, Steven; Holstege, Frank C P; Dai, Junbiao; Boeke, Jef D; Biggins, Sue

    2013-11-01

    Accurate chromosome segregation requires that sister kinetochores biorient and attach to microtubules from opposite poles. Kinetochore biorientation relies on the underlying centromeric chromatin, which provides a platform to assemble the kinetochore and to recruit the regulatory factors that ensure the high fidelity of this process. To identify the centromeric chromatin determinants that contribute to chromosome segregation, we performed two complementary unbiased genetic screens using a library of budding yeast mutants in every residue of histone H3 and H4. In one screen, we identified mutants that lead to increased loss of a nonessential chromosome. In the second screen, we isolated mutants whose viability depends on a key regulator of biorientation, the Aurora B protein kinase. Nine mutants were common to both screens and exhibited kinetochore biorientation defects. Four of the mutants map near the unstructured nucleosome entry site, and their genetic interaction with reduced IPL1 can be suppressed by increasing the dosage of SGO1, a key regulator of biorientation. In addition, the composition of purified kinetochores was altered in six of the mutants. Together, this work identifies previously unknown histone residues involved in chromosome segregation and lays the foundation for future studies on the role of the underlying chromatin structure in chromosome segregation.

  13. Spatial Reorganization of the Endoplasmic Reticulum during Mitosis Relies on Mitotic Kinase Cyclin A in the Early Drosophila Embryo

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Zane J.; Mclaurin, Justin D.; Eritano, Anthony S.; Johnson, Brittany M.; Sims, Amanda Q.; Riggs, Blake

    2015-01-01

    Mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase with their cyclin partners (cyclin:Cdks) are the master regulators of cell cycle progression responsible for regulating a host of activities during mitosis. Nuclear mitotic events, including chromosome condensation and segregation have been directly linked to Cdk activity. However, the regulation and timing of cytoplasmic mitotic events by cyclin:Cdks is poorly understood. In order to examine these mitotic cytoplasmic events, we looked at the dramatic changes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during mitosis in the early Drosophila embryo. The dynamic changes of the ER can be arrested in an interphase state by inhibition of either DNA or protein synthesis. Here we show that this block can be alleviated by micro-injection of Cyclin A (CycA) in which defined mitotic ER clusters gathered at the spindle poles. Conversely, micro-injection of Cyclin B (CycB) did not affect spatial reorganization of the ER, suggesting CycA possesses the ability to initiate mitotic ER events in the cytoplasm. Additionally, RNAi-mediated simultaneous inhibition of all 3 mitotic cyclins (A, B and B3) blocked spatial reorganization of the ER. Our results suggest that mitotic ER reorganization events rely on CycA and that control and timing of nuclear and cytoplasmic events during mitosis may be defined by release of CycA from the nucleus as a consequence of breakdown of the nuclear envelope. PMID:25689737

  14. Do distantly related parasites rely on the same proximate factors to alter the behaviour of their hosts?

    PubMed Central

    Ponton, F; Lefevre, T; Lebarbenchon, C; Thomas, F; Loxdale, H.D; Marché, L; Renault, L; Perrot-Minnot, M.J; Biron, D.G

    2006-01-01

    Phylogenetically unrelated parasites often increase the chances of their transmission by inducing similar phenotypic changes in their hosts. However, it is not known whether these convergent strategies rely on the same biochemical precursors. In this paper, we explored such aspects by studying two gammarid species (Gammarus insensibilis and Gammarus pulex; Crustacea: Amphipoda: Gammaridae) serving as intermediate hosts in the life cycle of two distantly related parasites: the trematode, Microphallus papillorobustus and the acanthocephalan, Polymorphus minutus. Both these parasite species are known to manipulate the behaviour of their amphipod hosts, bringing them towards the water surface, where they are preferentially eaten by aquatic birds (definitive hosts). By studying and comparing the brains of infected G. insensibilis and G. pulex with proteomics tools, we have elucidated some of the proximate causes involved in the parasite-induced alterations of host behaviour for each system. Protein identifications suggest that altered physiological compartments in hosts can be similar (e.g. immunoneural connexions) or different (e.g. vision process), and hence specific to the host–parasite association considered. Moreover, proteins required to alter the same physiological compartment can be specific or conversely common in both systems, illustrating in the latter case a molecular convergence in the proximate mechanisms of manipulation. PMID:17015311

  15. Efficient energy transmission and amplification in the cochlea relies on frequency-dependent material properties of the tectorial membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Gareth P.; Lukashkina, Victoria A.; Russell, Ian J.; Elliott, Stephen J.; Lukashkin, Andrei N.

    2015-12-01

    The remarkable sensitivity, frequency selectivity, and dynamic range of the mammalian cochlea relies on longitudinal transmission of minuscule amounts of energy as passive, pressure-driven, basilar membrane (BM) traveling waves which are actively amplified at frequency-specific locations. Transmission of passive waves through viscous tissue situated in a viscous media is not an easy task. Here we describe mechanical properties of the tectorial membrane (TM) which facilitate this transmission. From mechanical measurements of isolated segments of the TM, we discovered that the stiffness of the TM is reduced when it is mechanically stimulated at physiologically relevant magnitudes and at frequencies below their frequency place in the cochlea. The reduction in stiffness functionally uncouples the TM from the organ of Corti, thereby minimizing energy losses during passive traveling wave propagation. Stiffening and decreased viscosity of the TM at high stimulus frequencies can potentially facilitate active amplification, especially in the high-frequency, basal turn, where energy loss due to internal friction within the TM is less than in the apex. This prediction is confirmed by neural recordings from several frequency regions of the cochlea.

  16. ER residency of the ceramide phosphoethanolamine synthase SMSr relies on homotypic oligomerization mediated by its SAM domain

    PubMed Central

    Cabukusta, Birol; Kol, Matthijs; Kneller, Laura; Hilderink, Angelika; Bickert, Andreas; Mina, John G. M.; Korneev, Sergei; Holthuis, Joost C. M.

    2017-01-01

    SMSr/SAMD8 is an ER-resident ceramide phosphoethanolamine synthase with a critical role in controlling ER ceramides and suppressing ceramide-induced apoptosis in cultured cells. SMSr-mediated ceramide homeostasis relies on the enzyme’s catalytic activity as well as on its N-terminal sterile α-motif or SAM domain. Here we report that SMSr-SAM is structurally and functionally related to the SAM domain of diacylglycerol kinase DGKδ, a central regulator of lipid signaling at the plasma membrane. Native gel electrophoresis indicates that both SAM domains form homotypic oligomers. Chemical crosslinking studies show that SMSr self-associates into ER-resident trimers and hexamers that resemble the helical oligomers formed by DGKδ-SAM. Residues critical for DGKδ-SAM oligomerization are conserved in SMSr-SAM and their substitution causes a dissociation of SMSr oligomers as well as a partial redistribution of the enzyme to the Golgi. Conversely, treatment of cells with curcumin, a drug disrupting ceramide and Ca2+ homeostasis in the ER, stabilizes SMSr oligomers and promotes retention of the enzyme in the ER. Our data provide first demonstration of a multi-pass membrane protein that undergoes homotypic oligomerization via its SAM domain and indicate that SAM-mediated self-assembly of SMSr is required for efficient retention of the enzyme in the ER. PMID:28120887

  17. Automatic and intentional number processing both rely on intact right parietal cortex: a combined FMRI and neuronavigated TMS study.

    PubMed

    Cohen Kadosh, Roi; Bien, Nina; Sack, Alexander T

    2012-01-01

    Practice and training usually lead to performance increase in a given task. In addition, a shift from intentional toward more automatic processing mechanisms is often observed. It is currently debated whether automatic and intentional processing is subserved by the same or by different mechanism(s), and whether the same or different regions in the brain are recruited. Previous correlational evidence provided by behavioral, neuroimaging, modeling, and neuropsychological studies addressing this question yielded conflicting results. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to compare the causal influence of disrupting either left or right parietal cortex during automatic and intentional numerical processing, as reflected by the size congruity effect and the numerical distance effect, respectively. We found a functional hemispheric asymmetry within parietal cortex with only the TMS-induced right parietal disruption impairing both automatic and intentional numerical processing. In contrast, disrupting the left parietal lobe with TMS, or applying sham stimulation, did not affect performance during automatic or intentional numerical processing. The current results provide causal evidence for the functional relevance of right, but not left, parietal cortex for intentional, and automatic numerical processing, implying that at least within the parietal cortices, automatic, and intentional numerical processing rely on the same underlying hemispheric lateralization.

  18. Robust intestinal homeostasis relies on cellular plasticity in enteroblasts mediated by miR-8–Escargot switch

    PubMed Central

    Antonello, Zeus A; Reiff, Tobias; Ballesta-Illan, Esther; Dominguez, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium is remarkably robust despite perturbations and demand uncertainty. Here, we investigate the basis of such robustness using novel tracing methods that allow simultaneously capturing the dynamics of stem and committed progenitor cells (called enteroblasts) and intestinal cell turnover with spatiotemporal resolution. We found that intestinal stem cells (ISCs) divide “ahead” of demand during Drosophila midgut homeostasis. Their newborn enteroblasts, on the other hand, take on a highly polarized shape, acquire invasive properties and motility. They extend long membrane protrusions that make cell–cell contact with mature cells, while exercising a capacity to delay their final differentiation until a local demand materializes. This cellular plasticity is mechanistically linked to the epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) programme mediated by escargot, a snail family gene. Activation of the conserved microRNA miR-8/miR-200 in “pausing” enteroblasts in response to a local cell loss promotes timely terminal differentiation via a reverse MET by antagonizing escargot. Our findings unveil that robust intestinal renewal relies on hitherto unrecognized plasticity in enteroblasts and reveal their active role in sensing and/or responding to local demand. PMID:26077448

  19. The infectious intracellular lifestyle of Salmonella enterica relies on the adaptation to nutritional conditions within the Salmonella-containing vacuole.

    PubMed

    Diacovich, Lautaro; Lorenzi, Lucía; Tomassetti, Mauro; Méresse, Stéphane; Gramajo, Hugo

    2016-12-09

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a Gram-negative pathogen that causes various host-specific diseases. During their life cycle, Salmonellae survive frequent exposures to a variety of environmental stresses, e.g. carbon-source starvation. The virulence of this pathogen relies on its ability to establish a replicative niche, named Salmonella-containing vacuole, inside host cells. However, the microenvironment of the SCV and the bacterial metabolic pathways required during infection are largely undefined. In this work we developed different biological probes whose expression is modulated by the environment and the physiological state of the bacterium. We constructed transcriptional reporters by fusing promoter regions to the gfpmut3a gene to monitor the expression profile of genes involved in glucose utilization and lipid catabolism. The induction of these probes by a specific metabolic change was first tested in vitro, and then during different conditions of infection in macrophages. We were able to determine that Entner-Doudoroff is the main metabolic pathway utilized by Salmonella during infection in mouse macrophages. Furthermore, we found sub-populations of bacteria expressing genes involved in pathways for the utilization of different sources of carbon. These populations are modified in presence of different metabolizable substrates, suggesting the coexistence of Salmonella with diverse metabolic states during the infection.

  20. ABA accumulation in water-stressed Citrus roots does not rely on carotenoid content in this organ.

    PubMed

    Manzi, Matías; Lado, Joanna; Rodrigo, María Jesús; Arbona, Vicent; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2016-11-01

    Sustained abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in dehydrated citrus roots depends on the transport from aerial organs. Under this condition, the role of the β,β-carotenoids (ABA precursors) to the de novo synthesis of ABA in roots needs to be clarified since their low availability in this organ restricts its accumulation. To accomplish that, detached citrus roots were exposed to light (to increase their carotenoid content) and subsequently dehydrated (to trigger ABA accumulation). Stress imposition sharply decreased the pool of β,β-carotenoids but, unexpectedly, no concomitant rise in ABA content was observed. Contrastingly, roots of intact plants (with low levels of carotenoids) showed a similar decrease of ABA precursor together with a significant ABA accumulation. Furthermore, upon dehydration both types of roots showed similar upregulation of the key genes involved in biosynthesis of carotenoids and ABA (CsPSY3a; CsβCHX1; CsβCHX2; CsNCED1; CsNCED2), demonstrating a conserved transcriptional response triggered by water stress. Thus, the sharp decrease in root carotenoid levels in response to dehydration should be related to other stress-related signals instead of contributing to ABA biosynthesis. In summary, ABA accumulation in dehydrated-citrus roots largely relies on the presence of the aerial organs and it is independent of the amount of available root β,β-carotenoids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. ER residency of the ceramide phosphoethanolamine synthase SMSr relies on homotypic oligomerization mediated by its SAM domain.

    PubMed

    Cabukusta, Birol; Kol, Matthijs; Kneller, Laura; Hilderink, Angelika; Bickert, Andreas; Mina, John G M; Korneev, Sergei; Holthuis, Joost C M

    2017-01-25

    SMSr/SAMD8 is an ER-resident ceramide phosphoethanolamine synthase with a critical role in controlling ER ceramides and suppressing ceramide-induced apoptosis in cultured cells. SMSr-mediated ceramide homeostasis relies on the enzyme's catalytic activity as well as on its N-terminal sterile α-motif or SAM domain. Here we report that SMSr-SAM is structurally and functionally related to the SAM domain of diacylglycerol kinase DGKδ, a central regulator of lipid signaling at the plasma membrane. Native gel electrophoresis indicates that both SAM domains form homotypic oligomers. Chemical crosslinking studies show that SMSr self-associates into ER-resident trimers and hexamers that resemble the helical oligomers formed by DGKδ-SAM. Residues critical for DGKδ-SAM oligomerization are conserved in SMSr-SAM and their substitution causes a dissociation of SMSr oligomers as well as a partial redistribution of the enzyme to the Golgi. Conversely, treatment of cells with curcumin, a drug disrupting ceramide and Ca(2+) homeostasis in the ER, stabilizes SMSr oligomers and promotes retention of the enzyme in the ER. Our data provide first demonstration of a multi-pass membrane protein that undergoes homotypic oligomerization via its SAM domain and indicate that SAM-mediated self-assembly of SMSr is required for efficient retention of the enzyme in the ER.

  2. Influence of computerized sounding out on spelling performance for children who do and do not rely on AAC.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Jillian H; Hogan, Tiffany P; Beukelman, David R; Schwarz, Ilsa E

    2015-05-01

    Spelling is an important skill for individuals who rely on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). The purpose of this study was to investigate how computerized sounding out influenced spelling accuracy of pseudo-words. Computerized sounding out was defined as a word elongated, thus providing an opportunity for a child to hear all the sounds in the word at a slower rate. Seven children with cerebral palsy, four who use AAC and three who do not, participated in a single subject AB design. The results of the study indicated that the use of computerized sounding out increased the phonologic accuracy of the pseudo-words produced by participants. The study provides preliminary evidence for the use of computerized sounding out during spelling tasks for children with cerebral palsy who do and do not use AAC. Future directions and clinical implications are discussed. We investigated how computerized sounding out influenced spelling accuracy of pseudowords for children with complex communication needs who did and did not use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Results indicated that the use of computerized sounding out increased the phonologic accuracy of the pseudo-words by participants, suggesting that computerized sounding out might assist in more accurate spelling for children who use AAC. Future research is needed to determine how language and reading abilities influence the use of computerized sounding out with children who have a range of speech intelligibility abilities and do and do not use AAC.

  3. Does brain creatine content rely on exogenous creatine in healthy youth? A proof-of-principle study.

    PubMed

    Merege-Filho, Carlos Alberto Abujabra; Otaduy, Maria Concepción Garcia; de Sá-Pinto, Ana Lúcia; de Oliveira, Maira Okada; de Souza Gonçalves, Lívia; Hayashi, Ana Paula Tanaka; Roschel, Hamilton; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; Silva, Clovis Artur; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi; da Costa Leite, Claudia; Gualano, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that dietary creatine could influence cognitive performance by increasing brain creatine in developing individuals. This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, proof-of-principle study aimed to investigate the effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive function and brain creatine content in healthy youth. The sample comprised 67 healthy participants aged 10 to 12 years. The participants were given creatine or placebo supplementation for 7 days. At baseline and after the intervention, participants undertook a battery of cognitive tests. In a random subsample of participants, brain creatine content was also assessed in the regions of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left hippocampus, and occipital lobe by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) technique. The scores obtained from verbal learning and executive functions tests did not significantly differ between groups at baseline or after the intervention (all p > 0.05). Creatine content was not significantly different between groups in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left hippocampus, and occipital lobe (all p > 0.05). In conclusion, a 7-day creatine supplementation protocol did not elicit improvements in brain creatine content or cognitive performance in healthy youth, suggesting that this population mainly relies on brain creatine synthesis rather than exogenous creatine intake to maintain brain creatine homeostasis.

  4. Regulation of Carotenoid Biosynthesis by Shade Relies on Specific Subsets of Antagonistic Transcription Factors and Cofactors1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bou-Torrent, Jordi; Toledo-Ortiz, Gabriela; Ortiz-Alcaide, Miriam; Cifuentes-Esquivel, Nicolas; Halliday, Karen J.; Martinez-García, Jaime F.; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are photosynthetic pigments essential for the protection against excess light. During deetiolation, their production is regulated by a dynamic repression-activation module formed by PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR1 (PIF1) and LONG HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5). These transcription factors directly and oppositely control the expression of the gene encoding PHYTOENE SYNTHASE (PSY), the first and main rate-determining enzyme of the carotenoid pathway. Antagonistic modules also regulate the responses of deetiolated plants to vegetation proximity and shade (i.e. to the perception of far-red light-enriched light filtered through or reflected from neighboring plants). These responses, aimed to adapt to eventual shading from plant competitors, include a reduced accumulation of carotenoids. Here, we show that PIF1 and related photolabile PIFs (but not photostable PIF7) promote the shade-triggered decrease in carotenoid accumulation. While HY5 does not appear to be required for this process, other known PIF antagonists were found to modulate the expression of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) PSY gene and the biosynthesis of carotenoids early after exposure to shade. In particular, PHYTOCHROME-RAPIDLY REGULATED1, a transcriptional cofactor that prevents the binding of true transcription factors to their target promoters, was found to interact with PIF1 and hence directly induce PSY expression. By contrast, a change in the levels of the transcriptional cofactor LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR RED1, which also binds to PIF1 and other PIFs to regulate shade-related elongation responses, did not impact PSY expression or carotenoid accumulation. Our data suggest that the fine-regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in response to shade relies on specific modules of antagonistic transcriptional factors and cofactors. PMID:26082398

  5. Urgent surgery or procedures in patients taking dabigatran or warfarin: Analysis of perioperative outcomes from the RE-LY trial.

    PubMed

    Douketis, James D; Healey, Jeff S; Brueckmann, Martina; Fraessdorf, Mandy; Spyropoulos, Alex C; Wallentin, Lars; Oldgren, Jonas; Reilly, Paul; Ezekowitz, Michael D; Connolly, Stuart J; Yusuf, Salim; Eikelboom, John W

    2016-03-01

    There is concern about the management of anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) who require an urgent surgery/procedure, especially in those who are receiving a direct oral anticoagulant such as dabigatran. We accessed the database from RE-LY, a randomized trial comparing dabigatran (110mg and 150mg twice daily) with warfarin for stroke prevention in AF, to assess patients who had an urgent and elective surgery/procedure. We compared the risk for thromboembolism, major bleeding and mortality according to treatment allocation (dabigatran 110mg or 150mg, or warfarin) or surgery/procedure type (urgent or elective). Outcomes were assessed from day-7 to day 30 after a surgery/procedure. 353 patients (2.0% of study population) had an urgent surgery/procedure and 4168 patients (23.1% of study population) had an elective surgery/procedure. In patients on dabigatran 110mg, dabigatran 150mg and warfarin who had an urgent surgery/procedure: rates of thromboembolism were 16.1%, 7.4%, and 10.5%; rates of major bleeding were 17.0%, 17.6%, and 22.9%; rates of mortality were 6.3%, 1.5%, and 2.9%, respectively (P>0.50 for all comparisons). Rates of these outcomes were multi-fold higher in patients having an urgent rather than an elective surgery/procedure (P<0.5 for all comparisons). In anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation who require an urgent surgery/procedure, the risks for thromboembolism, major bleeding and mortality did not differ depending on treatment with dabigatran or warfarin, but rates of these outcomes were multi-fold higher than in patients having an elective surgery/procedure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Can conservation biologists rely on established community structure rules to manage novel systems? ... Not in salt marshes.

    PubMed

    Fariña, José M; Silliman, Brian R; Bertness, Mark D

    2009-03-01

    We experimentally examined plant zonation in a previously unstudied Chilean salt marsh system to test the generality of mechanisms generating zonation of plants across intertidal stress gradients. Vertical zonation in this system is striking. The low-lying clonal succulent, Sarcocornia fruticosa, dominates the daily flooded low marsh, while intermediate elevations are dominated by the much taller Spartina densiflora. Irregularly flooded higher elevations are dominated by Schoenoplectus californicus, with the small forb, Selliera radicans, found associated with Schoenoplectus at its base. Transplant studies of all four species into each zone both with and without competition revealed the mechanisms driving these striking patterns in plant segregation. In the regularly flooded low marsh, Sarcocornia and Spartina grow in the zone that they normally dominate and are displaced when reciprocally transplanted between zones with neighbors, but without neighbors they grow well in each other's zone. Thus, interspecific competition alone generates low marsh zonation as in some mediterranean marshes, but differently than most of the Californian marshes where physical stress is the dominant factor. In contrast, mechanisms generating high marsh patterns are similar to New England marshes. Schoenoplectus dies when transplanted to lower elevations with or without neighbors and thus is limited from the low marsh by physical stress, while Selliera grows best associated with Schoenoplectus, which shades and ameliorates potentially limiting desiccation stress. These results reveal that mechanisms driving community organization across environmental stress gradients, while generally similar among systems, cannot be directly extrapolated to unstudied systems. This finding has important implications for ecosystem conservation because it suggests that the mechanistic understanding of pattern generation necessary to manage and restore specific communities in novel habitats cannot rely

  7. Eye Can Hear Clearly Now: Inverse Effectiveness in Natural Audiovisual Speech Processing Relies on Long-Term Crossmodal Temporal Integration.

    PubMed

    Crosse, Michael J; Di Liberto, Giovanni M; Lalor, Edmund C

    2016-09-21

    Speech comprehension is improved by viewing a speaker's face, especially in adverse hearing conditions, a principle known as inverse effectiveness. However, the neural mechanisms that help to optimize how we integrate auditory and visual speech in such suboptimal conversational environments are not yet fully understood. Using human EEG recordings, we examined how visual speech enhances the cortical representation of auditory speech at a signal-to-noise ratio that maximized the perceptual benefit conferred by multisensory processing relative to unisensory processing. We found that the influence of visual input on the neural tracking of the audio speech signal was significantly greater in noisy than in quiet listening conditions, consistent with the principle of inverse effectiveness. Although envelope tracking during audio-only speech was greatly reduced by background noise at an early processing stage, it was markedly restored by the addition of visual speech input. In background noise, multisensory integration occurred at much lower frequencies and was shown to predict the multisensory gain in behavioral performance at a time lag of ∼250 ms. Critically, we demonstrated that inverse effectiveness, in the context of natural audiovisual (AV) speech processing, relies on crossmodal integration over long temporal windows. Our findings suggest that disparate integration mechanisms contribute to the efficient processing of AV speech in background noise. The behavioral benefit of seeing a speaker's face during conversation is especially pronounced in challenging listening environments. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, known as inverse effectiveness, have not yet been established. Here, we examine this in the human brain using natural speech-in-noise stimuli that were designed specifically to maximize the behavioral benefit of audiovisual (AV) speech. We find that this benefit arises from our ability to integrate multimodal information over

  8. Summer kill rates and predation pattern in a wolf-moose system: can we rely on winter estimates?

    PubMed

    Sand, Håkan; Wabakken, Petter; Zimmermann, Barbara; Johansson, Orjan; Pedersen, Hans C; Liberg, Olof

    2008-05-01

    So far the vast majority of studies on large carnivore predation, including kill rates and consumption, have been based on winter studies. Because large carnivores relying on ungulates as prey often show a preference for juveniles, kill rates may be both higher and more variable during the summer season than during the rest of the year leading to serious underestimates of the total annual predation rate. This study is the first to present detailed empirical data on kill rates and prey selection in a wolf-moose system during summer (June-September) as obtained by applying modern Global Positioning System-collar techniques on individual wolves (Canis lupus) in Scandinavia. Moose (Alces alces) was the dominant prey species both by number (74.4%) and biomass (95.6%); 89.9% of all moose killed were juveniles, representing 76.0% of the biomass consumed by wolves. Kill rate in terms of the kilogram biomass/kilogram wolf per day averaged 0.20 (range: 0.07-0.32) among wolf territories and was above, or well above, the daily minimum food requirements in most territories. The average number of days between moose kills across wolf territories and study periods was 1.71 days, but increased with time and size of growing moose calves during summer. Over the entire summer (June-September, 122 days), a group (from two to nine) of wolves killed a total of 66 (confidence interval 95%; 56-81) moose. Incorporation of body growth functions of moose calves and yearlings and wolf pups over the summer period showed that wolves adjusted their kill rate on moose, so the amount of biomass/kilogram wolf was relatively constant or increased. The kill rate was much higher (94-116%) than estimated from the winter period. As a consequence, projecting winter kill rates to obtain annual estimates of predation in similar predator-prey systems may result in a significant underestimation of the total number of prey killed.

  9. Design Strategies of Stimuli-Responsive Supramolecular Hydrogels Relying on Structural Analyses and Cell-Mimicking Approaches.

    PubMed

    Shigemitsu, Hajime; Hamachi, Itaru

    2017-04-18

    Stimuli-responsive hydrogels are intriguing biomaterials useful for spatiotemporal controlled release of drugs, cells, and biological cues, cell engineering for various applications, and medical diagnosis. To date, many physical and chemical stimuli-responsive polymer hydrogels have been developed by chemical modification of polymer chains and cross-linking points. In particular, conjugation with biomolecules to polymers produced promising biomolecule-responsive hydrogels. These examples clearly indicate high potentials of stimuli-responsive hydrogels as promising biomaterials. In addition to polymer hydrogels, supramolecular hydrogels formed by the assembly of small molecules (hydrogelators) via noncovalent interactions have also been regarded as unique and promising soft materials due to their flexible programmability in rendering them stimuli-responsive with the larger macroscopic change (i.e., gel-sol transition). This Account describes our strategies for the rational design of stimuli-responsive supramolecular hydrogels and their biological applications. Following the detailed structural analysis of a lead hydrogelator that clearly indicates the appropriate sites for incorporation of stimuli-responsive modules, we designed supramolecular hydrogels capable of responding to simple physical (thermal and light) and chemical (pH and metal ions) stimuli. More importantly, biomolecule-responsive hydrogels were successfully developed by supramolecularly mimicking the complex yet well-ordered structures and functions of live cells containing multiple components (a cell-mimicking approach). Development of biomolecule-responsive supramolecular hydrogels has been difficult as the conventional strategy relies on the chemical incorporation of stimuli-responsive modules, owing to the lack of modules that can effectively respond to structurally diverse and complicated biomolecules. Inspired by natural systems where functional compartments (e.g., cell organelles

  10. 49 CFR 40.371 - On what information does an initiating official rely in deciding whether to start a PIE proceeding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false On what information does an initiating official rely in deciding whether to start a PIE proceeding? 40.371 Section 40.371 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.371 On...

  11. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  12. Effect of GLUMA desensitizer on the retention of full metal crowns cemented with Rely X U200 self-adhesive cement.

    PubMed

    Lawaf, Shirin; Jalalian, Ezatallah; Roshan, Roshanak; Azizi, Arash

    2016-10-01

    Considering the importance of retention in the success and long-term clinical service of fixed partial dentures (FPDs) as well as the existing controversy regarding the effect of GLUMA desensitizer on the retention of full metal crowns cemented with RelyX U200 self-adhesive cement, this study aimed to assess the effect of GLUMA desensitizer on the retention of full metal crowns cemented using RelyX U200. In this experimental study, 20 sound human premolars were prepared; a 0.5 mm chamfer finish line was prepared above the cementoenamel junction. The teeth were randomly assigned to two groups: a desensitizer group (n = 10, treated with GLUMA desensitizer) and a control (n = 10, no surface treatment). Full metal crowns were fabricated of base metal alloy and had a ring. All crowns were cemented with RelyX U200 and subjected to retention test by using a universal testing machine. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 and independent t-test. The mean tensile bond strength was significantly higher in the GLUMA desensitizer group (230.63 ± 63.8 N) compared to the control group (164.45 ± 39.3 N) (P≤.012). GLUMA desensitizer increases the tensile bond strength of RelyX U200 self-adhesive cement to dentin.

  13. Research Advances: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Finds New Way to Detect Destructive Enzyme Activity--Hair Dye Relies on Nanotechnology--Ways to Increase Shelf Life of Milk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in various research fields are described. Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have found a new way to detect destructive enzyme activity, scientists in France have found that an ancient hair dye used by ancient people in Greece and Rome relied on nanotechnology and in the U.S. scientists are developing new…

  14. Effect of GLUMA desensitizer on the retention of full metal crowns cemented with Rely X U200 self-adhesive cement

    PubMed Central

    Lawaf, Shirin; Jalalian, Ezatallah; Roshan, Roshanak

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Considering the importance of retention in the success and long-term clinical service of fixed partial dentures (FPDs) as well as the existing controversy regarding the effect of GLUMA desensitizer on the retention of full metal crowns cemented with RelyX U200 self-adhesive cement, this study aimed to assess the effect of GLUMA desensitizer on the retention of full metal crowns cemented using RelyX U200. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this experimental study, 20 sound human premolars were prepared; a 0.5 mm chamfer finish line was prepared above the cementoenamel junction. The teeth were randomly assigned to two groups: a desensitizer group (n = 10, treated with GLUMA desensitizer) and a control (n = 10, no surface treatment). Full metal crowns were fabricated of base metal alloy and had a ring. All crowns were cemented with RelyX U200 and subjected to retention test by using a universal testing machine. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 and independent t-test. RESULTS The mean tensile bond strength was significantly higher in the GLUMA desensitizer group (230.63 ± 63.8 N) compared to the control group (164.45 ± 39.3 N) (P≤.012). CONCLUSION GLUMA desensitizer increases the tensile bond strength of RelyX U200 self-adhesive cement to dentin. PMID:27826391

  15. When Child Welfare Agencies Rely on Voluntary Kinship Placements: New Federalism Issues and Options for States. An Urban Institute Program to Assess Changing Social Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malm, Karin; Geen, Rob

    Summarizing findings from a forthcoming book, this policy brief examines when and how child welfare agencies rely on kin to care for children who are taken into state custody. The discussion is based on intensive case studies of local kinship care policies and practices; the case studies were conducted in 13 counties in Alabama, California,…

  16. 12 CFR 714.5 - What is required if you rely on an estimated residual value greater than 25% of the original cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What is required if you rely on an estimated residual value greater than 25% of the original cost of the leased property? 714.5 Section 714.5 Banks and... must guarantee the excess. The guarantor may be the manufacturer. The guarantor may also be an...

  17. 12 CFR 714.5 - What is required if you rely on an estimated residual value greater than 25% of the original cost...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is required if you rely on an estimated residual value greater than 25% of the original cost of the leased property? 714.5 Section 714.5 Banks and... must guarantee the excess. The guarantor may be the manufacturer. The guarantor may also be an...

  18. Nonoperating revenue and hospital financial performance: do hospitals rely on income from nonpatient care activities to offset losses on patient care?

    PubMed

    Singh, Simone R; Song, Paula H

    2013-01-01

    For many years, hospitals have relied on nonpatient care activities to complement patient care revenues and strengthen financial performance. For hospitals that lose money on patient care, nonpatient care revenues may mean the difference between net income and loss. Little is known currently, however, about whether nonpatient care revenues allow hospitals with negative patient care margins to offset their losses. The aims of this study are (a) to examine whether hospitals rely on income from nonpatient care activities to offset losses on patient care and (b) to identify characteristics of hospitals that are able to offset such losses. Data for this study came from the state of California. The sample consisted of not-for-profit and investor-owned short-term general acute care hospitals for the years 2003-2007. Descriptive statistics were used to compare hospitals with negative patient care margins that were able to offset patient care losses to hospitals that were unable to do so. Between 2003 and 2007, approximately 40% of study hospitals lost money on patient care. Of these, only 25% relied on nonpatient care income to offset losses. Hospitals that were able to offset patient care losses tended to be larger, not-for-profit organizations that were able to generate substantial shares of their total revenues from nonpatient care activities, in particular, charitable donations and financial investments. Despite claims that income from nonpatient care activities frequently allows hospitals to offset patient care losses, this study showed that only a small proportion of hospitals were able to do so. The financial viability of hospitals with negative patient care margins will thus depend on their ability to (a) deliver high-quality care profitably, (b) derive income from other operating activities, and (c) generate income from financial investments and engage in active development efforts to increase donations and gifts.

  19. Cytotoxicity Comparison of Harvard Zinc Phosphate Cement Versus Panavia F2 and Rely X Plus Resin Cements on Rat L929-fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Mahasti, Sahabi; Sattari, Mandana; Romoozi, Elham; Akbar-Zadeh Baghban, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    Resin cements, regardless of their biocompatibility, have been widely used in restorative dentistry during the recent years. These cements contain hydroxy ethyl methacrylate (HEMA) molecules which are claimed to penetrate into dentinal tubules and may affect dental pulp. Since tooth preparation for metal ceramic restorations involves a large surface of the tooth, cytotoxicity of these cements would be more important in fixed prosthodontic treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare the cytotoxicity of two resin cements (Panavia F2 and Rely X Plus) versus zinc phosphate cement (Harvard) using rat L929-fibroblasts in vitro. In this experimental study, ninety hollow glass cylinders (internal diameter 5-mm, height 2-mm) were made and divided into three groups. Each group was filled with one of three experimental cements; Harvard Zinc Phosphate cement, Panavia F2 resin cement and Rely X Plus resin cement. L929- Fibroblast were passaged and subsequently cultured in 6-well plates of 5×10(5) cells each. The culture medium was RPMI_ 1640. All samples were incubated in CO2. Using enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA) and (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay, the cytotoxicity of the cements was investigated at 1 hour, 24 hours and one week post exposure. Statistical analyses were performed via two-way ANOVA and honestly significant difference (HSD) Tukey tests. This study revealed significant differences between the three cements at the different time intervals. Harvard cement displayed the greatest cytotoxicity at all three intervals. After 1 hour Panavia F2 showed the next greatest cytotoxicity, but after 24-hours and oneweek intervals Rely X Plus showed the next greatest cytotoxicity. The results further showed that cytotoxicity decreased significantly in the Panavia F2 group with time (p<0.005), cytotoxicity increased significantly in the Rely X Plus group with time (p<0.001), and the Harvard cement group failed to

  20. Drugs with anti-oxidant properties can interfere with cell viability measurements by assays that rely on the reducing property of viable cells.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Niraj; Stenson, Mary; Lawson, Joshua; Abeykoon, Jithma; Patnaik, Mrinal; Wu, Xiaosheng; Witzig, Thomas

    2017-02-27

    Cell viability assays such as Cell Titer Blue and Alamar Blue rely on the reducing property of viable cells to reduce the reagent dye to a product which gives a fluorescent signal. The current manufacture-recommended protocols do not take into account the possibility of the reagent substrate being reduced directly to the fluorescent product by drugs with an anti-oxidant property. After suspecting spurious results while determining the cytotoxic potential of a drug of interest (DOI) with known anti-oxidant property against a renal cell cancer (RCC) cell line, we aimed to establish that drugs with anti-oxidant property can indeed cause false-negative results with the current protocols of these assays by direct reduction of the reagent substrate. We also aimed to counter the same with a simple modification added to the protocol. Through our experiments, we conclusively demonstrate that drugs with anti-oxidant properties can indeed interfere with cell viability measurements by assays that rely on the reducing property of viable cells. A simple modification in the protocol, as elaborated in the manuscript, can prevent spurious results with these otherwise convenient assays.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 27 February 2017; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2017.18.

  1. A series of meta-analytic tests of the depletion effect: Self-control does not seem to rely on a limited resource.

    PubMed

    Carter, Evan C; Kofler, Lilly M; Forster, Daniel E; McCullough, Michael E

    2015-08-01

    Failures of self-control are thought to underlie various important behaviors (e.g., addiction, violence, obesity, poor academic achievement). The modern conceptualization of self-control failure has been heavily influenced by the idea that self-control functions as if it relied upon a limited physiological or cognitive resource. This view of self-control has inspired hundreds of experiments designed to test the prediction that acts of self-control are more likely to fail when they follow previous acts of self-control (the depletion effect). Here, we evaluated the empirical evidence for this effect with a series of focused, meta-analytic tests that address the limitations in prior appraisals of the evidence. We find very little evidence that the depletion effect is a real phenomenon, at least when assessed with the methods most frequently used in the laboratory. Our results strongly challenge the idea that self-control functions as if it relies on a limited psychological or physical resource. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Questions about complementary and alternative medicine to the Regional Medicines Information and Pharmacovigilance Centres in Norway (RELIS): a descriptive pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Provision of clinically relevant information about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to health care professionals is not well described. The aim of the study was to assess questions about CAM to the Regional Medicines Information and Pharmacovigilance Centres in Norway (RELIS). Methods All question-answers pairs (QAPs) in the RELIS database indexed with alternative medicine from 2005-2010 constituted the study material. A randomly selected sample of 100 QAPs was characterized with regard to type of question (category, patient-specific or general), occupation and workplace of enquirer, the type of information search performed (simple or advanced), and if the answers contained information to provide factual or consultative replies (facts about or advice on clinical use of CAM, respectively). Proportions were compared with Fisher’s exact test with significance at the 0.05 level. Results One thousand and thirty-eight (7.7%) out of 13 482 questions involved CAM. Eighty-two out of 100 questions concerned products containing one or more herbs, vitamins and minerals as well as other substances. Thirty-eight out of 100 questions concerned the category documentation (substance identification and/or literature reports about clinical effects), 36 interactions, 16 adverse effects, 9 pregnancy and lactation, and 1 question concerned contraindications. Sixty-three questions were patient-specific and 37 general. Fifty-four questions came from physicians, 33 from pharmacists and 13 from others (including nurses, midwives, students, CAM practitioners, and the public). Pharmacists asked more frequently about interactions while physicians asked more frequently about adverse effects (p < 0.05). Seventy-six of the questions came from outside hospital, mainly general practice and community pharmacies. Fifty-nine answers were based on a simple and 41 on an advanced information search. Thirty-three factual and 38 consultative answers were provided. In 29 answers

  3. On why not to rush older adults—relying on reactive cognitive control can effectively reduce errors at the expense of slowed responses

    PubMed Central

    CZERNOCHOWSKI, DANIELA; NESSLER, DOREEN; FRIEDMAN, DAVID

    2013-01-01

    According to the dual-mechanisms of cognitive control framework (DMC), older adults rely predominantly on reactive as opposed to proactive control. As a result, we expected elevated response conflict for older relative to younger adults with increasing task difficulty. Response-locked ERP activity was examined separately for fast and slow responses (representing proactive and reactive control, respectively) at low, medium, and high levels of difficulty. Older adults recruited reactive control more often than the young, as reflected by increased behavioral costs and enhanced pre-response negativity (PRN). No age differences in conflict detection (medial frontal negativity, MFN) were evident at low levels of difficulty, but response conflict increased along with difficulty for older adults. These data provide empirical support for the DMC suggesting that aging is associated with a less efficient reactive-control mode of processing. PMID:20136730

  4. Influence of secreted frizzled receptor protein 1 (SFRP1) on neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple negative breast cancer does not rely on WNT signaling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by lack of expression of both estrogen and progesterone receptor as well as lack of overexpression or amplification of HER2. Despite an increased probability of response to chemotherapy, many patients resistant to current chemotherapy regimens suffer from a worse prognosis compared to other breast cancer subtypes. However, molecular determinants of response to chemotherapy specific to TNBC remain largely unknown. Thus, there is a high demand for biomarkers potentially stratifying triple negative breast cancer patients for neoadjuvant chemotherapies or alternative therapies. Methods In order to identify genes correlating with both the triple negative breast cancer subtype as well as response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy we employed publicly available gene expression profiles of patients, which had received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Analysis of tissue microarrays as well as breast cancer cell lines revealed correlation to the triple negative breast cancer subtype. Subsequently, effects of siRNA-mediated knockdown on response to standard chemotherapeutic agents as well as radiation therapy were analyzed. Additionally, we evaluated the molecular mechanisms by which SFRP1 alters the carcinogenic properties of breast cancer cells. Results SFRP1 was identified as being significantly overexpressed in TNBC compared to other breast cancer subtypes. Additionally, SFRP1 expression is significantly correlated with an increased probability of positive response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Knockdown of SFRP1 in triple negative breast cancer cells renders the cells more resistant to standard chemotherapy. Moreover, tumorigenic properties of the cells are modified by knockdown, as shown by both migration or invasion capacity as well reduced apoptotic events. Surprisingly, we found that these effects do not rely on Wnt signaling. Furthermore, we show that pro-apoptotic as well as migratory pathways are differentially

  5. [Dabigatran versus warfarin for the prevention of stroke in Chinese patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: Chinese subpopulation analysis of RE-LY].

    PubMed

    Gao, X; Yang, Y M; Zhu, J; Dai, Y; Tan, H Q

    2016-11-24

    Objective: This analysis was performed to evaluate the efficacy in stroke prevention and safety of dabigatran in Chinese nonvalvular atrial fibrillation(NVAF) patients enrolled in RE-LY trial. Methods: RE-LY was an prospective, open-label, randomized, multicenter study. From March 2006 to March 2009, 541 atrial fibrillation patients at risk of stroke were recruited from 13 medical centers in China. Patients randomly received, in a blinded fashion, fixed doses of dabigatran-110 mg or 150 mg twice daily or, in an unblinded fashion, adjusted-dose warfarin. The primary efficacy endpoint was stroke or systemic embolism. The primary safety endpoint was major bleeding. Results: The incidence of stroke in the Chinese subpopulation was 1.94% per year(7 cases) in the group that received 110 mg of dabigatran (dabigatran 110) and 1.10% per year(4 cases) in the group that received 150 mg of dabigatran (dabigatran 150), as compared with 2.87% per year (10 cases) in warfarin group . Incidence of ischemic stroke was 1.11% per year(4 patients) in dabigatran 110 group, 0.82% per year(3 cases) in dabigatran 150 group and 2.01% per year(7 patients) in warfarin group. Incidence of hemorrhagic stroke was 0.28% per year(1 case) in dabigatran 110 group, 0.27% per year(1 case) in dabigatran 150 group and 0.57% per year(2 cases) in warfarin group. All-cause mortality was similar among the three treatment groups: 3.33% per year(12 cases) in dabigatran 110, 2.19% per year(8 cases) in dabigatran 150 and 2.58% per year(9 cases) in warfarin group. Incidence of major bleeding event was 0.56% per year(2 cases) in both dabigatran groups, as compared with 1.43% per year(5 cases) in warfarin group. Gastrointestinal disorders such as dyspepsia occurred in 12.8% patients of both dabigatran groups, and in 5.6% patients of warfarin group. Conclusions: Despite the descriptive statistical analysis in nature of present study due to the limited number of subjects, our subgroup analysis implies that like

  6. Predictive model of the prostate motion in the context of radiotherapy: A biomechanical approach relying on urodynamic data and mechanical testing.

    PubMed

    Boubaker, Mohamed Bader; Haboussi, Mohamed; Ganghoffer, Jean-François; Aletti, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a biomechanical approach relying on urodynamic data and mechanical tests is proposed for an accurate prediction of the motion of the pelvic organs in the context of the prostate radiotherapy. As a first step, an experimental protocol is elaborated to characterize the mechanical properties of the bladder and rectum wall tissues; uniaxial tensile tests are performed on porcine substrates. In a second step, the parameters of Ogden-type hyperelastic constitutive models are identified; their relevance in the context of the implementation of a human biomechanical model is verified by means of preliminary Finite Elements (FE) simulations against human urodynamic data. In a third step, the identified constitutive equations are employed for the simulations of the motion and interactions of the pelvic organs due to concomitant changes of the distension volumes of the urinary bladder and rectum. The effectiveness of the developed biomechanical model is demonstrated in investigating the motion of the bladder, rectum and prostate organs; the results in terms of displacements are shown to be in good agreement with measurements inherent to a deceased person, with a relative error close to 6%.

  7. When Excessive Perturbation Goes Wrong and Why IPUMS-International Relies Instead on Sampling, Suppression, Swapping, and Other Minimally Harmful Methods to Protect Privacy of Census Microdata

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Lara; McCaa, Robert; Ruggles, Steven; Sobek, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    IPUMS-International disseminates population census microdata at no cost for 69 countries. Currently, a series of 212 samples totaling almost a half billion person records are available to researchers. Registration is required for researchers to gain access to the microdata. Statistics from Google Analytics show that IPUMS-International’s lengthy, probing registration form is an effective deterrent for unqualified applicants. To protect data privacy, we rely principally on sampling, suppression of geographic detail, swapping of records across geographic boundaries, and other minimally harmful methods such as top and bottom coding. We do not use excessively perturbative methods. A recent case of perturbation gone wrong— the household samples of the 2000 census of the USA (PUMS), the 2003–2006 American Community Survey, and the 2004–2009 Current Population Survey—, an empirical study of the impact of perturbation on the usability of UK census microdata—the Individual SARs of the 1991 census of the UK—, and a mathematical demonstration in a timely compendium of statistical confidentiality practices confirm the wisdom of IPUMS microdata management protocols and statistical disclosure controls.

  8. Induction of the Alternative NF-κB Pathway by Lymphotoxin αβ (LTαβ) Relies on Internalization of LTβ Receptor ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Ganeff, Corinne; Remouchamps, Caroline; Boutaffala, Layla; Benezech, Cécile; Galopin, Géraldine; Vandepaer, Sarah; Bouillenne, Fabrice; Ormenese, Sandra; Chariot, Alain; Schneider, Pascal; Caamaño, Jorge; Piette, Jacques; Dejardin, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Several tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family members activate both the classical and the alternative NF-κB pathways. However, how a single receptor engages these two distinct pathways is still poorly understood. Using lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) as a prototype, we showed that activation of the alternative, but not the classical, NF-κB pathway relied on internalization of the receptor. Further molecular analyses revealed a specific cytosolic region of LTβR essential for its internalization, TRAF3 recruitment, and p100 processing. Interestingly, we found that dynamin-dependent, but clathrin-independent, internalization of LTβR appeared to be required for the activation of the alternative, but not the classical, NF-κB pathway. In vivo, ligand-induced internalization of LTβR in mesenteric lymph node stromal cells correlated with induction of alternative NF-κB target genes. Thus, our data shed light on LTβR cellular trafficking as a process required for specific biological functions of NF-κB. PMID:21896778

  9. Induction of the alternative NF-κB pathway by lymphotoxin αβ (LTαβ) relies on internalization of LTβ receptor.

    PubMed

    Ganeff, Corinne; Remouchamps, Caroline; Boutaffala, Layla; Benezech, Cécile; Galopin, Géraldine; Vandepaer, Sarah; Bouillenne, Fabrice; Ormenese, Sandra; Chariot, Alain; Schneider, Pascal; Caamaño, Jorge; Piette, Jacques; Dejardin, Emmanuel

    2011-11-01

    Several tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family members activate both the classical and the alternative NF-κB pathways. However, how a single receptor engages these two distinct pathways is still poorly understood. Using lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) as a prototype, we showed that activation of the alternative, but not the classical, NF-κB pathway relied on internalization of the receptor. Further molecular analyses revealed a specific cytosolic region of LTβR essential for its internalization, TRAF3 recruitment, and p100 processing. Interestingly, we found that dynamin-dependent, but clathrin-independent, internalization of LTβR appeared to be required for the activation of the alternative, but not the classical, NF-κB pathway. In vivo, ligand-induced internalization of LTβR in mesenteric lymph node stromal cells correlated with induction of alternative NF-κB target genes. Thus, our data shed light on LTβR cellular trafficking as a process required for specific biological functions of NF-κB.

  10. Moralized Rationality: Relying on Logic and Evidence in the Formation and Evaluation of Belief Can Be Seen as a Moral Issue.

    PubMed

    Ståhl, Tomas; Zaal, Maarten P; Skitka, Linda J

    2016-01-01

    In the present article we demonstrate stable individual differences in the extent to which a reliance on logic and evidence in the formation and evaluation of beliefs is perceived as a moral virtue, and a reliance on less rational processes is perceived as a vice. We refer to this individual difference variable as moralized rationality. Eight studies are reported in which an instrument to measure individual differences in moralized rationality is validated. Results show that the Moralized Rationality Scale (MRS) is internally consistent, and captures something distinct from the personal importance people attach to being rational (Studies 1-3). Furthermore, the MRS has high test-retest reliability (Study 4), is conceptually distinct from frequently used measures of individual differences in moral values, and it is negatively related to common beliefs that are not supported by scientific evidence (Study 5). We further demonstrate that the MRS predicts morally laden reactions, such as a desire for punishment, of people who rely on irrational (vs. rational) ways of forming and evaluating beliefs (Studies 6 and 7). Finally, we show that the MRS uniquely predicts motivation to contribute to a charity that works to prevent the spread of irrational beliefs (Study 8). We conclude that (1) there are stable individual differences in the extent to which people moralize a reliance on rationality in the formation and evaluation of beliefs, (2) that these individual differences do not reduce to the personal importance attached to rationality, and (3) that individual differences in moralized rationality have important motivational and interpersonal consequences.

  11. Maximal T cell-mediated antitumor responses rely upon CCR5 expression in both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells.

    PubMed

    González-Martín, Alicia; Gómez, Lucio; Lustgarten, Joseph; Mira, Emilia; Mañes, Santos

    2011-08-15

    Immune responses against cancer rely upon leukocyte trafficking patterns that are coordinated by chemokines. CCR5, the receptor for chemotactic chemokines MIP1alpha, MIP1beta, and RANTES (CCL3, CCL4, CCL5), exerts major regulatory effects on CD4(+)- and CD8(+) T cell-mediated immunity. Although CCR5 and its ligands participate in the response to various pathogens, its relevance to tumoral immune control has been debated. Here, we report that CCR5 has a specific, ligand-dependent role in optimizing antitumor responses. In adoptive transfer studies, efficient tumor rejection required CCR5 expression by both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. CCR5 activation in CD4(+) cells resulted in CD40L upregulation, leading to full maturation of antigen-presenting cells and enhanced CD8(+) T-cell crosspriming and tumor infiltration. CCR5 reduced chemical-induced fibrosarcoma incidence and growth, but did not affect the onset or progression of spontaneous breast cancers in tolerogenic Tg(MMTV-neu) mice. However, CCR5 was required for TLR9-mediated reactivation of antineu responses in these mice. Our results indicate that CCR5 boosts T-cell responses to tumors by modulating helper-dependent CD8(+) T-cell activation.

  12. A Feminist Intervention That Hurt Women: Biological Differences, Ergonomics, and Occupational Health: Une intervention féministe qui a nui aux femmes: différences biologiques, égalité, ergonomie et santé au travail.

    PubMed

    Messing, Karen

    2017-01-01

    The University of Québec in Montréal has agreements with trade unions providing access to university resources. Researchers involved in this program worked in partnership with union women's and health and safety committees for more than twenty years. Not all studies succeeded in improving women's working conditions. One joint project involved observational studies of tasks done by health-care workers, complemented by interviews and questionnaires. We found that task assignments, movements, postures, and work-related musculoskeletal disorders varied by gender/sex and made recommendations for change. However, issues of pay equity, spending on health care, and contracting-out of "ancillary work" were salient. Researchers learned that in the absence of changes in power relationships in the workplace, women may be disadvantaged by denial as well as by exaggeration of female-male differences. Men may also be at risk when their gender is invisible. We suggest some feminist approaches to workplace solutions and some pathways for research. Résumé L'Université du Québec à Montréal a signé avec des centrales syndicales des ententes leur donnant un accès à des ressources universitaires. Des chercheures ont travaillé en partenariat avec des comités syndicaux de condition des femmes et de santé-sécurité au travail pendant plus de 25 ans, mais ce ne sont pas toutes les études qui ont abouti à des améliorations. Un projet concernait des observations du travail d'employé.e.s du secteur de la santé, dont les tâches, mouvements, et postures variaient selon le genre/sexe. Nous avons recommandé des transformations, mais des enjeux d'équité salariale, de coûts et de sous-traitance y ont fait obstacle. Les chercheures ont appris qu'en l'absence de transformation des rapports de pouvoir au travail, le déni des différences hommes-femmes, autant que leur exagération, peut désavantager les travailleuses (et les travailleurs). Nous suggérons des approches f

  13. Moralized Rationality: Relying on Logic and Evidence in the Formation and Evaluation of Belief Can Be Seen as a Moral Issue

    PubMed Central

    Skitka, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    In the present article we demonstrate stable individual differences in the extent to which a reliance on logic and evidence in the formation and evaluation of beliefs is perceived as a moral virtue, and a reliance on less rational processes is perceived as a vice. We refer to this individual difference variable as moralized rationality. Eight studies are reported in which an instrument to measure individual differences in moralized rationality is validated. Results show that the Moralized Rationality Scale (MRS) is internally consistent, and captures something distinct from the personal importance people attach to being rational (Studies 1–3). Furthermore, the MRS has high test-retest reliability (Study 4), is conceptually distinct from frequently used measures of individual differences in moral values, and it is negatively related to common beliefs that are not supported by scientific evidence (Study 5). We further demonstrate that the MRS predicts morally laden reactions, such as a desire for punishment, of people who rely on irrational (vs. rational) ways of forming and evaluating beliefs (Studies 6 and 7). Finally, we show that the MRS uniquely predicts motivation to contribute to a charity that works to prevent the spread of irrational beliefs (Study 8). We conclude that (1) there are stable individual differences in the extent to which people moralize a reliance on rationality in the formation and evaluation of beliefs, (2) that these individual differences do not reduce to the personal importance attached to rationality, and (3) that individual differences in moralized rationality have important motivational and interpersonal consequences. PMID:27851777

  14. Audiovisual speech integration does not rely on the motor system: evidence from articulatory suppression, the McGurk effect, and fMRI.

    PubMed

    Matchin, William; Groulx, Kier; Hickok, Gregory

    2014-03-01

    Visual speech influences the perception of heard speech. A classic example of this is the McGurk effect, whereby an auditory /pa/ overlaid onto a visual /ka/ induces the fusion percept of /ta/. Recent behavioral and neuroimaging research has highlighted the importance of both articulatory representations and motor speech regions of the brain, particularly Broca's area, in audiovisual (AV) speech integration. Alternatively, AV speech integration may be accomplished by the sensory system through multisensory integration in the posterior STS. We assessed the claims regarding the involvement of the motor system in AV integration in two experiments: (i) examining the effect of articulatory suppression on the McGurk effect and (ii) determining if motor speech regions show an AV integration profile. The hypothesis regarding experiment (i) is that if the motor system plays a role in McGurk fusion, distracting the motor system through articulatory suppression should result in a reduction of McGurk fusion. The results of experiment (i) showed that articulatory suppression results in no such reduction, suggesting that the motor system is not responsible for the McGurk effect. The hypothesis of experiment (ii) was that if the brain activation to AV speech in motor regions (such as Broca's area) reflects AV integration, the profile of activity should reflect AV integration: AV > AO (auditory only) and AV > VO (visual only). The results of experiment (ii) demonstrate that motor speech regions do not show this integration profile, whereas the posterior STS does. Instead, activity in motor regions is task dependent. The combined results suggest that AV speech integration does not rely on the motor system.

  15. Stepped MS(All) Relied Transition (SMART): An approach to rapidly determine optimal multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry parameters for small molecules.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hui; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Lin; Liu, Huiying; Zhang, Jun; Wu, Mengqiu; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Haiping

    2016-02-11

    Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) is a universal approach for quantitative analysis because of its high specificity and sensitivity. Nevertheless, optimization of MRM parameters remains as a time and labor-intensive task particularly in multiplexed quantitative analysis of small molecules in complex mixtures. In this study, we have developed an approach named Stepped MS(All) Relied Transition (SMART) to predict the optimal MRM parameters of small molecules. SMART requires firstly a rapid and high-throughput analysis of samples using a Stepped MS(All) technique (sMS(All)) on a Q-TOF, which consists of serial MS(All) events acquired from low CE to gradually stepped-up CE values in a cycle. The optimal CE values can then be determined by comparing the extracted ion chromatograms for the ion pairs of interest among serial scans. The SMART-predicted parameters were found to agree well with the parameters optimized on a triple quadrupole from the same vendor using a mixture of standards. The parameters optimized on a triple quadrupole from a different vendor was also employed for comparison, and found to be linearly correlated with the SMART-predicted parameters, suggesting the potential applications of the SMART approach among different instrumental platforms. This approach was further validated by applying to simultaneous quantification of 31 herbal components in the plasma of rats treated with a herbal prescription. Because the sMS(All) acquisition can be accomplished in a single run for multiple components independent of standards, the SMART approach are expected to find its wide application in the multiplexed quantitative analysis of complex mixtures.

  16. The Paradoxical Effect of Echinocandins in Aspergillus fumigatus Relies on Recovery of the β-1,3-Glucan Synthase Fks1.

    PubMed

    Loiko, Veronika; Wagener, Johannes

    2017-02-01

    Echinocandins target the fungal cell wall by inhibiting biosynthesis of the cell wall carbohydrate β-1,3-glucan. This antifungal drug class exhibits a paradoxical effect that is characterized by the resumption of growth of otherwise susceptible strains at higher drug concentrations (approximately 4 to 32 μg/ml). The nature of this phenomenon is still unknown. In this study, we analyzed the paradoxical effect of the echinocandin caspofungin on the pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus Using a conditional fks1 mutant, we show that very high caspofungin concentrations exert an additional antifungal activity besides inhibition of the β-1,3-glucan synthase. This activity could explain the suppression of paradoxical growth at very high caspofungin concentrations. Additionally, we found that exposure to inhibitory caspofungin concentrations always causes initial growth deprivation independently of the capability of the drug concentration to induce the paradoxical effect. Paradoxically growing hyphae emerge from microcolonies essentially devoid of β-1,3-glucan. However, these hyphae expose β-1,3-glucan again, suggesting that β-1,3-glucan synthesis is restored. In agreement with this hypothesis, we found that expression of the β-1,3-glucan synthase Fks1 is an essential requirement for the paradoxical effect. Surprisingly, overexpression of fks1 renders A. fumigatus more susceptible, whereas reduced expression leads to hyphae that are more resistant to the growth-inhibitory and limited fungicidal activity of caspofungin. Upregulation of chitin synthesis appears to be of minor importance for the paradoxical effect, since paradoxically growing hyphae exhibit significantly less chitin than the growth-deprived parental microcolonies. Our results argue for a model where the paradoxical effect primarily relies on recovery of β-1,3-glucan synthase activity.

  17. Can grass phytoliths and indices be relied on during vegetation and climate interpretations in the eastern Himalayas? Studies from Darjeeling and Arunachal Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Oindrila; Ghosh, Ruby; Paruya, Dipak Kumar; Mukherjee, Biswajit; Thapa, Kishore Kumar; Bera, Subir

    2016-02-01

    While documenting the vegetation response to climatic changes in mountains, the use of grass phytolith data relies on the ability of phytolith assemblages or indices to differentiate the elevationally stratified vegetation zones. To infer the potential and limitations of grass phytolith assemblages and indices to reconstruct vegetation vis-à-vis climate in the Himalayan mountain regions, we analyzed phytolith assemblages from 66 dominant grasses and 153 surface soils from four different forest types along the c. 130-4000 m a.s.l. elevation gradients in the Darjeeling and Arunachal Himalayas. Grass short cell phytolith assemblages from modern grasses show significant variability with rising elevation. To test the reliability of the above observation, phytoliths from the soil samples were subjected to linear discriminant analysis (DA). DA classified 85.3% and 92.3% of the sites to their correct forest zones in the Darjeeling and Arunachal Himalayas respectively. Relative abundance of bilobate, cross, short saddle, plateau saddle, rondel and trapeziform types allow discrimination of the phytolith assemblage along the elevation gradient. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) on the soil phytolith data further revealed their relationships with the climatic variables. Temperature and evapotranspiration were found to be the most influential for differential distribution of grass phytolith assemblages with rising elevation in the eastern Himalayas. We also tested the reliability of phytolith indices (Ic, Iph and Fs) for tracing the dominance of different grass subfamilies in the eastern Himalayas. Ic proved to be most reliable in discriminating C3/C4 grass along the elevation gradient while Iph and Fs proved to be less reliable. We observed that in the monsoon dominated eastern Himalayas, a little adjustment in Ic index may enhance the accuracy of interpretations. In future studies more precise identification of phytolith sub-types from additional sites in the eastern

  18. How and When Do Insects Rely on Endogenous Protein and Lipid Resources during Lethal Bouts of Starvation? A New Application for 13C-Breath testing.

    PubMed

    McCue, Marshall D; Guzman, R Marena; Passement, Celeste A; Davidowitz, Goggy

    2015-01-01

    Most of our understanding about the physiology of fasting and starvation comes from studies of vertebrates; however, for ethical reasons, studies that monitor vertebrates through the lethal endpoint are scant. Insects are convenient models to characterize the comparative strategies used to cope with starvation because they have diverse life histories and have evolved under the omnipresent challenge of food limitation. Moreover, we can study the physiology of starvation through its natural endpoint. In this study we raised populations of five species of insects (adult grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches, and larval beetles and moths) on diets labeled with either 13C-palmitic acid or 13C-leucine to isotopically enrich the lipids or the proteins in their bodies, respectively. The insects were allowed to become postabsorptive and then starved. We periodically measured the δ13C of the exhaled breath to characterize how each species adjusted their reliance on endogenous lipids and proteins as energy sources. We found that starving insects employ a wide range of strategies for regulating lipid and protein oxidation. All of the insects except for the beetle larvae were capable of sharply reducing reliance on protein oxidation; however, this protein sparing strategy was usually unsustainable during the entire starvation period. All insects increased their reliance on lipid oxidation, but while some species (grasshoppers, cockroaches, and beetle larvae) were still relying extensively on lipids at the time of death, other species (crickets and moth larvae) allowed rates of lipid oxidation to return to prestarvation levels. Although lipids and proteins are critical metabolic fuels for both vertebrates and insects, insects apparently exhibit a much wider range of strategies for rationing these limited resources during starvation.

  19. How and When Do Insects Rely on Endogenous Protein and Lipid Resources during Lethal Bouts of Starvation? A New Application for 13C-Breath testing

    PubMed Central

    McCue, Marshall D.; Guzman, R. Marena; Passement, Celeste A.; Davidowitz, Goggy

    2015-01-01

    Most of our understanding about the physiology of fasting and starvation comes from studies of vertebrates; however, for ethical reasons, studies that monitor vertebrates through the lethal endpoint are scant. Insects are convenient models to characterize the comparative strategies used to cope with starvation because they have diverse life histories and have evolved under the omnipresent challenge of food limitation. Moreover, we can study the physiology of starvation through its natural endpoint. In this study we raised populations of five species of insects (adult grasshoppers, crickets, cockroaches, and larval beetles and moths) on diets labeled with either 13C-palmitic acid or 13C-leucine to isotopically enrich the lipids or the proteins in their bodies, respectively. The insects were allowed to become postabsorptive and then starved. We periodically measured the δ13C of the exhaled breath to characterize how each species adjusted their reliance on endogenous lipids and proteins as energy sources. We found that starving insects employ a wide range of strategies for regulating lipid and protein oxidation. All of the insects except for the beetle larvae were capable of sharply reducing reliance on protein oxidation; however, this protein sparing strategy was usually unsustainable during the entire starvation period. All insects increased their reliance on lipid oxidation, but while some species (grasshoppers, cockroaches, and beetle larvae) were still relying extensively on lipids at the time of death, other species (crickets and moth larvae) allowed rates of lipid oxidation to return to prestarvation levels. Although lipids and proteins are critical metabolic fuels for both vertebrates and insects, insects apparently exhibit a much wider range of strategies for rationing these limited resources during starvation. PMID:26465334

  20. Cytosolic NADPH Homeostasis in Glucose-starved Procyclic Trypanosoma brucei Relies on Malic Enzyme and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway Fed by Gluconeogenic Flux*

    PubMed Central

    Allmann, Stefan; Morand, Pauline; Ebikeme, Charles; Gales, Lara; Biran, Marc; Hubert, Jane; Brennand, Ana; Mazet, Muriel; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Michels, Paul A. M.; Portais, Jean-Charles; Boshart, Michael; Bringaud, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    All living organisms depend on NADPH production to feed essential biosyntheses and for oxidative stress defense. Protozoan parasites such as the sleeping sickness pathogen Trypanosoma brucei adapt to different host environments, carbon sources, and oxidative stresses during their infectious life cycle. The procyclic stage develops in the midgut of the tsetse insect vector, where they rely on proline as carbon source, although they prefer glucose when grown in rich media. Here, we investigate the flexible and carbon source-dependent use of NADPH synthesis pathways in the cytosol of the procyclic stage. The T. brucei genome encodes two cytosolic NADPH-producing pathways, the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and the NADP-dependent malic enzyme (MEc). Reverse genetic blocking of those pathways and a specific inhibitor (dehydroepiandrosterone) of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase together established redundancy with respect to H2O2 stress management and parasite growth. Blocking both pathways resulted in ∼10-fold increase of susceptibility to H2O2 stress and cell death. Unexpectedly, the same pathway redundancy was observed in glucose-rich and glucose-depleted conditions, suggesting that gluconeogenesis can feed the PPP to provide NADPH. This was confirmed by (i) a lethal phenotype of RNAi-mediated depletion of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (PGI) in the glucose-depleted Δmec/Δmec null background, (ii) an ∼10-fold increase of susceptibility to H2O2 stress observed for the Δmec/Δmec/RNAiPGI double mutant when compared with the single mutants, and (iii) the 13C enrichment of glycolytic and PPP intermediates from cells incubated with [U-13C]proline, in the absence of glucose. Gluconeogenesis-supported NADPH supply may also be important for nucleotide and glycoconjugate syntheses in the insect host. PMID:23665470

  1. Biological adhesion of the flatworm Macrostomum lignano relies on a duo-gland system and is mediated by a cell type-specific intermediate filament protein

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Free-living flatworms, in both marine and freshwater environments, are able to adhere to and release from a substrate several times within a second. This reversible adhesion relies on adhesive organs comprised of three cell types: an adhesive gland cell, a releasing gland cell, and an anchor cell, which is a modified epidermal cell responsible for structural support. However, nothing is currently known about the molecules that are involved in this adhesion process. Results In this study we present the detailed morphology of the adhesive organs of the free-living marine flatworm Macrostomum lignano. About 130 adhesive organs are located in a horse-shoe-shaped arc along the ventral side of the tail plate. Each organ consists of exactly three cells, an adhesive gland cell, a releasing gland cell, and an anchor cell. The necks of the two gland cells penetrate the anchor cell through a common pore. Modified microvilli of the anchor cell form a collar surrounding the necks of the adhesive- and releasing glands, jointly forming the papilla, the outer visible part of the adhesive organs. Next, we identified an intermediate filament (IF) gene, macif1, which is expressed in the anchor cells. RNA interference mediated knock-down resulted in the first experimentally induced non-adhesion phenotype in any marine animal. Specifically, the absence of intermediate filaments in the anchor cells led to papillae with open tips, a reduction of the cytoskeleton network, a decline in hemidesmosomal connections, and to shortened microvilli containing less actin. Conclusion Our findings reveal an elaborate biological adhesion system in a free-living flatworm, which permits impressively rapid temporary adhesion-release performance in the marine environment. We demonstrate that the structural integrity of the supportive cell, the anchor cell, is essential for this adhesion process: the knock-down of the anchor cell-specific intermediate filament gene resulted in the inability of

  2. An optimized single chain TCR scaffold relying on the assembly with the native CD3-complex prevents residual mispairing with endogenous TCRs in human T-cells

    PubMed Central

    Knies, Diana; Klobuch, Sebastian; Xue, Shao-An; Birtel, Matthias; Echchannaoui, Hakim; Yildiz, Oezlem; Omokoko, Tana; Guillaume, Philippe; Romero, Pedro; Stauss, Hans; Sahin, Ugur; Herr, Wolfgang; Theobald, Matthias; Thomas, Simone; Voss, Ralf-Holger

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy of cancer envisions the adoptive transfer of T-cells genetically engineered with tumor-specific heterodimeric α/β T-cell receptors (TCRα/β). However, potential mispairing of introduced TCRα/β-chains with endogenous β/α-ones may evoke unpredictable autoimmune reactivities. A novel single chain (sc)TCR format relies on the fusion of the Vα-Linker-Vβ-fragment to the TCR Cβ-domain and coexpression of the TCR Cα-domain capable of recruiting the natural CD3-complex for full and hence, native T-cell signaling. Here, we tested whether such a gp100(280-288)- or p53(264-272) tumor antigen-specific scTCR is still prone to mispairing with TCRα. In a human Jurkat-76 T-cell line lacking endogenous TCRs, surface expression and function of a scTCR could be reconstituted by any cointroduced TCRα-chain indicating mispairing to take place on a molecular basis. In contrast, transduction into human TCRα/β-positive T-cells revealed that mispairing is largely reduced. Competition experiments in Jurkat-76 confirmed the preference of dcTCR to selfpair and to spare scTCR. This also allowed for the generation of dc/scTCR-modified cytomegalovirus/tumor antigen-bispecific T-cells to augment T-cell activation in CMV-infected tumor patients. Residual mispairing was prevented by strenghtening the Vα-Li-Vβ-fragment through the design of a novel disulfide bond between a Vα- and a linker-resident residue close to Vβ. Multimer-stainings, and cytotoxicity-, IFNγ-secretion-, and CFSE-proliferation-assays, the latter towards dendritic cells endogenously processing RNA-electroporated gp100 antigen proved the absence of hybrid scTCR/TCRα-formation without impairing avidity of scTCR/Cα in T-cells. Moreover, a fragile cytomegalovirus pp65(495-503)-specific scTCR modified this way acquired enhanced cytotoxicity. Thus, optimized scTCR/Cα inhibits residual TCR mispairing to accomplish safe adoptive immunotherapy for bulk endogenous TCRα/β-positive T-cells. PMID:27028870

  3. [Analysis of EDS fingerprint spectra of mineral drug montmorillonite powder relying on dual index grade sequence individualized pattern recognition method and their quickly quality evaluation].

    PubMed

    Zou, Hua-Bin; Ayiguzaili; Ablimiti; Zhai, Hong

    2013-12-01

    EDS(energy dispersive spectrometer) element fingerprint spectra is able to quickly measure the kinds and the contents of elements in any mineral drug. In dual index grade sequence individualized pattern recognition method, common (quantity) index and variation (quantity) index ratios of any two samples' fingerprint spectra are calculated, and the individualized dual index sequence of each sample is constructed relying on its own EDS fingerprint spectra as the reference. Then the mean common (quantity) index ratio P and the standard deviation S of all samples in each sample's individualized dual index sequence are computed. On this basis, for each sample, its own similarity scale function P> or =P+xS is built up. By this function, the optimum x suitable for optimized classification/cluster of all samples is determined, and the individualized characteristics sequence of one sample, to which samples in the individualized characteristics sequence are significantly similar, is decided also. Finally, depending on these individualized characteristics sequences, the optimized classification/cluster of all samples can be carried out perfectly without any prior knowledge related to them. This method is not only suitable for the quantitative analysis on fingerprint spectra being of only common peaks, but also fits for that being of both common and variant peaks. In this study, the EDS element fingerprint spectra of seven mineral drug montmorillonite powder samples from different companies were detected. Then common (quantity) index and variant (quantity) index ratios of peak area (or contents of majorly active element Fe, Al, Ca, Mg, Si) among different EDS fingerprint spectra were obtained. In the similarity scale function P> or =P+xS, when x= 0. 5, these seven mineral drug montmorillonite powder samples could be quickly identified with high resolution, be classified into two groups, and their quality could be evaluated precisely. In general EDS element fingerprint spectra

  4. An optimized single chain TCR scaffold relying on the assembly with the native CD3-complex prevents residual mispairing with endogenous TCRs in human T-cells.

    PubMed

    Knies, Diana; Klobuch, Sebastian; Xue, Shao-An; Birtel, Matthias; Echchannaoui, Hakim; Yildiz, Oezlem; Omokoko, Tana; Guillaume, Philippe; Romero, Pedro; Stauss, Hans; Sahin, Ugur; Herr, Wolfgang; Theobald, Matthias; Thomas, Simone; Voss, Ralf-Holger

    2016-04-19

    Immunotherapy of cancer envisions the adoptive transfer of T-cells genetically engineered with tumor-specific heterodimeric α/β T-cell receptors (TCRα/β). However, potential mispairing of introduced TCRα/β-chains with endogenous β/α-ones may evoke unpredictable autoimmune reactivities. A novel single chain (sc)TCR format relies on the fusion of the Vα-Linker-Vβ-fragment to the TCR Cβ-domain and coexpression of the TCR Cα-domain capable of recruiting the natural CD3-complex for full and hence, native T-cell signaling. Here, we tested whether such a gp100(280-288)- or p53(264-272) tumor antigen-specific scTCR is still prone to mispairing with TCRα. In a human Jurkat-76 T-cell line lacking endogenous TCRs, surface expression and function of a scTCR could be reconstituted by any cointroduced TCRα-chain indicating mispairing to take place on a molecular basis. In contrast, transduction into human TCRα/β-positive T-cells revealed that mispairing is largely reduced. Competition experiments in Jurkat-76 confirmed the preference of dcTCR to selfpair and to spare scTCR. This also allowed for the generation of dc/scTCR-modified cytomegalovirus/tumor antigen-bispecific T-cells to augment T-cell activation in CMV-infected tumor patients. Residual mispairing was prevented by strenghtening the Vα-Li-Vβ-fragment through the design of a novel disulfide bond between a Vα- and a linker-resident residue close to Vβ. Multimer-stainings, and cytotoxicity-, IFNγ-secretion-, and CFSE-proliferation-assays, the latter towards dendritic cells endogenously processing RNA-electroporated gp100 antigen proved the absence of hybrid scTCR/TCRα-formation without impairing avidity of scTCR/Cα in T-cells. Moreover, a fragile cytomegalovirus pp65(495-503)-specific scTCR modified this way acquired enhanced cytotoxicity. Thus, optimized scTCR/Cα inhibits residual TCR mispairing to accomplish safe adoptive immunotherapy for bulk endogenous TCRα/β-positive T-cells.

  5. Growth-differentiation factor 15 and risk of major bleeding in atrial fibrillation: Insights from the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy (RE-LY) trial.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Ziad; Oldgren, Jonas; Andersson, Ulrika; Connolly, Stuart J; Eikelboom, John W; Ezekowitz, Michael D; Reilly, Paul A; Yusuf, Salim; Siegbahn, Agneta; Wallentin, Lars

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate and validate the prognostic value of growth-differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) beyond clinical characteristics and other biomarkers concerning bleeding and stroke outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation in the RE-LY trial. GDF-15 was measured in samples collected at randomization in 8,474 patients with a median follow-up time of 1.9 years. Patients were stratified based on predefined GDF-15 cutoffs: group 1, <1,200 ng/L (the 90th percentile in healthy individuals); group 2, 1,200-1,800; and group 3, >1,800 ng/L (high-risk individuals). Efficacy and safety outcomes were compared across groups of GDF-15 in Cox models adjusted for baseline characteristics, cardiac (N-terminal pro-b-type natriuretic peptide, high-sensitive troponin T), inflammatory (interleukin 6, C-reactive protein) and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers, and randomized treatment. GDF-15 concentrations were <1,200 ng/L in 2,647 (31.2%), between 1,200 and 1,800 ng/L in 2,704 (31.9%), and >1,800 ng/L in 3,123 (36.9%) participants, respectively. Annual rates of stroke, major bleeding, and mortality increased with higher GDF-15 levels. The prognostic value of GDF-15 was independent of clinical characteristics for these outcomes. In models also adjusted for biomarkers, GDF-15 remained significantly associated with major bleeding (hazard ratio [95% CI] group 3 vs group 1 1.76 [1.28-2.42], P < .0005) and all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.72 [1.30-2.29], P < .0005). GDF-15 improved the c index of both the HAS-BLED (0.62-0.69) and ORBIT (0.68-0.71) bleeding risk scores. In patients with atrial fibrillation, GDF-15 is an independent risk indicator for major bleeding and all-cause mortality, but not for stroke. Therefore, GDF-15 seems useful as a specific marker of bleeding in patients with AF on oral anticoagulant treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Energy Requirements of Odor Transduction in the Chemosensory Cilia of Olfactory Sensory Neurons Rely on Oxidative Phosphorylation and Glycolytic Processing of Extracellular Glucose.

    PubMed

    Villar, Pablo S; Delgado, Ricardo; Vergara, Cecilia; Reyes, Juan G; Bacigalupo, Juan

    2017-06-07

    the specialized sensory organelles and their small dimensions have been limiting factors. Olfactory sensory neurons chemosensory cilia are elongated, mucus embedded, fully exposed structures particularly amenable for a multidisciplinary study of this problem, as done here. We demonstrate the occurrence and functionality of glucose uptake and glycolysis in the cilia. We support that odor transduction relies on ATP generated by oxidative phosphorylation in the dendrite and glycolytically in the cilia using glucose internalized from the mucus. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/375736-08$15.00/0.

  7. Lenalidomide plus dexamethasone versus observation in patients with high-risk smouldering multiple myeloma (QuiRedex): long-term follow-up of a randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Mateos, María-Victoria; Hernández, Miguel-Teodoro; Giraldo, Pilar; de la Rubia, Javier; de Arriba, Felipe; Corral, Lucía López; Rosiñol, Laura; Paiva, Bruno; Palomera, Luis; Bargay, Joan; Oriol, Albert; Prosper, Felipe; López, Javier; Arguiñano, José-María; Quintana, Nuria; García, José-Luis; Bladé, Joan; Lahuerta, Juan-José; Miguel, Jesús-F San

    2016-08-01

    The standard of care for smouldering multiple myeloma is observation. We did the QuiRedex study to compare early treatment with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone with observation in patients with high-risk smouldering multiple myeloma. Here we report the long-term follow-up results of the trial. We did this open-label, randomised, controlled phase 3 study at 19 centres in Spain and three centres in Portugal. Patients aged 18 years or older with high-risk smouldering multiple myeloma were randomly assigned (1:1), via a computerised random number generator, to receive either early treatment with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone or observation, with dynamic balancing to maintain treatment balance within the two groups. Randomisation was stratified by time from diagnosis of smouldering multiple myeloma to study enrolment (≤6 months vs >6 months). Patients in the treatment group received nine 4-week induction cycles (lenalidomide 25 mg per day on days 1-21, plus dexamethasone 20 mg per day on days-1-4 and days 12-15), followed by maintenance therapy (lenalidomide 10 mg per day on days 1-21 of each 28-day cycle) up to 2 years. Group allocation was not masked from study investigators or patients. The primary endpoint was time from randomisation to progression to symptomatic myeloma. The primary analysis was based on the per-protocol population, restricted to patients who fulfilled the protocol in terms of eligibility. Safety assessments were based on the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00480363. Between Nov 8, 2007, and June 9, 2010, 125 patients were enrolled and underwent randomisation. 119 patients comprised the per-protocol population and were randomly assigned to receive either lenalidomide plus dexamethasone (n=57) or observation (n=62). The cutoff date for this update was June 30, 2015. Median follow-up for surviving patients was 75 months (IQR 67-85). Lenalidomide plus dexamethasone continued to provide a

  8. Synthesis, crystal chemistry, and magnetic properties of RE7Li8Ge10 and RE11Li12Ge16 (RE = La-Nd, Sm): new members of the [REGe2](n)[RELi2Ge](m) homologous series.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sheng-Ping; You, Tae-Soo; Jung, Ya-Ho; Bobev, Svilen

    2012-06-18

    Eight new rare-earth metal-lithium-germanides belonging to the [REGe(2)](n)[RELi(2)Ge](m) homologous series have been synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structures of the title compounds can be rationalized as linear intergrowths of imaginary RELi(2)Ge (MgAl(2)Cu structure type) and REGe(2) (AlB(2) structure type) slabs. The compounds with general formula RE(7)Li(8)Ge(10) (RE = La-Nd, Sm), i.e., [REGe(2)](3)[RELi(2)Ge](4), crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Cmmm (No. 65) with a new structure type. Similarly, the compounds with general formula RE(11)Li(12)Ge(16) (RE = Ce-Nd), i.e., [REGe(2)](5)[RELi(2)Ge](6), crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Immm (No. 71) also with its own structure type. Temperature-dependent DC magnetization measurements indicate Curie-Weiss paramagnetism in the high-temperature regime and hint at complex magnetic ordering at low temperatures. The measured effective moments are consistent with RE(3+) ground states in all cases. The experimental results have been complemented by tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital (TB-LMTO) electronic structure calculations.

  9. Optimization of covalent immobilization of Trichoderma reesei cellulase onto modified ReliZyme HA403 and Sepabeads EC-EP supports for cellulose hydrolysis, in buffer and ionic liquids/buffer media.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Ramazan; Yalcin, M Serkan; Yildirim, Deniz

    2016-08-01

    The covalent immobilization of Trichoderma reesei cellulase onto modified ReliZyme HA403 and Sepabeads EC-EP supports were carried out. The optimal immobilization conditions were determined using response surface methodology. The hydrolysis of cellulose using the free and immobilized cellulase preparations in ionic liquids (IL) using cosolvents was investigated. The hydrolytic activities in buffer medium containing 25% (v/v) of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate were around 2.6-, 1.6-, and 5.5-fold higher than the activities in buffer medium. The retained initial activities were 32% and 57%, respectively for cellulase preparations immobilized onto Sepabeads EC-EP support and onto modified ReliZyme HA403 support after 5 reuses.

  10. Mathematical Ability Relies on Knowledge, Too

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweller, John; Clark, Richard E.; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent "reform" curricula both ignore the absence of supporting data and completely misunderstand the role of problem solving in cognition. If, the argument goes, teachers are not really teaching people mathematics but rather are teaching them some form of general problem solving, then mathematical content can be reduced in importance. According…

  11. The RELi{sub x}Sn{sub 2} (RE=La–Nd, Sm, and Gd; 0≤x<1) series revisited. Synthesis, crystal chemistry, and magnetic susceptibilities

    SciTech Connect

    Makongo, Julien P.A.; Suen, Nian-Tzu; Guo, Shengping; Saha, Shanta; Greene, Richard; Paglione, Johnpierre; Bobev, Svilen

    2014-03-15

    This study is concerned with the ternary compounds RELi{sub x}Sn{sub 2} (RE=La–Nd, Sm, and Gd; 0≤x<1), which have been previously thought to be the stoichiometric RELiSn{sub 2} phases. These materials crystallize with the base-centered orthorhombic space group Cmcm (No. 63), and can be formally assigned with the CeNiSi{sub 2} structure type (Pearson symbol oC16). Our systematic single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies revealed substantial Li-deficiencies in all cases, with SmSn{sub 2} (space group Cmmm, ZrGa{sub 2} structure type, Pearson symbol oC12) and GdSn{sub 2} (space group Cmcm, ZrSi{sub 2} structure type, Pearson symbol oC12) being completely lithium-free. The structure refinements also uncovered positional disorder on the Sn site neighboring the vacancies. The Sn-disorder and the Li-deficiency correlate, and vary monotonically with the decreased size of the rare-earth atoms in the order RE=La–Nd. The SmSn{sub 2} and GdSn{sub 2} structures are devoid of any disorder. Temperature-dependent studies of the magnetic response of the title compounds are also presented and discussed. -- Graphical abstract: RELi{sub x}Sn{sub 2} (RE=La–Nd, 0≤x<1) crystallize in a defect variants of the CeNiSi{sub 2} structure type (a). The Sn-disorder and the Li-deficiency correlate, and vary monotonically with the decreased size of the rare-earth atoms in the order RE=La–Nd. The SmSn{sub 2} (b) and GdSn{sub 2} (c) structures are devoid of any disorder. Highlights: • The crystal structures of the RELi{sub x}Sn{sub 2} (RE=La–Nd, 0≤x<1) compounds are revised using single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. • The structure is a filled derivative of the ZrSi{sub 2} structure type or defect variant of the CeNiSi{sub 2} structure type. • SmSn{sub 2} is isotypic with the ZrGa{sub 2} structure, while RESn{sub 2} (RE=Gd–Lu) are isotypic with the ZrSi{sub 2} structure.

  12. The layered antimonides RELi{sub 3}Sb{sub 2} (RE=Ce–Nd, Sm, Gd–Ho). Filled derivatives of the CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2} structure type

    SciTech Connect

    Schäfer, Marion C.; Suen, Nian-Tzu; Raglione, Michaella; Bobev, Svilen

    2014-02-15

    Reported are the synthesis and the structural characterization of an extended family of rare-earth metal–lithium–antimonides with the formula RELi{sub 3}Sb{sub 2} (RE=Ce–Nd, Sm, Gd–Ho). They crystallize in the trigonal space group P3{sup ¯}m1 (No. 164, Pearson symbol hP6) with a structure, best viewed as a filled derivative of the common CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2} structure type (ternary variant of α-La{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Across the series, the lattice parameters monotonically decrease, following the lanthanide contraction. Temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements for CeLi{sub 3}Sb{sub 2}, PrLi{sub 3}Sb{sub 2} and TbLi{sub 3}Sb{sub 2} reveal paramagnetic behavior in the high temperature range, and the obtained effective moments are consistent with the expected ones for the free-ion RE{sup 3+} ground state. Possible ferromagnetic ordering for PrLi{sub 3}Sb{sub 2} and antiferromagnetic ordering for TbLi{sub 3}Sb{sub 2} are observed in the low temperature range (below 20 K). Tight-binding muffin-tin orbital electronic band structure calculations for LaLi{sub 3}Sb{sub 2} are presented and discussed as well. - Graphical abstract: The large family of rare-earth metal–lithium–antimonides with the formula RELi{sub 3}Sb{sub 2} (RE=Ce–Nd, Sm, Gd–Ho) crystallize in the trigonal space group P3{sup ¯}m1 (No. 164, Pearson symbol hP6) with a structure that is a filled derivative of the CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2} structure type (ternary variant of α-La{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Display Omitted - Highlights: • RELi{sub 3}Sb{sub 2} (RE=Ce–Nd, Sm, Gd–Ho) constitute an extended family of rare-earth metal–lithium–antimonides. • The layered structure is a filled derivative of the common CaAl{sub 2}Si{sub 2} structure type. • The valence electron count follows the Zintl–Klemm rules. • Electronic band structure calculations for LaLi{sub 3}Sb{sub 2} indicate small band-gap semiconducting behavior.

  13. Quis custodiet ipsos custodies: who watches the watchmen?

    SciTech Connect

    Ghajar, Cyrus M.; Meier, Roland; Bissell, Mina J.

    2009-06-03

    Should this be said again? No cell is an island and in tissue-specificity and cancer, context is supreme. Decades ago, seminal recombination experiments illustrated the dominant role of mammary mesenchyme in directing epithelial development, and strongly suggested that the microenvironment plays a significant role also in the manifestation of carcinoma. More direct evidence for such functions came from a study demonstrating that an unadulterated microenvironment can suppress the malignant phenotype and re-direct tumor cells to give rise to normally functioning tissues and indeed healthy mice. One may wonder why such a stunning finding did not convince the scientific community to pay more attention to the role of context. The answers are complex, not the least of which is that concomitantly with this finding, the roles of oncogenes and mutations were being discovered. That excitement carried the day, specially because no one subsequently determined whether or not these mice generated from malignant cells contained tumorigenic mutations, and no new group reproduced the work. The following decade saw the discovery that even potent oncogenes could be ruled by context, and another couple of decades later it was shown that similar reprogramming of metastatic melanoma by an embryonic microenvironment was possible. There are many more examples which are not as clear cut, but are nevertheless compelling. The extensive literature of two-stage carcinogenesis, namely initiation and progression, indeed clearly indicates that 'initiation' and DNA damage alone are not sufficient to allow carcinogenesis. Implicit in these findings is: once a tumor or an oncogene, not always a tumor or an oncogene. A renewed focus on the tumor microenvironment as a therapeutic target has also led to the recognition that markers within the microenvironment could have predictive power. Two recently published reports identifying 'stromal signatures' in breast cancer patients prognostic for patient survival and predictive of response to chemotherapeutic treatment provide proof of this concept. In the current issue of The American Journal of Pathology, two independent studies identify a novel stromal marker, caveolin (Cav)-1, which predicts clinical outcome of breast cancer patients irrespective of its expression in tumor epithelium. Cav-1 is a scaffolding protein essential to the structure of caveolae, 'little caves' or invaginations in cellular plasma membranes. Cav-1 recruits and arranges lipids and proteins to these membrane sites to function in endocytosis and signal transduction. The observation that Cav-1 expression is attenuated in oncogenically transformed cells led to exploration of whether Cav-1 loss in mammary epithelium was causative. Although mechanistic data suggested that Cav-1 null mice exhibited aberrant epithelial growth, and that forcing Cav-1 expression in breast cancer cell lines inhibited growth and metastases in xenograft models, a clinical link proved elusive. However, MMTV-PyMT tumors transplanted into the fat pads of Cav-1 knockout mice displayed significantly enhanced growth (vs. wild-type mice), motivating investigation of whether stromal Cav-1 expression correlates with human breast cancer patient survival. This is precisely what Sloan et al. and Witkiewicz, Dasgupta, et al. demonstrate in this issue of AJP. Using tissue microarray data in conjunction with breast tumor sections and extensive patient survival data, Sloan et al. demonstrate that strong stromal Cav-1 expression is associated with smaller breast tumor size and grade, and is highly predictive of increased survival (Fig. 1). Patients with positive expression of stromal Cav-1 had a 91% ten year survival rate, vs. a 43% survival rate for patients lacking stromal Cav-1 expression. Importantly, there was no correlation between Cav-1 expression in the tumor epithelium and clinical outcome in either tissue arrays or tumor sections.

  14. Does the Spatial Distribution of the Parasitic Mite Varroa jacobsoni Oud. (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Worker Brood of Honey Bee Apis Mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Rely on an Aggregative Process?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvy, M.; Capowiez, Y.; Le Conte, Y.; Salvy, M.; Clément, J.-L.

    Varroa jacobsoni is an ectoparasite of honey bees which reproduces in capped brood cells. Multi-infestation is frequently observed in worker brood and can be interpreted as an aggregative phenomenon. The aim of this study was to determine whether the distribution of V. jacobsoni in worker brood cells relies on a random or an aggregative process. We studied the distribution of Varroa females in capped worker brood at similar age by comparing, by a Monte Carlo test, the observed frequency distribution of mites per cell to simulated distributions based on a random process. A complementary approach, using the "nearest neighbor distances" (NND) with Monte Carlo tests, was investigated to study the spatial distribution (a) between mites in different cells and (b) between infested cells in brood. The observed distributions did not differ significantly from that expected by a random process, and we conclude that there is no aggregation during invasion of V. jacobsoni in worker brood.

  15. Does the spatial distribution of the parasitic mite varroa jacobsoni oud. (Mesostigmata: varroidae) in worker brood of honey bee apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: apidae) rely on an aggregative process?

    PubMed

    Salvy; Capowiez; Le Conte Y; Clement

    1999-11-01

    Varroa jacobsoni is an ectoparasite of honey bees which reproduces in capped brood cells. Multi-infestation is frequently observed in worker brood and can be interpreted as an aggregative phenomenon. The aim of this study was to determine whether the distribution of V. jacobsoni in worker brood cells relies on a random or an aggregative process. We studied the distribution of Varroa females in capped worker brood at similar age by comparing, by a Monte Carlo test, the observed frequency distribution of mites per cell to simulated distributions based on a random process. A complementary approach, using the "nearest neighbor distances" (NND) with Monte Carlo tests, was investigated to study the spatial distribution (a) between mites in different cells and (b) between infested cells in brood. The observed distributions did not differ significantly from that expected by a random process, and we conclude that there is no aggregation during invasion of V. jacobsoni in worker brood.

  16. Medical cost reductions associated with the usage of novel oral anticoagulants vs warfarin among atrial fibrillation patients, based on the RE-LY, ROCKET-AF, and ARISTOTLE trials.

    PubMed

    Deitelzweig, Steve; Amin, Alpesh; Jing, Yonghua; Makenbaeva, Dinara; Wiederkehr, Daniel; Lin, Jay; Graham, John

    2012-01-01

    The randomized clinical trials, RE-LY, ROCKET-AF, and ARISTOTLE, demonstrate that the novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are effective options for stroke prevention among non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. This study aimed to evaluate the medical cost reductions associated with the use of individual NOACs instead of warfarin from the US payer perspective. Rates for efficacy and safety clinical events for warfarin were estimated as the weighted averages from the RE-LY, ROCKET-AF and ARISTOTLE trials, and event rates for NOACs were determined by applying trial hazard ratios or relative risk ratios to such weighted averages. Incremental medical costs to a US health payer of an AF patient experiencing a clinical event during 1 year following the event were obtained from published literature and inflation adjusted to 2010 cost levels. Medical costs, excluding drug costs, were evaluated and compared for each NOAC vs warfarin. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to determine the influence of variations in clinical event rates and incremental costs on the medical cost reduction. In a patient year, the medical cost reduction associated with NOAC usage instead of warfarin was estimated to be -$179, -$89, and -$485 for dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban, respectively. When clinical event rates and costs were allowed to vary simultaneously, through a Monte Carlo simulation, the 95% confidence interval of annual medical costs differences ranged between -$424 and +$71 for dabigatran, -$301 and +$135 for rivaroxaban, and -$741 and -$252 for apixaban, with a negative number indicating a cost reduction. Of the 10,000 Monte-Carlo iterations 92.6%, 79.8%, and 100.0% were associated with a medical cost reduction >$0 for dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban, respectively. Usage of the NOACs, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban may be associated with lower medical (excluding drug costs) costs relative to warfarin, with apixaban having the most substantial medical cost

  17. Spatial imagery relies on a sensory independent, though sensory sensitive, functional organization within the parietal cortex: a fMRI study of angle discrimination in sighted and congenitally blind individuals.

    PubMed

    Bonino, Daniela; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Bernardi, Giulio; Sani, Lorenzo; Gentili, Claudio; Vecchi, Tomaso; Pietrini, Pietro

    2015-02-01

    Although vision offers distinctive information to space representation, individuals who lack vision since birth often show perceptual and representational skills comparable to those found in sighted individuals. However, congenitally blind individuals may result in impaired spatial analysis, when engaging in 'visual' spatial features (e.g., perspective or angle representation) or complex spatial mental abilities. In the present study, we measured behavioral and brain responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging in sighted and congenitally blind individuals during spatial imagery based on a modified version of the mental clock task (e.g., angle discrimination) and a simple recognition control condition, as conveyed across distinct sensory modalities: visual (sighted individuals only), tactile and auditory. Blind individuals were significantly less accurate during the auditory task, but comparable-to-sighted during the tactile task. As expected, both groups showed common neural activations in intraparietal and superior parietal regions across visual and non-visual spatial perception and imagery conditions, indicating the more abstract, sensory independent functional organization of these cortical areas, a property that we named supramodality. At the same time, however, comparisons in brain responses and functional connectivity patterns across experimental conditions demonstrated also a functional lateralization, in a way that correlated with the distinct behavioral performance in blind and sighted individuals. Specifically, blind individuals relied more on right parietal regions, mainly in the tactile and less in the auditory spatial processing. In sighted, spatial representation across modalities relied more on left parietal regions. In conclusions, intraparietal and superior parietal regions subserve supramodal spatial representations in sighted and congenitally blind individuals. Differences in their recruitment across non-visual spatial processing in

  18. Can We Rely on Computational Predictions To Correctly Identify Ligand Binding Sites on Novel Protein Drug Targets? Assessment of Binding Site Prediction Methods and a Protocol for Validation of Predicted Binding Sites.

    PubMed

    Broomhead, Neal K; Soliman, Mahmoud E

    2017-03-01

    In the field of medicinal chemistry there is increasing focus on identifying key proteins whose biochemical functions can firmly be linked to serious diseases. Such proteins become targets for drug or inhibitor molecules that could treat or halt the disease through therapeutic action or by blocking the protein function respectively. The protein must be targeted at the relevant biologically active site for drug or inhibitor binding to be effective. As insufficient experimental data is available to confirm the biologically active binding site for novel protein targets, researchers often rely on computational prediction methods to identify binding sites. Presented herein is a short review on structure-based computational methods that (i) predict putative binding sites and (ii) assess the druggability of predicted binding sites on protein targets. This review briefly covers the principles upon which these methods are based, where they can be accessed and their reliability in identifying the correct binding site on a protein target. Based on this review, we believe that these methods are useful in predicting putative binding sites, but as they do not account for the dynamic nature of protein-ligand binding interactions, they cannot definitively identify the correct site from a ranked list of putative sites. To overcome this shortcoming, we strongly recommend using molecular docking to predict the most likely protein-ligand binding site(s) and mode(s), followed by molecular dynamics simulations and binding thermodynamics calculations to validate the docking results. This protocol provides a valuable platform for experimental and computational efforts to design novel drugs and inhibitors that target disease-related proteins.

  19. EPO relies upon novel signaling of Wnt1 that requires Akt1, FoxO3a, GSK-3β, and β-catenin to foster vascular integrity during experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chong, Zhao Zhong; Hou, Jinling; Shang, Yan Chen; Wang, Shaohui; Maiese, Kenneth

    2011-05-01

    caspase activation during elevated D-glucose. Our studies identify critical elements of the protective cascade for EPO that rely upon modulation of Wnt1, Akt1, FoxO3a, GSK-3β, β-catenin, and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways for the development of new strategies against DM vascular complications.

  20. Efficacy and safety of dabigatran compared with warfarin in relation to baseline renal function in patients with atrial fibrillation: a RE-LY (Randomized Evaluation of Long-term Anticoagulation Therapy) trial analysis.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Ziad; Hohnloser, Stefan H; Oldgren, Jonas; Andersson, Ulrika; Connolly, Stuart J; Eikelboom, John W; Ezekowitz, Michael D; Reilly, Paul A; Siegbahn, Agneta; Yusuf, Salim; Wallentin, Lars

    2014-03-04

    Renal impairment increases the risk of stroke and bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation. In the Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulant Therapy (RELY) trial, dabigatran, with ≈80% renal elimination, displayed superiority over warfarin for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in the 150-mg dose and significantly less major bleeding in the 110-mg dose in 18 113 patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. This prespecified study investigated these outcomes in relation to renal function. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated with the Cockcroft-Gault, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI), and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations in all randomized patients with available creatinine at baseline (n=17 951), and cystatin C-based glomerular filtration rate was estimated in a subpopulation with measurements available (n=6190). A glomerular filtration rate ≥80, 50 to <80, and <50 mL/min was estimated in 32.6%, 47.6%, and 19.8% and in 21.6%, 59.6%, and 18.8% of patients based on Cockcroft-Gault and CKD-EPI, respectively. Rates of stroke or systemic embolism, major bleeding, and all-cause mortality increased as renal function decreased. The rates of stroke or systemic embolism were lower with dabigatran 150 mg and similar with 110 mg twice daily compared with warfarin, without significant heterogeneity in subgroups defined by renal function (interaction P>0.1 for all). For the outcome of major bleeding, there were significant interactions between treatment and renal function according to CKD-EPI and MDRD equations, respectively (P<0.05). The relative reduction in major bleeding with either dabigatran dose compared with warfarin was greater in patients with glomerular filtration rate ≥80 mL/min. The efficacy of both dosages of dabigatran was consistent with the overall trial irrespective of renal function. However, with the CKD-EPI and MDRD equations, both dabigatran dosages displayed significantly lower

  1. Comparative study of enamel adhesion between RelyX™ Unicem® (3M), a self-adhesive bonding agent, and the combination of MIP® (3M), a hydrophilic adhesive, and Transbond Supreme Low Viscosity® (3M), a traditional hydrophobic adhesive.

    PubMed

    Dubernard, Charles; Raynal, Perrine; Tramini, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Although the bond strength of self-adhesive bonding agents is inferior to that of other families of adhesives, it is still adequate for orthodontic purposes provided prior enamel etching is performed. To determine the efficacy of RelyX™ Unicem(®) (3M) self-adhesive cement both in vitro and in vivo and to compare it with the combination of MIP(®) (3M), a moisture-insensitive primer, with a traditional hydrophobic adhesive, Transbond Supreme Low Viscosity(®) (3M). Comparison of bonding results on 23 trial dentures using RelyX™ Unicem(®) (3M) with bonding results on 29 trial dentures using a combination of MIP(®) and Transbond Supreme Low Viscosity(®) (3M), by means of a multipurpose Instron(®) 4444 testing machine. the breaking force of MIP(®)/Transbond Supreme Low Viscosity(®) (3M) (mean: 144±37.5 Newtons) was significantly higher than that of RelyX™ Unicem(®) (3M) (mean=110±26 Newtons) (P=0.001). A 12-month prospective, randomized, monocentric, single-blind clinical study in order to investigate the failure rate of orthodontic attachments according to the type of adhesive used, and the precise site of the debonding. Bracket bonding was performed on 16 patients with randomized allocation of the two adhesives to each of the semi-arches. The failure rates were: 15.3% for the MIP(®)/Transbond Supreme Low Viscosity(®) (3M) combination and 8.2% for the RelyX™ Unicem(®) (3M), with a significant difference (P=0.039). The more posterior the bonded teeth, the greater the superiority of RelyX™ Unicem(®) (3M). The in vivo results did not concord with those obtained in vitro. RelyX™ Unicem(®) (3M) exhibited lower adhesion values in vitro and yet it presented a debonding rate almost half that of the MIP(®)/Transbond Supreme Low Viscosity(®) (3M). The viscosity of RelyX™ Unicem(®) (3M) and its moisture tolerance would appear to account for these results. With prior etching, RelyX™ Unicem(®) (3M), a self-adhesive, self-etching bonding

  2. [Temporal arteritis: do not rely on the erythrocyte sedimentation rate].

    PubMed

    Bernelot Moens, Hein J

    2015-01-01

    Three patients with signs of temporal arteritis are presented. In two patients a normal ESR resulted in the diagnosis 'temporal arteritis' being discarded, prompting clinicians to consider meningitis, sinusitis, and blindness due to atherosclerosis. In the third case, the ESR measured with the Alifax Test-1TH apparatus was 17 mm/h, whereas the Westergren method used on the same sample resulted in an ESR of 83 mm/h. In all three cases CRP was elevated. On the basis of literature on the sensitivity of ESR and CRP it is advisable to use both measures when temporal arteritis is being considered. It is noted that in one hospital using the Alifax Test-1TH, only 52% of 25 patients with biopsy-proven temporal arteritis had an ESR over 40 mm/h, while 96% had elevated CRP. This observation requires further evaluation. The significance of signs, symptoms and new imaging techniques for recognising cranial giant cell arteritis is summarised.

  3. Organization of Circadian Behavior Relies on Glycinergic Transmission.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Lia; Muraro, Nara I; Beltrán González, Andrea N; Marcora, María S; Bernabó, Guillermo; Hermann-Luibl, Christiane; Romero, Juan I; Helfrich-Förster, Charlotte; Castaño, Eduardo M; Marino-Busjle, Cristina; Calvo, Daniel J; Ceriani, M Fernanda

    2017-04-04

    The small ventral lateral neurons (sLNvs) constitute a central circadian pacemaker in the Drosophila brain. They organize daily locomotor activity, partly through the release of the neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF), coordinating the action of the remaining clusters required for network synchronization. Despite extensive efforts, the basic principles underlying communication among circadian clusters remain obscure. We identified classical neurotransmitters released by sLNvs through disruption of specific transporters. Adult-specific RNAi-mediated downregulation of the glycine transporter or impairment of glycine synthesis in LNv neurons increased period length by nearly an hour without affecting rhythmicity of locomotor activity. Electrophysiological recordings showed that glycine reduces spiking frequency in circadian neurons. Interestingly, downregulation of glycine receptor subunits in specific sLNv targets impaired rhythmicity, revealing involvement of glycine in information processing within the network. These data identify glycinergic inhibition of specific targets as a cue that contributes to the synchronization of the circadian network.

  4. Questionable Practices? Relying on Individual Teacher Resilience in Remote Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Anna; Johnson, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Early career teachers eager to find employment are often encouraged by employers to accept positions in remote locations which are traditionally difficult to staff. This paper reports research that examined a case study of a graduate teacher employed in a remote school. Drawing on resilience theory, we challenge the profession to consider whether…

  5. Unintentional and Intentional Recognition Rely on Dissociable Neurocognitive Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Zara M; Williams, David G; Bhula, Mariam; Sharma, Dinkar

    2016-11-01

    Distractibility can lead to accidents and academic failures as well as memory problems. Recent evidence suggests that intentional recognition memory can be biased by unintentional recognition of distracting stimuli in the same environment. It is unknown whether unintentional and intentional recognition depend on the same underlying neurocognitive mechanisms. We assessed whether human participants' recognition of previously seen (old) or not seen (new) target stimuli was affected by whether a to-be-ignored distractor was old or new. ERPs were recorded to investigate the neural correlates of this bias. The results showed that the old/new status of salient distractors had a biasing effect on target recognition accuracy. Both intentional and unintentional recognition elicited early ERP effects that are thought to reflect relatively automatic memory processes. However, only intentional recognition elicited the later ERP marker of conscious recollection, consistent with previous suggestions that recollection is under voluntary control. In contrast, unintentional recognition was associated with an enhanced late posterior negativity, which may reflect monitoring or evaluation of memory signals. The findings suggest that unintentional and intentional recognition involve dissociable memory processes.

  6. Towards Concept Understanding Relying on Conceptualisation in Constructivist Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badie, Farshad

    2016-01-01

    This research works within the framework of constructivist learning (based on constructivist epistemology) and examines learning as an activity of construction, and it posits that knowledge acquisition (and learning) are transformative through self-involvement in some subject matter. Thus it leads, through this constructivism to a pedagogical…

  7. Mosquitoes rely on their gut microbiota for development.

    PubMed

    Coon, Kerri L; Vogel, Kevin J; Brown, Mark R; Strand, Michael R

    2014-06-01

    Field studies indicate adult mosquitoes (Culicidae) host low diversity communities of bacteria that vary greatly among individuals and species. In contrast, it remains unclear how adult mosquitoes acquire their microbiome, what influences community structure, and whether the microbiome is important for survival. Here, we used pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA to characterize the bacterial communities of three mosquito species reared under identical conditions. Two of these species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae, are anautogenous and must blood-feed to produce eggs, while one, Georgecraigius atropalpus, is autogenous and produces eggs without blood feeding. Each mosquito species contained a low diversity community comprised primarily of aerobic bacteria acquired from the aquatic habitat in which larvae developed. Our results suggested that the communities in Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae larvae share more similarities with one another than with G. atropalpus. Studies with Ae. aegypti also strongly suggested that adults transstadially acquired several members of the larval bacterial community, but only four genera of bacteria present in blood fed females were detected on eggs. Functional assays showed that axenic larvae of each species failed to develop beyond the first instar. Experiments with Ae. aegypti indicated several members of the microbial community and Escherichia coli successfully colonized axenic larvae and rescued development. Overall, our results provide new insights about the acquisition and structure of bacterial communities in mosquitoes. They also indicate that three mosquito species spanning the breadth of the Culicidae depend on their gut microbiome for development. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. An efficient circle detector not relying on edge detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jia; Huang, Panfeng; Chen, Lu; Zhang, Bin

    2016-06-01

    Accurate and efficient detection of circular modules fixed on non-cooperative target is a key technology for Tethered Space Robot. This paper presents an efficient circle detector based on region-growing of gradient and histogram distribution of Euclidean distance. Region-growing of gradient is applied to generate arc support regions from single point. And the corresponding square fitting areas are defined to accelerate the detection and decrease storage. A histogram is then used to count frequency of the distances that participates in the accumulator and the parameters of each circle are acquired. Finally, a verification strategy of circular integrity is designed to test the detection results. We have tested our algorithm on 35 images dealing with kinds of circles and ellipses. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is able to detect circular objects under occlusion, image noises and moderate shape deformations with a good precision.

  9. Cuttlefish rely on both polarized light and landmarks for orientation.

    PubMed

    Cartron, Lelia; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Shashar, Nadav; Dickel, Ludovic

    2012-07-01

    Cuttlefish are sensitive to linear polarization of light, a sensitivity that they use in predation and possibly in intraspecific communication. It has also been shown that cuttlefish are able to solve a maze using visual landmarks. In this study, cuttlefish were trained to solve a Y-maze with the e-vector of a polarized light and landmarks as redundant spatial information. The results showed that cuttlefish can use the e-vector orientation and landmarks in parallel to orient and that they are able to use either type of cue when the other one is missing. When they faced conflicting spatial information in the experimental apparatus, the majority of cuttlefish followed the e-vector rather than landmarks. Differences in response latencies in the different conditions of testing (training with both types of cue, tests with single cue or with conflicting information) were observed and discussed in terms of decision making. The ability to use near field and far field information may enable animals to interpret the partially occluded underwater light field.

  10. Looking for Educational Equity: The Consequences of Relying on "Brown"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Kris D.; Jaramillo, Nathalia E.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter attempts to begin a conversation about how so many of people in the educational and academic communities have come to believe that educational equity could be mediated by legal measures and federal and local reforms without transformation of the historical practices and ideologies that preserve supremacy and "White…

  11. Supercontinuum generation in silicon waveguides relying on wave-breaking.

    PubMed

    Castelló-Lurbe, David; Silvestre, Enrique

    2015-10-05

    Four-wave-mixing processes enabled during optical wave-breaking (OWB) are exploited in this paper for supercontinuum generation. Unlike conventional approaches based on OWB, phase-matching is achieved here for these nonlinear interactions, and, consequently, new frequency production becomes more efficient. We take advantage of this kind of pulse propagation to obtain numerically a coherent octave-spanning mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a silicon waveguide pumping at telecom wavelengths in the normal dispersion regime. This scheme shows a feasible path to overcome limits imposed by two-photon absorption on spectral broadening in silicon waveguides.

  12. Pallet industry relying more on recovered wood material

    Treesearch

    J. Bejune; R. Bush; Philip A. Araman; B. Hansen; D. Cumbo

    2002-01-01

    This article is a research report titled, Wood Use Trends in the Pallet and Container Industry: 1992 - 1999, that was published by the authors earlier this year. The research was conducted by Virginia Tech in collaboration with the U.S. Forest Service Southern Research Station. Part one, published in the September, 2002 issue of Pallet Enterprise, summarized the...

  13. Trapped electron cloud bolometer relying on frequency shift.

    PubMed Central

    Dehmelt, H

    1994-01-01

    An improved electron cloud bolometer is analyzed. In this device the cloud temperature is read out not via thermal noise induced by the electrons in a coupled LC circuit but via shift in their axial oscillation frequency in the Penning trap confining them. This shift occurs because as the electron cloud expands with increasing temperature, the average restoring force in the slightly anharmonic trap does change perceptibly. The scheme will be useful in exploring the microwave mode structure of the trap cavity and in locating magnetic field values for which the cavity-induced shift in the measured electron g factor disappears. PMID:11607480

  14. Mayaro virus infection cycle relies on casein kinase 2 activity.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Madalena M S; Lima, Carla S; Silva-Neto, Mário A C; Da Poian, Andrea T

    2002-09-06

    Replication of Mayaro virus in Vero cells induces dramatic cytopathic effects and cell death. In this study, we have evaluated the role of casein kinase 2 (CK2) during Mayaro virus infection cycle. We found that CK2 was activated during the initial stages of infection ( approximately 36% after 4h). This activation was further confirmed when the enzyme was partially purified from the cellular lysate either by Mono Q 5/5Hr column or heparin-agarose column. Using this later column, we found that the elution profile of CK2 activity from infected cells was different from that obtained for control cell enzyme, suggesting a structural modification of CK2 after infection. Treatment of infected cells with a cell-permeable inhibitor of CK2, dichloro-1-(beta-D-ribofuranosyl)benzimidazole (DRB), abolished the cytopathic effect in a dose-dependent manner. Together this set of data demonstrates for the first time that CK2 activity in host cells is required in Mayaro virus infection cycle.

  15. Colleges Rely on Consortia, Contractors, and Ingenuity to Cut Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gose, Ben

    2006-01-01

    The US colleges are struggling with soaring tuition costs as state support is unable to keep up with enrollment growth, and college officials are becoming more creative in finding ways to reduce expenses. Higher education institutions are increasingly outsourcing non-academic activities, collaborating with other institutions to share goods and…

  16. Cerebellar Zonal Patterning Relies on Purkinje Cell Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    White, Joshua J.; Arancillo, Marife; Stay, Trace L.; George-Jones, Nicholas A.; Levy, Sabrina L.; Heck, Detlef H.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebellar circuits are patterned into an array of topographic parasagittal domains called zones. The proper connectivity of zones is critical for motor coordination and motor learning, and in several neurological diseases cerebellar circuits degenerate in zonal patterns. Despite recent advances in understanding zone function, we still have a limited understanding of how zones are formed. Here, we focused our attention on Purkinje cells to gain a better understanding of their specific role in establishing zonal circuits. We used conditional mouse genetics to test the hypothesis that Purkinje cell neurotransmission is essential for refining prefunctional developmental zones into sharp functional zones. Our results show that inhibitory synaptic transmission in Purkinje cells is necessary for the precise patterning of Purkinje cell zones and the topographic targeting of mossy fiber afferents. As expected, blocking Purkinje cell neurotransmission caused ataxia. Using in vivo electrophysiology, we demonstrate that loss of Purkinje cell communication altered the firing rate and pattern of their target cerebellar nuclear neurons. Analysis of Purkinje cell complex spike firing revealed that feedback in the cerebellar nuclei to inferior olive to Purkinje cell loop is obstructed. Loss of Purkinje neurotransmission also caused ectopic zonal expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, which is only expressed in adult Purkinje cells when calcium is dysregulated and if excitability is altered. Our results suggest that Purkinje cell inhibitory neurotransmission establishes the functional circuitry of the cerebellum by patterning the molecular zones, fine-tuning afferent circuitry, and shaping neuronal activity. PMID:24920627

  17. Do checkpoint inhibitors rely on gut microbiota to fight cancer?

    PubMed

    Firwana, Belal; Avaritt, Nathan; Shields, Bradley; Ravilla, Rahul; Makhoul, Issam; Hutchins, Laura; Tackett, Alan J; Mahmoud, Fade

    2017-01-01

    The field of gut microbiota is of growing interest, especially in the recent discoveries of its interaction with host immune responses, which when disrupted, can further alter immunity. It also plays a role in cancer development, its microenvironment and response to anticancer therapeutics. Several recently published experimental studies had explored the efficacy of modifying microbiota to enhance the response of checkpoint inhibitors, suggesting its beneficial function in cancer management and potential to be targeted as a therapeutic agent to enhance efficacy of checkpoint inhibitors. Here we review available evidence, mechanisms and hypotheses of its use to enhance cancer response.

  18. Number Estimation Relies on a Set of Segmented Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franconeri, S. L.; Bemis, D. K.; Alvarez, G. A.

    2009-01-01

    How do we estimate the number of objects in a set? Two types of visual representations might underlie this ability--an unsegmented visual image or a segmented collection of discrete objects. We manipulated whether individual objects were isolated from each other or grouped into pairs by irrelevant lines. If number estimation operates over an…

  19. Teaching Mathematical Proofs That Rely on Ideas from Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Gila; Jahnke, H. Niels; DeBruyn, Ysbrand; Lomas, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    Describes empirical research into the effectiveness of using concepts and principles of physics in the teaching of geometrical proofs. Demonstrates, tentatively, that proofs from physics could be a viable addition to the mathematics curriculum. (Author/MM)

  20. Number Estimation Relies on a Set of Segmented Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franconeri, S. L.; Bemis, D. K.; Alvarez, G. A.

    2009-01-01

    How do we estimate the number of objects in a set? Two types of visual representations might underlie this ability--an unsegmented visual image or a segmented collection of discrete objects. We manipulated whether individual objects were isolated from each other or grouped into pairs by irrelevant lines. If number estimation operates over an…

  1. Colleges Rely on Consortia, Contractors, and Ingenuity to Cut Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gose, Ben

    2006-01-01

    The US colleges are struggling with soaring tuition costs as state support is unable to keep up with enrollment growth, and college officials are becoming more creative in finding ways to reduce expenses. Higher education institutions are increasingly outsourcing non-academic activities, collaborating with other institutions to share goods and…

  2. Trapped electron cloud bolometer relying on frequency shift.

    PubMed

    Dehmelt, H

    1994-07-05

    An improved electron cloud bolometer is analyzed. In this device the cloud temperature is read out not via thermal noise induced by the electrons in a coupled LC circuit but via shift in their axial oscillation frequency in the Penning trap confining them. This shift occurs because as the electron cloud expands with increasing temperature, the average restoring force in the slightly anharmonic trap does change perceptibly. The scheme will be useful in exploring the microwave mode structure of the trap cavity and in locating magnetic field values for which the cavity-induced shift in the measured electron g factor disappears.

  3. Looking for Educational Equity: The Consequences of Relying on "Brown"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Kris D.; Jaramillo, Nathalia E.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter attempts to begin a conversation about how so many of people in the educational and academic communities have come to believe that educational equity could be mediated by legal measures and federal and local reforms without transformation of the historical practices and ideologies that preserve supremacy and "White…

  4. Hepatitis C virus relies on lipoproteins for its life cycle

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, Germana; Di Caprio, Giorgia; Fimia, Gian Maria; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Marco; Alonzi, Tonino

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects over 150 million people worldwide. In most cases, HCV infection becomes chronic causing liver disease ranging from fibrosis to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Viral persistence and pathogenesis are due to the ability of HCV to deregulate specific host processes, mainly lipid metabolism and innate immunity. In particular, HCV exploits the lipoprotein machineries for almost all steps of its life cycle. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge concerning the interplay between HCV and lipoprotein metabolism. We discuss the role played by members of lipoproteins in HCV entry, replication and virion production. PMID:26877603

  5. Hepatitis C virus relies on lipoproteins for its life cycle.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Germana; Di Caprio, Giorgia; Fimia, Gian Maria; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Tripodi, Marco; Alonzi, Tonino

    2016-02-14

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects over 150 million people worldwide. In most cases, HCV infection becomes chronic causing liver disease ranging from fibrosis to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Viral persistence and pathogenesis are due to the ability of HCV to deregulate specific host processes, mainly lipid metabolism and innate immunity. In particular, HCV exploits the lipoprotein machineries for almost all steps of its life cycle. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge concerning the interplay between HCV and lipoprotein metabolism. We discuss the role played by members of lipoproteins in HCV entry, replication and virion production.

  6. Mosquitoes rely on their gut microbiota for development

    PubMed Central

    Coon, Kerri L.; Vogel, Kevin J.; Brown, Mark R.; Strand, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Field studies indicate adult mosquitoes (Culicidae) host low diversity communities of bacteria that vary greatly among individuals and species. In contrast, it remains unclear how adult mosquitoes acquire their microbiome, what influences community structure, and whether the microbiome is important for survival. Here we used pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA to characterize the bacterial communities of three mosquito species reared under identical conditions. Two of these species, Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae, are anautogenous and must blood feed to produce eggs, while one, Georgecraigius atropalpus, is autogenous and produces eggs without blood feeding. Each mosquito species contained a low diversity community comprised primarily of aerobic bacteria acquired primarily from the aquatic habitat in which larvae developed. Our results suggested the communities in Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae larvae share more similarities with one another than with Ge. atropalpus. Studies with Ae. aegypti also strongly suggested that adults transstadially acquired several members of the larval bacterial community, but only four genera of bacteria present in blood fed females were detected on eggs. Functional assays showed that axenic larvae of each species failed to develop beyond the first instar. Experiments with Ae. aegypti indicated several members of the microbial community and Escherichia coli successfully colonized axenic larvae and rescued development. Overall, our results provide new insights about the acquisition and structure of bacterial communities in mosquitoes. They also indicate three mosquito species spanning the breadth of the Culicidae depend on their gut microbiome for development. PMID:24766707

  7. Reinforcement learning in multidimensional environments relies on attention mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Niv, Yael; Daniel, Reka; Geana, Andra; Gershman, Samuel J; Leong, Yuan Chang; Radulescu, Angela; Wilson, Robert C

    2015-05-27

    In recent years, ideas from the computational field of reinforcement learning have revolutionized the study of learning in the brain, famously providing new, precise theories of how dopamine affects learning in the basal ganglia. However, reinforcement learning algorithms are notorious for not scaling well to multidimensional environments, as is required for real-world learning. We hypothesized that the brain naturally reduces the dimensionality of real-world problems to only those dimensions that are relevant to predicting reward, and conducted an experiment to assess by what algorithms and with what neural mechanisms this "representation learning" process is realized in humans. Our results suggest that a bilateral attentional control network comprising the intraparietal sulcus, precuneus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is involved in selecting what dimensions are relevant to the task at hand, effectively updating the task representation through trial and error. In this way, cortical attention mechanisms interact with learning in the basal ganglia to solve the "curse of dimensionality" in reinforcement learning. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/358145-13$15.00/0.

  8. Reinforcement Learning in Multidimensional Environments Relies on Attention Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Reka; Geana, Andra; Gershman, Samuel J.; Leong, Yuan Chang; Radulescu, Angela; Wilson, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, ideas from the computational field of reinforcement learning have revolutionized the study of learning in the brain, famously providing new, precise theories of how dopamine affects learning in the basal ganglia. However, reinforcement learning algorithms are notorious for not scaling well to multidimensional environments, as is required for real-world learning. We hypothesized that the brain naturally reduces the dimensionality of real-world problems to only those dimensions that are relevant to predicting reward, and conducted an experiment to assess by what algorithms and with what neural mechanisms this “representation learning” process is realized in humans. Our results suggest that a bilateral attentional control network comprising the intraparietal sulcus, precuneus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is involved in selecting what dimensions are relevant to the task at hand, effectively updating the task representation through trial and error. In this way, cortical attention mechanisms interact with learning in the basal ganglia to solve the “curse of dimensionality” in reinforcement learning. PMID:26019331

  9. Le verbe qui vole; mot de l'enterprete (The Flying Verb; The Interpreter's Word)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, Therese

    1975-01-01

    After a brief discussion on the nature of the interpreter's work, a survey is made of the beginnings of interpreting as a profession in 1953 and its growth since then in North America and Europe. Attention is called to the problem of incompetence brought about by the growing number of interpreters; and to the need for professional interpreter…

  10. Lac Qui Parle Flood Control Project Master Plan for Public Use Development and Resource Management.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    project. 43 TABLE 8 RECOMMENDED PLANT LIST Coumon Name Botanical Name Trees *Soft Maple Acer saccharinum Box Elder Acer negundo *Green (Red) Ash Fraxinus...pennsylvanica Basswood Tilia americana Bur Oak Quercus macrocarpa *Swamp White Oak Quercus bicolor * Cottonwood Salix alba *River Birch Betula nutra

  11. Le verbe qui vole; mot de l'enterprete (The Flying Verb; The Interpreter's Word)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, Therese

    1975-01-01

    After a brief discussion on the nature of the interpreter's work, a survey is made of the beginnings of interpreting as a profession in 1953 and its growth since then in North America and Europe. Attention is called to the problem of incompetence brought about by the growing number of interpreters; and to the need for professional interpreter…

  12. If PBMs Guard Access to Drugs, Then Quis Custodiet Ipsos Custodies? (Who Will Guard the Guardians?)

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Alan W.; Heinemann, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Insulin prices in the United States have risen dramatically in recent years, yet pharmacies cannot provide a stable price for a given insulin due to factors that are not widely understood. This commentary discusses the complex and obscure factors that drive today’s insulin prices with a discussion of the other players, besides the insulin manufacturer, who benefit from higher prices. An open discussion is critical regarding this drug and others that are essential to the lives of millions of people with diabetes. We’ll also explore whether the market introduction of biosimilar insulin will impact insulin prices. PMID:27381029

  13. 77 FR 27245 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... the management capabilities of West Pool. Remnant prairie, restored grasslands, and prairie associated... grasslands would increase by 500 acres. The total area of nonnative grassland would decrease to 300 acres... outcrops would continue to be managed at present levels. The target acreage for restored grassland would be...

  14. Who Cares for Children? Notes, Comments... No. 188 = Les enfants, qui s'en soucie?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    The finding of positive effects of developmentally sensitive interaction on children's physical health is discussed and expanded in terms of five propositions. The first is that development requires participation in progressively more complex reciprocal activities on a regular basis over an extended period of time, with at least one person…

  15. Sur le spectre du laplacien des fibrés en tores qui s'effondrent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jammes, Pierre

    2005-06-01

    We study the small eigenvalues of the Hodge Laplacian on collaping torus bundles with bounded curvature. In the first part of this dissertation, we consider examples of bundles on S^1 and T^2 with homogeneous structure. In the second part, we give a lower bound of the first non-zero eigenvalue of the 1-form Laplacian on principal torus bundles.

  16. Estimation of the impact of warfarin's time-in-therapeutic range on stroke and major bleeding rates and its influence on the medical cost avoidance associated with novel oral anticoagulant use-learnings from ARISTOTLE, ROCKET-AF, and RE-LY trials.

    PubMed

    Amin, Alpesh; Deitelzweig, Steve; Jing, Yonghua; Makenbaeva, Dinara; Wiederkehr, Daniel; Lin, Jay; Graham, John

    2014-01-01

    Warfarin's time-in-therapeutic range (TTR) is highly variable among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of variations in wafarin's TTR on rates of stroke/systemic embolism (SSE) and major bleedings among NVAF patients in the ARISTOTLE, ROCKET-AF, and RE-LY trials. Additionally, differences in medical costs for clinical endpoints when novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) were used instead of warfarin at different TTR values were estimated. Quartile ranges of TTR values and corresponding event rates (%/patient - year = %/py) of SSE and major bleedings among NVAF patients treated with warfarin were estimated from published literature and FDA documents. The associations of SSE and major bleeding rates with TTR values were evaluated by regression analysis and then the calculated regression coefficients were used in analysis of medical cost differences associated with use of each NOAC versus warfarin (2010 costs; US payer perspective) at different TTRs. Each 10 % increase in warfarin's TTR correlated with a -0.32%/py decrease in SSE rate (R(2) = 0.61; p < 0.001). Although, the rate of major bleedings decreased as TTR increased, it was not significant (-0.035%/py, p = 0.63). As warfarin's TTR increased from 30 to 90% the estimated medical cost decreased from -$902 to -$83 for apixaban, from -$506 to +$314 for rivaroxaban, and from -$596 to +$223 for dabigatran. Among NVAF patients there is a significant negative correlation between warfarin's TTR and SSE rate, but not major bleedings. The variations in warfarin's TTR impacted the economic comparison of use of individual NOACs versus warfarin.

  17. Observation of the black hole candidate X-ray binary Swift J1357.2 0933 in quies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armas Padilla, Montserrat

    2012-10-01

    We propose a 40 ksec XMM Newton observation of the low mass X-ray binary black hole system Swift J1357.2 0933 in the quiescent state. The low column density towards the source makes it possible to obtain its quiescent lumi- nosity down to LX ~1E30 ergs s-1. This limit, together with its short orbital period of 2.8 hours makes it possible to test the ADAF interpretation for emission in quiescent black holes systems by testing the quiescent luminosity-orbital period correlation in the unexplored regime of very short orbital periods.

  18. Et pourquoi pas une education aux sciences qui aborde la participation des acteurs sociaux aux controverses sociotechniques?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouliot, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    In this article we discuss research that was conducted as part of a project on citizen science education. We present the research and some of the results, and then take a position on the pertinence of examining, in science classes, questions on citizen participation in socio-technical debates and the roles and capacities of the social actors…

  19. QUIS: Queen's University Information Systems; Report of Activities for the Period Ending on 31st December, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queen's Univ., Belfast (Northern Ireland). Dept. of Computer Science.

    Two computer information systems, one for reference retrieval and the other for the retrieval of numerical data on atomic and molecular physics are being developed at the Queen's University of Belfast. The reference retrieval system is based on the atomic and molecular physics section of the INSPEC tapes. The tapes contain complete abstracts of…

  20. Regulators and regulations: who will guard the guards? (or 'Quis custodiet ipsos custodes' as old Juvenal used to say).

    PubMed

    Kelleher, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Overbearing regulators with their various labyrinthine regulations have had adverse impacts on dentists and their teams' behaviours. This has produced the perverse outcomes of demoralizing dental teams as well as reducing their capacity and/or desire to deliver compassionate oral healthcare. These adverse outcomes do not seem to have benefited patients, or dentists, or their teams, in any sensible or measurable way. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The vastly increased burdens on the UK dental profession of intrusive, bullying regulations, emanating from the various UK agencies, such as the supposedly fair and independent GDC, but including the increasingly politically controlled NHS and the CQC, have had unfortunate, perverse, effects on many dentists' clinical practices and affected dental teams' desires, or willingness, to be as compassionate as they used to be about helping to solve some patients' dental or oral problems.

  1. Et pourquoi pas une education aux sciences qui aborde la participation des acteurs sociaux aux controverses sociotechniques?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouliot, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    In this article we discuss research that was conducted as part of a project on citizen science education. We present the research and some of the results, and then take a position on the pertinence of examining, in science classes, questions on citizen participation in socio-technical debates and the roles and capacities of the social actors…

  2. Efficacy of CAR T-cell therapy in large tumors relies upon stromal targeting by IFNγ.

    PubMed

    Textor, Ana; Listopad, Joanna J; Wührmann, Lara Le; Perez, Cynthia; Kruschinski, Anna; Chmielewski, Markus; Abken, Hinrich; Blankenstein, Thomas; Charo, Jehad

    2014-12-01

    Adoptive T-cell therapy using chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells (CAR-T therapy) has shown dramatic efficacy in patients with circulating lymphoma. However, eradication of solid tumors with CAR-T therapy has not been reported yet to be efficacious. In solid tumors, stroma destruction, due to MHC-restricted cross-presentation of tumor antigens to T cells, may be essential. However, CAR-Ts recognize antigens in an MHC-independent manner on cancer cells but not stroma cells. In this report, we show how CAR-Ts can be engineered to eradicate large established tumors with provision of a suitable CD28 costimulatory signal. In an HER2-dependent tumor model, tumor rejection by HER2-specific CAR-Ts was associated with sustained influx and proliferation of the adoptively transferred T cells. Interestingly, tumor rejection did not involve natural killer cells but was associated instead with a marked increase in the level of M1 macrophages and a requirement for IFNγ receptor expression on tumor stroma cells. Our results argue that CAR-T therapy is capable of eradicating solid tumors through a combination of antigen-independent stroma destruction and antigen-specific tumor cell targeting. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Relies of reconciliation: the Confederate Museum and Civil War memory in the New South.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, Reiko

    2011-11-01

    This article examines the Confederate Memorial Literary Society (CMLS), an organization of elite white women in Richmond, Virginia who founded the Confederate Museum in the 1890s. Faced with the plunder of Civil War relics and cultural homogenization on northern terms, the CMLS founded the Confederate Museum to document and defend the Confederate cause and to uphold the antebellum mores that the New South's business ethos threatened to erode. In the end, however, the museum's version of the Lost Cause served the New South. By focusing on military sacrifice, the Confederate Museum aided the process of sectional reconciliation. By depicting slavery as benevolent, the museum's exhibits reinforced the notion that Jim Crow was a just and effective means of managing postwar southern society. Lastly, by glorifying the common soldier and portraying the South as "solid," the museum promoted obedience to the mandates of industrial capitalism. Thus, the Confederate Museum both critiqued and eased the economic transformations of the New South.

  4. The mode of binding ACMA-DNA relies on the base-pair nature.

    PubMed

    Busto, Natalia; García, Begoña; Leal, José M; Secco, Fernando; Venturini, Marcella

    2012-04-07

    A thermodynamic and kinetic study on the mode of binding of 9-amino-6-chloro-2-methoxi-acridine (ACMA) to poly(dA-dT)·poly(dA-dT) and poly(dG-dC)·poly(dG-dC) has been undertaken at pH = 7.0 and I = 0.1 M. The spectrophotometric, kinetic (T-jump), circular dichroism, viscometric and calorimetric information gathered point to formation of a fully intercalated ACMA complex with poly(dA-dT)·poly(dA-dT) and another one only partially intercalated (7%) with poly(dG-dC)·poly(dG-dC). The ACMA affinity with the A-T bases was higher than with the G-C bases. The two polynucleotide sequences give rise to external complexes when the ACMA concentration is raised, namely, the electrostatic complex poly(dA-dT)·poly(dA-dT)-ACMA and the major groove binding complex poly(dG-dC)·poly(dG-dC)-ACMA. A considerable quenching effect of the ACMA fluorescence is observed with poly(dA-dT)·poly(dA-dT), ascribable to face-to-face location in the intercalated A-T-ACMA base-pairs. The even stronger effect observed in the presence of poly(dG-dC)·poly(dG-dC) is related to the guanine residue from on- and off-slot ACMA positions.

  5. Direct conversion of root primordium into shoot meristem relies on timing of stem cell niche development.

    PubMed

    Rosspopoff, Olga; Chelysheva, Liudmila; Saffar, Julie; Lecorgne, Lena; Gey, Delphine; Caillieux, Erwann; Colot, Vincent; Roudier, François; Hilson, Pierre; Berthomé, Richard; Da Costa, Marco; Rech, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    To understand how the identity of an organ can be switched, we studied the transformation of lateral root primordia (LRP) into shoot meristems in Arabidopsis root segments. In this system, the cytokinin-induced conversion does not involve the formation of callus-like structures. Detailed analysis showed that the conversion sequence starts with a mitotic pause and is concomitant with the differential expression of regulators of root and shoot development. The conversion requires the presence of apical stem cells, and only LRP at stages VI or VII can be switched. It is engaged as soon as cell divisions resume because their position and orientation differ in the converting organ compared with the undisturbed emerging LRP. By alternating auxin and cytokinin treatments, we showed that the root and shoot organogenetic programs are remarkably plastic, as the status of the same plant stem cell niche can be reversed repeatedly within a set developmental window. Thus, the networks at play in the meristem of a root can morph in the span of a couple of cell division cycles into those of a shoot, and back, through transdifferentiation.

  6. Threat-related learning relies on distinct dorsal prefrontal cortex network connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Wheelock, M. D.; Sreenivasan, K. R.; Wood, K. H.; Ver Hoef, L. W.; Deshpande, G.; Knight, D. C.

    2014-01-01

    Conditioned changes in the emotional response to threat (e.g. aversive unconditioned stimulus; UCS) are mediated in part by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Unpredictable threats elicit large emotional responses, while the response is diminished when the threat is predictable. A better understanding of how PFC connectivity to other brain regions varies with threat predictability would provide important insights into the neural processes that mediate conditioned diminution of the emotional response to threat. The present study examined brain connectivity during predictable and unpredictable threat exposure using a fear conditioning paradigm (previously published in Wood et al., 2012) in which unconditioned functional magnetic resonance imaging data was reanalyzed to assess effective connectivity. Granger causality analysis was performed using the time series data from 15 activated regions of interest after hemodynamic deconvolution, to determine regional effective connectivity. In addition, connectivity path weights were correlated with trait anxiety measures to assess the relationship between negative affect and brain connectivity. Results indicate the dorsomedial PFC (dmPFC) serves as a neural hub that influences activity in other brain regions when threats are unpredictable. In contrast, the dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC) serves as a neural hub that influences the activity of other brain regions when threats are predictable. These findings are consistent with the view that the dmPFC coordinates brain activity to take action, perhaps in a reactive manner, when an unpredicted threat is encountered, while the dlPFC coordinates brain regions to take action, in what may be a more proactive manner, to respond to predictable threats. Further, dlPFC connectivity to other brain regions (e.g. ventromedial PFC, amygdala, and insula) varied with negative affect (i.e. trait anxiety) when the UCS was predictable, suggesting that stronger connectivity may be required for emotion regulation in individuals with higher levels of negative affect. PMID:25111474

  7. Evaluating Parental Disagreement in ADHD Diagnosis: Can We Rely on a Single Report From Home?

    PubMed

    Caye, Arthur; Machado, Julia D; Rohde, Luís A

    2017-05-01

    Few studies assessed factors associated with the agreement/disagreement between fathers and mothers when rating ADHD symptoms of their offspring. Teachers and both parents assessed a referred sample of 98 children and adolescents aged 6 to 16 years ( M age = 9.79, SD = 2.59) using the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham (SNAP-IV) rating scale. The agreement was assessed for each of the items of the scale and correlated with variables measuring children's features, socioeconomic adversity, family functioning, and parental psychopathology. Mean agreement between parents was moderate for the inattentive and good for the hyperactive-impulsive construct. Mothers tended to report more symptoms than fathers. The agreement was lower in those families where parents had discrepant educational levels. Our findings suggest a significant cross-informant disagreement between parents on symptoms of ADHD. Discrepant parental education has a relevant role in explaining parental disagreement in reporting ADHD symptoms.

  8. "Depend on, Rely on, Count on": Economic Subjectivities Aboard "The Polar Express"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltmarsh, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Christmas literature and film produced for children is an important, albeit under-researched, site for the production of cultural values and norms. This paper analyses Chris Van Allsburg's 1985 picture book "The Polar Express", the 2004 Warner Brothers feature film of the same title, the film's official website, and resources for teachers…

  9. The Florida Harvester Ant, Pogonomyrmex badius, Relies on Germination to Consume Large Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Kwapich, Christina L.

    2016-01-01

    The Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius, is one of many ant species and genera that stores large numbers of seeds in damp, underground chambers for later consumption. A comparison of the sizes of seeds recovered from storage chambers with those of seed husks discarded following consumption revealed that the used seeds are far smaller than stored seeds. This difference in use-rate was confirmed in field and laboratory colonies by offering marked seeds of various sizes and monitoring the appearance of size-specific chaff. Because foragers collect a range of seed sizes but only open small seeds, large seeds accumulate, forming 70% or more of the weight of seed stores. Major workers increase the rates at which small and medium seeds are opened, but do not increase the size range of opened seeds. Experiments limiting ant access to portions of natural seed chambers showed that seeds germinate during storage, but that the ants rapidly remove them. When offered alongside non germinating seeds, germinating seeds were preferentially fed to larvae. The rate of germination during the annual cycle was determined by both burial in artificial chambers at various depths and under four laboratory temperatures. The germination rate depends upon the species of seed, the soil/laboratory temperature and/or the elapsed time. The seasonal soil temperature cycle generated germination patterns that vary with the mix of locally-available seeds. Taken together, exploitation of germination greatly increases the resources available to the ants in space and time. While the largest seeds may have the nutritional value of 15 small seeds, the inability of workers to open large seeds at will precludes them from rapid use during catastrophic events. The harvester ant’s approach to seed harvesting is therefore two-pronged, with both immediate and delayed payoffs arising from the tendency to forage for a wide variety of seeds sizes. PMID:27893844

  10. Individuation of objects and object parts rely on the same neuronal mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Poncet, Marlene; Caramazza, Alfonso; Mazza, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    Recent results have shown that participants can enumerate multiple parts of a single object as efficiently as multiple distinct objects, suggesting a shared mechanism for individuation of objects and object parts. Here we used the subitizing phenomenon to investigate the neural mechanism underlying the individuation of object parts. In two experiments, we measured a lateralized EEG response (N2pc) previously associated with individuation of multiple objects. In line with the subitizing effect, participants’ error rate was low (less than 10%) when enumerating up to approximately three parts of an object but increased for larger numerosities. The N2pc amplitude increased as a function of the number of object parts, and reached an asymptote corresponding to the subitizing limit, replicating previous reports for separate objects. These results invite the inference that the same neural mechanism underlies individuation of multiple distinct objects and multiple parts of a single object. PMID:27924910

  11. Even simple forms of social learning rely on intention attribution in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Burkart, Judith; Kupferberg, Aleksandra; Glasauer, Stefan; van Schaik, Carel

    2012-05-01

    Intention attribution guides the cognitively most demanding forms of social learning, such as imitation, thereby scaffolding cumulative cultural evolution. However, it is not thought to be necessary for more basic forms of social learning. Here we present evidence that in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus) even most basic forms of social learning such as enhancement depend on intention attribution. Marmosets perceived the behavior of a conspecific and a conspecific-like robot, but not that of a moving black box, as goal directed. Their subsequent choice behavior was shaped by social facilitation and stimulus enhancement, that is, by very simple forms of social learning, but only when exposed to the conspecific and robot, which they previously had perceived as intentional agents. We discuss the implications of this finding for contemporary debates about social learning, including emulation learning and ghost control studies, the necessity of goal-directed copying for cumulative cultural evolution, and the limits of current classification systems of social learning for the evolution of social and asocial learning.

  12. Chunking Improves Symbolic Sequence Processing and Relies on Working Memory Gating Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solopchuk, Oleg; Alamia, Andrea; Olivier, Etienne; Zénon, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Chunking, namely the grouping of sequence elements in clusters, is ubiquitous during sequence processing, but its impact on performance remains debated. Here, we found that participants who adopted a consistent chunking strategy during symbolic sequence learning showed a greater improvement of their performance and a larger decrease in cognitive…

  13. Monkeys rely on recency of stimulus repetition when solving short-term memory tasks

    PubMed Central

    Wittig, John H.; Richmond, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    Seven monkeys performed variants of two short-term memory tasks that others have used to differentiate between selective and nonselective memory mechanisms. The first task was to view a list of sequentially presented images and identify whether a test matched any image from the list, but not a distractor from a preceding list. Performance was best when the test matched the most recently presented image. Response rates depended linearly on recency of repetition whether the test matched a sample from the current list or a distractor from a preceding list, suggesting nonselective memorization of all images viewed instead of just the sample images. The second task was to remember just the first image in a list selectively and ignore subsequent distractors. False alarms occurred frequently when the test matched a distractor presented near the beginning of the sequence. In a pilot experiment, response rates depended linearly on recency of repetition irrespective of whether the test matched the first image or a distractor, again suggesting nonselective memorization of all images instead of just the first image. Modification of the second task improved recognition of the first image, but did not abolish use of recency. Monkeys appear to perform nonspatial visual short-term memory tasks often (or exclusively) using a single, nonselective, memory mechanism that conveys the recency of stimulus repetition. PMID:25171424

  14. Chunking Improves Symbolic Sequence Processing and Relies on Working Memory Gating Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solopchuk, Oleg; Alamia, Andrea; Olivier, Etienne; Zénon, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Chunking, namely the grouping of sequence elements in clusters, is ubiquitous during sequence processing, but its impact on performance remains debated. Here, we found that participants who adopted a consistent chunking strategy during symbolic sequence learning showed a greater improvement of their performance and a larger decrease in cognitive…

  15. Paper-Based Analytical Devices Relying on Visible-Light-Enhanced Glucose/Air Biofuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kaiqing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yanhu; Ge, Shenguang; Yan, Mei; Yu, Jinghua; Song, Xianrang

    2015-11-04

    A strategy that combines visible-light-enhanced biofuel cells (BFCs) and electrochemical immunosensor into paper-based analytical devices was proposed for sensitive detection of the carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3). The gold nanoparticle modified paper electrode with large surface area and good conductibility was applied as an effective matrix for primary antibodies. The glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) modified gold-silver bimetallic nanoparticles were used as bioanodic biocatalyst and signal magnification label. Poly(terthiophene) (pTTh), a photoresponsive conducting polymer, served as catalyst in cathode for the reduction of oxygen upon illumination by visible light. In the bioanode, electrons were generated through the oxidation of glucose catalyzed by GDH. The amount of electrons is determined by the amount of GDH, which finally depended on the amount of CA15-3. In the cathode, electrons from the bioanode could combine with the generated holes in the HOMO energy level of cathode catalysts pTTh. Meanwhile, the high energy level photoexcited electrons were generated in the LUMO energy level and involved in the oxygen reduction reaction, finally resulting in an increasing current and a decreasing overpotential. According to the current signal, simple and efficient detection of CA15-3 was achieved.

  16. Rapid population decline in migratory shorebirds relying on Yellow Sea tidal mudflats as stopover sites

    PubMed Central

    Studds, Colin E.; Kendall, Bruce E.; Murray, Nicholas J.; Wilson, Howard B.; Rogers, Danny I.; Clemens, Robert S.; Gosbell, Ken; Hassell, Chris J.; Jessop, Rosalind; Melville, David S.; Milton, David A.; Minton, Clive D. T.; Possingham, Hugh P.; Riegen, Adrian C.; Straw, Phil; Woehler, Eric J.; Fuller, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Migratory animals are threatened by human-induced global change. However, little is known about how stopover habitat, essential for refuelling during migration, affects the population dynamics of migratory species. Using 20 years of continent-wide citizen science data, we assess population trends of ten shorebird taxa that refuel on Yellow Sea tidal mudflats, a threatened ecosystem that has shrunk by >65% in recent decades. Seven of the taxa declined at rates of up to 8% per year. Taxa with the greatest reliance on the Yellow Sea as a stopover site showed the greatest declines, whereas those that stop primarily in other regions had slowly declining or stable populations. Decline rate was unaffected by shared evolutionary history among taxa and was not predicted by migration distance, breeding range size, non-breeding location, generation time or body size. These results suggest that changes in stopover habitat can severely limit migratory populations. PMID:28406155

  17. Increasing Uncertainty: The Dangers of Relying on Conventional Forces for Nuclear Deterrence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-14

    Barack Obama In his now-famous Prague speech in 2009 shortly after taking office, President Obama laid out his vision for a world without nuclear...weapons.1 Although he had no timeline for reaching this goal, noting that it might not even occur in his lifetime, part of the pathway to that objective...defined and codified his vision for the security of the United States and its allies.2 Five years later, some of the implications of how this

  18. Do Young and Older Adults Rely on Different Processes in Source Memory Tasks? A Neuropsychological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glisky, Elizabeth L.; Kong, Lauren L.

    2008-01-01

    Source memory has consistently been associated with prefrontal function in both normal and clinical populations. Nevertheless, the exact contribution of this brain region to source memory remains uncertain, and evidence suggests that processes used by young and older adults may differ. The authors explored the extent to which scores on composite…

  19. Monkeys Rely on Recency of Stimulus Repetition When Solving Short-Term Memory Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittig, John H., Jr.; Richmond, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    Seven monkeys performed variants of two short-term memory tasks that others have used to differentiate between selective and nonselective memory mechanisms. The first task was to view a list of sequentially presented images and identify whether a test matched any image from the list, but not a distractor from a preceding list. Performance was best…

  20. "Depend on, Rely on, Count on": Economic Subjectivities Aboard "The Polar Express"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltmarsh, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Christmas literature and film produced for children is an important, albeit under-researched, site for the production of cultural values and norms. This paper analyses Chris Van Allsburg's 1985 picture book "The Polar Express", the 2004 Warner Brothers feature film of the same title, the film's official website, and resources for teachers…

  1. Efficient peroxydisulfate activation process not relying on sulfate radical generation for water pollutant degradation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Chen, Yin; Wang, Yuru; Le Roux, Julien; Yang, Yang; Croué, Jean-Philippe

    2014-05-20

    Peroxydisulfate (PDS) is an appealing oxidant for contaminated groundwater and toxic industrial wastewaters. Activation of PDS is necessary for application because of its low reactivity. Present activation processes always generate sulfate radicals as actual oxidants which unselectively oxidize organics and halide anions reducing oxidation capacity of PDS and producing toxic halogenated products. Here we report that copper oxide (CuO) can efficiently activate PDS under mild conditions without producing sulfate radicals. The PDS/CuO coupled process is most efficient at neutral pH for decomposing a model compound, 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). In a continuous-flow reaction with an empty-bed contact time of 0.55 min, over 90% of 2,4-DCP (initially 20 μM) and 90% of adsorbable organic chlorine (AOCl) can be removed at the PDS/2,4-DCP molar ratio of 1 and 4, respectively. Based on kinetic study and surface characterization, PDS is proposed to be first activated by CuO through outer-sphere interaction, the rate-limiting step, followed by a rapid reaction with 2,4-DCP present in the solution. In the presence of ubiquitous chloride ions in groundwater/industrial wastewater, the PDS/CuO oxidation shows significant advantages over sulfate radical oxidation by achieving much higher 2,4-DCP degradation capacity and avoiding the formation of highly chlorinated degradation products. This work provides a new way of PDS activation for contaminant removal.

  2. The "contemporary synthesis": when politically inclusive genomic science relies on biological notions of race.

    PubMed

    Fullwiley, Duana

    2014-12-01

    This essay outlines the emergence of a contemporary synthesis regarding racial thinking in genetic science and in society more broadly. A departure from what Julian Huxley in 1942 termed the "modern synthesis," the contemporary version does not purport to leave race thinking behind in favor of evolution, population genetics, and population-based accounts of natural selection and human diversity. Specifically, the contemporary synthesis blends old concepts (such as that of pure human "types," located within continental land masses) with new attitudes (democratic inclusion, multicultural diversity, and anti-racism). Through various examples, the essay shows how this new synthesis combines ideas about human biological difference that draw on measures of physical characteristics and human genetic material that are both race and population based, yet conflated. This specific amalgam allows old notions of racial types to thrive through conceptual framings that comprise ideas that were once imagined to have the potential to liberate society from racial thinking--and that today remain attached to ideas of progress. As an emergent dynamic, the contemporary synthesis holds the possibility of reinvigorating racism, while simultaneously possessing the potential to promote antiracist science education, disease awareness, and social justice efforts.

  3. Spider orb webs rely on radial threads to absorb prey kinetic energy.

    PubMed

    Sensenig, Andrew T; Lorentz, Kimberly A; Kelly, Sean P; Blackledge, Todd A

    2012-08-07

    The kinetic energy of flying insect prey is a formidable challenge for orb-weaving spiders. These spiders construct two-dimensional, round webs from a combination of stiff, strong radial silk and highly elastic, glue-coated capture spirals. Orb webs must first stop the flight of insect prey and then retain those insects long enough to be subdued by the spiders. Consequently, spider silks rank among the toughest known biomaterials. The large number of silk threads composing a web suggests that aerodynamic dissipation may also play an important role in stopping prey. Here, we quantify energy dissipation in orb webs spun by diverse species of spiders using data derived from high-speed videos of web deformation under prey impact. By integrating video data with material testing of silks, we compare the relative contributions of radial silk, the capture spiral and aerodynamic dissipation. Radial silk dominated energy absorption in all webs, with the potential to account for approximately 100 per cent of the work of stopping prey in larger webs. The most generous estimates for the roles of capture spirals and aerodynamic dissipation show that they rarely contribute more than 30 per cent and 10 per cent of the total work of stopping prey, respectively, and then only for smaller orb webs. The reliance of spider orb webs upon internal energy absorption by radial threads for prey capture suggests that the material properties of the capture spirals are largely unconstrained by the selective pressures of stopping prey and can instead evolve freely in response to alternative functional constraints such as adhering to prey.

  4. Spider orb webs rely on radial threads to absorb prey kinetic energy

    PubMed Central

    Sensenig, Andrew T.; Lorentz, Kimberly A.; Kelly, Sean P.; Blackledge, Todd A.

    2012-01-01

    The kinetic energy of flying insect prey is a formidable challenge for orb-weaving spiders. These spiders construct two-dimensional, round webs from a combination of stiff, strong radial silk and highly elastic, glue-coated capture spirals. Orb webs must first stop the flight of insect prey and then retain those insects long enough to be subdued by the spiders. Consequently, spider silks rank among the toughest known biomaterials. The large number of silk threads composing a web suggests that aerodynamic dissipation may also play an important role in stopping prey. Here, we quantify energy dissipation in orb webs spun by diverse species of spiders using data derived from high-speed videos of web deformation under prey impact. By integrating video data with material testing of silks, we compare the relative contributions of radial silk, the capture spiral and aerodynamic dissipation. Radial silk dominated energy absorption in all webs, with the potential to account for approximately 100 per cent of the work of stopping prey in larger webs. The most generous estimates for the roles of capture spirals and aerodynamic dissipation show that they rarely contribute more than 30 per cent and 10 per cent of the total work of stopping prey, respectively, and then only for smaller orb webs. The reliance of spider orb webs upon internal energy absorption by radial threads for prey capture suggests that the material properties of the capture spirals are largely unconstrained by the selective pressures of stopping prey and can instead evolve freely in response to alternative functional constraints such as adhering to prey. PMID:22431738

  5. Monkeys Rely on Recency of Stimulus Repetition When Solving Short-Term Memory Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittig, John H., Jr.; Richmond, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    Seven monkeys performed variants of two short-term memory tasks that others have used to differentiate between selective and nonselective memory mechanisms. The first task was to view a list of sequentially presented images and identify whether a test matched any image from the list, but not a distractor from a preceding list. Performance was best…

  6. The Florida Harvester Ant, Pogonomyrmex badius, Relies on Germination to Consume Large Seeds.

    PubMed

    Tschinkel, Walter R; Kwapich, Christina L

    2016-01-01

    The Florida harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex badius, is one of many ant species and genera that stores large numbers of seeds in damp, underground chambers for later consumption. A comparison of the sizes of seeds recovered from storage chambers with those of seed husks discarded following consumption revealed that the used seeds are far smaller than stored seeds. This difference in use-rate was confirmed in field and laboratory colonies by offering marked seeds of various sizes and monitoring the appearance of size-specific chaff. Because foragers collect a range of seed sizes but only open small seeds, large seeds accumulate, forming 70% or more of the weight of seed stores. Major workers increase the rates at which small and medium seeds are opened, but do not increase the size range of opened seeds. Experiments limiting ant access to portions of natural seed chambers showed that seeds germinate during storage, but that the ants rapidly remove them. When offered alongside non germinating seeds, germinating seeds were preferentially fed to larvae. The rate of germination during the annual cycle was determined by both burial in artificial chambers at various depths and under four laboratory temperatures. The germination rate depends upon the species of seed, the soil/laboratory temperature and/or the elapsed time. The seasonal soil temperature cycle generated germination patterns that vary with the mix of locally-available seeds. Taken together, exploitation of germination greatly increases the resources available to the ants in space and time. While the largest seeds may have the nutritional value of 15 small seeds, the inability of workers to open large seeds at will precludes them from rapid use during catastrophic events. The harvester ant's approach to seed harvesting is therefore two-pronged, with both immediate and delayed payoffs arising from the tendency to forage for a wide variety of seeds sizes.

  7. Determinants of cognitive performance in children relying on cyanogenic cassava as staple food

    PubMed Central

    Bumoko, G. M.; Sombo, M.T.; Okitundu, L.D.; Mumba, D. N.; Kazadi, K. T.; Tamfum-Muyembe, J.J.; Lasarev, M.R.; Boivin, M.J.; Banea, J.P; Tshala-Katumbay, D.D.

    2014-01-01

    Background While risk factors for konzo are known, determinants of cognitive impairment in konzo-affected children remain unknown. Method We anchored cognitive performance (KABC-II scores) to serum levels of free-thyroxine (free-T4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), albumin, and motor proficiency (BOT-2 scores) in 40 children including 21 with konzo (median age: 9 years) and 19 without konzo (median age: 8 years). A multiple regression model was used to determine variables associated with changes in KABC-II scores. Results Age (β: − 0.818, 95%CI: − 1.48, − 0.152) (p=0.018), gender (β: − 5.72; 95% CI: − 9.87, −1.57 for females) (p=0.009), BOT-2 score (β: 0.390; 95% CI: 0.113, 0.667) (p=0.008), and free-T4 (β: 1.88; 95% CI: 0.009, 3.74) (p=0.049) explained 61.1% of variation in KABC-II scores. Subclinical hypothyroidism was not associated with poor cognition. A crude association was found between serum albumin and KABC-II scores (β: 1.26; 95% CI: 0.136, 2.39) (p=0.029). On spot urinary thiocyanate reached 688 μmol/l in children without konzo and 1032 μmol/L in those with konzo. Conclusion Female gender and low serum albumin are risk factors common to cognitive and proportionally associated motor deficits in children exposed to cassava cyanogens. The two types of deficits may share common mechanisms. PMID:24481810

  8. Gustatory Habituation in "Drosophila" Relies on "Rutabaga" (Adenylate Cyclase)-Dependent Plasticity of GABAergic Inhibitory Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paranjpe, Pushkar; Rodrigues, Veronica; VijayRaghavan, K.; Ramaswami, Mani

    2012-01-01

    In some situations, animals seem to ignore stimuli which in other contexts elicit a robust response. This attenuation in behavior, which enables animals to ignore a familiar, unreinforced stimulus, is called habituation. Despite the ubiquity of this phenomenon, it is generally poorly understood in terms of the underlying neural circuitry. Hungry…

  9. Strength and Persistence of Energy-Based Vessel Seals Rely on Tissue Water and Glycosaminoglycan Content.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Eric A; Cezo, James D; Fankell, Douglas P; Taylor, Kenneth D; Rentschler, Mark E; Ferguson, Virginia L

    2016-11-01

    Vessel ligation using energy-based surgical devices is steadily replacing conventional closure methods during minimally invasive and open procedures. In exploring the molecular nature of thermally-induced tissue bonds, novel applications for surgical resection and repair may be revealed. This work presents an analysis of the influence of unbound water and hydrophilic glycosaminoglycans on the formation and resilience of vascular seals via: (a) changes in pre-fusion tissue hydration, (b) the enzymatic digestion of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) prior to fusion and (c) the rehydration of vascular seals following fusion. An 11% increase in pre-fusion unbound water led to an 84% rise in vascular seal strength. The digestion of GAGs prior to fusion led to increases of up to 82% in seal strength, while the rehydration of native and GAG-digested vascular seals decreased strengths by 41 and 44%, respectively. The effects of increased unbound water content prior to fusion combined with the effects of seal rehydration after fusion suggest that the heat-induced displacement of tissue water is a major contributor to tissue adhesion during energy-based vessel sealing. The effects of pre-fusion GAG-digestion on seal integrity indicate that GAGs are inhibitory to the bond formation process during thermal ligation. GAG digestion may allow for increased water transport and protein interaction during the fusion process, leading to the formation of stronger bonds. These findings provide insight into the physiochemical nature of the fusion bond, its potential for optimization in vascular closure and its application to novel strategies for vascular resection and repair.

  10. Gustatory Habituation in "Drosophila" Relies on "Rutabaga" (Adenylate Cyclase)-Dependent Plasticity of GABAergic Inhibitory Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paranjpe, Pushkar; Rodrigues, Veronica; VijayRaghavan, K.; Ramaswami, Mani

    2012-01-01

    In some situations, animals seem to ignore stimuli which in other contexts elicit a robust response. This attenuation in behavior, which enables animals to ignore a familiar, unreinforced stimulus, is called habituation. Despite the ubiquity of this phenomenon, it is generally poorly understood in terms of the underlying neural circuitry. Hungry…

  11. Galectin-3-induced cell spreading and motility relies on distinct signaling mechanisms compared to fibronectin.

    PubMed

    More, Shyam K; Chiplunkar, Shubhada V; Kalraiya, Rajiv D

    2016-05-01

    Secreted galectin-3 often gets incorporated into extracellular matrix and is utilized by cancer cells for spreading, movement, and metastatic dissemination. Here we investigate molecular mechanisms by which galectin-3 brings about these effects and compare it with fibronectin. Imaging of cells spread on fibronectin showed stress fibers throughout cell body, however, galectin-3-induced formation of parallel actin bundles in the lamellipodial region resulting in unique morphological features. FRAP analysis showed that the actin turnover in the lamellipodial region was much higher in cells spread on galectin-3 as compared to that on fibronectin. Rac1 activation is correlated with lamellipodial organization on both the substrates. Activation of Akt and Rac1, the regulators of actin dynamics, show inverse correlation with each other on both galectin-3 and fibronectin. Activation of Erk however, remained similar. Further, inhibition of activation of Akt and Erk inhibited spreading and motility of cells on galectin-3 but not on fibronectin. The results very comprehensively demonstrate distinct signaling pathways that regulate microfilament organization, lamellipodial structures, spreading, and movement of cells plated on galectin-3 as opposed to fibronectin.

  12. Deciduous and Evergreen Trees Rely on Deep Water Throughout the Year in a Subtropical Seasonal Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellsworth, P.

    2010-12-01

    In subtropical and tropical seasonal forests, trees have adapted to low shallow soil water availability during the dry season by modifying root density, rooting depth, and leaf phenology. Here we test the well known hypothesis that water uptake in deciduous trees is restricted to the shallow soil layer, which prevents them from sustaining transpiring leaves during the dry season. Evergreens, on the other hand, access perennially available deep water sources, allowing them to maintain their transpiring leaves during the dry season. To determine where in the soil profile deciduous and evergreen trees take up water, we used stable isotope analysis to measure water source use of two deciduous and three evergreen species for a period of 13 months. In addition, to test the possibility that leaflessness could alter the isotopic composition of stem water, we measured the isotopic variation in stem water caused by artificial defoliation of an evergreen species. Deciduous and evergreen trees took up water from the same depths in both the wet and dry seasons. Deciduous and evergreen trees used approximately 51% deep water (50-150cm) throughout the year, while soil from 0-20cm was the least important water source with 24 and 6% of water uptake for wet and dry seasons, respectively. Low use of shallow water (0-20cm) in the wet season was due to inconstant water availability. Though the top 20cm of soil is the location of most nutrients, the soil’s limited water availability requires plants to have access to a more reliable deep water source to meet both their dry and wet season transpirational demands. This apparent spatial uncoupling in water and nutrient uptake denotes separate resource allocation for nutrient and water acquisition. Deciduous trees showed isotopic enrichment of stem water compared to evergreen plants only during the period that deciduous trees were leafless. We explain this as isotopic enrichment of fixed pool of stem water by evaporation as our defoliation experiment demonstrated. The δ18O and δ2H values of stem water from defoliated Q. virginiana branches were significantly higher than those of stem water from branches with leaves on the same tree (P < 0.01 and 0.001, respectively) and remained higher until the defoliated branches grew new leaves. Low sap flow in stems due to leaflessness or minimal transpiration can increase δ18O and δ2H values of stem water through evaporative enrichment. Using stem water to measure water source use in this situation would be misleading because it would infer usage of a water source more isotopically enriched than is actually the case.

  13. Galileo IOV Electrical Power Subsystem Relies On Li-Ion Batter Charge Management Controlled By Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douay, N.

    2011-10-01

    In the frame of GALILEO In-Orbit Validation program which is composed of 4 satellites, Thales Alenia Space France has designed, developed and tested the Electrical Power Subsystem. Besides some classical design choices like: -50V regulated main power bus provided by the PCDU manufactured by Terma (DK), -Solar array, manufactured by Dutch-Space (NL), using Ga-As triple junction technology from Azur Space Power Solar GmbH, -SAFT (FR) Lithium-ion Battery for which cell package balancing function is required, -Solar Array Drive Mechanism, provided by RUAG Space Switzerland, to transfer the power. This subsystem features a fully autonomous, failure tolerant, battery charge management able to operate even after a complete unavailability of the on-board software. The battery charge management is implemented such that priority is always given to satisfy the satellite main bus needs in order to maintain the main bus regulation under MEA control. This battery charge management principle provides very high reliability and operational robustness. So, the paper describes : -the battery charge management concept using a combination of PCDU hardware and relevant battery lines monitoring, -the functional aspect of the single point failure free S4R (Sequential Switching Shunt Switch Regulator) and associated performances, -the failure modes isolated and passivated by this architecture. The paper will address as well the autonomous balancing function characteristics and performances.

  14. To what extent does organic farming rely on nutrient inflows from conventional farming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Benjamin; Nesme, Thomas; David, Christophe; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2013-12-01

    Organic farming is increasingly recognized as a prototype for sustainable agriculture. Its guidelines ban the use of artificial fertilizers. However, organic farms may import nutrients from conventional farming through material exchanges. In this study, we aimed at estimating the magnitude of these flows through the quantification of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium inflows from conventional farming to organic farming. Material inflows and outflows were collected for two cropping years on 63 farms. The farms were located in three French agricultural districts distributed over a gradient of farming activity defined by both the stocking rate and the ratio of the farm area under arable crops. Our results showed that on average, inflows from conventional farming were 23%, 73% and 53% for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively. These inflows were strongly determined by the farm production systems. However, for farms similar in terms of production systems, the inflows also depended on the local context, such as the proximity of organic livestock farms: the reliance of organic farming on conventional farming was lower in mixed than in specialized districts. These results highlight the necessity to quantify the contribution of nutrient inflows from conventional farming when assessing organic farming and development scenarios.

  15. Response to “Accurate Risk-Based Chemical Screening Relies on Robust Exposure Estimates”

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a correspondence (letter to the editor) with reference to comments by Rudel and Perovich on the article "Integration of Dosimetry, Exposure, and High-Throughput Screening Data in Chemical Toxicity Assessment". Article Reference: SI # 238882

  16. Viroids: from genotype to phenotype just relying on RNA sequence and structural motifs.

    PubMed

    Flores, Ricardo; Serra, Pedro; Minoia, Sofía; Di Serio, Francesco; Navarro, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of two unique physical properties, small size and circularity, viroid RNAs do not code for proteins and thus depend on RNA sequence/structural motifs for interacting with host proteins that mediate their invasion, replication, spread, and circumvention of defensive barriers. Viroid genomes fold up on themselves adopting collapsed secondary structures wherein stretches of nucleotides stabilized by Watson-Crick pairs are flanked by apparently unstructured loops. However, compelling data show that they are instead stabilized by alternative non-canonical pairs and that specific loops in the rod-like secondary structure, characteristic of Potato spindle tuber viroid and most other members of the family Pospiviroidae, are critical for replication and systemic trafficking. In contrast, rather than folding into a rod-like secondary structure, most members of the family Avsunviroidae adopt multibranched conformations occasionally stabilized by kissing-loop interactions critical for viroid viability in vivo. Besides these most stable secondary structures, viroid RNAs alternatively adopt during replication transient metastable conformations containing elements of local higher-order structure, prominent among which are the hammerhead ribozymes catalyzing a key replicative step in the family Avsunviroidae, and certain conserved hairpins that also mediate replication steps in the family Pospiviroidae. Therefore, different RNA structures - either global or local - determine different functions, thus highlighting the need for in-depth structural studies on viroid RNAs.

  17. Viroids: From Genotype to Phenotype Just Relying on RNA Sequence and Structural Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Ricardo; Serra, Pedro; Minoia, Sofía; Di Serio, Francesco; Navarro, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of two unique physical properties, small size and circularity, viroid RNAs do not code for proteins and thus depend on RNA sequence/structural motifs for interacting with host proteins that mediate their invasion, replication, spread, and circumvention of defensive barriers. Viroid genomes fold up on themselves adopting collapsed secondary structures wherein stretches of nucleotides stabilized by Watson–Crick pairs are flanked by apparently unstructured loops. However, compelling data show that they are instead stabilized by alternative non-canonical pairs and that specific loops in the rod-like secondary structure, characteristic of Potato spindle tuber viroid and most other members of the family Pospiviroidae, are critical for replication and systemic trafficking. In contrast, rather than folding into a rod-like secondary structure, most members of the family Avsunviroidae adopt multibranched conformations occasionally stabilized by kissing-loop interactions critical for viroid viability in vivo. Besides these most stable secondary structures, viroid RNAs alternatively adopt during replication transient metastable conformations containing elements of local higher-order structure, prominent among which are the hammerhead ribozymes catalyzing a key replicative step in the family Avsunviroidae, and certain conserved hairpins that also mediate replication steps in the family Pospiviroidae. Therefore, different RNA structures – either global or local – determine different functions, thus highlighting the need for in-depth structural studies on viroid RNAs. PMID:22719735

  18. Desiccation tolerance in the tardigrade Richtersius coronifer relies on muscle mediated structural reorganization.

    PubMed

    Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Jørgensen, Aslak; Møbjerg, Nadja

    2013-01-01

    Life unfolds within a framework of constraining abiotic factors, yet some organisms are adapted to handle large fluctuations in physical and chemical parameters. Tardigrades are microscopic ecdysozoans well known for their ability to endure hostile conditions, such as complete desiccation--a phenomenon called anhydrobiosis. During dehydration, anhydrobiotic animals undergo a series of anatomical changes. Whether this reorganization is an essential regulated event mediated by active controlled processes, or merely a passive result of the dehydration process, has not been clearly determined. Here, we investigate parameters pivotal to the formation of the so-called "tun", a state that in tardigrades and rotifers marks the entrance into anhydrobiosis. Estimation of body volume in the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer reveals an 87 % reduction in volume from the hydrated active state to the dehydrated tun state, underlining the structural stress associated with entering anhydrobiosis. Survival experiments with pharmacological inhibitors of mitochondrial energy production and muscle contractions show that i) mitochondrial energy production is a prerequisite for surviving desiccation, ii) uncoupling the mitochondria abolishes tun formation, and iii) inhibiting the musculature impairs the ability to form viable tuns. We moreover provide a comparative analysis of the structural changes involved in tun formation, using a combination of cytochemistry, confocal laser scanning microscopy and 3D reconstructions as well as scanning electron microscopy. Our data reveal that the musculature mediates a structural reorganization vital for anhydrobiotic survival, and furthermore that maintaining structural integrity is essential for resumption of life following rehydration.

  19. Monitoring and Prevention of Anemia Relying on Nutrition and Environmental Conditions in Sports

    PubMed Central

    Sacirović, Selim; Asotic, Jasminka; Maksimovic, Radmila; Radevic, Borislav; Muric, Benin; Mekic, Hasim; Biocanin, Rade

    2013-01-01

    Conflict of interest: none declared. Introduction Anemia is a blood disorder characterized by abnormally low levels of healthy red blood cells or reduced hemoglobin, the iron-bearing protein in red blood cells that delivers oxygen to tissues throughout the body. The most common symptoms of this disorder are fatigue, weakness and, in extreme cases, shortness of breath or palpitations, or you may have no symptoms at all. Sports anemia is a term loosely applied to a least three different conditions: hemodilution, iron deficiency anemia and foot-strike anemia. Not exclusive to athletes, iron deficiency anemia occurs most often among women who may lose more iron each month when they menstruate than they take in. Material and Methods Therefore, we examined its effect on the physical condition of female athletes. Several years (since 2010th until 2012th), we studied how anemia among girls (pioneers, juniors and seniors categories) that are involved in sports (women’s soccer, volleyball and handball) in Rasina’s district (Serbia), affecting their physical fitness. When their trainers approach to us, complaining that they have players who are great, so extraordinary talents, but by no means able to withstand more than twenty minutes in the game, we suggest them to perform laboratory tests. It was tested 134th female athletes. Results and Discussion Anemia was observed in 43. (9. pioneers, 19. juniors and 15. seniors). So, laboratory results showed that in these girls anemia causes poor sport condition. After that, the girls enhanced nutrition. Their diet consisted of iron supplements and vitamins. Altitude training was organized for them, also. After all these treatments, condition significantly improved. It was first time that trainers in Rasina’s district realizing significance of laboratory tests. PMID:24082840

  20. Clinical and basic science research in sexual medicine must rely, in part, on pharmaceutical funding?

    PubMed

    Jannini, Emmanuele A; Eardley, Ian; Sand, Michael; Hackett, Geoffrey

    2010-07-01

    The conflict of interest in sexual medicine (SM) is a never-ending debate between scientists who consider possible and fruitful the partnership between science and the pharmaceutical industry (pharma) and others who are afraid that such a relationship might contaminate the veracity of scientific research. The aim of this Controversy is to appreciate opinions from both perspectives. Four scientists (three from academic or private practice and one employee of the industry) with expertise in the area of SM were asked to contribute with their opinions. Expert opinion supported by the critical review of the currently available literature. Expert #1, who is Controversy's section editor, and Expert #3 consider industry involvement in the field of SM problematic but potentially synergistic with the aim of science. On the other side, the Experts #2 and 4 argue that it is almost impossible to serve two masters. They believe that the pharma involved both in basic and applied research may jeopardize the independent evolution of the young SM. After reading this Controversy, The Journal of Sexual Medicine's readers should be able to judge by themselves the claims of the discussants and if the partnership between industry and SM is a risk or a potential benefit.

  1. Bricks or Mortar: Which Parts of the Input Does a Second Language Listener Rely on?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2008-01-01

    There is considerable evidence from psycholinguistics that first language listeners handle function words differently from content words. This makes intuitive sense because content words require the listener to access a lexical meaning representation whereas function words do not. A separate channel of processing for functors would enable them to…

  2. Sunlight UV-induced skin cancer relies upon activation of the p38α signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kangdong; Yu, Donghoon; Cho, Yong-Yeon; Bode, Ann M; Ma, Weiya; Yao, Ke; Li, Shengqing; Li, Jixia; Bowden, G Tim; Dong, Ziming; Dong, Zigang

    2013-04-01

    The activation of cellular signal transduction pathways by solar ultraviolet (SUV) irradiation plays a vital role in skin tumorigenesis. Although many pathways have been studied using pure ultraviolet A (UVA) or ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation, the signaling pathways induced by SUV (i.e., sunlight) are not understood well enough to permit improvements for prevention, prognosis, and treatment. Here, we report parallel protein kinase array studies aimed at determining the dominant signaling pathway involved in SUV irradiation. Our results indicated that the p38-related signal transduction pathway was dramatically affected by SUV irradiation. SUV (60 kJ UVA/m(2)/3.6 kJ UVB/m(2)) irradiation stimulates phosphorylation of p38α (MAPK14) by 5.78-fold, MSK2 (RPS6KA4) by 6.38-fold, and HSP27 (HSPB1) by 34.56-fold compared with untreated controls. By investigating the tumorigenic role of SUV-induced signal transduction in wild-type and p38 dominant-negative (p38 DN) mice, we found that p38 blockade yielded fewer and smaller tumors. These results establish that p38 signaling is critical for SUV-induced skin carcinogenesis.

  3. Defense Headquarters: Geographic Combatant Commands Rely on Subordinate Commands for Mission Management and Execution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-30

    European Command, U.S. Northern Command, U.S. Pacific Command, and U.S. Southern Command. In March 2015, the Chairman of the Senate Armed Services...combatant commands (U.S. Africa Command, U.S. European Command, U.S. Northern Command, U.S. Pacific Command, and U.S. Southern Command) and their... Pacific Command includes four service component commands, three subordinate unified commands, and a joint task force. The joint task forces in the

  4. A Multiple-Choice Mushroom: Schools, Colleges Rely More than Ever on Standardized Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    1995-01-01

    This discussion of college entrance examinations reviews differences between the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) and the American College Test. It then focuses on the SAT, discussing numbers of students taking the tests, changes in test construction to recognize contributions of women and minorities, involvement of African Americans in…

  5. Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis Relies on a Twofold Clinical-Biological Algorithm: Three Memory Clinic Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Levy Nogueira, Marcel; Samri, Dalila; Epelbaum, Stéphane; Lista, Simone; Suppa, Per; Spies, Lothar; Hampel, Harald; Dubois, Bruno; Teichmann, Marc

    2017-01-01

    The International Working Group recently provided revised criteria of Alzheimer's disease (AD) proposing that the diagnosis of typical amnesic AD should be established by a clinical-biological signature, defined by the phenotype of an "amnesic syndrome of the hippocampal type" (ASHT) combined with positive in vivo evidence of AD pathophysiology in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or on amyloid PET imaging. The application and clinical value of this refined diagnostic algorithm, initially intended for research purposes, is explored in three memory clinic cases presenting with different cognitive profiles including an ASHT, hippocampal atrophy, and CSF AD-biomarker data. The case reports highlight that the isolated occurrence of one of the two proposed AD criteria, ASHT or positive pathophysiological markers, does not provide a reliable diagnosis of typical AD. It is proposed that the twofold diagnostic IWG algorithm can be applied and operationalized in memory clinic settings to improve the diagnostic accuracy of typical amnesic AD in clinical practice.

  6. Whom Do Centenarians Rely on for Support? Findings From the Second Heidelberg Centenarian Study.

    PubMed

    Boerner, Kathrin; Jopp, Daniela S; Park, Min-Kyung S; Rott, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed picture of the sources and types of informal support available to centenarians, depending on their housing and care arrangements. Participants were 112 centenarians and 96 primary contacts of centenarians enrolled in the population-based Second Heidelberg Centenarian Study. Findings indicate that children of centenarians were their primary source of support in daily life. Those without living children had overall less help. Most frequently reported was help with administrative tasks, regardless of centenarians' residence or living arrangement. All other types of help (e.g., with activities of daily living and housework) were reported by about one-third and were mostly provided by children; centenarians without children were more likely to have friends/neighbors involved in some of these tasks. The one category reported by a third of the centenarians regardless of residence, living arrangements, or presence of a child was help with socializing/companionship. Findings constitute an important step toward identifying and meeting the support needs of centenarians and their families. Policy implications are discussed.

  7. When to rely on maternal effects and when on phenotypic plasticity?

    PubMed Central

    Kuijper, Bram; Hoyle, Rebecca B.

    2015-01-01

    Existing insight suggests that maternal effects have a substantial impact on evolution, yet these predictions assume that maternal effects themselves are evolutionarily constant. Hence, it is poorly understood how natural selection shapes maternal effects in different ecological circumstances. To overcome this, the current study derives an evolutionary model of maternal effects in a quantitative genetics context. In constant environments, we show that maternal effects evolve to slight negative values that result in a reduction of the phenotypic variance (canalization). By contrast, in populations experiencing abrupt change, maternal effects transiently evolve to positive values for many generations, facilitating the transmission of beneficial maternal phenotypes to offspring. In periodically fluctuating environments, maternal effects evolve according to the autocorrelation between maternal and offspring environments, favoring positive maternal effects when change is slow, and negative maternal effects when change is rapid. Generally, the strongest maternal effects occur for traits that experience very strong selection and for which plasticity is severely constrained. By contrast, for traits experiencing weak selection, phenotypic plasticity enhances the evolutionary scope of maternal effects, although maternal effects attain much smaller values throughout. As weak selection is common, finding substantial maternal influences on offspring phenotypes may be more challenging than anticipated. PMID:25809121

  8. Innovation relies on the obscure: a key to overcoming the classic problem of functional fixedness.

    PubMed

    McCaffrey, Tony

    2012-03-01

    A recent analysis of real-world problems that led to historic inventions and insight problems that are used in psychology experiments suggests that during innovative problem solving, individuals discover at least one infrequently noticed or new (i.e., obscure) feature of the problem that can be used to reach a solution. This observation suggests that research uncovering aspects of the human semantic, perceptual, and motor systems that inhibit the noticing of obscure features would enable researchers to identify effective techniques to overcome those obstacles. As a critical step in this research program, this study showed that the generic-parts technique can help people unearth the types of obscure features that can be used to overcome functional fixedness, which is a classic inhibitor to problem solving. Subjects trained on this technique solved on average 67% more problems than a control group did. By devising techniques that facilitate the noticing of obscure features in order to overcome impediments to problem solving (e.g., design fixation), researchers can systematically create a tool kit of innovation-enhancing techniques.

  9. Activation of cAMP and mitogen responsive genes relies on a common nuclear factor.

    PubMed

    Arias, J; Alberts, A S; Brindle, P; Claret, F X; Smeal, T; Karin, M; Feramisco, J; Montminy, M

    1994-07-21

    A number of signalling pathways stimulate transcription of target genes through nuclear factors whose activities are primarily regulated by phosphorylation. Cyclic AMP regulates the expression of numerous genes, for example, through the protein kinase-A (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation of transcription factor CREB at Ser 133. Although phosphorylation may stimulate transcriptional activators by modulating their nuclear transport or DNA-binding affinity, CREB belongs to a class of proteins whose phosphorylation appears specifically to enhance their trans-activation potential. Recent work describing a phospho-CREB binding protein (CBP) which interacts specifically with the CREB trans-activation domain prompted us to examine whether CBP is necessary for cAMP regulated transcription. We report here that microinjection of an anti-CBP antiserum into fibroblasts can inhibit transcription from a cAMP responsive promoter. Surprisingly, CBP also cooperates with upstream activators such as c-Jun, which are involved in mitogen responsive transcription. We propose that CBP is recruited to the promoter through interaction with certain phosphorylated factors, and that CBP may thus play a critical role in the transmission of inductive signals from cell surface receptor to the transcriptional apparatus.

  10. Acoustic duetting in Drosophila virilis relies on the integration of auditory and tactile signals

    PubMed Central

    LaRue, Kelly M; Clemens, Jan; Berman, Gordon J; Murthy, Mala

    2015-01-01

    Many animal species, including insects, are capable of acoustic duetting, a complex social behavior in which males and females tightly control the rate and timing of their courtship song syllables relative to each other. The mechanisms underlying duetting remain largely unknown across model systems. Most studies of duetting focus exclusively on acoustic interactions, but the use of multisensory cues should aid in coordinating behavior between individuals. To test this hypothesis, we develop Drosophila virilis as a new model for studies of duetting. By combining sensory manipulations, quantitative behavioral assays, and statistical modeling, we show that virilis females combine precisely timed auditory and tactile cues to drive song production and duetting. Tactile cues delivered to the abdomen and genitalia play the larger role in females, as even headless females continue to coordinate song production with courting males. These data, therefore, reveal a novel, non-acoustic, mechanism for acoustic duetting. Finally, our results indicate that female-duetting circuits are not sexually differentiated, as males can also produce ‘female-like’ duets in a context-dependent manner. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07277.001 PMID:26046297

  11. A College That Relied on NeXT Computers Plans To Switch to Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David L.

    1997-01-01

    Allegheny College (Pennsylvania), which uses NeXT computers, was dismayed when the technically superior operating system was orphaned but are now delighted that the company has been bought by Apple Computer and will make the operating system standard on Apple computers. The object-oriented operating system allows relatively unsophisticated users…

  12. Extinction of cue-evoked drug-seeking relies on degrading hierarchical instrumental expectancies.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Lee; Retzler, Chris; Munafò, Marcus R; Tran, Dominic M D; Troisi, Joseph R; Rose, Abigail K; Jones, Andrew; Field, Matt

    2014-08-01

    There has long been need for a behavioural intervention that attenuates cue-evoked drug-seeking, but the optimal method remains obscure. To address this, we report three approaches to extinguish cue-evoked drug-seeking measured in a Pavlovian to instrumental transfer design, in non-treatment seeking adult smokers and alcohol drinkers. The results showed that the ability of a drug stimulus to transfer control over a separately trained drug-seeking response was not affected by the stimulus undergoing Pavlovian extinction training in experiment 1, but was abolished by the stimulus undergoing discriminative extinction training in experiment 2, and was abolished by explicit verbal instructions stating that the stimulus did not signal a more effective response-drug contingency in experiment 3. These data suggest that cue-evoked drug-seeking is mediated by a propositional hierarchical instrumental expectancy that the drug-seeking response is more likely to be rewarded in that stimulus. Methods which degraded this hierarchical expectancy were effective in the laboratory, and so may have therapeutic potential. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Evolutionary differences in food preference rely on Gr64e, a receptor for glycerol.

    PubMed

    Wisotsky, Zev; Medina, Adriana; Freeman, Erica; Dahanukar, Anupama

    2011-11-06

    Very little is known about how stimuli that are typically not rich in sugars, such as beer, trigger attractive gustatory responses in Drosophila. We identified a member of the gustatory receptor family, Gr64e, as a receptor that is required for feeding preference for beer and other sources that have fermenting yeast. We found that Gr64e is required for neuronal and behavioral responses to glycerol, an abundant component of growing yeast and fermentation products. Ectopic expression of Gr64e in an olfactory neuron conferred responsiveness to glycerol. We also found that Drosophila species that are predicted to carry pseudogenes of Gr64e had reduced glycerol sensitivity. Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of feeding acceptance of yeast products and raise the possibility that Gr64e contributes to specific evolutionary variations in appetitive selectivity across Drosophila species.

  14. Optimal effector functions in human natural killer cells rely upon autocrine bone morphogenetic protein signaling.

    PubMed

    Robson, Neil C; Hidalgo, Laura; McAlpine, Tristan; Wei, Heng; Martínez, Víctor G; Entrena, Ana; Melen, Gustavo J; MacDonald, Andrew S; Phythian-Adams, Alexander; Sacedón, Rosa; Maraskovsky, Eugene; Cebon, Jonathan; Ramírez, Manuel; Vicente, Angeles; Varas, Alberto

    2014-09-15

    Natural killer (NK) cells are critical for innate tumor immunity due to their specialized ability to recognize and kill neoplastically transformed cells. However, NK cells require a specific set of cytokine-mediated signals to achieve optimal effector function. Th1-associated cytokines promote effector functions that are inhibited by the prototypic Th2 cytokine IL4 and the TGFβ superfamily members TGFβ1 and activin-A. Interestingly, the largest subgroup of the TGFβ superfamily are the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), but the effects of BMP signaling on NK cell effector functions have not been evaluated. Here, we demonstrate that blood-circulating NK cells express type I and II BMP receptors, BMP-2 and BMP-6 ligands, and phosphorylated isoforms of Smad-1/-5/-8, which mediate BMP family member signaling. In opposition to the inhibitory effects of TGFβ1 or activin-A, autocrine BMP signaling was supportive to NK cell function. Mechanistic investigations in cytokine and TLR-L-activated NK cells revealed that BMP signaling optimized IFNγ and global cytokine and chemokine production, phenotypic activation and proliferation, and autologous dendritic cell activation and target cytotoxicity. Collectively, our findings identify a novel auto-activatory pathway that is essential for optimal NK cell effector function, one that might be therapeutically manipulated to help eradicate tumors. Cancer Res; 74(18); 5019-31. ©2014 AACR.

  15. Relying on High-Stakes Standardized Tests to Evaluate Schools and Teachers: A Bad Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Hani

    2016-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, the use of standardized tests as the primary means to evaluate schools and teachers in the United States has contributed to severe dilemmas, including misleading information on what students know, lower-level instruction, cheating, less collaboration, unfair treatment of teachers, and biased teaching. This article…

  16. Resting lymphocyte transduction with measles virus glycoprotein pseudotyped lentiviral vectors relies on CD46 and SLAM

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Qi; Schneider, Irene C.; Gallet, Manuela; Kneissl, Sabrina; Buchholz, Christian J.

    2011-05-10

    The measles virus (MV) glycoproteins hemagglutinin (H) and fusion (F) were recently shown to mediate transduction of resting lymphocytes by lentiviral vectors. MV vaccine strains use CD46 or signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) as receptor for cell entry. A panel of H protein mutants derived from vaccine strain or wild-type MVs that lost or gained CD46 or SLAM receptor usage were investigated for their ability to mediate gene transfer into unstimulated T lymphocytes. The results demonstrate that CD46 is sufficient for efficient vector particle association with unstimulated lymphocytes. For stable gene transfer into these cells, however, both MV receptors were found to be essential.

  17. Potential pitfalls of relying on hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production to identify Salmonella in feed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella can be difficult to assess and isolate in poultry feed due to stress, uneven distribution and poor growth. Previous studies have shown that several strains of Salmonella can be affected by environmental changes, resulting in H2S-negative colonies. This is a major concern, as H2S productio...

  18. Stage-specific functions of Semaphorin7A during adult hippocampal neurogenesis rely on distinct receptors.

    PubMed

    Jongbloets, Bart C; Lemstra, Suzanne; Schellino, Roberta; Broekhoven, Mark H; Parkash, Jyoti; Hellemons, Anita J C G M; Mao, Tianyi; Giacobini, Paolo; van Praag, Henriette; De Marchis, Silvia; Ramakers, Geert M J; Pasterkamp, R Jeroen

    2017-03-10

    The guidance protein Semaphorin7A (Sema7A) is required for the proper development of the immune and nervous systems. Despite strong expression in the mature brain, the role of Sema7A in the adult remains poorly defined. Here we show that Sema7A utilizes different cell surface receptors to control the proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), one of the select regions of the mature brain where neurogenesis occurs. PlexinC1 is selectively expressed in early neural progenitors in the adult mouse DG and mediates the inhibitory effects of Sema7A on progenitor proliferation. Subsequently, during differentiation of adult-born DG granule cells, Sema7A promotes dendrite growth, complexity and spine development through β1-subunit-containing integrin receptors. Our data identify Sema7A as a key regulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, providing an example of how differential receptor usage spatiotemporally controls and diversifies the effects of guidance cues in the adult brain.

  19. Spatial and Temporal Eye–Hand Coordination Relies on the Parietal Reach Region

    PubMed Central

    Hauschild, Markus; Wilke, Melanie; Andersen, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Coordinated eye movements are crucial for precision control of our hands. A commonly believed neural mechanism underlying eye–hand coordination is interaction between the neural networks controlling each effector, exchanging, and matching information, such as movement target location and onset time. Alternatively, eye–hand coordination may result simply from common inputs to independent eye and hand control pathways. Thus far, it remains unknown whether and where either of these two possible mechanisms exists. A candidate location for the former mechanism, interpathway communication, includes the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) where distinct effector-specific areas reside. If the PPC were within the network for eye–hand coordination, perturbing it would affect both eye and hand movements that are concurrently planned. In contrast, if eye–hand coordination arises solely from common inputs, perturbing one effector pathway, e.g., the parietal reach region (PRR), would not affect the other effector. To test these hypotheses, we inactivated part of PRR in the macaque, located in the medial bank of the intraparietal sulcus encompassing the medial intraparietal area and area 5V. When each effector moved alone, PRR inactivation shortened reach but not saccade amplitudes, compatible with the known reach-selective activity of PRR. However, when both effectors moved concurrently, PRR inactivation shortened both reach and saccade amplitudes, and decoupled their reaction times. Therefore, consistent with the interpathway communication hypothesis, we propose that the planning of concurrent eye and hand movements causes the spatial information in PRR to influence the otherwise independent eye control pathways, and that their temporal coupling requires an intact PRR. PMID:25232123

  20. Novel-View Scene Recognition Relies on Identifying Spatial Reference Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mou, Weimin; Zhang, Hui; McNamara, Timothy P.

    2009-01-01

    Five experiments investigated whether observer locomotion provides specialized information facilitating novel-view scene recognition. Participants detected a position change after briefly viewing a desktop scene when the table stayed stationary or was rotated and when the observer stayed stationary or locomoted. The results showed that 49[degrees]…

  1. Potential for bias in epidemiologic studies that rely on glass-based retrospective assessment of radon

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, C.R.

    1995-11-01

    Retrospective assessment of exposure to radon remains the greatest challenge in epidemiologic efforts to assess lung cancer risk associated with residential exposure. An innovative technique based on measurement of {alpha}-emitting, long-lived daughters embedded by recoil into household glass may one day provide improved radon dosimetry. Particulate air pollution is known, however, to retard the plate-out of radon daughters. This would be expected to result in a differential effect on dosimetry, where the calibration curve relating the actual historical radon exposure to the remaining {alpha}-activity in the glass would be different in historically smoky and nonsmoky environments. The resulting {open_quotes}measurement confounding{close_quotes} can distort inferences about the effect of radon and can also produce spurious evidence for synergism between radon exposure and cigarette smoking. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Usefulness and dangers of relying on grant acknowledgments in an observatory bibliography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelman, Sherry; Rots, Arnold

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a quantitative assessment of how well grant and/or program acknowledgments reflect the science impact of Chandra observing, archive, and theory programs and to assess whether observatory acknowledgments alone are a good indicator for inclusion in an observatory bibliography. For grant citations we find that curators will often need to determine the correct grant being cited and they will need to assess relationship between the content of a paper and the grant proposal being cited for statistics to be meaningful. We also find a significant number of papers can be attributed to observing programs through grant links only and that performing full-text searches against the ADS for grant numbers can lead to additional articles for inclusion in the bibliography. When looking at acknowledgment sections as a whole, we find that using an observatory acknowledgment as the sole source for determining inclusion in a bibliography will greatly underestimate the number of science papers attributable to the observatory.

  3. Perceptual implicit memory relies on intentional, load-sensitive processing at encoding.

    PubMed

    Crabb, Brian T; Dark, Veronica J

    2003-10-01

    In two experiments, we examined whether the encoding processes leading to perceptual implicit memory satisfied the intentionality and load insensitivity criteria for automaticity. Whether participants intended to process words or digits, in displays containing both, was manipulated in Experiment 1. Results showed an effect of intention on a subsequent perceptual identification task and a recognition task. Load (one, two, and four words) and exposure duration (1,000, 600, and 200 msec) at encoding were manipulated in Experiment 2. Recognition was affected by both variables, but performance on the perceptual identification task was affected only by load. In both experiments, the results showed that controlled (intentional, load-sensitive) processing of words at encoding is essential for later perceptual implicit memory. That is, the encoding processes leading to perceptual implicit memory fail both criteria of automaticity.

  4. Primary Sex Determination in Drosophila melanogaster Does Not Rely on the Male-Specific Lethal Complex.

    PubMed

    Erickson, James W

    2016-02-01

    It has been proposed that the Male Specific Lethal (MSL) complex is active in Drosophila melanogaster embryos of both sexes prior to the maternal-to-zygotic transition. Elevated gene expression from the two X chromosomes of female embryos is proposed to facilitate the stable establishment of Sex-lethal (Sxl) expression, which determines sex and represses further activity of the MSL complex, leaving it active only in males. Important supporting data included female-lethal genetic interactions between the seven msl genes and either Sxl or scute and sisterlessA, two of the X-signal elements (XSE) that regulate early Sxl expression. Here I report contrary findings that there are no female-lethal genetic interactions between the msl genes and Sxl or its XSE regulators. Fly stocks containing the msl3(1) allele were found to exhibit a maternal-effect interaction with Sxl, scute, and sisterlessA mutations, but genetic complementation experiments showed that msl3 is neither necessary nor sufficient for the female-lethal interactions, which appear to be due to an unidentified maternal regulator of Sxl. Published data cited as evidence for an early function of the MSL complex in females, including a maternal effect of msl2, have been reevaluated and found not to support a maternal, or other effect, of the MSL complex in sex determination. These findings suggest that the MSL complex is not involved in primary sex determination or in X chromosome dosage compensation prior to the maternal-to-zygotic transition. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  5. Engineering Signaling Aptamers That Rely on Kinetic Rather Than Equilibrium Competition.

    PubMed

    Du, Yan; Zhen, Shu Jun; Li, Bingling; Byrom, Michelle; Jiang, Yu Sherry; Ellington, Andrew D

    2016-02-16

    During the past decade, aptasensors have largely been designed on the basis of the notion that ligand-modulated equilibration between aptamer conformations could be exploited for sensing. One implementation of this strategy has been to denature the aptamer with an antisense oligonucleotide, wait for dissociation of the antisense oligonucleotide, and stabilize the folded, signaling conformer with a ligand. However, there is a large kinetic barrier associated with releasing the oligonucleotide from the aptamer to again obtain an active, binding conformation. If the length of the antisense oligonucleotide is decreased to make dissociation from the aptamer more favorable, higher background signals are observed. To improve the general methodology for developing aptasensors, we have developed a novel and robust strategy for aptasensor design in which an oligonucleotide kinetically competes with the ligand for binding rather than having to be released from a stable duplex. While the oligonucleotide can induce conformational change, it initially chooses between the aptamer and a molecular beacon (MB), a process that does not require a lengthy pre-equilibration. Using an anti-ricin aptamer as a starting point, we developed a "competitive" aptasensor with a measured limit of detection (LOD) of 30 nM with an optical readout and as low as 3 nM for ricin toxin A-chain (RTA) detection on an electrochemical platform.

  6. Basal-A Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells Selectively Rely on RNA Splicing for Survival.

    PubMed

    Chan, Stefanie; Sridhar, Praveen; Kirchner, Rory; Lock, Ying Jie; Herbert, Zach; Buonamici, Silvia; Smith, Peter; Lieberman, Judy; Petrocca, Fabio

    2017-09-06

    Prognosis of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains poor. To identify shared and selective vulnerabilities of basal-like TNBC, the most common TNBC subtype, a directed siRNA lethality screen was performed in 7 human breast cancer cell lines, focusing on 154 previously identified dependency genes of one TNBC line. Thirty common dependency genes were identified, including multiple proteasome and RNA splicing genes, especially those associated with the U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP complex (e.g., PRPF8, PRPF38A). PRPF8 or PRPF38A knockdown or the splicing modulator E7107 led to widespread intronic retention and altered splicing of transcripts involved in multiple basal-like TNBC dependencies, including protein homeostasis, mitosis and apoptosis. E7107 treatment suppressed the growth of basal-A TNBC cell line and patient-derived basal-like TNBC xenografts at a well-tolerated dose. The anti-tumor response was enhanced by adding the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib. Thus, inhibiting both splicing and the proteasome might be an effective approach for treating basal-like TNBC. Copyright ©2017, American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Outcomes of Extensive Hybridization and Introgression in Epidendrum (Orchidaceae): Can We Rely on Species Boundaries?

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Yesenia; Marques, Isabel; Castro, Sílvia; Loureiro, João

    2013-01-01

    Hybridization has the potential to contribute to phenotypic and genetic variation and can be a major evolutionary mechanism. However, when hybridization is extensive it can also lead to the blurring of species boundaries and the emergence of cryptic species (i.e., two or more species not distinguishable morphologically). In this study, we address this hypothesis in Epidendrum, the largest Neotropical genus of orchids where hybridization is apparently so common that it may explain the high levels of morphological diversity found. Nonetheless, this hypothesis is mostly based on the intermediacy of morphological characters and intermediacy by itself is not a proof of hybridization. Therefore, in this study, we first assessed the existence of hybrids using cpDNA and AFLP data gathered from a large-scale sampling comprising 1038 plants of three species of Epidendrum (E. calanthum, E. cochlidium and E. schistochilum). Subsequently, a Bayesian assignment of individuals into different genetic classes (pure species, F1, F2 or backcross generations) revealed that hybrid genotypes were prevalent in all sympatric populations. In most cases, parental species were not assigned as pure individuals, rather consisting in backcrossed genotypes or F1 hybrids. We also found that reproductive barriers are apparently very weak in Epidendrum because the three species largely overlapped in their flowering periods and interspecific crosses always produced viable seeds. Further, hybridization contributed to enhance floral variability, genome size and reproductive success since we found that these traits were always higher in hybrid classes (F1, F2 and backcrosses) than in pure parental species, and offer an explanation for the blurring of species boundaries in this genus of orchids. We hypothesize that these natural hybrids possess an evolutionary advantage, which may explain the high rates of cryptic species observed in this genus. PMID:24224057

  8. Detecting Bias in Meta-Analyses of Distance Education Research: Big Pictures We Can Rely On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Robert M.; Borokhovski, Eugene; Tamim, Rana M.

    2014-01-01

    This article has two interrelated purposes. The first is to explain how various forms of bias, if introduced during any stage of a meta-analysis, can provide the consumer with a misimpression of the state of a research literature. Five of the most important bias-producing aspects of a meta-analysis are presented and discussed. Second, armed with…

  9. Conflict Detection and Resolution Rely on a Combination of Common and Distinct Cognitive Control Networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Yang, Guochun; Li, Zhenghan; Qi, Yanyan; Cole, Michael; Liu, Xun

    2017-10-07

    Cognitive control can be activated by stimulus-stimulus (S-S) and stimulus-response (S-R) conflicts. However, whether cognitive control is domain-general or domain-specific remains unclear. To deepen the understanding of the functional organization of cognitive control networks, we conducted activation likelihood estimation (ALE) from 111 neuroimaging studies to examine brain activation in conflict-related tasks. We observed that fronto-parietal and cingulo-opercular networks were commonly engaged by S-S and S-R conflicts, showing a domain-general pattern. In addition, S-S conflicts specifically activated distinct brain regions to a greater degree. These regions were implicated in the processing of the semantic-relevant attribute, including the inferior frontal cortex (IFC), superior parietal cortex (SPC), superior occipital cortex (SOC), and right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). By contrast, S-R conflicts specifically activated the left thalamus (TH), middle frontal cortex (MFC), and right SPC, which were associated with detecting response conflict and orienting spatial attention. These findings suggest that conflict detection and resolution involve a combination of domain-general and domain-specific cognitive control mechanisms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Redundant mechanisms to form silent chromatin at pericentromeric regions rely on BEND3 and DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Saksouk, Nehmé; Barth, Teresa K; Ziegler-Birling, Celine; Olova, Nelly; Nowak, Agnieszka; Rey, Elodie; Mateos-Langerak, Julio; Urbach, Serge; Reik, Wolf; Torres-Padilla, Maria-Elena; Imhof, Axel; Déjardin, Jérome; Simboeck, Elisabeth

    2014-11-20

    Constitutive heterochromatin is typically defined by high levels of DNA methylation and H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9Me3), whereas facultative heterochromatin displays DNA hypomethylation and high H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27Me3). The two chromatin types generally do not coexist at the same loci, suggesting mutual exclusivity. During development or in cancer, pericentromeric regions can adopt either epigenetic state, but the switching mechanism is unknown. We used a quantitative locus purification method to characterize changes in pericentromeric chromatin-associated proteins in mouse embryonic stem cells deficient for either the methyltransferases required for DNA methylation or H3K9Me3. DNA methylation controls heterochromatin architecture and inhibits Polycomb recruitment. BEND3, a protein enriched on pericentromeric chromatin in the absence of DNA methylation or H3K9Me3, allows Polycomb recruitment and H3K27Me3, resulting in a redundant pathway to generate repressive chromatin. This suggests that BEND3 is a key factor in mediating a switch from constitutive to facultative heterochromatin.

  11. A Portrait of Older Californians With Disabilities Who Rely on Public Services to Remain Independent

    PubMed Central

    KIETZMAN, KATHRYN G.; WALLACE, STEVEN P.; DURAZO, EVA M.; TORRES, JACQUELINE M.; CHOI, ANNE SOON; BENJAMIN, A. E.; MENDEZ-LUCK, CAROLYN

    2013-01-01

    Low-income older adults with disabilities in California depend on a variety of public programs to help them remain in their own homes. The availability of those services has been in flux since 2009 because of cuts caused by the recession. This article reports on a qualitative study of 33 California seniors who depend on fragile arrangements of paid and unpaid assistance. Thematic analyses of in-depth interviews conducted with these older adults and their caregivers indicate that the disability needs of these individuals are often unstable, with both physical and mental health status sometimes changing day to day. Most have nowhere else to turn for help if their public services are cut. All share the common goal of staying at home and maintaining their independence. Public services serve as a crucial link in the support networks of these individuals. PMID:23216515

  12. Optical Frequency Measurements Relying on a Mid-Infrared Frequency Standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovera, G. Daniele; Acef, Ouali

    Only a small number of groups are capable of measuring optical frequencies throughout the world. In this contribution we present some of the underlying philosophy of such frequency measurement systems, including some important theoretical hints. In particular, we concentrate on the approach that has been used with the BNM-LPTF frequency chain, where a separate secondary frequency standard in the mid-infrared has been used. The low-frequency section of the chain is characterized by a measurement of the phase noise spectral density Sφ at 716GHz.Most of the significant measurements performed in the last decade are briefly presented, together with a report on the actual stability and reproducibility of the CO2/ OsO4 frequency standard.Measuring the frequency of an optical frequency standard by direct comparison with the signal available at the output of a primary frequency standard (usually between 5MHz and 100MHz) requires a multiplication factor greater than 107. A number of possible configurations, using harmonic generation, sum or difference frequency generation, have been proposed and realized in the past [1,2,3,4,5,6] and in more recent times [7]. A new technique, employing a femtosecond laser, is presently giving its first impressive results [8].All of the classical frequency chains require a large amount of manpower, together with a great deal of simultaneously operating hardware. This has the consequence that only a very few systems are actually in an operating condition throughout the world.

  13. Deferring Higher Education Fees without Relying on Contributions from Non-Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Rey, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of deferring the payment of higher-education costs are increasingly acknowledged as a way to overcome student-borrowing constraints. Since higher education is a risky investment and students are generally risk averse, the repayment arrangements proposed in the literature frequently include some insurance. In a competitive environment,…

  14. Detecting Bias in Meta-Analyses of Distance Education Research: Big Pictures We Can Rely On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Robert M.; Borokhovski, Eugene; Tamim, Rana M.

    2014-01-01

    This article has two interrelated purposes. The first is to explain how various forms of bias, if introduced during any stage of a meta-analysis, can provide the consumer with a misimpression of the state of a research literature. Five of the most important bias-producing aspects of a meta-analysis are presented and discussed. Second, armed with…

  15. Single-Molecule Motions of MHC Class II Rely on Bound Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Kozono, Haruo; Matsushita, Yufuku; Ogawa, Naoki; Kozono, Yuko; Miyabe, Toshihiro; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Ichiyanagi, Kouhei; Okimoto, Noriaki; Taiji, Makoto; Kanagawa, Osami; Sasaki, Yuji C.

    2015-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II protein can bind peptides of different lengths in the region outside the peptide-binding groove. Peptide-flanking residues (PFRs) contribute to the binding affinity of the peptide for MHC and change the immunogenicity of the peptide/MHC complex with regard to T cell receptor (TCR). The mechanisms underlying these phenomena are currently unknown. The molecular flexibility of the peptide/MHC complex may be an important determinant of the structures recognized by certain T cells. We used single-molecule x-ray analysis (diffracted x-ray tracking (DXT)) and fluorescence anisotropy to investigate these mechanisms. DXT enabled us to monitor the real-time Brownian motion of the peptide/MHC complex and revealed that peptides without PFRs undergo larger rotational motions than peptides with PFRs. Fluorescence anisotropy further revealed that peptides without PFRs exhibit slightly larger motions on the nanosecond timescale. These results demonstrate that peptides without PFRs undergo dynamic motions in the groove of MHC and consequently are able to assume diverse structures that can be recognized by T cells. PMID:25606683

  16. Neuroprotective Effects of 17β-Estradiol Rely on Estrogen Receptor Membrane Initiated Signals

    PubMed Central

    Fiocchetti, Marco; Ascenzi, Paolo; Marino, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Besides its crucial role in many physiological events, 17β-estradiol (E2) exerts protective effects in the central nervous system. The E2 effects are not restricted to the brain areas related with the control of reproductive function, but rather are widespread throughout the developing and the adult brain. E2 actions are mediated through estrogen receptors (i.e., ERα and ERβ) belonging to the nuclear receptor super-family. As members of the ligand-regulated transcription factor family, classically, the actions of ERs in the brain were thought to mediate only the E2 long-term transcriptional effects. However, a growing body of evidence highlighted rapid, membrane initiated E2 effects in the brain that are independent of ER transcriptional activities and are involved in E2-induced neuroprotection. The aim of this review is to focus on the rapid effects of E2 in the brain highlighting the specific role of the signaling pathway(s) of the ERβ subtype in the neuroprotective actions of E2. PMID:22493583

  17. JET (3He)-D scenarios relying on RF heating: survey of selected recent experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eester, D.; Casati, A.; Crombe, K.; de la Luna, E.; Ericsson, G.; Felton, R.; Giroud, C.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Joffrin, E.; Kallne, J.; Kiptily, V.; Marinoni, A.; Santala, M.; Valisa, M.

    2009-03-01

    Recent JET experiments have been devoted to the study of (3He) D plasmas involving radio frequency (RF) heating. This paper starts by discussing the RF heating efficiency theoretically expected in such plasmas, covering both relevant aspects of wave and of particle dynamics. Then it gives a concise summary of the main conclusions drawn from recent experiments that were either focusing on studying RF heating physics aspects or that were adopting RF heating as a tool to study plasma behavior. Depending on the minority concentration chosen, different physical phenomena are observed. At very low concentration (X[3He] < 1%), energetic tails are formed which trigger MHD activity and result in loss of fast particles. Alfv n cascades were observed and gamma ray tomography indirectly shows the impact of sawtooth crashes on the fast particle orbits. Low concentration (X[3He] < 10%) favors minority heating while for X[3He] 10% electron mode conversion damping becomes dominant. Evidence for the Fuchs et al standing wave effect (Fuchs et al 1995 Phys. Plasmas 2 1637 47) on the absorption is presented. RF induced deuterium tails were observed in mode conversion experiments with large X[3He] (18%). As tentative modeling shows, the formation of these tails can be explained as a consequence of wave power absorption by neutral beam particles that efficiently interact with the waves well away from the cold D cyclotron resonance position as a result of their substantial Doppler shift. As both ion and electron RF power deposition profiles in (3He) D plasmas are fairly narrow giving rise to localized heat sources the RF heating method is an ideal tool for performing transport studies. Various of the experiments discussed here were done in plasmas with internal transport barriers (ITBs). ITBs are identified as regions with locally reduced diffusivity, where poloidal spinning up of the plasma is observed. The present know-how on the role of RF heating for impurity transport is also briefly summarized.

  18. Revisiting the relation between contingency awareness and attention: evaluative conditioning relies on a contingency focus.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Although evaluative conditioning has occasionally been demonstrated in the absence of contingency awareness, many recent studies imply that its acquisition depends on the availability of attentional resources during conditioning. In previous experiments attention has typically been manipulated in a general way rather than looking at the particular focus of attention. The present study investigated the role of a focus on the CS-US contingency. Two separate distraction tasks were designed that either diverted attention from the stimuli or directed it to the stimuli while drawing attention away from the contingency between the stimuli. Both types of distraction were shown to eliminate evaluative conditioning. Significant evaluative conditioning was observed in a third group of participants who were required to attend the contingencies. A mediation analysis showed that the observed discrepancy in evaluative conditioning effects between groups was mediated by contingency awareness. The results imply that attention in terms of a stimulus focus is not sufficient for evaluative conditioning to occur. Rather, attention to the contingencies between stimuli appears to be crucial in evaluative conditioning, because it is supposed to foster the acquisition of contingency awareness.

  19. Short-term Internet search using makes people rely on search engines when facing unknown issues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yifan; Wu, Lingdan; Luo, Liang; Zhang, Yifen; Dong, Guangheng

    2017-01-01

    The Internet search engines, which have powerful search/sort functions and ease of use features, have become an indispensable tool for many individuals. The current study is to test whether the short-term Internet search training can make people more dependent on it. Thirty-one subjects out of forty subjects completed the search training study which included a pre-test, a six-day's training of Internet search, and a post-test. During the pre- and post- tests, subjects were asked to search online the answers to 40 unusual questions, remember the answers and recall them in the scanner. Un-learned questions were randomly presented at the recalling stage in order to elicited search impulse. Comparing to the pre-test, subjects in the post-test reported higher impulse to use search engines to answer un-learned questions. Consistently, subjects showed higher brain activations in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex in the post-test than in the pre-test. In addition, there were significant positive correlations self-reported search impulse and brain responses in the frontal areas. The results suggest that a simple six-day's Internet search training can make people dependent on the search tools when facing unknown issues. People are easily dependent on the Internet search engines.

  20. Short-term Internet search using makes people rely on search engines when facing unknown issues

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yifan; Wu, Lingdan; Luo, Liang; Zhang, Yifen

    2017-01-01

    The Internet search engines, which have powerful search/sort functions and ease of use features, have become an indispensable tool for many individuals. The current study is to test whether the short-term Internet search training can make people more dependent on it. Thirty-one subjects out of forty subjects completed the search training study which included a pre-test, a six-day’s training of Internet search, and a post-test. During the pre- and post- tests, subjects were asked to search online the answers to 40 unusual questions, remember the answers and recall them in the scanner. Un-learned questions were randomly presented at the recalling stage in order to elicited search impulse. Comparing to the pre-test, subjects in the post-test reported higher impulse to use search engines to answer un-learned questions. Consistently, subjects showed higher brain activations in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex in the post-test than in the pre-test. In addition, there were significant positive correlations self-reported search impulse and brain responses in the frontal areas. The results suggest that a simple six-day’s Internet search training can make people dependent on the search tools when facing unknown issues. People are easily dependent on the Internet search engines. PMID:28441408

  1. Arsenate tolerance in Silene paradoxa does not rely on phytochelatin-dependent sequestration.

    PubMed

    Arnetoli, Miluscia; Vooijs, Riet; ten Bookum, Wilma; Galardi, Francesca; Gonnelli, Cristina; Gabbrielli, Roberto; Schat, Henk; Verkleij, Jos A C

    2008-04-01

    Arsenate tolerance, As accumulation and As-induced phytochelatin accumulation were compared in populations of Silene paradoxa, one from a mine site enriched in As, Cu and Zn, the other from an uncontaminated site. The mine population was significantly more arsenate-tolerant. Arsenate uptake and root-to-shoot transport were slightly but significantly higher in the non-mine plants. The difference in uptake was quantitatively insufficient to explain the difference in tolerance between the populations. As accumulation in the roots was similar in both populations, but the mine plants accumulated much less phytochelatins than the non-mine plants. The mean phytochelatin chain length, however, was higher in the mine population, possibly due to a constitutively lower cellular glutathione level. It is argued that the mine plants must possess an arsenic detoxification mechanism other than arsenate reduction and subsequent phytochelatin-based sequestration. This alternative mechanism might explain at least some part of the superior tolerance in the mine plants.

  2. Cancer Visibility among Iranian Familial Networks: To What Extent Can We Rely on Family History Reports?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patients’ unawareness of their cancer diagnosis (PUAW) and their tendency for non-disclosure (TTND) to relatives leads to a lack of cancer visibility among familial networks. Lack of familial cancer visibility could affect the accuracy of family cancer history (FCH) reports. In this study, we investigated familial cancer visibility and its potential determinants. Patients and Methods A sample of patients with a confirmed cancer diagnosis was interviewed. Participants were asked about their number of relatives, number of their relatives who are aware about the cancer diagnosis, and the number of relatives from whom they intended to conceal their diagnosis. PUAW was also assessed. Point estimates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using the bootstrap technique. Multivariate analyses were conducted using mixed Poisson and logistic regression analyses. Results A total of 415 participants with a mean age of 53±15 years and a male to female ratio of 0.53 were enrolled in this study. The rates of PUAW, TTND, and familial cancer visibility in the total sample were 0.20 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.16, 0.24), 0.16 (95% CI: 0.12, 0.19), and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.83, 0.89), respectively. PUAW (adjusted rate ratio (RR) = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.27, 1.38), TTND (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.91, 0.93), and the patients’ gender (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.82, 0.95) were the most important determinants of familial cancer visibility. Conclusion Familial cancer visibility may be a point of concern among the Iranian population. Self-reported cancer histories and FCHs may have low sensitivities (not exceeding 80% and 86%, respectively) in this population. However, these estimates may vary across different societies, because of societal and cultural contexts. PMID:26308087

  3. An Esterification Kinetics Experiment that Relies on the Sense of Smell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromfield-Lee, Deborah C.; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment involves an esterification synthesis to study reaction kinetics where students explore these topics utilizing the sense of smell rather than the traditional approach of using spectroscopic methods. Students study the effects of various factors including the concentration of the carboxylic acid and the amounts of the catalyst or…

  4. Optimal effector functions in human natural killer cells rely upon autocrine bone morphogenetic protein signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mc Alpine, Tristan; Wei, Heng; Martínez, Víctor G.; Entrena, Ana; Melen, Gustavo J; MacDonald, Andrew S.; Phythian-Adams, Alexander; Sacedón, Rosa; Maraskovsky, Eugene; Cebon, Jonathan; Ramírez, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are critical for innate tumor immunity due to their specialized ability to recognize and kill neoplastically transformed cells. However, NK cells require a specific set of cytokine-mediated signals to achieve optimal effector function. Th1-associated cytokines promote effector functions which are inhibited by the prototypic Th-2 cytokine IL-4 and the TGF-β superfamily members TGF-β1 and activin-A. Interestingly, the largest subgroup of the TGF-β superfamily are the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), but the effects of BMP signaling to NK cell effector functions have not been evaluated. Here we demonstrate that blood-circulating NK cells express type I and II BMP receptors, BMP-2 and BMP-6 ligands, and phosphorylated isoforms of Smad-1/-5/-8 which mediate BMP family member signaling. In opposition to the inhibitory effects of TGF-β1 or activin-A, autocrine BMP signaling was supportive to NK cell function. Mechanistic investigations in cytokine and TLR-L activated NK cells revealed that BMP signaling optimized IFN-γ and global cytokine and chemokine production; phenotypic activation and proliferation; autologous DC activation and target cytotoxicity. Collectively, our findings identify a novel auto-activatory pathway that is essential for optimal NK cell effector function, one which might be therapeutically manipulated to help eradicate tumors. PMID:25038228

  5. Alternative Identification Test Relying upon Sexual Reproductive Abilities of Candida lusitaniae Strains Isolated from Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    François, Fabienne; Noël, Thierry; Pépin, Régis; Brulfert, Annie; Chastin, Christiane; Favel, Anne; Villard, Jean

    2001-01-01

    The in vitro mating ability of Candida lusitaniae (teleomorph Clavispora lusitaniae) clinical isolates has been investigated. Studying the effects of culture conditions, we showed that ammonium ion depletion in the medium is a major trigger of the sexual cycle. Moreover, a solid support is required for mating, suggesting a role for adhesion factors in addition to the mating type gene recognition function. Monitoring of mating and meiosis efficiency with auxotrophic strains showed great variations in ascospore yields, which appeared to be strain and temperature dependent, with an optimal range of 18 to 28°C. The morphogenetic events taking place from mating to ascospore release were studied by scanning and electron microscopy, and the ultrastructure of the conjugation canal, through which intercellular nuclear exchanges occur, was revealed. Labeling experiments with a lectin-fluorochrome system revealed that the nuclear transfer was predominantly polarized, thus allowing a distinction between the nucleus donor and the nucleus acceptor strains. The direction of the transfer depended on the strain combination used, rather than on the genotypes of the strains, and did not appear to be controlled by the mating type genes. Finally, we demonstrated that all of the 76 clinical isolates used in this study were able to reproduce sexually when mated with an opposite mating type strain, and we identified a 1:1 MATa/MATα ratio in the collection. These results support the idea that there is no anamorph state in C. lusitaniae. Accordingly, the mating type test, which is easy to use and can usually be completed within 48 h, is a reliable alternative identification system for C. lusitaniae. PMID:11682506

  6. Pharmacological interventions in traumatic brain injury: Can we rely on systematic reviews for evidence?

    PubMed

    Gultekin, Riza; Huang, Sean; Clavisi, Ornella; Pattuwage, Loyal; König, Thomas C; Gruen, Russell

    2016-03-01

    Providing current, reliable and evidence based information for clinicians and researchers in a synthesised and summarised way can be challenging particularly in the area of traumatic brain injury where a vast number of reviews exists. These reviews vary in their methodological quality and are scattered across varying sources. In this paper, we present an overview of systematic reviews that evaluate the pharmacological interventions in traumatic brain injury (TBI). By doing this, we aim to evaluate the existing evidence for improved outcomes in TBI with pharmacological interventions, and to identify gaps in the literature to inform future research. We searched the Neurotrauma Evidence Map on systematic reviews relating to pharmacological interventions for managing TBI in acute phase. Two reviewers independently screened search results and appraised each systematic review using the validated AMSTAR tool and extracted data from the review. A total of 288 systematic reviews relating to TBI were available on the Neurotrauma Evidence Map at the time of this study. We identified 19 systematic reviews on pharmacological management for acute TBI with publications dates ranging from 1998 to 2014. The studies were of varying methodological quality, with a mean AMSTAR score of 7.78 (range 2-11]. The evidence from high quality systematic reviews show that there is currently insufficient evidence for the use of magnesium, monoaminergic and dopamine agonists, progesterone, aminosteroids, excitatory amino acid inhibitors, haemostatic and antifibrinolytic drugs in TBI. Anti-convulsants are only effective in reducing early seizures with no significant difference between phenytoin and leviteracetam. There is no difference between propofol and midazolam for sedation in TBI patients and ketamine may not cause increased ICP. Overviews of systematic review provide informative and powerful summaries of evidence based research. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Multiple-Choice Mushroom: Schools, Colleges Rely More than Ever on Standardized Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, B. Denise

    1995-01-01

    This discussion of college entrance examinations reviews differences between the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) and the American College Test. It then focuses on the SAT, discussing numbers of students taking the tests, changes in test construction to recognize contributions of women and minorities, involvement of African Americans in…

  8. Polymodal Responses in C. elegans Phasmid Neurons Rely on Multiple Intracellular and Intercellular Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Wenjuan; Cheng, Hankui; Li, Shitian; Yue, Xiaomin; Xue, Yadan; Chen, Sixi; Kang, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    Animals utilize specialized sensory neurons enabling the detection of a wide range of environmental stimuli from the presence of toxic chemicals to that of touch. However, how these neurons discriminate between different kinds of stimuli remains poorly understood. By combining in vivo calcium imaging and molecular genetic manipulation, here we investigate the response patterns and the underlying mechanisms of the C. elegans phasmid neurons PHA/PHB to a variety of sensory stimuli. Our observations demonstrate that PHA/PHB neurons are polymodal sensory neurons which sense harmful chemicals, hyperosmotic solutions and mechanical stimulation. A repulsive concentration of IAA induces calcium elevations in PHA/PHB and both OSM-9 and TAX-4 are essential for IAA-sensing in PHA/PHB. Nevertheless, the PHA/PHB neurons are inhibited by copper and post-synaptically activated by copper removal. Neuropeptide is likely involved in copper removal-induced calcium elevations in PHA/PHB. Furthermore, mechanical stimulation activates PHA/PHB in an OSM-9-dependent manner. Our work demonstrates how PHA/PHB neurons respond to multiple environmental stimuli and lays a foundation for the further understanding of the mechanisms of polymodal signaling, such as nociception, in more complex organisms. PMID:28195191

  9. An Esterification Kinetics Experiment that Relies on the Sense of Smell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromfield-Lee, Deborah C.; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment involves an esterification synthesis to study reaction kinetics where students explore these topics utilizing the sense of smell rather than the traditional approach of using spectroscopic methods. Students study the effects of various factors including the concentration of the carboxylic acid and the amounts of the catalyst or…

  10. Response to “Accurate Risk-Based Chemical Screening Relies on Robust Exposure Estimates”

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a correspondence (letter to the editor) with reference to comments by Rudel and Perovich on the article "Integration of Dosimetry, Exposure, and High-Throughput Screening Data in Chemical Toxicity Assessment". Article Reference: SI # 238882

  11. Plant tolerance to excess light energy and photooxidative damage relies on plastoquinone biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ksas, Brigitte; Becuwe, Noëlle; Chevalier, Anne; Havaux, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Plastoquinone-9 is known as a photosynthetic electron carrier to which has also been attributed a role in the regulation of gene expression and enzyme activities via its redox state. Here, we show that it acts also as an antioxidant in plant leaves, playing a central photoprotective role. When Arabidopsis plants were suddenly exposed to excess light energy, a rapid consumption of plastoquinone-9 occurred, followed by a progressive increase in concentration during the acclimation phase. By overexpressing the plastoquinone-9 biosynthesis gene SPS1 (SOLANESYL DIPHOSPHATE SYNTHASE 1) in Arabidopsis, we succeeded in generating plants that specifically accumulate plastoquinone-9 and its derivative plastochromanol-8. The SPS1-overexpressing lines were much more resistant to photooxidative stress than the wild type, showing marked decreases in leaf bleaching, lipid peroxidation and PSII photoinhibition under excess light. Comparison of the SPS1 overexpressors with other prenyl quinone mutants indicated that the enhanced phototolerance of the former plants is directly related to their increased capacities for plastoquinone-9 biosynthesis. PMID:26039552

  12. Plant tolerance to excess light energy and photooxidative damage relies on plastoquinone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ksas, Brigitte; Becuwe, Noëlle; Chevalier, Anne; Havaux, Michel

    2015-06-03

    Plastoquinone-9 is known as a photosynthetic electron carrier to which has also been attributed a role in the regulation of gene expression and enzyme activities via its redox state. Here, we show that it acts also as an antioxidant in plant leaves, playing a central photoprotective role. When Arabidopsis plants were suddenly exposed to excess light energy, a rapid consumption of plastoquinone-9 occurred, followed by a progressive increase in concentration during the acclimation phase. By overexpressing the plastoquinone-9 biosynthesis gene SPS1 (solanesyl diphosphate synthase 1) in Arabidopsis, we succeeded in generating plants that specifically accumulate plastoquinone-9 and its derivative plastochromanol-8. The SPS1-overexpressing lines were much more resistant to photooxidative stress than the wild type, showing marked decreases in leaf bleaching, lipid peroxidation and PSII photoinhibition under excess light. Comparison of the SPS1 overexpressors with other prenyl quinone mutants indicated that the enhanced phototolerance of the former plants is directly related to their increased capacities for plastoquinone-9 biosynthesis.

  13. Relying on High-Stakes Standardized Tests to Evaluate Schools and Teachers: A Bad Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Hani

    2016-01-01

    In the twenty-first century, the use of standardized tests as the primary means to evaluate schools and teachers in the United States has contributed to severe dilemmas, including misleading information on what students know, lower-level instruction, cheating, less collaboration, unfair treatment of teachers, and biased teaching. This article…

  14. Radiation of the Nod-independent Aeschynomene relies on multiple allopolyploid speciation events.

    PubMed

    Arrighi, Jean-François; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Cartieaux, Fabienne; Cardi, C; Rodier-Goud, M; Brown, Spencer C; Boursot, Marc; D'Hont, Angélique; Dreyfus, Bernard; Giraud, Eric

    2014-03-01

    • The semi-aquatic legumes belonging to the genus Aeschynomene constitute a premium system for investigating the origin and evolution of unusual symbiotic features such as stem nodulation and the presence of a Nod-independent infection process. This latter apparently arose in a single Aeschynomene lineage. But how this unique Nod-independent group then radiated is not yet known. • We have investigated the role of polyploidy in Aeschynomene speciation via a case study of the pantropical A. indica and then extended the analysis to the other Nod-independent species. For this, we combined SSR genotyping, genome characterization through flow cytometry, chromosome counting, FISH and GISH experiments, molecular phylogenies using ITS and single nuclear gene sequences, and artificial hybridizations. • These analyses demonstrate the existence of an A. indica polyploid species complex comprising A. evenia (C. Wright) (2n = 2x = 20), A. indica L. s.s. (2n = 4x = 40) and a new hexaploid form (2n = 6x = 60). This latter contains the two genomes present in the tetraploid (A. evenia and A. scabra) and another unidentified genome. Two other species, A. pratensis and A. virginica, are also shown to be of allopolyploid origin. • This work reveals multiple hybridization/polyploidization events, thus highlighting a prominent role of allopolyploidy in the radiation of the Nod-independent Aeschynomene.

  15. Pnc1 piggy-back import into peroxisomes relies on Gpd1 homodimerisation

    PubMed Central

    Saryi, Nadal A. Al; Hutchinson, John D.; Al-hejjaj, Murtakab Y.; Sedelnikova, Svetlana; Baker, Patrick; Hettema, Ewald H.

    2017-01-01

    Peroxisomes are eukaryotic organelles that posttranslationally import proteins via one of two conserved peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS1 or 2) mediated pathways. Oligomeric proteins can be imported via these pathways but evidence is accumulating that at least some PTS1-containing monomers enter peroxisomes before they assemble into oligomers. Some proteins lacking a PTS are imported by piggy-backing onto PTS-containing proteins. One of these proteins is the nicotinamidase Pnc1, that is co-imported with the PTS2-containing enzyme Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1, Gpd1. Here we show that Pnc1 co-import requires Gpd1 to form homodimers. A mutation that interferes with Gpd1 homodimerisation does not prevent Gpd1 import but prevents Pnc1 co-import. A suppressor mutation that restores Gpd1 homodimerisation also restores Pnc1 co-import. In line with this, Pnc1 interacts with Gpd1 in vivo only when Gpd1 can form dimers. Redirection of Gpd1 from the PTS2 import pathway to the PTS1 import pathway supports Gpd1 monomer import but not Gpd1 homodimer import and Pnc1 co-import. Our results support a model whereby Gpd1 may be imported as a monomer or a dimer but only the Gpd1 dimer facilitates co-transport of Pnc1 into peroxisomes. PMID:28209961

  16. Stage-specific functions of Semaphorin7A during adult hippocampal neurogenesis rely on distinct receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jongbloets, Bart C.; Lemstra, Suzanne; Schellino, Roberta; Broekhoven, Mark H.; Parkash, Jyoti; Hellemons, Anita J. C. G. M.; Mao, Tianyi; Giacobini, Paolo; van Praag, Henriette; De Marchis, Silvia; Ramakers, Geert M. J.; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    The guidance protein Semaphorin7A (Sema7A) is required for the proper development of the immune and nervous systems. Despite strong expression in the mature brain, the role of Sema7A in the adult remains poorly defined. Here we show that Sema7A utilizes different cell surface receptors to control the proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), one of the select regions of the mature brain where neurogenesis occurs. PlexinC1 is selectively expressed in early neural progenitors in the adult mouse DG and mediates the inhibitory effects of Sema7A on progenitor proliferation. Subsequently, during differentiation of adult-born DG granule cells, Sema7A promotes dendrite growth, complexity and spine development through β1-subunit-containing integrin receptors. Our data identify Sema7A as a key regulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, providing an example of how differential receptor usage spatiotemporally controls and diversifies the effects of guidance cues in the adult brain. PMID:28281529

  17. Measles Vaccination is Best for Children: The Argument for Relying on Herd Immunity Fails.

    PubMed

    Bester, Johan Christiaan

    2017-08-16

    This article examines an argument which may negatively influence measles vaccination uptake. According to the argument, an individual child in a highly vaccinated society may be better off by being non-vaccinated; the child does not risk vaccine adverse effects and is protected against measles through herd immunity. Firstly, the conclusion of the argument is challenged by showing that herd immunity's protection is unreliable and inferior to vaccination. Secondly, the logic of the argument is challenged by showing that the argument is inherently self-defeating and therefore logically inconsistent. In practice the argument cannot be used to protect children against measles. Measles vaccination is undoubtedly best for children, even in highly vaccinated societies. Only if a medical contraindication to vaccination exists should vaccination be waived in favour of reliance on herd immunity. This places obligations on those who stand in care relationships with the child: parents, healthcare providers, and the state.

  18. A College That Relied on NeXT Computers Plans To Switch to Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David L.

    1997-01-01

    Allegheny College (Pennsylvania), which uses NeXT computers, was dismayed when the technically superior operating system was orphaned but are now delighted that the company has been bought by Apple Computer and will make the operating system standard on Apple computers. The object-oriented operating system allows relatively unsophisticated users…

  19. Towards improved exact exchange functionals relying on G W quasiparticle methods for parametrization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zólyomi, V.; Kürti, J.

    2015-07-01

    We use fully self-consistent GW calculations on diamond and silicon carbide to reparametrize the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) exact exchange density functional for use in band structure calculations of semiconductors and insulators. We show that the thus modified functional is able to calculate the band structure of bulk Si, Ge, GaAs, and CdTe with good quantitative accuracy at a significantly reduced computational cost as compared to G W methods, and also gives significantly improved band gap predictions in wide-gap ionic crystals as compared to the HSE06 parametrization. We discuss the limitations of this functional in low dimensions by calculating the band structures of single-layer hexagonal BN and MoS2, and by demonstrating that the diameter scaling of curvature induced band gaps in single-walled carbon nanotubes is still physically incorrect using our functional; we consider possible remedies to this problem.

  20. Nature does not rely on long-lived electronic quantum coherence for photosynthetic energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hong-Guang; Prokhorenko, Valentyn I; Cogdell, Richard J; Ashraf, Khuram; Stevens, Amy L; Thorwart, Michael; Miller, R J Dwayne

    2017-08-08

    During the first steps of photosynthesis, the energy of impinging solar photons is transformed into electronic excitation energy of the light-harvesting biomolecular complexes. The subsequent energy transfer to the reaction center is commonly rationalized in terms of excitons moving on a grid of biomolecular chromophores on typical timescales [Formula: see text]100 fs. Today's understanding of the energy transfer includes the fact that the excitons are delocalized over a few neighboring sites, but the role of quantum coherence is considered as irrelevant for the transfer dynamics because it typically decays within a few tens of femtoseconds. This orthodox picture of incoherent energy transfer between clusters of a few pigments sharing delocalized excitons has been challenged by ultrafast optical spectroscopy experiments with the Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein, in which interference oscillatory signals up to 1.5 ps were reported and interpreted as direct evidence of exceptionally long-lived electronic quantum coherence. Here, we show that the optical 2D photon echo spectra of this complex at ambient temperature in aqueous solution do not provide evidence of any long-lived electronic quantum coherence, but confirm the orthodox view of rapidly decaying electronic quantum coherence on a timescale of 60 fs. Our results can be considered as generic and give no hint that electronic quantum coherence plays any biofunctional role in real photoactive biomolecular complexes. Because in this structurally well-defined protein the distances between bacteriochlorophylls are comparable to those of other light-harvesting complexes, we anticipate that this finding is general and directly applies to even larger photoactive biomolecular complexes.

  1. Self-awareness in neurodegenerative disease relies on neural structures mediating reward-driven attention.

    PubMed

    Shany-Ur, Tal; Lin, Nancy; Rosen, Howard J; Sollberger, Marc; Miller, Bruce L; Rankin, Katherine P

    2014-08-01

    Accurate self-awareness is essential for adapting one's tasks and goals to one's actual abilities. Patients with neurodegenerative diseases, particularly those with right frontal involvement, often present with poor self-awareness of their functional limitations that may exacerbate their already jeopardized decision-making and behaviour. We studied the structural neuroanatomical basis for impaired self-awareness among patients with neurodegenerative disease and healthy older adults. One hundred and twenty-four participants (78 patients with neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, right-temporal frontotemporal dementia, semantic variant and non-fluent variant primary progressive aphasia, and 46 healthy controls) described themselves on the Patient Competency Rating Scale, rating observable functioning across four domains (daily living activities, cognitive, emotional control, interpersonal). All participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Informants also described subjects' functioning on the same scale. Self-awareness was measured by comparing self and informant ratings. Group differences in discrepancy scores were analysed using general linear models, controlling for age, sex and disease severity. Compared with controls, patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia overestimated their functioning in all domains, patients with Alzheimer's disease overestimated cognitive and emotional functioning, patients with right-temporal frontotemporal dementia overestimated interpersonal functioning, and patients with non-fluent aphasia overestimated emotional and interpersonal functioning. Patients with semantic variant aphasia did not overestimate functioning on any domain. To examine the neuroanatomic correlates of impaired self-awareness, discrepancy scores were correlated with brain volume using voxel-based morphometry. To identify the unique neural correlates of overlooking versus exaggerating deficits, overestimation and underestimation scores were analysed separately, controlling for age, sex, total intracranial volume and extent of actual functional decline. Atrophy related to overestimating one's functioning included bilateral, right greater than left frontal and subcortical regions, including dorsal superior and middle frontal gyri, lateral and medial orbitofrontal gyri, right anterior insula, putamen, thalamus, and caudate, and midbrain and pons. Thus, our patients' tendency to under-represent their functional decline was related to degeneration of domain-general dorsal frontal regions involved in attention, as well as orbitofrontal and subcortical regions likely involved in assigning a reward value to self-related processing and maintaining accurate self-knowledge. The anatomic correlates of underestimation (right rostral anterior cingulate cortex, uncorrected significance level) were distinct from overestimation and had a substantially smaller effect size. This suggests that underestimation or 'tarnishing' may be influenced by non-structural neurobiological and sociocultural factors, and should not be considered to be on a continuum with overestimation or 'polishing' of functional capacity, which appears to be more directly mediated by neural circuit dysfunction.

  2. Motor learning and cross-limb transfer rely upon distinct neural adaptation processes.

    PubMed

    Stöckel, Tino; Carroll, Timothy J; Summers, Jeffery J; Hinder, Mark R

    2016-08-01

    Performance benefits conferred in the untrained limb after unilateral motor practice are termed cross-limb transfer. Although the effect is robust, the neural mechanisms remain incompletely understood. In this study we used noninvasive brain stimulation to reveal that the neural adaptations that mediate motor learning in the trained limb are distinct from those that underlie cross-limb transfer to the opposite limb. Thirty-six participants practiced a ballistic motor task with their right index finger (150 trials), followed by intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) applied to the trained (contralateral) primary motor cortex (cM1 group), the untrained (ipsilateral) M1 (iM1 group), or the vertex (sham group). After stimulation, another 150 training trials were undertaken. Motor performance and corticospinal excitability were assessed before motor training, pre- and post-iTBS, and after the second training bout. For all groups, training significantly increased performance and excitability of the trained hand, and performance, but not excitability, of the untrained hand, indicating transfer at the level of task performance. The typical facilitatory effect of iTBS on MEPs was reversed for cM1, suggesting homeostatic metaplasticity, and prior performance gains in the trained hand were degraded, suggesting that iTBS interfered with learning. In stark contrast, iM1 iTBS facilitated both performance and excitability for the untrained hand. Importantly, the effects of cM1 and iM1 iTBS on behavior were exclusive to the hand contralateral to stimulation, suggesting that adaptations within the untrained M1 contribute to cross-limb transfer. However, the neural processes that mediate learning in the trained hemisphere vs. transfer in the untrained hemisphere appear distinct.

  3. How do groundwater-dependent lakes react if the aquifer they rely on is being pumped?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainu, Marko; Terasmaa, Jaanus

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater is a valuable source of drinking water, but at the same time it is the primary contributor to the existence of many surface water bodies. If the latter truth is overlooked in water resources management, and ground- and surface water are not considered as a single resource, then the sustainability of groundwater-dependent ecosystems will become under threat. The necessity for implementing an integrated management of ground- and surface water has also been stressed in the EU Water Framework Directive. This study aims to evaluate the effect of increased groundwater abstraction to groundwater and lake levels; and to evaluate the effect of increased groundwater abstraction to the seepage patterns in one example lake. The Kurtna Lake District in northeastern Estonia contains almost 40 small lakes which are situated in and around the Kurtna Kame Field and constitute an EU Special Area of Conservation. The sands that form the kame field contain a Quaternary groundwater aquifer. Water has been pumped from the aquifer for household use with varying rates since the 1970s, but starting from the summer of 2012 the average pumping rate was increased by 51% compared to the year before. During the current study the water levels of five lakes were monitored regularly from May 2012 to June 2013 - before and after the increase in the pumping rate. The water levels dropped 0.3 to 0.7 m during the year in three closed-basin lakes closest to the abstraction wells, but did not change neither in a flow-through lake nor in a closed-basin lake situated 1.6 km from the wells. Groundwater level in the aquifer (monitored by the Estonian Geological Survey) dropped up to 0.8 m near the abstraction wells in the course of the year, but did not change further from the wells. The estimates of average annual groundwater recharge were derived for the twelve months before both June 2012 and June 2013. Although the recharge rate was lower in the first year, the water-level drop was nevertheless caused by the higher pumping rate, because the effects of lower recharge would have affected the whole aquifer, not just a part of it. At the beginning of June 2012 and June 2013 also lake-bed seepage was directly measured in the bottom of one of the lakes (Lake Martiska). Seepage measurements in the first year showed that outseepage from L. Martiska occurred in the northern part of the lake, which is situated closest to the abstraction wells. For the second year the area of outseepage had widened towards the western shore of the lake. Therefore the increased abstraction rate had initiated the shrinking of these lakes near the abstraction wells that were hydraulically connected to the aquifer. The results of the rare opportunity to analyse lake-groundwater interactions both before and after increased human intervention provide a cautionary example of what may happen to and in groundwater-dependent lakes if the surface water-groundwater interactions are not fully clarified before the intervention.

  4. Extinction of cue-evoked drug-seeking relies on degrading hierarchical instrumental expectancies

    PubMed Central

    Hogarth, Lee; Retzler, Chris; Munafò, Marcus R.; Tran, Dominic M.D.; Troisi, Joseph R.; Rose, Abigail K.; Jones, Andrew; Field, Matt

    2014-01-01

    There has long been need for a behavioural intervention that attenuates cue-evoked drug-seeking, but the optimal method remains obscure. To address this, we report three approaches to extinguish cue-evoked drug-seeking measured in a Pavlovian to instrumental transfer design, in non-treatment seeking adult smokers and alcohol drinkers. The results showed that the ability of a drug stimulus to transfer control over a separately trained drug-seeking response was not affected by the stimulus undergoing Pavlovian extinction training in experiment 1, but was abolished by the stimulus undergoing discriminative extinction training in experiment 2, and was abolished by explicit verbal instructions stating that the stimulus did not signal a more effective response-drug contingency in experiment 3. These data suggest that cue-evoked drug-seeking is mediated by a propositional hierarchical instrumental expectancy that the drug-seeking response is more likely to be rewarded in that stimulus. Methods which degraded this hierarchical expectancy were effective in the laboratory, and so may have therapeutic potential. PMID:25011113

  5. 77 FR 70117 - Purchase of Certain Debt Securities by Business and Industrial Development Companies Relying on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... security issued by a registered open-end fund that is required by its investment policies to invest not... determined by such registered open-end fund to be comparable in quality to securities described in subclause... Investment Company Act will also limit a BIDCO's investments in registered open-end funds to those funds......

  6. Deferring Higher Education Fees without Relying on Contributions from Non-Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Rey, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of deferring the payment of higher-education costs are increasingly acknowledged as a way to overcome student-borrowing constraints. Since higher education is a risky investment and students are generally risk averse, the repayment arrangements proposed in the literature frequently include some insurance. In a competitive environment,…

  7. Moon and sun compasses in sandhoppers rely on two separate chronometric mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ugolini, A.; Melis, C.; Innocenti, R.; Tiribilli, B.; Castellini, C.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between the chronometric system of compensation for the apparent movement of the sun and that for the moon has been the subject of several, never proven, hypotheses. Our studies on sandhoppers have demonstrated that the chronometric mechanism of the moon compass is separate from that of the sun compass. They show (i) that a period of seven days in constant darkness has no influence on the capacity for orientation, either solar or lunar, and indicates the presence of one or more continuously operating timing mechanisms; (ii) that two different shifts in the light–dark phase have no effect on the chronometric mechanism of lunar orientation, but they do affect that of solar orientation; and (iii) that exposure to an artificial moon delayed by seven days with respect to the natural cycle causes the expected change in the mean direction of individuals tested under the natural moon, but not of those tested under the sun.

  8. Motor learning and cross-limb transfer rely upon distinct neural adaptation processes

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Timothy J.; Summers, Jeffery J.; Hinder, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Performance benefits conferred in the untrained limb after unilateral motor practice are termed cross-limb transfer. Although the effect is robust, the neural mechanisms remain incompletely understood. In this study we used noninvasive brain stimulation to reveal that the neural adaptations that mediate motor learning in the trained limb are distinct from those that underlie cross-limb transfer to the opposite limb. Thirty-six participants practiced a ballistic motor task with their right index finger (150 trials), followed by intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) applied to the trained (contralateral) primary motor cortex (cM1 group), the untrained (ipsilateral) M1 (iM1 group), or the vertex (sham group). After stimulation, another 150 training trials were undertaken. Motor performance and corticospinal excitability were assessed before motor training, pre- and post-iTBS, and after the second training bout. For all groups, training significantly increased performance and excitability of the trained hand, and performance, but not excitability, of the untrained hand, indicating transfer at the level of task performance. The typical facilitatory effect of iTBS on MEPs was reversed for cM1, suggesting homeostatic metaplasticity, and prior performance gains in the trained hand were degraded, suggesting that iTBS interfered with learning. In stark contrast, iM1 iTBS facilitated both performance and excitability for the untrained hand. Importantly, the effects of cM1 and iM1 iTBS on behavior were exclusive to the hand contralateral to stimulation, suggesting that adaptations within the untrained M1 contribute to cross-limb transfer. However, the neural processes that mediate learning in the trained hemisphere vs. transfer in the untrained hemisphere appear distinct. PMID:27169508

  9. 76 FR 69545 - Conditions and Requirements for Relying on Component Part Testing or Certification, or Another...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... Subpart C-- Conditions and Requirements for Composite Testing. In this section, we describe each section... difficult to track resin used in plastic parts and suggested deleting the traceability requirements. Another... (such as resin and other constituents), the traceability extends to the subcomponents. We decline to...

  10. Breast cancer stem cells rely on fermentative glycolysis and are sensitive to 2-deoxyglucose treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ciavardelli, D; Rossi, C; Barcaroli, D; Volpe, S; Consalvo, A; Zucchelli, M; De Cola, A; Scavo, E; Carollo, R; D'Agostino, D; Forlì, F; D'Aguanno, S; Todaro, M; Stassi, G; Di Ilio, C; De Laurenzi, V; Urbani, A

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies suggest that cancer stem cells are essential for tumour growth, and failure to target these cells can result in tumour relapse. As this population of cells has been shown to be resistant to radiation and chemotherapy, it is essential to understand their biology and identify new therapeutic approaches. Targeting cancer metabolism is a potential alternative strategy to counteract tumour growth and recurrence. Here we applied a proteomic and targeted metabolomic analysis in order to point out the main metabolic differences between breast cancer cells grown as spheres and thus enriched in cancer stem cells were compared with the same cells grown in adherent differentiating conditions. This integrated approach allowed us to identify a metabolic phenotype associated with the stem-like condition and shows that breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) shift from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation towards fermentative glycolysis. Functional validation of proteomic and metabolic data provide evidences for increased activities of key enzymes of anaerobic glucose fate such as pyruvate kinase M2 isoform, lactate dehydrogenase and glucose 6-phopshate dehydrogenase in cancer stem cells as well as different redox status. Moreover, we show that treatment with 2-deoxyglucose, a well known inhibitor of glycolysis, inhibits BCSC proliferation when used alone and shows a synergic effect when used in combination with doxorubicin. In conclusion, we suggest that inhibition of glycolysis may be a potentially effective strategy to target BCSCs. PMID:25032859

  11. Breast cancer stem cells rely on fermentative glycolysis and are sensitive to 2-deoxyglucose treatment.

    PubMed

    Ciavardelli, D; Rossi, C; Barcaroli, D; Volpe, S; Consalvo, A; Zucchelli, M; De Cola, A; Scavo, E; Carollo, R; D'Agostino, D; Forlì, F; D'Aguanno, S; Todaro, M; Stassi, G; Di Ilio, C; De Laurenzi, V; Urbani, A

    2014-07-17

    A number of studies suggest that cancer stem cells are essential for tumour growth, and failure to target these cells can result in tumour relapse. As this population of cells has been shown to be resistant to radiation and chemotherapy, it is essential to understand their biology and identify new therapeutic approaches. Targeting cancer metabolism is a potential alternative strategy to counteract tumour growth and recurrence. Here we applied a proteomic and targeted metabolomic analysis in order to point out the main metabolic differences between breast cancer cells grown as spheres and thus enriched in cancer stem cells were compared with the same cells grown in adherent differentiating conditions. This integrated approach allowed us to identify a metabolic phenotype associated with the stem-like condition and shows that breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) shift from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation towards fermentative glycolysis. Functional validation of proteomic and metabolic data provide evidences for increased activities of key enzymes of anaerobic glucose fate such as pyruvate kinase M2 isoform, lactate dehydrogenase and glucose 6-phopshate dehydrogenase in cancer stem cells as well as different redox status. Moreover, we show that treatment with 2-deoxyglucose, a well known inhibitor of glycolysis, inhibits BCSC proliferation when used alone and shows a synergic effect when used in combination with doxorubicin. In conclusion, we suggest that inhibition of glycolysis may be a potentially effective strategy to target BCSCs.

  12. Brucella Intracellular Life Relies on the Transmembrane Protein CD98 Heavy Chain.

    PubMed

    Keriel, Anne; Botella, Eric; Estrach, Soline; Bragagnolo, Gabriel; Vergunst, Annette C; Feral, Chloe C; O'Callaghan, David

    2015-06-01

    Brucella are intracellular bacterial pathogens that use a type IV secretion system (T4SS) to escape host defenses and create a niche in which they can multiply. Although the importance of Brucella T4SS is clear, little is known about its interactions with host cell structures. In this study, we identified the eukaryotic protein CD98hc as a partner for Brucella T4SS subunit VirB2. This transmembrane glycoprotein is involved in amino acid transport, modulation of integrin signaling, and cell-to-cell fusion. Knockdown of CD98hc expression in HeLa cells demonstrated that it is essential for Brucella infection. Using knockout dermal fibroblasts, we confirmed its role for Brucella but found that it is not required for Salmonella infection. CD98hc transiently accumulates around the bacteria during the early phases of infection and is required for both optimal bacterial uptake and intracellular multiplication of Brucella. These results provide new insights into the complex interplay between Brucella and its host.

  13. Artificial Surface-Induced Inflammation Relies on Complement Factor 5: Proof From a Deficient Person

    PubMed Central

    Bergseth, Grethe; Lambris, John D.; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Lappegård, Knut Tore

    2011-01-01

    Background Exposing blood to artificial surfaces results in an inflammatory response, including complement activation and cytokine release. The aim of this investigation was to study complement-dependency and independency in artificial surface-induced inflammation in human whole blood from a patient with a genetic deficiency of complement factor 5 (C5). Methods Whole blood from a C5-deficient patient, C5 protein reconstituted blood, and blood from a control subject was used. The complement inhibitor compstatin (C3 inhibitor) and a C5a receptor antagonist were used to block complement. Blood was circulated in closed loops of polyvinyl chloride tubing. Leukocyte CD11b expression and release of granule enzymes (myeloperoxidase, elastase, lactoferrin), cytokines (interleukins, chemokines, and growth factors; n = 27) as well as complement activation were measured after incubation. Results In C5-deficient blood, there was no formation of the terminal complement complex, as opposed to reconstituted or control blood. Release of granule enzymes was partly dependent on C3, revealed by a compstatin-dependent effect in C5-deficient blood, and partly C5a-dependent as evident from the reconstitution and control blood. The chemokines interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were also highly complement dependent, the effect being C5a-mediated, whereas platelet-derived and vascular endothelial growth factors were partly complement dependent. Interferon-γ increased in a complement-independent manner, whereas the rest of the cytokines did not respond to the surface. Leukocyte expression of CD11b was only marginally increased in deficient blood exposed to the surface, whereas reconstitution induced a considerable, C5a-dependent increase, comparable with that of the control. Conclusions The polyvinyl chloride surface induced a defined inflammatory response, which largely depended on C5. PMID:21256307

  14. Relying on fin erosion to identify hatchery-reared brown trout in a Tennessee river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meerbeek, Jonathan R.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2012-01-01

    Hatchery-induced fin erosion can be used to identify recently stocked catchable-size brown trout Salmo trutta during annual surveys to qualitatively estimate contributions to a fishery. However, little is known about the longevity of this mark and its effectiveness as a short-term (≤ 1 year) mass-marking technique. We evaluated hatchery-induced pectoral fin erosion as a mass-marking technique for short-term stocking evaluations by stocking microtagged brown trout in a tailwater and repeatedly sampling those fish to observe and measure their pectoral fins. At Dale Hollow National Fish Hatchery, 99.1% (228 of 230) of microtagged brown trout in outdoor concrete raceways had eroded pectoral fins 1 d prior to stocking. Between 34 and 68 microtagged and 26-35 wild brown trout were collected during eight subsequent electrofishing samples. In a blind test based on visual examination of pectoral fins at up to 322 d poststocking, one observer correctly identified 91.7% to 100.0% (mean of 96.9%) of microtagged brown trout prior to checking for microtags. In the laboratory, pectoral fin length and width measurements were recorded to statistically compare the fin measurements of wild and microtagged hatchery brown trout. With only one exception, all pectoral fin measurements on each date averaged significantly larger for wild trout than for microtagged brown trout. Based on the number of pectoral fin measurements falling below 95% prediction intervals, 93.7% (148 of 158) of microtagged trout were correctly identified as hatchery fish based on regression models up to 160 d poststocking. Only 72.2% (70 of 97) of microtagged trout were identified correctly after 160 d based on pectoral fin measurements and the regression models. We concluded that visual examination of pectoral fin erosion was a very effective way to identify stocked brown trout for up to 322 d poststocking.

  15. The Achievement Gap: Should We Rely on SAT Scores to Tell Us Anything about It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, Dale

    2004-01-01

    Increasing numbers of students taking the SAT have declined to identify their race/ethnicity. I examined the impact of non-respondents on the validity of reported racial/ethnic differences and year-to-year changes in test performance. Using an analysis reported by Wainer (1988) and SAT data from 1996 to 2003, I confirmed Wainer's findings that…

  16. Chromatin determinants of the inner-centromere rely on replication factors with functions that impart cohesion.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takuya; Kawasumi, Ryotaro; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Hori, Tetsuya; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Losada, Ana; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Branzei, Dana

    2016-10-18

    Replication fork-associated factors promote genome integrity and protect against cancer. Mutations in the DDX11 helicase and the ESCO2 acetyltransferase also cause related developmental disorders classified as cohesinopathies. Here we generated vertebrate model cell lines of these disorders and cohesinopathies-related genes. We found that vertebrate DDX11 and Tim-Tipin are individually needed to compensate for ESCO2 loss in chromosome segregation, with DDX11 also playing complementary roles with ESCO2 in centromeric cohesion. Our study reveals that overt centromeric cohesion loss does not necessarily precede chromosome missegregation, while both these problems correlate with, and possibly originate from, inner-centromere defects involving reduced phosphorylation of histone H3T3 (pH3T3) in the region. Interestingly, the mitotic pH3T3 mark was defective in all analyzed replication-related mutants with functions in cohesion. The results pinpoint mitotic pH3T3 as a postreplicative chromatin mark that is sensitive to replication stress and conducts with different kinetics to robust centromeric cohesion and correct chromosome segregation.

  17. Csy4 relies on an unusual catalytic dyad to position and cleave CRISPR RNA.

    PubMed

    Haurwitz, Rachel E; Sternberg, Samuel H; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2012-06-13

    CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems protect prokaryotes against foreign genetic elements. crRNAs derived from CRISPR loci base pair with complementary nucleic acids, leading to their destruction. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, crRNA biogenesis requires the endoribonuclease Csy4, which binds and cleaves the repetitive sequence of the CRISPR transcript. Biochemical assays and three co-crystal structures of wild-type and mutant Csy4/RNA complexes reveal a substrate positioning and cleavage mechanism in which a histidine deprotonates the ribosyl 2'-hydroxyl pinned in place by a serine, leading to nucleophilic attack on the scissile phosphate. The active site catalytic dyad lacks a general acid to protonate the leaving group and positively charged residues to stabilize the transition state, explaining why the observed catalytic rate constant is ∼10(4)-fold slower than that of RNase A. We show that this RNA cleavage step is essential for assembly of the Csy protein-crRNA complex that facilitates target recognition. Considering that Csy4 recognizes a single cellular substrate and sequesters the cleavage product, evolutionary pressure has likely selected for substrate specificity and high-affinity crRNA interactions at the expense of rapid cleavage kinetics.

  18. Persistent identifiers for web service requests relying on a provenance ontology design pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Car, Nicholas; Wang, Jingbo; Wyborn, Lesley; Si, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Delivering provenance information for datasets produced from static inputs is relatively straightforward: we represent the processing actions and data flow using provenance ontologies and link to stored copies of the inputs stored in repositories. If appropriate detail is given, the provenance information can then describe what actions have occurred (transparency) and enable reproducibility. When web service-generated data is used by a process to create a dataset instead of a static inputs, we need to use sophisticated provenance representations of the web service request as we can no longer just link to data stored in a repository. A graph-based provenance representation, such as the W3C's PROV standard, can be used to model the web service request as a single conceptual dataset and also as a small workflow with a number of components within the same provenance report. This dual representation does more than just allow simplified or detailed views of a dataset's production to be used where appropriate. It also allow persistent identifiers to be assigned to instances of a web service requests, thus enabling one form of dynamic data citation, and for those identifiers to resolve to whatever level of detail implementers think appropriate in order for that web service request to be reproduced. In this presentation we detail our reasoning in representing web service requests as small workflows. In outline, this stems from the idea that web service requests are perdurant things and in order to most easily persist knowledge of them for provenance, we should represent them as a nexus of relationships between endurant things, such as datasets and knowledge of particular system types, as these endurant things are far easier to persist. We also describe the ontology design pattern that we use to represent workflows in general and how we apply it to different types of web service requests. We give examples of specific web service requests instances that were made by systems at Australia's National Computing Infrastructure and show how one can 'click' through provenance interfaces to see the dual representations of the requests using provenance management tooling we have built.

  19. Evolution of a thienopyrimidine antitubercular relying on medicinal chemistry and metabolomics insights#

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shao-Gang; Vilchèze, Catherine; Chakraborty, Sumit; Wang, Xin; Kim, Hiyun; Anisetti, Monica; Ekins, Sean; Rhee, Kyu Y.; Jacobs, William R.; Freundlich, Joel S.

    2015-01-01

    The metabolic instability of an antitubercular small molecule CD117 was addressed through iterative alteration of a key sulfide substituent and interrogation of the effect on growth inhibition of cultured Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This process was informed by studies of the intramycobacterial metabolism of CD117 and its inactive carboxylic acid derivative. Isoxazole 4e and thiazole 4m demonstrated significant gains in mouse liver microsomal stability with slight losses in whole-cell activity. This work illustrates the challenges of antitubercular hit evolution, requiring a balance of chemical and biological insights. PMID:26257441

  20. Do Young and Older Adults Rely on Different Processes in Source Memory Tasks? A Neuropsychological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glisky, Elizabeth L.; Kong, Lauren L.

    2008-01-01

    Source memory has consistently been associated with prefrontal function in both normal and clinical populations. Nevertheless, the exact contribution of this brain region to source memory remains uncertain, and evidence suggests that processes used by young and older adults may differ. The authors explored the extent to which scores on composite…

  1. Self-awareness in neurodegenerative disease relies on neural structures mediating reward-driven attention

    PubMed Central

    Shany-Ur, Tal; Lin, Nancy; Rosen, Howard J.; Sollberger, Marc; Miller, Bruce L.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate self-awareness is essential for adapting one’s tasks and goals to one’s actual abilities. Patients with neurodegenerative diseases, particularly those with right frontal involvement, often present with poor self-awareness of their functional limitations that may exacerbate their already jeopardized decision-making and behaviour. We studied the structural neuroanatomical basis for impaired self-awareness among patients with neurodegenerative disease and healthy older adults. One hundred and twenty-four participants (78 patients with neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease, behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, right-temporal frontotemporal dementia, semantic variant and non-fluent variant primary progressive aphasia, and 46 healthy controls) described themselves on the Patient Competency Rating Scale, rating observable functioning across four domains (daily living activities, cognitive, emotional control, interpersonal). All participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Informants also described subjects’ functioning on the same scale. Self-awareness was measured by comparing self and informant ratings. Group differences in discrepancy scores were analysed using general linear models, controlling for age, sex and disease severity. Compared with controls, patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia overestimated their functioning in all domains, patients with Alzheimer’s disease overestimated cognitive and emotional functioning, patients with right-temporal frontotemporal dementia overestimated interpersonal functioning, and patients with non-fluent aphasia overestimated emotional and interpersonal functioning. Patients with semantic variant aphasia did not overestimate functioning on any domain. To examine the neuroanatomic correlates of impaired self-awareness, discrepancy scores were correlated with brain volume using voxel-based morphometry. To identify the unique neural correlates of overlooking versus exaggerating deficits, overestimation and underestimation scores were analysed separately, controlling for age, sex, total intracranial volume and extent of actual functional decline. Atrophy related to overestimating one’s functioning included bilateral, right greater than left frontal and subcortical regions, including dorsal superior and middle frontal gyri, lateral and medial orbitofrontal gyri, right anterior insula, putamen, thalamus, and caudate, and midbrain and pons. Thus, our patients’ tendency to under-represent their functional decline was related to degeneration of domain-general dorsal frontal regions involved in attention, as well as orbitofrontal and subcortical regions likely involved in assigning a reward value to self-related processing and maintaining accurate self-knowledge. The anatomic correlates of underestimation (right rostral anterior cingulate cortex, uncorrected significance level) were distinct from overestimation and had a substantially smaller effect size. This suggests that underestimation or ‘tarnishing’ may be influenced by non-structural neurobiological and sociocultural factors, and should not be considered to be on a continuum with overestimation or ‘polishing’ of functional capacity, which appears to be more directly mediated by neural circuit dysfunction. PMID:24951639

  2. Relying on Your Own Best Judgment: Imputing Values to Missing Information in Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Richard D.; And Others

    Processes involved in making estimates of the value of missing information that could help in a decision making process were studied. Hypothetical purchases of ground beef were selected for the study as such purchases have the desirable property of quantifying both the price and quality. A total of 150 students at the University of Iowa rated the…

  3. Sensitivity of tumor cells towards CIGB-300 anticancer peptide relies on its nucleolar localization.

    PubMed

    Perera, Yasser; Costales, Heydi C; Diaz, Yakelin; Reyes, Osvaldo; Farina, Hernan G; Mendez, Lissandra; Gómez, Roberto E; Acevedo, Boris E; Gomez, Daniel E; Alonso, Daniel F; Perea, Silvio E

    2012-04-01

    CIGB-300 is a novel anticancer peptide that impairs the casein kinase 2-mediated phosphorylation by direct binding to the conserved phosphoacceptor site on their substrates. Previous findings indicated that CIGB-300 inhibits tumor cell proliferation in vitro and induces tumor growth delay in vivo in cancer animal models. Interestingly, we had previously demonstrated that the putative oncogene B23/nucleophosmin (NPM) is the major intracellular target for CIGB-300 in a sensitive human lung cancer cell line. However, the ability of this peptide to target B23/NPM in cancer cells with differential CIGB-300 response phenotype remained to be determined. Interestingly, in this work, we evidenced that CIGB-300's antiproliferative activity on tumor cells strongly correlates with its nucleolar localization, the main subcellular localization of the previously identified B23/NPM target. Likewise, using CIGB-300 equipotent doses (concentration that inhibits 50% of proliferation), we demonstrated that this peptide interacts and inhibits B23/NPM phosphorylation in different cancer cell lines as evidenced by in vivo pull-down and metabolic labeling experiments. Moreover, such inhibition was followed by a fast apoptosis on CIGB-300-treated cells and also an impairment of cell cycle progression mainly after 5 h of treatment. Altogether, our data not only validates B23/NPM as a main target for CIGB-300 in cancer cells but also provides the first experimental clues to explain their differential antiproliferative response. Importantly, our findings suggest that further improvements to this cell penetrating peptide-based drug should entail its more efficient intracellular delivery at such subcellular localization.

  4. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla., is the site where Center Director Jim Kennedy and astronaut Kay Hire shared the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy talked with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla., is the site where Center Director Jim Kennedy and astronaut Kay Hire shared the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy talked with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  5. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Students at Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla., listen attentively to astronaut Kay Hire. She and Center Director Jim Kennedy were at the school to share the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy is talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Students at Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla., listen attentively to astronaut Kay Hire. She and Center Director Jim Kennedy were at the school to share the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy is talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Warren Elly (left), with WTVT-TV, Fox News, talks with Center Director Jim Kennedy at Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla. Kennedy was joined by astronaut Kay Hire in sharing the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy talked with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Warren Elly (left), with WTVT-TV, Fox News, talks with Center Director Jim Kennedy at Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla. Kennedy was joined by astronaut Kay Hire in sharing the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy talked with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  7. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Astronaut Kay Hire talks to students in Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla. She joined Center Director Jim Kennedy in sharing the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy is talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Astronaut Kay Hire talks to students in Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla. She joined Center Director Jim Kennedy in sharing the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy is talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  8. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Center Director Jim Kennedy talks to students in Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla. Kennedy made the trip with NASA astronaut Kay Hire to share the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy is talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Center Director Jim Kennedy talks to students in Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla. Kennedy made the trip with NASA astronaut Kay Hire to share the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy is talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  9. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Center Director Jim Kennedy talks to radio station WFLA-AM and Florida Radio Network about his trip to Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla. Kennedy made the trip with NASA astronaut Kay Hire to share the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy is talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Center Director Jim Kennedy talks to radio station WFLA-AM and Florida Radio Network about his trip to Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla. Kennedy made the trip with NASA astronaut Kay Hire to share the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy is talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  10. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Astronaut Kay Hire poses with 8th grader Kristy Wiggins at Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla. Hire joined Center Director Jim Kennedy at the school in sharing the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy is talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Astronaut Kay Hire poses with 8th grader Kristy Wiggins at Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla. Hire joined Center Director Jim Kennedy at the school in sharing the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy is talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  11. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Center Director Jim Kennedy talks to WTSP-ABC News about his trip to Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla. Kennedy made the trip with NASA astronaut Kay Hire to share the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy is talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-02-20

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Center Director Jim Kennedy talks to WTSP-ABC News about his trip to Garland V. Stewart Magnet Middle School, a NASA Explorer School (NES) in Tampa, Fla. Kennedy made the trip with NASA astronaut Kay Hire to share the agency’s new vision for space exploration with the next generation of explorers. Kennedy is talking with students about our destiny as explorers, NASA’s stepping stone approach to exploring Earth, the Moon, Mars and beyond, how space impacts our lives, and how people and machines rely on each other in space.

  12. How independent are the pitch and interaural-time-difference mechanisms that rely on temporal fine structure information?

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Shigeto; Washizawa, Shiho; Ochi, Atsushi; Kashino, Makio

    2013-01-01

    The temporal fine structure (TFS) of acoustical signals, represented as the phase-locking pattern of the auditory nerve, is the major information for listeners performing a variety of auditory tasks, e.g., judging pitch and detecting interaural time differences (ITDs). Two experiments tested the hypothesis that processes for TFS-based pitch and ITD involve a common mechanism that processes TFS information and the efficiency of the common mechanism determines the performance of the two tasks. The first experiment measured the thresholds for detecting TFS-based pitch shifts (Moore and Moore, J Acoust Soc Am 113:977-985, 2003) and for detecting ITD for a group of normal-hearing listeners. The detection thresholds for level increments and for interaural level differences were also measured. The stimulus was a harmonic complex (F0 = 100 Hz) that was spectrally shaped for the frequency region around the 11th harmonic. We expected a positive correlation between the pitch and ITD thresholds, based on the hypothesis that a common TFS mechanism plays a determinant role. We failed to find evidence for a positive correlation, hence no support for the above hypothesis. The second experiment examined whether perceptual learning with respect to detecting TFS-based pitch shifts via training would transfer to performance in other untrained tasks. The stimuli and tasks were the same as those used in the first experiment. Generally, training in the pitch task improved performance in the (trained) pitch task, but degraded the performance in the (untrained) ITD task, which was unexpected on the basis of the hypothesis. No training effect was observed in the other untrained tasks. The results imply that the pitch and ITD processes compete with each other for limited neural resources.

  13. Enterocyte loss of polarity and gut wound healing rely upon the F-actin-severing function of villin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Efficient wound healing is required to maintain the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier because of its constant exposure to a large variety of environmental stresses. This process implies a partial cell depolarization and the acquisition of a motile phenotype that involves rearrangements ...

  14. Integrity of the yeast mitochondrial genome, but not its distribution and inheritance, relies on mitochondrial fission and fusion.

    PubMed

    Osman, Christof; Noriega, Thomas R; Okreglak, Voytek; Fung, Jennifer C; Walter, Peter

    2015-03-03

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is essential for mitochondrial and cellular function. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mtDNA is organized in nucleoprotein structures termed nucleoids, which are distributed throughout the mitochondrial network and are faithfully inherited during the cell cycle. How the cell distributes and inherits mtDNA is incompletely understood although an involvement of mitochondrial fission and fusion has been suggested. We developed a LacO-LacI system to noninvasively image mtDNA dynamics in living cells. Using this system, we found that nucleoids are nonrandomly spaced within the mitochondrial network and observed the spatiotemporal events involved in mtDNA inheritance. Surprisingly, cells deficient in mitochondrial fusion and fission distributed and inherited mtDNA normally, pointing to alternative pathways involved in these processes. We identified such a mechanism, where we observed fission-independent, but F-actin-dependent, tip generation that was linked to the positioning of mtDNA to the newly generated tip. Although mitochondrial fusion and fission were dispensable for mtDNA distribution and inheritance, we show through a combination of genetics and next-generation sequencing that their absence leads to an accumulation of mitochondrial genomes harboring deleterious structural variations that cluster at the origins of mtDNA replication, thus revealing crucial roles for mitochondrial fusion and fission in maintaining the integrity of the mitochondrial genome.

  15. Do adults with cochlear implants rely on different acoustic cues for phoneme perception than adults with normal hearing?

    PubMed Central

    Moberly, Aaron C.; Lowenstein, Joanna H.; Tarr, Eric; Caldwell-Tarr, Amanda; Welling, D. Bradley; Shahin, Antoine J.; Nittrouer, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Several acoustic cues specify any single phonemic contrast. Nonetheless, adult, native speakers of a language share weighting strategies, showing preferential attention to some properties over others. Cochlear implant (CI) signal processing disrupts the salience of some cues: in general, amplitude structure remains readily available, but spectral structure less so. This study asked how well speech recognition is supported if CI users shift attention to salient cues not weighted strongly by native speakers. Method 20 adults with CIs participated. The /bɑ/-/wɑ/ contrast was used because spectral and amplitude structure varies in correlated fashion for this contrast. Normal-hearing adults weight the spectral cue strongly, but the amplitude cue negligibly. Three measurements were made: labeling decisions, spectral and amplitude discrimination, and word recognition. Results Outcomes varied across listeners: some weighted the spectral cue strongly, some weighted the amplitude cue, and some weighted neither. Spectral discrimination predicted spectral weighting. Spectral weighting explained the most variance in word recognition. Age of onset of hearing loss predicted spectral weighting, but not unique variance in word recognition. Conclusions The weighting strategies of listeners with normal hearing likely support speech recognition best, so efforts in implant design, fitting, and training should focus on developing those strategies. PMID:24686722

  16. Do Political and Economic Choices Rely on Common Neural Substrates? A Systematic Review of the Emerging Neuropolitics Literature.

    PubMed

    Krastev, Sekoul; McGuire, Joseph T; McNeney, Denver; Kable, Joseph W; Stolle, Dietlind; Gidengil, Elisabeth; Fellows, Lesley K

    2016-01-01

    The methods of cognitive neuroscience are beginning to be applied to the study of political behavior. The neural substrates of value-based decision-making have been extensively examined in economic contexts; this might provide a powerful starting point for understanding political decision-making. Here, we asked to what extent the neuropolitics literature to date has used conceptual frameworks and experimental designs that make contact with the reward-related approaches that have dominated decision neuroscience. We then asked whether the studies of political behavior that can be considered in this light implicate the brain regions that have been associated with subjective value related to "economic" reward. We performed a systematic literature review to identify papers addressing the neural substrates of political behavior and extracted the fMRI studies reporting behavioral measures of subjective value as defined in decision neuroscience studies of reward. A minority of neuropolitics studies met these criteria and relatively few brain activation foci from these studies overlapped with regions where activity has been related to subjective value. These findings show modest influence of reward-focused decision neuroscience on neuropolitics research to date. Whether the neural substrates of subjective value identified in economic choice paradigms generalize to political choice thus remains an open question. We argue that systematically addressing the commonalities and differences in these two classes of value-based choice will be important in developing a more comprehensive model of the brain basis of human decision-making.

  17. Proximal fibular stress fractures in children and adolescents, what should we rely on? Lessons learned from a case.

    PubMed

    de Pina, Carlos Aguiar Ramos; Balacó, Inês; Serrano, Pedro Ruas; Matos, Gabriel

    2015-02-16

    Fibula fractures are the third most common stress fractures in children and adolescents. The triad of localised periosteal reaction, endosteal thickening and radiolucent cortical lines, localised in the distal third of the fibula along with a typical clinical history is in most cases sufficient to establish the diagnosis. Proximal fibula stress lesions are a very rare finding, with few reports in the literature. Stress fractures in this location demand careful investigation before a definitive diagnosis can be made. In the presence of non-specific MRI findings, stress fracture should be a diagnosis of exclusion. The authors report a case referred to their department by a sports medicine physician with a suspicion of stress fracture of the proximal fibula without characteristic imaging findings, which was ultimately confirmed as a stress lesion only by biopsy.

  18. Zebrafish second heart field development relies on progenitor specification in anterior lateral plate mesoderm and nkx2.5 function.

    PubMed

    Guner-Ataman, Burcu; Paffett-Lugassy, Noelle; Adams, Meghan S; Nevis, Kathleen R; Jahangiri, Leila; Obregon, Pablo; Kikuchi, Kazu; Poss, Kenneth D; Burns, Caroline E; Burns, C Geoffrey

    2013-03-01

    Second heart field (SHF) progenitors perform essential functions during mammalian cardiogenesis. We recently identified a population of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) in zebrafish expressing latent TGFβ-binding protein 3 (ltbp3) that exhibits several defining characteristics of the anterior SHF in mammals. However, ltbp3 transcripts are conspicuously absent in anterior lateral plate mesoderm (ALPM), where SHF progenitors are specified in higher vertebrates. Instead, ltbp3 expression initiates at the arterial pole of the developing heart tube. Because the mechanisms of cardiac development are conserved evolutionarily, we hypothesized that zebrafish SHF specification also occurs in the ALPM. To test this hypothesis, we Cre/loxP lineage traced gata4(+) and nkx2.5(+) ALPM populations predicted to contain SHF progenitors, based on evolutionary conservation of ALPM patterning. Traced cells were identified in SHF-derived distal ventricular myocardium and in three lineages in the outflow tract (OFT). We confirmed the extent of contributions made by ALPM nkx2.5(+) cells using Kaede photoconversion. Taken together, these data demonstrate that, as in higher vertebrates, zebrafish SHF progenitors are specified within the ALPM and express nkx2.5. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that Nkx2.5 plays a conserved and essential role during zebrafish SHF development. Embryos injected with an nkx2.5 morpholino exhibited SHF phenotypes caused by compromised progenitor cell proliferation. Co-injecting low doses of nkx2.5 and ltbp3 morpholinos revealed a genetic interaction between these factors. Taken together, our data highlight two conserved features of zebrafish SHF development, reveal a novel genetic relationship between nkx2.5 and ltbp3, and underscore the utility of this model organism for deciphering SHF biology.

  19. Zebrafish second heart field development relies on progenitor specification in anterior lateral plate mesoderm and nkx2.5 function

    PubMed Central

    Guner-Ataman, Burcu; Paffett-Lugassy, Noelle; Adams, Meghan S.; Nevis, Kathleen R.; Jahangiri, Leila; Obregon, Pablo; Kikuchi, Kazu; Poss, Kenneth D.; Burns, Caroline E.; Burns, C. Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Second heart field (SHF) progenitors perform essential functions during mammalian cardiogenesis. We recently identified a population of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) in zebrafish expressing latent TGFβ-binding protein 3 (ltbp3) that exhibits several defining characteristics of the anterior SHF in mammals. However, ltbp3 transcripts are conspicuously absent in anterior lateral plate mesoderm (ALPM), where SHF progenitors are specified in higher vertebrates. Instead, ltbp3 expression initiates at the arterial pole of the developing heart tube. Because the mechanisms of cardiac development are conserved evolutionarily, we hypothesized that zebrafish SHF specification also occurs in the ALPM. To test this hypothesis, we Cre/loxP lineage traced gata4+ and nkx2.5+ ALPM populations predicted to contain SHF progenitors, based on evolutionary conservation of ALPM patterning. Traced cells were identified in SHF-derived distal ventricular myocardium and in three lineages in the outflow tract (OFT). We confirmed the extent of contributions made by ALPM nkx2.5+ cells using Kaede photoconversion. Taken together, these data demonstrate that, as in higher vertebrates, zebrafish SHF progenitors are specified within the ALPM and express nkx2.5. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that Nkx2.5 plays a conserved and essential role during zebrafish SHF development. Embryos injected with an nkx2.5 morpholino exhibited SHF phenotypes caused by compromised progenitor cell proliferation. Co-injecting low doses of nkx2.5 and ltbp3 morpholinos revealed a genetic interaction between these factors. Taken together, our data highlight two conserved features of zebrafish SHF development, reveal a novel genetic relationship between nkx2.5 and ltbp3, and underscore the utility of this model organism for deciphering SHF biology. PMID:23444361

  20. 12 CFR 221.117 - When bank in “good faith” has not relied on stock as collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... or because of fluctuations in market value of the stock, but instead was payable on one or more fixed... stock as collateral. 221.117 Section 221.117 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD... OR DEALERS FOR THE PURPOSE OF PURCHASING OR CARRYING MARGIN STOCK (REGULATION U) Interpretations...

  1. Spinopelvic pathways to bipedality: why no hominids ever relied on a bent-hip–bent-knee gait

    PubMed Central

    Lovejoy, C. Owen; McCollum, Melanie A.

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, the last common ancestor of African apes and humans was presumed to resemble living chimpanzees and bonobos. This was frequently extended to their locomotor pattern leading to the presumption that knuckle-walking was a likely ancestral pattern, requiring bipedality to have emerged as a modification of their bent-hip-bent-knee gait used during erect walking. Research on the development and anatomy of the vertebral column, coupled with new revelations from the fossil record (in particular, Ardipithecus ramidus), now demonstrate that these presumptions have been in error. Reassessment of the potential pathway to early hominid bipedality now reveals an entirely novel sequence of likely morphological events leading to the emergence of upright walking. PMID:20855303

  2. Reflex vasoconstriction in aged human skin increasingly relies on Rho kinase-dependent mechanisms during whole body cooling.

    PubMed

    Lang, James A; Jennings, John D; Holowatz, Lacy A; Kenney, W Larry

    2009-11-01

    Primary human aging may be associated with augmented Rho kinase (ROCK)-mediated contraction of vascular smooth muscle and ROCK-mediated inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). We hypothesized that the contribution of ROCK to reflex vasoconstriction (VC) is greater in aged skin. Cutaneous VC was elicited by 1) whole body cooling [mean skin temperature (T(sk)) = 30.5 degrees C] and 2) local norepinephrine (NE) infusion (1 x 10(-6) M). Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the forearm skin of eight young (Y) and eight older (O) subjects for infusion of 1) Ringer solution (control), 2) 3 mM fasudil (ROCK inhibition), 3) 20 mM N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (NOS inhibition), and 4) both ROCK + NOS inhibitors. Red cell flux was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry over each site. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as flux/mean arterial pressure and normalized to baseline CVC (%DeltaCVC(baseline)). VC was reduced at the control site in O during cooling (Y, -34 + or - 3; and O, -18 + or - 3%DeltaCVC(baseline); P < 0.001) and NE infusion (Y, -53 + or - 4, and O, -41 + or - 9%DeltaCVC(baseline); P = 0.006). Fasudil attenuated VC in both age groups during mild cooling; however, this reduction remained only in O but not in Y skin during moderate cooling (Y, -30 + or - 5; and O, -7 + or - 1%DeltaCVC(baseline); P = 0.016) and was not altered by NOS inhibition. Fasudil blunted NE-mediated VC in both age groups (Y, -23 + or - 4; and O, -7 + or - 3%DeltaCVC(baseline); P < 0.01). Cumulatively, these data indicate that reflex VC is more reliant on ROCK in aged skin such that approximately half of the total VC response to whole body cooling is ROCK dependent.

  3. Glutathione-conjugating and membrane-remodeling activity of GDAP1 relies on amphipathic C-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Nina; Bieniossek, Christoph; Wagner, Konstanze Marion; Elsässer, Hans-Peter; Suter, Ueli; Berger, Imre; Niemann, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the ganglioside-induced differentiation associated protein 1 (GDAP1) cause severe peripheral motor and sensory neuropathies called Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. GDAP1 expression induces fission of mitochondria and peroxisomes by a currently elusive mechanism, while disease causing mutations in GDAP1 impede the protein’s role in mitochondrial dynamics. In silico analysis reveals sequence similarities of GDAP1 to glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). However, a proof of GST activity and its possible impact on membrane dynamics are lacking to date. Using recombinant protein, we demonstrate for the first time theta-class-like GST activity for GDAP1, and it’s activity being regulated by the C-terminal hydrophobic domain 1 (HD1) of GDAP1 in an autoinhibitory manner. Moreover, we show that the HD1 amphipathic pattern is required to induce membrane dynamics by GDAP1. As both, fission and GST activities of GDAP1, are critically dependent on HD1, we propose that GDAP1 undergoes a molecular switch, turning from a pro-fission active to an auto-inhibited inactive conformation. PMID:27841286

  4. Nocturnal Foraging by Red-Legged Kittiwakes, a Surface Feeding Seabird That Relies on Deep Water Prey During Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Kokubun, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kikuchi, Dale M.; Kitaysky, Alexander; Takahashi, Akinori

    2015-01-01

    Narrow foraging specialization may increase the vulnerability of marine predators to climate change. The red-legged kittiwake (Rissa brevirostris) is endemic to the Bering Sea and has experienced drastic population fluctuations in recent decades, presumably due to climate-driven changes in food resources. Red-legged kittiwakes are presumed to be a nocturnal surface-foraging seabird that feed almost entirely on deep water Myctophidae fishes. However, there is little empirical evidence confirming their nocturnal foraging activity during the breeding season. This study investigated the foraging behavior of red-legged kittiwakes by combining GPS tracking, accelerometry, and dietary analyses at the world’s largest breeding colony of red-legged kittiwakes on St. George I. GPS tracking of 5 individuals revealed that 82.5% of non-flight behavior (including foraging and resting) occurred over the ocean basin (bottom depth >1,000 m). Acceleration data from 4 birds showed three types of behaviors during foraging trips: (1) flight, characterized by regular wing flapping, (2) resting on water, characterized by non-active behavior, and (3) foraging, when wing flapping was irregular. The proportions of both foraging and resting behaviors were higher at night (14.1 ± 7.1% and 20.8 ± 14.3%) compared to those during the day (6.5 ± 3.0% and 1.7 ± 2.7%). The mean duration of foraging (2.4 ± 2.9 min) was shorter than that of flight between prey patches (24.2 ± 53.1 min). Dietary analyses confirmed myctophids as the dominant prey (100% by occurrence and 98.4 ± 2.4% by wet-weight). Although the sample size was limited, these results suggest that breeding red-legged kittiwakes concentrated their foraging on myctophids available at the surface during nighttime in deep water regions. We propose that the diel patterns and ephemeral nature of their foraging activity reflected the availability of myctophids. Such foraging specialization may exacerbate the vulnerability of red-legged kittiwakes to climate change in the Bering Sea. PMID:26465335

  5. Mycobacterium leprae intracellular survival relies on cholesterol accumulation in infected macrophages: a potential target for new drugs for leprosy treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mattos, Katherine A; Oliveira, Viviane C G; Berrêdo-Pinho, Marcia; Amaral, Julio J; Antunes, Luis Caetano M; Melo, Rossana C N; Acosta, Chyntia C D; Moura, Danielle F; Olmo, Roberta; Han, Jun; Rosa, Patricia S; Almeida, Patrícia E; Finlay, B Brett; Borchers, Christoph H; Sarno, Euzenir N; Bozza, Patricia T; Atella, Georgia C; Pessolani, Maria Cristina V

    2014-01-01

    We recently showed that Mycobacterium leprae (ML) is able to induce lipid droplet formation in infected macrophages. We herein confirm that cholesterol (Cho) is one of the host lipid molecules that accumulate in ML-infected macrophages and investigate the effects of ML on cellular Cho metabolism responsible for its accumulation. The expression levels of LDL receptors (LDL-R, CD36, SRA-1, SR-B1, and LRP-1) and enzymes involved in Cho biosynthesis were investigated by qRT-PCR and/or Western blot and shown to be higher in lepromatous leprosy (LL) tissues when compared to borderline tuberculoid (BT) lesions. Moreover, higher levels of the active form of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) transcriptional factors, key regulators of the biosynthesis and uptake of cellular Cho, were found in LL skin biopsies. Functional in vitro assays confirmed the higher capacity of ML-infected macrophages to synthesize Cho and sequester exogenous LDL-Cho. Notably, Cho colocalized to ML-containing phagosomes, and Cho metabolism impairment, through either de novo synthesis inhibition by statins or depletion of exogenous Cho, decreased intracellular bacterial survival. These findings highlight the importance of metabolic integration between the host and bacteria to leprosy pathophysiology, opening new avenues for novel therapeutic strategies to leprosy. PMID:24552180

  6. Development of a millimetrically scaled biodiesel transesterification device that relies on droplet-based co-axial fluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, S. I.; Huang, Y. C.; Cheng, C. H.; Cheng, C. M.; Yang, J. T.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we investigated a fluidic system that adheres to new concepts of energy production. To improve efficiency, cost, and ease of manufacture, a millimetrically scaled device that employs a droplet-based co-axial fluidic system was devised to complete alkali-catalyzed transesterification for biodiesel production. The large surface-to-volume ratio of the droplet-based system, and the internal circulation induced inside the moving droplets, significantly enhanced the reaction rate of immiscible liquids used here – soybean oil and methanol. This device also decreased the molar ratio between methanol and oil to near the stoichiometric coefficients of a balanced chemical equation, which enhanced the total biodiesel volume produced, and decreased the costs of purification and recovery of excess methanol. In this work, the droplet-based co-axial fluidic system performed better than other methods of continuous-flow production. We achieved an efficiency that is much greater than that of reported systems. This study demonstrated the high potential of droplet-based fluidic chips for energy production. The small energy consumption and low cost of the highly purified biodiesel transesterification system described conforms to the requirements of distributed energy (inexpensive production on a moderate scale) in the world.

  7. Control of tissue growth by Yap relies on cell density and F-actin in zebrafish fin regeneration.

    PubMed

    Mateus, Rita; Lourenço, Raquel; Fang, Yi; Brito, Gonçalo; Farinho, Ana; Valério, Fábio; Jacinto, Antonio

    2015-08-15

    Caudal fin regeneration is characterized by a proliferation boost in the mesenchymal blastema that is controlled precisely in time and space. This allows a gradual and robust restoration of original fin size. However, how this is established and regulated is not well understood. Here, we report that Yap, the Hippo pathway effector, is a chief player in this process: functionally manipulating Yap during regeneration dramatically affects cell proliferation and expression of key signaling pathways, impacting regenerative growth. The intracellular location of Yap is tightly associated with different cell densities along the blastema proximal-distal axis, which correlate with alterations in cell morphology, cytoskeleton and cell-cell contacts in a gradient-like manner. Importantly, Yap inactivation occurs in high cell density areas, conditional to F-actin distribution and polymerization. We propose that Yap is essential for fin regeneration and that its function is dependent on mechanical tension, conferred by a balancing act of cell density and cytoskeleton activity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Self-control depletion in tufted capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.): does delay of gratification rely on a limited resource?

    PubMed Central

    Petrillo, Francesca De; Gori, Emanuele; Truppa, Valentina; Ariely, Dan; Addessi, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    Self-control failure has enormous personal and societal consequences. One of the most debated models explaining why self-control breaks down is the Strength Model, according to which self-control depends on a limited resource. Either previous acts of self-control or taking part in highly demanding cognitive tasks have been shown to reduce self-control, possibly due to a reduction in blood glucose levels. However, several studies yielded negative findings, and recent meta-analyses questioned the robustness of the depletion effect in humans. We investigated, for the first time, whether the Strength Model applies to a non-human primate species, the tufted capuchin monkey. We tested five capuchins in a self-control task (the Accumulation task) in which food items were accumulated within individual’s reach for as long as the subject refrained from taking them. We evaluated whether capuchins’ performance decreases: (i) when tested before receiving their daily meal rather than after consuming it (Energy Depletion Experiment), and (ii) after being tested in two tasks with different levels of cognitive complexity (Cognitive Depletion Experiment). We also tested, in both experiments, how implementing self-control in each trial of the Accumulation task affected this capacity within each session and/or across consecutive sessions. Repeated acts of self-control in each trial of the Accumulation task progressively reduced this capacity within each session, as predicted by the Strength Model. However, neither experiencing a reduction in energy level nor taking part in a highly demanding cognitive task decreased performance in the subsequent Accumulation task. Thus, whereas capuchins seem to be vulnerable to within-session depletion effects, to other extents our findings are in line with the growing body of studies that failed to find a depletion effect in humans. Methodological issues potentially affecting the lack of depletion effects in capuchins are discussed. PMID:26322001

  9. Instructive Bilingualism: Can Bilingual Children with Specific Language Impairment Rely on One Language in Learning a Second One?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armon-Lotem, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Only a decade ago, a very few researchers considered the study of language disorders in bilingual population worth pursuing. It was mostly argued that there were enough challenges in studying bilingualism, and even more challenges in the study of specific language impairment (SLI). So why complicate things and combine the two domains?

  10. Spinopelvic pathways to bipedality: why no hominids ever relied on a bent-hip-bent-knee gait.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, C Owen; McCollum, Melanie A

    2010-10-27

    Until recently, the last common ancestor of African apes and humans was presumed to resemble living chimpanzees and bonobos. This was frequently extended to their locomotor pattern leading to the presumption that knuckle-walking was a likely ancestral pattern, requiring bipedality to have emerged as a modification of their bent-hip-bent-knee gait used during erect walking. Research on the development and anatomy of the vertebral column, coupled with new revelations from the fossil record (in particular, Ardipithecus ramidus), now demonstrate that these presumptions have been in error. Reassessment of the potential pathway to early hominid bipedality now reveals an entirely novel sequence of likely morphological events leading to the emergence of upright walking.

  11. A sensitive bisphenol A voltammetric sensor relying on AuPd nanoparticles/graphene composites modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Su, Bingyuan; Shao, Huilin; Li, Na; Chen, Xiaomei; Cai, Zhixiong; Chen, Xi

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a sensitive bisphenol A (BPA) electrochemical sensor was assembled using a surfactant-free AuPd nanoparticles-loaded graphene nanosheets (AuPdNPs/GNs) modified electrode. The AuPdNPs monodispersed on GNs were successfully prepared by the spontaneous redox reaction between bimetallic precursors and GNs. Because no surfactant or halide ions were involved in the proposed synthesis, the prepared composite was enabled to directly modify a glassy carbon electrode without any pre-treatments. Moreover, due to the synergetic effect of Au and Pd, AuPdNPs/GNs displayed high electrochemical activity with well-defined voltammetric peaks of BPA oxidation and lower overpotential compared with monometallic PdNPs and AuNPs supported GNs. According to the results of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), under optimized conditions, a good linear response was observed for the concentration of BPA in the range of 0.05-10μM with a detection limit of 8nM. The developed electrochemical sensor was successfully applied to determine BPA in food package. This study indicated that AuPdNPs/GNs based electrochemical sensor can be a promising and reliable tool for rapid analysis of emergency pollution affairs of BPA.

  12. Overview on modern approaches to speed up protein identification workflows relying on enzymatic cleavage and mass spectrometry-based techniques.

    PubMed

    Capelo, J L; Carreira, R; Diniz, M; Fernandes, L; Galesio, M; Lodeiro, C; Santos, H M; Vale, G

    2009-09-21

    Recent tools addressed to accelerate the different steps of the sample treatment for protein identification in modern workflows are reviewed and critically commented in this manuscript. Heating, microspin columns, ultrasonic energy, high pressure, infrared energy, microwave energy, alternating electric fields and microreactors are outlined as useful tools that can be used to accelerate all or some of the following steps for in-gel or in-liquid based approaches for protein identification: (i) protein dissolution/denaturation, (ii) protein reduction, (iii) protein alkylation and (iv) protein digestion. The advantages and drawbacks, along with the main differences among the different tools are also commented. Future prospects for hyphenation of methods are also discussed. Researchers are informed also in this work regarding the main problems to be found when implementing any of the above mentioned methods.

  13. First-dose success with vardenafil in men with erectile dysfunction and associated comorbidities: RELY-I.

    PubMed

    Valiquette, L; Montorsi, F; Auerbach, S

    2006-11-01

    First-dose success of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors may be adversely affected in patients with comorbidities. This article reports first-dose success rates for vardenafil 10 mg in men with erectile dysfunction (ED) and associated comorbidities who participated in the challenge phase of the Reliability--Vardenafil for Erectile Dysfunction I study. This study involved an open-label, single-dose, 1-week challenge period where patients who achieved SEP-2 (penetration) success were randomised to vardenafil 10 mg or placebo for 12 weeks in a double-blind manner. The first-dose success rates for SEP-2 and SEP-3 (maintenance of erection to completion of intercourse) were stratified according to comorbidities. Safety was assessed using adverse events (AEs). Of 600 men who received a single 10 mg dose of vardenafil, 32% had hypertension, 16% had diabetes and 19% had dyslipidaemia. Vardenafil demonstrated overall effectiveness, including first-dose SEP-2 and SEP-3 success rates in patients with and without specific comorbidities. Initial overall success rates for SEP-2 and SEP-3 during the challenge phase were 87% and 74% respectively. First-dose SEP-2 and SEP-3 success rates were 84% and 66% in men with hypertension (n = 191); 84% and 72% in men with dyslipidaemia (n = 116); and 75% and 58% in men with diabetes (n = 95). Vardenafil was well tolerated and most AEs, including the most frequently reported flushing (3.5%), were mild to moderate in intensity. Vardenafil 10 mg is generally well tolerated and efficacious, providing first-dose success with a consistently high rate of reliability of penetration and maintenance of erection in men with ED and associated comorbidities.

  14. Accuracy of pointing movements relies upon a specific tuning between anticipatory postural adjustments and prime mover activation.

    PubMed

    Caronni, A; Bolzoni, F; Esposti, R; Bruttini, C; Cavallari, P

    2013-05-01

    Equilibrium-perturbing forces associated with a voluntary upper-limb movement can be strong enough to displace the whole-body centre of mass. In this condition, anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs), developing in muscles other than the prime mover, are essential in maintaining the whole-body balance. Here, we test the hypothesis that APAs preceding an upper-limb target-reaching movement could play a role also in controlling the movement accuracy. Standing subjects (10) were asked to flex the right shoulder and touch with the index fingertip the centre of a target positioned in front of them. The reaching task was also performed while wearing and after doffing prismatic lenses (shifting the eye field rightward). EMGs from different upper- and lower-limb muscles and the mechanical actions to the ground were recorded. (i) Before wearing prisms, subjects were very accurate in hitting the target, and the pointing movements were accompanied by APAs in quadriceps (Q) and tibialis anterior (TA) of both sides, and in right hamstrings (H) and soleus (SOL). (ii) After donning prisms, rightward pointing errors occurred, associated with a significant APA increase in right Q and TA, but without changes in the recruitment of right anterior deltoid (prime mover) and biceps brachii. (iii) These pointing errors were progressively compensated in about 10 trials, indicating a sensorimotor adaptation, and APAs returned to values recorded before wearing prisms. (iv) After doffing prisms, pointing errors occurred in the opposite direction but changes in APAs did not reach significance. We propose that, besides preserving the whole-body balance, APAs are also tailored to obtain an accurate voluntary movement. Acta Physiologica © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  15. Understanding low-temperature bulk transport in samarium hexaboride without relying on in-gap bulk states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakoski, A.; Eo, Y. S.; Sun, K.; Kurdak, ć.

    2017-05-01

    We present a new model to explain the difference between the transport and spectroscopy gaps in samarium hexaboride (SmB6), which has been a mystery for some time. We propose that SmB6 can be modeled as an intrinsic semiconductor with an accumulation length that diverges at cryogenic temperatures. In this model, we find a self-consistent solution to Poisson's equation in the bulk, with boundary conditions based on Fermi energy pinning due to surface charges. The solution yields band bending in the bulk; this explains the difference between the two gaps because spectroscopic methods measure the gap near the surface, while transport measures the average over the bulk. We also connect the model to transport parameters, including the Hall coefficient and thermopower, using semiclassical transport theory. The divergence of the accumulation length additionally explains the 10-12 K feature in data for these parameters, demonstrating a crossover from bulk dominated transport above this temperature to surface-dominated transport below this temperature. We find good agreement between our model and a collection of transport data from 4-40 K. This model can also be generalized to materials with similar band structure.

  16. Tonoplast targeting of VHA-a3 relies on a Rab5-mediated but Rab7-independent vacuolar trafficking route.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qiang-Nan; Zhang, Yan; Li, Sha

    2017-04-01

    Vacuolar trafficking routes and their regulators have recently drawn lots of attention in plant cell biology. A recent study reported the discovery of a plant-specific vacuolar trafficking route, i.e., a direct ER-to-vacuole route, through analysis of VHA-a3 subcellular targeting, a key component for the tonoplast V-ATPases. Our recent findings showed that VHA-a3 targets to the tonoplast through a Rab5-mediated but Rab7-independent pathway, shedding new lights on the unconventional vacuolar trafficking route in plant cells. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. The neuroimmune changes induced by cohabitation with an Ehrlich tumor-bearing cage mate rely on olfactory information.

    PubMed

    Alves, Glaucie J; Ribeiro, Alison; Palermo-Neto, João

    2012-01-01

    Cohabitation for 14 days with Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice was shown to increase locomotor activity, to decrease hypothalamic noradrenaline (NA) levels, to increase NA turnover and to decrease innate immune responses and decrease the animals' resistance to tumor growth. Cage mates of a B16F10 melanoma-bearer mice were also reported to show neuroimmune changes. Chemosignals released by Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice have been reported to be relevant for the neutrophil activity changes induced by cohabitation. The present experiment was designed to further analyze the effects of odor cues on neuroimmune changes induced by cohabitation with a sick cage mate. Specifically, the relevance of chemosignals released by an Ehrlich tumor-bearing mouse was assessed on the following: behavior (open-field and plus maze); hypothalamic NA levels and turnover; adrenaline (A) and NA plasmatic levels; and host resistance induced by tumor growth. To comply with such objectives, devices specifically constructed to analyze the influence of chemosignals released from tumor-bearing mice were employed. The results show that deprivation of odor cues released by Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice reversed the behavioral, neurochemical and immune changes induced by cohabitation. Mice use scents for intraspecies communication in many social contexts. Tumors produce volatile organic compounds released into the atmosphere through breath, sweat, and urine. Our results strongly suggest that volatile compounds released by Ehrlich tumor-injected mice are perceived by their conspecifics, inducing the neuroimmune changes reported for cohabitation with a sick companion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Vaginal dose assessment in image-guided brachytherapy for cervical cancer: Can we really rely on dose-point evaluation?

    PubMed

    Limkin, Elaine Johanna; Dumas, Isabelle; Rivin Del Campo, Eleonor; Chargari, Cyrus; Maroun, Pierre; Annède, Pierre; Petit, Claire; Seisen, Thomas; Doyeux, Kaya; Tailleur, Anne; Martinetti, Florent; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Haie-Meder, Christine; Mazeron, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Although dose-volume parameters in image-guided brachytherapy have become a standard, the use of posterior-inferior border of the pubic symphysis (PIBS) points has been recently proposed in the reporting of vaginal doses. The aim was to evaluate their pertinence. Nineteen patients who received image-guided brachytherapy after concurrent radiochemotherapy were included. Per treatment, CT scans were performed at Days 2 and 3, with reporting of the initial dwell positions and times. Doses delivered to the PIBS points were evaluated on each plan, considering that they were representative of one-third of the treatment. The movements of the applicator according to the PIBS point were analysed. Mean prescribed doses at PIBS -2, PIBS, PIBS +2 were, respectively, 2.23 ± 1.4, 6.39 ± 6.6, and 31.85 ± 36.06 Gy. Significant differences were observed between the 5 patients with vaginal involvement and the remaining 14 at the level of PIBS +2 and PIBS: +47.60 Gy and +7.46 Gy, respectively (p = 0.023 and 0.03). The variations between delivered and prescribed doses at PIBS points were not significant. However, at International commission on radiation units and measurements rectovaginal point, the delivered dose was decreased by 1.43 ± 2.49 Gy from the planned dose (p = 0.019). The delivered doses at the four points were strongly correlated with the prescribed doses with R(2) ranging from 0.93 to 0.95. The movements of the applicator in regard of the PIBS point assessed with the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine coordinates were insignificant. The doses evaluated at PIBS points are not impacted by intrafractional movements. PIBS and PIBS +2 dose points allow distinguishing the plans of patients with vaginal infiltration. Further studies are needed to correlate these parameters with vaginal morbidity. Copyright © 2016 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Discrimination by Escherichia coli initiation factor IF3 against initiation on non-canonical codons relies on complementarity rules.

    PubMed

    Meinnel, T; Sacerdot, C; Graffe, M; Blanquet, S; Springer, M

    1999-07-23

    Translation initiation factor IF3, one of three factors specifically required for translation initiation in Escherichia coli, inhibits initiation on any codon other than the three canonical initiation codons, AUG, GUG, or UUG. This discrimination against initiation on non-canonical codons could be due to either direct recognition of the two last bases of the codon and their cognate bases on the anticodon or to some ability to "feel" codon-anticodon complementarity. To investigate the importance of codon-anticodon complementarity in the discriminatory role of IF3, we constructed a derivative of tRNALeuthat has all the known characteristics of an initiator tRNA except the CAU anticodon. This tRNA is efficiently formylated by methionyl-tRNAfMettransformylase and charged by leucyl-tRNA synthetase irrespective of the sequence of its anticodon. These initiator tRNALeuderivatives (called tRNALI) allow initiation at all the non-canonical codons tested, provided that the complementarity between the codon and the anticodon of the initiator tRNALeuis respected. More remarkably, the discrimination by IF3, normally observed with non-canonical codons, is neutralised if a tRNALIcarrying a complementary anticodon is used for initiation. This suggests that IF3 somehow recognises codon-anticodon complementarity, at least at the second and third position of the codon, rather than some specific bases in either the codon or the anticodon.

  20. Adaptation of the symbiotic Mesorhizobium–chickpea relationship to phosphate deficiency relies on reprogramming of whole-plant metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Nasr Esfahani, Maryam; Kusano, Miyako; Nguyen, Kien Huu; Watanabe, Yasuko; Ha, Chien Van; Saito, Kazuki; Sulieman, Saad; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Tran, Lam-Son Phan

    2016-01-01

    Low inorganic phosphate (Pi) availability is a major constraint for efficient nitrogen fixation in legumes, including chickpea. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in nodule acclimation to low Pi availability, two Mesorhizobium–chickpea associations exhibiting differential symbiotic performances, Mesorhizobium ciceri CP-31 (McCP-31)–chickpea and Mesorhizobium mediterranum SWRI9 (MmSWRI9)–chickpea, were comprehensively studied under both control and low Pi conditions. MmSWRI9–chickpea showed a lower symbiotic efficiency under low Pi availability than McCP-31–chickpea as evidenced by reduced growth parameters and down-regulation of nifD and nifK. These differences can be attributed to decline in Pi level in MmSWRI9-induced nodules under low Pi stress, which coincided with up-regulation of several key Pi starvation-responsive genes, and accumulation of asparagine in nodules and the levels of identified amino acids in Pi-deficient leaves of MmSWRI9-inoculated plants exceeding the shoot nitrogen requirement during Pi starvation, indicative of nitrogen feedback inhibition. Conversely, Pi levels increased in nodules of Pi-stressed McCP-31–inoculated plants, because these plants evolved various metabolic and biochemical strategies to maintain nodular Pi homeostasis under Pi deficiency. These adaptations involve the activation of alternative pathways of carbon metabolism, enhanced production and exudation of organic acids from roots into the rhizosphere, and the ability to protect nodule metabolism against Pi deficiency-induced oxidative stress. Collectively, the adaptation of symbiotic efficiency under Pi deficiency resulted from highly coordinated processes with an extensive reprogramming of whole-plant metabolism. The findings of this study will enable us to design effective breeding and genetic engineering strategies to enhance symbiotic efficiency in legume crops. PMID:27450089

  1. How to reduce resistance to movement of alkane liquid drops across tilted surfaces without relying on surface roughening and perfluorination.

    PubMed

    Urata, Chihiro; Masheder, Benjamin; Cheng, Dalton F; Hozumi, Atsushi

    2012-12-21

    Alkylsilane-derived monolayer-covered surfaces generally display a reasonably good level of hydrophobicity but poor oleophobicity. Here, we demonstrate that the physical attributes of alkylsilane-derived surfaces (liquid-like or solid-like) are dependent on the alkyl chain length and density, and these factors subsequently have significant influence upon the dynamic dewetting behavior toward alkanes (C(n)H(2n+2), where n = 7-16). In this study, we prepared and characterized hybrid films through a simple sol-gel process based on the cohydrolysis and co-condensation of a mixture of a range of alkyltriethoxysilanes (C(n)H(2n+1)Si(OEt)(3), where n = 3, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18) and tetramethoxysilane (TMOS). Surprisingly, when the carbon number (C(n)) of alkyl chain was 10 and below, the produced hybrid films were all smooth, highly transparent, and showed negligible contact angle (CA) hysteresis. On these hybrid surfaces, 5 μL drops of alkanes (n-hexadecane, n-dodecane, and n-decane) could move easily at low tilt angles (<5°) without pinning. On the other hand, when the C(n) exceeded 12, both transparency and mobility of probe liquids significantly worsened. In the former case, TMOS molecules played key roles in both forming continuous films (as a binder) and improving flexibility of alkyl chains (as a molecular spacer), resulting in the smooth liquid-like surfaces. Silylation of the hybrid film and subsequent dynamic CA measurements proved the presence of silanol groups on the outermost surfaces and demonstrated that the dynamic dewettability of hybrid films worsened as packing densities increased. Additionally, solvent effects (high affinity) between the alkyl chains and alkane liquids imparted a more liquid-like character to the surface. Thanks to these simple physical effects, the resistance to the alkane droplet motion across tilted surfaces was markedly reduced. With the longer carbon chains, the chain mobility was strictly inhibited by mutual interactions between neighboring alkyl chains even in the presence of TMOS molecules. The achieved surfaces displayed a solid-like nature along with surface defects, leading to inferior dynamic oleophobicity. Therefore, the critical C(n) of alkyl chain used for determining final dynamic dewetting behavior against alkane liquids was 12. Furthermore, our hybrid surfaces exhibited excellent antifingerprint properties, particularly demonstrating low adhesion and easy removal from the surface.

  2. Immigrant and Refugee Students across "Receiving" Nations: To What Extent Can Educators Rely on PISA for Answers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein-Avila, Eliane

    2016-01-01

    Massive population shift is a current global reality--especially given some of the latest development on European shores; some are calling it a humanitarian crisis. Although the United States (US) receives a large number of immigrants (documented and not) and about 70,000 refugees each year, it is certainly not the only nation to do so.…

  3. Do Adults with Cochlear Implants Rely on Different Acoustic Cues for Phoneme Perception than Adults with Normal Hearing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moberly, Aaron C.; Lowenstein, Joanna H.; Tarr, Eric; Caldwell-Tarr, Amanda; Welling, D. Bradley; Shahin, Antoine J.; Nittrouer, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Several acoustic cues specify any single phonemic contrast. Nonetheless, adult, native speakers of a language share weighting strategies, showing preferential attention to some properties over others. Cochlear implant (CI) signal processing disrupts the salience of some cues: In general, amplitude structure remains readily available, but…

  4. Immigrant and Refugee Students across "Receiving" Nations: To What Extent Can Educators Rely on PISA for Answers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein-Avila, Eliane

    2016-01-01

    Massive population shift is a current global reality--especially given some of the latest development on European shores; some are calling it a humanitarian crisis. Although the United States (US) receives a large number of immigrants (documented and not) and about 70,000 refugees each year, it is certainly not the only nation to do so.…

  5. Reducing costs of managing and accessing navigation and ancillary data by relying on the extensive capabilities of NASA's spice system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semenov, Boris V.; Acton, Charles H., Jr.; Bachman, Nathaniel J.; Elson, Lee S.; Wright, Edward D.

    2005-01-01

    The SPICE system of navigation and ancillary data possesses a number of traits that make its use in modern space missions of all types highly cost efficient. The core of the system is a software library providing API interfaces for storing and retrieving such data as trajectories, orientations, time conversions, and instrument geometry parameters. Applications used at any stage of a mission life cycle can call SPICE APIs to access this data and compute geometric quantities required for observation planning, engineering assessment and science data analysis. SPICE is implemented in three different languages, supported on 20+ computer environments, and distributed with complete source code and documentation. It includes capabilities that are extensively tested by everyday use in many active projects and are applicable to all types of space missions - flyby, orbiters, observatories, landers and rovers. While a customer's initial SPICE adaptation for the first mission or experiment requires a modest effort, this initial effort pays off because adaptation for subsequent missions/experiments is just a small fraction of the initial investment, with the majority of tools based on SPICE requiring no or very minor changes.

  6. 16 CFR 1115.5 - Reporting of failures to comply with a voluntary consumer product safety standard relied upon by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... developing mandatory ones. In recognition of the role of voluntary standards under the CPSA, section 15(b)(1... by the Commission. Pursuant to section 7(b)(2) of the CPSA, the Commission shall monitor...

  7. 16 CFR 1115.5 - Reporting of failures to comply with a voluntary consumer product safety standard relied upon by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... developing mandatory ones. In recognition of the role of voluntary standards under the CPSA, section 15(b)(1... by the Commission. Pursuant to section 7(b)(2) of the CPSA, the Commission shall monitor...

  8. 16 CFR 1115.5 - Reporting of failures to comply with a voluntary consumer product safety standard relied upon by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... developing mandatory ones. In recognition of the role of voluntary standards under the CPSA, section 15(b)(1... by the Commission. Pursuant to section 7(b)(2) of the CPSA, the Commission shall monitor...

  9. 16 CFR 1115.5 - Reporting of failures to comply with a voluntary consumer product safety standard relied upon by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... developing mandatory ones. In recognition of the role of voluntary standards under the CPSA, section 15(b)(1... by the Commission. Pursuant to section 7(b)(2) of the CPSA, the Commission shall monitor...

  10. 16 CFR 1115.5 - Reporting of failures to comply with a voluntary consumer product safety standard relied upon by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... developing mandatory ones. In recognition of the role of voluntary standards under the CPSA, section 15(b)(1... by the Commission. Pursuant to section 7(b)(2) of the CPSA, the Commission shall monitor...

  11. Only available to a selected few? Is it feasible to rely on a volunteer workforce for complex intervention delivery?

    PubMed

    Mountain, Gail; Gossage-Worrall, Rebecca; Cattan, Mima; Bowling, Ann

    2017-01-01

    This paper recounts the process of undertaking a randomised controlled trial which was designed to examine the effectiveness of an intervention for socially isolated older people aged 75 years and over. It describes the reasons for early cessation of the study and raises the implications of this outcome for policy, practice and research. The intervention under investigation was designed to alleviate loneliness and foster companionship. It involves participants being linked with a small group of others through a teleconferencing system with each group being facilitated by trained volunteers. There was a requirement to recruit and train a minimum of 30 and a maximum of 60 volunteers over 1 year to facilitate 20 friendship groups to meet the number of older people required to be recruited to the study. Problems with recruiting and retaining the volunteer workforce by the voluntary sector organisation, who were commissioned to do so, led to the study closing even though older people were recruited in sufficient numbers. The paper draws upon analysis of various data sources from the study to identify the potential reasons. The discussion raises considerations regarding the extent of infrastructure required to deliver community services to vulnerable user groups at scale, identifies some of the issues that need to be addressed if such volunteer-initiated services are to be successful and informs future research programmes in this area.

  12. IL-7-Induced Proliferation of Human Naive CD4 T-Cells Relies on Continued Thymic Activity.

    PubMed

    Silva, Susana L; Albuquerque, Adriana S; Matoso, Paula; Charmeteau-de-Muylder, Bénédicte; Cheynier, Rémi; Ligeiro, Dário; Abecasis, Miguel; Anjos, Rui; Barata, João T; Victorino, Rui M M; Sousa, Ana E

    2017-01-01

    Naive CD4 T-cell maintenance is critical for immune competence. We investigated here the fine-tuning of homeostatic mechanisms of the naive compartment to counteract the loss of de novo CD4 T-cell generation. Adults thymectomized in early childhood during corrective cardiac surgery were grouped based on presence or absence of thymopoiesis and compared with age-matched controls. We found that the preservation of the CD31(-) subset was independent of the thymus and that its size is tightly controlled by peripheral mechanisms, including prolonged cell survival as attested by Bcl-2 levels. Conversely, a significant contraction of the CD31(+) naive subset was observed in the absence of thymic activity. This was associated with impaired responses of purified naive CD4 T-cells to IL-7, namely, in vitro proliferation and upregulation of CD31 expression, which likely potentiated the decline in recent thymic emigrants. Additionally, we found no apparent constraint in the differentiation of naive cells into the memory compartment in individuals completely lacking thymic activity despite upregulation of DUSP6, a phosphatase associated with increased TCR threshold. Of note, thymectomized individuals featuring some degree of thymopoiesis were able to preserve the size and diversity of the naive CD4 compartment, further arguing against complete thymectomy in infancy. Overall, our data suggest that robust peripheral mechanisms ensure the homeostasis of CD31(-) naive CD4 pool and point to the requirement of continuous thymic activity to the maintenance of IL-7-driven homeostatic proliferation of CD31(+) naive CD4 T-cells, which is essential to secure T-cell diversity throughout life.

  13. Inhibitory motor control based on complex stopping goals relies on the same brain network as simple stopping.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Jan R; Aron, Adam R

    2014-12-01

    Much research has modeled action-stopping using the stop-signal task (SST), in which an impending response has to be stopped when an explicit stop-signal occurs. A limitation of the SST is that real-world action-stopping rarely involves explicit stop-signals. Instead, the stopping-system engages when environmental features match more complex stopping goals. For example, when stepping into the street, one monitors path, velocity, size, and types of objects and only stops if there is a vehicle approaching. Here, we developed a task in which participants compared the visual features of a multidimensional go-stimulus to a complex stopping-template, and stopped their go-response if all features matched the template. We used independent component analysis of EEG data to show that the same motor inhibition brain network that explains action-stopping in the SST also implements motor inhibition in the complex-stopping task. Furthermore, we found that partial feature overlap between go-stimulus and stopping-template led to motor slowing, which also corresponded with greater stopping-network activity. This shows that the same brain system for action-stopping to explicit stop-signals is recruited to slow or stop behavior when stimuli match a complex stopping goal. The results imply a generalizability of the brain's network for simple action-stopping to more ecologically valid scenarios.

  14. Thiol-Based Peroxidases and Ascorbate Peroxidases: Why Plants Rely on Multiple Peroxidase Systems in the Photosynthesizing Chloroplast?

    PubMed

    Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a highly robust process allowing for rapid adjustment to changing environmental conditions. The efficient acclimation depends on balanced redox metabolism and control of reactive oxygen species release which triggers signaling cascades and potentially detrimental oxidation reactions. Thiol peroxidases of the peroxiredoxin and glutathione peroxidase type, and ascorbate peroxidases are the main peroxide detoxifying enzymes of the chloroplast. They use different electron donors and are linked to distinct redox networks. In addition, the peroxiredoxins serve functions in redox regulation and retrograde signaling. The complexity of plastid peroxidases is discussed in context of suborganellar localization, substrate preference, metabolic coupling, protein abundance, activity regulation, interactions, signaling functions, and the conditional requirement for high antioxidant capacity. Thus the review provides an opinion on the advantage of linking detoxification of peroxides to different enzymatic systems and implementing mechanisms for their inactivation to enforce signal propagation within and from the chloroplast.

  15. Embracing Advancement: You Can't Rely on Outside Funding. How to Build a Strong Internal Fundraising Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Paul

    2014-01-01

    In the past 7 years of working at and in community colleges, the author has seen two distinct trends: (1) Community colleges appear to be ushering in a new era of advancement; and (2) Community colleges themselves are often the biggest impediment to successful advancement efforts. Despite millions of grateful learners and business and community…

  16. Decoding temporal structure in music and speech relies on shared brain resources but elicits different fine-scale spatial patterns.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Daniel A; Bhatara, Anjali; Ryali, Srikanth; Balaban, Evan; Levitin, Daniel J; Menon, Vinod

    2011-07-01

    Music and speech are complex sound streams with hierarchical rules of temporal organization that become elaborated over time. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure brain activity patterns in 20 right-handed nonmusicians as they listened to natural and temporally reordered musical and speech stimuli matched for familiarity, emotion, and valence. Heart rate variability and mean respiration rates were simultaneously measured and were found not to differ between musical and speech stimuli. Although the same manipulation of temporal structure elicited brain activation level differences of similar magnitude for both music and speech stimuli, multivariate classification analysis revealed distinct spatial patterns of brain responses in the 2 domains. Distributed neuronal populations that included the inferior frontal cortex, the posterior and anterior superior and middle temporal gyri, and the auditory brainstem classified temporal structure manipulations in music and speech with significant levels of accuracy. While agreeing with previous findings that music and speech processing share neural substrates, this work shows that temporal structure in the 2 domains is encoded differently, highlighting a fundamental dissimilarity in how the same neural resources are deployed.

  17. Reducing costs of managing and accessing navigation and ancillary data by relying on the extensive capabilities of NASA's spice system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semenov, Boris V.; Acton, Charles H., Jr.; Bachman, Nathaniel J.; Elson, Lee S.; Wright, Edward D.

    2005-01-01

    The SPICE system of navigation and ancillary data possesses a number of traits that make its use in modern space missions of all types highly cost efficient. The core of the system is a software library providing API interfaces for storing and retrieving such data as trajectories, orientations, time conversions, and instrument geometry parameters. Applications used at any stage of a mission life cycle can call SPICE APIs to access this data and compute geometric quantities required for observation planning, engineering assessment and science data analysis. SPICE is implemented in three different languages, supported on 20+ computer environments, and distributed with complete source code and documentation. It includes capabilities that are extensively tested by everyday use in many active projects and are applicable to all types of space missions - flyby, orbiters, observatories, landers and rovers. While a customer's initial SPICE adaptation for the first mission or experiment requires a modest effort, this initial effort pays off because adaptation for subsequent missions/experiments is just a small fraction of the initial investment, with the majority of tools based on SPICE requiring no or very minor changes.

  18. Postprandial insulin action relies on meal composition and hepatic parasympathetics: dependency on glucose and amino acids: Meal, parasympathetics & insulin action.

    PubMed

    Afonso, Ricardo A; Gaspar, Joana M; Lamarão, Iva; Lautt, W Wayne; Macedo, M Paula

    2016-01-01

    Insulin sensitivity (IS) increases following a meal. Meal composition affects postprandial glucose disposal but still remains unclear which nutrients and mechanisms are involved. We hypothesized that gut-absorbed glucose and amino acids stimulate hepatic parasympathetic nerves, potentiating insulin action. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were 24 h fasted and anesthetized. Two series of experiments were performed. (A) IS was assessed before and after liquid test meal administration (10 ml.kg(-1), intraenteric): glucose + amino acids + lipids (GAL, n=6); glucose (n=5); amino acids (n=5); lipids (n=3); glucose + amino acids (GA, n=9); amino acids + lipids (n=3); and glucose + lipids (n=4). (B) Separately, fasted animals were submitted to hepatic parasympathetic denervation (DEN); IS was assessed before and after GAL (n=4) or GA administration (n=4). (A) Both GAL and GA induced significant insulin sensitization. GAL increased IS from 97.9±6.2 mg glucose/kg bw (fasting) to 225.4±18.3 mg glucose/kg bw (P<0.001; 143.6±26.0% potentiation of IS); GA increased IS from 109.0±6.6 to 240.4±18.0 mg glucose/kg bw (P<0.001; 123.1±13.4% potentiation). None of the other meals potentiated IS. (B) GAL and GA did not induce a significant insulin sensitization in DEN animal. To achieve maximal insulin sensitization following a meal, it is required that gut-absorbed glucose and amino acids trigger a vagal reflex that involves hepatic parasympathetic nerves.

  19. Thiol-Based Peroxidases and Ascorbate Peroxidases: Why Plants Rely on Multiple Peroxidase Systems in the Photosynthesizing Chloroplast?

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a highly robust process allowing for rapid adjustment to changing environmental conditions. The efficient acclimation depends on balanced redox metabolism and control of reactive oxygen species release which triggers signaling cascades and potentially detrimental oxidation reactions. Thiol peroxidases of the peroxiredoxin and glutathione peroxidase type, and ascorbate peroxidases are the main peroxide detoxifying enzymes of the chloroplast. They use different electron donors and are linked to distinct redox networks. In addition, the peroxiredoxins serve functions in redox regulation and retrograde signaling. The complexity of plastid peroxidases is discussed in context of suborganellar localization, substrate preference, metabolic coupling, protein abundance, activity regulation, interactions, signaling functions, and the conditional requirement for high antioxidant capacity. Thus the review provides an opinion on the advantage of linking detoxification of peroxides to different enzymatic systems and implementing mechanisms for their inactivation to enforce signal propagation within and from the chloroplast. PMID:26810073

  20. Integrity of the yeast mitochondrial genome, but not its distribution and inheritance, relies on mitochondrial fission and fusion

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Christof; Noriega, Thomas R.; Okreglak, Voytek; Fung, Jennifer C.; Walter, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is essential for mitochondrial and cellular function. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mtDNA is organized in nucleoprotein structures termed nucleoids, which are distributed throughout the mitochondrial network and are faithfully inherited during the cell cycle. How the cell distributes and inherits mtDNA is incompletely understood although an involvement of mitochondrial fission and fusion has been suggested. We developed a LacO-LacI system to noninvasively image mtDNA dynamics in living cells. Using this system, we found that nucleoids are nonrandomly spaced within the mitochondrial network and observed the spatiotemporal events involved in mtDNA inheritance. Surprisingly, cells deficient in mitochondrial fusion and fission distributed and inherited mtDNA normally, pointing to alternative pathways involved in these processes. We identified such a mechanism, where we observed fission-independent, but F-actin–dependent, tip generation that was linked to the positioning of mtDNA to the newly generated tip. Although mitochondrial fusion and fission were dispensable for mtDNA distribution and inheritance, we show through a combination of genetics and next-generation sequencing that their absence leads to an accumulation of mitochondrial genomes harboring deleterious structural variations that cluster at the origins of mtDNA replication, thus revealing crucial roles for mitochondrial fusion and fission in maintaining the integrity of the mitochondrial genome. PMID:25730886

  1. Do Adults with Cochlear Implants Rely on Different Acoustic Cues for Phoneme Perception than Adults with Normal Hearing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moberly, Aaron C.; Lowenstein, Joanna H.; Tarr, Eric; Caldwell-Tarr, Amanda; Welling, D. Bradley; Shahin, Antoine J.; Nittrouer, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Several acoustic cues specify any single phonemic contrast. Nonetheless, adult, native speakers of a language share weighting strategies, showing preferential attention to some properties over others. Cochlear implant (CI) signal processing disrupts the salience of some cues: In general, amplitude structure remains readily available, but…

  2. Seasonal plasticity of song behavior relies on motor and syntactic variability induced by a basal ganglia-forebrain circuit.

    PubMed

    Alliende, Jorge; Giret, Nicolas; Pidoux, Ludivine; Del Negro, Catherine; Leblois, Arthur

    2017-09-17

    The plasticity of nervous systems allows animals to quickly adapt to a changing environment. In particular, seasonal plasticity of brain structure and behavior is often critical to survival or mating in seasonal climates. Songbirds provide striking examples of seasonal changes in neural circuits and vocal behavior and have emerged as a leading model for adult brain plasticity. While seasonal plasticity and the well-characterized process of juvenile song learning may share common neural mechanisms, the extent of their similarity remains unclear. Especially, it is unknown whether the basal ganglia (BG)-forebrain loop which implements song learning in juveniles by driving vocal exploration participates in seasonal plasticity. To address this issue, we performed bilateral lesions of the output structure of the song-related BG-forebrain circuit (the magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium) in canaries during the breeding season, when song is most stereotyped, and just after resuming singing in early fall, when canaries sing their most variable songs and may produce new syllable types. Lesions drastically reduced song acoustic variability, increased song and phrase duration, and decreased syntax variability in early fall, reverting at least partially seasonal changes observed between the breeding season and early fall. On the contrary, lesions did not affect singing behavior during the breeding season. Our results therefore indicate that the BG-forebrain pathway introduces acoustic and syntactic variability in song when canaries resume singing in early fall. We propose that BG-forebrain circuits actively participate in seasonal plasticity by injecting variability in behavior during non-breeding season. The study of seasonal plasticity in temperate songbirds has provided important insights into the mechanisms of structural and functional plasticity in the central nervous system. The precise function and mechanisms of seasonal song plasticity however remain poorly understood. We show here that a basal ganglia-forebrain circuit involved in the acquisition and maintenance of birdsong is actively inducing song variability outside the breeding season, when singing is most variable, while having little effect on the stereotyped singing during the breeding season. Our results suggest that seasonal plasticity reflects an active song-maintenance process akin to juvenile learning, and that basal ganglia-forebrain circuits can drive plasticity in a learned vocal behavior during the non-injury-induced degeneration and reconstruction of the neural circuit underlying its production. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The efficacy of radiotherapy relies upon induction of type i interferon-dependent innate and adaptive immunity.

    PubMed

    Burnette, Byron C; Liang, Hua; Lee, Youjin; Chlewicki, Lukasz; Khodarev, Nikolai N; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Fu, Yang-Xin; Auh, Sogyong L

    2011-04-01

    The most widely held explanation for the efficacy of local radiotherapy (RT) is based on direct cytotoxicity to cancer cells through the induction of lethal DNA damage. Recent studies have shown that local ablative radiation of established tumors can lead to increased T-cell priming and T-cell-dependent tumor regression, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we describe an essential role for type I IFN in local RT-mediated tumor control. We show that ablative RT increases intratumoral production of IFN-β and, more surprisingly, the antitumor effect of RT is abolished in type I IFN nonresponsive hosts. Furthermore, the major target of RT-induced type I IFN is the hematopoietic compartment. RT drastically enhances the cross-priming capacity of tumor-infiltrating dendritic cells (TIDC) from wild-type mice but not type I IFN receptor-deficient mice. The enhanced cross-priming ability of TIDCs after RT was dependent on autocrine production of type I IFNs. By using adenoviral-mediated expression of IFN-β, we show that delivery of exogenous IFN-β into the tumor tissue in the absence of RT is also sufficient to selectively expand antigen-specific T cells leading to complete tumor regression. Our study reveals that local high-dose RT can trigger production of type I IFN that initiates a cascading innate and adaptive immune attack on the tumor.

  4. Argot2: a large scale function prediction tool relying on semantic similarity of weighted Gene Ontology terms.

    PubMed

    Falda, Marco; Toppo, Stefano; Pescarolo, Alessandro; Lavezzo, Enrico; Di Camillo, Barbara; Facchinetti, Andrea; Cilia, Elisa; Velasco, Riccardo; Fontana, Paolo

    2012-03-28

    Predicting protein function has become increasingly demanding in the era of next generation sequencing technology. The task to assign a curator-reviewed function to every single sequence is impracticable. Bioinformatics tools, easy to use and able to provide automatic and reliable annotations at a genomic scale, are necessary and urgent. In this scenario, the Gene Ontology has provided the means to standardize the annotation classification with a structured vocabulary which can be easily exploited by computational methods. Argot2 is a web-based function prediction tool able to annotate nucleic or protein sequences from small datasets up to entire genomes. It accepts as input a list of sequences in FASTA format, which are processed using BLAST and HMMER searches vs UniProKB and Pfam databases respectively; these sequences are then annotated with GO terms retrieved from the UniProtKB-GOA database and the terms are weighted using the e-values from BLAST and HMMER. The weighted GO terms are processed according to both their semantic similarity relations described by the Gene Ontology and their associated score. The algorithm is based on the original idea developed in a previous tool called Argot. The entire engine has been completely rewritten to improve both accuracy and computational efficiency, thus allowing for the annotation of complete genomes. The revised algorithm has been already employed and successfully tested during in-house genome projects of grape and apple, and has proven to have a high precision and recall in all our benchmark conditions. It has also been successfully compared with Blast2GO, one of the methods most commonly employed for sequence annotation. The server is freely accessible at http://www.medcomp.medicina.unipd.it/Argot2.

  5. Bias Adjustment of high spatial/temporal resolution Satellite Precipitation Estimation relying on Gauge-Based precipitation over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.; Pan, Y.; Shen, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Satellite precipitation data has been widely used in the forecasting and research of weather and climate because of its high spatial/temporal resolution, especially in the area of limited access to ground-based measurements. The distribution of gauge stations in China is very uniform with most gauge stations located in Eastern China and few gauge stations located in Western China. So the using of satellite precipitation data in China is very important. Although the satellite precipitation data has a good spatial construction, its estimation value is less accurate and has distinct systematic bias comparing to gauge-based one. The bias of satellite precipitation data should be adjusted before using it. In this paper, the CMORPH (Climate Prediction Center Morphing Technique) 30-min precipitation products is chosen to represent the large-scale precipitation of China and be adjusted based on hourly rain gauge analysis over China by interpolating from more than 10000 stations collected and quality controlled by the National Meteorological Information Center of the China Meteorological by using a probability density function (PDF) matching method (Wang and Xie, 2005). After bias-adjustment by PDF matching, we get a less systematic bias and high-resolution satellite precipitation product, which is hourly precipitation on a 0.1°latitude/longitude grid over China. Adjusted values are more close to the gauge observations, and the probability density function of corrected precipitation products is the same as that of the gauge-based precipitation. In Western China, the quantity value of corrected precipitation estimates is obviously increased comparing to the original estimate value. On the other hand, the spatial construction is still maintenance of satellite products.

  6. The Relative Effectiveness of Signaling Systems: Relying on External Items Reduces Signaling Accuracy while Leks Increase Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Leighton, Gavin M.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple evolutionary phenomena require individual animals to assess conspecifics based on behaviors, morphology, or both. Both behavior and morphology can provide information about individuals and are often used as signals to convey information about quality, motivation, or energetic output. In certain cases, conspecific receivers of this information must rank these signaling individuals based on specific traits. The efficacy of information transfer associated within a signal is likely related to the type of trait used to signal, though few studies have investigated the relative effectiveness of contrasting signaling systems. I present a set of models that represent a large portion of signaling systems and compare them in terms of the ability of receivers to rank signalers accurately. Receivers more accurately assess signalers if the signalers use traits that do not require non-food resources; similarly, receivers more accurately ranked signalers if all the signalers could be observed simultaneously, similar to leks. Surprisingly, I also found that receivers are only slightly better at ranking signaler effort if the effort results in a cumulative structure. This series of findings suggests that receivers may attend to specific traits because the traits provide more information relative to others; and similarly, these results may explain the preponderance of morphological and behavioral display signals. PMID:24626221

  7. Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide-induced Multimerization of the Co-repressor CtBP1 Relies on a Switching Tryptophan*

    PubMed Central

    Madison, Dana L.; Wirz, Jacqueline A.; Siess, Don; Lundblad, James R.

    2013-01-01

    The transcriptional co-repressor C-terminal binding protein (CtBP) interacts with a number of repressor proteins and chromatin modifying enzymes. How the biochemical properties including binding of dinucleotide, oligomerization, and dehydrogenase domains of CtBP1 direct the assembly of a functional co-repressor to influence gene expression is not well understood. In the current study we demonstrate that CtBP1 assembles into a tetramer in a NAD(H)-dependent manner, proceeding through a dimeric intermediate. We find that NAD-dependent oligomerization correlates with NAD+ binding affinity and that the carboxyl terminus is required for assembly of a dimer of dimers. Mutant CtBP1 proteins that abrogate dinucleotide-binding retain wild type affinity for the PXDLS motif, but do not self-associate either in vitro or in vivo. CtBP1 proteins with mutations in the dehydrogenase domain still retain the ability to self-associate and bind target proteins. Both co-immunoprecipitation and mammalian two-hybrid experiments demonstrate that CtBP1 self-association occurs within the nucleus, and depends on dinucleotide binding. Repression of transcription does not depend on dinucleotide binding or an intact dehydrogenase domain, but rather depends on the amino-terminal domain that recruits PXDLS containing targets. We show that tryptophan 318 (Trp318) is a critical residue for tetramer assembly and likely functions as a switch for effective dimerization following NAD+ binding. These results suggest that dinucleotide binding permits CtBP1 to form an intranuclear homodimer through a Trp318 switch, creating a nucleation site for multimerization through the C-terminal domain for tetramerization to form an effective repression complex. PMID:23940047

  8. IL-7-Induced Proliferation of Human Naive CD4 T-Cells Relies on Continued Thymic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Susana L.; Albuquerque, Adriana S.; Matoso, Paula; Charmeteau-de-Muylder, Bénédicte; Cheynier, Rémi; Ligeiro, Dário; Abecasis, Miguel; Anjos, Rui; Barata, João T.; Victorino, Rui M. M.; Sousa, Ana E.

    2017-01-01

    Naive CD4 T-cell maintenance is critical for immune competence. We investigated here the fine-tuning of homeostatic mechanisms of the naive compartment to counteract the loss of de novo CD4 T-cell generation. Adults thymectomized in early childhood during corrective cardiac surgery were grouped based on presence or absence of thymopoiesis and compared with age-matched controls. We found that the preservation of the CD31− subset was independent of the thymus and that its size is tightly controlled by peripheral mechanisms, including prolonged cell survival as attested by Bcl-2 levels. Conversely, a significant contraction of the CD31+ naive subset was observed in the absence of thymic activity. This was associated with impaired responses of purified naive CD4 T-cells to IL-7, namely, in vitro proliferation and upregulation of CD31 expression, which likely potentiated the decline in recent thymic emigrants. Additionally, we found no apparent constraint in the differentiation of naive cells into the memory compartment in individuals completely lacking thymic activity despite upregulation of DUSP6, a phosphatase associated with increased TCR threshold. Of note, thymectomized individuals featuring some degree of thymopoiesis were able to preserve the size and diversity of the naive CD4 compartment, further arguing against complete thymectomy in infancy. Overall, our data suggest that robust peripheral mechanisms ensure the homeostasis of CD31− naive CD4 pool and point to the requirement of continuous thymic activity to the maintenance of IL-7-driven homeostatic proliferation of CD31+ naive CD4 T-cells, which is essential to secure T-cell diversity throughout life. PMID:28154568

  9. Reflex vasoconstriction in aged human skin increasingly relies on Rho kinase-dependent mechanisms during whole body cooling

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, John D.; Holowatz, Lacy A.; Kenney, W. Larry

    2009-01-01

    Primary human aging may be associated with augmented Rho kinase (ROCK)-mediated contraction of vascular smooth muscle and ROCK-mediated inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). We hypothesized that the contribution of ROCK to reflex vasoconstriction (VC) is greater in aged skin. Cutaneous VC was elicited by 1) whole body cooling [mean skin temperature (Tsk) = 30.5°C] and 2) local norepinephrine (NE) infusion (1 × 10−6 M). Four microdialysis fibers were placed in the forearm skin of eight young (Y) and eight older (O) subjects for infusion of 1) Ringer solution (control), 2) 3 mM fasudil (ROCK inhibition), 3) 20 mM NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (NOS inhibition), and 4) both ROCK + NOS inhibitors. Red cell flux was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry over each site. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as flux/mean arterial pressure and normalized to baseline CVC (%ΔCVCbaseline). VC was reduced at the control site in O during cooling (Y, −34 ± 3; and O, −18 ± 3%ΔCVCbaseline; P < 0.001) and NE infusion (Y, −53 ± 4, and O, −41 ± 9%ΔCVCbaseline; P = 0.006). Fasudil attenuated VC in both age groups during mild cooling; however, this reduction remained only in O but not in Y skin during moderate cooling (Y, −30 ± 5; and O, −7 ± 1%ΔCVCbaseline; P = 0.016) and was not altered by NOS inhibition. Fasudil blunted NE-mediated VC in both age groups (Y, −23 ± 4; and O, −7 ± 3%ΔCVCbaseline; P < 0.01). Cumulatively, these data indicate that reflex VC is more reliant on ROCK in aged skin such that approximately half of the total VC response to whole body cooling is ROCK dependent. PMID:19717729

  10. Host defence during Klebsiella pneumonia relies on haematopoietic-expressed Toll-like receptors 4 and 2.

    PubMed

    Wieland, C W; van Lieshout, M H P; Hoogendijk, A J; van der Poll, T

    2011-04-01

    In this study, the relative roles of Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4 were investigated independently and together. Moreover, we studied the role of haematopoietic compartment in anti-Klebsiella host defence. We infected TLR2 and TLR4 single-, and TLR2×4 double knockout (KO) animals with different doses of Klebsiella pneumoniae. In addition, bone marrow chimeric mice were created and infected. TLR4 played a more prominent role in antibacterial defence than TLR2, considering that only TLR4 KO mice demonstrated enhanced bacterial growth in lungs and spleen 24 h after infection with 3×10³ colony-forming units of Klebsiella compared with wild-type (WT) mice. In late-stage infection or after exposure to a higher infectious dose, bacterial counts in lungs of TLR2 KO animals were elevated compared with WT mice and TLR2×4 KO animals were more susceptible to infection than TLR4 KO mice. TLR signalling in cells of haematopoietic origin is of primary importance in host defence against K. pneumoniae. These data suggest that: 1) TLR4 drives the antibacterial host response after induction of pneumonia with relatively low Klebsiella doses; 2) TLR2 becomes involved at a later phase of the infection and/or upon exposure to higher bacterial burdens; and 3) haematopoietic TLR2 and TLR4 are important for an adequate host response during Klebsiella pneumonia.

  11. Do Political and Economic Choices Rely on Common Neural Substrates? A Systematic Review of the Emerging Neuropolitics Literature

    PubMed Central

    Krastev, Sekoul; McGuire, Joseph T.; McNeney, Denver; Kable, Joseph W.; Stolle, Dietlind; Gidengil, Elisabeth; Fellows, Lesley K.

    2016-01-01

    The methods of cognitive neuroscience are beginning to be applied to the study of political behavior. The neural substrates of value-based decision-making have been extensively examined in economic contexts; this might provide a powerful starting point for understanding political decision-making. Here, we asked to what extent the neuropolitics literature to date has used conceptual frameworks and experimental designs that make contact with the reward-related approaches that have dominated decision neuroscience. We then asked whether the studies of political behavior that can be considered in this light implicate the brain regions that have been associated with subjective value related to “economic” reward. We performed a systematic literature review to identify papers addressing the neural substrates of political behavior and extracted the fMRI studies reporting behavioral measures of subjective value as defined in decision neuroscience studies of reward. A minority of neuropolitics studies met these criteria and relatively few brain activation foci from these studies overlapped with regions where activity has been related to subjective value. These findings show modest influence of reward-focused decision neuroscience on neuropolitics research to date. Whether the neural substrates of subjective value identified in economic choice paradigms generalize to political choice thus remains an open question. We argue that systematically addressing the commonalities and differences in these two classes of value-based choice will be important in developing a more comprehensive model of the brain basis of human decision-making. PMID:26941703

  12. Endocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae via the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor of epithelial cells relies on clathrin and caveolin dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Asmat, Tauseef M; Agarwal, Vaibhav; Saleh, Malek; Hammerschmidt, Sven

    2014-11-01

    Colonization of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococci) is a prerequisite for bacterial dissemination and their capability to enter the bloodstream. Pneumococci have evolved various successful strategies to colonize the mucosal epithelial barrier of humans. A pivotal mechanism of host cell invasion implicated with invasive diseases is promoted by the interaction of pneumococcal PspC with the polymeric Ig-receptor (pIgR). However, the mechanism(s) of pneumococcal endocytosis and the intracellular route of pneumococci upon uptake by the PspC-pIgR-interaction are not known. Here, we demonstrate by using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors and genetics interference approaches the involvement of active dynamin-dependent caveolae and clathrin-coated vesicles for pneumococcal uptake via the PspC-pIgR mechanism. Depleting cholesterol from host cell membranes and disruption of lipid microdomains impaired pneumococcal internalization. Moreover, chemical inhibition of clathrin or functional inactivation of dynamin, caveolae or clathrin by RNA interference significantly affected pneumococcal internalization suggesting that clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and caveolae are involved in the bacterial uptake process. Confocal fluorescence microscopy of pIgR-expressing epithelial cells infected with pneumococci or heterologous Lactococcus lactis expressing PspC demonstrated bacterial co-localization with fluorescent-tagged clathrin and early as well as recycling or late endosomal markers such as Lamp1, Rab5, Rab4, and Rab7, respectively. In conclusion these data suggest that PspC-promoted uptake is mediated by both CME and caveolae. After endocytosis pneumococci are routed via the endocytic pathway into early endosomes and are then sorted into recycling or late endosomes, which can result in pneumococcal killing in phagolysosomes or transcytosis via recycling endosomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Membrane Lipid Integrity Relies on a Threshold of ATP Production Rate in Potato Cell Cultures Submitted to Anoxia1

    PubMed Central

    Rawyler, André; Pavelic, Danijela; Gianinazzi, Christian; Oberson, Jacques; Braendle, Roland

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we report on our study of the changes in biomass, lipid composition, and fermentation end products, as well as in the ATP level and synthesis rate in cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum) cells submitted to anoxia stress. During the first phase of about 12 h, cells coped with the reduced energy supply brought about by fermentation and their membrane lipids remained intact. The second phase (12–24 h), during which the energy supply dropped down to 1% to 2% of its maximal theoretical normoxic value, was characterized by an extensive hydrolysis of membrane lipids to free fatty acids. This autolytic process was ascribed to the activation of a lipolytic acyl hydrolase. Cells were also treated under normoxia with inhibitors known to interfere with energy metabolism. Carbonyl-cyanide-4-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone did not induce lipid hydrolysis, which was also the case when sodium azide or salicylhydroxamic acid were fed separately. However, the simultaneous use of sodium azide plus salicylhydroxamic acid or 2-deoxy-d-glucose plus iodoacetate with normoxic cells promoted a lipid hydrolysis pattern similar to that seen in anoxic cells. Therefore, a threshold exists in the rate of ATP synthesis (approximately 10 μmol g−1 fresh weight h−1), below which the integrity of the membranes in anoxic potato cells cannot be preserved. PMID:10318706

  14. Organizational Strategic Planning and Execution: Should Governmental Organizations Rely on Strategic Planning for the Success of the Organization?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    more autonomous. The focus of this strategic plan was on Capital assets. As it applied to this topic, the Forest Service had a lot of autonomy and...that was key in guiding some of the organizations through the development of the strategic planning process. Overall, this project focuses on...factors that led to new directions for Government organizations that were in dire need of this tool. It also focuses on the relationship between these

  15. A conditional suicide system for Saccharomyces cerevisiae relying on the intracellular production of the Serratia marcescens nuclease.

    PubMed

    Balan, Andrea; Schenberg, Ana Clara G

    2005-02-01

    A conditional lethal system for biological containment of genetically modified strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is described. This suicide system is based on the intracellular production of the Serratia marcescens nuclease in the yeast cell, aiming at the destruction of the host genetic material. The S. marcescens nuclease, encoded by the nucA gene, is normally secreted by the bacterium into the medium. In the present work, the nucA gene, devoid of its signal peptide coding sequence, was cloned in a yeast expression vector, under control of the glucose-repressed S. cerevisiae alcohol dehydrogenase 2 gene (ADH2) promoter. When transformed into S. cerevisiae, the recombinant plasmid proved to be effective in killing the host cells upon glucose depletion from the medium, and the nuclease activity was found in lysates prepared from the transformants. In addition, the nuclease degrading effect was shown to reach chromosomal DNA in the yeast host. The killing effect of the nucA plasmid was also demonstrated in soil microcosm assays, indicating that whenever the GMM escapes into the environment where glucose is scarce, the nucA gene will be expressed and the resulting nuclease will destroy the genetic material and kill the cells. In contrast to other suicide systems that target the cell envelope, the advantage of the one described here is that it disfavours horizontal gene transfer from recombinant yeast cells to other microorganisms found in the environment.

  16. Multiple source genes of HAmo SINE actively expanded and ongoing retroposition in cyprinid genomes relying on its partner LINE.

    PubMed

    Tong, Chaobo; Gan, Xiaoni; He, Shunping

    2010-04-29

    We recently characterized HAmo SINE and its partner LINE in silver carp and bighead carp based on hybridization capture of repetitive elements from digested genomic DNA in solution using a bead-probe 1. To reveal the distribution and evolutionary history of SINEs and LINEs in cyprinid genomes, we performed a multi-species search for HAmo SINE and its partner LINE using the bead-probe capture and internal-primer-SINE polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Sixty-seven full-size and 125 internal-SINE sequences (as well as 34 full-size and 9 internal sequences previously reported in bighead carp and silver carp) from 17 species of the family Cyprinidae were aligned as well as 14 new isolated HAmoL2 sequences. Four subfamilies (type I, II, III and IV), which were divided based on diagnostic nucleotides in the tRNA-unrelated region, expanded preferentially within a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae as multiple active source genes. The copy numbers of HAmo SINEs were estimated to vary from 104 to 106 in cyprinid genomes by quantitative RT-PCR. Over one hundred type IV members were identified and characterized in the primitive cyprinid Danio rerio genome but only tens of sequences were found to be similar with type I, II and III since the type IV was the oldest subfamily and its members dispersed in almost all investigated cyprinid fishes. For determining the taxonomic distribution of HAmo SINE, inter-primer SINE PCR was conducted in other non-cyprinid fishes, the results shows that HAmo SINE- related sequences may disperse in other families of order Cypriniforms but absent in other orders of bony fishes: Siluriformes, Polypteriformes, Lepidosteiformes, Acipenseriformes and Osteoglossiforms. Depending on HAmo LINE2, multiple source genes (subfamilies) of HAmo SINE actively expanded and underwent retroposition in a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae. From this perspective, HAmo SINE should provide useful phylogenetic makers for future analyses of the evolutionary relationships among species in the family Cyprinidae.

  17. Autoimmunity conferred by chs3-2D relies on CSA1, its adjacent TNL-encoding neighbour.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fang; Zhu, Chipan; Cevik, Volkan; Johnson, Kaeli; Liu, Yanan; Sohn, Kee; Jones, Jonathan D; Holub, Eric B; Li, Xin

    2015-03-05

    Plant innate immunity depends on the function of a large number of intracellular immune receptor proteins, the majority of which are structurally similar to mammalian nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) proteins. CHILLING SENSITIVE 3 (CHS3) encodes an atypical Toll/Interleukin 1 Receptor (TIR)-type NLR protein with an additional Lin-11, Isl-1 and Mec-3 (LIM) domain at its C-terminus. The gain-of-function mutant allele chs3-2D exhibits severe dwarfism and constitutively activated defense responses, including enhanced resistance to virulent pathogens, high defence marker gene expression, and salicylic acid accumulation. To search for novel regulators involved in CHS3-mediated immune signaling, we conducted suppressor screens in the chs3-2D and chs3-2D pad4-1 genetic backgrounds. Alleles of sag101 and eds1-90 were isolated as complete suppressors of chs3-2D, and alleles of sgt1b were isolated as partial suppressors of chs3-2D pad4-1. These mutants suggest that SAG101, EDS1-90, and SGT1b are all positive regulators of CHS3-mediated defense signaling. Additionally, the TIR-type NLR-encoding CSA1 locus located genomically adjacent to CHS3 was found to be fully required for chs3-2D-mediated autoimmunity. CSA1 is located 3.9 kb upstream of CHS3 and is transcribed in the opposite direction. Altogether, these data illustrate the distinct genetic requirements for CHS3-mediated defense signaling.

  18. Development of a millimetrically scaled biodiesel transesterification device that relies on droplet-based co-axial fluidics.

    PubMed

    Yeh, S I; Huang, Y C; Cheng, C H; Cheng, C M; Yang, J T

    2016-07-18

    In this study, we investigated a fluidic system that adheres to new concepts of energy production. To improve efficiency, cost, and ease of manufacture, a millimetrically scaled device that employs a droplet-based co-axial fluidic system was devised to complete alkali-catalyzed transesterification for biodiesel production. The large surface-to-volume ratio of the droplet-based system, and the internal circulation induced inside the moving droplets, significantly enhanced the reaction rate of immiscible liquids used here - soybean oil and methanol. This device also decreased the molar ratio between methanol and oil to near the stoichiometric coefficients of a balanced chemical equation, which enhanced the total biodiesel volume produced, and decreased the costs of purification and recovery of excess methanol. In this work, the droplet-based co-axial fluidic system performed better than other methods of continuous-flow production. We achieved an efficiency that is much greater than that of reported systems. This study demonstrated the high potential of droplet-based fluidic chips for energy production. The small energy consumption and low cost of the highly purified biodiesel transesterification system described conforms to the requirements of distributed energy (inexpensive production on a moderate scale) in the world.

  19. Decoding Temporal Structure in Music and Speech Relies on Shared Brain Resources but Elicits Different Fine-Scale Spatial Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Bhatara, Anjali; Ryali, Srikanth; Balaban, Evan; Levitin, Daniel J.; Menon, Vinod

    2011-01-01

    Music and speech are complex sound streams with hierarchical rules of temporal organization that become elaborated over time. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure brain activity patterns in 20 right-handed nonmusicians as they listened to natural and temporally reordered musical and speech stimuli matched for familiarity, emotion, and valence. Heart rate variability and mean respiration rates were simultaneously measured and were found not to differ between musical and speech stimuli. Although the same manipulation of temporal structure elicited brain activation level differences of similar magnitude for both music and speech stimuli, multivariate classification analysis revealed distinct spatial patterns of brain responses in the 2 domains. Distributed neuronal populations that included the inferior frontal cortex, the posterior and anterior superior and middle temporal gyri, and the auditory brainstem classified temporal structure manipulations in music and speech with significant levels of accuracy. While agreeing with previous findings that music and speech processing share neural substrates, this work shows that temporal structure in the 2 domains is encoded differently, highlighting a fundamental dissimilarity in how the same neural resources are deployed. PMID:21071617

  20. Can We Rely on Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging for Subthalamic Nucleus Identification in Deep Brain Stimulation Surgery?

    PubMed

    Bot, Maarten; Bour, Lo; de Bie, Rob M; Contarino, Maria Fiorella; Schuurman, P Richard; van den Munckhof, Pepijn

    2016-03-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) offers significantly improved visibility of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) compared with traditional T2-weighted imaging. However, it is unknown whether the representation of the nucleus on SWI corresponds to the neurophysiological location of the STN. To determine the correlation between the intraoperative electrophysiological activity of the STN and the representation of the nucleus on different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences used for deep brain stimulation target planning. At stereotactic target depth, microelectrode recordings (MERs) of typical STN neuronal activity were mapped on 3 different preoperative MRI sequences: 1.5-T SWI, 1.5-T T2-weighted, and 3-T T2-weighted MRI. For each MRI sequence, it was determined whether the MER signal was situated inside or outside the contour of the STN. A total of 196 MER tracks in 34 patients were evaluated. In 165 tracks (84%), typical electrophysiological STN activity was measured. MER activity was situated more consistently inside hypointense STN contour representation on 1.5- and 3-T T2-weighted images compared with SWI (99% and 100% vs 79%, respectively). The 21% incongruence of electrophysiological STN activity outside the STN contour on SWI was seen almost exclusively in the anterior and lateral microelectrode channels. STN representation on SWI does not correspond to electrophysiological STN borders. SWI does not correctly display the lateral part of the STN. When aiming to target the superolateral sensorimotor part of the STN during deep brain stimulation surgery, SWI does not offer an advantage but a disadvantage compared with conventional T2. Future research is needed to determine whether these findings may also apply for high-field SWI.

  1. Motor learning relies on integrated sensory inputs in ADHD, but over-selectively on proprioception in autism spectrum conditions.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Jun; Pekny, Sarah E; Marko, Mollie K; Haswell, Courtney C; Shadmehr, Reza; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2012-04-01

    The brain builds an association between action and sensory feedback to predict the sensory consequence of self-generated motor commands. This internal model of action is central to our ability to adapt movements and may also play a role in our ability to learn from observing others. Recently, we reported that the spatial generalization patterns that accompany adaptation of reaching movements were distinct in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as compared with typically developing (TD) children. To test whether the generalization patterns are specific to ASD, here, we compared the patterns of adaptation with those in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Consistent with our previous observations, we found that in ASD, the motor memory showed greater than normal generalization in proprioceptive coordinates compared with both TD children and children with ADHD; children with ASD also showed slower rates of adaptation compared with both control groups. Children with ADHD did not show this excessive generalization to the proprioceptive target, but they did show excessive variability in the speed of movements with an increase in the exponential distribution of responses (τ) as compared with both TD children and children with ASD. The results suggest that slower rate of adaptation and anomalous bias towards proprioceptive feedback during motor learning are characteristics of autism, whereas increased variability in execution is a characteristic of ADHD.

  2. Critical appraisal of quantitative PCR results in colorectal cancer research: can we rely on published qPCR results?

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, J R; van Kempen, L C; Nagtegaal, I D; Bustin, S A

    2014-06-01

    The use of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in cancer research has become ubiquitous. The relative simplicity of qPCR experiments, which deliver fast and cost-effective results, means that each year an increasing number of papers utilizing this technique are being published. But how reliable are the published results? Since the validity of gene expression data is greatly dependent on appropriate normalisation to compensate for sample-to-sample and run-to-run variation, we have evaluated the adequacy of normalisation procedures in qPCR-based experiments. Consequently, we assessed all colorectal cancer publications that made use of qPCR from 2006 until August 2013 for the number of reference genes used and whether they had been validated. Using even these minimal evaluation criteria, the validity of only three percent (6/179) of the publications can be adequately assessed. We describe common errors, and conclude that the current state of reporting on qPCR in colorectal cancer research is disquieting. Extrapolated to the study of cancer in general, it is clear that the majority of studies using qPCR cannot be reliably assessed and that at best, the results of these studies may or may not be valid and at worst, pervasive incorrect normalisation is resulting in the wholesale publication of incorrect conclusions. This survey demonstrates that the existence of guidelines, such as MIQE, is necessary but not sufficient to address this problem and suggests that the scientific community should examine its responsibility and be aware of the implications of these findings for current and future research.

  3. Reliability of continuous cardiac output measurement during intra-abdominal hypertension relies on repeated calibrations: an experimental animal study

    PubMed Central

    Gruenewald, Matthias; Renner, Jochen; Meybohm, Patrick; Höcker, Jan; Scholz, Jens; Bein, Berthold

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Monitoring cardiac output (CO) may allow early detection of haemodynamic instability, aiming to reduce morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Continuous cardiac output (CCO) monitoring is recommended in septic or postoperative patients with high incidences of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH). The aim of the present study was to compare the agreement between three CCO methods and a bolus thermodilution CO technique during acute IAH and volume loading. Methods Ten pigs were anaesthetised and instrumented for haemodynamic measurements. Cardiac output was obtained using CCO by pulse power analysis (PulseCO; LiDCO monitor), using CCO by pulse contour analysis (PCCO; PiCCO monitor) and using CCO by pulmonary artery catheter thermodilution (CCOPAC), and was compared with bolus transcardiopulmonary thermodilution CO (COTCP) at baseline, after fluid loading, at IAH and after an additional fluid loading at IAH. Whereas PulseCO was only calibrated at baseline, PCCO was calibrated at each experimental step. Results PulseCO and PCCO underestimated CO, as the overall bias ± standard deviation was 1.0 ± 1.5 l/min and 1.0 ± 1.1 l/min compared with COTCP. A clinically accepted agreement between all of the CCO methods and COTCP was observed only at baseline. Whereas IAH did not influence the CO, increased CO following fluid loading at IAH was only reflected by CCOPAC and COTCP, not by uncalibrated PulseCO and PCCO. After recalibration, PCCO was comparable with COTCP. Conclusions The CO obtained by uncalibrated PulseCO and PCCO failed to agree with COTCP during IAH and fluid loading. In the critically ill patient, recalibration of continuous arterial waveform CO methods should be performed after fluid loading or before a major change in therapy is initiated. PMID:18957114

  4. Interpersonal rejection results in increased appearance satisfaction for women who rely on body weight for self-worth.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, Lauren M; Jarry, Josée L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether body weight contingent self-worth (BWCSW), the tendency to base self-worth on body weight, moderates the effects of interpersonal rejection on self-esteem and body satisfaction. In an online survey, female undergraduates (N=148) completed measures of trait self-esteem, depression, and BWCSW. In a subsequent lab session, participants were assigned to either an interpersonal rejection or to a neutral control condition, after which they completed measures of state self-esteem and body satisfaction. Compared to women with lower BWCSW, women with higher BWCSW reported lower appearance self-esteem (p=.001) and body satisfaction (p=.004) across conditions. However, they reacted to rejection by reporting greater appearance self-esteem (p=.034) and body satisfaction (p=.021). Rejection had no effect on women with lower BWCSW. The reaction of women with higher BWCSW is interpreted as a compensatory self-enhancement response to interpersonal rejection within a self-important domain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. D-cycloserine facilitation of fear extinction and exposure-based therapy might rely on lower-level, automatic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Grillon, Christian

    2009-10-01

    Exposure-based therapy, a leading technique in the treatment of a range of anxiety disorders, is facilitated by D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist. This review discusses the potential mechanisms involved in this facilitation and its implications for developing theories of fear conditioning in humans. Basic research in rodents suggests that DCS acts by speeding up extinction. However, several laboratory-based investigations found that DCS had no effect on extinction in humans. This report proposes that these observations can be accounted for by a dual-model theory of fear conditioning in humans that engages two complementary defensive systems: a reflexive lower-order system independent of conscious awareness and a higher-order cognitive system associated with conscious awareness of danger and expectation. The DCS studies in animals seem to have explored lower-order conditioning mechanisms, whereas human studies have explored higher-order cognitive processes. These observations suggest that DCS might act preferentially on lower- rather than higher-order learning. This report presents evidence suggesting that, in humans, DCS might similarly affect lower-order learning during exposure-based therapy and, consequently, might be less effective during cognitive therapy (e.g., cognitive restructuring). Finally, it is recommended that extinction studies using DCS in humans be conducted with fear-relevant stimuli (e.g., snakes), short conditional stimulus-unconditioned stimulus intervals and intense unconditioned stimulus to promote lower-order conditioning processes.

  6. If the results of an article are noteworthy, read the entire article; do not rely on the abstract alone.

    PubMed

    Dal-Ré, R; Castell, M V; García-Puig, J

    2015-11-01

    Clinicians typically update their knowledge by reading articles on the Internet. Easy access to the articles' abstracts and a lack of time to access other information sources creates a risk that therapeutic or diagnostic decisions will be made after reading just the abstracts. Occasionally, however, the abstracts of articles from clinical trials that have not obtained statistically significant differences in the primary study endpoint have reported other positive results, for example, of a secondary endpoint or a subgroup analysis. The article, however, correctly reports all results, including those of the primary endpoint. In the abstract, the safety information of the experimental treatment is usually deficient. The whole article should be read if a clinical decision is to be made.

  7. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal and bacterial inocula on nitrate concentration in mesocosms simulating a wastewater treatment system relying on phytodepuration.

    PubMed

    Lingua, Guido; Copetta, Andrea; Musso, Davide; Aimo, Stefania; Ranzenigo, Angelo; Buico, Alessandra; Gianotti, Valentina; Osella, Domenico; Berta, Graziella

    2015-12-01

    High nitrogen concentration in wastewaters requires treatments to prevent the risks of eutrophication in rivers, lakes and coastal waters. The use of constructed wetlands is one of the possible approaches to lower nitrate concentration in wastewaters. Beyond supporting the growth of the bacteria operating denitrification, plants can directly take up nitrogen. Since plant roots interact with a number of soil microorganisms, in the present work we report the monitoring of nitrate concentration in macrocosms with four different levels of added nitrate (0, 30, 60 and 90 mg l(-1)), using Phragmites australis, inoculated with bacteria or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, to assess whether the use of such inocula could improve wastewater denitrification. Higher potassium nitrate concentration increased plant growth and inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi or bacteria resulted in larger plants with more developed root systems. In the case of plants inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, a faster decrease of nitrate concentration was observed, while the N%/C% ratio of the plants of the different treatments remained similar. At 90 mg l(-1) of added nitrate, only mycorrhizal plants were able to decrease nitrate concentration to the limits prescribed by the Italian law. These data suggest that mycorrhizal and microbial inoculation can be an additional tool to improve the efficiency of denitrification in the treatment of wastewaters via constructed wetlands.

  8. Numerical analysis of 50 Gbaud homodyne coherent receivers relying on line-coding and injection locking in lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xydas, Yannis; Ressopoulos, Constantinos; Bogris, Adonis

    2015-12-01

    We present a numerical analysis of 50 Gbaud coherent detection enabled by injection locked lasers and line coding. The coherent receiver was tested with respect to an ideal receiver for two higher order modulation formats (16-QAM, QPSK) and under diverse operating regimes relating to the slave laser linewidth properties, the injection level and the frequency detuning between the incoming signal and the slave laser. The impact of the slave laser properties and line coding techniques on the receiver performance is highlighted showing that the technique could be used as a practical solution in order to enable low-cost and short reach n × 100 Gb/s Ethernet communication systems with the potential of flexibility in terms of the data rate.

  9. Development of a millimetrically scaled biodiesel transesterification device that relies on droplet-based co-axial fluidics

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, S. I.; Huang, Y. C.; Cheng, C. H.; Cheng, C. M.; Yang, J. T.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated a fluidic system that adheres to new concepts of energy production. To improve efficiency, cost, and ease of manufacture, a millimetrically scaled device that employs a droplet-based co-axial fluidic system was devised to complete alkali-catalyzed transesterification for biodiesel production. The large surface-to-volume ratio of the droplet-based system, and the internal circulation induced inside the moving droplets, significantly enhanced the reaction rate of immiscible liquids used here – soybean oil and methanol. This device also decreased the molar ratio between methanol and oil to near the stoichiometric coefficients of a balanced chemical equation, which enhanced the total biodiesel volume produced, and decreased the costs of purification and recovery of excess methanol. In this work, the droplet-based co-axial fluidic system performed better than other methods of continuous-flow production. We achieved an efficiency that is much greater than that of reported systems. This study demonstrated the high potential of droplet-based fluidic chips for energy production. The small energy consumption and low cost of the highly purified biodiesel transesterification system described conforms to the requirements of distributed energy (inexpensive production on a moderate scale) in the world. PMID:27426677

  10. Extraction of features from medical images using a modular neural network approach that relies on learning by sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahmi, Djamel; Serruys, Camille; Cassoux, Nathalie; Giron, Alain; Triller, Raoul; Lehoang, Phuc; Fertil, Bernard

    2000-06-01

    Medical images provide experienced physicians with meaningful visual stimuli but their features are frequently hard to decipher. The development of a computational model to mimic physicians' expertise is a demanding task, especially if a significant and sophisticated preprocessing of images is required. Learning from well-expertised images may be a more convenient approach, inasmuch a large and representative bunch of samples is available. A four-stage approach has been designed, which combines image sub-sampling with unsupervised image coding, supervised classification and image reconstruction in order to directly extract medical expertise from raw images. The system has been applied (1) to the detection of some features related to the diagnosis of black tumors of skin (a classification issue) and (2) to the detection of virus-infected and healthy areas in retina angiography in order to locate precisely the border between them and characterize the evolution of infection. For reasonably balanced training sets, we are able to obtained about 90% correct classification of features (black tumors). Boundaries generated by our system mimic reproducibility of hand-outlines drawn by experts (segmentation of virus-infected area).

  11. Etiology of distinct membrane excitability in pre- and posthearing auditory neurons relies on activity of Cl− channel TMEM16A

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Lee, Jeong-Han; Lv, Ping; Chen, Wei Chun; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Wei, Dongguang; Wang, Wenying; Sihn, Choong-Ryoul; Doyle, Karen Jo; Rock, Jason R.; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Yamoah, Ebenezer N.

    2015-01-01

    The developmental rehearsal for the debut of hearing is marked by massive changes in the membrane properties of hair cells (HCs) and spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Whereas the underlying mechanisms for the developing HC transition to mature stage are understood in detail, the maturation of SGNs from hyperexcitable prehearing to quiescent posthearing neurons with broad dynamic range is unknown. Here, we demonstrated using pharmacological approaches, caged-Ca2+ photolysis, and gramicidin patch recordings that the prehearing SGN uses Ca2+-activated Cl− conductance to depolarize the resting membrane potential and to prime the neurons in a hyperexcitable state. Immunostaining of the cochlea preparation revealed the identity and expression of the Ca2+-activated Cl− channel transmembrane member 16A (TMEM16A) in SGNs. Moreover, null deletion of TMEM16A reduced the Ca2+-activated Cl− currents and action potential firing in SGNs. To determine whether Cl− ions and TMEM16A are involved in the transition between pre- and posthearing features of SGNs we measured the intracellular Cl− concentration [Cl−]i in SGNs. Surprisingly, [Cl−]i in SGNs from prehearing mice was ∼90 mM, which was significantly higher than posthearing neurons, ∼20 mM, demonstrating discernible altered roles of Cl− channels in the developing neuron. The switch in [Cl−]i stems from delayed expression of the development of intracellular Cl− regulating mechanisms. Because the Cl− channel is the only active ion-selective conductance with a reversal potential that lies within the dynamic range of SGN action potentials, developmental alteration of [Cl−]i, and hence the equilibrium potential for Cl− (ECl), transforms pre- to posthearing phenotype. PMID:25675481

  12. Non-invasive diagnosis of pink basal cell carcinoma: how much can we rely on dermoscopy and reflectance confocal microscopy?

    PubMed

    Witkowski, A M; Łudzik, J; DeCarvalho, N; Ciardo, S; Longo, C; DiNardo, A; Pellacani, G

    2016-05-01

    Non-pigmented 'pink' cutaneous lesions in differential diagnosis with basal cell carcinoma may present a challenge for clinicians. Our objective was to determine the potential improvement of diagnostic accuracy using combined dermoscopy-reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) image evaluation. Two hundred and sixty clinically equivocal 'pink' cutaneous lesions were evaluated retrospectively. Reader accuracy was tested with dermoscopy images only vs. RCM and combined dermoscopy-RCM images. Out of 260 equivocal 'pink' cutaneous lesions, there were 114 basal cell carcinomas within a total of 140 malignancies that included 12 melanomas, 13 squamous cell carcinomas, and 1 other malignancy type. Dermoscopy only evaluation resulted in an overall sensitivity of 85.1% and specificity of 92.4%, resulting in a positive predictive value (PPV) of 89.8%, with 1 of 12 melanomas misdiagnosed. RCM evaluation resulted in an overall sensitivity of 85.1% and specificity of 93.8%, resulting in a PPV of 91.5%, with no melanomas misdiagnosed. Combined dermoscopy-RCM evaluation resulted in an overall sensitivity of 77.2% and specificity of 96.6%, resulting in a PPV of 94.6%. The combination of dermoscopy-RCM evaluation significantly improves the accuracy and safety threshold in equivocal 'pink' cutaneous lesions in the differential diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Method to mosaic gratings that relies on analysis of far-field intensity patterns in two wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yao; Zeng, Lijiang; Li, Lifeng

    2007-01-01

    We propose an experimental method to coherently mosaic two planar diffraction gratings. The method uses a Twyman-Green interferometer to guarantee the planar parallelism of the two sub-aperture gratings, and obtains the in-plane rotational error and the two translational errors from analysis of the far-field diffraction intensity patterns in two alignment wavelengths. We adjust the relative attitude and position of the two sub-aperture gratings to produce Airy disk diffraction patterns in both wavelengths. In our experiment, the repeatability of in-plane rotation adjustment was 2.35 μrad and that of longitudinal adjustment was 0.11 μm. The accuracy of lateral adjustment was about 2.9% of the grating period.

  14. Inhibition of cytokinesis by wiskostatin does not rely on N-WASP/Arp2/3 complex pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bompard, Guillaume; Rabeharivelo, Gabriel; Morin, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Background Cytokinesis is the final step of cell division taking place at the end of mitosis during which the cytoplasmic content and replicated chromosomes of a cell are equally partitioned between the two daughter cells. This process is achieved by the formation and the ingression of an actomyosin contractile ring under the control of equatorial microtubules. The mechanisms of contractile ring formation are not fully understood but involve recruitment of preexisting actin filaments and de novo actin polymerisation. Results In this study, we evaluated the role of the actin nucleation factor, Arp2/3 complex, during cytokinesis. We found that the Arp2/3 complex is recruited late to the cleavage furrow suggesting a potential involvement of Arp2/3 complex during this process. Furthermore, wiskostatin a potent inhibitor of N-WASP activity towards the Arp2/3 complex blocked cytokinesis without affecting mitosis. Nonetheless, this inhibition could not be reproduced using alternative approaches targeting the N-WASP/Arp2/3 complex pathway. Conclusion We conclude that the wiskostatin induced defective cytokinesis does not occur through the inhibition of the N-WASP/Arp2/3 pathway. Wiskostatin is likely to either directly target other proteins required for cytokinesis progression or alternately wiskostatin bound to N-WASP could affect the activity of other factors involved in cytokinesis. PMID:18667055

  15. So you want to work? What employers say about job skills, recruitment and hiring employees who rely on AAC.

    PubMed

    Bryen, Diane Nelson; Potts, Blyden B; Carey, Allison C

    2007-06-01

    In order to better understand employer perspectives with respect to hiring and working with people who use AAC and the kinds of employment barriers they believe exist for these individuals, a study into the job requirements, recruitment processes, and hiring processes of 27 employers in the United States was conducted. Interviews with the 27 employers focused on 48 jobs in 25 unique categories, many of which had previously been identified as desirable by 38 adults who used AAC (some of whom were employed and some of whom were seeking employment). Findings suggest that, while level of education is still important to employers, skills such as time management, problem solving, communication, use of an understandable and standard voice, and basic technology may be even more so. The study also found that having an effective job-related network is important, as is the ability to provide credible references and do well during in-person interviews with potential employers.

  16. 12 CFR 221.117 - When bank in “good faith” has not relied on stock as collateral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the margin stock as collateral,” contained in paragraph (2)(iv) of the definition of indirectly... because of fluctuations in market value of the stock, but instead was payable on one or more fixed... stock as collateral. 221.117 Section 221.117 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED)...

  17. Relying on Visiting Foreign Doctors for Fistula Repair: The Profile of Women Attending Fistula Repair Surgery in Somalia.

    PubMed

    Gele, Abdi A; Salad, Abdulwahab M; Jimale, Liban H; Kour, Prabhjot; Austveg, Berit; Kumar, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Obstetric fistula is treatable by surgery, although access is usually limited, particularly in the context of conflict. This study examines the profile of women attending fistula repair surgery in three hospitals in Somalia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Somalia from August to September 2016. Structured questionnaires were administered to 81 women who registered for fistula repair surgery in the Garowe, Daynile, and Kismayo General Hospitals in Somalia. Findings revealed that 70.4% of the study participants reported obstetric labor as the cause of their fistula, and 29.6% reported iatrogenic causes. Regarding the waiting time for the repair surgery, 45% waited for the surgery for over one year, while the rest received the surgery within a year. The study suggests that training for fistula surgery has to be provided for healthcare professionals in Somalia, fistula centers should be established, and access to these facilities has to be guaranteed for all patients who need these services.

  18. Do adults with cochlear implants rely on different acoustic cues for phoneme perception than adults with normal hearing?

    PubMed

    Moberly, Aaron C; Lowenstein, Joanna H; Tarr, Eric; Caldwell-Tarr, Amanda; Welling, D Bradley; Shahin, Antoine J; Nittrouer, Susan

    2014-04-01

    PURPOSE Several acoustic cues specify any single phonemic contrast. Nonetheless, adult, native speakers of a language share weighting strategies, showing preferential attention to some properties over others. Cochlear implant (CI) signal processing disrupts the salience of some cues: In general, amplitude structure remains readily available, but spectral structure less so. This study asked how well speech recognition is supported if CI users shift attention to salient cues not weighted strongly by native speakers. METHOD Twenty adults with CIs participated. The /bɑ/-/wɑ/ contrast was used because spectral and amplitude structure varies in correlated fashion for this contrast. Adults with normal hearing weight the spectral cue strongly but the amplitude cue negligibly. Three measurements were made: labeling decisions, spectral and amplitude discrimination, and word recognition. RESULTS Outcomes varied across listeners: Some weighted the spectral cue strongly, some weighted the amplitude cue, and some weighted neither. Spectral discrimination predicted spectral weighting. Spectral weighting explained the most variance in word recognition. Age of onset of hearing loss predicted spectral weighting but not unique variance in word recognition. CONCLUSION The weighting strategies of listeners with normal hearing likely support speech recognition best, so efforts in implant design, fitting, and training should focus on developing those strategies.

  19. Nocturnal Foraging by Red-Legged Kittiwakes, a Surface Feeding Seabird That Relies on Deep Water Prey During Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Kokubun, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kikuchi, Dale M; Kitaysky, Alexander; Takahashi, Akinori

    2015-01-01

    Narrow foraging specialization may increase the vulnerability of marine predators to climate change. The red-legged kittiwake (Rissa brevirostris) is endemic to the Bering Sea and has experienced drastic population fluctuations in recent decades, presumably due to climate-driven changes in food resources. Red-legged kittiwakes are presumed to be a nocturnal surface-foraging seabird that feed almost entirely on deep water Myctophidae fishes. However, there is little empirical evidence confirming their nocturnal foraging activity during the breeding season. This study investigated the foraging behavior of red-legged kittiwakes by combining GPS tracking, accelerometry, and dietary analyses at the world's largest breeding colony of red-legged kittiwakes on St. George I. GPS tracking of 5 individuals revealed that 82.5% of non-flight behavior (including foraging and resting) occurred over the ocean basin (bottom depth >1,000 m). Acceleration data from 4 birds showed three types of behaviors during foraging trips: (1) flight, characterized by regular wing flapping, (2) resting on water, characterized by non-active behavior, and (3) foraging, when wing flapping was irregular. The proportions of both foraging and resting behaviors were higher at night (14.1 ± 7.1% and 20.8 ± 14.3%) compared to those during the day (6.5 ± 3.0% and 1.7 ± 2.7%). The mean duration of foraging (2.4 ± 2.9 min) was shorter than that of flight between prey patches (24.2 ± 53.1 min). Dietary analyses confirmed myctophids as the dominant prey (100% by occurrence and 98.4 ± 2.4% by wet-weight). Although the sample size was limited, these results suggest that breeding red-legged kittiwakes concentrated their foraging on myctophids available at the surface during nighttime in deep water regions. We propose that the diel patterns and ephemeral nature of their foraging activity reflected the availability of myctophids. Such foraging specialization may exacerbate the vulnerability of red-legged kittiwakes to climate change in the Bering Sea.

  20. Concerted removal of the Erb1–Ytm1 complex in ribosome biogenesis relies on an elaborate interface

    PubMed Central

    Thoms, Matthias; Ahmed, Yasar Luqman; Maddi, Karthik; Hurt, Ed; Sinning, Irmgard

    2016-01-01

    The complicated process of eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis involves about 200 assembly factors that transiently associate with the nascent pre-ribosome in a spatiotemporally ordered way. During the early steps of 60S subunit formation, several proteins, collectively called A3 cluster factors, participate in the removal of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) from 27SA3 pre-rRNA. Among these factors is the conserved hetero-trimeric Nop7–Erb1–Ytm1 complex (or human Pes1–Bop1–Wdr12), which is removed from the evolving pre-60S particle by the AAA ATPase Rea1 to allow progression in the pathway. Here, we clarify how Ytm1 and Erb1 interact, which has implications for the release mechanism of both factors from the pre-ribosome. Biochemical studies show that Ytm1 and Erb1 bind each other via their ß-propeller domains. The crystal structure of the Erb1–Ytm1 heterodimer determined at 2.67Å resolution reveals an extended interaction surface between the propellers in a rarely observed binding mode. Structure-based mutations in the interface that impair the Erb1–Ytm1 interaction do not support growth, with specific defects in 60S subunit synthesis. Under these mutant conditions, it becomes clear that an intact Erb1–Ytm1 complex is required for 60S maturation and that loss of this stable interaction prevents ribosome production. PMID:26657628

  1. Travelling light: white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) rely on body lipid stores to power ocean-basin scale migration.

    PubMed

    Del Raye, Gen; Jorgensen, Salvador J; Krumhansl, Kira; Ezcurra, Juan M; Block, Barbara A

    2013-09-07

    Many species undertake long-distance annual migrations between foraging and reproductive areas. Such migrants depend on the efficient packaging, storage and utilization of energy to succeed. A diverse assemblage of organisms accomplishes this through the use of lipid reserves; yet, it remains unclear whether the migrations of elasmobranchs, which include the largest gill breathers on Earth, depend on such a mechanism. We examine depth records from pop-up satellite archival tags to discern changes in buoyancy as a proxy for energy storage in Eastern Pacific white sharks, and assess whether lipid depletion fuels long-distance (approx. 4000 km) migrations. We develop new algorithms to assess body condition, buoyancy and drift rate during drift dives and validate the techniques using a captive white shark. In the wild, we document a consistent increase in drift rate over the course of all migrations, indicating a decrease in buoyancy caused by the depletion of lipid reserves. These results comprise, to our knowledge, the first assessment of energy storage and budgeting in migrating sharks. The methods provide a basis for further insights into using electronic tags to reveal the energetic strategies of a wide range of elasmobranchs.

  2. Does maintenance of colour categories rely on language? Evidence to the contrary from a case of semantic dementia.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Catherine; Wills, A J; Haslam, S Alexander; Kay, Janice; Baron, Rachel; McNab, Fiona

    2007-12-01

    Recent neuropsychological evidence, supporting a strong version of Whorfian principles of linguistic relativity, has reinvigorated debate about the role of language in colour categorisation. This paper questions the methodology used in this research and uses a novel approach to examine the unique contribution of language to categorisation behaviour. Results of three investigations are reported. The first required development of objective measures of category coherence and consistency to clarify questions about healthy control performance on the freesorting colour categorisation task used in previous studies. Between-participant consistency was found to be only moderate and the number of colour categories generated was found to vary markedly between individuals. The second study involved longitudinal neuropsychological examination of a patient whose colour categorisation strategy was monitored in the context of a progressive decline in language due to semantic dementia. Performance on measures of category coherence and consistency was found to be relatively stable over time despite a profound decline in the patient's colour language. In a final investigation we demonstrated that, for both the patient and controls, between- and within-participant consistency were higher than expected by (a) random sorting and (b) sorting perceptually similar chips together. These findings indicate that the maintenance of colour categorisation need not depend on language.

  3. PARKINSON'S DISEASE PATIENTS WITH DOMINANT HEMIBODY AFFECTED BY THE DISEASE RELY MORE ON VISION TO MAINTAIN UPRIGHT POSTURAL CONTROL.

    PubMed

    Lahr, Juliana; Pereira, Marcelo Pinto; Pelicioni, Paulo Henrique Silva; De Morais, Luana Carolina; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken

    2015-12-01

    This study assesses the association between disease onset side (dominant or non-dominant) and vision on postural control of Parkinson's disease patients. Patient volunteers composed two groups, according to the onset side affected: Dominant group (n=9; M age=66.1 yr., SD=7.2; 6 women, 3 men) and Non-dominant group (n=9; M age=67.4 yr., SD=6.4; 6 women, 3 men). The groups' postural control was assessed by posturography during quiet upright stance in two conditions, Eyes open and Eyes closed. Two-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs; group×condition) with repeated measures for the second factor assessed the differences associated with affected hemibody and vision on postural control. Analyses indicated that patients with the dominant side affected also presented significantly greater variation in center of pressure than those with the non-dominant side affected, mainly in the Eyes closed condition. The results demonstrate a higher reliance on vision in the dominant side, possibly to compensate somatosensory system impairments. These results also highlight the importance of analyzing the hemibody affected by the disease when postural control is assessed in this population.

  4. Frontal nasal prominence expression driven by Tcfap2a relies on a conserved binding site for STAT proteins

    PubMed Central

    Donner, Amy L.; Williams, Trevor

    2009-01-01

    The AP-2 transcription factor family is linked with development of the head and limbs in both vertebrate and invertebrate species. Recent evidence has also implicated this gene family in the evolution of the neural crest in chordates, a critical step that allowed the development and elaboration of the vertebrate craniofacial skeleton. In mice, the inappropriate embryonic expression of one particular AP-2 gene, Tcfap2a - encoding AP-2α - results in multiple developmental abnormalities, including craniofacial and limb defects. Thus, Tcfap2a provides a valuable genetic resource to analyze the regulatory hierarchy responsible for the evolution and development of the face and limbs. Previous studies have identified a 2 kilobase intronic region of both the mouse and human AP-2α locus that directs expression of a linked LacZ transgene to the facial processes and the distal mesenchyme of the limb bud in transgenic mice. Further analysis identified two highly conserved regions of ~ 200-400 bp within this tissue-specific enhancer. We have now initiated a transgenic and biochemical analysis of the most important of these highly conserved regions. Our analysis indicates that although the sequences regulating face and limb expression have been integrated into a single enhancer, different cis-acting sequences ultimately control these two expression domains. Moreover, these studies demonstrate that a conserved STAT binding site provides a major contribution to the expression of Tcfap2a in the facial prominences. PMID:16502414

  5. Enterocyte loss of polarity and gut wound healing rely upon the F-actin–severing function of villin

    PubMed Central

    Ubelmann, Florent; Chamaillard, Mathias; El-Marjou, Fatima; Simon, Anthony; Netter, Jeanne; Vignjevic, Danijela; Nichols, Buford L.; Quezada-Calvillo, Roberto; Grandjean, Teddy; Louvard, Daniel; Revenu, Céline; Robine, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Efficient wound healing is required to maintain the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier because of its constant exposure to a large variety of environmental stresses. This process implies a partial cell depolarization and the acquisition of a motile phenotype that involves rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Here we address how polarized enterocytes harboring actin-rich apical microvilli undergo extensive cell remodeling to drive injury repair. Using live imaging technologies, we demonstrate that enterocytes in vitro and in vivo rapidly depolarize their microvilli at the wound edge. Through its F-actin–severing activity, the microvillar actin-binding protein villin drives both apical microvilli disassembly in vitro and in vivo and promotes lamellipodial extension. Photoactivation experiments indicate that microvillar actin is mobilized at the lamellipodium, allowing optimal migration. Finally, efficient repair of colonic mechanical injuries requires villin severing of F-actin, emphasizing the importance of villin function in intestinal homeostasis. Thus, villin severs F-actin to ensure microvillus depolarization and enterocyte remodeling upon injury. This work highlights the importance of specialized apical pole disassembly for the repolarization of epithelial cells initiating migration. PMID:23520048

  6. Enterocyte loss of polarity and gut wound healing rely upon the F-actin-severing function of villin.

    PubMed

    Ubelmann, Florent; Chamaillard, Mathias; El-Marjou, Fatima; Simon, Anthony; Netter, Jeanne; Vignjevic, Danijela; Nichols, Buford L; Quezada-Calvillo, Roberto; Grandjean, Teddy; Louvard, Daniel; Revenu, Céline; Robine, Sylvie

    2013-04-09

    Efficient wound healing is required to maintain the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier because of its constant exposure to a large variety of environmental stresses. This process implies a partial cell depolarization and the acquisition of a motile phenotype that involves rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Here we address how polarized enterocytes harboring actin-rich apical microvilli undergo extensive cell remodeling to drive injury repair. Using live imaging technologies, we demonstrate that enterocytes in vitro and in vivo rapidly depolarize their microvilli at the wound edge. Through its F-actin-severing activity, the microvillar actin-binding protein villin drives both apical microvilli disassembly in vitro and in vivo and promotes lamellipodial extension. Photoactivation experiments indicate that microvillar actin is mobilized at the lamellipodium, allowing optimal migration. Finally, efficient repair of colonic mechanical injuries requires villin severing of F-actin, emphasizing the importance of villin function in intestinal homeostasis. Thus, villin severs F-actin to ensure microvillus depolarization and enterocyte remodeling upon injury. This work highlights the importance of specialized apical pole disassembly for the repolarization of epithelial cells initiating migration.

  7. Cadmium-induced ethylene production and responses in Arabidopsis thaliana rely on ACS2 and ACS6 gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anthropogenic activities cause metal pollution worldwide. Plants can absorb and accumulate these metals through their root system, inducing stress as a result of excess metal concentrations inside the plant. Ethylene is a regulator of multiple plant processes, and is affected by many biotic and abiotic stresses. Increased ethylene levels have been observed after exposure to excess metals but it remains unclear how the increased ethylene levels are achieved at the molecular level. In this study, the effects of cadmium (Cd) exposure on the production of ethylene and its precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), and on the expression of the ACC Synthase (ACS) and ACC Oxidase (ACO) multigene families were investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Increased ethylene release after Cd exposure was directly measurable in a system using rockwool-cultivated plants; enhanced levels of the ethylene precursor ACC together with higher mRNA levels of ethylene responsive genes: ACO2, ETR2 and ERF1 also indicated increased ethylene production in hydroponic culture. Regarding underlying mechanisms, it was found that the transcript levels of ACO2 and ACO4, the most abundantly expressed members of the ACO multigene family, were increased upon Cd exposure. ACC synthesis is the rate-limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis, and transcript levels of both ACS2 and ACS6 showed the highest increase and became the most abundant isoforms after Cd exposure, suggesting their importance in the Cd-induced increase of ethylene production. Conclusions Cadmium induced the biosynthesis of ACC and ethylene in Arabidopsis thaliana plants mainly via the increased expression of ACS2 and ACS6. This was confirmed in the acs2-1acs6-1 double knockout mutants, which showed a decreased ethylene production, positively affecting leaf biomass and resulting in a delayed induction of ethylene responsive gene expressions without significant differences in Cd contents between wild-type and mutant plants. PMID:25082369

  8. The Behavior-Physiology Nexus: Behavioral and Physiological Compensation Are Relied on to Different Extents between Seasons.

    PubMed

    Basson, Christine H; Clusella-Trullas, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Environmental variability occurring at different timescales can significantly reduce performance, resulting in evolutionary fitness costs. Shifts in thermoregulatory behavior, metabolism, and water loss via phenotypic plasticity can compensate for thermal variation, but the relative contribution of each mechanism and how they may influence each other are largely unknown. Here, we take an ecologically relevant experimental approach to dissect these potential responses at two temporal scales: weather transients and seasons. Using acclimation to cold, average, or warm conditions in summer and winter, we measure the direction and magnitude of plasticity of resting metabolic rate (RMR), water loss rate (WLR), and preferred body temperature (Tpref) in the lizard Cordylus oelofseni within and between seasons. In summer, lizards selected lower Tpref when acclimated to warm versus cold but had no plasticity of either RMR or WLR. By contrast, winter lizards showed partial compensation of RMR but no behavioral compensation. Between seasons, both behavioral and physiological shifts took place. By integrating ecological reality into laboratory assays, we demonstrate that behavioral and physiological responses of C. oelofseni can be contrasting, depending on the timescale investigated. Incorporating ecologically relevant scenarios and the plasticity of multiple traits is thus essential when attempting to forecast extinction risk to climate change.

  9. Relying on Visiting Foreign Doctors for Fistula Repair: The Profile of Women Attending Fistula Repair Surgery in Somalia

    PubMed Central

    Salad, Abdulwahab M.; Jimale, Liban H.; Kour, Prabhjot; Austveg, Berit; Kumar, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Obstetric fistula is treatable by surgery, although access is usually limited, particularly in the context of conflict. This study examines the profile of women attending fistula repair surgery in three hospitals in Somalia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Somalia from August to September 2016. Structured questionnaires were administered to 81 women who registered for fistula repair surgery in the Garowe, Daynile, and Kismayo General Hospitals in Somalia. Findings revealed that 70.4% of the study participants reported obstetric labor as the cause of their fistula, and 29.6% reported iatrogenic causes. Regarding the waiting time for the repair surgery, 45% waited for the surgery for over one year, while the rest received the surgery within a year. The study suggests that training for fistula surgery has to be provided for healthcare professionals in Somalia, fistula centers should be established, and access to these facilities has to be guaranteed for all patients who need these services. PMID:28761443

  10. Therapeutic Targeting of the Warburg Effect in Pancreatic Cancer Relies on an Absence of p53 Function.

    PubMed

    Rajeshkumar, N V; Dutta, Prasanta; Yabuuchi, Shinichi; de Wilde, Roeland F; Martinez, Gary V; Le, Anne; Kamphorst, Jurre J; Rabinowitz, Joshua D; Jain, Sanjay K; Hidalgo, Manuel; Dang, Chi V; Gillies, Robert J; Maitra, Anirban

    2015-08-15

    The "Warburg effect" describes a peculiar metabolic feature of many solid tumors, namely their increased glucose uptake and high glycolytic rates, which allow cancer cells to accumulate building blocks for the biosynthesis of macromolecules. During aerobic glycolysis, pyruvate is preferentially metabolized to lactate by the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A), suggesting a possible vulnerability at this target for small-molecule inhibition in cancer cells. In this study, we used FX11, a small-molecule inhibitor of LDH-A, to investigate this possible vulnerability in a panel of 15 patient-derived mouse xenograft (PDX) models of pancreatic cancer. Unexpectedly, the p53 status of the PDX tumor determined the response to FX11. Tumors harboring wild-type (WT) TP53 were resistant to FX11. In contrast, tumors harboring mutant TP53 exhibited increased apoptosis, reduced proliferation indices, and attenuated tumor growth when exposed to FX11. [18F]-FDG PET-CT scans revealed a relative increase in glucose uptake in mutant TP53 versus WT TP53 tumors, with FX11 administration downregulating metabolic activity only in mutant TP53 tumors. Through a noninvasive quantitative assessment of lactate production, as determined by 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of hyperpolarized pyruvate, we confirmed that FX11 administration inhibited pyruvate-to-lactate conversion only in mutant TP53 tumors, a feature associated with reduced expression of the TP53 target gene TIGAR, which is known to regulate glycolysis. Taken together, our findings highlight p53 status in pancreatic cancer as a biomarker to predict sensitivity to LDH-A inhibition, with regard to both real-time noninvasive imaging by 13C MRS as well as therapeutic response. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Travelling light: white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) rely on body lipid stores to power ocean-basin scale migration

    PubMed Central

    Del Raye, Gen; Jorgensen, Salvador J.; Krumhansl, Kira; Ezcurra, Juan M.; Block, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Many species undertake long-distance annual migrations between foraging and reproductive areas. Such migrants depend on the efficient packaging, storage and utilization of energy to succeed. A diverse assemblage of organisms accomplishes this through the use of lipid reserves; yet, it remains unclear whether the migrations of elasmobranchs, which include the largest gill breathers on Earth, depend on such a mechanism. We examine depth records from pop-up satellite archival tags to discern changes in buoyancy as a proxy for energy storage in Eastern Pacific white sharks, and assess whether lipid depletion fuels long-distance (approx. 4000 km) migrations. We develop new algorithms to assess body condition, buoyancy and drift rate during drift dives and validate the techniques using a captive white shark. In the wild, we document a consistent increase in drift rate over the course of all migrations, indicating a decrease in buoyancy caused by the depletion of lipid reserves. These results comprise, to our knowledge, the first assessment of energy storage and budgeting in migrating sharks. The methods provide a basis for further insights into using electronic tags to reveal the energetic strategies of a wide range of elasmobranchs. PMID:23864595

  12. Do open-cycle hatcheries relying on tourism conserve sea turtles? Sri Lankan developments and economic-ecological considerations.

    PubMed

    Tisdell, Clem; Wilson, Clevo

    2005-04-01

    By combining economic analysis of markets with ecological parameters, this article considers the role that tourism-based sea turtle hatcheries (of an open-cycle type) can play in conserving populations of sea turtles. Background is provided on the nature and development of such hatcheries in Sri Lanka. The modeling facilitates the assessment of the impacts of turtle hatcheries on the conservation of sea turtles and enables the economic and ecological consequences of tourism, based on such hatcheries, to be better appreciated. The results demonstrate that sea turtle hatcheries serving tourists can make a positive contribution to sea turtle conservation, but that their conservation effectiveness depends on the way they are managed. Possible negative effects are also identified. Economic market models are combined with turtle population survival relationships to predict the conservation impact of turtle hatcheries and their consequence for the total economic value obtained from sea turtle populations.

  13. Redox balance mechanisms in Schistosoma mansoni rely on peroxiredoxins and albumin and implicate peroxiredoxins as novel drug targets.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Ahmed A; Cook, Shawna K; Williams, David L

    2006-06-23

    Schistosoma mansoni, a causative agent of schistosomiasis, resides in the hepatic portal circulation of their human host up to 30 years without being eliminated by the host immune attack. Production of an antioxidant "firewall," which would neutralize the oxidative assault generated by host immune defenses, is one proposed survival mechanism of the parasite. Schistosomes lack catalase, the main H2O2-neutralizing enzyme of many organisms, and their glutathione peroxidases are in the phospholipid class with poor reactivity toward H2O2. Evidence implicates peroxiredoxins (Prx) as providing the main enzymatic activity to reduce H2O2 in the parasite. Quantitative monitoring of Prx mRNAs during parasite life cycle indicated that Prx proteins are differentially expressed, with highest expression occurring in adult stages (oxidative resistant stages). Incubation of schistosomula with Prx1 double-stranded RNA knocked down total Prx enzymatic activity and resulted in lowered survival of cultured parasites compared with controls demonstrating that Prx are essential parasite proteins. These results represent the first report of lethal gene silencing in Schistosoma. Investigation of downstream effects of Prx silencing revealed an abrupt increase of lipid peroxides and the generation of several oxidized proteins. Using mass spectrometry, parasite albumin and actin were identified as the main oxidized proteins. Gene expression analysis showed that schistosome albumin was induced by oxidative stress. This study highlights Prx proteins as essential parasite proteins and potential new targets for anti-schistosome drug development and albumin as a novel, sacrificial oxidant scavenging protein in parasite redox regulation.

  14. Quand le malheur frappe les bénéficiaires de la sécurité du revenu. Sur qui peuvent-ils s’appuyer ?

    PubMed Central

    Tousignant, Michel; Caron, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Cette étude analyse les conditions de réalisation du soutien social dans les quartiers de Saint-Henri et de la Pointe Saint-Charles, en comparant un groupe de 61 prestataires de la sécurité du revenu avec un échantillon de 21 personnes de la population vivant au-dessus du seuil de la pauvreté, et en fonction du degré de détresse dans chaque groupe. Elle vise également à décrire comment une adversité vécue par les prestataires avec ou sans détresse vient briser ou modifier le réseau de soutien. Les résultats indiquent que le réseau social est moins fiable en présence de détresse qu’en son absence, que les personnes en détresse se sont vues plus fréquemment refuser du soutien ou être abandonnées et qu’elles ont davantage de personnes nuisibles dans leur entourage. De plus, les événements vécus comportent souvent une atteinte à leur réputation, des menaces, des trahisons et des refus à un droit légitime. Les personnes en détresse sont aussi davantage isolées. PMID:16505926

  15. Class Acts: How Teachers Awaken Potential = Docentes al habla: Revelar a los alumnos el tesoro de su potencial = Performances d'enseignants: Comment eveiller un potential qui dort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This publication presents portraits of nine teachers from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, France, Jordan, Myanmar, New Zealand, Senegal, and Trinidad and Tobago who are opening up young minds and nurturing their potential. The portraits describe how these teachers created an educational situation in which students could thrive and grow. Some of the…

  16. Class Acts: How Teachers Awaken Potential = Docentes al habla: Revelar a los alumnos el tesoro de su potencial = Performances d'enseignants: Comment eveiller un potential qui dort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This publication presents portraits of nine teachers from Argentina, Brazil, Canada, France, Jordan, Myanmar, New Zealand, Senegal, and Trinidad and Tobago who are opening up young minds and nurturing their potential. The portraits describe how these teachers created an educational situation in which students could thrive and grow. Some of the…

  17. Ad vesice dolorem et ad eos qui urinam non faciunt (For bladder pain and when a person cannot urinate): nephrological disorders in Anglo-Saxon medicine.

    PubMed

    D'Aronco, Maria A

    2009-01-01

    The attitude of 19th century (and even of 20th century) scholars toward medieval and, particularly, Anglo-Saxon medicine has been of severe criticism. According to them it was filled with superstition and stupidities. However, in these last fifty years research has proved that, compared with the Continent, Anglo-Saxon England was not a backwater. At the end of the ninth century, medical compendia in Old English began to appear, similar in structure and contents to the Latin dynamidia and to the Latin herbals. These medical treatises were written in the vernacular of the Anglo-Saxons, not in Latin, the western European language for all significant and valuable works on medicine. Bladder, kidney and urinating problems are mentioned throughout the Old English medical treatises together with their cures, that is remedies from herbs and animals. These texts contain no theoretical reflections, only very concise descriptions of symptoms (pain in the bladder, in the kidneys, difficulty in urinating etc.), while prognosis is limited to affirmations such as "he will heal very quickly," "soon there will be no pain," "it will soon be healed," etc. Remedies are made basically out of a body of medicinal plants and materials which can be traced to Greek and Roman medicine. The remedies from plants reflect a wide rational and practical knowledge of medicinal herbs. As a matter of fact, not only there is no amuletic use of plants, but most of the herbs that appear in these recipes have diuretic or analgesic properties and have been in use for centuries.

  18. An Archaeological Reconnaissance Survey of the Proposed Channel Realignment Area at Big Stone-Whetstone Flood Control Project, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, Minnesota.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    terms of local collections. Charles Hanson: Mr. Hanson is a local collector who has a sizeable prehistoric collection from the island in Artichoke Lake... Artichoke Lake is located approximately 17 miles northeast of Ortonville and does not pertain to this project. He did indicate that he has done some

  19. Cultural Resources Investigations of the Upper Minnesota River (639) Project, Deuel and Grant Counties, South Dakota, and Lac Qui Parle and Yellow Medicine Counties, Minnesota,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    NE!4 of section 35. Georgia Township, Grant County, South Dakota (Fig. 60).U! Overview This proposed lake will dam the South Fork of the Yellow Bank...of seven proposed lake structures and 10 percent survey of proposed areas of channel clearing along tributaries of the South Fork of the Yellow Bank...River. The seven proposed lakes are located on the Coteau des Prairies and are: LQP-3, LOP-8, LOP- 40, YB-6, YB-15, YB-18, and YB-25. The river

  20. Systeme des fautes et correction phonetique des Anglais qui apprennent le francais (System of Errors and Phonetic Correction of English Speakers Learning French)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebrun, Claire

    1975-01-01

    This article provides the results of an investigation of the system of pronunciation faults of English speakers learning French, and describes means of correction based on the verbo-tonal system. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

  1. La sténose urétérale post infectieuse et la mégacalicose: un train qui en cache un autre

    PubMed Central

    Sine, Babacar; Bagayogo, Ndeye Aissatou; Fall, Boubacar; Sow, Yaya; Thiam, Amath; Sarr, Alioune; Zakou, Abdou Razak Hamidou; Faye, Samba Thiapato; Diao, Babacar; Fall, Papa Ahmed; Ndoye, Alain khassim

    2015-01-01

    La mégacalicose est une uropathie malformative rare caractérisée par une dilatation non obstructive des calices avec hypoplasie de la médullaire rénale. Nous rapportons un cas de mégacalicose associée à une sténose urétérale bilatérale d'origine infectieuse. PMID:26977241

  2. Special Education in Manitoba. Policy and Procedural Guidelines for the Education of Students with Special Needs in the Public School System = Education de 'l'enfance en difficulte au Manitoba. Lignes directrices concernant les eleves qui ovt des besions speciaux et qui frequentent les ecoles publiques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    The document, presented in both English and French, brings together the policies and general guidelines which direct the provision of special education programs and services in Manitoba. Guidelines are intended to assist school districts in implementing: (1) an education programming and placement process for students who require modification of…

  3. Do apes and monkeys rely upon conceptual reversibility? : A review of studies using seriated nesting cups in children and nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Pynn, J; Fragaszy, D M

    2001-11-01

    The ability to seriate nesting cups as a sensorimotor task has posed interesting questions for cognitive scientists. Greenfield et al. [(1972) Cognit Psychol 3:291-310] found parallels between children's combinatorial activity with nesting cups and patterns of phonological and grammatical constructions. The parallels suggested the possibility of a neurally based developmental homology between language and instrumental action [Greenfield (1991) Behav Brain Sci 14:531-595]. Children who predominantly used subassembly, a hierarchical method of combining cups, succeeded at seriating nesting cups more often than those who did not. Greenfield and others [e.g., Piaget and Inhelder (1969) The psychology of the child. Basic Books, New York; DeLoache et al. (1985) Child Dev 56:928-939] argued that success in seriation reflects the child's growing recognition of a reversible relationship: a particular element in a series is conceived of as being smaller than the previous element and larger than the subsequent element. But is a concept of reversibility or a hierarchical form of object manipulation necessary to seriate cups? In this article, we review studies with very young children and nonhuman primates to determine how individuals that do not evidence conceptual reversibility manage the seriation task. We argue that the development of skill in seriation is experientially, rather than conceptually, driven and that it may be unnecessary to link seriation with cognitive conceptions of reversibility or linguistic capacities. Rather, in ordering a set of objects by size, perceptual-motor learning may enable contemplative refinement.

  4. Apicoplast-Localized Lysophosphatidic Acid Precursor Assembly Is Required for Bulk Phospholipid Synthesis in Toxoplasma gondii and Relies on an Algal/Plant-Like Glycerol 3-Phosphate Acyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Damien L.; Dubois, David; van Dooren, Giel G.; Shears, Melanie J.; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Maréchal, Eric; McConville, Malcolm J.; McFadden, Geoffrey I.; Yamaryo-Botté, Yoshiki; Botté, Cyrille Y.

    2016-01-01

    Most apicomplexan parasites possess a non-photosynthetic plastid (the apicoplast), which harbors enzymes for a number of metabolic pathways, including a prokaryotic type II fatty acid synthesis (FASII) pathway. In Toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of toxoplasmosis, the FASII pathway is essential for parasite growth and infectivity. However, little is known about the fate of fatty acids synthesized by FASII. In this study, we have investigated the function of a plant-like glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase (TgATS1) that localizes to the T. gondii apicoplast. Knock-down of TgATS1 resulted in significantly reduced incorporation of FASII-synthesized fatty acids into phosphatidic acid and downstream phospholipids and a severe defect in intracellular parasite replication and survival. Lipidomic analysis demonstrated that lipid precursors are made in, and exported from, the apicoplast for de novo biosynthesis of bulk phospholipids. This study reveals that the apicoplast-located FASII and ATS1, which are primarily used to generate plastid galactolipids in plants and algae, instead generate bulk phospholipids for membrane biogenesis in T. gondii. PMID:27490259

  5. All's fair in competition? FTC relies on insurer complaints over price increases to buttress first challenge of hospital merger after the fact.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark

    2004-02-16

    The Federal Trade Commission's antitrust complaint against a prominent suburban Chicago healthcare system marks a shift in enforcement policy. Basing its complaint on real market data from payers, the FTC is challenging a merger that has already been consummated--the first such case ever. If the agency prevails, Evanston Northwestern Healthcare may be forced to sell Highland Park (III.) Hospital.

  6. The Two Rivers of Public Education: Why Our Representative Democracy Relies on Both Individualism and Community to Be Delivered through Its Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draayer, Donald

    2011-01-01

    America is blessed with two river systems that feed and nourish the country by their periodic flooding. One mighty river is "individualism" (the entrepreneurial drive to advance and make a difference). The other river is "community" (wherein communal interests strengthen the whole community over the parts). Monitoring and regulating these two…

  7. Dithienobenzothiadiazole-based conjugated polymer: processing solvent-relied interchain aggregation and device performances in field-effect transistors and polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Zhu, Yongxiang; Chen, Junwu; Zhang, Lianjie; Peng, Junbiao; Cao, Yong

    2014-11-01

    DTfBT-Th(3), a new conjugated polymer based on dithienobenzothiadiazole and terthiophene, possesses a bandgap of ≈1.86 eV and a HOMO level of -5.27 eV. Due to strong interchain aggregation, DTfBT-Th(3) can not be well dissolved in chloro-benzene (CB) and o-dichlorobenzene (DCB) at room temperature (RT), but the polymer can be processed from hot CB and DCB solutions of ≈100 °C. In CB, with a lower solvation ability, a certain polymer chain aggregation can be preserved, even in hot solution. DTfBT-Th(3) displays a field-effect hole mobility of 0.55 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) when fabricated from hot CB solution, which is higher than that of the device processed from hot DCB (0.16 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) In DTfBT-Th(3) -based polymer solar cells, a good power conversion efficiency from 5.37% to 6.67% can be achieved with 150-300 nm thick active layers casted from hot CB solution, while the highest efficiency for hot DCB-processed solar cells is only 5.07%. The results demonstrate that using a solvent with a lower solvation ability, as a "wet control" process, is beneficial to preserve strong interchain aggregation of a conjugated polymer during solution processing, showing great potential to improve its performances in optoelectronic devices.

  8. At the Scene of the Crime: Law Enforcement Agencies and Lawmakers Rely on Studies from the Institute for Social Research To Inform Policy-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Rachel

    1998-01-01

    The University of New Mexico's Institute for Social Research operates eight centers that conduct policy-related research on criminal justice, criminology, delinquency, and social problems. Projects have focused on inequities in criminal sentencing in New Mexico, juveniles' access to and use of guns, New Mexico's need for a juvenile prison, and the…

  9. Mechanisms of NMDA Receptor- and Voltage-Gated L-Type Calcium Channel-Dependent Hippocampal LTP Critically Rely on Proteolysis That Is Mediated by Distinct Metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Wiera, Grzegorz; Nowak, Daria; van Hove, Inge; Dziegiel, Piotr; Moons, Lieve; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W

    2017-02-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) is widely perceived as a memory substrate and in the hippocampal CA3-CA1 pathway, distinct forms of LTP depend on NMDA receptors (nmdaLTP) or L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (vdccLTP). LTP is also known to be effectively regulated by extracellular proteolysis that is mediated by various enzymes. Herein, we investigated whether in mice hippocampal slices these distinct forms of LTP are specifically regulated by different metalloproteinases (MMPs). We found that MMP-3 inhibition or knock-out impaired late-phase LTP in the CA3-CA1 pathway. Interestingly, late-phase LTP was also decreased by MMP-9 blockade. When both MMP-3 and MMP-9 were inhibited, both early- and late-phase LTP was impaired. Using immunoblotting, in situ zymography, and immunofluorescence, we found that LTP induction was associated with an increase in MMP-3 expression and activity in CA1 stratum radiatum. MMP-3 inhibition and knock-out prevented the induction of vdccLTP, with no effect on nmdaLTP. L-type channel-dependent LTP is known to be impaired by hyaluronic acid digestion. We found that slice treatment with hyaluronidase occluded the effect of MMP-3 blockade on LTP, further confirming a critical role for MMP-3 in this form of LTP. In contrast to the CA3-CA1 pathway, LTP in the mossy fiber-CA3 projection did not depend on MMP-3, indicating the pathway specificity of the actions of MMPs. Overall, our study indicates that the activation of perisynaptic MMP-3 supports L-type channel-dependent LTP in the CA1 region, whereas nmdaLTP depends solely on MMP-9. Various types of long-term potentiation (LTP) are correlated with distinct phases of memory formation and retrieval, but the underlying molecular signaling pathways remain poorly understood. Extracellular proteases have emerged as key players in neuroplasticity phenomena. The present study found that L-type calcium channel-dependent LTP in the CA3-CA1 hippocampal projection is critically regulated by the activity of matrix metalloprotease 3 (MMP-3), in contrast to NMDAR-dependent LTP regulated by MMP-9. Moreover, the induction of LTP was associated with an increase in MMP-3 expression and activity. Finally, we found that the digestion of hyaluronan, a principal extracellular matrix component, disrupted the MMP-3-dependent component of LTP. These results indicate that distinct MMPs might act as molecular switches for specific types of LTP. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/371240-17$15.00/0.

  10. Wait at your own risk. Relying on a vendor to manage ICD-10 conversion can mean being held accountable for lost revenue.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Daphne

    2009-12-01

    CIOs must have an ICD-10 conversion strategy in place now, since many systems will be impacted. Creating a timeline can help determine whether an organization is in good shape. CIOs who have not yet implemented an EMR should consider using SNOMED. As ICD-10 approaches, it will be necessary to monitor AR days daily, instead of monthly. Organizations need to designate and empower an ICD-10 leader and begin staff training efforts early.

  11. Chemotropism and Cell Fusion in Neurospora crassa Relies on the Formation of Distinct Protein Complexes by HAM-5 and a Novel Protein HAM-14

    PubMed Central

    Jonkers, Wilfried; Fischer, Monika S.; Do, Hung P.; Starr, Trevor L.; Glass, N. Louise

    2016-01-01

    In filamentous fungi, communication is essential for the formation of an interconnected, multinucleate, syncytial network, which is constructed via hyphal fusion or fusion of germinated asexual spores (germlings). Anastomosis in filamentous fungi is comparable to other somatic cell fusion events resulting in syncytia, including myoblast fusion during muscle differentiation, macrophage fusion, and fusion of trophoblasts during placental development. In Neurospora crassa, fusion of genetically identical germlings is a highly dynamic and regulated process that requires components of a MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. The kinase pathway components (NRC-1, MEK-2 and MAK-2) and the scaffold protein HAM-5 are recruited to hyphae and germling tips undergoing chemotropic interactions. The MAK-2/HAM-5 protein complex shows dynamic oscillation to hyphae/germling tips during chemotropic interactions, and which is out-of-phase to the dynamic localization of SOFT, which is a scaffold protein for components of the cell wall integrity MAP kinase pathway. In this study, we functionally characterize HAM-5 by generating ham-5 truncation constructs and show that the N-terminal half of HAM-5 was essential for function. This region is required for MAK-2 and MEK-2 interaction and for correct cellular localization of HAM-5 to “fusion puncta.” The localization of HAM-5 to puncta was not perturbed in 21 different fusion mutants, nor did these puncta colocalize with components of the secretory pathway. We also identified HAM-14 as a novel member of the HAM-5/MAK-2 pathway by mining MAK-2 phosphoproteomics data. HAM-14 was essential for germling fusion, but not for hyphal fusion. Colocalization and coimmunoprecipitation data indicate that HAM-14 interacts with MAK-2 and MEK-2 and may be involved in recruiting MAK-2 (and MEK-2) to complexes containing HAM-5. PMID:27029735

  12. Therapeutic expectations: Dentistry relies less on dental plaque as a major etiological factor OR On the dental needs of young orthodontic patients (12-20 years old)

    PubMed Central

    Consolaro, Alberto; Nardoni, Daniele Nóbrega; Capelozza, Leopoldino; Franco, Paulo Henrique X.; Cappellozza, José Antônio Z.

    2016-01-01

    In Brazilian cities and states governed efficiently with wealth ethically administered, carious and periodontal diseases have prevalence rates similar to those found in socially developed European countries. This shift in reality, noticed over the last 15 years, reflects on changes in the etiological factors related to patients' major expectations and needs - especially young and orthodontic patients - which turn out to be a result of dental trauma, malocclusion, facial aspect, dental agenesis and iatrogenesis. Under such conditions, patients begin to appreciate the value of tooth position, color and shape, their smile and function: details become relevant. Carious and periodontal diseases remain an issue, not only from a preventive prospect, but also from a curative one. Nevertheless, it should be noted that changes and development are inevitable, and we should be prepared to contribute to the wellbeing of people, particularly regarding their novel needs and expectations. PMID:27007757

  13. Staphylococcus haemolyticus prophage ΦSH2 endolysin relies on cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolases/peptidases activity for lysis 'from without'.

    PubMed

    Schmelcher, Mathias; Korobova, Olga; Schischkova, Nina; Kiseleva, Natalia; Kopylov, Paul; Pryamchuk, Sergey; Donovan, David M; Abaev, Igor

    2012-12-31

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen, with methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and multi-drug resistant strains becoming increasingly prevalent in both human and veterinary clinics. S. aureus causing bovine mastitis yields high annual losses to the dairy industry. Conventional treatment of mastitis by broad range antibiotics is often not successful and may contribute to development of antibiotic resistance. Bacteriophage endolysins present a promising new source of antimicrobials. The endolysin of prophage ΦSH2 of Staphylococcus haemolyticus strain JCSC1435 (ΦSH2 lysin) is a peptidoglycan hydrolase consisting of two catalytic domains (CHAP and amidase) and an SH3b cell wall binding domain. In this work, we demonstrated its lytic activity against live staphylococcal cells and investigated the contribution of each functional module to bacterial lysis by testing a series of deletion constructs in zymograms and turbidity reduction assays. The CHAP domain exhibited three-fold higher activity than the full length protein and optimum activity in physiological saline. This activity was further enhanced by the presence of bivalent calcium ions. The SH3b domain was shown to be required for full activity of the complete ΦSH2 lysin. The full length enzyme and the CHAP domain showed activity against multiple staphylococcal strains, including MRSA strains, mastitis isolates, and CoNS.

  14. Can we Rely on a General Practitioner's Referral Letter to a Skin Lesion Clinic to Prioritise Appointments and Does it Make a Difference to the Patient's Prognosis?

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Jill B; Khanna, A

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study was designed to: (i) determine if the priority of referral letters by general practitioners to a plastic surgery skin lesion clinic adhered to the national guidelines, what happened to these patients, and what was the histological diagnosis; and (ii) analyse whether the prognosis at diagnosis of malignant melanoma had improved since the introduction of the 2-week wait for patients with suspected cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study involved a prospective audit questionnaire, retrospective note review and histology report review in the Plastic Surgery Department in a district general hospital and their ‘bespoke’ out-patient clinics. RESULTS Of 202 referral letters, 58 (29%) were referred as 2-week cancer referrals of which 13 (22%) suggested diagnoses that did not fall within the guidelines, and 11 gave no diagnosis. In addition, 84 (42%) had no indication of priority, though the text may suggest the need for it, either explicitly or implied. The prognostic indices for malignant melanoma have not altered since the 2-week wait rule has been implemented. CONCLUSIONS The guidelines are not being adhered to, thus patients with benign lesions are being given undue priority. The history and examination of skin lesions given in the referral letters is insufficient to allow the consultant to prioritise. Since the 2-week rule has be implemented, malignant melanomas have not been diagnosed at an earlier stage. PMID:16460639

  15. At the Scene of the Crime: Law Enforcement Agencies and Lawmakers Rely on Studies from the Institute for Social Research To Inform Policy-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Rachel

    1998-01-01

    The University of New Mexico's Institute for Social Research operates eight centers that conduct policy-related research on criminal justice, criminology, delinquency, and social problems. Projects have focused on inequities in criminal sentencing in New Mexico, juveniles' access to and use of guns, New Mexico's need for a juvenile prison, and the…

  16. The Two Rivers of Public Education: Why Our Representative Democracy Relies on Both Individualism and Community to Be Delivered through Its Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draayer, Donald

    2011-01-01

    America is blessed with two river systems that feed and nourish the country by their periodic flooding. One mighty river is "individualism" (the entrepreneurial drive to advance and make a difference). The other river is "community" (wherein communal interests strengthen the whole community over the parts). Monitoring and regulating these two…

  17. Don't Think, Just Feel the Music: Individuals with Strong Pavlovian-to-Instrumental Transfer Effects Rely Less on Model-based Reinforcement Learning.

    PubMed

    Sebold, Miriam; Schad, Daniel J; Nebe, Stephan; Garbusow, Maria; Jünger, Elisabeth; Kroemer, Nils B; Kathmann, Norbert; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Smolka, Michael N; Rapp, Michael A; Heinz, Andreas; Huys, Quentin J M

    2016-07-01

    Behavioral choice can be characterized along two axes. One axis distinguishes reflexive, model-free systems that slowly accumulate values through experience and a model-based system that uses knowledge to reason prospectively. The second axis distinguishes Pavlovian valuation of stimuli from instrumental valuation of actions or stimulus-action pairs. This results in four values and many possible interactions between them, with important consequences for accounts of individual variation. We here explored whether individual variation along one axis was related to individual variation along the other. Specifically, we asked whether individuals' balance between model-based and model-free learning was related to their tendency to show Pavlovian interferences with instrumental decisions. In two independent samples with a total of 243 participants, Pavlovian-instrumental transfer effects were negatively correlated with the strength of model-based reasoning in a two-step task. This suggests a potential common underlying substrate predisposing individuals to both have strong Pavlovian interference and be less model-based and provides a framework within which to interpret the observation of both effects in addiction.

  18. No transfer between conditions in balance training regimes relying on tasks with different postural demands: Specificity effects of two different serious games.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Tim; Kindermann, Stefan; Joch, Michael; Munzert, Jörn; Reiser, Mathias

    2015-03-01

    Despite the increasing use of video games involving whole body movements to enhance postural control in health prevention and rehabilitation, there is no consistent proof that training effects actually transfer to other balance tasks. The present study aimed to determine whether training effects on two different video-game-based training devices were task-specific or could be transferred to either postural control in quiet stance or to performance on the other device. 37 young healthy adults were split into three groups: two intervention groups that trained for 30min on either the Nintendo(®) Wii Fit Balance Board or the MFT Challenge Disc(®) three times per week for 4 weeks and a control group that received no training. All games require participants to control virtual avatars by shifting the center of mass in different directions. Both devices differ in their physical properties. The Balance Board provides a stable surface, whereas the Challenge Disc can be tilted in all directions. Dependent variables were the game scores on both devices and the center of pressure (COP) displacements measured via force plate. At posttest, both intervention groups showed significant increases in performance on the trained games compared to controls. However, there were no relevant transfer effects to performance on the untrained device and no changes in COP path length in quiet stance. These results suggest that training effects on both devices are highly specific and do not transfer to tasks with different postural demands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Can we rely on simulated patients' satisfaction with their consultation for assessing medical students' communication skills? A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gude, T; Grimstad, H; Holen, A; Anvik, T; Baerheim, A; Fasmer, O B; Hjortdahl, P; Vaglum, P

    2015-12-18

    In medical education, teaching methods offering intensive practice without high utilization of faculty resources are needed. We investigated whether simulated patients' (SPs') satisfaction with a consultation could predict professional observers' assessment of young doctors' communication skills. This was a comparative cross-sectional study of 62 videotaped consultations in a general practice setting with young doctors who were finishing their internship. The SPs played a female patient who had observed blood when using the toilet, which had prompted a fear of cancer. Immediately afterwards, the SP rated her level of satisfaction with the consultation, and the scores were dichotomized into satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Professional observers viewed the videotapes and assessed the doctors' communication skills using the Arizona Communication Interview Rating Scale (ACIR). Their ratings of communication skills were dichotomized into acceptable versus unacceptable levels of competence. The SPs' satisfaction showed a predictive power of 0.74 for the observers' assessment of the young doctors and whether they reached an acceptable level of communication skills. The SPs' dissatisfaction had a predictive power of 0.71 for the observers' assessment of an unacceptable communication level. The two assessment methods differed in 26% of the consultations. When SPs felt relief about their cancer concern after the consultation, they assessed the doctors' skills as satisfactory independent of the observers' assessment. Accordance between the dichotomized SPs' satisfaction score and communication skills assessed by observers (using the ACIR) was in the acceptable range. These findings suggest that SPs' satisfaction scores may provide a reliable source for assessing communication skills in educational programs for medical trainees (students and young doctors). Awareness of the patient's concerns seems to be of vital importance to patient satisfaction.

  20. Trypanosoma musculi Infection in Mice Critically Relies on Mannose Receptor-Mediated Arginase Induction by a TbKHC1 Kinesin H Chain Homolog.

    PubMed

    Nzoumbou-Boko, Romaric; De Muylder, Géraldine; Semballa, Silla; Lecordier, Laurence; Dauchy, Fréderic-Antoine; Gobert, Alain P; Holzmuller, Philippe; Lemesre, Jean-Loup; Bras-Gonçalves, Rachel; Barnabé, Christian; Courtois, Pierrette; Daulouède, Sylvie; Beschin, Alain; Pays, Etienne; Vincendeau, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    Arginase activity induction in macrophages is an escape mechanism developed by parasites to cope with the host's immune defense and benefit from increased host-derived growth factor production. We report that arginase expression and activity were induced in macrophages during mouse infection by Trypanosoma musculi, a natural parasite of this host. This induction was reproduced in vitro by excreted/secreted factors of the parasite. A mAb directed to TbKHC1, an orphan kinesin H chain from Trypanosoma brucei, inhibited T. musculi excreted/secreted factor-mediated arginase induction. Anti-TbKHC1 Ab also inhibited T. musculi growth, both in vitro and in vivo. Induction of arginase activity and parasite growth involved C-type lectin receptors, because mannose injection decreased arginase activity induction and parasite load in vitro and in vivo. Accordingly, the parasite load was reduced in mice lacking mannose receptor C-type 1. The T. musculi KHC1 homolog showed high similarity with TbKHC1. Bioinformatics analysis revealed the presence of homologs of this gene in other trypanosomes, including pathogens for humans and animals. Host metabolism dysregulation represents an effective parasite mechanism to hamper the host immune response and modify host molecule production to favor parasite invasion and growth. Thus, this orphan kinesin plays an important role in promoting trypanosome infection, and its neutralization or the lock of its partner host molecules offers promising approaches to increasing resistance to infection and new developments in vaccination against trypanosomiasis. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.