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Sample records for linalool linalyl acetate

  1. Structure-odor relationships of linalool, linalyl acetate and their corresponding oxygenated derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsharif, Shaimaa; Banerjee, Ashutosh; Buettner, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Linalool 1 is an odorant that is commonly perceived as having a pleasant odor, but is also known to elicit physiological effects such as inducing calmness and enhancing sleep. However, no comprehensive studies are at hand to show which structural features are responsible for these prominent effects. Therefore, a total of six oxygenated derivatives were synthesized from both 1 and linalyl acetate 2, and were tested for their odor qualities and relative odor thresholds (OTs) in air. Linalool was found to be the most potent odorant among the investigated compounds, with an average OT of 3.2 ng/L, while the 8-hydroxylinalool derivative was the least odorous compound with an OT of 160 ng/L; 8-carboxylinalool was found to be odorless. The odorant 8-oxolinalyl acetate, which has very similar odor properties to linalool, was the most potent odorant besides linalool, exhibiting an OT of 5.9 ng/L. By comparison, 8-carboxylinalyl acetate had a similar OT (6.1 ng/L) as its corresponding 8-oxo derivative but exhibited divergent odor properties (fatty, greasy, musty). Overall, oxygenation on carbon 8 had a substantial effect on the aroma profiles of structural derivatives of linalool and linalyl acetate.

  2. Assessment of dietary exposure to flavouring substances via consumption of flavoured teas. Part II: transfer rates of linalool and linalyl esters into Earl Grey tea infusions.

    PubMed

    Orth, Anne-Marie; Poplacean, Iulia; Fastowski, Oxana; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of dietary exposure via the consumption of flavoured foods is a key element of the safety evaluation of flavouring substances. Linalyl acetate and linalool are the major flavouring substances in Earl Grey teas; the objective of this study was to determine their transfer rates from the tea leaves into the tea beverage upon preparation of a hot water infusion. Spiking experiments revealed a transfer rate of 66% for linalool. In contrast, the transfer rate for linalyl acetate was only 1.9%; in turn, the hydrolysis product linalool (17.0%) and a spectrum (19.9%) of degradation and rearrangement products (monoterpene alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons) were present in the tea beverage. The transfer rates were shown to be proportional to the length of the infusion. The impact of the hot water treatment on the enantiomeric compositions of linalyl acetate and linalool was determined, and structure-dependent experiments were performed by variation of the acyl and the alcohol moiety of the monoterpene ester. Comparative dietary exposure assessments demonstrated the need to take correction factors based on the experimentally determined transfer rates into account. Based on tea consumption data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2000/2001), the exposure to linalyl acetate ranges from 0.2 mg day(-1) (average) to 1.8 mg day(-1) (high). The corresponding values for linalool are 4.2 mg day(-1) (average) and 46.6 mg day(-1) (high). The exposure of linalool via consumption of the tea beverage is approximately 26 times higher than that of linalyl acetate, although in the flavoured tea leaves the median content of linalyl acetate is approximately 1.8 times higher than that of linalool.

  3. Cardiovascular effects of linalyl acetate in acute nicotine exposure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju Ri; Kang, Purum; Lee, Hui Su; Kim, Ka Young; Seol, Geun Hee

    2017-04-24

    Smoking is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases as well as pulmonary dysfunction. In particular, adolescent smoking has been reported to have a higher latent risk for cardiovascular disease. Despite the risk to and vulnerability of adolescents to smoking, the mechanisms underlying the effects of acute nicotine exposure on adolescents remain unknown. This study therefore evaluated the mechanism underlying the effects of linalyl acetate on cardiovascular changes in adolescent rats with acute nicotine exposure. Parameters analyzed included heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, vascular contractility, and nitric oxide levels. Compared with nicotine alone, those treated with nicotine plus 10 mg/kg (p = 0.036) and 100 mg/kg (p = 0.023) linalyl acetate showed significant reductions in HR. Moreover, the addition of 1 mg/kg (p = 0.011), 10 mg/kg (p = 0.010), and 100 mg/kg (p = 0.011) linalyl acetate to nicotine resulted in significantly lower LDH activity. Nicotine also showed a slight relaxation effect, followed by a sustained recontraction phase, whereas nicotine plus linalyl acetate or nifedipine showed a constant relaxation effect on contraction of mouse aorta (p < 0.001). Furthermore, nicotine-induced increases in nitrite levels were decreased by treatment with linalyl acetate (p < 0.001). Taken together, our findings suggest that linalyl acetate treatment resulted in recovery of cell damage and cardiovascular changes caused by acute nicotine-induced cardiovascular disruption. Our evaluation of the influence of acute nicotine provides potential insights into the effects of environmental tobacco smoke and suggests linalyl acetate as an available mitigating agent.

  4. Implication of limonene and linalyl acetate in cytotoxicity induced by bergamot essential oil in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Russo, Rossella; Ciociaro, Antonella; Berliocchi, Laura; Cassiano, Maria Gilda Valentina; Rombolà, Laura; Ragusa, Salvatore; Bagetta, Giacinto; Blandini, Fabio; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana

    2013-09-01

    Bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso et Poiteau) essential oil (BEO) is a widely used plant extract showing anxiolytic, analgesic and neuroprotective effects in rodents; also, BEO activates multiple death pathways in cancer cells. Despite detailed knowledge of its chemical composition, the constituent/s responsible for these pharmacological activities remain largely unknown. Aim of the present study was to identify the components of BEO implicated in cell death. To this end, limonene, linalyl acetate, linalool, γ-terpinene, β-pinene and bergapten were individually tested in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cultures at concentrations comparable with those found in cytotoxic dilutions of BEO. None of the tested compounds elicited cell death. However, significant cytotoxicity was observed when cells were cotreated with limonene and linalyl acetate whereas no other associations were effective. Only cotreatment, but not the single exposure to limonene and linalyl acetate, replicated distinctive morphological and biochemical changes induced by BEO, including caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage, DNA fragmentation, cell shrinkage, cytoskeletal alterations, together with necrotic and apoptotic cell death. Collectively, our findings suggest a major role for a combined action of these monoterpenes in cancer cell death induced by BEO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of clary sage oil and its main components, linalool and linalyl acetate, on the plasma membrane of Candida albicans: an in vivo EPR study.

    PubMed

    Blaskó, Ágnes; Gazdag, Zoltán; Gróf, Pál; Máté, Gábor; Sárosi, Szilvia; Krisch, Judit; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Makszin, Lilla; Pesti, Miklós

    2017-02-01

    The effects of clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.) oil (CS-oil), and its two main components, linalool (Lol) and linalyl acetate (LA), on cells of the eukaryotic human pathogen yeast Candida albicans were studied. Dynamic and thermodynamic properties of the plasma membrane were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, with 5-doxylstearic acid (5-SASL) and 16-SASL as spin labels. The monitoring of the head group regions with 5-SASL revealed break-point frequency decrease in a temperature dependent manner of the plasma membrane between 9.55 and 13.15 °C in untreated, in CS-oil-, Lol- and LA-treated membranes. The results suggest a significant increase in fluidity of the treated plasma membranes close to the head groups. Comparison of the results observed with the two spin labels demonstrated that CS-oil and LA induced an increased level of fluidization at both depths of the plasma membrane. Whereas Lol treatment induced a less (1 %) ordered bilayer organization in the superficial regions and an increased (10 %) order of the membrane leaflet in deeper layers. Acute toxicity tests and EPR results indicated that both the apoptotic and the effects exerted on the plasma membrane fluidity depended on the composition and chemical structure of the examined materials. In comparison with the control, treatment with CS-oil, Lol or LA induced 13.0, 12.3 and 26.4 % loss respectively, of the metabolites absorbing at 260 nm, as a biological consequence of the plasma membrane fluidizing effects. Our results confirmed that clary sage oil causes plasma membrane perturbations which leads to cell apoptosis process.

  6. Suppression of linalool acetate production in Lavandula x intermedia.

    PubMed

    Desautels, Amy; Biswas, Kamal; Lane, Alexander; Boeckelmann, Astrid; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2009-11-01

    Linalool acetate, one of the major constituent of several essential oils, is heat-labile and decomposes upon exposure to the high injector temperature during gas chromatography. Here we report the development of an improved method for detection of this compound by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) using cold on-column injection of the sample. By using this sensitive method, it has been demonstrated that a lavandin (L. x intermedia) mutant accumulates trace quantities of linalool acetate and camphor and higher amounts of cineole and borneol compared to its parent. This plant, which very likely carries a point mutation in one or more of the genes involved in essential oil production, provides a unique tool for investigating regulation of essential oil biogenesis in plants.

  7. Peripherally injected linalool and bergamot essential oil attenuate mechanical allodynia via inhibiting spinal ERK phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kuwahata, Hikari; Komatsu, Takaaki; Katsuyama, Soh; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana; Bagetta, Giacinto; Sakurada, Shinobu; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Takahama, Kazuo

    2013-02-01

    Bergamot essential oil (BEO) is one of the most common essential oil containing linalool and linalyl acetate as major volatile components. This study investigated the effect of intraplantar (i.pl.) bergamot essential oil (BEO) or linalool on neuropathic hypersensitivity induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) in mice. The i.pl. injection of BEO or linalool into the ipsilateral hindpaw to PSNL reduced PSNL-induced mechanical allodynia in a dose-dependent manner. Peripheral (i.pl.) injection of BEO or linalool into the contralateral hindpaw did not yield anti-allodynic effects, suggesting a local anti-mechanical allodynic effect of BEO or linalool in PSNL mice. Anti-mechanical hypersensitivity of morphine was enhanced by the combined injection of BEO or linalool at an ineffective dose when injected alone. We also examined the possible involvement of spinal extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) in BEO or linalool-induced anti-mechanical allodynia. In western blotting analysis, i.pl. injection of BEO or linalool resulted in a significant blockade of spinal ERK activation induced by PSNL. These results suggest that i.pl. injection of BEO or linalool may reduce PSNL-induced mechanical allodynia followed by decreasing spinal ERK activation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Oil and Its Active Constituent Linalyl Acetate Alleviate Pain and Urinary Residual Sense after Colorectal Cancer Surgery: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yu, So Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Pain and urinary symptoms following colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery are frequent and carry a poor recovery. This study tested the effects of inhalation of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (lavender) oil or linalyl acetate on pain relief and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) following the removal of indwelling urinary catheters from patients after CRC surgery. This randomised control study recruited 66 subjects with indwelling urinary catheters after undergoing CRC surgery who later underwent catheter removal. Patients inhaled 1% lavender, 1% linalyl acetate, or vehicle (control group) for 20 minutes. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), heart rate, LUTS, and visual analog scales of pain magnitude and quality of life (QoL) regarding urinary symptoms were measured before and after inhalation. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, heart rate, LUTS, and QoL satisfaction with urinary symptoms were similar in the three groups. Significant differences in pain magnitude and urinary residual sense of indwelling catheters were observed among the three groups, with inhalation of linalyl acetate being significantly more effective than inhalation of lavender or vehicle. Inhalation of linalyl acetate is an effective nursing intervention to relieve pain and urinary residual sense of indwelling urinary catheters following their removal from patients who underwent CRC surgery. PMID:28154606

  9. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, linalyl benzoate, CAS Registry Number 126-64-7.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dkant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Penning, T M; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2016-11-01

    The use of this material under current conditions is supported by existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental and reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, as well as environmental safety. Data show that this material is not genotoxic. Data from the suitable read across analog linalyl phenylacetate (CAS # 7143-69-3) show that this material does not have skin sensitization potential. The repeated dose toxicity endpoint was completed using linalyl cinnamate (CAS # 78-37-5) as a suitable read across analog, which provided a MOE > 100. The developmental and reproductive toxicity endpoint was completed using linalool (CAS # 78-70-6), dehydrolinalool (CAS # 29171-20-8), benzoic acid (CAS # 65-85-0) and sodium benzoate (CAS # 532-32-1) as suitable read across analogs, which provided a MOE > 100. The local respiratory toxicity endpoint was completed using linalool (CAS # 78-70-6) and benzoic acid (CAS # 65-85-0) as suitable read across analogs, which provided a MOE > 100. The phototoxicity/photoallergenicity endpoint was completed based on suitable UV spectra. The environmental endpoint was completed as described in the RIFM Framework along with data from the suitable read across analog linalyl cinnamate (CAS # 78-375). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lavandin (Lavandula × intermedia Emeric ex Loiseleur) essential oil from Spain: determination of aromatic profile by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitory bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Lavandin (Lavandula × intermedia Emeric ex Loiseleur) essential oils (EOs), from Abrial, Super and Grosso cultivars, cultivated and extracted in the South East of Spain, were analysed by using GC/MS to determine their composition, in both relative (peak area) and absolute (using standard curves) concentrations. Linalool (34-47%), linalyl acetate (17-34%), camphor (4-9%) and eucalyptol (3-7%) were determined as the main molecules. This characterisation was completed with the enantioselective gas chromatography, where ( - )-linalool, (+)-camphor and ( - )-linalyl acetate were determined as the main components. Antioxidant activity was evaluated positively by several methods: activity against free radicals, chelating and reducing power, probably due to linalool and linalyl acetate. Mild inhibitory activity on lipoxygenase was observed supporting potential anti-inflammatory activity, mainly due to linalool and camphor. These properties support the potential use of L. × intermedia essential oils as natural cosmetic and natural pharmaceutical ingredient to fight several skin diseases.

  11. High quality bergamot oil from Greece: Chemical analysis using chiral gas chromatography and larvicidal activity against the West Nile virus vector.

    PubMed

    Melliou, Eleni; Eleni, Melliou; Michaelakis, Antonios; Antonios, Michaelakis; Koliopoulos, George; George, Koliopoulos; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Alexios-Leandros, Skaltsounis; Magiatis, Prokopios; Prokopios, Magiatis

    2009-02-18

    Tauhe essential oils contained in the rind of the fruit and the leaves of bergamot from Greece (Citrus aurantium subsp. bergamia) were studied. The bergamot trees in question were cultivated on Kefalonia Island. The plant material (leaves and fruits in different stages of maturity) was collected between December and March for a two year period. The rind of the fruit was separated manually and the essential oil was obtained either by cold pressing or by hydrodistillation. The maximum yield calculated on a wet weight of fresh rinds basis was 1.8%. The essential oils were first analyzed by GC-MS with a DB-5 column and then with a beta-Dex enantiomeric column. The main constituent of the cold pressed essential oil of the rind was (-)-linalyl acetate with optical purity >99.9%. Other important constituents were (-)-linalool, (+)-limonene and gamma-terpinene. The best value of linalool/linalyl acetate ratio was 0.38 and the maximum sum of linalool+linalyl acetate was found to be 55.8%. The larvacidal activities of the obtained essential oils and the compounds (+/-)-linalyl acetate, (+/-)-linalool and (-)-linalool were evaluated against larvae of the mosquito species Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), the West Nile virus vector, under laboratory conditions. The cold pressed essential oil showed an LC(50) value of 58 mg/L, while the LC(50) value of the corresponding essential oil obtained by hydrostillation was 106 mg/L. The essential oil of the leaves presented similar larvicidal toxicity with the cold pressed oil of the rind (LC(50)=68 mg/L).

  12. Use of cyclodextrins as a cosmetic delivery system for fragrance materials: linalool and benzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Numanoğlu, Ulya; Sen, Tangül; Tarimci, Nilüfer; Kartal, Murat; Koo, Otilia M Y; Onyüksel, Hayat

    2007-10-19

    The aim of this study was to increase the stability and water solubility of fragrance materials, to provide controlled release of these compounds, and to convert these substances from liquid to powder form by preparing their inclusion complexes with cyclodextrins (CDs). For this purpose, linalool and benzyl acetate were chosen as the fragrance materials. The use of beta-cyclodextrin (beta CD) and 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (2-HP beta CD) for increasing the solubility of these 2 fragrance materials was studied. Linalool and benzyl acetate gave a B-type diagram with beta CD, whereas they gave an A(L)-type diagram with 2-HP beta CD. Therefore, complexes of fragrance materials with 2-HP beta CD at 1:1 and 1:2 molar ratios (guest:host) were prepared. The formation of inclusion complexes was confirmed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The results of the solubility studies showed that preparing the inclusion complex with 2-HP beta CD at a 1:1 molar ratio increased the solubility of linalool 5.9-fold and that of benzyl acetate 4.2-fold, whereas the complexes at a 1:2 molar ratio increased the solubility 6.4- and 4.5-fold for linalool and benzyl acetate, respectively. The stability and in vitro release studies were performed on the gel formulations prepared using uncomplexed fragrance materials or inclusion complexes of fragrance materials at a 1:1 molar ratio. It was observed that the volatility of both fragrance materials was decreased by preparing the inclusion complexes with 2-HP beta CD. Also, in vitro release data indicated that controlled release of fragrances could be possible if inclusion complexes were prepared.

  13. [Main Components of Xinjiang Lavender Essential Oil Determined by Partial Least Squares and Near Infrared Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiang; Wang, Qing; Fu, Ji-hong; Tang, Jun

    2015-09-01

    This work was undertaken to establish a quantitative analysis model which can rapid determinate the content of linalool, linalyl acetate of Xinjiang lavender essential oil. Totally 165 lavender essential oil samples were measured by using near infrared absorption spectrum (NIR), after analyzing the near infrared spectral absorption peaks of all samples, lavender essential oil have abundant chemical information and the interference of random noise may be relatively low on the spectral intervals of 7100~4500 cm(-1). Thus, the PLS models was constructed by using this interval for further analysis. 8 abnormal samples were eliminated. Through the clustering method, 157 lavender essential oil samples were divided into 105 calibration set samples and 52 validation set samples. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used as a tool to determine the content of linalool and linalyl acetate in lavender essential oil. Then the matrix was established with the GC-MS raw data of two compounds in combination with the original NIR data. In order to optimize the model, different pretreatment methods were used to preprocess the raw NIR spectral to contrast the spectral filtering effect, after analysizing the quantitative model results of linalool and linalyl acetate, the root mean square error prediction (RMSEP) of orthogonal signal transformation (OSC) was 0.226, 0.558, spectrally, it was the optimum pretreatment method. In addition, forward interval partial least squares (FiPLS) method was used to exclude the wavelength points which has nothing to do with determination composition or present nonlinear correlation, finally 8 spectral intervals totally 160 wavelength points were obtained as the dataset. Combining the data sets which have optimized by OSC-FiPLS with partial least squares (PLS) to establish a rapid quantitative analysis model for determining the content of linalool and linalyl acetate in Xinjiang lavender essential oil, numbers of hidden variables of two

  14. Intraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil induces peripheral antinociception mediated by opioid mechanism.

    PubMed

    Sakurada, Tsukasa; Mizoguchi, Hirokazu; Kuwahata, Hikari; Katsuyama, Soh; Komatsu, Takaaki; Morrone, Luigi Antonio; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana; Bagetta, Giacinto; Sakurada, Shinobu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of bergamot essential oil (BEO) containing linalool and linalyl acetate as major volatile components in the capsaicin test. The intraplantar injection of capsaicin (1.6 μg) produced a short-lived licking/biting response toward the injected paw. The nociceptive behavioral response evoked by capsaicin was inhibited dose-dependently by intraplantar injection of BEO. Both linalool and linalyl acetate, injected into the hindpaw, showed a significant reduction of nociceptive response, which was much more potent than BEO. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) and intraplantar pretreatment with naloxone hydrochloride, an opioid receptor antagonist, significantly reversed BEO- and linalool-induced antinociception. Pretreatment with naloxone methiodide, a peripherally acting μ-opioid receptor preferring antagonist, resulted in a significant antagonizing effect on antinociception induced by BEO and linalool. Antinociception induced by i.p. or intrathecal morphine was enhanced by the combined injection of BEO or linalool. The enhanced effect of combination of BEO or linalool with morphine was antagonized by pretreatment with naloxone hydrochloride. Our results provide evidence for the involvement of peripheral opioids, in the antinociception induced by BEO and linalool. Combined administration of BEO or linalool acting at the peripheral site, and morphine may be a promising approach in the treatment of clinical pain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A method for reducing environmental pollution by using essential oils in rodent pest management program.

    PubMed

    Jokić, Goran; Blažić, Tanja; Đurović-Pejčev, Rada; Đorđević, Tijana; Đedović, Suzana; Vukša, Marina

    2017-08-01

    Strong-smelling plant extracts, such as essential oils, have a variety of feeding effects on mammals. Considering current concerns over long-term health issues and environmental effects of chemicals, plant-based products with repellent or antifungal activities may represent good solutions for improvement of rodent pest control programs. The present study was therefore focused on examining the effects of bergamot, lavender, and thyme essential oils as additional bait components on daily intakes of cereal-based baits by wild house mice. Lavender essential oil, containing linalool and linalyl acetate as main components, and thyme essential oil with a prevailing thymol component had no effects on house mice diet. Bergamot essential oil, whose main components were linalool, limonene, and linalyl acetate, showed a repellent effect on house mouse diet.

  16. In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy Studies of Lavender angustifolia Essential Oil and Its Active Constituents on the Proliferation of Human Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunqi; Chen, Ran; Wang, Yun; Qing, Chen; Wang, Wei; Yang, Yixin

    2017-06-01

    Lavandula angustifolia is the most widely cultivated Lavandula species. The extraction of its flower and leaves has been used as herbal medicine. In this study, the in vitro antitumor activities were tested on human prostate cancer PC-3 and DU145 cell lines. Flow cytometry technology was applied to study apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest. The PC-3 cell line was used to establish subcutaneous xenograft tumors in nude mice. Paraffin sections from xenograft tumor specimens were used in the TUNEL (terminal deocynucleotide transferase dUTP nick end labeling) assay and an immunohistochemistry assay to detect cell proliferation markers Ki67 and PCNA. Lavender essential oil, linalool, and linalyl acetate showed stronger inhibitory effect on PC-3 cells than on DU145 cells. The apoptotic cell populations observed in PC-3 cells treated with lavender essential oil, linalool, and linalyl acetate were 74.76%, 67.11%, and 56.14%, respectively. The PC-3 cells were mainly arrested in the G 2 /M phase. In the xenograft model with PC-3 cell transplantation, essential oil and linalool significantly suppressed tumor growth. The immunosignals of Ki67 and PCNA in the essential oil, linalool, and linalyl acetate treatment groups were significantly lower than that of the control group in xenograft tumor sections. The TUNEL assay indicated that each of the 3 phytochemicals significantly induced apoptosis compared to the control group. This study provides novel insight and evidence on the antiproliferative effect of L angustifolia essential oil and its major constituents on human prostate cancer. The antitumor effect was associated with cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in xenograft tumors.

  17. In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy Studies of Lavender angustifolia Essential Oil and Its Active Constituents on the Proliferation of Human Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yunqi; Chen, Ran; Wang, Yun; Qing, Chen; Wang, Wei; Yang, Yixin

    2016-01-01

    Lavandula angustifolia is the most widely cultivated Lavandula species. The extraction of its flower and leaves has been used as herbal medicine. In this study, the in vitro antitumor activities were tested on human prostate cancer PC-3 and DU145 cell lines. Flow cytometry technology was applied to study apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest. The PC-3 cell line was used to establish subcutaneous xenograft tumors in nude mice. Paraffin sections from xenograft tumor specimens were used in the TUNEL (terminal deocynucleotide transferase dUTP nick end labeling) assay and an immunohistochemistry assay to detect cell proliferation markers Ki67 and PCNA. Lavender essential oil, linalool, and linalyl acetate showed stronger inhibitory effect on PC-3 cells than on DU145 cells. The apoptotic cell populations observed in PC-3 cells treated with lavender essential oil, linalool, and linalyl acetate were 74.76%, 67.11%, and 56.14%, respectively. The PC-3 cells were mainly arrested in the G2/M phase. In the xenograft model with PC-3 cell transplantation, essential oil and linalool significantly suppressed tumor growth. The immunosignals of Ki67 and PCNA in the essential oil, linalool, and linalyl acetate treatment groups were significantly lower than that of the control group in xenograft tumor sections. The TUNEL assay indicated that each of the 3 phytochemicals significantly induced apoptosis compared to the control group. This study provides novel insight and evidence on the antiproliferative effect of L angustifolia essential oil and its major constituents on human prostate cancer. The antitumor effect was associated with cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in xenograft tumors. PMID:27151584

  18. Intraplantar injection of bergamot essential oil into the mouse hindpaw: effects on capsaicin-induced nociceptive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Sakurada, Tsukasa; Kuwahata, Hikari; Katsuyama, Soh; Komatsu, Takaaki; Morrone, Luigi Antonio; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana; Bagetta, Giacinto; Sakurada, Shinobu

    2009-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of aromatherapy oils, there have not been many studies exploring the biological activities of bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso) essential oil (BEO). Recently, we have investigated the effects of BEO injected into the plantar surface of the hindpaw in the capsaicin test in mice. The intraplantar injection of capsaicin produced an intense and short-lived licking/biting response toward the injected hindpaw. The capsaicin-induced nociceptive response was reduced significantly by intraplantar injection of BEO. The essential oils of Clary Sage (Salvia sclarea), Thyme ct. linalool (linalool chemotype of Thymus vulgaris), Lavender Reydovan (Lavandula hybrida reydovan), and True Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), had similar antinociceptive effects on the capsaicin-induced nociceptive response, while Orange Sweet (Citrus sinensis) essential oil was without effect. In contrast to a small number of pharmacological studies of BEO, there is ample evidence regarding isolated components of BEO which are also found in other essential oils. The most abundant compounds found in the volatile fraction are the monoterpene hydrocarbons, such as limonene, gamma-terpinene, beta-pinene, and oxygenated derivatives, linalool and linalyl acetate. Of these monoterpenes, the pharmacological activities of linalool have been examined. Following intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration in mice, linalool produces antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic effects in different animal models in addition to anti-inflammatory properties. Linalool also possesses anticonvulsant activity in experimental models of epilepsy. We address the importance of linalool or linalyl acetate in BEO-or the other essential oil-induced antinociception.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of blended essential oil preparation.

    PubMed

    Tadtong, Sarin; Suppawat, Supatcha; Tintawee, Anchalee; Saramas, Phanida; Jareonvong, Suchada; Hongratanaworakit, Tapanee

    2012-10-01

    Antimicrobial activities of two blended essential oil preparations comprising lavender oil, petigrain oil, clary sage oil, ylang ylang oil and jasmine oil were evaluated against various pathogenic microorganisms. Both preparations showed antimicrobial activity in the agar disc diffusion assay against the Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538 and S. epidermidis isolated strain, the fungus, Candida albicans ATCC10231, and the Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli ATCC25922, but showed no activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC9027. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of these preparations was evaluated. By the broth microdilution assay, preparation 1, comprising lavender oil, clary sage oil, and ylang ylang oil (volume ratio 3:4:3), exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than preparation 2, which was composed of petigrain oil, clary sage oil, and jasmine oil (volume ratio 3:4:3). Moreover, the sum of the fractional inhibitory concentrations (Sigma fic) of preparation 1 expressed a synergistic antimicrobial effect against the tested microorganisms (Sigma ficlinalyl acetate, and linalool as major components. Our experiments showed that the differential antimicrobial effect of either blended oil preparations or single/pure essential oils may be influenced by the amount of linalool and linalyl acetate, and the number of active components in either the blended preparations or single/pure essential oils. In addition, blended oil preparations expressed synergistic antimicrobial effect by the accumulation of active components such as linalool and linalyl acetate and combining active constituents of more than one oil.

  20. Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula latifolia Essential Oils from Spain: Aromatic Profile and Bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Compositions of true lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia) essential oils, cultivated and extracted in the Southeast of Spain, were determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection, obtaining both relative (peak area) and absolute (using standard curves) concentrations. Linalool (37-54 %), linalyl acetate (21-36 %) and (E)-β-caryophyllene (1-3 %) were the most abundant components for L. angustifolia. Linalool (35-51 %), eucalyptol (26-32 %), camphor (10-18 %), α-pinene (1-2 %), α-terpineol (1-2 %) and α-bisabolene (1-2 %) were the most abundant components for L. latifolia. The characterization was completed with enantioselective gas chromatography, in which the determined main molecules were (-)-linalool, (-)-linalyl acetate and (+)-camphor. (S)-(-)-camphene, (R)-(+)-limonene, (1R, 9S)-(-)-(E)-β-caryophyllene and (1R, 4R, 6R, 10S)-(-)-caryophyllene oxide were found in this study as the predominant enantiomers in Spanish L. angustifolia. The characterised essential oils were tested for their antioxidant activity against free radicals ABTS, DPPH, ORAC, chelating, and reducing power. Inhibitory activity on lipoxygenase was observed indicating a possible anti-inflammatory activity, mainly due to linalool, camphor, p-cymene and limonene. These results can be the starting point for a future study of the potential use of L. angustifolia and L. latifolia essential oils as natural cosmetic and natural pharmaceutical ingredients for several skin diseases. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Essential oil diversity of European Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Lukas, Brigitte; Schmiderer, Corinna; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    This investigation focused on the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil compounds of European Origanum vulgare. Extracts of 502 individual O. vulgare plants from 17 countries and 51 populations were analyzed via GC. Extracts of 49 plants of 5 populations of Israeli Origanum syriacum and 30 plants from 3 populations of Turkish Origanum onites were included to exemplify essential oil characteristics of 'high-quality' oregano. The content of essential oil compounds of European O. vulgare ranged between 0.03% and 4.6%. The monoterpenes were primarily made up of sabinene, myrcene, p-cymene, 1,8-cineole, β-ocimene, γ-terpinene, sabinene hydrate, linalool, α-terpineol, carvacrol methyl ether, linalyl acetate, thymol and carvacrol. Among the sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, germacrene D-4-ol, spathulenol, caryophyllene oxide and oplopanone were often present in higher amounts. According to the proportions of cymyl-compounds, sabinyl-compounds and the acyclic linalool/linalyl acetate three different main monoterpene chemotypes were defined. The cymyl- and the acyclic pathway were usually active in plants from the Mediterranean climate whereas an active sabinyl-pathway was a characteristic of plants from the Continental climate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical and biological diversity of Bergamot (Citrus bergamia) in relation to environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Statti, Giancarlo A; Conforti, Filomena; Sacchetti, Gianni; Muzzoli, Mariavittoria; Agrimonti, Caterina; Menichini, Francesco

    2004-03-01

    Oil of bergamot is receiving renewed popularity in aromatherapy. The biovariability of Citrus bergamia grown wild in Calabria (Italy) was investigated as far as chemical markers (linalool, linalyl acetate and bergapten) content and antioxidant and antifungal activities of the methanolic extracts. The average content in the markers presents slight variations with the altitude and more evident changes with the latitude of the areas of plant collection.

  3. Evaluation of bioactivity of linalool-rich essential oils from Ocimum basilucum and Coriandrum sativum varieties.

    PubMed

    Duman, Ahmet D; Telci, Isa; Dayisoylu, Kenan S; Digrak, Metin; Demirtas, Ibrahim; Alma, Mehmet H

    2010-06-01

    Essential oils from Ocimum basilicum L. and Coriandrum sativum L. varieties originating from Turkey were investigated for their antimicrobial properties. The antimicrobial effects of the oil varieties were evaluated by the disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods against eight bacteria and three fungi. The compositions of the essential oils were analyzed and identified by GC and GC-MS. O. basilicum, C. sativum var. macrocarpum and var. microcarpum oils revealed the presence of linalool (54.4%), eugenol (9.6%), methyl eugenol (7.6%); linalool (78.8%), gamma-terpinene (6.0%), nerol acetate (3.5%); and linalool (90.6%), and nerol acetate (3.3%) as the major components, respectively. The oils exhibited antibacterial activity ranging from 1.25 to 10 microL disc(-1) against the test organisms with inhibition zones of 9.5-39.0 mm and minimal inhibitory concentrations values in the range 0.5- > or =1 microL/L. Linalool, eugenol, and methyl eugenol at 1.25 microL disc(-1) had antimicrobial effects on all microorganisms, giving inhibition zones ranging from 7 to 19 mm.

  4. Thymus mastichina L. essential oils from Murcia (Spain): Composition and antioxidant, antienzymatic and antimicrobial bioactivities

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2018-01-01

    The compositions of essential oils (EOs) from Spanish marjoram (Thymus mastichina L.) grown in several bioclimatic zones of Murcia (SE Spain) were studied to determine their absolute and relative concentrations using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 1,8-Cineole and linalool were the main components, followed by α-pinene, β-pinene and α-terpineol. (–)-Linalool, (+)-α-terpineol and (+)-α-pinene were the most abundant enantiomers. When the antioxidant capacities of T. mastichina EOs and their compounds were measured by five methods, EOs and linalool, linalyl acetate, α-terpinene and γ-terpinene, among others, showed antioxidant activities. All four T. mastichina EOs inhibited both lipoxygenase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and they might be useful for further research into inflammatory and Alzheimer diseases. Bornyl acetate and limonene showed the highest lipoxygenase inhibition and 1,8-cineole was the best acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Moreover, these EOs inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans due to the contribution of their individual compounds. The results underline the potential use of these EOs in manufactured products, such as foodstuff, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. PMID:29304179

  5. Terpenoids inhibit Candida albicans growth by affecting membrane integrity and arrest of cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Zore, Gajanan B; Thakre, Archana D; Jadhav, Sitaram; Karuppayil, S Mohan

    2011-10-15

    Anti-Candida potential of six terpenoids were evaluated in this study against various isolates of Candida albicans (n=39) and non-C. albicans (n=9) that are differentially susceptible to fluconazole. All the six terpenoids tested, showed excellent activity and were equally effective against isolates of Candida sps., tested in this study. Linalool and citral were the most effective ones, inhibiting all the isolates at ≤0.064% (v/v). Five among the six terpenoids tested were fungicidal. Time dependent kill curve assay showed that MFCs of linalool and eugenol were highly toxic to C. albicans, killing 99.9% inoculum within seven min of exposure, while that of citronellal, linalyl acetate and citral required 15min, 1h and 2h, respectively. FIC index values (Linalool - 0.140, benzyl benzoate - 0.156, eugenol - 0.265, citral - 0.281 and 0.312 for linalyl acetate and citronellal) and isobologram obtained by checker board assay showed that all the six terpenoids tested exhibit excellent synergistic activity with fluconazole against a fluconazole resistant strain of C. albicans. Terpenoids tested arrested C. albicans cells at different phases of the cell cycle i.e. linalool and LA at G1, citral and citronellal at S phase and benzyl benzoate at G2-M phase and induced apoptosis. Linalool, citral, citronellal and benzyl benzoate caused more than 50% inhibition of germ tube induction at 0.008%, while eugenol and LA required 0.032 and 0.016% (v/v) concentrations, respectively. MICs of all the terpenoids for the C. albicans growth were non toxic to HeLa cells. Terpenoids tested exhibited excellent activity against C. albicans yeast and hyphal form growth at the concentrations that are non toxic to HeLa cells. Terpenoids tested in this study may find use in antifungal chemotherapy, not only as antifungal agents but also as synergistic agents along with conventional drugs like fluconazole. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of a Plastid-Localized Bifunctional Nerolidol/Linalool Synthase in Relation to Linalool Biosynthesis in Young Grape Berries

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bao-Qing; Cai, Jian; Wang, Zhi-Qun; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Duan, Chang-Qing; Pan, Qiu-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Monoterpenoids are a diverse class of natural products and contribute to the important varietal aroma of certain Vitis vinifera grape cultivars. Among the typical monoterpenoids, linalool exists in almost all grape varieties. A gene coding for a nerolidol/linalool (NES/LINS) synthase was evaluated in the role of linalool biosynthesis in grape berries. Enzyme activity assay of this recombinant protein revealed that it could convert geranyl diphosphate and farnesyl diphosphate into linalool and nerolidol in vitro, respectively, and thus it was named VvRILinNer. However, localization experiment showed that this enzyme was only localized to chloroplasts, which indicates that VvRILinNer functions in the linalool production in vivo. The patterns of gene expression and linalool accumulation were analyzed in the berries of three grape cultivars (“Riesling”, “Cabernet Sauvignon”, “Gewurztraminer”) with significantly different levels of monoterpenoids. The VvRILinNer was considered to be mainly responsible for the synthesis of linalool at the early developmental stage. This finding has provided us with new knowledge to uncover the complex monoterpene biosynthesis in grapes. PMID:25470020

  7. Volatile constituents of Trichothecium roseum.

    PubMed

    Vanhaelen, M; Vanhaelen-Fastre, R; Geeraerts, J

    1978-06-01

    In the course of investigation of Trichothecium roseum (Fungi Imperfecti) for its attractancy against Tyrophagus putrescentiae (cheese mite), the twenty following volatile compounds produced at a very low concentration by the microfungus were identified by gc, gc/ms, gc/c.i.ms and tlc: 3-methyl-1-butanol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-one, 3-octanol, octa-1,5-dien-3 one, 1-octen-3-ol, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol, octa-1,5-dien-3 ol, furfural, linalool, linalyl acetate, terpineol (alpha and beta) citronellyl acetate, nerol, citronellol, phenylacetaldehyde, benzyl alcohol geranyl acetate, 1-phenyl ethanol and nerolidol. Octa-1,5-dien-3-ol and octa-1,5-dien-3-one have not been previously isolated from fungi; octa-1,5-dien-3-ol is the most potent attractant amount the volatile compounds detected by gc.

  8. Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil of Skimmia laureola leaves.

    PubMed

    Barkatullah; Ibrar, Muhammad; Muhammad, Naveed; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2015-03-16

    The composition of the essential oil from leaves of Skimmia laureola was determined by GC and GC-MS. Twenty-eight components were identified, accounting for 93.9% of the total oil. The oil is mainly composed of monoterpenes (93.5%), of which monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes represent 11.0% and 82.5%, respectively. Sesquiterpenes constitute only 0.3% of the total oil. Linalyl acetate is the main component (50.5%), with linalool (13.1%), geranyl acetate (8.5%) and cis-p-menth-2-en-1-ol (6.2%) as other principal constituents. The essential oil showed a significant antispasmodic activity, in a dose range of 0.03-10 mg/mL. The essential oil also possesses antibacterial and antifungal activities against some pathogenic strains. The phytotoxic and cytotoxic activities were also assessed.

  9. Essential Oil Characterization of Thymus vulgaris from Various Geographical Locations

    PubMed Central

    Satyal, Prabodh; Murray, Brittney L.; McFeeters, Robert L.; Setzer, William N.

    2016-01-01

    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) is a commonly used flavoring agent and medicinal herb. Several chemotypes of thyme, based on essential oil compositions, have been established, including (1) linalool; (2) borneol; (3) geraniol; (4) sabinene hydrate; (5) thymol; (6) carvacrol, as well as a number of multiple-component chemotypes. In this work, two different T. vulgaris essential oils were obtained from France and two were obtained from Serbia. The chemical compositions were determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. In addition, chiral gas chromatography was used to determine the enantiomeric compositions of several monoterpenoid components. The T. vulgaris oil from Nyons, France was of the linalool chemotype (linalool, 76.2%; linalyl acetate, 14.3%); the oil sample from Jablanicki, Serbia was of the geraniol chemotype (geraniol, 59.8%; geranyl acetate, 16.7%); the sample from Pomoravje District, Serbia was of the sabinene hydrate chemotype (cis-sabinene hydrate, 30.8%; trans-sabinene hydrate, 5.0%); and the essential oil from Richerenches, France was of the thymol chemotype (thymol, 47.1%; p-cymene, 20.1%). A cluster analysis based on the compositions of these essential oils as well as 81 additional T. vulgaris essential oils reported in the literature revealed 20 different chemotypes. This work represents the first chiral analysis of T. vulgaris monoterpenoids and a comprehensive description of the different chemotypes of T. vulgaris. PMID:28231164

  10. Metabolic products of linalool and modulation of GABAA receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanos, Sinem; Elsharif, Shaimaa A.; Janzen, Dieter; Buettner, Andrea; Villmann, Carmen

    2017-06-01

    Terpenoids are major subcomponents in aroma substances which harbor sedative physiological potential. We have demonstrated that various monoterpenoids such as the acyclic linalool enhance GABAergic currents in an allosteric manner in vitro upon overexpression of inhibitory a1b2 GABAA receptors in various expression systems. However, in plants or humans, i.e. following intake via inhalation or ingestion, linalool undergoes metabolic modifications including oxygenation and acetylation, which may affect the modulatory efficacy of the generated linalool derivatives. Here, we analyzed the modulatory potential of linalool derivatives at a1b2g2 GABAA receptors upon transient overexpression. Following receptor expression control, electrophysiological recordings in a whole cell configuration were used to determine the chloride influx upon co-application of GABA EC5-10 together with the modulatory substance. Our results show that only oxygenated linalool metabolites at carbon 8 positively affect GABAergic currents whereas derivatives hydroxylated or carboxylated at carbon 8 were rather ineffective. Acetylated linalool derivatives resulted in non-significant changes of GABAergic currents. We can conclude that metabolism of linalool reduces its positive allosteric potential at GABAA receptors compared to the significant potentiation effects of the parent molecule linalool itself.

  11. Antibacterial effects of the essential oils of commonly consumed medicinal herbs using an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Marin, Petar D; Brkić, Dejan; van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2010-10-27

    The chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oils from 10 commonly consumed herbs: Citrus aurantium, C. limon, Lavandula angustifolia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, M. spicata, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Thymus vulgaris and Salvia officinalis have been determined. The antibacterial activity of these oils and their main components; i.e. camphor, carvacrol, 1,8-cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, limonene, menthol, a-pinene, b-pinene, and thymol were assayed against the human pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Micrococcus flavus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enteritidis, S. epidermidis, S. typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. The highest and broadest activity was shown by O. vulgare oil. Carvacrol had the highest antibacterial activity among the tested components.

  12. CYP76C1 (Cytochrome P450)-Mediated Linalool Metabolism and the Formation of Volatile and Soluble Linalool Oxides in Arabidopsis Flowers: A Strategy for Defense against Floral Antagonists[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lesot, Agnès; Ginglinger, Jean-François; Beran, Franziska; Schneider, Bernd; Leiss, Kirsten; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle

    2015-01-01

    The acyclic monoterpene alcohol linalool is one of the most frequently encountered volatile compounds in floral scents. Various linalool oxides are usually emitted along with linalool, some of which are cyclic, such as the furanoid lilac compounds. Recent work has revealed the coexistence of two flower-expressed linalool synthases that produce the (S)- or (R)-linalool enantiomers and the involvement of two P450 enzymes in the linalool oxidation in the flowers of Arabidopsis thaliana. Partially redundant enzymes may also contribute to floral linalool metabolism. Here, we provide evidence that CYP76C1 is a multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes a cascade of oxidation reactions and is the major linalool metabolizing oxygenase in Arabidopsis flowers. Based on the activity of the recombinant enzyme and mutant analyses, we demonstrate its prominent role in the formation of most of the linalool oxides identified in vivo, both as volatiles and soluble conjugated compounds, including 8-hydroxy, 8-oxo, and 8-COOH-linalool, as well as lilac aldehydes and alcohols. Analysis of insect behavior on CYP76C1 mutants and in response to linalool and its oxygenated derivatives demonstrates that CYP76C1-dependent modulation of linalool emission and production of linalool oxides contribute to reduced floral attraction and favor protection against visitors and pests. PMID:26475865

  13. Evaluation of larvicidal activity and ecotoxicity of linalool, methyl cinnamate and methyl cinnamate/linalool in combination against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Gislene M; Annies, Vinícius; de Oliveira, Camila F; Lara, Ricardo A; Gabriel, Maria M; Betim, Fernando C M; Nadal, Jéssica M; Farago, Paulo V; Dias, Josiane F G; Miguel, Obdulio G; Miguel, Marilis D; Marques, Francisco A; Zanin, Sandra M W

    2017-05-01

    The frequent use of synthetic pesticides to control Aedes aegypti population can lead to environmental and/or human contamination and the emergence of resistant insects. Linalool and methyl cinnamate are presented as an alternative to the synthetic pesticides, since they can exhibit larvicidal, repellent and/or insecticidal activity and are considered safe for use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of methyl cinnamate, linalool and methyl cinnamate/linalool in combination (MC-L) (1:4 ratio, respectively) against Aedes aegypti. The in vitro preliminary toxicity through brine shrimp lethality assay and hemolytic activity, and the phytotoxic potential were also investigated to assess the safety of their use as larvicide. Methyl cinnamate showed significant larvicidal activity when compared to linalool (LC 50 values of 35.4µg/mL and 275.2µg/mL, respectively) and to MC-L (LC 50 138.0µg/mL). Larvae morphological changes subjected to the specified treatments were observed, as the flooding of tracheal system and midgut damage, hindering the larval development and survival. Preliminary in vitro toxicity through brine shrimp showed the high bioactivity of the substances (methyl cinnamate LC 50 35.5µg/mL; linalool LC 50 96.1µg/mL) and the mixture (MC-L LC 50 57.7µg/mL). The results showed that, despite the higher larvicidal activity of methyl cinnamate, the use of MC-L as a larvicide seems to be more appropriate due to its significant larvicidal activity and low toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Antinociceptive and anticonvulsant effects of the monoterpene linalool oxide.

    PubMed

    Souto-Maior, Flávia Negromonte; Fonsêca, Diogo Vilar da; Salgado, Paula Regina Rodrigues; Monte, Lucas de Oliveira; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Almeida, Reinaldo Nóbrega

    2017-12-01

    Linalool oxide (OXL) (a monoterpene) is found in the essential oils of certain aromatic plants, or it is derived from linalool. The motivation for this work is the lack of psychopharmacological studies on this substance. To evaluate OXL's acute toxicity, along with its anticonvulsant and antinociceptive activities in male Swiss mice. OXL (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg, i.p.) was investigated for acute toxicity and in the Rota-rod test. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated by the acetic acid-induced writhing test, and by formalin testing. Anticonvulsant effects were demonstrated by testing for pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures and by Maximum Electroshock headset (MES) test. OXL was administered to the animals intraperitoneally 30 min before for pharmacological tests. OXL showed an LD 50 of ∼721 (681-765) mg/kg. In the Rota-rod test, it was observed that OXL caused no damage to the animal's motor coordination. OXL significantly reduced (p < .001) the number of writhings. OXL also significantly decreased (p < .05, p < .01 or p < .001) paw-licking time in the two phases of the formalin test. OXL significantly reduced (p < .01 or p < .001) the duration of tonic seizures in the MES test, and at the dose 150 mg/kg, significantly increased (p < .01) the latency to first seizure in the PTZ test. The tested doses of OXL were safe, with no motor impairment, and show clear antinociceptive and anticonvulsant potential. Future investigations with this monoterpene may lead to the development of a new molecule with even higher potency and selectivity.

  15. Insecticidal activity of basil oil, trans-anethole, estragole, and linalool to adult fruit flies of Ceratitis capitata, Bactrocera dorsalis, and Bactrocera cucurbitae.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chiou Ling; Cho, Il Kyu; Li, Qing X

    2009-02-01

    Basil oil and its three major active constituents (trans-anethole, estragole, and linalool) obtained from basil (Oscimum basilicum L.) were tested on three tephritid fruit fly species [Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett)] for insecticidal activity. All test chemicals acted fast and showed a steep dose-response relationship. The lethal times for 90% mortality/knockdown (LT90) of the three fly species to 10% of the test chemicals were between 8 and 38 min. The toxic action of basil oil in C. capitata occurred significantly faster than in B. cucurbitae but slightly faster than in B. dorsalis. Estragole acted faster in B. dorsalis than in C. capitata and B. cucurbitae. Linalool action was faster in B. dorsalis and C. capitata than in B. cucurbitae. trans-Anethole action was similar to all three species. Methyl eugenol acted faster in C. capitata and B. cucurbitae than in B. dorsalis. When linalool was mixed with cuelure (attractant to B. cucurbitae male), its potency to the three fly species decreased as the concentration of cuelure increased. This was due to linalool hydrolysis catalyzed by acetic acid from cuelure degradation, which was confirmed by chemical analysis. When methyl eugenol (B. dorsalis male attractant) was mixed with basil oil, trans-anethole, estragole, or linalool, it did not affect the toxicity of basil oil and linalool to B. dorsalis, but it did significantly decrease the toxicity of trans-anethole and estragole. Structural similarity between methyl eugenol and trans-anethole and estragole suggests that methyl eugenol might act at a site similar to that of trans-anethole and estragole and serve as an antagonist if an action site exists. Methyl eugenol also may play a physiological role on the toxicity reduction.

  16. Oxidized limonene and oxidized linalool - concomitant contact allergy to common fragrance terpenes.

    PubMed

    Bråred Christensson, Johanna; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Andersen, Klaus E; Bruze, Magnus; Johansen, Jeanne D; Garcia-Bravo, Begoña; Giménez Arnau, Ana; Goh, Chee-Leok; Nixon, Rosemary; White, Ian R

    2016-05-01

    Limonene and linalool are common fragrance terpenes. Both oxidized R-limonene and oxidized linalool have recently been patch tested in an international setting, showing contact allergy in 5.2% and 6.9% of dermatitis patients, respectively. To investigate concomitant reactions between oxidized R-limonene and oxidized linalool in consecutive dermatitis patients. Oxidized R-limonene 3.0% (containing limonene hydroperoxides 0.33%) and oxidized linalool 6% (linalool hydroperoxides 1%) in petrolatum were tested in 2900 consecutive dermatitis patients in Australia, Denmark, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. A total of 281 patients reacted to either oxidized R-limonene or oxidized linalool. Of these, 25% had concomitant reactions to both compounds, whereas 29% reacted only to oxidized R-limonene and 46% only to oxidized linalool. Of the 152 patients reacting to oxidized R-limonene, 46% reacted to oxidized linalool, whereas 35% of the 200 patients reacting to oxidized linalool also reacted to oxidized R-limonene. The majority of the patients (75%) reacted to only one of the oxidation mixtures, thus supporting the specificity of the reactions. The concomitant reactions to the two fragrance allergens suggest multiple sensitizations, which most likely reflect the exposure to the different fragrance materials in various types of consumer products. This is in accordance with what is generally seen for patch test reactions to fragrance materials. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Physical and Psychologic Effects of Aromatherapy Inhalation on Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Stress reduction care is important for pregnant women to decrease obstetric complications and children's health problems after birth. The aim of this study is to clarify the physical and psychologic effects of inhalation aromatherapy on pregnant women. Essential oils with high linalool and linalyl acetate content that may be used during pregnancy were selected and among these, and the one preferred by the participant was used. Design This was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Settings/location This trial was performed at a gynecology outpatient department in a hospital in Kyoto, Japan. Participants The study included pregnant women in week 28 of a single pregnancy with a normal course. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned into an aromatherapy group and a control group. They were seated in the resting, seated position for 10 minutes. During the latter 5 minutes of each 10-minute session, aromatherapy inhalation was performed for the aromatherapy group. Outcome measures Before and after the intervention, the Profile of Mood States (POMS) was measured. During the trial, the heart-rate fluctuations were measured for the autonomic nervous system regulation. Results A total of 13 pregnant women participated in the trial. Seven (7) participants were assigned to the aromatherapy group and 6 participants to the control group. The results of the POMS were such that based on an intragroup comparison, significant differences were observed in the Tension-Anxiety score (p<0.05) and the Anger-Hostility score (p<0.05), and the respective improvements observed were due to aromatherapy. The results of the autonomic nervous system regulation were such that based on an intragroup comparison within the aromatherapy group, the parasympathetic nerve activity increased significantly (p<0.05). Conclusions Aromatherapy inhalation using essential oils containing linalyl acetate and linalool was found to be effective for the POMS and parasympathetic

  18. Physical and psychologic effects of aromatherapy inhalation on pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Toshiko

    2013-10-01

    Stress reduction care is important for pregnant women to decrease obstetric complications and children's health problems after birth. The aim of this study is to clarify the physical and psychologic effects of inhalation aromatherapy on pregnant women. Essential oils with high linalool and linalyl acetate content that may be used during pregnancy were selected and among these, and the one preferred by the participant was used. This was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. This trial was performed at a gynecology outpatient department in a hospital in Kyoto, Japan. The study included pregnant women in week 28 of a single pregnancy with a normal course. Participants were randomly assigned into an aromatherapy group and a control group. They were seated in the resting, seated position for 10 minutes. During the latter 5 minutes of each 10-minute session, aromatherapy inhalation was performed for the aromatherapy group. Before and after the intervention, the Profile of Mood States (POMS) was measured. During the trial, the heart-rate fluctuations were measured for the autonomic nervous system regulation. A total of 13 pregnant women participated in the trial. Seven (7) participants were assigned to the aromatherapy group and 6 participants to the control group. The results of the POMS were such that based on an intragroup comparison, significant differences were observed in the Tension-Anxiety score (p<0.05) and the Anger-Hostility score (p<0.05), and the respective improvements observed were due to aromatherapy. The results of the autonomic nervous system regulation were such that based on an intragroup comparison within the aromatherapy group, the parasympathetic nerve activity increased significantly (p<0.05). Aromatherapy inhalation using essential oils containing linalyl acetate and linalool was found to be effective for the POMS and parasympathetic nerve activity, based on an intragroup comparison. However, based on a comparison between the groups, no

  19. Evaluation of linalool, a natural antimicrobial and insecticidal essential oil from basil: effects on poultry.

    PubMed

    Beier, Ross C; Byrd, J Allen; Kubena, Leon F; Hume, Michael E; McReynolds, Jackson L; Anderson, Robin C; Nisbet, David J

    2014-02-01

    Linalool is a natural plant-product used in perfumes, cosmetics, and flavoring agents. Linalool has proven antimicrobial and insect-repellent properties, which indicate it might be useful for control of enteropathogens or insect pests in poultry production. However, there are no published reports that linalool may be safely administered to or tolerated by chickens. Linalool was added to the diets of day-of-hatch chicks, and they were fed linalool-supplemented diets for 3 wk. We studied the effects of linalool on serum chemistry, gross pathology, feed conversion, and relative liver weights. Linalool had a dramatic negative dose-dependent effect on feed conversion at concentrations in the feed exceeding 2% linalool, but not on gross pathology. Liver weights were significantly increased in the 5% linalool-treated birds. There was a statistical effect on blood glucose, but this parameter remained below the cut-offs for elevated serum glucose, and the result is likely of no biological significance. Linalool caused serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels to increase, but it did not increase serum gamma-glutamyl transferase levels. The linalool effect on AST was dose-dependent, but in linalool doses between 0.1 and 2% of the feed, AST was not elevated beyond normal parameters. Linalool at 2% or less may be safely added to chicken feed. We suggest future studies to evaluate the addition of linalool to the litter, where it may be used as an antimicrobial or an insect repellent or to produce a calming effect.

  20. Selective removal of monoterpenes from bergamot oil by inclusion in deoxycholic acid.

    PubMed

    Fantin, Giancarlo; Fogagnolo, Marco; Maietti, Silvia; Rossetti, Stefano

    2010-05-12

    A new approach for removing monoterpenes (MTs) from bergamot oil by selective inclusion in deoxycholic acid (DCA) is proposed. The inclusion process is very efficient, the included fraction being composed mainly of limonene (71.7%) and gamma-terpinene (19.8%). On the other hand, the deterpenated bergamot oil fraction showed for the linalool and linalyl acetate derivatives significant increases from 16.6 and 21.4% to 18.3 and 42.2%, respectively. The major advantages of this methodology are its simplicity, the mild conditions employed, and the quantitative recovery of both host (DCA) and guest (monoterpenes) compounds. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetry (TG), powder X-ray diffractometry (XRPD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and proton magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) analysis were used to investigate and characterize the inclusion compounds.

  1. Biosynthesis and therapeutic properties of Lavandula essential oil constituents.

    PubMed

    Woronuk, Grant; Demissie, Zerihun; Rheault, Mark; Mahmoud, Soheil

    2011-01-01

    Lavenders and their essential oils have been used in alternative medicine for several centuries. The volatile compounds that comprise lavender essential oils, including linalool and linalyl acetate, have demonstrative therapeutic properties, and the relative abundance of these metabolites is greatly influenced by the genetics and environment of the developing plants. With the rapid progress of molecular biology and the genomic sciences, our understanding of essential oil biosynthesis has greatly improved over the past few decades. At the same time, there is a recent surge of interest in the use of natural remedies, including lavender essential oils, in alternative medicine and aromatherapy. This article provides a review of recent developments related to the biosynthesis and medicinal properties of lavender essential oils. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Pressurized fluid extraction of essential oil from Lavandula hybrida using a modified supercritical fluid extractor and a central composite design for optimization.

    PubMed

    Kamali, Hossein; Jalilvand, Mohammad Reza; Aminimoghadamfarouj, Noushin

    2012-06-01

    Essential oil components were extracted from lavandin (Lavandula hybrida) flowers using pressurized fluid extraction. A central composite design was used to optimize the effective extraction variables. The chemical composition of extracted samples was analyzed by a gas chromatograph-flame ionization detector column. For achieving 100% extraction yield, the temperature, pressure, extraction time, and the solvent flow rate were adjusted at 90.6°C, 63 bar, 30.4 min, and 0.2 mL/min, respectively. The results showed that pressurized fluid extraction is a practical technique for separation of constituents such as 1,8-cineole (8.1%), linalool (34.1%), linalyl acetate (30.5%), and camphor (7.3%) from lavandin to be applied in the food, fragrance, pharmaceutical, and natural biocides industries. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Electrospinning of cyclodextrin/linalool-inclusion complex nanofibers: Fast-dissolving nanofibrous web with prolonged release and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Aytac, Zeynep; Yildiz, Zehra Irem; Kayaci-Senirmak, Fatma; Tekinay, Turgay; Uyar, Tamer

    2017-09-15

    The volatility and limited water solubility of linalool is a critical issue to be solved. Here, we demonstrated the electrospinning of polymer-free nanofibrous webs of cyclodextrin/linalool-inclusion complex (CD/linalool-IC-NFs). Three types of modified cyclodextrin (HPβCD, MβCD, and HPγCD) were used to electrospin CD/linalool-IC-NFs. Free-standing CD/linalool-IC-NFs facilitate maximum loading of linalool up to 12% (w/w). A significant amount of linalool (45-89%) was preserved in CD/linalool-IC-NFs, due to enhancement in the thermal stability of linalool by cyclodextrin inclusion complexation. Remarkably, CD/linalool-IC-NFs have shown fast-dissolving characteristics in which these nanofibrous webs dissolved in water within two seconds. Furthermore, linalool release from CD/linalool-IC-NFs inhibited growth of model Gram-negative (E. coli) and Gram-positive (S. aureus) bacteria to a great extent. Briefly, characteristics of liquid linalool have been preserved in a solid nanofiber form and designed CD/linalool-IC-NFs confer high loading capacity, enhanced shelf life and strong antibacterial activity of linalool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Contact Allergy to Hydroperoxides of Linalool and D-Limonene in a US Population.

    PubMed

    Nath, Neel Som; Liu, Beiyu; Green, Cynthia; Atwater, Amber Reck

    Linalool and D-limonene are common fragrance ingredients that readily oxidize on exposure to air. The resulting hydroperoxides of linalool and D-limonene have been shown to have high frequencies of positive patch test reactions in several European and international studies. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of contact allergy to the hydroperoxides of linalool and D-limonene in a US population. In this retrospective study, 103 patients with suspected fragrance allergy were patch tested to linalool 10% petrolatum (pet), hydroperoxides of linalool 1% pet, D-limonene 10% pet, and/or the hydroperoxides of D-limonene 0.3% pet between July 9, 2014, and October 25, 2016. In this study, the frequency of positive patch test reactions to the hydroperoxides of linalool is 20% (19/96), and the frequency of positive reactions to the hydroperoxides of D-limonene is 8% (7/90). These high frequencies suggest that patch testing to the hydroperoxides of linalool and limonene should be performed in all patients with suspected fragrance allergy.

  5. More lessons from linalool: insights gained from a ubiquitous floral volatile.

    PubMed

    Raguso, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    Linalool (3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol) is a common floral volatile with two distinct enantiomers and related metabolites involved in the full spectrum of plant-pollinator interactions. Recent studies reveal a complex interplay between pollinator attraction and plant defense mediated by linalool and its derivatives, from the smallest (Arabidopsis, Mitella) to the largest (Datura) flowers studied. Accordingly, fig wasps, fungus gnats and moths of all sizes show remarkable electrophysiological, neural and behavioral sensitivity to different enantiomers and quantitative ratios of linalool in floral bouquets. The diverse functions of linalool, ranging from toxin to long distance pollinator attractant are discussed in the broader context of floral volatile ecology and evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. S-(+)-Linalool from Lippia alba: sedative and anesthetic for silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen).

    PubMed

    Heldwein, Clarissa G; Silva, Lenise de L; Gai, Eduarda Z; Roman, Cassiela; Parodi, Thaylise V; Bürger, Marilise E; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Flores, Érico M de M; Heinzmann, Berta M

    2014-11-01

    The present study describes the isolation of linalool from the essential oil of Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Brown, and its anesthetic effect in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) in comparison with essential oil. The potentiation of depressant effects of linalool with a benzodiazepine (BDZ) and the involvement of GABAergic system in its antagonism by flumazenil were also evaluated. Prospective experimental study. Juvenile silver catfish unknown sex weighing mean 9.24 ± 2.83 g (n = 6 for each experimental group per experiment). Column chromatography was used for the isolation of S-(+)-linalool. Fish (n = 6 for each concentration) were transferred to aquaria with linalool (30, 60, and 180 μL L(-1)) or EO of L. alba (50, 100, and 300 μL L(-1)) to determine the induction time for anesthesia. After induction, the animals were transferred to anesthetic-free aquaria to assess their recovery time. To observe the potentiation, fish were exposed to linalool (30, 60, and 180 μL L(-1)) in the presence or absence of BDZ (diazepam 150 μm). In another experiment, fish exposed to linalool (30 and 180 μL L(-1) or BDZ were transferred to an anesthetic-free aquaria containing flumazenil (5 μm) or water to assess recovery time. Linalool had a similar sedation profile to the essential oil at a proportional concentration in silver catfish. However, the anesthesia profile was different. Potentiation of linalool effect occurred only when tested at low concentration. Fish exposed to BDZ showed faster anesthesia recovery in water with flumazenil, but the same did not occur with linalool. The use of linalool as a sedative and anesthetic for silver catfish was effective at 30 and 180 μL L(-1), respectively. The mechanism of action seems not to involve the benzodiazepine site of the GABAergic system. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  7. Identification of Aroma Compounds of Lamiaceae Species in Turkey Using the Purge and Trap Technique.

    PubMed

    Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2017-02-08

    The present research was planned to characterize the aroma composition of important members of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis , Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica . Aroma components of the S. officinalis , L. angustifolia and M. asiatica were extracted with the purge and trap technique with dichloromethane and analyzed with the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. A total of 23, 33 and 33 aroma compounds were detected in Salvia officinalis , Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica , respectively including, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and terpenes. Terpene compounds were both qualitatively and quantitatively the major chemical group among the identified aroma compounds, followed by esters. The main terpene compounds were 1,8-cineole, sabinene and linalool in Salvia officinalis , Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica , respectively. Among esters, linalyl acetate was the only and most important ester compound which was detected in all samples.

  8. Antioxidant and antibacterial effects of Lavandula and Mentha essential oils in minced beef inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus during storage at abuse refrigeration temperature.

    PubMed

    Djenane, Djamel; Aïder, Mohammed; Yangüela, Javier; Idir, Lamia; Gómez, Diego; Roncalés, Pedro

    2012-12-01

    The essential oils (EOs) of Lavandula angustifolia L. and Mentha piperita L. were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The major constituents were linalool (22.35%), linalyl acetate (21.80%), trans-ocimene (6.16%) and 4-terpineol (5.19%) for L. angustifolia and menthol (33.28%), menthone (22.03%), and menthyl acetate (6.40%) for M. piperita. In vitro antibacterial activity of both EOs against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus CECT 4459 showed high inhibition against S. aureus. The lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were obtained with L. angustifolia (0.25 μL/mL) against S. aureus; M. piperita exhibited a MIC of 0.50 μL/mL against both microorganisms. Both EOs caused a significant decrease of bacterial growth in minced beef (p<0.05) stored at 9±1 °C. Minced beef treated with EOs showed the lowest TBARS values (lipid oxidation). Moreover, the results showed that the addition of EOs significantly extended fresh meat odor even at abuse temperature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of five essential oils from lamiaceae against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Kot, Barbara; Wierzchowska, Kamila; Piechota, Małgorzata; Czerniewicz, Paweł; Chrzanowski, Grzegorz

    2018-06-11

    Analysis of Lamiaceae essential oils (EOs) by GC-FID-MS revealed the presence as the major constituents of linalool (16.8%), linalyl acetate (15.7%) in Lavandula angustifolia, menthol (29.0%), menthone (22.7%), menthyl acetate (19.2%) in Mentha x piperita, terpinen-4-ol (27.1%), (E)-sabinene hydrate (12.1%), γ-terpinene (10.0%) in Origanum majorana, α-thujone (19.5%), camphor (19.0%), viridiflorol (13.5%) in Salvia officinalis, thymol (61.9%), p-cymene (10.0%), γ-terpinene (10.0%) in Thymus vulgaris. Based on the MIC and MBC values (0.09-0.78 mg/mL) and ratio MBC/MIC showed that EO from T. vulgaris (TO) had the strong inhibitory and bactericidal effect against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The bacterial cells were total killed by TO at 2MIC concentration after 6 h. The higher concentrations of other EOs were needed to achieve bactericidal effects. The strong bactericidal effect of TO against these bacteria indicates the possibility of topical use of TO but it requires research under clinical conditions.

  10. Allergy to oxidized limonene and linalool is frequent in the U.K.

    PubMed

    Audrain, H; Kenward, C; Lovell, C R; Green, C; Ormerod, A D; Sansom, J; Chowdhury, M M U; Cooper, S M; Johnston, G A; Wilkinson, M; King, C; Stone, N; Horne, H L; Holden, C R; Wakelin, S; Buckley, D A

    2014-08-01

    The oxidized forms of the fragrance terpenes limonene and linalool are known to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Significant rates of contact allergy to these fragrances have been reported in European studies and in a recent worldwide study. Patch testing to oxidized terpenes is not routinely carried out either in the U.K. or in other centres internationally. To investigate the prevalence of contact allergy to oxidized limonene and linalool in the U.K. Between 1 August 2011 and 31 December 2012, 4731 consecutive patients in 13 U.K. dermatology departments were tested for hydroperoxides of limonene 0·3% pet., hydroperoxides of linalool 1·0% pet., stabilized limonene 10·0% pet. and stabilized linalool 10·0% pet. Doubtful (?+) and equivocal (±) reactions were grouped together as irritant reactions. Two hundred and thirty-seven patients (5·0%) had a positive patch test reaction to hydroperoxides of limonene 0·3% pet. and 281 (5·9%) to hydroperoxides of linalool 1·0% pet. Irritant reactions to one or both oxidized terpenes were found in 242 patients (7·3%). Eleven patients (0·2%) had a positive patch test reaction to the stabilized terpenes alone. This large, multicentre U.K. audit shows a significant rate of allergy to the hydroperoxides of limonene and linalool plus a high rate of irritant reactions. Testing to the oxidized forms alone captures the majority (97·0%; 411 of 422) of positive reactions; testing to nonoxidized terpenes appears to be less useful. We recommend that the hydroperoxides of limonene and linalool be added to an extended baseline patch test series. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  11. Linalool prevents oxidative stress activated protein kinases in single UVB-exposed human skin cells

    PubMed Central

    Govindasamy, Kanimozhi; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Muthusamy, Ganesan; Shanmugam, Mohana; Thangaiyan, Radhiga; Robert, Beaulah Mary; Ponniresan, Veeramani kandan; Rathinaraj, Pierson

    2017-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B radiation (285–320 nm) elicits a number of cellular signaling elements. We investigated the preventive effect of linalool, a natural monoterpene, against UVB-induced oxidative imbalance, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) signaling in HDFa cells. We observed that linalool treatment (30 μM) prevented acute UVB-irradiation (20 mJ/cm2) mediated loss of activities of antioxidant enzymes in HDFa cells. The comet assay results illustrate that linalool significantly prevents UVB-mediated 8-deoxy guanosine formation (oxidative DNA damage) rather than UVB-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine (CPD) formation. This might be due to its ability to prevent UVB-induced ROS formation and to restore the oxidative imbalance of cells. This has been reflected in UVB-induced overexpression of MAPK and NF-κB signaling. We observed that linalool inhibited UVB-induced phosphorylation of ERK1, JNK and p38 proteins of MAPK family. Linalool inhibited UVB-induced activation of NF-κB/p65 by activating IκBa. We further observed that UVB-induced expression of TNF-α, IL6, IL-10, MMP-2 and MMP-9 was modulated by linalool treatment in HDFa cells. Thus, linalool protects the human skin cells from the oxidative damages of UVB radiation and modulates MAPK and NF-κB signaling in HDFa cells. The present findings substantiate that linalool may act as a photoprotective agent against UVB-induced skin damages. PMID:28467450

  12. Detection of potentially skin sensitizing hydroperoxides of linalool in fragranced products.

    PubMed

    Kern, Susanne; Dkhil, Hafida; Hendarsa, Prisca; Ellis, Graham; Natsch, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    On prolonged exposure to air, linalool can form sensitizing hydroperoxides. Positive hydroperoxide patch tests in dermatitis patients have frequently been reported, but their relevance has not been established. Owing to a lack of analytical methods and data, it is unclear from which sources the public might be exposed to sufficient quantities of hydroperoxides for induction of sensitization to occur. To address this knowledge gap, we developed analytical methods and performed stability studies for fine fragrances and deodorants/antiperspirants. In parallel, products recalled from consumers were analysed to investigate exposure to products used in everyday life. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with high mass resolution was found to be optimal for the selective and sensitive detection of the organic hydroperoxide in the complex product matrix. Linalool hydroperoxide was detected in natural linalool, but the amount was not elevated by storage in a perfume formulation exposed to air. No indication of hydroperoxide formation in fine fragrances was found in stability studies. Aged fine fragrances recalled from consumers contained a geometric mean linalool concentration of 1,888 μg/g and, corrected for matrix effects, linalool hydroperoxide at a concentration of around 14 μg/g. In antiperspirants, we detected no oxidation products. In conclusion, very low levels of linalool hydroperoxide in fragranced products may originate from raw materials, but we found no evidence for oxidation during storage of products. The levels detected are orders of magnitude below the levels inducing sensitization in experimental animals, and these results therefore do not substantiate a causal link between potential hydroperoxide formation in cosmetics and positive results of patch tests.

  13. Potential application of aromatic plant extracts to prevent cheese blowing.

    PubMed

    Librán, C M; Moro, A; Zalacain, A; Molina, A; Carmona, M; Berruga, M I

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Clostridium tyrobutyricum, common bacteria responsible for early and late cheese blowing defects respectively, by using novel aqueous extracts obtained by dynamic solid-liquid extraction and essential oils obtained by solvent free microwave extraction from 12 aromatic plants. In terms of antibacterial activity, a total of 13 extracts inhibited one of the two bacteria, and only two essential oils, Lavandula angustifolia Mill. and Lavandula hybrida, inhibited both. Four aqueous extracts were capable of inhibiting C. tyrobutyricum, but none were effective against E. coli. After extracts' chemical composition identification, relationship between the identified compounds and their antibacterial activity were performed by partial least square regression models revealing that compounds such as 1,8 cineole, linalool, linalyl acetate, β-phellandrene or verbene (present in essential oils), pinocarvone, pinocamphone or coumaric acid derivate (in aqueous extracts) were compounds highly correlated to the antibacterial activity.

  14. Identification of Aroma Compounds of Lamiaceae Species in Turkey Using the Purge and Trap Technique

    PubMed Central

    Sonmezdag, Ahmet Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2017-01-01

    The present research was planned to characterize the aroma composition of important members of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica. Aroma components of the S. officinalis, L. angustifolia and M. asiatica were extracted with the purge and trap technique with dichloromethane and analyzed with the gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) technique. A total of 23, 33 and 33 aroma compounds were detected in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively including, acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and terpenes. Terpene compounds were both qualitatively and quantitatively the major chemical group among the identified aroma compounds, followed by esters. The main terpene compounds were 1,8-cineole, sabinene and linalool in Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Mentha asiatica, respectively. Among esters, linalyl acetate was the only and most important ester compound which was detected in all samples. PMID:28231089

  15. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Wild Growing Aromatic Plant Species of Skimmia laureola and Juniperus macropoda from Western Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Stappen, Iris; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Ali, Abbas; Wedge, David E; Wanner, Jürgen; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar K; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2015-06-01

    The Himalayan region is very rich in a great variety of medicinal plants. In this investigation the essential oils of two selected species are described for their antimicrobial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the odors are characterized. Analyzed by simultaneous GC-MS and GC-FID, the essential oils' chemical compositions are given. The main components of Skimmia laureola oil were linalool and linalyl acetate whereas sabinene was found as the main compound for Juniperus macropoda essential oil. Antibacterial testing by agar dilution assay revealed highest activity of S. laureola oil against all tested bacteria, followed by J. macropoda oil. Antifungal activity was evaluated against the strawberry anthracnose causing plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides. Juniperus macropoda essential oil indicated higher antifungal activity against all three pathogens than S. laureola oil. Both essential oils showed biting deterrent activity above solvent control but low larvicidal activity.

  16. Tomato linalool synthase is induced in trichomes by jasmonic acid

    PubMed Central

    van Schie, Chris C. N.; Haring, Michel A.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants emit a blend of volatile organic compounds, which mainly consists of terpenes. Upon herbivory or wounding, the emission of several terpenes increases. We have identified and characterized the first two tomato monoterpene synthases, LeMTS1 and LeMTS2. Although these proteins were highly homologous, recombinant LeMTS1 protein produced (R)-linalool from geranyl diphosphate (GPP) and (E)-nerolidol from farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), while recombinant LeMTS2 produced β-phellandrene, β-myrcene, and sabinene from GPP. In addition, these genes were expressed in different tissues: LeMTS1 was expressed in flowers, young leaves, stems, and petioles, while LeMTS2 was strongest expressed in stems and roots. LeMTS1 expression in leaves was induced by spider mite-infestation, wounding and jasmonic acid (JA)-treatment, while LeMTS2 did not respond to these stimuli. The expression of LeMTS1 in stems and petioles was predominantly detected in trichomes and could be induced by JA. Because JA treatment strongly induced emission of linalool and overexpression of LeMTS1 in tomato resulted in increased production of linalool, we propose that LeMTS1 is a genuine linalool synthase. Our results underline the importance of trichomes in JA-induced terpene emission in tomato. PMID:17440821

  17. Investigation of the anxiolytic effects of linalool, a lavender extract, in the male Sprague-Dawley rat.

    PubMed

    Cline, Michael; Taylor, John E; Flores, Jesus; Bracken, Samuel; McCall, Suzanne; Ceremuga, Thomas E

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the anxiolytic effects of linalool and its potential interaction with the GABAA receptor in Sprague-Dawley rats. Lavender has been used traditionally as an herbal remedy in the treatment of many medical conditions, including anxiety. Linalool is a major component of the essential oil of lavender. Forty-four rats were divided into 4 groups: control, linalool, midazolam (positive control), and flumazenil and linalool. The behavioral and the neurohormonal/physiological components of anxiety were evaluated. The behavioral component was examined by using the elevated plus maze (open arm time/total time) and the neurohormonal/physiological component by measuring serum catecholamine and corticosterone levels. Data analysis was performed using a 2-tailed Multivariate Analysis of Variance and Sheffe post-hoc test. Our data suggest that linalool does not produce anxiolysis by modulation of the GABAA receptor; however, linalool may modulate motor movements and locomotion.

  18. Linalool Ameliorates Memory Loss and Behavioral Impairment Induced by REM-Sleep Deprivation through the Serotonergic Pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bo Kyung; Jung, An Na; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2018-07-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has an essential role in the process of learning and memory in the hippocampus. It has been reported that linalool, a major component of Lavandula angustifolia , has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects, along with other effects. However, the effect of linalool on the cognitive impairment and behavioral alterations that are induced by REM-sleep deprivation has not yet been elucidated. Several studies have reported that REM-sleep deprivation-induced memory deficits provide a well-known model of behavioral alterations. In the present study, we examined whether linalool elicited an anti-stress effect, reversing the behavioral alterations observed following REM-sleep deprivation in mice. Furthermore, we investigated the underlying mechanism of the effect of linalool. Spatial memory and learning memory were assessed through Y maze and passive avoidance tests, respectively, and the forced swimming test was used to evaluate anti-stress activity. The mechanisms through which linalool improves memory loss and behavioral alterations in sleep-deprived mice appeared to be through an increase in the serotonin levels. Linalool significantly ameliorated the spatial and learning memory deficits, and stress activity observed in sleep-deprived animals. Moreover, linalool led to serotonin release, and cortisol level reduction. Our findings suggest that linalool has beneficial effects on the memory loss and behavioral alterations induced by REM-sleep deprivation through the regulation of serotonin levels.

  19. Ectopic accumulation of linalool confers resistance to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri in transgenic sweet orange plants.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Takehiko; Endo, Tomoko; Rodríguez, Ana; Fujii, Hiroshi; Goto, Shingo; Matsuura, Takakazu; Hojo, Yuko; Ikeda, Yoko; Mori, Izumi C; Fujikawa, Takashi; Peña, Leandro; Omura, Mitsuo

    2017-05-01

    In order to clarify whether high linalool content in citrus leaves alone induces strong field resistance to citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), and to assess whether this trait can be transferred to a citrus type highly sensitive to the bacterium, transgenic 'Hamlin' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) plants over-expressing a linalool synthase gene (CuSTS3-1) were generated. Transgenic lines (LIL) with the highest linalool content showed strong resistance to citrus canker when spray inoculated with the bacterium. In LIL plants inoculated by wounding (multiple-needle inoculation), the linalool level was correlated with the repression of the bacterial titer and up-regulation of defense-related genes. The exogenous application of salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate or linalool triggered responses similar to those constitutively induced in LIL plants. The linalool content in Ponkan mandarin leaves was significantly higher than that of leaves from six other representative citrus genotypes with different susceptibilities to Xcc. We propose that linalool-mediated resistance might be unique to citrus tissues accumulating large amounts of volatile organic compounds in oil cells. Linalool might act not only as a direct antibacterial agent, but also as a signal molecule involved in triggering a non-host resistance response against Xcc. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Linalool reverses neuropathological and behavioral impairments in old triple transgenic Alzheimer’s mice

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Sabogal-Guáqueta Angélica; Edison, Osorio; Patricia, Cardona-Gómez Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-related progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Several types of treatments have been tested to block or delay the onset of the disease, but none have been completely successful. Diet, lifestyle and natural products are currently the main scientific focuses. Here, we evaluate the effects of oral administration of the monoterpene linalool (25 mg / kg), every 48 hours for 3 months, on aged (21–24 months old) mice with a triple transgenic model of AD (3xTg-AD) mice. Linalool-treated 3xTg-AD mice showed improved learning and spatial memory and greater risk assessment behavior during the elevated plus maze. Hippocampi and amygdalae from linalool-treated 3xTg-AD mice exhibited a significant reduction in extracellular β-amyloidosis, tauopathy, astrogliosis and microgliosis as well as a significant reduction in the levels of the pro-inflammatory markers p38 MAPK, NOS2, COX2 and IL-1β. Together, our findings suggest that linalool reverses the histopathological hallmarks of AD and restores cognitive and emotional functions via an anti-inflammatory effect. Thus, linalool may be an AD prevention candidate for preclinical studies. PMID:26549854

  1. The effect of linalool on second-stage juveniles of the potato cyst nematodes Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida.

    PubMed

    Būda, Vincas; Cepulytė-Rakauskienė, Rasa

    2011-09-01

    Linalool is either a toxic compound to a few species of plant parasitic nematodes or attractive to entomopathogenic nematodes. This compound is produced and emitted by several host plants of Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida, the potato cyst nematodes (PCN). With the aim to reveal the effect of linalool on PCN, laboratory assays were carried out. Survival of PCN second-stage juveniles (J2s) in water + linalool control did not differ; thus, proving linalool to be nontoxic to PCN. Behavioral assays carried out in Petri dishes revealed attractiveness in the form of positive response of J2s of both PCN species towards linalool. Based on these behavioral assays, sensitivity to linalool of G. rostochiensis J2s was higher compared with that of G. pallida J2s. Linalool is the first compound of plant origin to elicit positive response in both PCN species.

  2. Effect of plantar subcutaneous administration of bergamot essential oil and linalool on formalin-induced nociceptive behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Katsuyama, Soh; Otowa, Akira; Kamio, Satomi; Sato, Kazuma; Yagi, Tomomi; Kishikawa, Yukinaga; Komatsu, Takaaki; Bagetta, Giacinto; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Nakamura, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of bergamot essential oil (BEO) or linalool, a major volatile component of BEO, on the nociceptive response to formalin. Plantar subcutaneous injection of BEO or linalool into the ipsilateral hindpaw reduced both the first and late phases of the formalin-induced licking and biting responses in mice. Plantar subcutaneous injection of BEO or linalool into the contralateral hindpaw did not yield an antinociceptive effect, suggesting that the antinociceptive effect of BEO or linalool in the formalin test occurred peripherally. Intraperitoneal and plantar subcutaneous injection pretreatment with naloxone hydrochloride, an opioid receptor antagonist, significantly attenuated both BEO- and linalool-induced antinociception. Pretreatment with naloxone methiodide, a peripherally acting opioid receptor antagonists, also significantly antagonized the antinociceptive effects of BEO and linalool. Our results provide evidence for the involvement of peripheral opioids in antinociception induced by BEO and linalool. These results suggest that activation of peripheral opioid receptors may play an important role in reducing formalin-induced nociception.

  3. Linalool from Lippia alba: study of the reproducibility of the essential oil profile and the enantiomeric purity.

    PubMed

    Siani, Antonio C; Tappin, Marcelo R R; Ramos, Mônica F S; Mazzei, José L; Ramos, Maria Conceição K V; De Aquino Neto, Francisco R; Frighetto, Nélson

    2002-06-05

    A new chemotype of the aromatic Verbenaceae species Lippia alba Mill. N. E. Br. from southeastern Brazil has recently been shown to have a high content of linalool in the leaf essential oil. Vegetative propagation of this chemotype was conducted at six different locations in Brazil, and the variation of the content and the optical purity of linalool in the oils were verified. Yields (0.6-0.9%, hydrodistillation), chemical composition, linalool content, and optical purity of the oils from all the plants were compared, using GC-FID, GC-MS, chiral chromatography, and retention index calculation. No plant exceeded the matrix in linalool content (46.5 to 90.7%), and the chemical profile of the oils was the same for all the samples. Purification of linalool to a content close to 100% was effected by vacuum distillation of the crude oil. Chiral analysis showed exclusively the presence of S-linalool in all the crude oils and in the distilled samples.

  4. Change in Caco-2 cells following treatment with various lavender essential oils.

    PubMed

    Donadu, M G; Usai, D; Mazzarello, V; Molicotti, P; Cannas, S; Bellardi, M G; Zanetti, S

    2017-09-01

    Lavender is an aromatic evergreen shrub diffused in the Mediterranean basin appreciated since antiquity. The genus Lavandula is part of Lamiaceae family and includes more than 20 species, among which true lavender (L. vera D.C. or L. angustifolia Miller.) and spike lavender (L. latifolia Medikus); there are also numerous hybrids known as lavandins (L. hybrida Rev.). L. vera, spike lavender and several hybrids are the most intensely used breeding species for the production of essential oils. Lavender and lavandin essential oils have been applied in food, pharmaceutical and other agro industries as biological products. In their chemical composition, terpenes linalool and linalyl acetate along with terpenoids such as 1,8-cineole are mostly responsible for biological and therapeutic activities. This study evaluates cytotoxic activity of essential oils derived from four lavender species on human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Analysis of pre- and post-treatment cell morphology has been performed using scanning electron microscope.

  5. A domain swapping approach to elucidate differential regiospecific hydroxylation by geraniol and linalool synthases from perilla.

    PubMed

    Sato-Masumoto, Naoko; Ito, Michiho

    2014-06-01

    Geraniol and linalool are acyclic monoterpenes found in plant essential oils that have attracted much attention for their commercial use and in pharmaceutical studies. They are synthesized from geranyl diphosphate (GDP) by geraniol and linalool synthases, respectively. Both synthases are very similar at the amino acid level and share the same substrate; however, the position of the GDP to which they introduce hydroxyl groups is different. In this study, the mechanisms underlying the regiospecific hydroxylation of geraniol and linalool synthases were investigated using a domain swapping approach and site-directed mutagenesis in perilla. Sequences of the synthases were divided into ten domains (domains I to IV-4), and each corresponding domain was exchanged between both enzymes. It was shown that different regions were important for the formation of geraniol and linalool, namely, domains IV-1 and -4 for geraniol, and domains III-b, III-d, and IV-4 for linalool. These results suggested that the conformation of carbocation intermediates and their electron localization were seemingly to be different between geraniol and linalool synthases. Further, five amino acids in domain IV-4 were apparently indispensable for the formation of geraniol and linalool. According to three-dimensional structural models of the synthases, these five residues seemed to be responsible for the different spatial arrangement of the amino acid at H524 in the case of geraniol synthase, while N526 is the corresponding residue in linalool synthase. These results suggested that the side-chains of these five amino acids, in combination with several relevant domains, localized the positive charge in the carbocation intermediate to determine the position of the introduced hydroxyl group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanisms of resistance to linalool in Salmonella Senftenberg and their role in survival on basil.

    PubMed

    Kalily, Emmanuel; Hollander, Amit; Korin, Ben; Cymerman, Itamar; Yaron, Sima

    2016-11-01

    Fresh produce contaminated with human pathogens raises vital and ecological questions about bacterial survival strategies. Such occurrence was basil harboring Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg that caused an outbreak in 2007. This host was unanticipated due to its production of antibacterial substances, including linalool. We show that linalool perforates bacterial membranes, resulting in increased permeability and leakage of vital molecules. It also inhibits cell motility and causes bacterial aggregation. Linalool-resistance was investigated by identification and characterization of S. Senftenberg mutants that perform altered resistance. Resistance mechanisms include selective permeability, regulated efflux/influx and chemotaxis-controlled motility. Moreover, survival of S. Senftenberg on basil leaves was substantially affected by McpL, a putative chemotaxis-related receptor, and RfaG, a component of the lipopolysaccharide production pathway, both have a role in resistance to linalool. Results reveal that adaptation to linalool occurs in nature by concurrent mechanisms. This adaption raises concerns about pathogens adaptation to new hosts including antimicrobial-compound-producing plants. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Rational Basis for the Use of Bergamot Essential Oil in Complementary Medicine to Treat Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Rombolà, L; Amantea, D; Russo, R; Adornetto, A; Berliocchi, L; Tridico, L; Corasaniti, M T; Sakurada, S; Sakurada, T; Bagetta, G; Morrone, L A

    2016-01-01

    In complementary medicine, aromatherapy uses essential oils to improve agitation and aggression observed in dementia, mood, depression, anxiety and chronic pain. Preclinical research studies have reported that the essential oil obtained from bergamot (BEO) fruit (Citrus bergamia, Risso) modifies normal and pathological synaptic plasticity implicated, for instance, in nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Interestingly, recent results indicated that BEO modulates sensitive perception of pain in different models of nociceptive, inflammatory and neuropathic pain modulating endogenous systems. Thus, local administration of BEO inhibited the nociceptive behavioral effect induced by intraplantar injection of capsaicin or formalin in mice. Similar effects were observed with linalool and linalyl acetate, major volatile components of the phytocomplex, Pharmacological studies showed that the latter effects are reversed by local or systemic pretreatment with the opioid antagonist naloxone hydrochloride alike with naloxone methiodide, high affinity peripheral μ-opioid receptor antagonist. These results and the synergistic effect observed following systemic or intrathecal injection of an inactive dose of morphine with BEO or linalool indicated an activation of peripheral opioid system. Recently, in neuropathic pain models systemic or local administration of BEO or linalool induced antiallodynic effects. In particular, in partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL) model, intraplantar injection of the phytocomplex or linalool in the ipsilateral hindpaw, but not in the contralateral, reduced PSNL-induced extracellularsignal- regulated kinase (ERK) activation and mechanical allodynia. In neuropathic pain high doses of morphine are needed to reduce pain. Interestingly, combination of inactive doses of BEO or linalool with a low dose of morphine induced antiallodynic effects in mice. Peripheral cannabinoid and opioid systems appear to be involved in the antinociception produced by

  8. S-(+)- and R-(-)-linalool: a comparison of the in vitro anti-Aeromonas hydrophila activity and anesthetic properties in fish.

    PubMed

    Silva, Lenise L; Balconi, Luana S; Gressler, Letícia T; Garlet, Quelen I; Sutili, Fernando J; Vargas, Agueda P C; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Morel, Ademir F; Heinzmann, Berta M

    2017-01-01

    Linalool is the main compound of many essential oils and occurs in two isomeric forms: S-(+)- and R-(-)-linalool. This study aimed to determine if linalool isomers have different antimicrobial and anesthetic properties in fish. For this purpose, these compounds were previously isolated from Lippia alba (Mill.)N. E. Brown and Ocimum americanum L. essential oils. Antimicrobial effects were evaluated through the microdilution test against Aeromonas hydrophila, an important fish disease etiologic agent. Induction time until sedation, anesthesia and recovery time were determined in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) through bath exposure (60, 180, 300 or 500 μL L-1). The results showed different biological properties for the isomers being S-(+)-linalool the only active against A. hydrophila at 3.2 mg mL-1. The sedation was induced without differences between the compounds, however R-(-)-linalool promoted faster anesthesia. There were no differences regarding the recovery time of the animals exposed to the linalool isomers. Although both S-(+)- and R-(-)-linalool can be used for sedative purposes, their use in A. hydrophila infection is inadvisable due to the high effective concentration. Considering anesthesia as the main objective, the R-(-)-linalool demonstrated clear advantages at lower concentration.

  9. Evaluation of linalool, a natural antimicrobial and insecticidal essential oil from basil: Effects on poultry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Linalool is a natural plant product used in perfumes, cosmetics, and flavoring agents. Linalool has proven antimicrobial and insect repellant properties which indicate it might be useful for control of enteropathogens or insect pests in poultry production. However, there are no published reports t...

  10. Adaptation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Senftenberg to Linalool and Its Association with Antibiotic Resistance and Environmental Persistence.

    PubMed

    Kalily, Emmanuel; Hollander, Amit; Korin, Ben; Cymerman, Itamar; Yaron, Sima

    2017-05-15

    A clinical isolate of Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg, isolated from an outbreak linked to the herb Ocimum basilicum L. (basil), has been shown to be resistant to basil oil and to the terpene alcohol linalool. To better understand how human pathogens might develop resistance to linalool and to investigate the association of this resistance with resistance to different antimicrobial agents, selective pressure was applied to the wild-type strain by sequential exposure to increasing concentrations of linalool. The results demonstrated that S Senftenberg adapted to linalool with a MIC increment of at least 8-fold, which also resulted in better resistance to basil oil and better survival on harvested basil leaves. Adaptation to linalool was shown to confer cross protection against the antibiotics trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, piperacillin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline, increasing their MICs by 2- to 32-fold. The improved resistance was shown to correlate with multiple phenotypes that included changes in membrane fatty acid composition, induced efflux, reduced influx, controlled motility, and the ability to form larger aggregates in the presence of linalool. The adaptation to linalool obtained in vitro did not affect survival on the basil phyllosphere in planta and even diminished survival in soil, suggesting that development of extreme resistance to linalool may be accompanied by a loss of fitness. Altogether, this report notes the concern regarding the ability of human pathogens to develop resistance to commercial essential oils, a resistance that is also associated with cross-resistance to antibiotics and may endanger public health. IMPORTANCE Greater consumer awareness and concern regarding synthetic chemical additives have led producers to control microbial spoilage and hazards by the use of natural preservatives, such as plant essential oils with antimicrobial activity. This report establishes, however, that these compounds may provoke the emergence

  11. Adaptation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Senftenberg to Linalool and Its Association with Antibiotic Resistance and Environmental Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Kalily, Emmanuel; Korin, Ben; Cymerman, Itamar

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT A clinical isolate of Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg, isolated from an outbreak linked to the herb Ocimum basilicum L. (basil), has been shown to be resistant to basil oil and to the terpene alcohol linalool. To better understand how human pathogens might develop resistance to linalool and to investigate the association of this resistance with resistance to different antimicrobial agents, selective pressure was applied to the wild-type strain by sequential exposure to increasing concentrations of linalool. The results demonstrated that S. Senftenberg adapted to linalool with a MIC increment of at least 8-fold, which also resulted in better resistance to basil oil and better survival on harvested basil leaves. Adaptation to linalool was shown to confer cross protection against the antibiotics trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, piperacillin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline, increasing their MICs by 2- to 32-fold. The improved resistance was shown to correlate with multiple phenotypes that included changes in membrane fatty acid composition, induced efflux, reduced influx, controlled motility, and the ability to form larger aggregates in the presence of linalool. The adaptation to linalool obtained in vitro did not affect survival on the basil phyllosphere in planta and even diminished survival in soil, suggesting that development of extreme resistance to linalool may be accompanied by a loss of fitness. Altogether, this report notes the concern regarding the ability of human pathogens to develop resistance to commercial essential oils, a resistance that is also associated with cross-resistance to antibiotics and may endanger public health. IMPORTANCE Greater consumer awareness and concern regarding synthetic chemical additives have led producers to control microbial spoilage and hazards by the use of natural preservatives, such as plant essential oils with antimicrobial activity. This report establishes, however, that these compounds may provoke the

  12. Formation and emission of linalool in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves infested by tea green leafhopper (Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii Matsuda).

    PubMed

    Mei, Xin; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Xiaoqin; Zeng, Lanting; Fu, Xiumin; Li, Jianlong; Tang, Jinchi; Dong, Fang; Yang, Ziyin

    2017-12-15

    Famous oolong tea (Oriental Beauty), which is manufactured by tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) infected with tea green leafhoppers, contains characteristic volatile monoterpenes derived from linalool. This study aimed to determine the formation mechanism of linalool in tea exposed to tea green leafhopper attack. The tea green leafhopper responsible for inducing the production of characteristic volatiles was identified as Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii Matsuda. E. (M.) onukii attack significantly induced the emission of linalool from tea leaves (p<0.05) as a result of the up-regulation of the linalool synthases (CsLIS1 and CsLIS2) (p<0.05). Continuous mechanical damage significantly enhanced CsLIS1 and CsLIS2 expression levels and linalool emission (p<0.05). Therefore, continuous wounding was a key factor causing the formation and emission of linalool from tea leaves exposed to E. (M.) onukii attack. This information should prove helpful for the future use of stress responses of plant secondary metabolism to improve quality components of agricultural products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Neurotoxic Effects of Linalool and β-Pinene on Tribolium castaneum Herbst.

    PubMed

    Pajaro-Castro, Nerlis; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Olivero-Verbel, Jesus

    2017-11-24

    Effective, ethical pest control requires the use of chemicals that are highly specific, safe, and ecofriendly. Linalool and β-pinene occur naturally as major constituents of the essential oils of many plant species distributed throughout the world, and thus meet these requirements. These monoterpenes were tested as repellents against Tribolium castaneum , using the area preference method, after four hours of exposure and the effect transcriptional of genes associated with neurotransmission. Changes in gene expression of acetylcholinesterase (Ace1), GABA-gated anion channel splice variant 3a6a (Rdl), GABA-gated ion channel (Grd), glutamate-gated chloride channel (Glucl), and histamine-gated chloride channel 2 (Hiscl2) were assessed and the interaction with proteins important for the insect using in silico methods was also studied. For linalool and β-pinene, the repellent concentration 50 (RC 50 ) values were 0.11 µL/cm² and 0.03 µL/cm², respectively. Both compounds induced overexpression of Hiscl2 gen in adult insects, and β-pinene also promoted the overexpression of Grd and the Ace1 gene. However, β-pinene and linalool had little potential to dock on computer-generated models for GABA-gated ion channel LCCH3, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits alpha1 and alpha2, and putative octopamine/tyramine receptor proteins from T. castaneum as their respective binding affinities were marginal, and therefore the repellent action probably involved mechanisms other than direct interaction with these targets. Results indicated that β-pinene was more potent than linalool in inducing insect repellency, and also had a greater capacity to generate changes in the expression of genes involved in neuronal transmission.

  14. Development of formulations to improve the controlled-release of linalool to be applied as an insecticide.

    PubMed

    Lopez, M D; Maudhuit, A; Pascual-Villalobos, M J; Poncelet, D

    2012-02-08

    In recent studies, insecticide activity of a monoterpene, linalool, has been demonstrated, finding, however, limitations in application because of its rapid volatilization. Potential effectiveness of microcapsules and effects of various types of matrices on its stability as controlled-release systems for the slow volatilization of linalool to be applied as insecticide were evaluated. To study controlled-release, linalool was entrapped into microcapsules, inclusion complexes, and beads, obtained by different methods, inverse gelation (IG1, IG2, IG3, IG4, and IG5), oil-emulsion-entrapment (OEE), interfacial coacervation (INCO), and chemical precipitation (Cyc5 and Cyc10). The encapsulation yield turned out to be different for each formulation, reaching the maximum retention for IG1 and OEE. In controlled-release, OEE followed by INCO presented a long time necessary for releasing as a result of the presence of glycerol or chitosan. These results pointed out remarkable differences in the release behavior of linalool depending on matrix composition and the method of encapsulation.

  15. Gene Coexpression Analysis Reveals Complex Metabolism of the Monoterpene Alcohol Linalool in Arabidopsis Flowers[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ginglinger, Jean-François; Boachon, Benoit; Höfer, René; Paetz, Christian; Köllner, Tobias G.; Miesch, Laurence; Lugan, Raphael; Baltenweck, Raymonde; Mutterer, Jérôme; Ullmann, Pascaline; Beran, Franziska; Claudel, Patricia; Verstappen, Francel; Fischer, Marc J.C.; Karst, Francis; Bouwmeester, Harro; Miesch, Michel; Schneider, Bernd; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Ehlting, Jürgen; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle

    2013-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 family encompasses the largest family of enzymes in plant metabolism, and the functions of many of its members in Arabidopsis thaliana are still unknown. Gene coexpression analysis pointed to two P450s that were coexpressed with two monoterpene synthases in flowers and were thus predicted to be involved in monoterpenoid metabolism. We show that all four selected genes, the two terpene synthases (TPS10 and TPS14) and the two cytochrome P450s (CYP71B31 and CYP76C3), are simultaneously expressed at anthesis, mainly in upper anther filaments and in petals. Upon transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana, the TPS enzymes colocalize in vesicular structures associated with the plastid surface, whereas the P450 proteins were detected in the endoplasmic reticulum. Whether they were expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae or in N. benthamiana, the TPS enzymes formed two different enantiomers of linalool: (−)-(R)-linalool for TPS10 and (+)-(S)-linalool for TPS14. Both P450 enzymes metabolize the two linalool enantiomers to form different but overlapping sets of hydroxylated or epoxidized products. These oxygenated products are not emitted into the floral headspace, but accumulate in floral tissues as further converted or conjugated metabolites. This work reveals complex linalool metabolism in Arabidopsis flowers, the ecological role of which remains to be determined. PMID:24285789

  16. Hierarchical cluster analysis and chemical characterisation of Myrtus communis L. essential oil from Yemen region and its antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-colorectal adenocarcinoma properties.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Sirajudheen; Crouch, Rebecca A; Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Al-Fatimi, Mohamed A; Setzer, William N; Wessjohann, Ludger

    2017-09-01

    The hydrodistilled essential oil obtained from the dried leaves of Myrtus communis, collected in Yemen, was analysed by GC-MS. Forty-one compounds were identified, representing 96.3% of the total oil. The major constituents of essential oil were oxygenated monoterpenoids (87.1%), linalool (29.1%), 1,8-cineole (18.4%), α-terpineol (10.8%), geraniol (7.3%) and linalyl acetate (7.4%). The essential oil was assessed for its antimicrobial activity using a disc diffusion assay and resulted in moderate to potent antibacterial and antifungal activities targeting mainly Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The oil moderately reduced the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical (IC 50  = 4.2 μL/mL or 4.1 mg/mL). In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation against HT29 (human colonic adenocarcinoma cells) showed that the essential oil exhibited a moderate antitumor effect with IC 50 of 110 ± 4 μg/mL. Hierarchical cluster analysis of M. communis has been carried out based on the chemical compositions of 99 samples reported in the literature, including Yemeni sample.

  17. Biocidal Potential and Chemical Composition of Industrial Essential Oils from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula × intermedia var. Super, and Santolina chamaecyparissus.

    PubMed

    Ortiz de Elguea-Culebras, Gonzalo; Sánchez-Vioque, Raúl; Berruga, María Isabel; Herraiz-Peñalver, David; González-Coloma, Azucena; Andrés, María Fé; Santana-Méridas, Omar

    2018-01-01

    This work presents the biocidal (insecticidal, ixodicidal, nematicidal, and phytotoxic) effects and chemical compositions of three essential oils obtained from the industrial steam distillation (IEOs) of hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), lavandin (Lavandula × intermedia or L. × hybrida var. Super), and cotton lavender (Santolina chamaecyparissus L.). Their chemical composition analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry showed 1,8-cineole (53%) and β-pinene (16%) as the major components of H. officinalis, linalyl acetate (38%) and linalool (29%) of L. × intermedia; and 1,8-cineole (10%) and 8-methylene-3-oxatricyclo[5.2.0.0 2,4 ]nonane (8%) in S. chamaecyparissus. The biocidal tests showed that L. × intermedia IEO was the most active against the insect Spodoptera littoralis and toxic to the tick Hyalomma lusitanicum, IEO of H. officinalis was strongly active against S. littoralis, and finally, S. chamaecyparissus IEO was a strong antifeedant against the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi, toxic to H. lusitanicum and with moderate effects against Leptinotarsa decemlineata, S. littoralis, and Lolium perenne. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  18. Scent from Jasminum grandiflorum flowers: Investigation of the change in linalool enantiomers at various developmental stages using chemical and molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Pragadheesh, V S; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Rastogi, Shubhra; Shasany, Ajit K

    2017-08-01

    Jasminum species are among the most preferred fresh cut flowers in India since ancient times. The plant produces small and fragrant flowers, which are of great demand in the preparation of fragrant garlands and also in perfume industries. Floral volatile of Jasminum grandiflorum L. (Family: Oleaceae) was extracted using solid-phase microextraction and analyzed in enantioselective gas chromatography. Chemical classes of identified volatiles revealed the presence of terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and fatty acid derivatives. Marker constituent of flower volatiles, linalool was selected for analytical characterization on ethyl- and acetyl-β-cyclodextrin stationary phase. (R)-(-)-Linalool was found as major enantiomer in volatiles of floral buds whereas (S)-(+)-linalool predominated in the volatiles of matured flowers. Simultaneously, a quantitative real-time PCR was performed to find the gene expression of linalool synthase to investigate the mechanism of enantiomeric inversion. The emission pattern of (R)-(-)-linalool at different flower developmental stages was well correlated (P = 0.01) with the gene expression of the cloned linalool synthase from J. grandiflorum. We observed that the successive change in (R)- to (S)-linalool ratio from bud to mature flower was mainly due to the enantio- specific transformation and temporal decline of (R)-linalool producing gene in J. grandiflorum. This enantiomeric change also leads to the difference in flower aroma. Furthermore, this is probably the reason behind consumer's acceptance for jasmine buds rather than bloomed flowers in cut flower segments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Citrus Essential Oils and Their Constituents on Growth of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei-Najafgholi, Hossein; Tarighi, Saeed; Golmohammadi, Morteza; Taheri, Parissa

    2017-04-14

    Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri ( Xcc ), is the most devastating of the citrus diseases worldwide. During our study, we found that Essential oils (EOs) of some citrus cultivars are effective on Xcc . Therefore, it prompted us to determine the plant metabolites responsible for the antibacterial properties. We obtained EOs from some locally cultivated citrus by using a Clevenger apparatus and their major constituents were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effect of Citrus aurantium , C. aurantifolia , Fortunella sp. EOs and their major constituents were evaluated against Xcc -KVXCC1 using a disk diffusion assay. Minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentration of the EOs and their constituents were determined using the broth microdilution method. C. aurantium , C. aurantifolia Eos, and their major constituents including citral, linalool, citronellal, geraniol, α-terpineol, and linalyl acetate indicated antibacterial effects against Xcc . The C. aurantifolia EO and citral showed the highest antibacterial activity among the tested EOs and constituents with inhibition zones of 15 ± 0.33 mm and 16.67 ± 0.88 mm, respectively. Synergistic effects of the constituents were observed between α-terpineol-citral, citral-citronellal, citral-geraniol, and citronellal-geraniol by using a microdilution checkerboard assay. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that exposure of Xcc cells to citral caused cell wall damage and altered cytoplasmic density. We introduced C. aurantifolia and C. aurantium EOs, and their constituents citral, α-terpineol, citronellal, geraniol, and linalool as possible control agents for CBC.

  20. Jasmonate induction of the monoterpene linalool confers resistance to rice bacterial blight and its biosynthesis is regulated by JAZ protein in rice.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Shiduku; Hosokawa-Shinonaga, Yumi; Tamaoki, Daisuke; Yamada, Shoko; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Gomi, Kenji

    2014-02-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is involved in the regulation of host immunity in plants. Recently, we demonstrated that JA signalling has an important role in resistance to rice bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) in rice. Here, we report that many volatile compounds accumulate in response to exogenous application of JA, including the monoterpene linalool. Expression of linalool synthase was up-regulated by JA. Vapour treatment with linalool induced resistance to Xoo, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing linalool synthase were more resistance to Xoo, presumably due to the up-regulation of defence-related genes in the absence of any treatment. JA-induced accumulation of linalool was regulated by OsJAZ8, a rice jasmonate ZIM-domain protein involving the JA signalling pathway at the transcriptional level, suggesting that linalool plays an important role in JA-induced resistance to Xoo in rice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Beta-cyclodextrin enhanced gastroprotective effect of (-)-linalool, a monoterpene present in rosewood essential oil, in gastric lesion models.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Francilene Vieira; de Barros Fernandes, Hélio; Oliveira, Irisdalva Sousa; Viana, Ana Flávia Seraine Custódio; da Costa, Douglas Soares; Lopes, Miriam Teresa Paz; de Lira, Kamila Lopes; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo José; de Sousa, Adriano Antunes; de Cássia Meneses Oliveira, Rita

    2016-11-01

    (-)-Linalool is a monoterpene constituent of many essential oils. This particular monoterpene has both anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity. Moreover, this compound has been shown to be antinociceptive. However, the poor chemical stability and short half-life prevents the clinical application of (-)-linalool and many other essential oils. Important to the topic of this study, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) has been used to increase the solubility, stability, and pharmacological effects of numerous lipophilic compounds in vivo. In this study, the gastroprotective activities of (-)-linalool (LIN) and linalool incorporated into inclusion complex containing β-cyclodextrin (LIN-βCD) were evaluated using models of acute and chronic gastric ulcers in rodents. LIN and LIN-βCD showed strong gastroprotective activity (p < 0.001). The LIN-βCD complex revealed that the gastroprotective effect was significantly improved compared with LIN uncomplexed, suggesting that this improvement is related to increased solubility and stability. Taking together the potentiation of the antioxidant profile of this monoterpene, our results suggest that β-CD may represent an important tool for improved gastroprotective activity of (-)-linalool and other water-insoluble compounds.

  2. Variability of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils between Myrtus communis var. Leucocarpa DC and var. Melanocarpa DC.

    PubMed

    Petretto, Giacomo Luigi; Maldini, Mariateresa; Addis, Roberta; Chessa, Mario; Foddai, Marzia; Rourke, Jonathan P; Pintore, Giorgio

    2016-04-15

    Essential oils (EOs) from several individuals of Myrtus communis L. (M. communis) growing in different habitats in Sardinia have been studied. The analyses were focused on four groups of samples, namely cultivated and wild M. communis var. melanocarpa DC, characterized by red/purple berries, and cultivated and wild M. communis var. leucocarpa DC, characterized by white berries. Qualitative and quantitative analyses demonstrated different EO fingerprints among the studied samples: cultivated and wild leucocarpa variety differs mainly from the melanocarpa variety by a high amount of myrtenyl acetate (>200 mg/mL and 0.4 mg/mL in leucocarpa and melanocarpa varieties respectively). Conversely, the wild group is characterized by a higher amount, compared with the cultivated species, of linalool (about 110 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL respectively), linalyl acetate (about 24 mg/mL and about 6 mg/mL respectively) whereas EOs of the cultivated plants were rich in pinocarveol-cis compared with wild plants (about 2 mg/mL and about 0.5 mg/mL respectively). Principal component analysis applied to the chromatographic data confirm a differentiation and classification of EOs from the four groups of M. communis plants. Finally, antioxidant activity of the studied EOs shows differences between the various categories of samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Activity of essential oils and individual components against acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Ilkay; Kartal, Murat; Kan, Yüksel; Sener, Bilge

    2008-01-01

    We have tested acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities of nineteen essential oils obtained from cultivated plants, namely one from Anethum graveolens L. (organic fertilizer), two from Foeniculum vulgare Mill. collected at fully-mature and flowering stages (organic fertilizer), two from Melissa officinalis L. (cultivated using organic and chemical fertilizers), two from Mentha piperita L. and M. spicata L. (organic fertilizer), two from Lavandula officinalis Chaix ex Villars (cultivated using organic and chemical fertilizers), two from Ocimum basilicum L. (green and purple-leaf varieties cultivated using only organic fertilizer), four from Origanum onites L., O. vulgare L., O. munitiflorum Hausskn., and O. majorana L. (cultivated using organic fertilizer), two from Salvia sclarea L. (organic and chemical fertilizers), one from S. officinalis L. (organic fertilizer), and one from Satureja cuneifolia Ten. (organic fertilizer) by a spectrophotometric method of Ellman using ELISA microplate-reader at 1 mg/ml concentration. In addition, a number of single components widely encountered in most of the essential oils [gamma-terpinene, 4-allyl anisole, (-)-carvone, dihydrocarvone, (-)-phencone, cuminyl alcohol, cumol, 4-isopropyl benzaldehyde, trans-anethole, camphene, iso-borneol, (-)-borneol, L-bornyl acetate, 2-decanol, 2-heptanol, methyl-heptanol, farnesol, nerol, iso-pulegol, 1,8-cineole, citral, citronellal, citronellol, geraniol, linalool, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, piperitone, iso-menthone, menthofurane, linalyl oxide, linalyl ester, geranyl ester, carvacrol, thymol, menthol, vanilline, and eugenol] was also screened for the same activity in the same manner. Almost all of the essential oils showed a very high inhibitory activity (over 80%) against both enzymes, whereas the single components were not as active as the essential oils.

  4. α-Linalool - a marker compound of forged/synthetic sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oils.

    PubMed

    Radulović, Niko S; Blagojević, Polina D; Miltojević, Ana B

    2013-10-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) is known to occur as several chemotypes or cultivars that differ in their essential oil composition. The surprising discovery of 3,7-dimethylocta-1,7-dien-3-ol, the rare α isomer of the well-known monoterpene alcohol β-linalool (3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-ol), in samples of Serbian basil oil provoked an investigation of the origin of α-linalool in these samples. Three scenarios were considered, namely (a) the existence of a new natural chemotype, (b) an artefactual formation during the isolation procedure and (c) the case of a synthetic/forged oil. Noteworthy amounts (15.1-16.9%) of pure α-linalool were isolated from a commercial sample of basil oil, and detailed spectral analyses (MS, IR, (1) H and (13) C NMR) unequivocally confirmed its identity. The analysis by GC and GC/MS of an additional 20 samples of different O. basilicum oils commercially available on the Serbian market or isolated from plant material cultivated in Serbia resulted in the identification of 149 compounds. The obtained compositional data were compared using multivariate statistical analysis to reveal the possible existence of a new basil chemotype. The results of the chemical and statistical analyses give more pro arguments for the synthetic/forged oil hypothesis and suggest that α-linalool could be used as a marker compound of such O. basilicum oils. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. The influence of essential oils on human vigilance.

    PubMed

    Heuberger, Eva; Ilmberger, Josef

    2010-09-01

    Olfactory stimuli are used in aromatherapy to enhance mood, well-being and work efficiency. Nevertheless, the impact of fragrances on cognitive performance in humans is not well understood. The present investigation aimed to evaluate the effects of 1,8-cineol, jasmine absolute ether, linalyl acetate and peppermint essential oil on human vigilance performance. The odorants were administered by means of inhalation and, except for peppermint essential oil, were tested at 2 different dosages. Performance in a standard visual vigilance task was measured in terms of speed and accuracy and subjective ratings of the odorants were assessed in terms of pleasantness, intensity, arousal and stress. We hypothesized that 1,8-cineol, jasmine absolute ether and peppermint essential oil would improve vigilance performance, whereas linalyl acetate would impair such performance. Comparison of the performances of the seven independent experimental groups with that of a control group did not show any of the expected effects. In contrast, inhalation of linalyl acetate decreased reaction times. Within-group analyses, however, revealed significant interactions between subjective ratings of the odorants and task performance. The results of the present investigation emphasize the high impact of subjective factors on the modulation of attentional functions by olfactory stimuli in humans.

  6. Recommendation to test limonene hydroperoxides 0·3% and linalool hydroperoxides 1·0% in the British baseline patch test series.

    PubMed

    Wlodek, C; Penfold, C M; Bourke, J F; Chowdhury, M M U; Cooper, S M; Ghaffar, S; Green, C; Holden, C R; Johnston, G A; Mughal, A A; Reckling, C; Sabroe, R A; Stone, N M; Thompson, D; Wilkinson, S M; Buckley, D A

    2017-12-01

    There is a significant rate of sensitization worldwide to the oxidized fragrance terpenes limonene and linalool. Patch testing to oxidized terpenes is not routinely carried out; the ideal patch test concentration is unknown. To determine the best test concentrations for limonene and linalool hydroperoxides, added to the British baseline patch test series, to optimize detection of true allergy and to minimize irritant reactions. During 2013-2014, 4563 consecutive patients in 12 U.K. centres were tested to hydroperoxides of limonene in petrolatum (pet.) 0·3%, 0·2% and 0·1%, and hydroperoxides of linalool 1·0%, 0·5% and 0·25% pet. Irritant reactions were recorded separately from doubtful reactions. Concomitant reactions to other fragrance markers and clinical relevance were documented. Limonene hydroperoxide 0·3% gave positive reactions in 241 (5·3%) patients, irritant reactions in 93 (2·0%) and doubtful reactions in 110 (2·4%). Linalool hydroperoxide 1·0% gave positive reactions in 352 (7·7%), irritant reactions in 178 (3·9%) and doubtful reactions in 132 (2·9%). A total of 119 patients with crescendo reactions to 0·3% limonene would have been missed if only tested with 0·1% and 131 patients with crescendo reactions to 1·0% linalool would have been missed if only tested with 0·25%. In almost two-thirds of patients with positive patch tests to limonene and linalool the reaction was clinically relevant. The majority of patients did not react to any fragrance marker in the baseline series. We recommend that limonene hydroperoxides be tested at 0·3% and linalool hydroperoxides at 1·0% in the British baseline patch test series. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  7. Essential oil of lavender in anxiety disorders: Ready for prime time?

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are some of the most common psychiatric disorders, with potentially debilitating consequences on individual function. Existing pharmacotherapies for anxiety disorders are limited by delay to therapeutic effect, dependence, tolerance, withdrawal, and abuse potential. Therefore, safe and evidence-based complementary or alternative therapies may be important allies in the care of patients with anxiety disorders. Essential oils are lipophilic and concentrated botanical extracts that exhibit many properties of drugs, although they are not Food and Drug Administration approved and have limitations characteristic of herbal preparations. Lavender essential oil has an extensive anecdotal history of anxiolytic benefit that has recently been supported by clinical efficacy studies. The 2 primary terpenoid constituents of lavender essential oil, linalool and linalyl acetate, may produce an anxiolytic effect in combination via inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels, reduction of 5HT1A receptor activity, and increased parasympathetic tone. The objectives of this article are to provide a brief overview of lavender oil in aromatherapy, explore variability in the constituents of lavender oil, summarize its pharmacology and safety profile, as well as describe its body of research that has been conducted for anxiety.

  8. [Research on improving memory impairment of blue lavender volatile oil].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Yun; Gao, Yong-Sheng; Song, Lin-Zhen; Li, Su-Fang; Qian, Jun-Qing

    2017-12-01

    In order to study the potential application value of lavender volatile oil (LVO), the chemical composition of the volatile oil of lavender was analyzed by GC-MS, and the mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was established. Additionally, the antioxidant enzymes activity of T-SOD, GSH-PX, CAT and MDA content were studied. Experimental results showed that 55 kinds of chemical constituents including terpene, terpene alcohol and ester compounds from LVO were identified, and the content of linalool and linalyl acetate was the highest, accounting for 49.71% of the total volatile oil. The ability of mouse platform memory was improved significantly. The levels of GSH-PX, CAT and T-SOD of mouse brain tissue in the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the model group (P<0.05). The level of MDA reached the maximum value in the model group, while there was no notable difference between the levels of MDA in the drug group and the normal group. The result indicated the significant oxidative activity of LVO, the possibility of induced oxidative stress reduction in neurons, and the reversal effect of memory acquired disorder. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. Controlled release of linalool using nanofibrous membranes of poly(lactic acid) obtained by electrospinning and solution blow spinning: A comparative study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The controlled-release of natural plant oils such as linalool is of interest in therapeutics, cosmetics, and antimicrobial and larvicidal products. The present study reports the release characteristics of linalool encapsulated at three concentrations (10, 15 and 20 wt.%) in poly(lactic acid) nanofib...

  10. Enantiomeric distribution of some linalool containing essential oils and their biological activities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The enantiomeric composition of linalool was determined in 42 essential oils using chiral columns. Essential oils were analyzed by multidimentional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a non-chiral and chiral FSC column combination with modified '-cyclodextrine (Lipodex E) as the chiral statio...

  11. Isolation and biological activities of decanal, linalool, valencene, and octanal from sweet orange oil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kehai; Chen, Qiulin; Liu, Yanjun; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xichang

    2012-11-01

    Product 1 (82.25% valencene), product 2 (73.36% decanal), product 3 (78.12% octanal), and product 4 (90.61% linalool) were isolated from sweet orange oil by combined usage of molecular distillation and column chromatography. The antioxidant activity of sweet orange oil and these products was investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and reducing power assays. In this test, product 1 (82.25% valencene), product 2 (73.36% decanal), and product 4 (90.61% linalool) had antioxidant activity, but lower than sweet orange oil. The antimicrobial activity was investigated in order to evaluate their efficacy against 5 microorganisms. The results showed that sweet orange oil, product 2 (73.36% decanal), product 3 (78.12% octanal), and product 4 (90.61% linalool) had inhibitory and bactericidal effect on the test microorganisms (except Penicillium citrinum). Valencene did not show any inhibitory effect. Saccharomyces cerivisiae was more susceptible, especially to the crude sweet orange oil (minimal inhibitory concentration 6.25 μL/mL). The cytotoxicity was evaluated on Hela cells using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. All test samples showed significant cytotoxicity on the cell lines with IC(50) values much less than 20 μg/mL. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Sedative effect of central administration of Coriandrum sativum essential oil and its major component linalool in neonatal chicks.

    PubMed

    Gastón, María Soledad; Cid, Mariana Paula; Vázquez, Ana María; Decarlini, María Florencia; Demmel, Gabriela I; Rossi, Laura I; Aimar, Mario Leandro; Salvatierra, Nancy Alicia

    2016-10-01

    Context Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae) (coriander) is an herb grown throughout the world as a culinary, medicinal or essential crop. In traditional medicine, it is used for the relief of anxiety and insomnia. Systemic hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extract from aerial parts and seeds had anxiolytic and sedative action in rodents, but little is known about its central effect in chicks. Objective To study the effects of intracerebroventricular administration of essential oil from coriander seeds and its major component linalool on locomotor activity and emotionality of neonatal chicks. Materials and methods The chemical composition of coriander essential oil was determined by a gas-chromatographic analysis (> 80% linalool). Behavioural effects of central administration of coriander oil and linalool (both at doses of 0.86, 8.6 and 86 μg/chick) versus saline and a sedative diazepam dose (17.5 μg/chick, standard drug) in an open field test for 10 min were observed. Results Doses of 8.6 and 86 μg from coriander oil and linalool significantly decreased (p < 0.05) squares crossed number, attempted escapes, defecation number and distress calls, and significantly increased (p < 0.05) the sleeping posture on an open field compared with saline and were similar to the diazepam group. Discussion and conclusion The results indicate that intracerebroventricular injection of essential oil from Coriandrum sativum seeds induced a sedative effect at 8.6 and 86 μg doses. This effect may be due to monoterpene linalool, which also induced a similar sedative effect, and, therefore, could be considered as a potential therapeutic agent similar to diazepam.

  13. Experimental hut evaluation of linalool spatial repellent agar gel against Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto mosquitoes in a semi-field system in Bagamoyo, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Tambwe, Mgeni Mohamed; Mbeyela, Edgar Mtaki; Massinda, Brian Migamyo; Moore, Sarah Jane; Maia, Marta Ferreira

    2014-12-05

    Malaria vector control is in need of new tools to face its current challenges such as the spread of pyrethroid-resistance and the increase of outdoor feeding mosquitoes. New strategies such as spatial repellents need to be evaluated as supplemental tools to existing control measures such as insecticide treated bed nets and indoor residual spraying. Linalool is a naturally occurring terpene alcohol commonly found in flowers and spices with reportedly repellent properties. Four experimental huts fitted with exit traps and enclosed inside a large screened semi-field system were used for the evaluation. The tested spatial repellent product consisted of an agar gel emanator containing 73% linalool. Two rounds of experiments using a Latin square design were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the linalool emanators compared to no treatment (negative control) and a transfluthrin coil (positive) against lab-reared disease free Anopheles gambiae s.s.. The emanators were hung inside experimental huts where two volunteers were sleeping unprotected. The outcome measures were repellency, % feeding inhibition, %mortality and post 24 h % mortality. Unlike the mosquito coil, the linalool emanators did not show any feeding inhibition, repellency or induced mortality compared to the negative control. On the other hand mosquitoes kept for 24 h post exposure were 3 times more likely to die after being exposed to two 73% linalool emanators than the negative control. Our results indicate that linalool agar gel emanators are not adequate as a spatial repellent against Anopheles gambiae s.s.. However adding linalool to known repellent formulations could be advantageous, not only because of its pleasant scent but also because of the delayed mortality effect it has on mosquitoes.

  14. Use of linalool synthase in genetic engineering of scent production

    DOEpatents

    Pichersky, Eran

    1998-01-01

    A purified S-linalool synthase polypeptide from Clarkia breweri is disclosed as is the recombinant polypeptide and nucleic acid sequences encoding the polypeptide. Also disclosed are antibodies immunoreactive with the purified peptide and with recombinant versions of the polypeptide. Methods of using the nucleic acid sequences, as well as methods of enhancing the smell and the flavor of plants expressing the nucleic acid sequences are also disclosed.

  15. Monoterpenoids (thymol, carvacrol and S-(+)-linalool) with anesthetic activity in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen): evaluation of acetylcholinesterase and GABAergic activity

    PubMed Central

    Bianchini, A.E.; Garlet, Q.I.; da Cunha, J.A.; Bandeira, G.; Brusque, I.C.M.; Salbego, J.; Heinzmann, B.M.; Baldisserotto, B.

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the anesthetic potential of thymol and carvacrol, and their influence on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the muscle and brain of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). The AChE activity of S-(+)-linalool was also evaluated. We subsequently assessed the effects of thymol and S-(+)-linalool on the GABAergic system. Fish were exposed to thymol and carvacrol (25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) to evaluate time for anesthesia and recovery. Both compounds induced sedation at 25 mg/L and anesthesia with 50–100 mg/L. However, fish exposed to carvacrol presented strong muscle contractions and mortality. AChE activity was increased in the brain of fish at 50 mg/L carvacrol and 100 mg/L thymol, and decreased in the muscle at 100 mg/L carvacrol. S-(+)-linalool did not alter AChE activity. Anesthesia with thymol was reversed by exposure to picrotoxin (GABAA antagonist), similar to the positive control propofol, but was not reversed by flumazenil (antagonist of benzodiazepine binding site), as observed for the positive control diazepam. Picrotoxin did not reverse the effect of S-(+)-linalool. Thymol exposure at 50 mg/L is more suitable than carvacrol for anesthesia in silver catfish, because this concentration did not cause any mortality or interference with AChE activity. Thymol interacted with GABAA receptors, but not with the GABAA/benzodiazepine site. In contrast, S-(+)-linalool did not act in GABAA receptors in silver catfish. PMID:29069225

  16. Monoterpenoids (thymol, carvacrol and S-(+)-linalool) with anesthetic activity in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen): evaluation of acetylcholinesterase and GABAergic activity.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, A E; Garlet, Q I; da Cunha, J A; Bandeira, G; Brusque, I C M; Salbego, J; Heinzmann, B M; Baldisserotto, B

    2017-10-19

    This study evaluated the anesthetic potential of thymol and carvacrol, and their influence on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the muscle and brain of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). The AChE activity of S-(+)-linalool was also evaluated. We subsequently assessed the effects of thymol and S-(+)-linalool on the GABAergic system. Fish were exposed to thymol and carvacrol (25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) to evaluate time for anesthesia and recovery. Both compounds induced sedation at 25 mg/L and anesthesia with 50-100 mg/L. However, fish exposed to carvacrol presented strong muscle contractions and mortality. AChE activity was increased in the brain of fish at 50 mg/L carvacrol and 100 mg/L thymol, and decreased in the muscle at 100 mg/L carvacrol. S-(+)-linalool did not alter AChE activity. Anesthesia with thymol was reversed by exposure to picrotoxin (GABAA antagonist), similar to the positive control propofol, but was not reversed by flumazenil (antagonist of benzodiazepine binding site), as observed for the positive control diazepam. Picrotoxin did not reverse the effect of S-(+)-linalool. Thymol exposure at 50 mg/L is more suitable than carvacrol for anesthesia in silver catfish, because this concentration did not cause any mortality or interference with AChE activity. Thymol interacted with GABAA receptors, but not with the GABAA/benzodiazepine site. In contrast, S-(+)-linalool did not act in GABAA receptors in silver catfish.

  17. Use of linalool synthase in genetic engineering of scent production

    DOEpatents

    Pichersky, E.

    1998-12-15

    A purified S-linalool synthase polypeptide from Clarkia breweri is disclosed as is the recombinant polypeptide and nucleic acid sequences encoding the polypeptide. Also disclosed are antibodies immunoreactive with the purified peptide and with recombinant versions of the polypeptide. Methods of using the nucleic acid sequences, as well as methods of enhancing the smell and the flavor of plants expressing the nucleic acid sequences are also disclosed. 5 figs.

  18. Inhibitory effect of linalool-rich essential oil from Lippia alba on the peptidase and keratinase activities of dermatophytes.

    PubMed

    Costa, Danielle Cristina Machado; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Almeida, Catia Amancio; de Souza Dias, Edilma Paraguai; Cedrola, Sabrina Martins Lage; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Alviano, Daniela Sales

    2014-02-01

    Abstract Lippia alba (Miller) N.E. Brown is an aromatic plant known locally as "Erva-cidreira-do-campo" that has great importance in Brazilian folk medicine. The aim of our study was to evaluate the antidermatophytic potential of linalool-rich essential oil (EO) from L. alba and analyze the ability of this EO to inhibit peptidase and keratinase activities, which are important virulence factors in dermatophytes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of L. alba EO were 39, 156 and 312 µg/mL against Trichophyton rubrum, Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum gypseum, respectively. To evaluate the influence of L. alba EO on the proteolytic and keratinolytic activities of these dermatophytes, specific inhibitory assays were performed. The results indicated that linalool-rich EO from L. alba inhibited the activity of proteases and keratinases secreted from dermatophytes, and this inhibition could be a possible mechanism of action against dermatophytes. Due to the effective antidermatophytic activity of L. alba EO, further experiments should be performed to explore the potential of this linalool-rich EO as an alternative antifungal therapy.

  19. Antimicrobial Impacts of Essential Oils on Food Borne-Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ozogul, Yesim; Kuley, Esmeray; Ucar, Yilmaz; Ozogul, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of twelve essential oil (pine oil, eucalyptus, thyme, sage tea, lavender, orange, laurel, lemon, myrtle, lemon, rosemary and juniper) was tested by a disc diffusion method against food borne pathogens (Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi A, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas hydrophila, Campylobacter jejuni, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus). The major components in essential oils were monoterpenes hydrocarbons, α-pinene, limonene; monoterpene phenol, carvacrol and oxygenated monoterpenes, camphor, 1,8-cineole, eucalyptol, linalool and linalyl acetate. Although the antimicrobial effect of essential oils varied depending on the chemical composition of the essential oils and specific microorganism tested, majority of the oils exhibited antibacterial activity against one or more strains. The essential oil with the lowest inhibition zones was juniper with the values varied from 1.5 to 6 mm. However, the components of essential oil of thyme and pine oil are highly active against food borne pathogen, generating the largest inhibition zones for both gram negative and positive bacteria (5.25-28.25 mm vs. 12.5-30 mm inhibition zones). These results indicate the possible use of the essential oils on food system as antimicrobial agents against food-borne pathogen. The article also offers some promising patents on applications of essential oils on food industry as antimicrobial agent.

  20. Application of Heavy Metal Rich Tannery Sludge on Sustainable Growth, Yield and Metal Accumulation by Clarysage (Salvia sclarea L.).

    PubMed

    Chand, Sukhmal; Yaseen, M; Rajkumari; Patra, D D

    2015-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the effective utilization of tannery sludge for cultivation of clarysage (Salvia sclarea) at CIMAP research farm, Lucknow, India during the year 2012-2013. Six doses (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 tha(-1)) of processed tannery sludge were tested in randomised block design with four replications. Results revealed that maximum shoot, root, dry matter and oil yield were obtained with application of 80 tha(-1)of tannery sludge and these were 94, 113 and 61% higher respectively, over control. Accumulation of heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb) were relatively high in shoot portion of the plant than root. Among heavy metals, magnitude of chromium accumulation was higher than nickel, iron and lead in shoot as well as in root. Linalool, linalyl acetate and sclareol content in oil increased by 13,8 and 27% respectively over control, with tannery sludge application at 80 tha(-1). Heavy metals such as chromium, cadmium and lead content reduced in postharvest soil when compared to initial status. Results indicated that clarysage (Salvia sclarea) can be grown in soil amended with 80 tha(-1)sludge and this can be a suitable accumulator of heavy metals for phytoremediation of metal polluted soils.

  1. Essential oils and distilled straws of lavender and lavandin: a review of current use and potential application in white biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Lesage-Meessen, Laurence; Bou, Marine; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Faulds, Craig B; Lomascolo, Anne

    2015-04-01

    The Lavandula genus, which includes lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lavandin (L. angustifolia × Lavandula latifolia), is cultivated worldwide for its essential oils, which find applications in perfumes, cosmetics, food processing and, more recently, in aromatherapy products. The chemical composition of lavender and lavandin essential oils, usually produced by steam distillation from the flowering stems, is characterized by the presence of terpenes (e.g. linalool and linalyl acetate) and terpenoids (e.g. 1,8-cineole), which are mainly responsible for their characteristic flavour and their biological and therapeutic properties. Lavender and lavandin distilled straws, the by-products of oil extraction, were traditionally used for soil replenishment or converted to a fuel source. They are mineral- and carbon-rich plant residues and, therefore, a cheap, readily available source of valuable substances of industrial interest, especially aroma and antioxidants (e.g. terpenoids, lactones and phenolic compounds including coumarin, herniarin, α-bisabolol, rosmarinic and chlorogenic acids). Accordingly, recent studies have emphasized the possible uses of lavender and lavandin straws in fermentative or enzymatic processes involving various microorganisms, especially filamentous fungi, for the production of antimicrobials, antioxidants and other bioproducts with pharmaceutical and cosmetic activities, opening up new challenging perspectives in white biotechnology applications.

  2. Biomethanization of citrus waste: Effect of waste characteristics and of storage on treatability and evaluation of limonene degradation.

    PubMed

    Lotito, Adriana Maria; De Sanctis, Marco; Pastore, Carlo; Di Iaconi, Claudio

    2018-06-01

    This study proposes the evaluation of the suitability of mesophilic anaerobic digestion as a simple technology for the treatment of the citrus waste produced by small-medium agro-industrial enterprises involved in the transformation of Citrus fruits. Two different stocks of citrus peel waste were used (i.e., fresh and stored citrus peel waste), to evaluate the influence of waste composition (variability in the type of processed Citrus fruits) and of storage (potentially necessary to operate the anaerobic digester continuously over the whole year due to the seasonality of the production) on anaerobic degradation treatability. A thorough characterization of the two waste types has been performed, showing that the fresh one has a higher solid and organic content, and that, in spite of the similar values of oil fraction amounts, the two stocks are significantly different in the composition of essential oils (43% of limonene and 34% of linalyl acetate in the fresh citrus waste and 20% of limonene and 74% of linalyl acetate in the stored citrus waste). Contrarily to what observed in previous studies, anaerobic digestion was successful and no reactor acidification occurred. No inhibition by limonene and linalyl acetate even at the maximum applied organic load value (i.e., 2.72 gCOD waste /gVS inoculum ) was observed in the treatment of the stored waste, with limonene and linalyl acetate concentrations of 104 mg/l and 385 mg/l, respectively. On the contrary, some inhibition was detected with fresh citrus peel waste when the organic load increased from 2.21 to 2.88 gCOD waste /gVS inoculum , ascribable to limonene at initial concentration higher than 150 mg/l. A good conversion into methane was observed with fresh peel waste, up to 0.33  [Formula: see text] at the highest organic load, very close to the maximum theoretical value of 0.35 [Formula: see text] , while a lower efficiency was achieved with stored peel waste, with a reduction down to 0.24  [Formula: see

  3. Efficacy of Nanoencapsulated Thymus eriocalyx and Thymus kotschyanus Essential Oils by a Mesoporous Material MCM-41 Against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Ebadollahi, Asgar; Sendi, Jalal Jalali; Aliakbar, Alireza

    2017-12-05

    Inspite of well-established potentiality of plant essential oils as biopesticides, their environmentally low persistence is considered as a hindering obstacle for its commercialization. In the present study, chemical composition and toxicity of essential oils isolated from leaves of Thymus eriocalyx and Thymus kotschyanus were evaluated against two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae. The chemicals present in the crude oil were found to be thymol (28.83%), oleic acid (11.51%), palmitic acid (8.60%), borneol (5.72%), ρ-cymene (3.60%), and 1,8-cineole (3.57%) in the essential oil of T. eriocalyx, and camphene (35.59%), linalyl acetate (20.47%), linalool (14.75%), α-terpineol (13.87%), and geranyl acetate (3.07%) in the essential oil of T. kotschyanus. The essential oils had strong fumigant toxicity on the adult females of Te. urticae and their fumigation persistence was prolonged until 6 and 5 d, respectively, for T. eriocalyx and T. kotschyanus. Loading of essential oils in MCM-41 increased their stability and persistence was extended up to 20 and 18 d for T. eriocalyx and T. kotschyanus. Further, mite mortality increased from 80 to 203 mites by T. eriocalyx and from 58 to 186 mites by T. kotschyanus nanoencapsulated essential oils. Based on these results, nanoencapsulation of T. eriocalyx and T. kotschyanus essential oils in MCM-41 may be a useful method for their application in the management of Te. urticae. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Bifunctional ultrasound assisted extraction and determination of Elettaria cardamomum Maton essential oil.

    PubMed

    Sereshti, Hassan; Rohanifar, Ahmad; Bakhtiari, Sadjad; Samadi, Soheila

    2012-05-18

    A new hyphenated extraction method composed of ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE)-optimized ultrasound assisted emulsification microextraction (USAEME) was developed for the extraction and preconcentration of the essential oil of Elettaria cardamomum Maton. The essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and optimization was performed using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Ultrasound played two different roles in the extraction of the essential oil. First, as a source of sufficient energy to break the oil-containing glands in order to release the oil, and second as an emulsifier to disperse the organic phase within water. The effective parameters (factors) of USAEME including volume of extraction solvent (C(2)H(4)Cl(2)), extraction temperature and ultrasonic time were optimized by using a central composite design (CCD). The optimal conditions were 120 μL for extraction solvent volume, 32.5 °C for temperature and 10.5 min for ultrasonic time. The linear dynamic ranges (LDRs) were 0.01-50 mg L(-1) with the determination coefficients in the range of 0.9990-0.9999. The limits of detection (LODs) and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 0.001-0.007 mg L(-1) and 3.6-6.3%, respectively. The enrichment factors were 93-98. The main components of the extracted essential oil were α-terpenyl acetate (46.0%), 1,8-cineole (27.7%), linalool (5.3%), α-terpineol (4.0%), linalyl acetate (3.5%). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantitation of (R)- and (S)-linalool in beer using solid phase microextraction (SPME) in combination with a stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA).

    PubMed

    Steinhaus, Martin; Fritsch, Helge T; Schieberle, Peter

    2003-11-19

    A stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) was developed for the quantitation of both linalool enantiomers using synthesized [2H(2)]R/S-linalool as the internal standard. For enrichment of the target compound from beer, a solid phase microextraction method (SPME) was developed. In comparison to the more time-consuming extraction/distillation cleanup of the beer samples, the results obtained by SPME/SIDA were very similar, even under nonequilibration conditions. Analysis of five different types of beer showed significant differences in the linalool concentrations, which were clearly correlated with the intensity of the hoppy aroma note as evaluated by a sensory panel. In addition, significant differences in the R/S ratios were measured in the beers. The SPME/SIDA yielded exact data independently from headspace sampling parameters, such as exposure time or ionic strength of the solution.

  6. Sedative effects of the jasmine tea odor and (R)-(-)-linalool, one of its major odor components, on autonomic nerve activity and mood states.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Kyoko; Inoue, Naohiko; Ito, Yuriko; Kubota, Kikue; Sugimoto, Akio; Kakuda, Takami; Fushiki, Tohru

    2005-10-01

    We investigated the effects of the odor of jasmine tea on autonomic nerve activity and mood states in a total of 24 healthy volunteers. We used the odor of jasmine tea at the lowest concentration that could be detected by each subject but that did not elicit any psychological effects. R-R intervals and the POMS test were measured before and after inhalation of the odors for 5 min. Both jasmine tea and lavender odors at perceived similar intensity caused significant decreases in heart rate and significant increases in spectral integrated values at high-frequency component in comparison with the control (P < 0.05). In the POMS tests, these odors produced calm and vigorous mood states. We also examined the effects of (R)-(-)-linalool, one of its major odor components, at the same concentration as in the tea, and (S)-(+)-linalool. Only (R)-(-)-linalool elicited a significant decrease in heart rate (P < 0.05) and an increase in high-frequency component in comparison with the controls, and produced calm and vigorous mood states. Thus, the low intensity of jasmine tea odor has sedative effects on both autonomic nerve activity and mood states, and (R)-(-)-linalool, one of its components, can mimic these effects.

  7. Identification of repellent and insecticidal constituents of the essential oil of Artemisia rupestris L. aerial parts against Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin Chao; Li, Yin Ping; Li, He Qin; Deng, Zhi Wei; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Zhi Long; Du, Shu Shan

    2013-09-03

    The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and insecticidal and repellent activity of the essential oil of Artemisia rupestris L. aerial parts against the booklice Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel and isolation of insecticidal and repellent constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rupestris was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 30 components of the essential oil of A. rupestris was identified and the principal compounds in the essential oil were α-terpinyl acetate (37.18%), spathulenol (10.65%), α-terpineol (10.09%), and linalool (7.56%), followed by 4-terpineol (3.92%) and patchoulol (3.05%). Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the four active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as α-terpineol, α-terpinyl acetate, 4-terpineol and linalool. The essential oil of A. rupestris exhibited contact toxicity against L. bostrychophila with LD₅₀ value of 414.48 µg/cm². α-Terpinyl acetate (LD₅₀ = 92.59 µg/cm²) exhibited stronger contact toxicity against booklice than α-terpineol (LD₅₀ = 140.30 µg/cm²), 4-terpineol (LD₅₀ = 211.35 µg/cm²), and linalool (LD5₅₀ = 393.16 µg/cm²). The essential oil of A. rupestris (LC₅₀ = 6.67 mg/L air) also possessed fumigant toxicity against L. bostrychophila while the four constituents, 4-terpineol, α-terpineol, α-terpinyl acetate and linalool had LC₅₀ values of 0.34, 1.12, 1.26 and 1.96 mg/L air, respectively. α-Terpinol and α-terpinyl acetate showed strong repellency against L. bostrychophila, while linalool and 4-terpinol exhibited weak repellency. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. rupestris aerial parts and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural insecticides or fumigants as well as repellents for control of insects in stored grains.

  8. Linalool, a Piper aduncum essential oil component, has selective activity against Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigote forms at 4°C

    PubMed Central

    Villamizar, Luz Helena; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; de Andrade, Juliana; Teixeira, Maria Luisa; Soares, Maurilio José

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recent studies showed that essential oils from different pepper species (Piper spp.) have promising leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activities. OBJECTIVES In search for natural compounds against Trypanosoma cruzi, different forms of the parasite were incubated for 24 h at 28ºC or 4ºC with Piper aduncum essential oil (PaEO) or its main constituents linalool and nerolidol. METHODS PaEO chemical composition was obtained by GC-MS. Drug activity assays were based on cell counting, MTT data or infection index values. The effect of PaEO on the T. cruzi cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated by flow cytometry. FINDINGS PaEO was effective against cell-derived (IC50/24 h: 2.8 μg/mL) and metacyclic (IC50/24 h: 12.1 μg/mL) trypomastigotes, as well as intracellular amastigotes (IC50/24 h: 9 μg/mL). At 4ºC - the temperature of red blood cells (RBCs) storage in blood banks - cell-derived trypomastigotes were more sensitive to PaEO (IC50/24 h = 3.8 μg/mL) than to gentian violet (IC50/24 h = 24.7 mg/mL). Cytotoxicity assays using Vero cells (37ºC) and RBCs (4ºC) showed that PaEO has increased selectivity for cell-derived trypomastigotes. Flow cytometry analysis showed that PaEO does not affect the cell cycle of T. cruzi epimastigotes, but decreases their mitochondrial membrane potential. GC-MS data identified nerolidol and linalool as major components of PaEO, and linalool had trypanocidal effect (IC50/24 h: 306 ng/mL) at 4ºC. MAIN CONCLUSION The trypanocidal effect of PaEO is likely due to the presence of linalool, which may represent an interesting candidate for use in the treatment of potentially contaminated RBCs bags at low temperature. PMID:28177047

  9. Linalool, a Piper aduncum essential oil component, has selective activity against Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigote forms at 4°C.

    PubMed

    Villamizar, Luz Helena; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Andrade, Juliana de; Teixeira, Maria Luisa; Soares, Maurilio José

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies showed that essential oils from different pepper species (Piper spp.) have promising leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activities. In search for natural compounds against Trypanosoma cruzi, different forms of the parasite were incubated for 24 h at 28ºC or 4ºC with Piper aduncum essential oil (PaEO) or its main constituents linalool and nerolidol. PaEO chemical composition was obtained by GC-MS. Drug activity assays were based on cell counting, MTT data or infection index values. The effect of PaEO on the T. cruzi cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated by flow cytometry. PaEO was effective against cell-derived (IC50/24 h: 2.8 μg/mL) and metacyclic (IC50/24 h: 12.1 μg/mL) trypomastigotes, as well as intracellular amastigotes (IC50/24 h: 9 μg/mL). At 4ºC - the temperature of red blood cells (RBCs) storage in blood banks - cell-derived trypomastigotes were more sensitive to PaEO (IC50/24 h = 3.8 μg/mL) than to gentian violet (IC50/24 h = 24.7 mg/mL). Cytotoxicity assays using Vero cells (37ºC) and RBCs (4ºC) showed that PaEO has increased selectivity for cell-derived trypomastigotes. Flow cytometry analysis showed that PaEO does not affect the cell cycle of T. cruzi epimastigotes, but decreases their mitochondrial membrane potential. GC-MS data identified nerolidol and linalool as major components of PaEO, and linalool had trypanocidal effect (IC50/24 h: 306 ng/mL) at 4ºC. The trypanocidal effect of PaEO is likely due to the presence of linalool, which may represent an interesting candidate for use in the treatment of potentially contaminated RBCs bags at low temperature.

  10. Gas-Phase Structures of Linalool and Coumarin Studied by Microwave Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, H. V. L.; Stahl, W.; Grabow, J.-U.

    2013-06-01

    The microwave spectra of two natural substances, linalool and coumarin, were recorded in the microwave range from 9 to 16 GHz and 8.5 to 10.5 GHz, respectively.Linalool is an acyclic monoterpene and the main component of lavender oil. It has a structure with many possible conformations. The geometry of the lowest energy conformer has been determined by a combination of microwave spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. Surprisingly, a globular rather than a prolate shape was found. This structure is probably stabilized by a π interaction between two double bonds which are arranged in two stacked layers of atoms within the molecule. A-E splittings due to the internal rotation of one methyl group could be resolved and the barrier to internal rotation was determined to be 400.20(64) cm^{-1}. The standard deviation of the fit was close to experimental accuracy. For an identification of the observed conformer not only the rotational constants but also the internal rotation parameters of one of the methyl groups were needed. Coumarin is a widely used flavor in perfumery as sweet woodruff scent. The aromatic structure allows solely for one planar conformer, which was found under molecular beam conditions and compared to other molecules with similar structures. Here, the rotational spectrum could be described by a set of parameters including the rotational constants and the centrifugal distortion constants using a semi-rigid molecule Hamiltonian. Furthermore, the rotational transitions of all nine ^{13}C isotopologues were measured in natural abundance. As a consequence, the microwave structure of coumarin could be almost completely determined.

  11. Anti-inflammatory effect of cinnamaldehyde and linalool from the leaf essential oil of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira in endotoxin-induced mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shih-Chieh; Wang, Shih-Yun; Li, Chien-Chun; Liu, Cheng-Tzu

    2018-01-01

    Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira is a Taiwan native plant that belongs to genus Cinnamomum and is also known as pseudocinnamomum or indigenous cinnamon. Its leaf is traditionally used by local people in cooking and as folk therapy. We previously demonstrated the chemical composition and anti-inflammatory effect of leaf essential oil of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira of linalool chemotype in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and on endotoxin-injected mice. The aim of the present study is to evaluate whether cinnamaldehyde and linalool the active anti-inflammatory compounds in leaf essential oil of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira. Before the injection of endotoxin, C57BL/6 mice of the experimental groups were administered cinnamaldehyde (0.45 or 0.9 mg/kg body weight) or linalool (2.6 or 5.2 mg/kg body weight), mice of the positive control group were administered the leaf essential oil (13 mg/kg body weight), and mice of the negative group were administered vehicle (corn oil, 4 mL/kg body weight) by gavage every other day for two weeks. All mice received endotoxin (i.p. 10 mg/mL/kg body weight) the next day after the final administration and were killed 12 h after the injection. Normal control mice were pretreated with vehicle followed by the injection with saline. None of the treatment found to affect body weight or food or water intake of mice before the injection of endotoxin. Cinnamaldehyde and linalool were found significantly reversed endotoxin-induced body weight loss and lymphoid organ enlargement compared with vehicle (P < 0.05). Both compounds also significantly lowered endotoxin-induced levels of peripheral nitrate/nitrite, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, and High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB-1), and levels of nitrate/nitrite, IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) (P < 0.05). Endotoxin-induced expression of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), Myeloid

  12. Noncompetitive Inhibition of 5-HT3 Receptors by Citral, Linalool, and Eucalyptol Revealed by Nonlinear Mixed-Effects Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Gavin E.; Barbosa, Roseli

    2016-01-01

    Citral, eucalyptol, and linalool are widely used as flavorings, fragrances, and cosmetics. Here, we examined their effects on electrophysiological and binding properties of human 5-HT3 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and human embryonic kidney 293 cells, respectively. Data were analyzed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling to account for random variance in the peak current response between oocytes. The oils caused an insurmountable inhibition of 5‐HT–evoked currents (citral IC50 = 120 µM; eucalyptol = 258 µM; linalool = 141 µM) and did not compete with fluorescently labeled granisetron, suggesting a noncompetitive mechanism of action. Inhibition was not use‐dependent but required a 30-second preapplication. Compound washout caused a slow (∼180 seconds) but complete recovery. Coapplication of the oils with bilobalide or diltiazem indicated they did not bind at the same locations as these channel blockers. Homology modeling and ligand docking predicted binding to a transmembrane cavity at the interface of adjacent subunits. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry showed that an essential oil extracted from Lippia alba contained 75.9% citral. This inhibited expressed 5‐HT3 receptors (IC50 = 45 µg ml−1) and smooth muscle contractions in rat trachea (IC50 = 200 µg ml−1) and guinea pig ileum (IC50 = 20 µg ml−1), providing a possible mechanistic explanation for why this oil has been used to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory ailments. These results demonstrate that citral, eucalyptol, and linalool inhibit 5-HT3 receptors, and their binding to a conserved cavity suggests a valuable target for novel allosteric modulators. PMID:26669427

  13. Modeling of combined effects of citral, linalool and beta-pinene used against Saccharomyces cerevisiae in citrus-based beverages subjected to a mild heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Belletti, Nicoletta; Kamdem, Sylvain Sado; Tabanelli, Giulia; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Gardini, Fausto

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of three terpenes (citral, linalool and beta-pinene), in combination with a mild heat treatment (55 degrees C, 15 min). The study has been carried out on an orange based soft drink inoculated using a wild strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results, expressed as growth/no-growth data, were analyzed with the logistic regression. A model comprising only of significant individual parameters (p < or = 0.05) and describing the relationships between terpene concentrations and the probability of having stable beverages was obtained. When citral and beta-pinene were combined, the citral concentration required to achieve a 50% probability of having stable bottles (P=0.5) dropped from 100.9 microL/L in the absence of beta-pinene to 49.3 microL/L in the presence of 20 microL/L of beta-pinene. The mixture of citral and linalool was less effective, in fact, the same probability (P=0.5) was obtained combining 60 microL/L of linalool with 35.1 microL/L of citral. The addition of 20 microL/L of linalool and beta-pinene reinforced citral bioactivity and the concentration of citral needed to reach P=0.5 fell from 100.9 microL/L in the presence of citral alone to 42.0 microL/L. The presence of both linalool and beta-pinene at a concentration of 40 or 60 microL/L in the absence of citral led to a lower spoilage probability (P=0.58 and P=0.93, respectively). It can be concluded that the antimicrobial potential of the three terpenes alone can be strengthened combining appropriate concentrations of each of them. This study confirmed also the potentiating effect of a mild temperature treatment on the antimicrobial efficacy of the molecules. Neither the thermal treatment alone nor the presence of the terpenes at their maximum concentrations (without thermal treatment) were able to guarantee the microbial stability of the beverages. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Toxic and repellent activity of selected monoterpenoids (thymol, carvacrol and linalool) against the castor bean tick, Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Tabari, Mohaddeseh Abouhosseini; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Maggi, Filippo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-10-15

    The castor bean tick, Ixodes ricinus, is a species of medical and veterinary importance. The use of synthetic acaricides for tick control has led to development of resistance, residues in the environment and animal products, and public health concerns. In this regard, plant essential oils and their main constituents represent an appealing alternative strategy to combat ticks. The phenols thymol and carvacrol and the alcohol linalool are monoterpenoids occurring in essential oils of several aromatic and medicinal plants, such as thyme, oregano, savory, lavender and coriander. Recent studies have shown toxicity of these monoterpenoids against selected mosquito vectors and other arthropod pests. However, information on their bioactivity on I. ricinus is not available. On this basis, here we evaluated the ovicidal, larvicidal and repellency effects of these compounds against I. ricinus. Concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5% were sprayed on the egg masses, then hatching rates were noted. Larvicidal assays were conducted on unengorged larvae, following the larval packet technique. The repellency was determined by measuring the vertical migration behavior of ticks in laboratory conditions. Carvacrol and thymol at all concentrations tested led to a significant hatching decrease, showing an efficacy higher than permethrin, whereas linalool did not cause any significant effect. In the larvae treated with carvacrol and thymol (1, 2 and 5%), mortality rates reached 100% after 24h, showing a larvicidal efficacy higher than permethrin, whereas no effect was seen in the larval groups treated with linalool. Carvacrol and thymol at all concentrations tested showed >90% repellency on I. ricinus. Linalool was scarcely effective (50.24% repellency) only at the concentration of 5%. Overall, based on these results, the phenols carvacrol and thymol can be considered as candidate ingredients for the development of novel acaricidal formulations to control the populations of I. ricinus

  15. Ulipristal acetate versus leuprolide acetate for uterine fibroids.

    PubMed

    Donnez, Jacques; Tomaszewski, Janusz; Vázquez, Francisco; Bouchard, Philippe; Lemieszczuk, Boguslav; Baró, Francesco; Nouri, Kazem; Selvaggi, Luigi; Sodowski, Krzysztof; Bestel, Elke; Terrill, Paul; Osterloh, Ian; Loumaye, Ernest

    2012-02-02

    The efficacy and side-effect profile of ulipristal acetate as compared with those of leuprolide acetate for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids before surgery are unclear. In this double-blind noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned 307 patients with symptomatic fibroids and excessive uterine bleeding to receive 3 months of daily therapy with oral ulipristal acetate (at a dose of either 5 mg or 10 mg) or once-monthly intramuscular injections of leuprolide acetate (at a dose of 3.75 mg). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with controlled bleeding at week 13, with a prespecified noninferiority margin of -20%. Uterine bleeding was controlled in 90% of patients receiving 5 mg of ulipristal acetate, in 98% of those receiving 10 mg of ulipristal acetate, and in 89% of those receiving leuprolide acetate, for differences (as compared with leuprolide acetate) of 1.2 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -9.3 to 11.8) for 5 mg of ulipristal acetate and 8.8 percentage points (95% CI, 0.4 to 18.3) for 10 mg of ulipristal acetate. Median times to amenorrhea were 7 days for patients receiving 5 mg of ulipristal acetate, 5 days for those receiving 10 mg of ulipristal acetate, and 21 days for those receiving leuprolide acetate. Moderate-to-severe hot flashes were reported for 11% of patients receiving 5 mg of ulipristal acetate, for 10% of those receiving 10 mg of ulipristal acetate, and for 40% of those receiving leuprolide acetate (P<0.001 for each dose of ulipristal acetate vs. leuprolide acetate). Both the 5-mg and 10-mg daily doses of ulipristal acetate were noninferior to once-monthly leuprolide acetate in controlling uterine bleeding and were significantly less likely to cause hot flashes. (Funded by PregLem; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00740831.).

  16. Enantiomeric composition of (3R)-(-)- and (3S)-(+)-linalool in various essential oils of Indian origin by enantioselective capillary gas chromatography-flame ionization and mass spectrometry detection methods.

    PubMed

    Chanotiya, Chandan S; Yadav, Anju

    2009-04-01

    Enantiomeric ratios of linalool have been determined in various authentic essential oils of Indian origin using 10% heptakis(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-beta-cyclodextrin as a chiral stationary phase. A complete enantiomeric excess (ee) for (3S)-(+)-linalool was characteristic of Lippia alba and Cinnamomum tamala leaf oils while less than 90% excess was noticed in Zanthoxylum armatum leaf, Zingiber roseum root/rhizome and Citrus sinensis leaf oils. On the contrary, an enantiomeric excess of (3R)-(-)-linalool characterizes essential oils of basil (100% for Ocimum basilicum) and bergamot mint (72 to 75% for Mentha citrata). Notably, some essential oils containing both enantiomers in equal ratios or in racemic forms are rose, geranium, lemongrass and Origanum. The enantiomeric composition studies are discussed as indicators of origin authenticity and quality of essential oil of Indian origin.

  17. Noncompetitive Inhibition of 5-HT3 Receptors by Citral, Linalool, and Eucalyptol Revealed by Nonlinear Mixed-Effects Modeling.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Gavin E; Barbosa, Roseli; Thompson, Andrew J

    2016-03-01

    Citral, eucalyptol, and linalool are widely used as flavorings, fragrances, and cosmetics. Here, we examined their effects on electrophysiological and binding properties of human 5-HT3 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and human embryonic kidney 293 cells, respectively. Data were analyzed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling to account for random variance in the peak current response between oocytes. The oils caused an insurmountable inhibition of 5-HT-evoked currents (citral IC50 = 120 µM; eucalyptol = 258 µM; linalool = 141 µM) and did not compete with fluorescently labeled granisetron, suggesting a noncompetitive mechanism of action. Inhibition was not use-dependent but required a 30-second preapplication. Compound washout caused a slow (∼180 seconds) but complete recovery. Coapplication of the oils with bilobalide or diltiazem indicated they did not bind at the same locations as these channel blockers. Homology modeling and ligand docking predicted binding to a transmembrane cavity at the interface of adjacent subunits. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry showed that an essential oil extracted from Lippia alba contained 75.9% citral. This inhibited expressed 5-HT3 receptors (IC50 = 45 µg ml(-1)) and smooth muscle contractions in rat trachea (IC50 = 200 µg ml(-1)) and guinea pig ileum (IC50 = 20 µg ml(-1)), providing a possible mechanistic explanation for why this oil has been used to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory ailments. These results demonstrate that citral, eucalyptol, and linalool inhibit 5-HT3 receptors, and their binding to a conserved cavity suggests a valuable target for novel allosteric modulators. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  18. RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, linalyl cinnamate, CAS Registry Number 78-37-5.

    PubMed

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bhatia, S; Bruze, M; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Fryer, A D; Kromidas, L; La Cava, S; Lalko, J F; Lapczynski, A; Liebler, D C; Penning, T M; Politano, V T; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Shen, J; Sipes, I G; Wall, B; Wilcox, D K

    2016-11-01

    The use of this material under current conditions is supported by existing information. This material was evaluated for genotoxicity, repeated dose toxicity, developmental and reproductive toxicity, local respiratory toxicity, phototoxicity/photoallergenicity, skin sensitization, as well as environmental safety. Data show that this material is not genotoxic nor does it have skin sensitization potential. The reproductive and local respiratory toxicity endpoints were completed using the TTC (Threshold of Toxicological Concern) for a Cramer Class I material (0.03 and 1.4 mg/day, respectively). The developmental toxicity endpoint was completed using linalool (CAS # 78-70-6), dehydrolinalool (CAS # 29171-20-8) and cinnamic acid (CAS # 621-82-9) as suitable read across analogs, which provided a MOE > 100. The repeated dose toxicity endpoint was completed using data on the target material which provided a MOE > 100. The phototoxicity/photoallergenicity endpoint was completed based on suitable UV spectra. The environmental endpoint was completed as described in the RIFM Framework. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. α-Pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol contribute to the topical anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of frankincense by inhibiting COX-2.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Jun; Yang, Yan-Jing; Li, Yu-Sang; Zhang, Wei Kevin; Tang, He-Bin

    2016-02-17

    Frankincense oil and water extracts (FOE, FWE) have long been used for external treatment of inflammation and pain. The present study was conducted to identify the active ingredients responsible for the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects and to determine the underlying mechanisms. The compositions of FOE and FWE were identified and compared by GC-MS. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the two extracts and their possible active ingredients (α-pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol) were evaluated and compared in a xylene-induced ear edema model and a formalin-inflamed hind paw model. Inflammatory infiltrates and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in hind paw skin were investigated by histological staining. The contents of α-pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol in FOE were much higher than those in FWE. Mice treated with FOE exhibited greater and faster lessening of swelling and pain than mice treated with FWE. The combination of the three components had more potent pharmacological effects on hind paw inflammation and COX-2 overexpression than the three components used alone. These findings suggest that topical application of FOE or its active ingredients (including α-pinene, linalool, and 1-octanol) exhibit significantly anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects through inhibiting nociceptive stimulus-induced inflammatory infiltrates and COX-2 overexpression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Preheating and Storage Temperatures on Aroma Profile and Physical Properties of Citrus-Oil Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Zhao, Chengying; Tian, Guifang; Lu, Chang; Zhao, Shaojie; Bao, Yuming; McClements, David Julian; Xiao, Hang; Zheng, Jinkai

    2017-09-06

    Citrus oils are used as good carrier oil for emulsion fabrication due to their special flavor and various health-promoting functions. In this study, the effects of preheating temperature (30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 °C) and storage temperature (4, 25, and 37 °C) on aroma profiles and physical properties of three citrus-oil (i.e., mandarin, sweet orange, and bergamot oils) emulsions were systematically investigated for the first time. The results demonstrated the significant impact of temperature on aroma profile and physical properties. The abundance of d-limonene was found to be the main factor determining the aroma of the three citrus-oil emulsions at different preheating and storage temperatures, while β-linalool and linalyl acetate were important for the aroma of bergamot oil emulsion. Preheating temperature showed a profound impact on the aroma of citrus-oil emulsions, and the aroma of different citrus oil emulsions showed different sensitivity to preheating temperature. Storage temperature was also able to alter the properties of citrus oil emulsions. The higher was the storage temperature, the more alteration of aroma and more instability of the emulsions there was, which could be attributed to the alteration of the oil components and the properties of emulsions. Among all three emulsions, bergamot-oil emulsion was the most stable and exhibited the most potent ability to preserve the aroma against high temperature. Our results would facilitate the application of citrus-oil emulsions in functional foods and beverages.

  1. Monitoring the emission of volatile organic compounds from flowers of Jasminum sambac using solid-phase micro-extraction fibers and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Pragadheesh, Vppalayam Shanmugam; Yadav, Anju; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Rout, Prasanta Kumar; Uniyal, Girish Chandra

    2011-09-01

    Solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) was studied as a solvent free alternative method for the extraction and characterization of volatile compounds in intact and plucked flowers of Jasminum sambac at different day time intervals using gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry. The analytes identified included alcohols, esters, phenolic compounds, and terpenoids. The main constituents identified in the flower aroma using different fibers were cis-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-beta-ocimene, linalool, benzyl acetate, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene. The benzyl acetate proportion decreased from morning to afternoon and then increased in evening collections. PDMS fiber showed a high proportion of (E,E)-alpha-farnesene in jasmine floral aroma. Among other constituents identified, cis-3-hexenyl acetate, linalool, and benzyl acetate were major aroma contributors in plucked and living flowers extracts using PDMS/DVB, Carboxen/PDMS, and DVB/Carboxen/PDMS fibers. PDMS/DVB recorded the highest emission for benzyl acetate while the (E)-beta-ocimene proportion was highest in DVB/Carboxen/PDMS when compared with the rest. The highest linalool content, with increasing proportion from morning to noon, was found using mixed coating fibers. Almost negligible volatile adsorption was recorded for the polyacrylate fiber for intact flower aroma, whereas it was most effective for benzyl acetate, followed by indole under plucked conditions. Moreover, the highest amounts extracted, evaluated from the sum of peak areas, were achieved using Carboxen/PDMS, and DVB/Carboxen/PDMS. Introduction of a rapid, and solvent free SPME method for the analysis of multicomponent volatiles can be successfully employed to monitor the extraction and characterization of flower aroma constituents.

  2. Cleaning Products and Air Fresheners: Emissions and ResultingConcentrations of Glycol Ethers and Terpenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Destaillat, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.

    2005-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to quantify emissions and concentrations of glycol ethers and terpenoids from cleaning product and air freshener use in a 50-m{sup 3} room ventilated at {approx}0.5 h{sup -1}. Five cleaning products were applied full-strength (FS); three were additionally used in dilute solution. FS application of pine-oil cleaner (POC) yielded 1-h concentrations of 10-1300 {micro}g m{sup -3} for individual terpenoids, including {alpha}-terpinene (90-120), d-limonene (1000-1100), terpinolene (900-1300), and {alpha}-terpineol (260-700). One-hour concentrations of 2-butoxyethanol and/or dlimonene were 300-6000 {micro}g m{sup -3} after FS use of other products. During FS application including rinsing with sponge and wiping with towels, fractionalmore » emissions (mass volatilized/dispensed) of 2-butoxyethanol and d-limonene were 50-100% with towels retained, {approx}25-50% when towels were removed after cleaning. Lower fractions (2-11%) resulted from dilute use. Fractional emissions of terpenes from FS use of POC were {approx}35-70% with towels retained, 20-50% with towels removed. During floor cleaning with dilute solution of POC, 7-12% of dispensed terpenes were emitted. Terpene alcohols were emitted at lower fractions: 7-30% (FS, towels retained), 2-9% (FS, towels removed), and 2-5% (dilute). During air-freshener use, d-limonene, dihydromyrcenol, linalool, linalyl acetate, and {beta}-citronellol were emitted at 35-180 mg d{sup -1} over three days while air concentrations averaged 30-160 {micro}g m{sup -3}.« less

  3. Responses of the Asian citrus psyllid to volatiles emitted by the flushing shoots of its rutaceous host plants.

    PubMed

    Patt, J M; Sétamou, M

    2010-04-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) carries Candidatus liberibacter spp., the putative causal agents of Huanglongbing. D. citri reproduces and develops only on the flushing shoots of its rutaceous host plants. Here we examined whether D. citri is attracted to host plant odors and a mixture of synthetic terpenes. Tests conducted in a vertically oriented Y-tube olfactometer showed that both males and females preferentially entered the Y-tube arm containing the odor from the young shoots of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack and Citrus limon L. Burm. f. cultivar Eureka. Only males exhibited a preference for the odor of C. sinensis L., whereas the odor of C. x paradisi MacFadyen cultivar Rio Red was not attractive to both sexes. The volatiles emitted by young shoots of grapefruit cultivar Rio Red, Meyer lemon (Citrus x limon L. Burm.f.), and M. paniculata were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. The samples were comprised of monoterpenes, monoterpene esters, and sesquiterpenes. The number of compounds present varied from 2 to 17, whereas the total amount of sample collected over 6 h ranged from 5.6 to 119.8 ng. The quantitatively dominant constituents were (E)-beta-ocimene, linalool, linalyl acetate, and beta-caryophyllene. The attractiveness of a mixture of synthetic terpenes, modeled on the volatiles collected from M. paniculata, was evaluated in screened cages in a no-choice test. At three observation intervals, significantly more individuals were trapped on white targets scented with the mixture than on unscented targets. These results indicate the feasibility of developing D. citri attractants patterned on actual host plant volatiles.

  4. Modeling with the logistic regression of the growth/no growth interface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in relation to 2 antimicrobial terpenes (citral and linalool), pH, and a(w).

    PubMed

    Tabanelli, Giulia; Montanari, Chiara; Patrignani, Francesca; Siroli, Lorenzo; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Gardini, Fausto

    2014-03-01

    The antimicrobial effects of 2 terpenes (citral and linalool) on a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain isolated from spoiled soft drink have been evaluated, alone or in combination, in relation to pH and aw using in vitro assays. The obtained data were fitted with the logit model to find the growth/no growth boundary regions of the 2 terpenes, focusing the attention on the type of interaction exerted by citral and linalool. In particular, the results showed an increase of citral antimicrobial effect in growth media characterized by low aw value, as well as a higher linalool antimicrobial effect in media at low pH. Moreover, the interactive effects of the 2 terpenes were exploited. The results obtained with the model were validated in an independent experiment. The knowledge of the interactions of essential oil molecules with enhanced antimicrobial activity, in relation to some of the most important chemicophysical variables, can have important industrial applications, since these substances are able to assure the desired antimicrobial effect without negatively modifying the product flavor profile. The effects of the main chemicophysical parameters (such as aw and pH) on the antimicrobial activity of bioactive terpenes are necessary for the definition of an industrially applicable preservation strategy based on the use of essential oils as natural antimicrobials aimed to prolong shelf life of food products. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Chemical Composition, an Antioxidant, Cytotoxic and Microbiological Activity of the Essential Oil from the Leaves of Aeollanthus suaveolens Mart. ex Spreng.

    PubMed

    Martins, Rosany Lopes; Simões, Ranggel Carvalho; Rabelo, Érica de Menezes; Farias, Ana Luzia Ferreira; Rodrigues, Alex Bruno Lobato; Ramos, Ryan da Silva; Fernandes, João Batista; Santos, Lourivaldo da Silva; de Almeida, Sheylla Susan Moreira da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Aeollanthus suaveolens species popularly known as catinga de mulata belongs to the Lamiaceae family. In the Amazon region, it is used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastritis, convulsions of epileptic origin, stomach pain and diarrhea in the form of tea and juice. Essential oils have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activity. This study evaluated the chemical composition of the A. suaveolens essential oil, and its cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity on Artemia salina Leach. The plant species was collected in Fazendinha district in the city of Macapa-AP. The essential oil obtained from the process was performed by hydrodistillation and identification of components by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the kidnapping method of 2,2- diphenyl -1-picrilhidrazil radical, while the cytotoxic activity was assessed using saline A. and the microbiological activity was carried out by microdilution method with Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. In a chromatographic analysis, the major constituents found in the essential oil of A. suaveolens were (E) -β-farnesene (37.615%), Linalool (33.375%), α-Santalene (3.255%) and linalyl acetate (3.222%). The results showed that the Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. bacteria were more susceptible to MIC 50 mg.mL-1 when compared with the Staphylococcus aureus bacterium MIC 100 mg.mL-1. With respect to MBC concentration of 100 mg.mL-1 it was sufficient to inhibit the growth of E. coli. The essential oil did not show antioxidant activity, however, has a high cytotoxic activity against the A. salina, LC50 8.90 μg.mL-1.

  6. Pain relief assessment by aromatic essential oil massage on outpatients with primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ou, Ming-Chiu; Hsu, Tsung-Fu; Lai, Andrew C; Lin, Yu-Ting; Lin, Chia-Ching

    2012-05-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of blended essential oils on menstrual cramps for outpatients with primary dysmenorrhea and explored the analgesic ingredients in the essential oils. A randomized, double-blind clinical trial was conducted. Forty-eight outpatients were diagnosed with primary dysmenorrhea by a gynecologist and had 10-point numeric rating scales that were more than 5. The patients were randomly assigned to an essential oil group (n = 24) and a synthetic fragrance group (n = 24). Essential oils blended with lavender (Lavandula officinalis), clary sage (Salvia sclarea) and marjoram (Origanum majorana) in a 2:1:1 ratio was diluted in unscented cream at 3% concentration for the essential oil group. All outpatients used the cream daily to massage their lower abdomen from the end of the last menstruation continuing to the beginning of the next menstruation. Both the numeric rating scale and the verbal rating scale significantly decreased (P < 0.001) after one menstrual cycle intervention in the two groups. The duration of pain was significantly reduced from 2.4 to 1.8 days after aromatherapy intervention in the essential oil group. Aromatic oil massage provided relief for outpatients with primary dysmenorrhea and reduced the duration of menstrual pain in the essential oil group. The blended essential oils contain four key analgesic components that amount to as much as 79.29%; these analgesic constitutes are linalyl acetate, linalool, eucalyptol, and β-caryophyllene. This study suggests that this blended formula can serve as a reference for alternative and complementary medicine on primary dysmenorrhea. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Chemical Composition, an Antioxidant, Cytotoxic and Microbiological Activity of the Essential Oil from the Leaves of Aeollanthus suaveolens Mart. ex Spreng

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Rosany Lopes; Simões, Ranggel Carvalho; Rabelo, Érica de Menezes; Farias, Ana Luzia Ferreira; Rodrigues, Alex Bruno Lobato; Ramos, Ryan da Silva; Fernandes, João Batista; Santos, Lourivaldo da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Aeollanthus suaveolens species popularly known as catinga de mulata belongs to the Lamiaceae family. In the Amazon region, it is used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastritis, convulsions of epileptic origin, stomach pain and diarrhea in the form of tea and juice. Essential oils have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activity. This study evaluated the chemical composition of the A. suaveolens essential oil, and its cytotoxic, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity on Artemia salina Leach. The plant species was collected in Fazendinha district in the city of Macapa-AP. The essential oil obtained from the process was performed by hydrodistillation and identification of components by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the kidnapping method of 2,2- diphenyl -1-picrilhidrazil radical, while the cytotoxic activity was assessed using saline A. and the microbiological activity was carried out by microdilution method with Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. In a chromatographic analysis, the major constituents found in the essential oil of A. suaveolens were (E) -β-farnesene (37.615%), Linalool (33.375%), α-Santalene (3.255%) and linalyl acetate (3.222%). The results showed that the Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. bacteria were more susceptible to MIC 50 mg.mL-1 when compared with the Staphylococcus aureus bacterium MIC 100 mg.mL-1. With respect to MBC concentration of 100 mg.mL-1 it was sufficient to inhibit the growth of E. coli. The essential oil did not show antioxidant activity, however, has a high cytotoxic activity against the A. salina, LC50 8.90 μg.mL-1. PMID:27907002

  8. Relationship Between Soil and Essential Oil Profiles in Salvia desoleana Populations: Preliminary Results.

    PubMed

    Rapposelli, Emma; Melito, Sara; Barmina, Giovanni Gabriele; Foddai, Marzia; Azara, Emanuela; Scarpa, Grazia Maria

    2015-09-01

    Salvia desoleana is a herbaceous perennial shrub endemic of Sardinia (Italy). The leaves are a source of essential oil, used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. The therapeutic function of this species has been associated to the presence of essential oils rich in α/β-pinene, p-cimene, linalool, linalyl acetate and 1,8-cineole. Today.the industrial request of Salvia essential oils is increasing and most of the biomass is exploited from the natural populations which are under severe risk of genetic erosion. In order to improve the essential oil production, the study of the environmental parameters that influence composition, quality and quantity of the essential oils, turns out to be necessary. Soil physical and chemical structure represents one of the determinant factors in secondary metabolites production, and could also be involved in volatiles fraction composition in the same species. The main aim of this research was to explore the relationship between essential oil profiles and soil characteristics in S. desoleana populations. GC/MS analysis performed on the essential oil extracts identified 22 principal compounds, which were extremely variable among the five S. desoleana populations studied. The analysis of the essential oils revealed different compositions in the terpenes fractions: 68.2% of monoterpenes, 27.3% of sesquiterpenes and 4.5% of diterpenes. Analysis of chemical and physical soil parameters at the collection sites revealed that silt and sand contents were correlated with α-pinene and sclareol fractions and the total K20 was significantly correlated to several compounds belonging to the three terpene fractions identified. These results will provide guidelines for the in site conservation and for the improvement of the commercial value of the species.

  9. The acetate switch.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Alan J

    2005-03-01

    To succeed, many cells must alternate between life-styles that permit rapid growth in the presence of abundant nutrients and ones that enhance survival in the absence of those nutrients. One such change in life-style, the "acetate switch," occurs as cells deplete their environment of acetate-producing carbon sources and begin to rely on their ability to scavenge for acetate. This review explains why, when, and how cells excrete or dissimilate acetate. The central components of the "switch" (phosphotransacetylase [PTA], acetate kinase [ACK], and AMP-forming acetyl coenzyme A synthetase [AMP-ACS]) and the behavior of cells that lack these components are introduced. Acetyl phosphate (acetyl approximately P), the high-energy intermediate of acetate dissimilation, is discussed, and conditions that influence its intracellular concentration are described. Evidence is provided that acetyl approximately P influences cellular processes from organelle biogenesis to cell cycle regulation and from biofilm development to pathogenesis. The merits of each mechanism proposed to explain the interaction of acetyl approximately P with two-component signal transduction pathways are addressed. A short list of enzymes that generate acetyl approximately P by PTA-ACKA-independent mechanisms is introduced and discussed briefly. Attention is then directed to the mechanisms used by cells to "flip the switch," the induction and activation of the acetate-scavenging AMP-ACS. First, evidence is presented that nucleoid proteins orchestrate a progression of distinct nucleoprotein complexes to ensure proper transcription of its gene. Next, the way in which cells regulate AMP-ACS activity through reversible acetylation is described. Finally, the "acetate switch" as it exists in selected eubacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, including humans, is described.

  10. Trypanosomatidae produce acetate via a mitochondrial acetate:succinate CoA transferase

    PubMed Central

    Van Hellemond, Jaap J.; Opperdoes, Fred R.; Tielens, Aloysius G. M.

    1998-01-01

    Hydrogenosome-containing anaerobic protists, such as the trichomonads, produce large amounts of acetate by an acetate:succinate CoA transferase (ASCT)/succinyl CoA synthetase cycle. The notion that mitochondria and hydrogenosomes may have originated from the same α-proteobacterial endosymbiont has led us to look for the presence of a similar metabolic pathway in trypanosomatids because these are the earliest-branching mitochondriate eukaryotes and because they also are known to produce acetate. The mechanism of acetate production in these organisms, however, has remained unknown. Four different members of the trypanosomatid family: promastigotes of Leishmania mexicana mexicana, L. infantum and Phytomonas sp., and procyclics of Trypanosoma brucei were analyzed as well as the parasitic helminth Fasciola hepatica. They all use a mitochondrial ASCT for the production of acetate from acetyl CoA. The succinyl CoA that is produced during acetate formation by ASCT is recycled presumably to succinate by a mitochondrial succinyl CoA synthetase, concomitantly producing ATP from ADP. The ASCT of L. mexicana mexicana promastigotes was further characterized after partial purification of the enzyme. It has a high affinity for acetyl CoA (Km 0.26 mM) and a low affinity for succinate (Km 6.9 mM), which shows that significant acetate production can occur only when high mitochondrial succinate concentrations prevail. This study identifies a metabolic pathway common to mitochondria and hydrogenosomes, which strongly supports a common origin for these two organelles. PMID:9501211

  11. [Acetate-free biofiltration].

    PubMed

    Martello, Mauro; Di Luca, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Acetate-free biofiltration is a dialysis method with high biocompatibility. The lack of acetate results in decreased stimulation of the production of inflammatory mediators. Other favorable features have been added over the years, such as the possibility to modulate the concentration of potassium in the dialysate, thereby reducing the risk of arrhythmias; the possibility to constantly monitor the blood volume during treatment to reduce the risk of intradialytic hypotension; and a reduced need for heparin thanks to a membrane with a specially treated surface. In this review we discuss the specifics of acetate-free biofiltration.

  12. Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-05-01

    In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid.

  13. Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-02-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided.

  14. Acetobacter pasteurianus metabolic change induced by initial acetic acid to adapt to acetic acid fermentation conditions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Zhang, Renkuan; Yin, Haisong; Bai, Xiaolei; Chang, Yangang; Xia, Menglei; Wang, Min

    2017-09-01

    Initial acetic acid can improve the ethanol oxidation rate of acetic acid bacteria for acetic acid fermentation. In this work, Acetobacter pasteurianus was cultured in ethanol-free medium, and energy production was found to increase by 150% through glucose consumption induced by initial acetic acid. However, oxidation of ethanol, instead of glucose, became the main energy production pathway when upon culturing ethanol containing medium. Proteome assay was used to analyze the metabolism change induced by initial acetic acid, which provided insight into carbon metabolic and energy regulation of A. pasteurianus to adapt to acetic acid fermentation conditions. Results were further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. In summary, decreased intracellular ATP as a result of initial acetic acid inhibition improved the energy metabolism to produce more energy and thus adapt to the acetic acid fermentation conditions. A. pasteurianus upregulated the expression of enzymes related to TCA and ethanol oxidation to improve the energy metabolism pathway upon the addition of initial acetic acid. However, enzymes involved in the pentose phosphate pathway, the main pathway of glucose metabolism, were downregulated to induce a change in carbon metabolism. Additionally, the enhancement of alcohol dehydrogenase expression promoted ethanol oxidation and strengthened the acetification rate, thereby producing a strong proton motive force that was necessary for energy production and cell tolerance to acetic acid.

  15. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food... GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by the...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It...

  18. Ozone decomposition in aqueous acetate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sehested, K.; Holcman, J.; Bjergbakke, E.

    1987-01-01

    The acetate radical ion reacts with ozone with a rate constant of k = (1.5 +/- 0.5) x 10Z dmT mol s . The products from this reaction are CO2, HCHO, and O2 . By subsequent reaction of the peroxy radical with ozone the acetate radical ion is regenerated through the OH radical. A chain decomposition of ozone takes place. It terminates when the acetate radical ion reacts with oxygen forming the unreactive peroxy acetate radical. The chain is rather short as oxygen is developed, as a result of the ozone consumption. The inhibiting effect of acetate on the ozonemore » decay is rationalized by OH scavenging by acetate and successive reaction of the acetate radical ion with oxygen. Some products from the bimolecular disappearance of the peroxy acetate radicals, however, react further with ozone, reducing the effectiveness of the stabilization.« less

  19. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-08

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  20. Female-biased attraction of Oriental fruit fly, bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), to a blend of host fruit volatiles from Terminalia catappa L.

    PubMed

    Siderhurst, Matthew S; Jang, Eric B

    2006-11-01

    Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) analysis of volatiles from tropical almond fruit, Terminalia catappa L., revealed 22 compounds that were detected by antennae of oriental fruit fly females, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Both solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and Porapak Q were used for sampling odors in fruit headspace, with SPME collections producing larger EAD responses from a greater number of compounds. Geranyl acetate and methyl eugenol elicited the largest EAD responses. A synthetic blend containing SPME collected, EAD stimulatory compounds showed female-biased attraction in laboratory wind tunnel bioassays, but heavily male-biased trap captures in a larger olfactometer arena. A nine-component subset of compounds eliciting relatively small EAD responses (EAD minor) and consisting of equal parts ethanol, ethyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, hexyl acetate, linalyl acetate, ethyl nonanate, nonyl acetate, ethyl cinnamate, and (E)-beta-farnesene, attracted mainly females. This EAD minor blend was as attractive to females and much less attractive to males when compared to torula yeast in field cage experiments using glass McPhail traps. Similar results were obtained with outdoor rotating olfactometer tests in which the EAD minor blend was almost completely inactive for males.

  1. Acetic acid fermentation of acetobacter pasteurianus: relationship between acetic acid resistance and pellicle polysaccharide formation.

    PubMed

    Kanchanarach, Watchara; Theeragool, Gunjana; Inoue, Taketo; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Adachi, Osao; Matsushita, Kazunobu

    2010-01-01

    Acetobacter pasteurianus strains IFO3283, SKU1108, and MSU10 were grown under acetic acid fermentation conditions, and their growth behavior was examined together with their capacity for acetic acid resistance and pellicle formation. In the fermentation process, the cells became aggregated and covered by amorphous materials in the late-log and stationary phases, but dispersed again in the second growth phase (due to overoxidation). The morphological change in the cells was accompanied by changes in sugar contents, which might be related to pellicle polysaccharide formation. To determine the relationship between pellicle formation and acetic acid resistance, a pellicle-forming R strain and a non-forming S strain were isolated, and their fermentation ability and acetic acid diffusion activity were compared. The results suggest that pellicle formation is directly related to acetic acid resistance ability, and thus is important to acetic acid fermentation in these A. pasteurianus strains.

  2. Acetate transport and utilization in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Deelchand, Dinesh K; Shestov, Alexander A; Koski, Dee M; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Henry, Pierre-Gilles

    2009-05-01

    Acetate, a glial-specific substrate, is an attractive alternative to glucose for the study of neuronal-glial interactions. The present study investigates the kinetics of acetate uptake and utilization in the rat brain in vivo during infusion of [2-13C]acetate using NMR spectroscopy. When plasma acetate concentration was increased, the rate of brain acetate utilization (CMR(ace)) increased progressively and reached close to saturation for plasma acetate concentration > 2-3 mM, whereas brain acetate concentration continued to increase. The Michaelis-Menten constant for brain acetate utilization (K(M)(util) = 0.01 +/- 0.14 mM) was much smaller than for acetate transport through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) (K(M)(t) = 4.18 +/- 0.83 mM). The maximum transport capacity of acetate through the BBB (V(max)(t) = 0.96 +/- 0.18 micromol/g/min) was nearly twofold higher than the maximum rate of brain acetate utilization (V(max)(util) = 0.50 +/- 0.08 micromol/g/min). We conclude that, under our experimental conditions, brain acetate utilization is saturated when plasma acetate concentrations increase above 2-3 mM. At such high plasma acetate concentration, the rate-limiting step for glial acetate metabolism is not the BBB, but occurs after entry of acetate into the brain.

  3. Inert Reassessment Document for Amyl Acetate

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Both acetates have a number of industrial uses such as solvents for lacquers, paints, and inks. Pharmaceutically, ethyl acetate is a flavoring aid and amyl acetate is used in extraction of penicillin.

  4. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles; Zoeller, Joseph Robert; Depew, Leslie Sharon

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  5. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-03-24

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  6. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid and oxindole-3-acetic acid to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside in Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolabeled oxindole-3-acetic acid was metabolized by roots, shoots, and caryopses of dark grown Zea mays seedlings to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glycopyranoside with the simpler name of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. This compound was also formed from labeled indole-3-acetic acid supplied to intact seedlings and root segments. The glucoside of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid was also isolated as an endogenous compound in the caryopses and shoots of 4-day-old seedlings. It accumulates to a level of 4.8 nanomoles per plant in the kernel, more than 10 times the amount of oxindole-3-acetic acid. In the shoot it is present at levels comparable to that of oxindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid (62 picomoles per shoot). We conclude that 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside is a natural metabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Z. mays seedlings. From the data presented in this paper and in previous work, we propose the following route as the principal catabolic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid in Zea seedlings: Indole-3-acetic acid --> Oxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3 or C2H3O2Na·3H2O, CAS Reg. No. 6131-90-4) is the sodium salt of acetic acid and occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. Sodium...

  8. Identification of novel potential acetate-oxidizing bacteria in an acetate-fed methanogenic chemostat based on DNA stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Zhong; Gou, Min; Yi, Yue; Xia, Zi-Yuan; Tang, Yue-Qin

    2018-05-11

    Acetate is a significant intermediate of anaerobic fermentation. There are two pathways for converting acetate to CH 4 and CO 2 : acetoclastic methanogenesis by acetoclastic methanogens, and syntrophic acetate oxidation by acetate-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Detailed investigations of syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacteria (SAOB) should contribute to the elucidation of the microbial mechanisms of methanogenesis. In this study, we investigated the major phylogenetic groups of acetate-utilizing bacteria (AUB) in a mesophilic methanogenic chemostat fed with acetate as the sole carbon source by using DNA stable isotope probing (SIP) technology. The results indicated that acetoclastic methanogenesis and acetate oxidization/hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis coexisted in the mesophilic chemostat fed with acetate, operated at a dilution rate of 0.1 d -1 . OTU Ace13(9-17) (KU869530), Ace13(9-4) (KU667241), and Ace13(9-23) (KU667236), assigned to the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were probably potential SAOB in the chemostat, which needs further investigation. Species in the phyla Proteobacteria, Deferribacteres, Acidobacteria, Spirochaetes and Actinobacteria were probably capable of utilizing acetate for their growth. Methanoculleus was likely to be the preferred hydrogenotrophic methanogen for syntrophy with AOB in the chemostat.

  9. Influence of different extraction methods on the yield and linalool content of the extracts of Eugenia uniflora L.

    PubMed

    Galhiane, Mário S; Rissato, Sandra R; Chierice, Gilberto O; Almeida, Marcos V; Silva, Letícia C

    2006-09-15

    This work has been developed using a sylvestral fruit tree, native to the Brazilian forest, the Eugenia uniflora L., one of the Mirtaceae family. The main goal of the analytical study was focused on extraction methods themselves. The method development pointed to the Clevenger extraction as the best yield in relation to SFE and Soxhlet. The SFE method presented a good yield but showed a big amount of components in the final extract, demonstrating low selectivity. The essential oil extracted was analyzed by GC/FID showing a large range of polarity and boiling point compounds, where linalool, a widely used compound, was identified. Furthermore, an analytical solid phase extraction method was used to clean it up and obtain separated classes of compounds that were fractionated and studied by GC/FID and GC/MS.

  10. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3 or C2H3O2Na·3H2O, CAS Reg. No. 6131-90-4) is the sodium salt of acetic acid and occurs naturally in plant and...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3 or C2H3O2Na·3H2O, CAS Reg. No. 6131-90-4) is the sodium salt of acetic acid and occurs naturally in plant and...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3 or C2H3O2Na·3H2O, CAS Reg. No. 6131-90-4) is the sodium salt of acetic acid and occurs naturally in plant and...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3 or C2H3O2Na·3H2O, CAS Reg. No. 6131-90-4) is the sodium salt of acetic acid and occurs naturally in plant and...

  14. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  15. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  16. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  17. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  4. Simultaneous production of acetic and gluconic acids by a thermotolerant Acetobacter strain during acetous fermentation in a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Mounir, Majid; Shafiei, Rasoul; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh; Hamouda, Allal; Ismaili Alaoui, Mustapha; Thonart, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    The activity of bacterial strains significantly influences the quality and the taste of vinegar. Previous studies of acetic acid bacteria have primarily focused on the ability of bacterial strains to produce high amounts of acetic acid. However, few studies have examined the production of gluconic acid during acetous fermentation at high temperatures. The production of vinegar at high temperatures by two strains of acetic acid bacteria isolated from apple and cactus fruits, namely AF01 and CV01, respectively, was evaluated in this study. The simultaneous production of gluconic and acetic acids was also examined in this study. Biochemical and molecular identification based on a 16s rDNA sequence analysis confirmed that these strains can be classified as Acetobacter pasteurianus. To assess the ability of the isolated strains to grow and produce acetic acid and gluconic acid at high temperatures, a semi-continuous fermentation was performed in a 20-L bioreactor. The two strains abundantly grew at a high temperature (41°C). At the end of the fermentation, the AF01 and CV01 strains yielded acetic acid concentrations of 7.64% (w/v) and 10.08% (w/v), respectively. Interestingly, CV01 was able to simultaneously produce acetic and gluconic acids during acetic fermentation, whereas AF01 mainly produced acetic acid. In addition, CV01 was less sensitive to ethanol depletion during semi-continuous fermentation. Finally, the enzymatic study showed that the two strains exhibited high ADH and ALDH enzyme activity at 38°C compared with the mesophilic reference strain LMG 1632, which was significantly susceptible to thermal inactivation. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Progress toward acetate supplementation therapy for Canavan disease: glyceryl triacetate administration increases acetate, but not N-acetylaspartate, levels in brain.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Raji; Arun, Peethambaran; Madhavarao, Chikkathur N; Moffett, John R; Namboodiri, M A Aryan

    2005-10-01

    Canavan disease (CD) is a fatal genetic neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the gene for aspartoacylase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes N-acetylaspartate (NAA) into L-aspartate and acetate. Because aspartoacylase is localized in oligodendrocytes, and NAA-derived acetate is incorporated into myelin lipids, we hypothesize that an acetate deficiency in oligodendrocytes is responsible for the pathology in CD, and we propose acetate supplementation as a possible therapy. In our preclinical efforts toward this goal, we studied the effectiveness of orally administered glyceryl triacetate (GTA) and calcium acetate for increasing acetate levels in the murine brain. The concentrations of brain acetate and NAA were determined simultaneously after intragastric administration of GTA. We found that the acetate levels in brain were increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with a 17-fold increase observed at 1 to 2 h in 20- to 21-day-old mice at a dose of 5.8 g/kg GTA. NAA levels in the brain were not significantly increased under these conditions. Studies using mice at varying stages of development showed that the dose of GTA required to maintain similarly elevated acetate levels in the brain increased with age. Also, GTA was significantly more effective as an acetate source than calcium acetate. Chronic administration of GTA up to 25 days of age did not result in any overt pathology in the mice. Based on these results and the current Food and Drug Administration-approved use of GTA as a food additive, we propose that it is a potential candidate for use in acetate supplementation therapy for CD.

  6. trans-2-Tritylcyclohexanol as a chiral auxiliary in permanganate-mediated oxidative cyclization of 2-methylenehept-5-enoates: application to the synthesis of trans-(+)-linalool oxide.

    PubMed

    Al Hazmi, Ali M; Sheikh, Nadeem S; Bataille, Carole J R; Al-Hadedi, Azzam A M; Watkin, Sam V; Luker, Tim J; Camp, Nicholas P; Brown, Richard C D

    2014-10-03

    The permanganate-mediated oxidative cyclization of a series of 2-methylenehept-5-eneoates bearing different chiral auxiliaries was investigated, leading to the discovery of trans-2-tritylcyclohexanol (TTC) as a highly effective chiral controller for the formation of the 2,5-substituted THF diol product with high diastereoselectivity (dr ∼97:3). Chiral resolution of (±)-TTC, prepared in one step from cyclohexene oxide, afforded (-)-(1S,2R)-TTC (er >99:1), which was applied to the synthesis of (+)-trans-(2S,5S)-linalool oxide.

  7. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Nielsen, Anne K.; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Homøe, Preben; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms. PMID:26155378

  8. Acetate concentrations and oxidation in salt marsh sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Acetate concentrations and rates of acetate oxidation and sulfate reduction were measured in S. alterniflora sediments in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Pore water extracted from cores by squeezing or centrifugation contained in greater than 0.1 mM acetate and, in some instances, greater than 1.0 mM. Pore water sampled nondestructively contained much less acetate, often less than 0.01 mM. Acetate was associated with roots, and concentrations varied with changes in plant physiology. Acetate turnover was very low whether whole core or slurry incubations were used. Radiotracers injected directly into soils yielded rates of sulfate reduction and acetate oxidation not significantly different from core incubation techniques. Regardless of incubation method, acetate oxidation did not account for a substantial percentage of sulfate reduction. These results differ markedly from data for unvegetated coastal sediments where acetate levels are low, oxidation rate constants are high, and acetate oxication rates greatly exceed rates of sulfate reduction. The discrepancy between rates of acetate oxidation and sulfate reduction in these marsh soils may be due either to the utilization of substrates other than acetate by sulfate reducers or artifacts associated with measurements of organic utilization by rhizosphere bacteria. Care must be taken when interpreting data from salt marsh sediments since the release of material from roots during coring may affect the concentrations of certain compounds as well as influencing results obtained when sediment incubations are employed.

  9. Key volatile aroma compounds of three black velvet tamarind (Dialium) fruit species.

    PubMed

    Lasekan, Ola; See, Ng Siew

    2015-02-01

    Nineteen odour-active compounds were quantified in three black velvet tamarind fruit species. Calculation of the odour activity values (OAVs) of the odorants showed that differences in odour profiles of the tamarinds were mainly caused by linalool, limonene, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, nonanal, and (Z)-3-hexenal. On the basis of their high OAVs, cis-linalool oxide (furanoid), geranyl acetone, and cinnamyl acetate were identified as other potent odorants in the three tamarinds. Sensory studies revealed very distinct aroma profiles, which are characteristic of these types of fruits. While the Dialiumguineense elicited floral, flowery, caramel-like notes, the other two species were dominated by leaf-like, caramel, and green notes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Metabolism of triacetin-derived acetate in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bleiberg, B; Beers, T R; Persson, M; Miles, J M

    1993-12-01

    Triacetin is a water-soluble triglyceride that may have a role as a parenteral nutrient. In the present study triacetin was administered intravenously to mongrel dogs (n = 10) 2 wk after surgical placement of blood-sampling catheters in the aorta and in the portal, hepatic, renal, and femoral veins. [1-14C]Acetate was infused to allow quantification of organ uptake of acetate as well as systemic turnover and oxidation. Systemic acetate turnover accounted for approximately 70% of triacetin-derived acetate, assuming complete hydrolysis of the triglyceride. Approximately 80% of systemic acetate uptake was rapidly oxidized. Significant acetate uptake was demonstrated in all tissues (liver, 559 +/- 68; intestine, 342 +/- 23; hindlimb, 89 +/- 7; and kidney, 330 +/- 37 mumol/min). In conclusion, during intravenous administration in dogs, the majority of infused triacetin undergoes intravascular hydrolysis, and the majority of the resulting acetate is oxidized. Thus, energy in the form of short-chain fatty acids can be delivered to a resting gut via intravenous infusion of a short-chain triglyceride.

  11. Measurement of the rates of oxindole-3-acetic acid turnover, and indole-3-acetic acid oxidation in Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Oxindole-3-acetic acid is the principal catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Zea mays seedlings. In this paper measurements of the turnover of oxindole-3-acetic acid are presented and used to calculate the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation. [3H]Oxindole-3-acetic acid was applied to the endosperm of Zea mays seedlings and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h before the start of the experiment. The subsequent decrease in its specific activity was used to calculate the turnover rate. The average half-life of oxindole-3-acetic acid in the shoots was found to be 30 h while that in the kernels had an average half-life of 35h. Using previously published values of the pool sizes of oxindole-3-acetic acid in shoots and kernels from seedlings of the same age and variety, and grown under the same conditions, the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation was calculated to be 1.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the shoots and 7.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the kernels.

  12. Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

  13. Profiling study of the major and minor components of kaffir lime oil (Citrus hystrix DC.) in the fractional distillation process.

    PubMed

    Warsito, Warsito; Palungan, Maimunah Hindun; Utomo, Edy Priyo

    2017-01-01

    Essential oil is consisting of complex component. It is divided into major and minor component. Therefore, this study aims to examine the distribution of major and minor components on Kaffir lime oil by using fractional distillation. Fractional distillation and distributional analysis of components within fractions have been performed on kaffir lime oil ( Citrus hystrix DC .). Fractional distillation was performed by using PiloDist 104-VTU, column length of 2 m (number of plate 120), the system pressure was set on 5 and 10 mBar, while the reflux ratio varied on 10/10, 20/10 and 60/10, and the chemical composition analysis was done by using GC-MS. Chemical composition of the distillated lime oil consisted of mix-twigs and leaves that composed of 20 compounds, with five main components β-citronellal (46.40%), L-linalool (13.11%), β-citronellol (11.03%), citronelyl acetate (6.76%) and sabinen (5.91%). The optimum conditions for fractional distillation were obtained at 5 mBar pressure with reflux ratio of 10/10. Components of β -citronellal and L-linalool were distributed in the fraction-1 to fraction 9, hydrocarbon monoterpenes components were distributed only on the fraction-1 to fraction 4, while the oxygenated monoterpenes components dominated the fraction-5 to fraction-9. The highest level of β-citronellal was 84.86% (fraction-7), L-linalool 20.13% (fraction-5), sabinen 19.83% (fraction-1), and the component level of 4-terpeneol, β-citronellol and sitronelyl acetate respectively 7.16%; 12.27%; 5.22% (fraction-9).

  14. Ozone Differentially Affects Perception of Plant Volatiles in Western Honey Bees.

    PubMed

    Dötterl, Stefan; Vater, Marina; Rupp, Thomas; Held, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Floral scents play a key role in mediating plant-pollinator interactions. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by flowers are used by flower visitors as olfactory cues to locate flowers, both from a distance and at close range. More recently it has been demonstrated that reactive molecules such as ozone can modify or degrade VOCs, and this may impair the communication between plants and their pollinators. However, it is not known whether such reactive molecules also may affect the olfactory system of pollinators, and thus not only influence signal transmission but perception of the signal. In this study, we used electroantennographic measurements to determine the effect of increased levels of ozone on antennal responses in western honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Linalool and 2-phenylethanol, both known to be involved in location of flowers by the bees, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, a widespread green leaf volatile also detected by bees, were used. The results showed that ozone affected antennal responses to the different substances differently. Ozone decreased antennal responses to (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, whereas responses to linalool and 2-phenylethanol were not influenced by ozone. Overall, the study does not provide evidence that pollination by honey bees is impaired by damage in the olfactory system of the bees caused by increased levels of ozone, at least when linalool and 2-phenylethanol are the attractive signals. However, the results also suggest that ozone can change the overall perception of an odor blend. This might have negative effects in pollination systems and other organismic interactions mediated by specific ratios of compounds.

  15. Profiling study of the major and minor components of kaffir lime oil (Citrus hystrix DC.) in the fractional distillation process

    PubMed Central

    Warsito, Warsito; Palungan, Maimunah Hindun; Utomo, Edy Priyo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Essential oil is consisting of complex component. It is divided into major and minor component. Therefore, this study aims to examine the distribution of major and minor components on Kaffir lime oil by using fractional distillation. Fractional distillation and distributional analysis of components within fractions have been performed on kaffir lime oil (Citrus hystrix DC.). Methods Fractional distillation was performed by using PiloDist 104-VTU, column length of 2 m (number of plate 120), the system pressure was set on 5 and 10 mBar, while the reflux ratio varied on 10/10, 20/10 and 60/10, and the chemical composition analysis was done by using GC-MS. Chemical composition of the distillated lime oil consisted of mix-twigs and leaves that composed of 20 compounds, with five main components β-citronellal (46.40%), L-linalool (13.11%), β-citronellol (11.03%), citronelyl acetate (6.76%) and sabinen (5.91%). Results The optimum conditions for fractional distillation were obtained at 5 mBar pressure with reflux ratio of 10/10. Components of β -citronellal and L-linalool were distributed in the fraction-1 to fraction 9, hydrocarbon monoterpenes components were distributed only on the fraction-1 to fraction 4, while the oxygenated monoterpenes components dominated the fraction-5 to fraction-9. Conclusion The highest level of β-citronellal was 84.86% (fraction-7), L-linalool 20.13% (fraction-5), sabinen 19.83% (fraction-1), and the component level of 4-terpeneol, β-citronellol and sitronelyl acetate respectively 7.16%; 12.27%; 5.22% (fraction-9). PMID:29187951

  16. Acetylation of Starch with Vinyl Acetate in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids and Characterization of Acetate Distribution

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch was acetylated with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) salts as solvent in effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution was much higher for basic anions such as acetate and dicyanimide (dca) than for neutral anions ...

  17. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

  18. Simultaneous determination of triacetin, acetic ether, butyl acetate and amorolfine hydrochloride in amorolfine liniment by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Li, Li; Zhang, Jianjun; Shu, Wenjuan; Gao, Liqiong

    2012-04-01

    A simple, rapid, specific and precise reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous estimation of triacetin, acetic ether, butyl acetate and amorolfine in marketed pharmaceutical liniment. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Shimadzu VP-ODS C(18) column using the mixture of citric acid-hydrochloric acid-sodium hydrate buffer (pH 3.0), acetonitrile and methanol (32:30:38) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with UV-detection at 215 nm. The method separated the four components simultaneously in less than 10 min. The validation of the method was performed with respect to specificity, linearity, accuracy, and precision. The calibration curves were linear in the range of 35.1-81.9 μ/mL for triacetin, 431.1-1005.9 μ/mL for acetic ether, 167.0-389.7 μ/mL for butyl acetate and 151.0-352.3 μ/mL for amorolfine. The mean 100% spiked recovery for triacetin, acetic ether, butyl acetate and amorolfine is 99.43 ± 0.42, 101.5 ± 1.09, 101.4 ± 1.02 and 100.8 ± 0.69, respectively. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation values were <2.0%. The limits of detection of these compounds ranged from 0.08 to 5.88 ng. The utility of the procedure was verified by its application to the commercial liniment.

  19. Measurement and correlation of the solubility of gossypol acetic acid and gossypol acetic acid of optical activity in different solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Tang, H.; Liu, X. Y.; Zhai, X.; Yao, X. C.

    2018-01-01

    The equilibrium method was used to measure the solubility of gossypol acetic acid and gossypol acetic acid of optical activity in isopropyl alcohol, ethanol, acetic acid and ethyl acetate at temperature from 288.15 to 315.15. The Empirical equation and the Apelblat equation model were adopted to correlate the experimental data. For gossypol acetic acid, the root-mean-square deviations (RMSD) were observed in the range of 0.023-4.979 and 0.0112-0.614 for the Empirical equation and the Apelblat equation, respectively. For gossypol acetic acid of optical activity, the RMSD were observed in the range of 0.021-2.211 and 0.021-2.243 for the Empirical equation and the Apelblat equation, individually. And the maximum relative average deviation was 7.5%. Both equations offered an accurate mathematical expression of the experimental results. The calculated solubility showed a good relationship with the experimental solubility for most of solvents. This study provided valuable datas not only for optimizing the process of purification of gossypol acetic acid of optical activity in industry but also for further theoretical studies.

  20. Acetate Utilization and Butyryl Coenzyme A (CoA):Acetate-CoA Transferase in Butyrate-Producing Bacteria from the Human Large Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Sylvia H.; Barcenilla, Adela; Stewart, Colin S.; Pryde, Susan E.; Flint, Harry J.

    2002-01-01

    Seven strains of Roseburia sp., Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and Coprococcus sp. from the human gut that produce high levels of butyric acid in vitro were studied with respect to key butyrate pathway enzymes and fermentation patterns. Strains of Roseburia sp. and F. prausnitzii possessed butyryl coenzyme A (CoA):acetate-CoA transferase and acetate kinase activities, but butyrate kinase activity was not detectable either in growing or in stationary-phase cultures. Although unable to use acetate as a sole source of energy, these strains showed net utilization of acetate during growth on glucose. In contrast, Coprococcus sp. strain L2-50 is a net producer of acetate and possessed detectable butyrate kinase, acetate kinase, and butyryl-CoA:acetate-CoA transferase activities. These results demonstrate that different functionally distinct groups of butyrate-producing bacteria are present in the human large intestine. PMID:12324374

  1. Evaluating acetate metabolism for imaging and targeting in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Francesca; Ge, Xia; Su, Xinming; Hathi, Deep; Xiang, Jingyu; Cenci, Simone; Civitelli, Roberto; Shoghi, Kooresh I.; Akers, Walter J.; D’avignon, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We hypothesized that in multiple myeloma cells (MMC), high membrane biosynthesis will induce acetate uptake in vitro and in vivo. Here, we studied acetate metabolism and targeting in MMC in vitro and tested the efficacy of 11C-acetate-PET (positron emission tomography) to detect and quantitatively image myeloma treatment response in vivo. Experimental design Acetate fate tracking using 13C-edited-1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) was performed to study in vitro acetate uptake and metabolism in MMC. Effects of pharmacological modulation of acetate transport or acetate incorporation into lipids on MMC cell survival and viability were assessed. Preclinical mouse MM models of subcutaneous and bone tumors were evaluated using 11C-acetate-PET/CT imaging and tissue biodistribution. Results In vitro, NMR showed significant uptake of acetate by MMC, and acetate incorporation into intracellular metabolites and membrane lipids. Inhibition of lipid synthesis and acetate transport was toxic to MMC, while sparing resident bone cells or normal B cells. In vivo, 11C-acetate uptake by PET imaging was significantly enhanced in subcutaneous and bone MMC tumors compared to unaffected bone or muscle tissue. Likewise, 11C-acetate uptake was significantly reduced in MM tumors after treatment. Conclusions Uptake of acetate from the extracellular environment was enhanced in MMC and was critical to cellular viability. 11C-acetate-PET detected the presence of myeloma cells in vivo, including uptake in intramedullary bone disease. 11C-acetate-PET also detected response to therapy in vivo. Our data suggested that acetate metabolism and incorporation into lipids was crucial to MM cell biology and that 11C-acetate-PET is a promising imaging modality for MM. PMID:27486177

  2. Phenylmercuric acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phenylmercuric acetate ; CASRN 62 - 38 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  3. Ammonium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium acetate ; CASRN 631 - 61 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  4. Vinyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Vinyl acetate ; CASRN 108 - 05 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  5. Ethyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl acetate ; CASRN 141 - 78 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  6. Differential response of terpenes and anthraquinones derivatives in Rumex dentatus and Lavandula officinalis to harsh winters across north-western Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Jan, Sumira; Kamili, Azra N; Parray, Javid A; Bedi, Yashbir S

    2016-01-01

    Herbs adapted to diverse climates exhibit distinct variability to fluctuating temperatures and demonstrate various metabolic and physiological adaptations to harsh environments. In this research, Rumex dentatus L. and Lavandula officinalis L. were collected before snowfall in September-November to evaluate variability in major phytoconstituents to diverse seasonal regime. LC-MS was used for simultaneous determination of eight anthraquinone derivatives in R. dentatus, i.e. emodin, physcion, chrysophanol, physcion glucoside, endocrocin, emodin glucoside, chrysophanol glucoside and chromone derivatives and monoterpenes in L. officinalis i.e. (Z)-β-ocimene, (E)-β-ocimene, terpene alcohol, terpin-4-ol, acetate ester-linalyl acetate and bicyclic sesquiterpene (E)-caryophyllene. The correlation analysis confirmed significant variation in anthraquinone glucoside and terpene content within Rumex and Lavender, respectively, and altitude was established as the determinant factor in secondary metabolism of both herbs. The study concludes the propagation of herbs in bioclimatic belts which favour accumulation of major constituents and validate their greater pharmacological activity.

  7. Toxicity of β-citronellol, geraniol and linalool from Pelargonium roseum essential oil against the West Nile and filariasis vector Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Tabari, Mohaddeseh Abouhosseini; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Esfandiari, Aryan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2017-10-01

    Insect vectors are responsible for spreading devastating parasites and pathogens. A large number of botanicals have been suggested for eco-friendly control programs against mosquito vectors, and some of them are aromatic plants. Pelargonium roseum, a species belonging to the Geraniaceae family, due to its pleasant rose-like odor may represent a suitable candidate as mosquito repellent and/or larvicide. In this research, we evaluated the toxicity of the essential oil from P. roseum and its major constituents against the West Nile and filariasis vector Culex pipiens. The chemical composition of P. roseum essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Major constituents were citronellol (35.9%), geraniol (18.5%), and linalool (5.72%). The bioactivity of P. roseum essential oil and its three major compounds on larvae and egg rafts of Cx. pipiens was evaluated. The essential oil had a significant toxic effect on larvae and egg rafts of Cx. pipiens, with 50% lethal concentration (LC 50 ) values of 5.49 and 0.45μg/mL, respectively. Major constituents, geraniol, citronellol and linalool resulted in LC 50 values of 6.86, 7.64 and 14.87μg/mL on larvae, and 0.8, 0.67 and 1.27μg/mL on egg rafts. Essential oil and two of its constituents, citronellol and geraniol showed moderate knock-down on Cx. pipiens adults. Overall, the present investigation revealed that the major components of P. roseum and specially the whole essential oil could be helpful in developing novel and safe mosquito control tools and also offer an environmentally safe and cheap tool for reducing Cx. pipiens mosquito populations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Mechanism of Indole-3-acetic Acid Conjugation

    PubMed Central

    Goren, Raphael; Bukovac, Martin J.; Flore, James A.

    1974-01-01

    Formation of indole-3-acetic acid-aspartate in detached primary leaves of cowpea (Vigna sinensis Endl.) floating on 14C-indole-3-acetic acid (3 μc; 3.15 μm, phosphate-citrate buffer, pH 4.75), almost doubled when leaves were pretreated with 31.5 μm12C-indole-3-acetic acid for 17 hr and then transferred to 14C-indole-3-acetic acid for 4 hours as compared with leaves preincubated in buffer only. When leaves were preincubated with ethylene (11.0 and 104 μl/l) instead of 12C-indole-3-acetic acid, no induction of indole-3-acetylaspartic acid formation was observed, and the rate of indole-3-acetylaspartic acid formation decreased as compared with control leaves. Rhizobitoxine (1.87 μm) inhibited indole-3-acetic acid-induced ethylene production but did not prevent the formation of indole-3-acetylaspartic acid. In view of the similarity of these results and those previously obtained with α-naphthaleneacetic acid, it is concluded that ethylene has no role in the auxin-induced indole-3-acetylaspartic acid formation in cowpea leaves. PMID:16658669

  9. Omics analysis of acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Geng, Peng; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui Yang

    2017-05-01

    Acetic acid is an inhibitor in industrial processes such as wine making and bioethanol production from cellulosic hydrolysate. It causes energy depletion, inhibition of metabolic enzyme activity, growth arrest and ethanol productivity losses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of the yeast responses to acetic acid stress is essential for improving acetic acid tolerance and ethanol production. Although 329 genes associated with acetic acid tolerance have been identified in the Saccharomyces genome and included in the database ( http://www.yeastgenome.org/observable/resistance_to_acetic_acid/overview ), the cellular mechanistic responses to acetic acid remain unclear in this organism. Post-genomic approaches such as transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and chemogenomics are being applied to yeast and are providing insight into the mechanisms and interactions of genes, proteins and other components that together determine complex quantitative phenotypic traits such as acetic acid tolerance. This review focuses on these omics approaches in the response to acetic acid in S. cerevisiae. Additionally, several novel strains with improved acetic acid tolerance have been engineered by modifying key genes, and the application of these strains and recently acquired knowledge to industrial processes is also discussed.

  10. Essential oils: in vitro activity against Leishmania amazonensis, cytotoxicity and chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Milene Aparecida; Azevedo, Clênia Dos Santos; Motta, Flávia Nader; Santos, Maria Lucília Dos; Silva, Camila Lasse; Santana, Jaime Martins de; Bastos, Izabela M D

    2016-11-08

    The current chemotherapy for cutaneous leishmaniosis (CL) has a series of drug limitations such as toxic side effects, long duration, high costs and drug resistance, which requires the development of new drugs or effective alternatives to the CL treatment. Essential oils (EOs) are complex mixtures of secondary metabolites from various plants. It has been shown that several EOs, or their constituents, have inhibitory activity against protozoa. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the biological activity of different essential oils (EOs) on Leishmania (L.) amazonensis promastigotes forms, as well as their cytotoxicity on mammalian cells and chemical composition. Sixteen EOs were evaluated by mean of IC 50 /24 h and cytotoxicity against L6 cells (CC 50 /24 h) using Resazurin assay. Only those EOs that presented better results for IC 50 /24 h were submitted to GC-MS analysis to determine their chemical constitution. The EO from Cinnamodendron dinisii, Matricaria chamomilla, Myroxylon peruiferum, Salvia sclarea, Bulnesia sarmientoi, Ferula galbaniflua, Siparuna guianensis and Melissa officinalis were the most active against L. amazonensis with IC50/24 h ranging from 54.05 to 162.25 μg/mL. Analysis of EOs by GC-MS showed mainly the presence of β-farnesene (52.73 %) and bisabolol oxide (12.09 %) for M. chamomilla; α-copaene (13.41 %), safrole (8.35 %) and δ-cadinene (7.08 %) for M. peruiferum; linalool (28.80 %) and linalyl acetate (60.08 %) for S. sclarea; guaiol (48.29 %) and 2-undecanone (19.49 %) for B. sarmientoi; ethyl phthalate (13.09 %) and methyl-8-pimaren-18-oate (41.82 %) for F. galbaniflua; and neral (37.18 %) and citral (5.02 %) for M. officinalis. The EO from F. galbaniflua showed to be effective against L. amazonensis promastigotes forms and presented low cytotoxic activity against L6 cells. Thus, it represents a strong candidate for future studies aiming its molecular activity on these pathogenic parasites.

  11. Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Flowers: Optimisation of Oxygenated Monoterpenes, Coumarin and Herniarin Content.

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Molnar, Maja; Vidović, Senka; Vladić, Jelena; Jokić, Stela

    2017-11-01

    Lavandula angustifolia is good source of oxygenated monoterpenes containing coumarins as well, which are all soluble in supercritical CO 2 (SC-CO 2 ). The study objective is to investigate SC-CO 2 extraction parameters on: the total yield; GC-MS profile of the extracts; relative content of oxygenated monoterpenes; the amount of coumarin and herniarin; and to determine optimal SC-CO 2 extraction conditions by response surface methodology (RSM). SC-CO 2 extraction was performed under different pressure, temperature and CO 2 flow rate determined by Box-Behnken design (BBD). The sample mass and the extraction time were kept constant. The chemical profiles and relative content of oxygenated monoterpenes (as coumarin equivalents, CE) were determined by GC-MS. Coumarin and herniarin concentrations were dosed by HPLC. SC-CO 2 extracts contained linalool (57.4-217.9 mg CE/100 g), camphor (10.6-154.4 mg CE/100 g), borneol (6.2-99.9 mg CE/100 g), 1,8-cineole (5.0-70.4 mg CE/100 g), linalyl acetate (86.1-267.9 mg CE/100 g), coumarin (0.95-18.16 mg/100 g), and herniarin (0.95-13.63 mg/100 g). The interaction between the pressure and CO 2 flow rate as well as between the temperature and CO 2 flow rate showed statistically significant influence on the extraction yield. Applying BBD, the optimum extraction conditions for higher monoterpenes and lower coumarin content were at 10 MPa, 41°C and CO 2 flow rate 2.3 kg/h, and at 30 MPa, 50°C and CO 2 flow rate 3 kg/h for higher monoterpenes and coumarin content. SC-CO 2 extraction is a viable technique for obtaining lavender extracts with desirable flavour components. The second-order model based on BBD predicts the results for SC-CO 2 extraction quite satisfactorily. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Modification of wheat starch with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures I. Thermophysical and pasting properties.

    PubMed

    Subarić, Drago; Ačkar, Durđica; Babić, Jurislav; Sakač, Nikola; Jozinović, Antun

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of modification with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures on thermophysical and pasting properties of wheat starch. Starch was isolated from two wheat varieties and modified with mixtures of succinic acid and acetic anhydride, and azelaic acid and acetic anhydride in 4, 6 and 8 % (w/w). Thermophysical, pasting properties, swelling power, solubility and amylose content of modified starches were determined. The results showed that modifications with mixtures of afore mentioned dicarboxylic acids with acetic anhydride decreased gelatinisation and pasting temperatures. Gelatinisation enthalpy of Golubica starch increased, while of Srpanjka starch decreased by modifications. Retrogradation after 7 and 14 day-storage at 4 °C decreased after modifications of both starches. Maximum, hot and cold paste viscosity of both starches increased, while stability during shearing at high temperatures decreased. % setback of starches modified with azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixture decreased. Swelling power and solubility of both starches increased by both modifications.

  13. Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate (Provera) on ovarian radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrell, J.; YoungLai, E.V.; McMahon, A.

    1989-04-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (Provera) is a drug that is commonly given to young women with cancer during chemotherapy and radiation to control heavy bleeding associated with anovulation. Because hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian suppression has been associated with ovarian protection from the effects of chemotherapy and medroxyprogesterone acetate has been identified as a radiosensitizing agent, we explored the effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate on a rat model with known radiation injury characteristics. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate or vehicle from day 22 to day 37 of life and were either irradiated or sham-irradiated on day 30 of life and then killed on day 44.more » Radiation with medroxyprogesterone acetate administration produced a greater loss in preantral and healthy control follicles than in control follicles. No suppression of luteinizing hormone or follicle-stimulating hormone had occurred by day 30 but ovarian glutathione content was reduced. These findings indicate that the administration of medroxyprogesterone acetate with radiotherapy may enhance ovarian injury.« less

  14. Flowery odor formation revealed by differential expression of monoterpene biosynthetic genes and monoterpene accumulation in rose (Rosa rugosa Thunb.).

    PubMed

    Feng, Liguo; Chen, Chen; Li, Tinglin; Wang, Meng; Tao, Jun; Zhao, Daqiu; Sheng, Lixia

    2014-02-01

    Rosa rugosa is an important ornamental and economical plant. In this paper, four genes encoding 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS), 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR), alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) and linalool synthase (LIS) involved in the monoterpene biosynthesis pathways were isolated from R. rugosa 'Tangzi', and the expression patterns of these genes in different flower development stages and different parts of floral organs were determined by real-time quantitative fluorescence PCR. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis was carried out into the relationship between expression of four monoterpene synthesis genes and accumulation of main volatile monoterpenes and their acetic acid ester derivatives. The results showed that the genes RrDXS, RrDXR and RrLIS showed consistent expressions during the development process for R. rugosa flower from budding to withering stage, the overall expression levels of gene RrDXS and RrLIS were obviously lower as compared with those of gene RrDXR and RrAAT. Although the gene RrDXS, RrDXR, RrAAT and RrLIS were expressed in all parts of R. rugosa floral organs, the expression levels varied significantly. The variations in the constituent and content of volatile monoterpenes including citronellol, geraniol, nerol, linalool, citronellyl acetate, geranyl acetate and neryl acetate at different development stages and parts of floral organs were significantly different. On this basis, we concluded that the gene RrDXR and RrAAT might play a key role in the biosynthesis of volatile monoterpenes in R. rugosa flowers, and the two genes are important candidate genes for the regulation of secondary metabolism for rose aromatic components. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrolyses of alpha-naphthyl acetate, beta-naphthyl acetate, and acetyl-DL-phenylalanine beta-naphthyl ester.

    PubMed

    Kirkeby, S; Moe, D

    1983-01-01

    Using simultaneous coupling azo dye techniques kidney enzymes active against alpha-naphthyl acetate, beta-naphthyl acetate, and acetyl-DL-phenylalanine beta-naphthyl ester are characterized. The enzymes show identical distribution in the section. The banding patterns in zymograms are the same after incubation with the different substrates. The enzymes might, however, be separated by difference in pH optimum, initial velocity and sensitivity to inhibitors and activators.

  16. Detoxification of biomass derived acetate via metabolic conversion to ethanol, acetone, isopropanol, or ethyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Sillers, William Ryan; Van Dijken, Hans; Licht, Steve; Shaw, IV, Arthur J.; Gilbert, Alan Benjamin; Argyros, Aaron; Froehlich, Allan C.; McBride, John E.; Xu, Haowen; Hogsett, David A.; Rajgarhia, Vineet B.

    2017-03-28

    One aspect of the invention relates to a genetically modified thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism, wherein a first native gene is partially, substantially, or completely deleted, silenced, inactivated, or down-regulated, which first native gene encodes a first native enzyme involved in the metabolic production of an organic acid or a salt thereof, thereby increasing the native ability of said thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism to produce lactate or acetate as a fermentation product. In certain embodiments, the aforementioned microorganism further comprises a first non-native gene, which first non-native gene encodes a first non-native enzyme involved in the metabolic production of lactate or acetate. Another aspect of the invention relates to a process for converting lignocellulosic biomass to lactate or acetate, comprising contacting lignocellulosic biomass with a genetically modified thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism.

  17. 21 CFR 177.1350 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. 177.1350 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1350 Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers may be safely used as articles or components of articles...

  18. Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Ramprasad, D.; Waller, F.J.

    1999-04-06

    This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

  19. Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Ramprasad, Dorai; Waller, Francis Joseph

    1999-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

  20. Alcohols enhance the rate of acetic acid diffusion in S. cerevisiae: biophysical mechanisms and implications for acetic acid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Faria-Oliveira, Fábio; Allard, Stefan; Eriksson, Leif A; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2017-12-01

    Microbial cell factories with the ability to maintain high productivity in the presence of weak organic acids, such as acetic acid, are required in many industrial processes. For example, fermentation media derived from lignocellulosic biomass are rich in acetic acid and other weak acids. The rate of diffusional entry of acetic acid is one parameter determining the ability of microorganisms to tolerance the acid. The present study demonstrates that the rate of acetic acid diffusion in S. cerevisiae is strongly affected by the alcohols ethanol and n-butanol. Ethanol of 40 g/L and n-butanol of 8 g/L both caused a 65% increase in the rate of acetic acid diffusion, and higher alcohol concentrations caused even greater increases. Molecular dynamics simulations of membrane dynamics in the presence of alcohols demonstrated that the partitioning of alcohols to the head group region of the lipid bilayer causes a considerable increase in the membrane area, together with reduced membrane thickness and lipid order. These changes in physiochemical membrane properties lead to an increased number of water molecules in the membrane interior, providing biophysical mechanisms for the alcohol-induced increase in acetic acid diffusion rate. n-butanol affected S. cerevisiae and the cell membrane properties at lower concentrations than ethanol, due to greater and deeper partitioning in the membrane. This study demonstrates that the rate of acetic acid diffusion can be strongly affected by compounds that partition into the cell membrane, and highlights the need for considering interaction effects between compounds in the design of microbial processes.

  1. Alcohols enhance the rate of acetic acid diffusion in S. cerevisiae: biophysical mechanisms and implications for acetic acid tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Faria-Oliveira, Fábio; Allard, Stefan; Eriksson, Leif A.; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Microbial cell factories with the ability to maintain high productivity in the presence of weak organic acids, such as acetic acid, are required in many industrial processes. For example, fermentation media derived from lignocellulosic biomass are rich in acetic acid and other weak acids. The rate of diffusional entry of acetic acid is one parameter determining the ability of microorganisms to tolerance the acid. The present study demonstrates that the rate of acetic acid diffusion in S. cerevisiae is strongly affected by the alcohols ethanol and n-butanol. Ethanol of 40 g/L and n-butanol of 8 g/L both caused a 65% increase in the rate of acetic acid diffusion, and higher alcohol concentrations caused even greater increases. Molecular dynamics simulations of membrane dynamics in the presence of alcohols demonstrated that the partitioning of alcohols to the head group region of the lipid bilayer causes a considerable increase in the membrane area, together with reduced membrane thickness and lipid order. These changes in physiochemical membrane properties lead to an increased number of water molecules in the membrane interior, providing biophysical mechanisms for the alcohol-induced increase in acetic acid diffusion rate. n-butanol affected S. cerevisiae and the cell membrane properties at lower concentrations than ethanol, due to greater and deeper partitioning in the membrane. This study demonstrates that the rate of acetic acid diffusion can be strongly affected by compounds that partition into the cell membrane, and highlights the need for considering interaction effects between compounds in the design of microbial processes. PMID:29354649

  2. Photoelectron spectroscopy of a series of acetate and propionate esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Śmiałek, Małgorzata A.; Guthmuller, Julien; MacDonald, Michael A.; Zuin, Lucia; Delwiche, Jacques; Hubin-Franskin, Marie-Jeanne; Lesniewski, Tadeusz; Mason, Nigel J.; Limão-Vieira, Paulo

    2017-10-01

    The electronic state and photoionization spectroscopy of a series of acetate esters: methyl acetate, isopropyl acetate, butyl acetate and pentyl acetate as well as two propionates: methyl propionate and ethyl propionate, have been determined using vacuum-ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. These experimental investigations are complemented by ab initio calculations. The measured first adiabatic and vertical ionization energies were determined as: 10.21 and 10.45 eV for methyl acetate, 9.99 and 10.22 eV for isopropyl acetate, 10.07 and 10.26 eV for butyl acetate, 10.01 and 10.22 eV for pentyl acetate, 10.16 and 10.36 eV for methyl propionate and 9.99 and 10.18 eV for ethyl propionate. For the four smaller esters vibrational transitions were calculated and compared with those identified in the photoelectron spectrum, revealing the most distinctive ones to be a Csbnd O stretch combined with a Cdbnd O stretch. The ionization energies of methyl and ethyl esters as well as for a series of formates and acetates were compared showing a clear dependence of the value of the ionization energy on the size of the molecule with very little influence of its conformation.

  3. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. Pulsed (13)C2-Acetate Protein-SIP Unveils Epsilonproteobacteria as Dominant Acetate Utilizers in a Sulfate-Reducing Microbial Community Mineralizing Benzene.

    PubMed

    Starke, Robert; Keller, Andreas; Jehmlich, Nico; Vogt, Carsten; Richnow, Hans H; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; von Bergen, Martin; Seifert, Jana

    2016-05-01

    In a benzene-degrading and sulfate-reducing syntrophic consortium, a clostridium affiliated to the genus Pelotomaculum was previously described to ferment benzene while various sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria and a member of the Epsilonproteobacteria were supposed to utilize acetate and hydrogen as key metabolites derived from benzene fermentation. However, the acetate utilization network within this community was not yet unveiled. In this study, we performed a pulsed (13)C2-acetate protein stable isotope probing (protein-SIP) approach continuously spiking low amounts of acetate (10 μM per day) in addition to the ongoing mineralization of unlabeled benzene. Metaproteomics revealed high abundances of Clostridiales followed by Syntrophobacterales, Desulfobacterales, Desulfuromonadales, Desulfovibrionales, Archaeoglobales, and Campylobacterales. Pulsed acetate protein-SIP results indicated that members of the Campylobacterales, the Syntrophobacterales, the Archaeoglobales, the Clostridiales, and the Desulfobacterales were linked to acetate utilization in descending abundance. The Campylobacterales revealed the fastest and highest (13)C incorporation. Previous experiments suggested that the activity of the Campylobacterales was not essential for anaerobic benzene degradation in the investigated community. However, these organisms were consistently detected in various hydrocarbon-degrading and sulfate-reducing consortia enriched from the same aquifer. Here, we demonstrate that this member of the Campylobacterales is the dominant acetate utilizer in the benzene-degrading microbial consortium.

  10. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula Pb... cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp only, subject to the following restrictions: (1) The... mustaches, eyelashes, eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp. (d) Labeling requirements...

  11. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula Pb... cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp only, subject to the following restrictions: (1) The... mustaches, eyelashes, eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp. (d) Labeling requirements...

  12. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula Pb... cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp only, subject to the following restrictions: (1) The... mustaches, eyelashes, eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp. (d) Labeling requirements...

  13. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula Pb... cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp only, subject to the following restrictions: (1) The... mustaches, eyelashes, eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp. (d) Labeling requirements...

  14. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula Pb... cosmetics intended for coloring hair on the scalp only, subject to the following restrictions: (1) The... mustaches, eyelashes, eyebrows, or hair on parts of the body other than the scalp. (d) Labeling requirements...

  15. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  16. Biotechnological applications of acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Raspor, Peter; Goranovic, Dusan

    2008-01-01

    The acetic acid bacteria (AAB) have important roles in food and beverage production, as well as in the bioproduction of industrial chemicals. In recent years, there have been major advances in understanding their taxonomy, molecular biology, and physiology, and in methods for their isolation and identification. AAB are obligate aerobes that oxidize sugars, sugar alcohols, and ethanol with the production of acetic acid as the major end product. This special type of metabolism differentiates them from all other bacteria. Recently, the AAB taxonomy has been strongly rearranged as new techniques using 16S rRNA sequence analysis have been introduced. Currently, the AAB are classified in ten genera in the family Acetobacteriaceae. AAB can not only play a positive role in the production of selected foods and beverages, but they can also spoil other foods and beverages. AAB occur in sugar- and alcohol-enriched environments. The difficulty of cultivation of AAB on semisolid media in the past resulted in poor knowledge of the species present in industrial processes. The first step of acetic acid production is the conversion of ethanol from a carbohydrate carried out by yeasts, and the second step is the oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid carried out by AAB. Vinegar is traditionally the product of acetous fermentation of natural alcoholic substrates. Depending on the substrate, vinegars can be classified as fruit, starch, or spirit substrate vinegars. Although a variety of bacteria can produce acetic acid, mostly members of Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, and Gluconobacter are used commercially. Industrial vinegar manufacturing processes fall into three main categories: slow processes, quick processes, and submerged processes. AAB also play an important role in cocoa production, which represents a significant means of income for some countries. Microbial cellulose, produced by AAB, possesses some excellent physical properties and has potential for many applications. Other

  17. Heterotrophic and mixotrophic growth of Micractinium pusillum Fresenius in the presence of acetate and glucose: effect of light and acetate gradient concentration.

    PubMed

    Bouarab, L; Dauta, A; Loudiki, M

    2004-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the importance of secondary mechanism of organic carbon utilization (mixotrophic and heterotrophic modes) in addition to CO2 fixation (photoautotrophic mode) in the green alga, Micractinium pusillum Fresenius (chlorophyta), isolated from a waste stabilization pond. The growth was studied in the presence of acetate and glucose. The incorporation rate of 14C- acetate was measured in the light and in the dark at different concentrations. Finally, in order to underline the role of photosynthesis and respiration processes in the acetate assimilation, the effect of two specific metabolic inhibitors, a specific inhibitor of photosystem II (DCMU) and an uncoupler respiratory (DNP), has been studied. The obtained results showed that M. pusillum grows in the presence of organic substrates, i.e., glucose and acetate, in the light (mixotrophic growth) as well as in the dark (Heterotrophic growth). The growth was much more important in the light than in the dark and more in the presence of glucose than of acetate. In the light, the presence of acetate led to a variation of growth parameters mumax, iotaopt, and beta. The effect of acetate gradient on the growth of the microalga was severe as soon as its concentration in the medium was higher. The acetate uptake followed a Michaelis-Menten kinetic in the light as well as in the dark. The capacity of assimilation was slightly higher in the dark. The utilization of DNP and DCMU indicates that acetate incorporation is an active process depending on both anabolic (photosynthesis) and catabolic (respiration) metabolisms, corroborating the model of the Michaelis-Menten kinetic.

  18. Ulipristal acetate versus placebo for fibroid treatment before surgery.

    PubMed

    Donnez, Jacques; Tatarchuk, Tetyana F; Bouchard, Philippe; Puscasiu, Lucian; Zakharenko, Nataliya F; Ivanova, Tatiana; Ugocsai, Gyula; Mara, Michal; Jilla, Manju P; Bestel, Elke; Terrill, Paul; Osterloh, Ian; Loumaye, Ernest

    2012-02-02

    The efficacy and safety of oral ulipristal acetate for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids before surgery are uncertain. We randomly assigned women with symptomatic fibroids, excessive uterine bleeding (a score of >100 on the pictorial blood-loss assessment chart [PBAC, an objective assessment of blood loss, in which monthly scores range from 0 to >500, with higher numbers indicating more bleeding]) and anemia (hemoglobin level of ≤10.2 g per deciliter) to receive treatment for up to 13 weeks with oral ulipristal acetate at a dose of 5 mg per day (96 women) or 10 mg per day (98 women) or to receive placebo (48 women). All patients received iron supplementation. The coprimary efficacy end points were control of uterine bleeding (PBAC score of <75) and reduction of fibroid volume at week 13, after which patients could undergo surgery. At 13 weeks, uterine bleeding was controlled in 91% of the women receiving 5 mg of ulipristal acetate, 92% of those receiving 10 mg of ulipristal acetate, and 19% of those receiving placebo (P<0.001 for the comparison of each dose of ulipristal acetate with placebo). The rates of amenorrhea were 73%, 82%, and 6%, respectively, with amenorrhea occurring within 10 days in the majority of patients receiving ulipristal acetate. The median changes in total fibroid volume were -21%, -12%, and +3% (P=0.002 for the comparison of 5 mg of ulipristal acetate with placebo, and P=0.006 for the comparison of 10 mg of ulipristal acetate with placebo). Ulipristal acetate induced benign histologic endometrial changes that had resolved by 6 months after the end of therapy. Serious adverse events occurred in one patient during treatment with 10 mg of ulipristal acetate (uterine hemorrhage) and in one patient during receipt of placebo (fibroid protruding through the cervix). Headache and breast tenderness were the most common adverse events associated with ulipristal acetate but did not occur significantly more frequently than with placebo

  19. Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methyl Acetate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polichnowski, S. W.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a study of the rhodium-catalyzed, ioding-promoted carbonylation of methyl acetate. This study provides an interesting contrast between the carbonylation of methyl acetate and the carbonylation of methanol when similar rhodium/iodine catalyst systems are used. (JN)

  20. Contribution of acetate to butyrate formation by human faecal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Sylvia H; Holtrop, Grietje; Lobley, Gerald E; Calder, A Graham; Stewart, Colin S; Flint, Harry J

    2004-06-01

    Acetate is normally regarded as an endproduct of anaerobic fermentation, but butyrate-producing bacteria found in the human colon can be net utilisers of acetate. The butyrate formed provides a fuel for epithelial cells of the large intestine and influences colonic health. [1-(13)C]Acetate was used to investigate the contribution of exogenous acetate to butyrate formation. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia spp. grown in the presence of 60 mm-acetate and 10 mm-glucose derived 85-90 % butyrate-C from external acetate. This was due to rapid interchange between extracellular acetate and intracellular acetyl-CoA, plus net acetate uptake. In contrast, a Coprococcus-related strain that is a net acetate producer derived only 28 % butyrate-C from external acetate. Different carbohydrate-derived energy sources affected butyrate formation by mixed human faecal bacteria growing in continuous or batch cultures. The ranking order of butyrate production rates was amylopectin > oat xylan > shredded wheat > inulin > pectin (continuous cultures), and inulin > amylopectin > oat xylan > shredded wheat > pectin (batch cultures). The contribution of external acetate to butyrate formation in these experiments ranged from 56 (pectin) to 90 % (xylan) in continuous cultures, and from 72 to 91 % in the batch cultures. This is consistent with a major role for bacteria related to F. prausnitzii and Roseburia spp. in butyrate formation from a range of substrates that are fermented in the large intestine. Variations in the dominant metabolic type of butyrate producer between individuals or with variations in diet are not ruled out, however, and could influence butyrate supply in the large intestine.

  1. Growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in acetate-free medium when co-cultured with alginate-encapsulated, acetate-producing strains of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

    DOE PAGES

    Therien, Jesse B.; Zadvornyy, Oleg A.; Posewitz, Matthew C.; ...

    2014-10-18

    The model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii requires acetate as a co-substrate for optimal production of lipids, and the addition of acetate to culture media has practical and economic implications for algal biofuel production. We demonstrate the growth of C. reinhardtii on acetate provided by mutant strains of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7002.

  2. The Effects of Acetate Buffer Concentration on Lysozyme Solubility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1996-01-01

    The micro-solubility column technique was employed to systematically investigate the effects of buffer concentration on tetragonal lysozyme solubility. While keeping the NaCl concentrations constant at 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% and 7%, and the pH at 4.0, we have studied the solubility of tetragonal lysozyme over an acetate buffer concentration range of 0.01M to 0.5M as a function of temperature. The lysozyme solubility decreased with increasing acetate concentration from 0.01M to 0.1M. This decrease may simply be due to the net increase in solvent ionic strength. Increasing the acetate concentration beyond 0.1M resulted in an increase in the lysozyme solubility, which reached a peak at - 0.3M acetate concentration. This increase was believed to be due to the increased binding of acetate to the anionic binding sites of lysozyme, preventing their occupation by chloride. In keeping with the previously observed reversal of the Hoffmeister series for effectiveness of anions in crystallizing lysozyme, acetate would be a less effective precipitant than chloride. Further increasing the acetate concentration beyond 0.3M resulted in a subsequent gradual decrease in the lysozyme solubility at all NaCl concentrations.

  3. Computerized image analysis for acetic acid induced intraepithelial lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjing; Ferris, Daron G.; Lieberman, Rich W.

    2008-03-01

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) exhibits certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Immature and dysphasic cervical squamous epithelium turns white after application of acetic acid during the exam. The whitening process occurs visually over several minutes and subjectively discriminates between dysphasic and normal tissue. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician analyzing the acetic acid induced lesions (acetowhite region) in a fully automatic way. This paper reports a study designed to measure multiple parameters of the acetowhitening process from two images captured with a digital colposcope. One image is captured before the acetic acid application, and the other is captured after the acetic acid application. The spatial change of the acetowhitening is extracted using color and texture information in the post acetic acid image; the temporal change is extracted from the intensity and color changes between the post acetic acid and pre acetic acid images with an automatic alignment. The imaging and data analysis system has been evaluated with a total of 99 human subjects and demonstrate its potential to screening underserved women where access to skilled colposcopists is limited.

  4. Genetic dissection of acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Geng, Peng; Xiao, Yin; Hu, Yun; Sun, Haiye; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Dissection of the hereditary architecture underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for ethanol fermentation. In this work, a genomics approach was used to dissect hereditary variations in acetic acid tolerance between two phenotypically different strains. A total of 160 segregants derived from these two strains were obtained. Phenotypic analysis indicated that the acetic acid tolerance displayed a normal distribution in these segregants, and suggested that the acetic acid tolerant traits were controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Thus, 220 SSR markers covering the whole genome were used to detect QTLs of acetic acid tolerant traits. As a result, three QTLs were located on chromosomes 9, 12, and 16, respectively, which explained 38.8-65.9 % of the range of phenotypic variation. Furthermore, twelve genes of the candidates fell into the three QTL regions by integrating the QTL analysis with candidates of acetic acid tolerant genes. These results provided a novel avenue to obtain more robust strains.

  5. Growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in acetate-free medium when co-cultured with alginate-encapsulated, acetate-producing strains of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002.

    PubMed

    Therien, Jesse B; Zadvornyy, Oleg A; Posewitz, Matthew C; Bryant, Donald A; Peters, John W

    2014-01-01

    The model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii requires acetate as a co-substrate for optimal production of lipids, and the addition of acetate to culture media has practical and economic implications for algal biofuel production. Here we demonstrate the growth of C. reinhardtii on acetate provided by mutant strains of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Optimal growth conditions for co-cultivation of C. reinhardtii with wild-type and mutant strains of Synechococcus sp. 7002 were established. In co-culture, acetate produced by a glycogen synthase knockout mutant of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was able to support the growth of a lipid-accumulating mutant strain of C. reinhardtii defective in starch production. Encapsulation of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 using an alginate matrix was successfully employed in co-cultures to limit growth and maintain the stability. The ability of immobilized strains of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 to produce acetate at a level adequate to support the growth of lipid-accumulating strains of C. reinhartdii offers a potentially practical, photosynthetic alternative to providing exogenous acetate into growth media.

  6. Acetate Dose-Dependently Stimulates Milk Fat Synthesis in Lactating Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Urrutia, Natalie L; Harvatine, Kevin J

    2017-05-01

    Background: Acetate is a short-chain fatty acid (FA) that is especially important to cows because it is the major substrate for de novo FA synthesis. However, the effect of acetate supply on mammary lipid synthesis is not clear. Objective: The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of increasing acetate supply on milk fat synthesis in lactating dairy cows. Methods: Six multiparous lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated design to investigate the effect of acetate supply on milk fat synthesis. Treatments were 0 (control), 5, 10, and 15 mol acetate/d continuously infused into the rumen for 4 d. Rumen short-chain FAs, plasma hormones and metabolites, milk fat concentration, and milk FA profile were analyzed on day 4 of each treatment. Polynomial contrasts were used to test the linear and quadratic effects of increasing acetate supply. Results: Acetate increased milk fat yield quadratically ( P < 0.01) by 7%, 16%, and 14% and increased milk fat concentration linearly ( P < 0.001) by 6%, 9%, and 11% for 5, 10, and 15 mol acetate/d, respectively, compared with the control treatment. Increased milk fat yield predominantly was due to a linear increase in 16-carbon FAs ( P < 0.001) and a quadratic increase in de novo synthesized FAs (<16-carbon FAs; P < 0.01), indicating that there was stimulation of de novo synthesis pathways. Apparent transfer of acetate to milk fat was 33.4%, 36.2%, and 20.6% for 5, 10, and 15 mol/d, respectively. Acetate infusion linearly increased the relative concentration of rumen acetate ( P < 0.001) before feeding, but not after feeding. Acetate linearly increased plasma ß-hydroxybutyric acid by 29%, 50%, and 78%, respectively, after feeding compared with the control treatment ( P < 0.01). Conclusions: Increasing acetate supply to lactating cows increases milk fat synthesis, suggesting that nutritional strategies that increase ruminal acetate absorption would be expected to increase milk fat

  7. Granulocyte elastase, beta-thromboglobulin, and C3d during acetate or bicarbonate hemodialysis with Hemophan compared to a cellulose acetate membrane.

    PubMed

    Stegmayr, B G; Esbensen, K; Gutierrez, A; Lundberg, L; Nielsen, B; Stroemsaeter, C E; Wehle, B

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two patients were dialysed in a cross-over design using Hemophan or cellulose acetate membranes. The dialysate buffer was acetate (n = 12) or bicarbonate (n = 10). Blood was sampled at 0, 15, 60 and 180 min and mean values were adjusted for changes in total protein in each sample. At 15 min during dialysis a decrease in leukocytes and platelets occurred with both membranes, irrespective of the buffer (Wilcoxon, p less than 0.006). During dialysis, increases were found in granulocyte elastase inhibitor complex (E- alpha 1-PI), beta-thromboglobulin and C3d. beta 2-microglobulin was not significantly changed in blood after dialysis with Hemophan or cellulose acetate membranes with bicarbonate buffer. Side effects were more pronounced at 180 min during dialysis with bicarbonate in patients using cellulose acetate than with Hemophan (p = 0.021, n = 8). Hemophan seemed to be more favourable than cellulose acetate membranes in regard to leukopenia and E- alpha 1-PI. The dialysate buffer may also alter membrane biocompatibility.

  8. Anti-inflammatory effects of alpinone 3-acetate from Alpinia japonica seeds.

    PubMed

    Kakegawa, Tomohito; Miyazaki, Aya; Yasukawa, Ken

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to investigate the bioactive components of Alpinia japonica as anti-inflammatory compounds using searches of the Alpinia genus, and subsequently demonstrated that alpinone 3-acetate markedly inhibits 12-O-tetradecanoyiphorbol 13-acetate-induced inflammation in a mouse model of ear edema. To assess other bioactivities of alpinone 3-acetate, we performed translatome analyses and compared them with those of hydrocortisone. Polysome-associated mRNAs were prepared from alpinone 3-acetate- or hydrocortisone-treated and control cells from 12-O-tetradecanoyiphorbol 13-acetate-induced THP-1-derived macrophages cultured in the presence of Escherichia coli O-111 lipopolysaccharide. Subsequent microarray analysis revealed that alpinone 3-acetate and hydrocortisone upregulated and downregulated the same 155 and 41 genes, respectively. Moreover, direct comparisons of translationally regulated genes indicated 5 and 10 gene probes that were upregulated and downregulated by alpinone 3-acetate and hydrocortisone, respectively. In conclusion, assays of 12-O-tetradecanoyiphorbol 13-acetate-induced inflammation ear edema in mice and polysome profiling of alpinone 3-acetate bioactivities indicated similar medicinal possibilities to those of hydrocortisone.

  9. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  10. 21 CFR 520.1341 - Megestrol acetate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Megestrol acetate tablets. 520.1341 Section 520.1341 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... tablets. (a) Specifications. Each tablet contains 5 or 20 milligrams of megestrol acetate. (b) Sponsor. No...

  11. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false α-Tocopherol acetate. 182.8892 Section 182.8892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8892 α-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. α-Tocopherol...

  12. Disorder effects in Mn(12)-acetate at 83 K.

    PubMed

    Cornia, Andrea; Fabretti, Antonio Costantino; Sessoli, Roberta; Sorace, Lorenzo; Gatteschi, Dante; Barra, Anne-Laure; Daiguebonne, Carole; Roisnel, Thierry

    2002-07-01

    The structure of hexadeca-mu-acetato-tetraaquadodeca-mu(3)-oxo-dodecamanganese bis(acetic acid) tetrahydrate, [Mn(12)O(12)(CH(3)COO)(16)(H(2)O)(4)] x 2CH(3)COOH x 4H(2)O, known as Mn(12)-acetate, has been determined at 83 (2) K by X-ray diffraction methods. The fourfold (S(4)) molecular symmetry is disrupted by a strong hydrogen-bonding interaction with the disordered acetic acid molecule of solvation, which displaces one of the acetate ligands in the cluster. Up to six Mn(12) isomers are potentially present in the crystal lattice, which differ in the number and arrangement of hydrogen-bonded acetic acid molecules. These results considerably improve the structural information available on this molecular nanomagnet, which was first synthesized and characterized by Lis [Acta Cryst. (1980), B36, 2042-2046].

  13. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid...

  17. Microbial dynamics in acetate-enriched ballast water at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Stehouwer, Peter Paul; van Slooten, Cees; Peperzak, Louis

    2013-10-01

    The spread of invasive species through ships' ballast water is considered as a major ecological threat to the world's oceans. For that reason, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has set performance standards for ballast water discharge. Ballast water treatment systems have been developed that employ either UV-radiation or 'active substances' to reduce the concentration of living cells to below the IMOs standards. One such active substance is a chemical mixture known as Peraclean(®) Ocean. The residual of Peraclean(®) Ocean is acetate that might be present at high concentrations in discharged ballast water. In cold coastal waters the breakdown of acetate might be slow, causing a buildup of acetate concentrations in the water if regularly discharged by ships. To study the potential environmental impact, microbial dynamics and acetate degradation were measured in discharge water from a Peraclean(®) Ocean treatment system in illuminated microcosms. In addition, microbial dynamics and acetate degradation were studied at -1, 4, 10, 15 and 25°C in dark microcosms that simulated enclosed ballast water tanks. Acetate breakdown indeed occurred faster at higher temperatures. At 25°C the highest bacteria growth, fastest nutrient and oxygen consumption and highest DOC reduction occurred. On the other hand, at -1°C bacterial growth was strongly delayed, only starting to increase after 12 days. Furthermore, at 25°C the acetate pool was not depleted, probably due to nutrient and oxygen limitation. This means that not all acetate will be broken down in ballast water tanks, even during long voyages in warm waters. In addition, at low temperatures acetate breakdown in ballast water tanks and in discharged water will be extremely slow. Therefore, regular discharge of acetate enriched ballast water in harbors and bays may cause eutrophication and changes in the microbial community, especially in colder regions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica.

    PubMed

    Ehsanipour, Mandana; Suko, Azra Vajzovic; Bura, Renata

    2016-06-01

    A systematic study of bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica (strain ATCC 39073) was conducted. Four different water-soluble fractions (hydrolysates) obtained after steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were selected and fermented to acetic acid in batch fermentations. M. thermoacetica can effectively ferment xylose and glucose in hydrolysates from wheat straw, forest residues, switchgrass, and sugarcane straw to acetic acid. Xylose and glucose were completely utilized, with xylose being consumed first. M. thermoacetica consumed up to 62 % of arabinose, 49 % galactose and 66 % of mannose within 72 h of fermentation in the mixture of lignocellulosic sugars. The highest acetic acid yield was obtained from sugarcane straw hydrolysate, with 71 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (17 g/L acetic acid from 24 g/L total sugars). The lowest acetic acid yield was observed in forest residues hydrolysate, with 39 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (18 g/L acetic acid from 49 g/L total sugars). Process derived compounds from steam explosion pretreatment, including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.4 g/L), furfural (0.1 g/L) and total phenolics (3 g/L), did not inhibit microbial growth and acetic acid production yield. This research identified two major factors that adversely affected acetic acid yield in all hydrolysates, especially in forest residues: (i) glucose to xylose ratio and (ii) incomplete consumption of arabinose, galactose and mannose. For efficient bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid, it is imperative to have an appropriate balance of sugars in a hydrolysate. Hence, the choice of lignocellulosic biomass and steam pretreatment design are fundamental steps for the industrial application of this process.

  19. Acetate Dissimilation and Assimilation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Depend on Carbon Availability

    PubMed Central

    Rücker, Nadine; Billig, Sandra; Bücker, René; Jahn, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycobacterium tuberculosis persists inside granulomas in the human lung. Analysis of the metabolic composition of granulomas from guinea pigs revealed that one of the organic acids accumulating in the course of infection is acetate (B. S. Somashekar, A. G. Amin, C. D. Rithner, J. Troudt, R. Basaraba, A. Izzo, D. C. Crick, and D. Chatterjee, J Proteome Res 10:4186–4195, 2011, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/pr2003352), which might result either from metabolism of the pathogen or might be provided by the host itself. Our studies characterize a metabolic pathway by which M. tuberculosis generates acetate in the cause of fatty acid catabolism. The acetate formation depends on the enzymatic activities of Pta and AckA. Using actyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) as a substrate, acetyl-phosphate is generated and finally dephosphorylated to acetate, which is secreted into the medium. Knockout mutants lacking either the pta or ackA gene showed significantly reduced acetate production when grown on fatty acids. This effect is even more pronounced when the glyoxylate shunt is blocked, resulting in higher acetate levels released to the medium. The secretion of acetate was followed by an assimilation of the metabolite when other carbon substrates became limiting. Our data indicate that during acetate assimilation, the Pta-AckA pathway acts in concert with another enzymatic reaction, namely, the acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs) reaction. Thus, acetate metabolism might possess a dual function, mediating an overflow reaction to release excess carbon units and resumption of acetate as a carbon substrate. IMPORTANCE During infection, host-derived lipid components present the major carbon source at the infection site. β-Oxidation of fatty acids results in the formation of acetyl-CoA. In this study, we demonstrate that consumption of fatty acids by Mycobacterium tuberculosis activates an overflow mechanism, causing the pathogen to release excess carbon intermediates as acetate. The Pta

  20. Improvement of acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a zinc-finger-based artificial transcription factor and identification of novel genes involved in acetic acid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cui; Wei, Xiaowen; Sun, Cuihuan; Zhang, Fei; Xu, Jianren; Zhao, Xinqing; Bai, Fengwu

    2015-03-01

    Acetic acid is present in cellulosic hydrolysate as a potent inhibitor, and the superior acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ensures good cell viability and efficient ethanol production when cellulosic raw materials are used as substrates. In this study, a mutant strain of S. cerevisiae ATCC4126 (Sc4126-M01) with improved acetic acid tolerance was obtained through screening strains transformed with an artificial zinc finger protein transcription factor (ZFP-TF) library. Further analysis indicated that improved acetic acid tolerance was associated with improved catalase (CAT) activity. The ZFP coding sequence associated with the improved phenotype was identified, and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that three of the possible genes involved in the enhanced acetic acid tolerance regulated by this ZFP-TF, namely YFL040W, QDR3, and IKS1, showed decreased transcription levels in Sc4126-M01 in the presence of acetic acid, compared to those in the control strain. Sc4126-M01 mutants having QDR3 and IKS1 deletion (ΔQDR3 and ΔIKS1) exhibited higher acetic acid tolerance than the wild-type strain under acetic acid treatment. Glucose consumption rate and ethanol productivity in the presence of 5 g/L acetic acid were improved in the ΔQDR3 mutant compared to the wild-type strain. Our studies demonstrated that the synthetic ZFP-TF library can be used to improve acetic acid tolerance of S. cerevisiae and that the employment of an artificial transcription factor can facilitate the exploration of novel functional genes involved in stress tolerance of S. cerevisiae.

  1. Acetate adaptation of clostridia tyrobutyricum for improved fermentation production of butyrate.

    PubMed

    Jaros, Adam M; Rova, Ulrika; Berglund, Kris A

    2013-12-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 is an acidogenic bacterium capable of utilizing xylose for the fermentation production of butyrate. Hot water extraction of hardwood lingocellulose is an efficient method of producing xylose where autohydrolysis of xylan is catalysed by acetate originating from acetyl groups present in hemicellulose. The presence of acetic acid in the hydrolysate might have a severe impact on the subsequent fermentations. In this study the fermentation kinetics of C. tyrobutyricum cultures after being classically adapted for growth at 26.3 g/L acetate equivalents were studied. Analysis of xylose batch fermentations found that even in the presence of high levels of acetate, acetate adapted strains had similar fermentation kinetics as the parental strain cultivated without acetate. The parental strain exposed to acetate at inhibitory conditions demonstrated a pronounced lag phase (over 100 hours) in growth and butyrate production as compared to the adapted strain (25 hour lag) or non-inhibited controls (0 lag). Additional insight into the metabolic pathway of xylose consumption was gained by determining the specific activity of the acetate kinase (AK) enzyme in adapted versus control batches. AK activity was reduced by 63% in the presence of inhibitory levels of acetate, whether or not the culture had been adapted.

  2. Activation of methyl acetate on Pd(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Lijun; Xu, Ye

    2010-01-01

    The absorption and activation of methyl acetate (CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}), one of the simplest carboxylic esters, on Pd(111) have been studied using self-consistent periodic density functional theory calculations. Methyl acetate adsorbs weakly through the carbonyl oxygen. Its activation occurs via dehydrogenation, instead of direct C-O bond dissociation, on clean Pd(111): It is much more difficult to dissociate the C--O bonds ({epsilon}{sub a} ? 2.0 eV for the carbonyl and acetate-methyl bonds; {epsilon}{sub a} = 1.0 eV for the acetyl-methoxy bond) than to dissociate the C-H bonds to produce enolate (CH{sub 2}COOCH{sub 3}; {epsilon}{sub a} = 0.74 eV) or methylene acetatemore » (CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 2}; {epsilon}{sub a} = 0.82 eV). The barriers for C-H and C-O bond dissociation are directly calculated for enolate and methylene acetate, and estimated for further dehydrogenated derivatives (CH{sub 3}COOCH, CH{sub 2}COOCH{sub 2}, and CHCOOCH{sub 3}) based on the Bronsted-Evans-Polanyi linear energy relations formed by the calculated steps. The enolate pathway leads to successive dehydrogenation to CCOOCH{sub 3}, whereas methylene acetate readily dissociates to yield acetyl. The selectivity for dissociating the acyl-alkoxy C-O bond, which is desired for alcohol formation, is therefore fundamentally limited by the facility of dehydrogenation under vacuum/low-pressure conditions on Pd(111).« less

  3. The Key to Acetate: Metabolic Fluxes of Acetic Acid Bacteria under Cocoa Pulp Fermentation-Simulating Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik

    2014-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present. PMID:24837393

  4. The key to acetate: metabolic fluxes of acetic acid bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions.

    PubMed

    Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik; Wittmann, Christoph

    2014-08-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present.

  5. Male Fishia yosemitae (Grote)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) captured in traps baited with (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Traps baited with sex pheromone lures for the noctuid moths Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Doubleday) and Feltia jaculifera (Guenee) captured males of another noctuid moth Fishia yosemitae (Grote). These lures included both (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z7-12Ac) and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14AC). When the...

  6. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1360 Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS Reg. No. 26221-27-2...

  7. Characterization of acetate transport in colorectal cancer cells and potential therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Suellen; Azevedo-Silva, João; Casal, Margarida; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Baltazar, Fatima; Preto, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Acetate, together with other short chain fatty acids has been implicated in colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention/therapy. Acetate was shown to induce apoptosis in CRC cells. The precise mechanism underlying acetate transport across CRC cells membrane, that may be implicated in its selectivity towards CRC cells, is not fully understood and was addressed here. We also assessed the effect of acetate in CRC glycolytic metabolism and explored its use in combination with the glycolytic inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate (3BP). We provide evidence that acetate enters CRC cells by the secondary active transporters MCT1 and/or MCT2 and SMCT1 as well as by facilitated diffusion via aquaporins. CRC cell exposure to acetate upregulates the expression of MCT1, MCT4 and CD147, while promoting MCT1 plasma membrane localization. We also observed that acetate increases CRC cell glycolytic phenotype and that acetate-induced apoptosis and anti-proliferative effect was potentiated by 3BP. Our data suggest that acetate selectivity towards CRC cells might be explained by the fact that aquaporins and MCTs are found overexpressed in CRC clinical cases. Our work highlights the importance that acetate transport regulation has in the use of drugs such as 3BP as a new therapeutic strategy for CRC. PMID:28874966

  8. [Experimental study of proflavine acetate phototransformation processes].

    PubMed

    Zholdakova, Z I; Sinitsyna, O O; Lebedev, A T; Kharchevnikova, N V

    2009-01-01

    Changes in proflavine acetate phototransformation processes upon exposure to visible-range irradiation were studied by high performance liquid chromatography. Proflavine acetate was offered as a photosensitizer during photodynamic water disinfection. Dye transformation products upon time-varying exposure to irradiation were identified. By using structure-activity relationships and information from toxicity databases, the authors evaluated the hazard of the identified products and identified the most hazardous ones.

  9. Biodegradation of Phenylmercuric Acetate by Mercury-Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, J. D.; Blair, W.; Brinckman, F. E.; Colwell, R. R.; Iverson, W. P.

    1973-01-01

    Selected cultures of mercury-resistant bacteria degrade the fungicide-slimicide phenylmercuric acetate. By means of a closed system incorporating a flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometer and a vapor phase chromatograph, it was demonstrated that elemental mercury vapor and benzene were products of phenylmercuric acetate degradation. PMID:4584577

  10. Parameters affecting acetate concentrations during in-situ biological hydrogen methanation.

    PubMed

    Agneessens, Laura Mia; Ottosen, Lars Ditlev Mørck; Andersen, Martin; Berg Olesen, Christina; Feilberg, Anders; Kofoed, Michael Vedel Wegener

    2018-06-01

    Surplus electricity may be supplied to anaerobic digesters as H 2 gas to upgrade the CH 4 content of biogas. Acetate accumulation has been observed following H 2 injections, but the parameters determining the degree of acetate accumulation are not well understood. The pathways involved during H 2 consumption and acetate kinetics were evaluated in continuous lab reactors and parallel batch 13 C experiments. Acetate accumulation increased during initial H 2 injections as organic loading rate increased and CO 2 levels decreased below 7%. The share of CH 4 in H 2 and 13 C mass balances increased after repeated H 2 injections, which corresponded with the increase of Methanomicrobiales observed via qPCR. The organic loading rate, the inorganic carbon level and level of methanogen adaption hence determine acetate kinetics during biomethanation of H 2 . The three identified parameters may form the base of a decision tool to assess acetate accumulation during H 2 injections to an anaerobic digester. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Role of D-Limonene in autophagy induced by bergamot essential oil in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Russo, Rossella; Cassiano, Maria Gilda Valentina; Ciociaro, Antonella; Adornetto, Annagrazia; Varano, Giuseppe Pasquale; Chiappini, Carlotta; Berliocchi, Laura; Tassorelli, Cristina; Bagetta, Giacinto; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso et Poiteau) essential oil (BEO) is a well characterized, widely used plant extract. BEO exerts anxiolytic, analgesic and neuroprotective activities in rodents through mechanisms that are only partly known and need to be further investigated. To gain more insight into the biological effects of this essential oil, we tested the ability of BEO (0.005-0.03%) to modulate autophagic pathways in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. BEO-treated cells show increased LC3II levels and appearance of dot-like formations of endogenous LC3 protein that colocalize with the lysosome marker LAMP-1. Autophagic flux assay using bafilomycin A1 and degradation of the specific autophagy substrate p62 confirmed that the observed increase of LC3II levels in BEO-exposed cells is due to autophagy induction rather than to a decreased autophagosomal turnover. Induction of autophagy is an early and not cell-line specific response to BEO. Beside basal autophagy, BEO also enhanced autophagy triggered by serum starvation and rapamycin indicating that the underlying mechanism is mTOR independent. Accordingly, BEO did not affect the phosphorylation of ULK1 (Ser757) and p70(S6K) (Thr389), two downstream targets of mTOR. Furthermore, induction of autophagy by BEO is beclin-1 independent, occurs in a concentration-dependent manner and is unrelated to the ability of BEO to induce cell death. In order to identify the active constituents responsible for these effects, the two most abundant monoterpenes found in the essential oil, d-limonene (125-750 µM) and linalyl acetate (62.5-375 µM), were individually tested at concentrations comparable to those found in 0.005-0.03% BEO. The same features of stimulated autophagy elicited by BEO were reproduced by D-limonene, which rapidly increases LC3II and reduces p62 levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Linalyl acetate was ineffective in replicating BEO effects; however, it greatly enhanced LC3 lipidation triggered by D-limonene.

  12. Role of D-Limonene in Autophagy Induced by Bergamot Essential Oil in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Rossella; Cassiano, Maria Gilda Valentina; Ciociaro, Antonella; Adornetto, Annagrazia; Varano, Giuseppe Pasquale; Chiappini, Carlotta; Berliocchi, Laura; Tassorelli, Cristina; Bagetta, Giacinto; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso et Poiteau) essential oil (BEO) is a well characterized, widely used plant extract. BEO exerts anxiolytic, analgesic and neuroprotective activities in rodents through mechanisms that are only partly known and need to be further investigated. To gain more insight into the biological effects of this essential oil, we tested the ability of BEO (0.005–0.03%) to modulate autophagic pathways in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. BEO-treated cells show increased LC3II levels and appearance of dot-like formations of endogenous LC3 protein that colocalize with the lysosome marker LAMP-1. Autophagic flux assay using bafilomycin A1 and degradation of the specific autophagy substrate p62 confirmed that the observed increase of LC3II levels in BEO-exposed cells is due to autophagy induction rather than to a decreased autophagosomal turnover. Induction of autophagy is an early and not cell-line specific response to BEO. Beside basal autophagy, BEO also enhanced autophagy triggered by serum starvation and rapamycin indicating that the underlying mechanism is mTOR independent. Accordingly, BEO did not affect the phosphorylation of ULK1 (Ser757) and p70S6K (Thr389), two downstream targets of mTOR. Furthermore, induction of autophagy by BEO is beclin-1 independent, occurs in a concentration-dependent manner and is unrelated to the ability of BEO to induce cell death. In order to identify the active constituents responsible for these effects, the two most abundant monoterpenes found in the essential oil, d-limonene (125–750 µM) and linalyl acetate (62.5–375 µM), were individually tested at concentrations comparable to those found in 0.005–0.03% BEO. The same features of stimulated autophagy elicited by BEO were reproduced by d-limonene, which rapidly increases LC3II and reduces p62 levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Linalyl acetate was ineffective in replicating BEO effects; however, it greatly enhanced LC3 lipidation triggered by d

  13. Ulipristal acetate: An update for Australian GPs.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Danielle

    2017-01-01

    In Australia, use and understanding of emergency contraception among women remains relatively low. This is despite the introduction of levonorgestrel emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) more than a decade ago. In April 2016, a new ECP with the active ingredient ulipristal acetate became available in Australia. The aims of this article are to increase understanding of the recently introduced ulipristal acetate ECP, including its safety profile, effi-cacy and special considerations; dispel common myths and misconceptions about emergency contraception; and to provide guidance on emergency contraceptive management in general practice, considering the recent advances. Women are more receptive to information about emergency contraception that has been provided by a general practitioner (GP). As such, the availability of the ulipristal acetate ECP in Australia provides an important opportunity for GPs to help women prevent unplanned pregnancies.

  14. Selective Hydrogenolysis of Furfural Derivative 2-Methyltetrahydrofuran into Pentanediol Acetate and Pentanol Acetate over Pd/C and Sc(OTf)3 Cocatalytic System.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Li, Xing-Long; Chen, Shi-Yan; Xu, Hua-Jian; Deng, Jin; Fu, Yao

    2018-02-22

    It is of great significance to convert platform molecules and their derivatives into high value-added alcohols, which have multitudinous applications. This study concerns systematic conversion of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MTHF), which is obtained from furfural, into 1-pentanol acetate (PA) and 1,4-pentanediol acetate (PDA). Reaction parameters, such as the Lewis acid species, reaction temperature, and hydrogen pressure, were investigated in detail. 1 H NMR spectroscopy and reaction dynamics study were also conducted to help clarify the reaction mechanism. Results suggested that cleavage of the primary alcohol acetate was less facile than that of the secondary alcohol acetate, with the main product being PA. A PA yield of 91.8 % (150 °C, 3 MPa H 2 , 30 min) was achieved by using Pd/C and Sc(OTf) 3 as a cocatalytic system and an 82 % yield of PDA was achieved (150 °C, 30 min) by using Sc(OTf) 3 catalyst. Simultaneously, the efficient conversion of acetic esters into alcohols by simple saponification was carried out and led to a good yield. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Proteome analysis of Acetobacter pasteurianus during acetic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Andrés-Barrao, Cristina; Saad, Maged M; Chappuis, Marie-Louise; Boffa, Mauro; Perret, Xavier; Ortega Pérez, Ruben; Barja, François

    2012-03-16

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are Gram-negative, strictly aerobic microorganisms that show a unique resistance to ethanol (EtOH) and acetic acid (AcH). Members of the Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter genera are capable of transforming EtOH into AcH via the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes and are used for the industrial production of vinegar. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain how AAB resist high concentrations of AcH, such as the assimilation of acetate through the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, the export of acetate by various transporters and modifications of the outer membrane. However, except for a few acetate-specific proteins, little is known about the global proteome responses to AcH. In this study, we used 2D-DIGE to compare the proteome of Acetobacter pasteurianus LMG 1262(T) when growing in glucose or ethanol and in the presence of acetic acid. Interesting protein spots were selected using the ANOVA p-value of 0.05 as threshold and 1.5-fold as the minimal level of differential expression, and a total of 53 proteins were successfully identified. Additionally, the size of AAB was reduced by approximately 30% in length as a consequence of the acidity. A modification in the membrane polysaccharides was also revealed by PATAg specific staining. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.

    1992-01-01

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate.

  17. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, J.L.; Clausen, E.C.

    1992-12-22

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H[sub 2]O and/or CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate. 3 figs.

  18. Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process

    SciTech Connect

    Robert M. Counce; Jack S. Watson

    2009-06-30

    It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstreatm steps can be avoidec. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for themore » removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid.« less

  19. The Effect of Cellulose Acetate Concentration from Coconut Nira on Ultrafiltration Membrane Characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaulina, E.; Widyaningsih, S.; Kartika, D.; Romdoni, M. P.

    2018-04-01

    Cellulose acetate is one of material in produce ultrafiltration membrane. Many efforts have been done to produce cellulose acetate from natural product to replace commercial one. In this research, ultrafiltration membrane has been produced from coconut flower water (nira). Ultrafiltration membrane is widely used in separation processes. This research aims to determine the characteristics of ultrafiltration membrane at a various concentration of cellulose acetate. The ultrafiltration membrane is conducted by phase inversion method at various concentration of cellulose acetate. The cellulose acetate concentration was 20%, 23% and 25% (w/w) with formamide as additives. The results showed that the greater the concentration of cellulose acetate, the smaller the flux value. The highest flux was a membrane with 20% cellulose acetate concentration with water flux value 55.34 L/(m2. h). But the greater the concentration of cellulose acetate the greater the rejection. The highest rejection value was on a membrane with 25% cellulose acetate concentration of 82.82%. While from the tensile strength test and the pore size analysis, the greater the cellulose acetate concentration the greater the tensile strength and the smaller the pore size

  20. Quantification of syntrophic acetate-oxidizing microbial communities in biogas processes

    PubMed Central

    Westerholm, Maria; Dolfing, Jan; Sherry, Angela; Gray, Neil D; Head, Ian M; Schnürer, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Changes in communities of syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacteria (SAOB) and methanogens caused by elevated ammonia levels were quantified in laboratory-scale methanogenic biogas reactors operating at moderate temperature (37°C) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The experimental reactor was subjected to gradually increasing ammonia levels (0.8–6.9 g NH4+-N l−1), whereas the level of ammonia in the control reactor was kept low (0.65–0.90 g NH4+-N l−1) during the entire period of operation (660 days). Acetate oxidation in the experimental reactor, indicated by increased production of 14CO2 from acetate labelled in the methyl carbon, occurred when ammonia levels reached 5.5 and 6.9 g NH4+-N l−1. Syntrophic acetate oxidizers targeted by newly designed qPCR primers were Thermacetogenium phaeum, Clostridium ultunense, Syntrophaceticus schinkii and Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans. The results showed a significant increase in abundance of all these bacteria except T. phaeum in the ammonia-stressed reactor, coincident with the shift to syntrophic acetate oxidation. As the abundance of the bacteria increased, a simultaneous decrease was observed in the abundance of aceticlastic methanogens from the families Methanosaetaceae and Methanosarcinaceae. qPCR analyses of sludge from two additional high ammonia processes, in which methane production from acetate proceeded through syntrophic acetate oxidation (reactor SB) or through aceticlastic degradation (reactor DVX), demonstrated that SAOB were significantly more abundant in the SB reactor than in the DVX reactor. PMID:23761313

  1. 21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... hydrocortisone acetate. 524.1204 Section 524.1204 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1204 Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate... activity as the calcium salt, and 10.0 milligrams of hydrocortisone acetate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in...

  2. 21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... hydrocortisone acetate. 524.1204 Section 524.1204 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1204 Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate... activity as the calcium salt, and 10.0 milligrams of hydrocortisone acetate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in...

  3. 21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... hydrocortisone acetate. 524.1204 Section 524.1204 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1204 Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate... activity as the calcium salt, and 10.0 milligrams of hydrocortisone acetate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in...

  4. 21 CFR 524.1204 - Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... hydrocortisone acetate. 524.1204 Section 524.1204 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1204 Kanamycin sulfate, calcium amphomycin, and hydrocortisone acetate... activity as the calcium salt, and 10.0 milligrams of hydrocortisone acetate. (b) Sponsor. See No. 000856 in...

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Acetate-Utilizing Anaerobes from a Freshwater Sediment.

    PubMed

    Scholten, J.C.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2000-12-01

    Acetate-degrading anaerobic microorganisms in freshwater sediment were quantified by the most probable number technique. From the highest dilutions a methanogenic, a sulfate-reducing, and a nitrate-reducing microorganism were isolated with acetate as substrate. The methanogen (culture AMPB-Zg) was non-motile and rod-shaped with blunted ends (0.5-1 mm x 3-4 mm long). Doubling times with acetate at 30-35 degrees C were 5.6-8.1 days. The methanogen grew only on acetate. Analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence showed that AMPB-Zg is closely related to Methanosaeta concilii. The isolated sulfate-reducing bacterium (strain ASRB-Zg) was rod-shaped with pointed ends (0.5-0.7 mm x 1.5-3.5 mm long), weakly motile, spore forming, and gram positive. At the optimum growth temperature of 30 degrees C the doubling times with acetate were 3.9-5.3 days. The bacterium grew on a range of organic acids, such as acetate, butyrate, fumarate, and benzoate, but did not grow autotrophically with H2, CO2, and sulfate. The closest relative of strain ASRB-Zg is Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans. The nitrate-reducing bacterium (strain ANRB-Zg) was rod-shaped (0.5-0.7 mm x 0.7-1 mm long), weakly motile, and gram negative. Optimum growth with acetate occurred at 20-25 degrees C. The bacterium grew on a range of organic substrates, such as acetate, butyrate, lactate, and glucose, and did grow autotrophically with H2, CO2, and oxygen but not with nitrate. In the presence of acetate and nitrate, thiosulfate was oxidized to sulfate. Phylogenetically, the closest relative of strain ANRB-Zg is Variovorax paradoxus.

  6. A double-blind placebo controlled trial of medroxyprogesterone acetate and cyproterone acetate with seven pedophiles.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A J; Sandhu, S; Losztyn, S; Cernovsky, Z

    1992-12-01

    Seven of ten pedophiles in hospital completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled two-dose comparison of medroxyprogesterone acetate and cyproterone acetate. Sequential measures during the 28 week study were: patient self-reports, nurses' observations, phallometry, hormone levels and side-effects. The drugs, which performed equivalently, reduced sexual thoughts and fantasies, the frequency of early morning erections on awakening, the frequency and pleasure of masturbation, and level of sexual frustration. Penile responses were also reduced but to a lesser degree and were more variable. Serum testosterone FSH and LH all declined during drug administration, but by the end of the final placebo phase had essentially returned to (or exceeded) pre-drug values. Our experience suggests that only a minority of pedophiles are likely to accept libido-reducing drugs.

  7. 21 CFR 524.1484i - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, sterile ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, sterile... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484i Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, sterile ointment. (a..., and 5 milligrams of hydrocortisone acetate in each gram of ointment.1 (b) Sponsor. No. 000009 in § 510...

  8. 21 CFR 524.1484i - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, sterile ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, sterile... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484i Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, sterile ointment. (a..., and 5 milligrams of hydrocortisone acetate in each gram of ointment.1 (b) Sponsor. No. 000009 in § 510...

  9. 21 CFR 524.1484i - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, sterile ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, sterile... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484i Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, sterile ointment. (a..., and 5 milligrams of hydrocortisone acetate in each gram of ointment.1 (b) Sponsor. No. 000009 in § 510...

  10. 21 CFR 524.1484i - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, sterile ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, sterile... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484i Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, sterile ointment. (a..., and 5 milligrams of hydrocortisone acetate in each gram of ointment.1 (b) Sponsor. No. 000009 in § 510...

  11. Deletion of acetate transporter gene ADY2 improved tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae against multiple stresses and enhanced ethanol production in the presence of acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingming; Zhang, Keyu; Mehmood, Muhammad Aamer; Zhao, Zongbao Kent; Bai, Fengwu; Zhao, Xinqing

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of deleting acetate transporter gene ADY2 on growth and fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the presence of inhibitors. Comparative transcriptome analysis revealed that three genes encoding plasma membrane carboxylic acid transporters, especially ADY2, were significantly downregulated under the zinc sulfate addition condition in the presence of acetic acid stress, and the deletion of ADY2 improved growth of S. cerevisiae under acetic acid, ethanol and hydrogen peroxide stresses. Consistently, a concomitant increase in ethanol production by 14.7% in the presence of 3.6g/L acetic acid was observed in the ADY2 deletion mutant of S. cerevisiae BY4741. Decreased intracellular acetic acid, ROS accumulation, and plasma membrane permeability were observed in the ADY2 deletion mutant. These findings would be useful for developing robust yeast strains for efficient ethanol production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 21 CFR 529.1003 - Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge... § 529.1003 Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge. (a) Specifications. Each vaginal sponge... ewes during their normal breeding season. (2) Limitations. Using applicator provided, insert sponge...

  13. Final report on the safety assessment of ethoxyethanol and ethoxyethanol acetate.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Wilbur

    2002-01-01

    Ethoxyethanol is an ether alcohol described as a solvent and viscosity-decreasing agent for use in cosmetics. Ethoxyethanol Acetate is the ester of Ethoxyethanol and acetic acid described as a solvent for use in cosmetics. Although these ingredients have been used in the past, neither ingredient is in current use. Ethoxyethanol is produced by reacting ethylene oxide with ethyl alcohol. Ethoxyethanol Acetate is produced via an esterification of Ethoxyethanol and acetic acid, acetic acid anhydride, or acetic chloride. Ethoxyethanol is metabolized to ethoxyacetaldehyde, which is further metabolized to ethoxyacetic acid, which is also a metabolite of Ethoxyethanol Acetate. Low to moderate acute inhalation toxicity is seen in animals studies. Acute oral toxicity studies in several species reported kidney damage, including extreme tubular degeneration. Kidney damage was also seen in acute dermal toxicity studies in rats and rabbits. Minor liver and kidney damage was also seen in short-term studies of rats injected subcutaneously with Ethoxyethanol, but was absent in dogs dosed intravenously. Mixed toxicity results were also seen in subchronic tests in mice and rats. Ethoxyethanol and Ethoxyethanol Acetate were mild to moderate eye irritants in rabbits; mild skin irritants in rabbits, and nonsensitizing in guinea pigs. Most genotoxicity tests were negative, but chromosome aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges were among the positive results seen. Numerous reproductive and developmental toxicity studies, across several species, involving various routes of administration, indicate that Ethoxyethanol and Ethoxyethanol Acetate are reproductive toxicants and teratogens. Mild anemia was reported in individuals exposed occupationally to Ethoxyethanol, which resolved when the chemical was not used. Reproductive effects have been noted in males exposed occupationally to Ethoxyethanol. Although there are insufficient data to determine the potential carcinogenic effects of

  14. Fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues from sheep amd calves implanted with tritium-labeled trenbolone acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Evrard, P.; Maghuin-Rogister, G.; Rico, A.G.

    1989-06-01

    In order to study the fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues, two groups of six animals from two ruminant species (ewes and calves) were implanted with (3H)trenbolone acetate. The distribution of extractable radioactive residues was measured in liver, kidney and muscle. We found that the largest proportion of residues was not extractable and thus was considered as covalently bound residues. The proportion of the main extractable metabolites (17 alpha-trenbolone, trendione, 17 beta-trenbolone) was measured. The evaluation of the distribution of trenbolone acetate metabolites directly soluble in water showed that unknown metabolite(s) were predominant. The covalent binding tomore » nucleic acids was measured. It was so low that it was not detectable. The results are discussed in light of the data presented in the scientific report on anabolic agents in animal production from the European scientific working group.« less

  15. Acetate formation in the energy metabolism of parasitic helminths and protists.

    PubMed

    Tielens, Aloysius G M; van Grinsven, Koen W A; Henze, Katrin; van Hellemond, Jaap J; Martin, William

    2010-03-15

    Formation and excretion of acetate as a metabolic end product of energy metabolism occurs in many protist and helminth parasites, such as the parasitic helminths Fasciola hepatica, Haemonchus contortus and Ascaris suum, and the protist parasites, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis as well as Trypanosoma and Leishmania spp. In all of these parasites acetate is a main end product of their energy metabolism, whereas acetate formation does not occur in their mammalian hosts. Acetate production might therefore harbour novel targets for the development of new anti-parasitic drugs. In parasites, acetate is produced from acetyl-CoA by two different reactions, both involving substrate level phosphorylation, that are catalysed by either a cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) or an organellar acetate:succinate CoA-transferase (ASCT). The ACS reaction is directly coupled to ATP synthesis, whereas the ASCT reaction yields succinyl-CoA for ATP formation via succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCS). Based on recent work on the ASCTs of F. hepatica, T. vaginalis and Trypanosoma brucei we suggest the existence of three subfamilies of enzymes within the CoA-transferase family I. Enzymes of these three subfamilies catalyse the ASCT reaction in eukaryotes via the same mechanism, but the subfamilies share little sequence homology. The CoA-transferases of the three subfamilies are all present inside ATP-producing organelles of parasites, those of subfamily IA in the mitochondria of trypanosomatids, subfamily IB in the mitochondria of parasitic worms and subfamily IC in hydrogenosome-bearing parasites. Together with the recent characterisation among non-parasitic protists of yet a third route of acetate formation involving acetate kinase (ACK) and phosphotransacetylase (PTA) that was previously unknown among eukaryotes, these recent developments provide a good opportunity to have a closer look at eukaryotic acetate formation. (c) 2010 Australian Society for Parasitology

  16. Metabolic Acetate Therapy for the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Peethambaran; Ariyannur, Prasanth S.; Moffett, John R.; Xing, Guoqiang; Hamilton, Kristen; Grunberg, Neil E.; Ives, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI) have decreased markers of energy metabolism, including N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and ATP. In the nervous system, NAA-derived acetate provides acetyl-CoA required for myelin lipid synthesis. Acetate can also be oxidized in mitochondria for the derivation of metabolic energy. In the current study, using the controlled cortical impact model of TBI in rats, we investigated the effects of the hydrophobic acetate precursor, glyceryltriacetate (GTA), as a method of delivering metabolizable acetate to the injured brain. We found that GTA administration significantly increased the levels of both NAA and ATP in the injured hemisphere 4 and 6 days after injury, and also resulted in significantly improved motor performance in rats 3 days after injury. PMID:19803785

  17. Metabolic acetate therapy for the treatment of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Arun, Peethambaran; Ariyannur, Prasanth S; Moffett, John R; Xing, Guoqiang; Hamilton, Kristen; Grunberg, Neil E; Ives, John A; Namboodiri, Aryan M A

    2010-01-01

    Patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI) have decreased markers of energy metabolism, including N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and ATP. In the nervous system, NAA-derived acetate provides acetyl-CoA required for myelin lipid synthesis. Acetate can also be oxidized in mitochondria for the derivation of metabolic energy. In the current study, using the controlled cortical impact model of TBI in rats, we investigated the effects of the hydrophobic acetate precursor, glyceryltriacetate (GTA), as a method of delivering metabolizable acetate to the injured brain. We found that GTA administration significantly increased the levels of both NAA and ATP in the injured hemisphere 4 and 6 days after injury, and also resulted in significantly improved motor performance in rats 3 days after injury.

  18. Regulation of Acetate Utilization by Monocarboxylate Transporter 1 (MCT1) in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC).

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jeong Yong; Lee, Misu; Whang, Sang Hyun; Kim, Jung-Whan; Cho, Arthur; Yun, Mijin

    2018-01-19

    Altered energy metabolism is a biochemical fingerprint of cancer cells. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) shows reciprocal [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and [11C]acetate uptake, as revealed by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Previous studies have focused on the role of FDG uptake in cancer cells. In this study, we evaluated the mechanism and roles of [11C]acetate uptake in human HCCs and cell lines. The expression of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) was assessed to determine the transporters of [11C]acetate uptake in HCC cell lines and human HCCs with different [11C]acetate uptake. Using two representative cell lines with widely different [11C]acetate uptake (HepG2 for high uptake and Hep3B for low uptake), changes in [11C]acetate uptake were measured after treatment with an MCT1 inhibitor or MCT1-targeted siRNA. To verify the roles of MCT1 in cells, oxygen consumption rate and the amount of lipid synthesis were measured. HepG2 cells with high [11C]acetate uptake showed higher MCT1 expression than other HCC cell lines with low [11C]acetate uptake. MCT1 expression was elevated in human HCCs with high [11C]acetate uptake compared to those with low [11C]acetate uptake. After blocking MCT1 with AR-C155858 or MCT1 knockdown, [11C]acetate uptake in HepG2 cells was significantly reduced. Additionally, inhibition of MCT1 suppressed mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, lipid synthesis, and cellular proliferation in HCC cells with high [11C]acetate uptake. MCT1 may be a new therapeutic target for acetate-dependent HCCs with high [11C]acetate uptake, which can be selected by [11C]acetate PET/CT imaging in clinical practice.

  19. Aromatherapy Improves Work Performance Through Balancing the Autonomic Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lin; Capdevila, Lluis

    2017-03-01

    petitgrain main components (linalyl acetate, linalool, and myrcene). The final effect could be an improvement of the mental and emotional condition by a combination of reducing the stress level and increasing the arousal level of the participants in terms of attentiveness and alertness.

  20. ATP-Citrate Lyase Controls a Glucose-to-Acetate Metabolic Switch.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Steven; Torres, AnnMarie; Henry, Ryan A; Trefely, Sophie; Wallace, Martina; Lee, Joyce V; Carrer, Alessandro; Sengupta, Arjun; Campbell, Sydney L; Kuo, Yin-Ming; Frey, Alexander J; Meurs, Noah; Viola, John M; Blair, Ian A; Weljie, Aalim M; Metallo, Christian M; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Andrews, Andrew J; Wellen, Kathryn E

    2016-10-18

    Mechanisms of metabolic flexibility enable cells to survive under stressful conditions and can thwart therapeutic responses. Acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) plays central roles in energy production, lipid metabolism, and epigenomic modifications. Here, we show that, upon genetic deletion of Acly, the gene coding for ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), cells remain viable and proliferate, although at an impaired rate. In the absence of ACLY, cells upregulate ACSS2 and utilize exogenous acetate to provide acetyl-CoA for de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and histone acetylation. A physiological level of acetate is sufficient for cell viability and abundant acetyl-CoA production, although histone acetylation levels remain low in ACLY-deficient cells unless supplemented with high levels of acetate. ACLY-deficient adipocytes accumulate lipid in vivo, exhibit increased acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA production from acetate, and display some differences in fatty acid content and synthesis. Together, these data indicate that engagement of acetate metabolism is a crucial, although partial, mechanism of compensation for ACLY deficiency. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Zuclopenthixol acetate for acute schizophrenia and similar serious mental illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Jayakody, Kaushadh; Gibson, Roger Carl; Kumar, Ajit; Gunadasa, Shalmini

    2014-01-01

    Background Medication used for acute aggression in psychiatry must have rapid onset of effect, low frequency of administration and low levels of adverse effects. Zuclopenthixol acetate is said to have these properties. Objectives To estimate the clinical effects of zuclopenthixol acetate for the management of acute aggression or violence thought to be due to serious mental illnesses, in comparison to other drugs used to treat similar conditions. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia’s Group Trials Register (July 2011). We supplemented this by citation searching and personal contact with authors and relevant pharmaceutical companies. Selection criteria All randomised clinical trials involving people thought to have serious mental illnesses comparing zuclopenthixol acetate with other drugs. Data collection and analysis Two review authors extracted and cross-checked data independently. We calculated fixed-effect relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous data. We analysed by intention-to-treat. We used mean differences (MD) for continuous variables. Main results We found no data for the primary outcome, tranquillisation. Compared with haloperidol, zuclopenthixol acetate was no more sedating at two hours (n = 40, 1 RCT, RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.34). People given zuclopenthixol acetate were not at reduced risk of being given supplementary antipsychotics (n = 134, 3 RCTs, RR 1.49, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.30) although additional use of benzodiazepines was less (n = 50, 1 RCT, RR 0.03, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.47). People given zuclopenthixol acetate had fewer injections over seven days compared with those allocated to haloperidol IM (n = 70, 1 RCT, RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.84, NNT 4, CI 3 to 14). We found no data on more episodes of aggression or harm to self or others. One trial (n = 148) reported no significant difference in adverse effects for people receiving zuclopenthixol acetate compared with those allocated haloperidol at one, three

  2. Protective effects of piperine on lead acetate induced-nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Sudjarwo, Sri Agus; Eraiko, Koerniasari; Sudjarwo, Giftania Wardani; Koerniasari

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the protective effects of piperine on lead acetate-induced renal damage in rat kidney tissue. Forty male rats were divided into 5 groups: negative control (rats were given aquadest daily), positive control (rats were given lead acetate 30 mg/kg BW orally once a day for 60 days), and the treatment group (rats were given piperine 50 mg; 100 mg and 200 mg/kg BW orally once a day for 65 days, and on 5 th day, were given lead acetate 30 mg/kg BW one hr after piperine administration for 60 days). On day 65 levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, malondialdehyde (MDA), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) were measured. Also, kidney samples were collected for histopathological studies. The results revealed that lead acetate toxicity induced a significant increase in the levels of BUN, creatinine, and MDA; moreover, a significant decrease in SOD and GPx. Lead acetate also altered kidney histopathology (kidney damage, necrosis of tubules) compared to the negative control. However, administration of piperine significantly improved the kidney histopathology, decreased the levels of BUN, creatinine, and MDA, and also significantly increased the SOD and GPx in the kidney of lead acetate-treated rats. From the results of this study it was concluded that piperine could be a potent natural herbal product exhibiting nephroprotective effect against lead acetate induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

  3. Megestrol acetate in patients with AIDS-related cachexia.

    PubMed

    Von Roenn, J H; Armstrong, D; Kotler, D P; Cohn, D L; Klimas, N G; Tchekmedyian, N S; Cone, L; Brennan, P J; Weitzman, S A

    1994-09-15

    To compare the effects of oral suspensions of megestrol acetate, 800 mg/d, and placebo on body weight in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related weight loss. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Outpatient community and university patient care setting. Consecutive patients with AIDS who had substantial weight loss and anorexia were enrolled. Of 271 patients, 270 and 195 were evaluable for safety and efficacy, respectively. Patients were randomly assigned to receive placebo or megestrol acetate (100 mg, 400 mg, or 800 mg) daily for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy criterion was weight gain. Patients were evaluated at 4-week intervals for changes in weight and body composition, caloric intake, sense of well-being, toxic effects, and appetite. For evaluable patients receiving 800 mg of megestrol acetate per day, 64.2% gained 2.27 kg (5 pounds) or more compared with 21.4% of patients receiving placebo (P < 0.001). An intent-to-treat analysis showed significant differences (P = 0.002) between those receiving placebo and those receiving 800 mg of megestrol acetate for the number of patients who gained 2.27 kg (5 pounds) or more (8 of 32 [25%] compared with 38 of 61 [62.3%], respectively). Compared with patients receiving placebo at the time of maximum weight change, evaluable patients receiving megestrol acetate, 800 mg/d, reported improvement in overall well-being and had an increase in mean weight gain (-0.725 compared with 3.54 kg [-1.6 compared with +7.8 pounds]; P < 0.001), lean body mass (-0.772 compared with +1.14 kg [-1.7 compared with +2.5 pounds]; P < 0.001), appetite grade (P < 0.001), and caloric intake (-107 compared with +645.6 calories/d; P = 0.001). In patients with AIDS-related weight loss, megestrol acetate can stimulate appetite, food intake, and statistically significant weight gain that is associated with a patient-reported improvement in an overall sense of well-being.

  4. Detection of CIN by naked eye visualization after application of acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Londhe, M; George, S S; Seshadri, L

    1997-06-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to determine the sensitivity and specificity of acetic application to the cervix followed by naked eye visualization as a screening test for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. Three hundred and seventy two sexually active woman in the reproductive age group were studied. All the women underwent Papanicolaou test, acetic acid test and colposcopy. One hundred and seventy five woman were acetic acid test negative, 197 women were acetic acid test positive. The sensitivity of acetic acid test was 72.4%, specificity 54% and false negative rate 15.2%, as compared to papanicolaou test which had a sensitivity of 13.2%, specificity of 96.3% and false negative rate of 24.4%. The advantage of the acetic acid test lies in its easy technique, low cost and high sensitivity which are important factors for determining the efficacy of any screening programme in developing countries.

  5. Acetate Metabolism in Anaerobes from the Domain Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Acetate and acetyl-CoA play fundamental roles in all of biology, including anaerobic prokaryotes from the domains Bacteria and Archaea, which compose an estimated quarter of all living protoplasm in Earth’s biosphere. Anaerobes from the domain Archaea contribute to the global carbon cycle by metabolizing acetate as a growth substrate or product. They are components of anaerobic microbial food chains converting complex organic matter to methane, and many fix CO2 into cell material via synthesis of acetyl-CoA. They are found in a diversity of ecological habitats ranging from the digestive tracts of insects to deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and synthesize a plethora of novel enzymes with biotechnological potential. Ecological investigations suggest that still more acetate-metabolizing species with novel properties await discovery. PMID:26068860

  6. Cereal crop volatile organic compound induction after mechanical injury, beetle herbivory (Oulema spp.), or fungal infection (Fusarium spp.).

    PubMed

    Piesik, Dariusz; Pańka, Dariusz; Delaney, Kevin J; Skoczek, Agata; Lamparski, Robert; Weaver, David K

    2011-06-15

    Herbivory, mechanical injury or pathogen infestation to vegetative tissues can induce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) production, which can provide defensive functions to injured and uninjured plants. In our studies with 'McNeal' wheat, 'Otana' oat, and 'Harrington' barley, plants that were mechanically injured, attacked by either of two Oulema spp. (melanopus or cyanella) beetles, or infected by one of the three Fusarium spp. (graminearum, avenaceum, or culmorum), had significant VOC induction compared to undamaged plants. Mechanical injury to the main stem or one leaf caused the induction of one green leaf volatile (GLV) - (Z)-3-hexenol, and three terpenes (β-linalool, β-caryophyllene, and α-pinene) with all three grasses; wheat and barley also showed β-linalool oxide induction. The blend of induced VOCs after Fusarium spp. infestation or Oulema spp. herbivory was dominated by GLVs ((Z)-3-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenol, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, and 1-hexenyl acetate) and β-linalool and β-caryophyllene; beetle herbivory also induced (E)-β-farnesene. Different ratios of individual VOCs were induced between the two Oulema spp. for each cereal grass and different ratios across the three cereals for each beetle species. Also, different ratios of individual VOCs were induced between the three Fusarium spp. for each cereal grass and different ratios across the three cereals for each fungal pathogen species. Our results are preliminary since we could not simultaneously measure VOC induction from controls with each of the ten different injury treatments for each of the three cereals. However, the comparison of mechanical injury, insect herbivory, and fungal infection has not been previously examined with VOC responses from three different plant species within the same family. Also, our work suggests large qualitative and quantitative overlap of VOC induction from plants of all three cereals having beetle herbivory injury when compared to infection injury

  7. Genome-Guided Analysis of Clostridium ultunense and Comparative Genomics Reveal Different Strategies for Acetate Oxidation and Energy Conservation in Syntrophic Acetate-Oxidising Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Manzoor, Shahid; Schnürer, Anna; Müller, Bettina

    2018-01-01

    Syntrophic acetate oxidation operates close to the thermodynamic equilibrium and very little is known about the participating organisms and their metabolism. Clostridium ultunense is one of the most abundant syntrophic acetate-oxidising bacteria (SAOB) that are found in engineered biogas processes operating with high ammonia concentrations. It has been proven to oxidise acetate in cooperation with hydrogenotrophic methanogens. There is evidence that the Wood-Ljungdahl (WL) pathway plays an important role in acetate oxidation. In this study, we analysed the physiological and metabolic capacities of C. ultunense strain Esp and strain BST on genome scale and conducted a comparative study of all the known characterised SAOB, namely Syntrophaceticus schinkii, Thermacetogenium phaeum, Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans, and Pseudothermotoga lettingae. The results clearly indicated physiological robustness to be beneficial for anaerobic digestion environments and revealed unexpected metabolic diversity with respect to acetate oxidation and energy conservation systems. Unlike S. schinkii and Th. phaeum, C. ultunense clearly does not employ the oxidative WL pathway for acetate oxidation, as its genome (and that of P. lettingae) lack important key genes. In both of those species, a proton motive force is likely formed by chemical protons involving putative electron-bifurcating [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases rather than proton pumps. No genes encoding a respiratory Ech (energy-converting hydrogenase), as involved in energy conservation in Th. phaeum and S. schinkii, were identified in C. ultunense and P. lettingae. Moreover, two respiratory complexes sharing similarities to the proton-translocating ferredoxin:NAD+ oxidoreductase (Rnf) and the Na+ pumping NADH:quinone hydrogenase (NQR) were predicted. These might form a respiratory chain that is involved in the reduction of electron acceptors rather than protons. However, involvement of these complexes in acetate oxidation in C. ultunense

  8. Genome-Guided Analysis of Clostridium ultunense and Comparative Genomics Reveal Different Strategies for Acetate Oxidation and Energy Conservation in Syntrophic Acetate-Oxidising Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, Shahid; Schnürer, Anna; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Müller, Bettina

    2018-04-23

    Syntrophic acetate oxidation operates close to the thermodynamic equilibrium and very little is known about the participating organisms and their metabolism. Clostridium ultunense is one of the most abundant syntrophic acetate-oxidising bacteria (SAOB) that are found in engineered biogas processes operating with high ammonia concentrations. It has been proven to oxidise acetate in cooperation with hydrogenotrophic methanogens. There is evidence that the Wood-Ljungdahl (WL) pathway plays an important role in acetate oxidation. In this study, we analysed the physiological and metabolic capacities of C. ultunense strain Esp and strain BS T on genome scale and conducted a comparative study of all the known characterised SAOB, namely Syntrophaceticus schinkii , Thermacetogenium phaeum , Tepidanaerobacter acetatoxydans , and Pseudothermotoga lettingae . The results clearly indicated physiological robustness to be beneficial for anaerobic digestion environments and revealed unexpected metabolic diversity with respect to acetate oxidation and energy conservation systems. Unlike S. schinkii and Th. phaeum , C. ultunense clearly does not employ the oxidative WL pathway for acetate oxidation, as its genome (and that of P. lettingae ) lack important key genes. In both of those species, a proton motive force is likely formed by chemical protons involving putative electron-bifurcating [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases rather than proton pumps. No genes encoding a respiratory Ech (energy-converting hydrogenase), as involved in energy conservation in Th. phaeum and S. schinkii, were identified in C. ultunense and P. lettingae . Moreover, two respiratory complexes sharing similarities to the proton-translocating ferredoxin:NAD⁺ oxidoreductase (Rnf) and the Na⁺ pumping NADH:quinone hydrogenase (NQR) were predicted. These might form a respiratory chain that is involved in the reduction of electron acceptors rather than protons. However, involvement of these complexes in acetate oxidation in C

  9. Acetic acid in aged vinegar affects molecular targets for thrombus disease management.

    PubMed

    Jing, Li; Yanyan, Zhang; Junfeng, Fan

    2015-08-01

    To elucidate the mechanism underlying the action of dietary vinegar on antithrombotic activity, acetic acid, the main acidic component of dietary vinegar, was used to determine antiplatelet and fibrinolytic activity. The results revealed that acetic acid significantly inhibits adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-, collagen-, thrombin-, and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced platelet aggregation. Acetic acid (2.00 mM) reduced AA-induced platelet aggregation to approximately 36.82 ± 1.31%, and vinegar (0.12 mL L(-1)) reduced the platelet aggregation induced by AA to 30.25 ± 1.34%. Further studies revealed that acetic acid exerts its effects by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-1 and the formation of thromboxane-A2. Organic acids including acetic acid, formic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, and malic acid also showed fibrinolytic activity; specifically, the fibrinolytic activity of acetic acid amounted to 1.866 IU urokinase per mL. Acetic acid exerted its fibrinolytic activity by activating plasminogen during fibrin crossing, thus leading to crosslinked fibrin degradation by the activated plasmin. These results suggest that organic acids in dietary vinegar play important roles in the prevention and cure of cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Iron oxides alter methanogenic pathways of acetate in production water of high-temperature petroleum reservoir.

    PubMed

    Pan, Pan; Hong, Bo; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Wang, Li-Ying; Liu, Jin-Feng; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2017-09-01

    Acetate is a key intermediate in anaerobic crude oil biodegradation and also a precursor for methanogenesis in petroleum reservoirs. The impact of iron oxides, viz. β-FeOOH (akaganéite) and magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), on the methanogenic acetate metabolism in production water of a high-temperature petroleum reservoir was investigated. Methane production was observed in all the treatments amended with acetate. In the microcosms amended with acetate solely about 30% of the acetate utilized was converted to methane, whereas methane production was stimulated in the presence of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) resulting in a 48.34% conversion to methane. Methane production in acetate-amended, β-FeOOH (akaganéite)-supplemented microcosms was much faster and acetate consumption was greatly improved compared to the other conditions in which the stoichiometric expected amounts of methane were not produced. Microbial community analysis showed that Thermacetogenium spp. (known syntrophic acetate oxidizers) and hydrogenotrophic methanogens closely related to Methanothermobacter spp. were enriched in acetate and acetate/magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) microcosms suggesting that methanogenic acetate metabolism was through hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis fueled by syntrophic acetate oxidizers. The acetate/β-FeOOH (akaganéite) microcosms, however, differed by the dominance of archaea closely related to the acetoclastic Methanosaeta thermophila. These observations suggest that supplementation of β-FeOOH (akaganéite) accelerated the production of methane further, driven the alteration of the methanogenic community, and changed the pathway of acetate methanogenesis from hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis fueled by syntrophic acetate oxidizers to acetoclastic.

  11. Evaluating the antimicrobial potential of green cardamom essential oil focusing on quorum sensing inhibition of Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Abdullah; Asghar, Ali; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Shahid, Muhammad; Huang, Qingrong

    2017-07-01

    Spices are well known for their taste and flavor imparting properties. Green cardamom ( Elletaria cardamomum ), a herb spice belongs to family Zingiberaceae . In current study, GC-MS analysis of green cardamom essential oil (CEO) resulted in identification of twenty-six compounds with α -terpinyl acetate (38.4%), 1,8-cineole (28.71%), linalool acetate (8.42%), sabinene (5.21%), and linalool (3.97%) as major bioactive components. Present study also described the antimicrobial properties like zone of inhibition, minimum inhibitory concentration against microbial strains with special emphasis on quorum sensing inhibition. Disk diffusion assay showed that C. albicans and S. mutans were the most sensitive microorganisms followed by S. aureus , L. monocytogenes , B. cereus and S. typhimurium sensor strains, respectively. Whilst P. aeruginosa was found most resistant strain as CEO did not inhibited its growth. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of CEO against tested strains were 10 ± 0.00 mg/mL against S. typhimurium , S. aureus and 5 ± 0.00 mg/mL against S. mutans , C. albicans strains, respectively. Regarding quorum sensing inhibition the tested concentrations 0.625 and 0.313 mg/mL of CEO inhibited violacein production with very little effect on growth of C. violaceum . Conclusively, study proved that quorum sensing inhibition values of CEO were much lower compared to MIC revealed values. Hence, cardamom bioactive constituents can effectively be used to develop novel antimicrobial drugs against conventional antibiotics.

  12. Water requirements of the rayon- and acetate-fiber industry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mussey, Orville Durey

    1957-01-01

    Water is required for several purposes in the manufacture of rayon and acetate fiber. These water requirements, as indicated by a survey of the water used by the plants operating in 1953, are both quantitative and qualitative. About 300 mgd (million gallons per day) of water was used in 1953 in the preparation of purified wood cellulose and cotton linters, the basic material from which the rayon and acetate fiber is made. An additional 620 mgd was used in the process of converting the cellulose to rayon and acetate fiber. The total, 920 mgd, is about 1 percent of the total estimated withdrawals of industrial water in the United States in 1953. The rayon- and acetate-fiber plants are scattered through eastern United States and generally are located in small towns or rural areas where there are abundant supplies of clean, soft water. Water use at a typical rayon-fiber plant was about 9 mgd, and at a typical acetate-fiber plant about 38 mgd. About 110 gallons of water was used to produce a pound of rayon fiber 32 gallons per pound was process water and the remainder was used largely for cooling in connection with power production and air conditioning. For the manufacture of a pound of acetate fiber about 170 gallons of water was used. However, the field survey on which this report is based indicated a wide range in the amount of water used per pound of product. For example, in the manufacture of viscose rayon, the maximum unit water use was 8 times the minimum unit water use. Water use in summer was about 22 percent greater than average annual use. About 8 mgd of water was consumed by evaporation in the manufacture of rayon and acetate fiber. More than 90 percent of the water used by the rayon and acetate industry was withdrawn from surface-water sources, about 8 percent from ground water, and less than 2 percent from municipal water supplies. All available analyses of the untreated waters used by the rayon and acetate industry were collected and studied. The

  13. Effects of acetic acid on the viability of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs

    PubMed Central

    Beyhan, Yunus E.; Yilmaz, Hasan; Hokelek, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of acetic acid on durable Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) eggs to determine the effective concentration of vinegar and the implementation period to render the consumption of raw vegetables more reliable. Methods: This experimental study was performed in May 2015 in the Parasitology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey. The A. lumbricoides eggs were divided into 2 groups. Eggs in the study group were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 10% acetic acid concentrations, and eggs in the control group were treated with Eosin. The eggs’ viability was observed at the following points in time during the experiment: 0, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, and 60 minutes. Results: The 1% acetic acid was determined insufficient on the viability of Ascaris eggs. At the 30th minute, 3% acetic acid demonstrated 95% effectiveness, and at 5% concentration, all eggs lost their viability. Treatment of acetic acid at the ratio of 4.8% in 30 minutes, or a ratio of 4.3% in 60 minutes is required for full success of tretment. Conclusion: Since Ascaris eggs have 3 layers and are very resistant, the acetic acid concentration, which can be effective on these eggs are thought to be effective also on many other parasitic agents. In order to attain an active protection, after washing the vegetables, direct treatment with a vinegar containing 5% acetic acid for 30 minutes is essential. PMID:26905351

  14. Protective effects of piperine on lead acetate induced-nephrotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sudjarwo, Sri Agus; Eraiko, Koerniasari; Sudjarwo, Giftania Wardani; Koerniasari

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): In this study, we investigated the protective effects of piperine on lead acetate-induced renal damage in rat kidney tissue. Materials and Methods: Forty male rats were divided into 5 groups: negative control (rats were given aquadest daily), positive control (rats were given lead acetate 30 mg/kg BW orally once a day for 60 days), and the treatment group (rats were given piperine 50 mg; 100 mg and 200 mg/kg BW orally once a day for 65 days, and on 5th day, were given lead acetate 30 mg/kg BW one hr after piperine administration for 60 days). On day 65 levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, malondialdehyde (MDA), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) were measured. Also, kidney samples were collected for histopathological studies. Results: The results revealed that lead acetate toxicity induced a significant increase in the levels of BUN, creatinine, and MDA; moreover, a significant decrease in SOD and GPx. Lead acetate also altered kidney histopathology (kidney damage, necrosis of tubules) compared to the negative control. However, administration of piperine significantly improved the kidney histopathology, decreased the levels of BUN, creatinine, and MDA, and also significantly increased the SOD and GPx in the kidney of lead acetate-treated rats. Conclusion: From the results of this study it was concluded that piperine could be a potent natural herbal product exhibiting nephroprotective effect against lead acetate induced nephrotoxicity in rats. PMID:29299200

  15. Production of itaconic acid from acetate by engineering acid-tolerant Escherichia coli W.

    PubMed

    Noh, Myung Hyun; Lim, Hyun Gyu; Woo, Sung Hwa; Song, Jinyi; Jung, Gyoo Yeol

    2018-03-01

    Utilization of abundant and cheap carbon sources can effectively reduce the production cost and enhance the economic feasibility. Acetate is a promising carbon source to achieve cost-effective microbial processes. In this study, we engineered an Escherichia coli strain to produce itaconic acid from acetate. As acetate is known to inhibit cell growth, we initially screened for a strain with a high tolerance to 10 g/L of acetate in the medium, and the W strain was selected as the host. Subsequently, the WC strain was obtained by overexpression of cad (encoding cis-aconitate decarboxylase) using a synthetic promoter and 5' UTR. However, the WC strain produced only 0.13 g/L itaconic acid because of low acetate uptake. To improve the production, the acetate assimilating pathway and glyoxylate shunt pathway were amplified by overexpression of pathway genes as well as its deregulation. The resulting strain, WCIAG4 produced 3.57 g/L itaconic acid (16.1% of theoretical maximum yield) after 88 hr of fermentation with rapid acetate assimilation. These efforts support that acetate can be a potential feedstock for biochemical production with engineered E. coli. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Acetate and Formate Stress: Opposite Responses in the Proteome of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Christopher; Maurer, Lisa M.; Oyelakin, Nikki E.; Yoncheva, Yuliya N.; Maurer, Russell; Slonczewski, Joan L.

    2001-01-01

    Acetate and formate are major fermentation products of Escherichia coli. Below pH 7, the balance shifts to lactate; an oversupply of acetate or formate retards growth. E. coli W3110 was grown with aeration in potassium-modified Luria broth buffered at pH 6.7 in the presence or absence of added acetate or formate, and the protein profiles were compared by two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Acetate increased the steady-state expression levels of 37 proteins, including periplasmic transporters for amino acids and peptides (ArtI, FliY, OppA, and ProX), metabolic enzymes (YfiD and GatY), the RpoS growth phase regulon, and the autoinducer synthesis protein LuxS. Acetate repressed 17 proteins, among them phosphotransferase (Pta). An ackA-pta deletion, which nearly eliminates interconversion between acetate and acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), led to elevated basal levels of 16 of the acetate-inducible proteins, including the RpoS regulon. Consistent with RpoS activation, the ackA-pta strain also showed constitutive extreme-acid resistance. Formate, however, repressed 10 of the acetate-inducible proteins, including the RpoS regulon. Ten of the proteins with elevated basal levels in the ackA-pta strain were repressed by growth of the mutant with formate; thus, the formate response took precedence over the loss of the ackA-pta pathway. The similar effects of exogenous acetate and the ackA-pta deletion, and the opposite effect of formate, could have several causes; one possibility is that the excess buildup of acetyl-CoA upregulates stress proteins but excess formate depletes acetyl-CoA and downregulates these proteins. PMID:11591692

  17. Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd

    2012-01-01

    The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 + 0.7% and 8.8 + 3.2%more » w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 + 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 + 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 + 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.« less

  18. Scaleable production and separation of fermentation-derived acetic acid. Final CRADA report.

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

    2010-02-08

    Half of U.S. acetic acid production is used in manufacturing vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) and is economical only in very large production plants. Nearly 80% of the VAM is produced by methanol carbonylation, which requires high temperatures and exotic construction materials and is energy intensive. Fermentation-derived acetic acid production allows for small-scale production at low temperatures, significantly reducing the energy requirement of the process. The goal of the project is to develop a scaleable production and separation process for fermentation-derived acetic acid. Synthesis gas (syngas) will be fermented to acetic acid, and the fermentation broth will be continuously neutralized withmore » ammonia. The acetic acid product will be recovered from the ammonium acid broth using vapor-based membrane separation technology. The process is summarized in Figure 1. The two technical challenges to success are selecting and developing (1) microbial strains that efficiently ferment syngas to acetic acid in high salt environments and (2) membranes that efficiently separate ammonia from the acetic acid/water mixture and are stable at high enough temperature to facilitate high thermal cracking of the ammonium acetate salt. Fermentation - Microbial strains were procured from a variety of public culture collections (Table 1). Strains were incubated and grown in the presence of the ammonium acetate product and the fastest growing cultures were selected and incubated at higher product concentrations. An example of the performance of a selected culture is shown in Figure 2. Separations - Several membranes were considered. Testing was performed on a new product line produced by Sulzer Chemtech (Germany). These are tubular ceramic membranes with weak acid functionality (see Figure 3). The following results were observed: (1) The membranes were relatively fragile in a laboratory setting; (2) Thermally stable {at} 130 C in hot organic acids; (3) Acetic acid rejection > 99%; and

  19. Syntrophic acetate oxidation in industrial CSTR biogas digesters.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Müller, Bettina; Westerholm, Maria; Schnürer, Anna

    2014-02-10

    The extent of syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) and the levels of known SAO bacteria and acetate- and hydrogen-consuming methanogens were determined in sludge from 13 commercial biogas production plants. Results from these measurements were statistically related to the prevailing operating conditions, through partial least squares (PLS) analysis. This revealed that high abundance of microorganisms involved in SAO was positively correlated with relatively low abundance of aceticlastic methanogens and high concentrations of free ammonia (>160 mg/L) and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Temperature was identified as another influencing factor for the population structure of the syntrophic acetate oxidising bacteria (SAOB). Overall, there was a high abundance of SAOB in the different digesters despite differences in their operating parameters, indicating that SAOB are an enduring and important component of biogas-producing consortia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Occurrence and metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid in Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewer, P.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was identified as a catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in germinating kernels of Zea mays and found to be present in amounts of ca 3.1 nmol/kernel. 7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was shown to be a biosynthetic intermediate between 2-indolinone-3-acetic acid and 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside in both kernels and roots of Zea mays. Further metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-[5-3H]-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside occurred to yield tritiated water plus, as yet, uncharacterized products.

  1. Overexpression of acetyl-CoA synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases acetic acid tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jun; Holzwarth, Garrett; Penner, Michael H.; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Bakalinsky, Alan T.

    2015-01-01

    Acetic acid-mediated inhibition of the fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars impedes development of plant biomass as a source of renewable ethanol. In order to overcome this inhibition, the capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to synthesize acetyl-CoA from acetic acid was increased by overexpressing ACS2 encoding acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase. Overexpression of ACS2 resulted in higher resistance to acetic acid as measured by an increased growth rate and shorter lag phase relative to a wild-type control strain, suggesting that Acs2-mediated consumption of acetic acid during fermentation contributes to acetic acid detoxification. PMID:25673654

  2. Investigation of gel formation and volatilization of acetate acid in magnesium acetate droplets by the optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Xi-Juan; Wang, Yang; Cai, Chen; Pang, Shu-Feng; Ma, Jia-Bi; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2018-07-01

    Hygroscopicity and volatility of single magnesium acetate (MgAc2) aerosol particles at various relative humidities (RHs) are studied by a single-beam optical tweezers, and refractive indices (RIs) and morphology are characterized by cavity enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Gel formation and volatilization of acetate acid (HAc) in MgAc2 droplets are observed. Due to the formation of amorphous gel structure, water transposition in droplets at RH < 50% is significantly impeded on a time scale of 140,000 s. Different phase transition at RH < 10% is proposed to explain the distinct water loss after the gel formation. To compare volatilization of HAc in different systems, MgAc2 and sodium acetate (NaAc) droplets are maintained at several different stable RHs during up to 86,000 s. At RH ≈ 74%, magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) inclusions are formed in MgAc2 droplets due to the volatilization of HAc, and whispering gallery modes (WGMs) of MgAc2 droplets in the Raman spectrum quench after 50,000 s. In sharp contrast, after 86,000 s at RH ≈ 70%, NaAc droplets are in well-mixed liquid states, containing soluble sodium hydroxide (NaOH). At this state, the RI of NaAc droplet is increased, and the quenching of WGMs is not observable.

  3. Temperature Dependence of Positron Annihilation in beta-Cyclodextrin and beta-Cyclodextrin Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Hsu Hadley, F. H., Jr.; Trinh, T.

    1996-11-01

    The effects of temperature on positron annihilation in beta-cyclodextrin and beta-cyclodextrin complexed with benzyl salicylate, benzyl acetate, ethyl salicylate, geraniol, linalool and nerol were studied. Samples were prepared by slurry, air-dried and freeze-dried methods. Lifetime spectra were measured as a function of temperature for each sample. Comparison of the annihilation rate and intensity of the longer-lived component showed that positronium formation was affected by guest molecules, preparation methods and temperature variations. Results can be used to explain beta-cyclodextrin complex formation with different guest molecules.

  4. Probing the Reactivity of Cyclic "N,O"-Acetals versus Cyclic "O,O"-Acetals with NaBH[subscript 4] and CH[subscript 3]MgI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciaccio, James A.; Saba, Shahrokh; Bruno, Samantha M.; Bruppacher, John H.; McKnight, Alexa G.

    2018-01-01

    An operationally straightforward, project-like laboratory experiment has been developed in which students directly compare the reactivity of two heterocycles, a cyclic "O,O"-acetal (standard C-O protecting group) and a cyclic "N,O"-acetal (oxazolidine), toward sodium borohydride and methylmagnesium iodide. Students synthesize a…

  5. Gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry: analysis of methanol, ethanol and acetic acid by direct injection of aqueous alcoholic and acetic acid samples.

    PubMed

    Ai, Guomin; Sun, Tong; Dong, Xiuzhu

    2014-08-15

    Methanol, ethanol, and acetic acid are not easily extracted from aqueous samples and are susceptible to isotope fractionation in gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS) analysis. Developing a direct dilution GC/IRMS method for aqueous samples, by adjusting the sample concentrations in common solvents to be similar to each other and using a fixed GC split ratio, is very convenient and important because any linearity effects caused by amount-dependent isotope fractionation can be avoided. The suitability of acetonitrile and acetone solvents for the GC/IRMS analysis of pure methanol, ethanol and acetic acid, and commercial liquor and vinegar samples was evaluated using n-hexane and water as control solvents. All the solvents including water were separated from the analyte on a HP-INNOWAX column and were diverted away from the combustion interface. The influence of liquor matrix on the ethanol GC/IRMS analyses was evaluated by adding pure ethanol to liquor samples. Acetonitrile and acetone gave similar δ(13) C values for pure ethanol and pure acetic acid to those obtained in water and n-hexane, and also gave similar δ(13) C values of ethanol in liquor and acetic acid in white vinegar to that obtained in water. For methanol analysis, acetonitrile and refined acetone gave similar δ(13) C values to that obtained in water, but n-hexane was not a suitable solvent. In addition, isotopic fractionation caused by solvent and solute interactions was observed. We recommend using acetonitrile for the GC/IRMS analysis of aqueous alcoholic samples, and acetone for the analysis of aqueous acetic acid samples. This direct dilution method can provide high accurate and precise GC/IRMS analysis of the relative changes in δ(13) C values of methanol, ethanol, and acetic acid. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Isotope fractionation during the anaerobic consumption of acetate by methanogenic and sulfate-reducing microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gövert, D.; Conrad, R.

    2009-04-01

    During the anaerobic degradation of organic matter in anoxic sediments and soils acetate is the most important substrate for the final step in production of CO2 and/or CH4. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methane-producing archaea both compete for the available acetate. Knowledge about the fractionation of 13C/12C of acetate carbon by these microbial groups is still limited. Therefore, we determined carbon isotope fractionation in different cultures of acetate-utilizing SRB (Desulfobacter postgatei, D. hydrogenophilus, Desulfobacca acetoxidans) and methanogens (Methanosarcina barkeri, M. acetivorans). Including literature values (e.g., Methanosaeta concilii), isotopic enrichment factors (epsilon) ranged between -35 and +2 permil, possibly involving equilibrium isotope effects besides kinetic isotope effects. The values of epsilon were dependent on the acetate-catabolic pathway of the particular microorganism, the methyl or carboxyl position of acetate, and the relative availability or limitation of the substrate acetate. Patterns of isotope fractionation in anoxic lake sediments and rice field soil seem to reflect the characteristics of the microorganisms actively involved in acetate catabolism. Hence, it might be possible using environmental isotopic information to determine the type of microbial metabolism converting acetate to CO2 and/or CH4.

  7. Computer simulations of alkali-acetate solutions: Accuracy of the forcefields in difference concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlstrand, Emma; Zukerman Schpector, Julio; Friedman, Ran

    2017-11-01

    When proteins are solvated in electrolyte solutions that contain alkali ions, the ions interact mostly with carboxylates on the protein surface. Correctly accounting for alkali-carboxylate interactions is thus important for realistic simulations of proteins. Acetates are the simplest carboxylates that are amphipathic, and experimental data for alkali acetate solutions are available and can be compared with observables obtained from simulations. We carried out molecular dynamics simulations of alkali acetate solutions using polarizable and non-polarizable forcefields and examined the ion-acetate interactions. In particular, activity coefficients and association constants were studied in a range of concentrations (0.03, 0.1, and 1M). In addition, quantum-mechanics (QM) based energy decomposition analysis was performed in order to estimate the contribution of polarization, electrostatics, dispersion, and QM (non-classical) effects on the cation-acetate and cation-water interactions. Simulations of Li-acetate solutions in general overestimated the binding of Li+ and acetates. In lower concentrations, the activity coefficients of alkali-acetate solutions were too high, which is suggested to be due to the simulation protocol and not the forcefields. Energy decomposition analysis suggested that improvement of the forcefield parameters to enable accurate simulations of Li-acetate solutions can be achieved but may require the use of a polarizable forcefield. Importantly, simulations with some ion parameters could not reproduce the correct ion-oxygen distances, which calls for caution in the choice of ion parameters when protein simulations are performed in electrolyte solutions.

  8. Acetate oxidation by syntrophic association between Geobacter sulfurreducens and a hydrogen-utilizing exoelectrogen.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Zen-ichiro; Okabe, Satoshi

    2013-08-01

    Anodic microbial communities in acetate-fed microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were analyzed using stable-isotope probing of 16S rRNA genes followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The results revealed that Geobacter sulfurreducens and Hydrogenophaga sp. predominated in the anodic biofilm. Although the predominance of Geobacter sp. as acetoclastic exoelectrogens in acetate-fed MFC systems has been often reported, the ecophysiological role of Hydrogenophaga sp. is unknown. Therefore, we isolated and characterized a bacterium closely related to Hydrogenophaga sp. (designated strain AR20). The newly isolated strain AR20 could use molecular hydrogen (H2), but not acetate, with carbon electrode as the electron acceptor, indicating that the strain AR20 was a hydrogenotrophic exoelectrogen. This evidence raises a hypothesis that acetate was oxidized by G. sulfurreducens in syntrophic cooperation with the strain AR20 as a hydrogen-consuming partner in the acetate-fed MFC. To prove this hypothesis, G. sulfurreducens strain PCA was cocultivated with the strain AR20 in the acetate-fed MFC without any dissolved electron acceptors. In the coculture MFC of G. sulfurreducens and strain AR20, current generation and acetate degradation were the highest, and the growth of strain AR20 was observed. No current generation, acetate degradation and cell growth occurred in the strain AR20 pure culture MFC. These results show for the first time that G. sulfurreducens can oxidize acetate in syntrophic cooperation with the isolated Hydrogenophaga sp. strain AR20, with electrode as the electron acceptor.

  9. Bioelectrochemical ethanol production through mediated acetate reduction by mixed cultures.

    PubMed

    Steinbusch, Kirsten J J; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Schaap, Joris D; Kampman, Christel; Buisman, Cees J N

    2010-01-01

    Biological acetate reduction with hydrogen is a potential method to convert wet biomass waste into ethanol. Since the ethanol concentration and reaction rates are low, this research studies the feasibility of using an electrode, in stead of hydrogen, as an electron donor for biological acetate reduction in conjunction of an electron mediator. Initially, the effect of three selected mediators on metabolic flows during acetate reduction with hydrogen was explored; subsequently, the best performing mediator was used in a bioelectrochemical system to stimulate acetate reduction at the cathode with mixed cultures at an applied cathode potential of -550 mV. In the batch test, methyl viologen (MV) was found to accelerate ethanol production 6-fold and increased ethanol concentration 2-fold to 13.5 +/- 0.7 mM compared to the control. Additionally, MV inhibited n-butyrate and methane formation, resulting in high ethanol production efficiency (74.6 +/- 6%). In the bioelectrochemical system, MV addition to an inoculated cathode led directly to ethanol production (1.82 mM). Hydrogen was coproduced at the cathode (0.0035 Nm(3) hydrogen m(-2) d(-1)), so it remained unclear whether acetate was reduced to ethanol by electrons supplied by the mediator or by hydrogen. As MV reacted irreversibly at the cathode, ethanol production stopped after 5 days.

  10. Genome-wide identification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required for tolerance to acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Mira, Nuno P; Palma, Margarida; Guerreiro, Joana F; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2010-10-25

    Acetic acid is a byproduct of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcoholic fermentation. Together with high concentrations of ethanol and other toxic metabolites, acetic acid may contribute to fermentation arrest and reduced ethanol productivity. This weak acid is also a present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, a highly interesting non-feedstock substrate in industrial biotechnology. Therefore, the better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying S. cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for the rational selection of optimal fermentation conditions and the engineering of more robust industrial strains to be used in processes in which yeast is explored as cell factory. The yeast genes conferring protection against acetic acid were identified in this study at a genome-wide scale, based on the screening of the EUROSCARF haploid mutant collection for susceptibility phenotypes to this weak acid (concentrations in the range 70-110 mM, at pH 4.5). Approximately 650 determinants of tolerance to acetic acid were identified. Clustering of these acetic acid-resistance genes based on their biological function indicated an enrichment of genes involved in transcription, internal pH homeostasis, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall assembly, biogenesis of mitochondria, ribosome and vacuole, and in the sensing, signalling and uptake of various nutrients in particular iron, potassium, glucose and amino acids. A correlation between increased resistance to acetic acid and the level of potassium in the growth medium was found. The activation of the Snf1p signalling pathway, involved in yeast response to glucose starvation, is demonstrated to occur in response to acetic acid stress but no evidence was obtained supporting the acetic acid-induced inhibition of glucose uptake. Approximately 490 of the 650 determinants of tolerance to acetic acid identified in this work are implicated, for the first time, in tolerance to this weak acid. These are novel candidate genes for genetic

  11. Effect of acetic acid on ethanol production by Zymomonas mobilis mutant strains through continuous adaptation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Fan; Hsieh, Chia-Wen; Chang, Yao-Sheng; Wung, Being-Sun

    2017-08-01

    Acetic acid is a predominant by-product of lignocellulosic biofuel process, which inhibits microbial biocatalysts. Development of bacterial strains that are tolerant to acetic acid is challenging due to poor understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, we generated and characterized two acetic acid-tolerant strains of Zymomonas mobilis using N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (NTG)-acetate adaptive breeding. Two mutants, ZMA-142 and ZMA-167, were obtained, showing a significant growth rate at a concentration of 244 mM sodium acetate, while the growth of Z. mobilis ATCC 31823 were completely inhibited in presence of 195 mM sodium acetate. Our data showed that acetate-tolerance of ZMA-167 was attributed to a co-transcription of nhaA from ZMO0117, whereas the co-transcription was absent in ATCC 31823 and ZMA-142. Moreover, ZMA-142 and ZMA-167 exhibited a converstion rate (practical ethanol yield to theorical ethanol yield) of 90.16% and 86% at 195 mM acetate-pH 5 stress condition, respectively. We showed that acid adaptation of ZMA-142 and ZMA-167 to 146 mM acetate increased ZMA-142 and ZMA-167 resulted in an increase in ethanol yield by 32.21% and 21.16% under 195 mM acetate-pH 5 stress condition, respectively. The results indicate the acetate-adaptive seed culture of acetate-tolerant strains, ZMA-142 and ZMA-167, could enhance the ethanol production during fermentation.

  12. Acetic acid bacteria: A group of bacteria with versatile biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Saichana, Natsaran; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Adachi, Osao; Frébort, Ivo; Frebortova, Jitka

    2015-11-01

    Acetic acid bacteria are gram-negative obligate aerobic bacteria assigned to the family Acetobacteraceae of Alphaproteobacteria. They are members of the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Acidomonas, Asaia, Kozakia, Swaminathania, Saccharibacter, Neoasaia, Granulibacter, Tanticharoenia, Ameyamaea, Neokomagataea, and Komagataeibacter. Many strains of Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter have been known to possess high acetic acid fermentation ability as well as the acetic acid and ethanol resistance, which are considered to be useful features for industrial production of acetic acid and vinegar, the commercial product. On the other hand, Gluconobacter strains have the ability to perform oxidative fermentation of various sugars, sugar alcohols, and sugar acids leading to the formation of several valuable products. Thermotolerant strains of acetic acid bacteria were isolated in order to serve as the new strains of choice for industrial fermentations, in which the cooling costs for maintaining optimum growth and production temperature in the fermentation vessels could be significantly reduced. Genetic modifications by adaptation and genetic engineering were also applied to improve their properties, such as productivity and heat resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acetate but not propionate induces oxidative stress in bakers' yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Semchyshyn, Halyna M; Abrat, Oleksandra B; Miedzobrodzki, Jacek; Inoue, Yoshiharu; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2011-01-01

    The influence of acetic and propionic acids on baker's yeast was investigated in order to expand our understanding of the effect of weak organic acid food preservatives on eukaryotic cells. Both acids decreased yeast survival in a concentration-dependent manner, but with different efficiencies. The acids inhibited the fluorescein efflux from yeast cells. The inhibition constant of fluorescein extrusion from cells treated with acetate was significantly lower in parental strain than in either PDR12 (ABC-transporter Pdr12p) or WAR1 (transcriptional factor of Pdr12p) defective mutants. The constants of inhibition by propionate were virtually the same in all strains used. Yeast exposure to acetate increased the level of oxidized proteins and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, while propionate did not change these parameters. This suggests that various mechanisms underlie the yeast toxicity by acetic and propionic acids. Our studies with mutant cells clearly indicated the involvement of Yap1p transcriptional regulator and de novo protein synthesis in superoxide dismutase up-regulation by acetate. The up-regulation of catalase was Yap1p independent. Yeast pre-incubation with low concentrations of H₂O₂ caused cellular cross-protection against high concentrations of acetate. The results are discussed from the point of view that acetate induces a prooxidant effect in vivo, whereas propionate does not.

  14. Studies of the Acetate Kinase-Phosphotransacetylase and the Butanediol-Forming Systems in Aerobacter aerogenes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, T. D. K.; Pereira, C. R. S.; Størmer, F. C.

    1972-01-01

    Mutants of Aerobacter aerogenes devoid of acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase activities were isolated by selection for resistance to fluoroacetate on lactate medium. The mutants were used to study the role of the acetate kinase-phosphotransacetylase system in growth on acetate and glucose. Acetate kinase-negative and phosphotransacetylase-negative mutants were unable to grow on acetate minimal medium. Their growth rates on glucose minimal medium were identical with that of the parent strain under aerobic conditions, but lower growth rates were observed in the mutant strains during anaerobic growth on glucose medium. The mutants were unable to incorporate [2-14C]-acetate rapidly while growing on glycerol. Variations in acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase levels during growth on glucose were studied. The specific activities of the enzymes increased approximately fivefold during aerobic growth on glucose in batch culture. The enzyme levels were also studied during anaerobic growth on glucose at constant pH (pH 5.8 and 7.0). Smaller increases in specific activities were found under these conditions. The role of acetate in the induction of the diacetyl (acetoin) reductase was investigated using a mutant deficient in both acetate kinase and phosphotransacetylase. The effect of pH on the induction of this enzyme during growth on glucose under anaerobic conditions was tested. The data support the idea that free acetic acid is the inducer for the enzymes of the butanediol-forming pathway in A. aerogenes. PMID:4640502

  15. Acetate oxidation by syntrophic association between Geobacter sulfurreducens and a hydrogen-utilizing exoelectrogen

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Zen-ichiro; Okabe, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Anodic microbial communities in acetate-fed microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were analyzed using stable-isotope probing of 16S rRNA genes followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The results revealed that Geobacter sulfurreducens and Hydrogenophaga sp. predominated in the anodic biofilm. Although the predominance of Geobacter sp. as acetoclastic exoelectrogens in acetate-fed MFC systems has been often reported, the ecophysiological role of Hydrogenophaga sp. is unknown. Therefore, we isolated and characterized a bacterium closely related to Hydrogenophaga sp. (designated strain AR20). The newly isolated strain AR20 could use molecular hydrogen (H2), but not acetate, with carbon electrode as the electron acceptor, indicating that the strain AR20 was a hydrogenotrophic exoelectrogen. This evidence raises a hypothesis that acetate was oxidized by G. sulfurreducens in syntrophic cooperation with the strain AR20 as a hydrogen-consuming partner in the acetate-fed MFC. To prove this hypothesis, G. sulfurreducens strain PCA was cocultivated with the strain AR20 in the acetate-fed MFC without any dissolved electron acceptors. In the coculture MFC of G. sulfurreducens and strain AR20, current generation and acetate degradation were the highest, and the growth of strain AR20 was observed. No current generation, acetate degradation and cell growth occurred in the strain AR20 pure culture MFC. These results show for the first time that G. sulfurreducens can oxidize acetate in syntrophic cooperation with the isolated Hydrogenophaga sp. strain AR20, with electrode as the electron acceptor. PMID:23486252

  16. Two-dimensional isobutyl acetate production pathways to improve carbon yield

    PubMed Central

    Tashiro, Yohei; Desai, Shuchi H.; Atsumi, Shota

    2015-01-01

    For an economically competitive biological process, achieving high carbon yield of a target chemical is crucial. In biochemical production, pyruvate and acetyl-CoA are primary building blocks. When sugar is used as the sole biosynthetic substrate, acetyl-CoA is commonly generated by pyruvate decarboxylation. However, pyruvate decarboxylation during acetyl-CoA formation limits the theoretical maximum carbon yield (TMCY) by releasing carbon, and in some cases also leads to redox imbalance. To avoid these problems, we describe here the construction of a metabolic pathway that simultaneously utilizes glucose and acetate. Acetate is utilized to produce acetyl-CoA without carbon loss or redox imbalance. We demonstrate the utility of this approach for isobutyl acetate (IBA) production, wherein IBA production with glucose and acetate achieves a higher carbon yield than with either sole carbon source. These results highlight the potential for this multiple carbon source approach to improve the TMCY and balance redox in biosynthetic pathways. PMID:26108471

  17. Overexpression of acetyl-CoA synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases acetic acid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jun; Holzwarth, Garrett; Penner, Michael H; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Bakalinsky, Alan T

    2015-01-01

    Acetic acid-mediated inhibition of the fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars impedes development of plant biomass as a source of renewable ethanol. In order to overcome this inhibition, the capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to synthesize acetyl-CoA from acetic acid was increased by overexpressing ACS2 encoding acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase. Overexpression of ACS2 resulted in higher resistance to acetic acid as measured by an increased growth rate and shorter lag phase relative to a wild-type control strain, suggesting that Acs2-mediated consumption of acetic acid during fermentation contributes to acetic acid detoxification. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Anxiolytic and Anticonvulsant Effects on Mice of Flavonoids, Linalool, and α-Tocopherol Presents in the Extract of Leaves of Cissus sicyoides L. (Vitaceae)

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Edvaldo Rodrigues; de Oliveira Rafael, Krissia Rayane; Couto, Geraldo Bosco Lindoso; Ishigami, Ana Beatriz Matos

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the anxiolytic and anticonvulsant effects of a hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the aerial parts of Cissus sicyoides L. (CS) (Vitaceae) on male and female mice using several behavioral assays. Groups of males and females treated via intraperitoneal (IP) with doses of 300, 600, and 1000 mg/kg of the extract showed significant action in the elevated plus-maze (EPM), time spent in the open arms, and number of entries in the open arms. The board-hole test also showed a significant increase in the time spent in head-dipping and in marble-burying test of the number of marbles buried. The same treatment increased the duration of sleeping time induced by sodium pentobarbital and also showed a significant increase in protection against pentylenotetrazole-induced convulsions. These results indicate an anxiolytic and anticonvulsant-like action from C. sicyoides L. extract on mice, probably due to the action of flavonoid(s), Linalool, and α-tocopherol present in the C. sicyoides leaves. PMID:19300520

  19. Elevated acetate concentrations in the rhizosphere of Spartina alterniflora and potential influences on sulfate reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Mark E.; Tugel, Joyce B.; Giblin, A. E.; Banta, G. T.; Hobbie, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    Acetate is important in anaerobic metabolism of non-vegetated sediments but its role in salt marsh soils was not investigated thoroughly. Acetate concentrations, oxidation (C-14) and SO4(2-) reduction (S-35) were measured in S. alterniflora soils in NH and MA. Pore water from cores contained greater than 0.1 mM acetate and in some instances greater than 1.0 mM. Non-destructive samples contained less than 0.01 mM. Acetate was associated with roots and concentrations were highest during vegetative growth and varied with changes in plant physiology. Acetate turnover was very low whether whole core or slurry incubations were used. Radiotracers injected directly into soils yielded rates of SO4(2-) reduction and acetate oxidation not significantly different from core incubation techniques. Regardless of incubation method, acetate oxidation did not account for a significant percentage of SO4(2-) reduction. These results differ markedly from data for non-vegetated coastal sediments where acetate levels are low, oxidation rate constants are high and acetate oxidation rates greatly exceed rates of SO4(2-) reduction. The discrepancy between rates of acetate oxidation and SO4(2-) reduction in marsh soils may be due either to the utilization of substrates other than acetate by SO4(2-) reducers or artifacts associated with measurements of organic utilization by rhizosphere bacteria.

  20. Kelp waste extracts combined with acetate enhances the biofuel characteristics of Chlorella sorokiniana.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shiyan; He, Meilin; Sui, Yangsui; Gebreluel, Temesgen; Zou, Shanmei; Kemuma, Nyabuto Dorothy; Wang, Changhai

    2017-02-01

    To probe the effect of kelp waste extracts (KWE) combined with acetate on biochemical composition of Chlorella sorokiniana, the cultures were performed under independent/combined treatment of KWE and acetate. The results showed that high cell density and biomass were obtained by KWE combined with acetate treatments, whose biomass productivity increased by 79.69-102.57% and 20.04-35.32% compared with 3.0gL -1 acetate and KWE treatments respectively. The maximal neutral lipid per cell and lipid productivity were gained in KWE combined with 3.0gL -1 acetate treatment, which increased by 16.32% and 129.03% compared with 3.0gL -1 acetate, and 253.35% and 70.74% compared with KWE treatment. Meanwhile, C18:3n3 and C18:2n6c contents were reduced to 4.90% and 11.88%, whereas C16:0 and C18:1n9c were improved to 28.71% and 37.76%. Hence, supplementing appropriate acetate in KWE cultures is supposed to be a great potential method for large-scale cultivation of C. sorokiniana to generate biofuel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance of dairy cows fed high levels of acetic acid or ethanol.

    PubMed

    Daniel, J L P; Amaral, R C; Sá Neto, A; Cabezas-Garcia, E H; Bispo, A W; Zopollatto, M; Cardoso, T L; Spoto, M H F; Santos, F A P; Nussio, L G

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol and acetic acid are common end products from silages. The main objective of this study was to determine whether high concentrations of ethanol or acetic acid in total mixed ration would affect performance in dairy cows. Thirty mid-lactation Holstein cows were grouped in 10 blocks and fed one of the following diets for 7 wk: (1) control (33% Bermuda hay + 67% concentrates), (2) ethanol [control diet + 5% ethanol, dry matter (DM) basis], or (3) acetic acid (control diet + 5% acetic acid, DM basis). Ethanol and acetic acid were diluted in water (1:2) and sprayed onto total mixed rations twice daily before feeding. An equal amount of water was mixed with the control ration. To adapt animals to these treatments, cows were fed only half of the treatment dose during the first week of study. Cows fed ethanol yielded more milk (37.9 kg/d) than those fed the control (35.8 kg/d) or acetic acid (35.3 kg/d) diets, mainly due to the higher DM intake (DMI; 23.7, 22.2, and 21.6 kg/d, respectively). The significant diet × week interaction for DMI, mainly during wk 2 and 3 (when acetic acid reached the full dose), was related to the decrease in DMI observed for the acetic acid treatment. There was a diet × week interaction in excretion of milk energy per DMI during wk 2 and 3, due to cows fed acetic acid sustained milk yield despite lower DMI. Energy efficiency was similar across diets. Blood metabolites (glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, ethanol, and γ-glutamyl transferase activity) and sensory characteristics of milk were not affected by these treatments. Animal performance suggested similar energy value for the diet containing ethanol compared with other diets. Rumen conversion of ethanol to acetate and a concomitant increase in methane production might be a plausible explanation for the deviation of the predicted energy value based on the heat of combustion. Therefore, the loss of volatile compounds during the drying process in the laboratory should be

  2. Acute effects of ethanol and acetate on glucose kinetics in normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Yki-Jaervinen, H.; Koivisto, V.A.; Ylikahri, R.

    1988-02-01

    The authors compared the effects of two ethanol doses on glucose kinetics and assessed the role of acetate as a mediator of ethanol-induced insulin resistance. Ten normal males were studied on four occasions, during which either a low or moderate ethanol, acetate, or saline dose was administered. Both ethanol doses similarly inhibited basal glucose production. The decrease in R{sub a} was matched by a comparable decrease in glucose utilization (R{sub d}), resulting in maintenance of normoglycemia. During hyperinsulinemia glucose disposal was lower in the moderate than the low-dose ethanol or saline studies. During acetate infusion, the blood acetate level wasmore » comparable with those in the ethanol studies. Acetate had no effect on glucose kinetics. In conclusion, (1) in overnight fasted subjects, ethanol does not cause hypoglycemia because its inhibitory effect on R{sub a} is counterbalanced by equal inhibition of R{sub d}; (2) basal R{sub a} and R{sub d} are maximally inhibited already by small ethanol doses, whereas inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal requires a moderate ethanol dose; and (3) acetate is not the mediator of ethanol-induced insulin resistance.« less

  3. Investigation of gel formation and volatilization of acetate acid in magnesium acetate droplets by the optical tweezers.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xi-Juan; Wang, Yang; Cai, Chen; Pang, Shu-Feng; Ma, Jia-Bi; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2018-07-05

    Hygroscopicity and volatility of single magnesium acetate (MgAc 2 ) aerosol particles at various relative humidities (RHs) are studied by a single-beam optical tweezers, and refractive indices (RIs) and morphology are characterized by cavity enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Gel formation and volatilization of acetate acid (HAc) in MgAc 2 droplets are observed. Due to the formation of amorphous gel structure, water transposition in droplets at RH < 50% is significantly impeded on a time scale of 140,000 s. Different phase transition at RH < 10% is proposed to explain the distinct water loss after the gel formation. To compare volatilization of HAc in different systems, MgAc 2 and sodium acetate (NaAc) droplets are maintained at several different stable RHs during up to 86,000 s. At RH ≈ 74%, magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH) 2 ) inclusions are formed in MgAc 2 droplets due to the volatilization of HAc, and whispering gallery modes (WGMs) of MgAc 2 droplets in the Raman spectrum quench after 50,000 s. In sharp contrast, after 86,000 s at RH ≈ 70%, NaAc droplets are in well-mixed liquid states, containing soluble sodium hydroxide (NaOH). At this state, the RI of NaAc droplet is increased, and the quenching of WGMs is not observable. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Methane production from bicarbonate and acetate in an anoxic marine sediment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crill, P. M.; Martens, C. S.

    1986-01-01

    Methane production from C-14 labeled bicarbonate and acetate was measured over the top 28 cm of anoxic Cape Lookout Bight sediments during the summer of 1983. The depth distribution and magnitude of summed radioisotopically determined rates compare well with previous measurements of total methane production and the sediment-water methane flux. Methane production from CO2 reduction and acetate fermentation accounts for greater than 80 percent of the total production rate and sediment-water flux. Methane production from bicarbonate was found to occur in all depth intervals sampled except those in the top 2 cm, whereas significant methane production from acetate only occurred at depths below 10 cm where sulfate was exhausted. Acetate provided 20 to 29 percent of the measured methane production integrated over the top 30 cm of the sediments.

  5. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate... OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484d Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate... sulfate, equivalent to 3.5 milligrams of neomycin base, 5 milligrams of hydrocortisone acetate, and 5...

  6. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate... OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484d Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate... sulfate, equivalent to 3.5 milligrams of neomycin base, 5 milligrams of hydrocortisone acetate, and 5...

  7. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate... OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484d Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate... sulfate, equivalent to 3.5 milligrams of neomycin base, 5 milligrams of hydrocortisone acetate, and 5...

  8. 21 CFR 524.1484d - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ear ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate... OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484d Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate... sulfate, equivalent to 3.5 milligrams of neomycin base, 5 milligrams of hydrocortisone acetate, and 5...

  9. Effects of Ethanol and Other Alkanols on Transport of Acetic Acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Casal, Margarida; Cardoso, Helena; Leão, Cecília

    1998-01-01

    In glucose-grown cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae IGC 4072, acetic acid enters only by simple diffusion of the undissociated acid. In these cells, ethanol and other alkanols enhanced the passive influx of labelled acetic acid. The influx of the acid followed first-order kinetics with a rate constant that increased exponentially with the alcohol concentration, and an exponential enhancement constant for each alkanol was estimated. The intracellular concentration of labelled acetic acid was also enhanced by alkanols, and the effect increased exponentially with alcohol concentration. Acetic acid is transported across the plasma membrane of acetic acid-, lactic acid-, and ethanol-grown cells by acetate-proton symports. We found that in these cells ethanol and butanol inhibited the transport of labelled acetic acid in a noncompetitive way; the maximum transport velocity decreased with alcohol concentration, while the affinity of the system for acetate was not significantly affected by the alcohol. Semilog plots of Vmax versus alcohol concentration yielded straight lines with negative slopes from which estimates of the inhibition constant for each alkanol could be obtained. The intracellular concentration of labelled acid was significantly reduced in the presence of ethanol or butanol, and the effect increased with the alcohol concentration. We postulate that the absence of an operational carrier for acetate in glucose-grown cells of S. cerevisiae, combined with the relatively high permeability of the plasma membrane for the undissociated acid and the inability of the organism to metabolize acetic acid, could be one of the reasons why this species exhibits low tolerance to acidic environments containing ethanol. PMID:9464405

  10. [Physiological response to acetic acid stress of Acetobacter pasteuranus during vinegar fermentation].

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhengliang; Yang, Hailin; Xia, Xiaole; Wang, Wu; Leng, Yunwei; Yu, Xiaobin; Quan, Wu

    2014-03-04

    The aim of the study is to propose a dynamic acetic acid resistance mechanism through analysis on response of cellular morphology, physiology and metabolism of A. pasteurianus CICIM B7003 during vinegar fermentation. Vinegar fermentation was carried out in a Frings 9 L acetator by strain B7003 and cultures were sampled at different cellular growth phases. Simultaneously, percentage of capsular polysaccharide versus dry cells weight, ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids, transcription of acetic acid resistance genes, activity of alcohol respiratory chain enzymes and ATPase were detected for these samples to assay the responses of bacterial morphology, physiology and metabolism. When acetic acid was existed, no obvious capsular polysaccharide was secreted by cells. As vinegar fermentation proceeding, percentage of capsular polysaccharide versus dry cells weight was reduced from 2.5% to 0.89%. Ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids was increased obviously which can improve membrane fluidity. Also transcription level of acetic acid resistance genes was promoted. Interestingly, activity of alcohol respiratory chain and ATPase was not inhibited but promoted obviously with acetic acid accumulation which could provide enough energy for acetic acid resistance mechanism. On the basis of the results obtained from the experiment, A. pasteurianus CICIM B7003 relies mainly on the cooperation of changes of extracellular capsular polysaccharide and membrane fatty acids, activation of acid resistance genes transcription, enhancement of activity of alcohol respiratory chain and rapid energy production to tolerate acidic environment.

  11. Energy Efficiency and Productivity Enhancement of Microbial Electrosynthesis of Acetate

    PubMed Central

    LaBelle, Edward V.; May, Harold D.

    2017-01-01

    It was hypothesized that a lack of acetogenic biomass (biocatalyst) at the cathode of a microbial electrosynthesis system, due to electron and nutrient limitations, has prevented further improvement in acetate productivity and efficiency. In order to increase the biomass at the cathode and thereby performance, a bioelectrochemical system with this acetogenic community was operated under galvanostatic control and continuous media flow through a reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) foam cathode. The combination of galvanostatic control and the high surface area cathode reduced the electron limitation and the continuous flow overcame the nutrient limitation while avoiding the accumulation of products and potential inhibitors. These conditions were set with the intention of operating the biocathode through the production of H2. Biofilm growth occurred on and within the unmodified RVC foam regardless of vigorous H2 generation on the cathode surface. A maximum volumetric rate or space time yield for acetate production of 0.78 g/Lcatholyte/h was achieved with 8 A/Lcatholyte (83.3 A/m2projected surface area of cathode) supplied to the continuous flow/culture bioelectrochemical reactors. The total Coulombic efficiency in H2 and acetate ranged from approximately 80–100%, with a maximum of 35% in acetate. The overall energy efficiency ranged from approximately 35–42% with a maximum to acetate of 12%. PMID:28515713

  12. Energy Efficiency and Productivity Enhancement of Microbial Electrosynthesis of Acetate.

    PubMed

    LaBelle, Edward V; May, Harold D

    2017-01-01

    It was hypothesized that a lack of acetogenic biomass (biocatalyst) at the cathode of a microbial electrosynthesis system, due to electron and nutrient limitations, has prevented further improvement in acetate productivity and efficiency. In order to increase the biomass at the cathode and thereby performance, a bioelectrochemical system with this acetogenic community was operated under galvanostatic control and continuous media flow through a reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) foam cathode. The combination of galvanostatic control and the high surface area cathode reduced the electron limitation and the continuous flow overcame the nutrient limitation while avoiding the accumulation of products and potential inhibitors. These conditions were set with the intention of operating the biocathode through the production of H 2 . Biofilm growth occurred on and within the unmodified RVC foam regardless of vigorous H 2 generation on the cathode surface. A maximum volumetric rate or space time yield for acetate production of 0.78 g/L catholyte /h was achieved with 8 A/L catholyte (83.3 A/m 2 projected surface area of cathode) supplied to the continuous flow/culture bioelectrochemical reactors. The total Coulombic efficiency in H 2 and acetate ranged from approximately 80-100%, with a maximum of 35% in acetate. The overall energy efficiency ranged from approximately 35-42% with a maximum to acetate of 12%.

  13. Thermal decarboxylation of acetic acid: Implications for origin of natural gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Carothers, W.W.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on the thermal decarboxylation of solutions of acetic acid at 200??C and 300??C were carried out in hydrothermal equipment allowing for on-line sampling of both the gas and liquid phases for chemical and stable-carbon-isotope analyses. The solutions had ambient pH values between 2.5 and 7.1; pH values and the concentrations of the various acetate species at the conditions of the experiments were computed using a chemical model. Results show that the concentrations of acetic acid, and not total acetate in solution, control the reaction rates which follow a first order equation based on decreasing concentrations of acetic acid with time. The decarboxylation rates at 200??C (1.81 ?? 10-8 per second) and 300??C (8.17 ?? 10-8 per second) and the extrapolated rates at lower temperatures are relatively high. The activation energy of decarboxylation is only 8.1 kcal/mole. These high decarboxylation rates, together with the distribution of short-chained aliphatic acid anions in formation waters, support the hypothesis that acid anions are precursors for an important portion of natural gas. Results of the ??13C values of CO2, CH4, and total acetate show a reasonably constant fractionation factor of about 20 permil between CO2 and CH4 at 300??C. The ??13C values of CO2 and CH4 are initially low and become higher as decarboxylation increases. ?? 1983.

  14. Inhibition of rat mammary carcinogenesis by short dietary exposure to retinyl acetate

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, D.L.; Burns, F.J.; Albert, R.E.

    1980-04-01

    This study was designed to determine whether retinyl acetate was an effective inhibitor when given for short periods at the time of and after the administration of the carcinogen. Virgin female Lewis rats were given 20 mg 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene intragastrically at 50 days of age. The rats were fed Purina laboratory chow supplemented with 250 ppM retinyl acetate in groups of 20 for various lengths of time. At 30 weeks all groups receiving retinyl acetate except one showed a significant decrease in tumor multiplicity in comparison to non-retinyl acetate-treated controls. In the +1 to +12 group, the inhibition of tumor developmentmore » was temporary, inasmuch as tumor values returned to control levels by Week 30. These results indicate that retinyl acetate inhibition of mammary cancer is not limited to the late stage of the disease, because the retinoid was almost equally effective when given for a short period at the time of carcinogen availability.« less

  15. Comparison between topical honey and mafenide acetate in treatment of burn wounds

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoudi, H.; Salehi, F.; Khosrowshahi, M.K.; Baghaei, M.; Nasirzadeh, M.; Shams, R.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Histological and clinical studies of wound healing were performed in comparable cases of fresh partial-thickness burns treated with honey dressing or mafenide acetate in two groups of 50 randomly allocated patients. Of the patients with honey-treated wounds, 84% showed satisfactory epithelialization by day 7 and 100% by day 21. In wounds treated with mafenide acetate, epithelialization occurred by day 7 in 72% of cases and in 84% by day 21. Histological evidence of reparative activity was observed in 80% of wounds treated with honey dressing by day 7 with minimal inflammation. Fifty-two per cent of the mafenide acetate treated wounds showed reparative activity with inflammatory changes by day 7. Reparative activity reached 100% by day 21 with the honey dressing and 84% with mafenide acetate. Thus, in honey-dressed wounds, early subsidence of acute inflammatory changes, better control of infection, and quicker wound healing were observed, while in mafenide acetate treated wounds a sustained inflammatory reaction was noted even on epithelialization. PMID:22396671

  16. Carbon isotope fractionation by sulfate-reducing bacteria using different pathways for the oxidation of acetate.

    PubMed

    Goevert, Dennis; Conrad, Ralf

    2008-11-01

    Acetate is a key intermediate in the anaerobic degradation of organic matter. In anoxic environments, available acetate is a competitive substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methane-producing archaea. Little is known about the fractionation of carbon isotopes by sulfate reducers. Therefore, we determined carbon isotope compositions in cultures of three acetate-utilizing SRB, Desulfobacter postgatei, Desulfobacter hydrogenophilus, and Desulfobacca acetoxidans. We found that these species showed strong differences in their isotope enrichment factors (epsilon) of acetate. During the consumption of acetate and sulfate, acetate was enriched in 13C by 19.3% per hundred in Desulfobacca acetoxidans. By contrast, both D. postgatei and D. hydrogenophilus showed a slight depletion of 13C resulting in epsilon(ac)-values of 1.8 and 1.5% per hundred, respectively. We suggest that the different isotope fractionation is due to the different metabolic pathways for acetate oxidation. The strongly fractionating Desulfobacca acetoxidans uses the acetyl-CoA/carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway, which is also used by acetoclastic methanogens that show a similar fractionation of acetate (epsilon(ac) = -21 to -27% per hundred). In contrast, Desulfobacter spp. oxidize acetate to CO2 via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and apparently did not discriminate against 13C. Our results suggestthat carbon isotope fractionation in environments with sulfate reduction will strongly depend on the composition of the sulfate-reducing bacterial community oxidizing acetate.

  17. Acute Alcohol Intoxication Decreases Glucose Metabolism but Increases Acetate Uptake in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Volkow, Nora D.; Kim, Sung Won; Wang, Gene-Jack; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Muench, Lisa; Shea, Colleen; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S.; Wong, Christopher; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol intoxication results in marked reductions in brain glucose metabolism, which we hypothesized reflect not just its GABAergic enhancing effects but also metabolism of acetate as an alternative brain energy source. To test this hypothesis we separately assessed the effects of alcohol intoxication on brain glucose and acetate metabolism using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). We found that alcohol intoxication significantly decreased whole brain glucose metabolism (measured with FDG) with the largest decrements in cerebellum and occipital cortex and the smallest in thalamus. In contrast, alcohol intoxication caused a significant increase in [1-11C]acetate brain uptake (measured as standard uptake value, SUV), with the largest increases occurring in cerebellum and the smallest in thalamus. In heavy alcohol drinkers [1-11C]acetate brain uptake during alcohol challenge trended to be higher than in occasional drinkers (p <0.06) and the increases in [1-11C]acetate uptake in cerebellum with alcohol were positively associated with the reported amount of alcohol consumed (r=0.66, p<0.01). Our findings corroborate a reduction of brain glucose metabolism during intoxication and document an increase in brain acetate uptake. The opposite changes observed between regional brain metabolic decrements and regional increases in [1-11C]acetate uptake support the hypothesis that during alcohol intoxication the brain may rely on acetate as an alternative brain energy source and provides preliminary evidence that heavy alcohol exposures may facilitate the use of acetate as an energy substrate. These findings raise the question of the potential therapeutic benefits that increasing plasma acetate concentration (ie ketogenic diets) may have in alcoholics undergoing alcohol detoxification. PMID:22947541

  18. Synthesis of Highly Polymerized Water-soluble Cellulose Acetate by the Side Reaction in Carboxylate Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Jinhui; Liu, Xin; Yang, Jun; Lu, Fachuang; Wang, Bo; Xu, Feng; Ma, Mingguo; Zhang, Xueming

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we describe a novel one-step method to prepare water-soluble cellulose acetate (WSCA) with higher degree of polymerization values (DP = 650-680) by in situ activation of carboxyl group in ionic liquid. First of all, cellulose was dissolved in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimAc) and reacted with dichloroacetyl chloride (Cl2AcCl) in order to make cellulose dichloroacetate. Under various conditions, a series of water soluble products were produced. Elemental analysis and NMR results confirmed that they were cellulose acetate with DS (degree of substitution) values in the range from 0.30 to 0.63. NMR studies demonstrated that Cl2AcCl reacted with acetate anion of EmimAc producing a mixed anhydride that acetylated cellulose. Other acylating reagents such as benzoyl chloride, chloroacetyl chloride can also work similarly. 2D NMR characterization suggested that 6-mono-O-acetyl moiety, 3,6-di-O-acetylcellulose and 2,6-di-O-acetyl cellulose were all synthesized and the reactivity of hydroxyl groups in anhydro-glucose units was in the order C-6>C-3>C-2. This work provides an alternative way to make WSCA, meanwhile, also services as a reminder that the activity of EmimAc toward carbohydrate as acylating reagents could be a problem, because the expected acylated products may not be resulted and recycling of this ionic liquid could also be difficult.

  19. Efficacy of Acetic Acid against Listeria monocytogenes Attached to Poultry Skin during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Fandos, Elena; Herrera, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This work evaluates the effect of acetic acid dipping on the growth of L. monocytogenes on poultry legs stored at 4 °C for eight days. Fresh inoculated chicken legs were dipped into either a 1% or 2% acetic acid solution (v/v) or distilled water (control). Changes in mesophiles, psychrotrophs, Enterobacteriaceae counts and sensorial characteristics (odor, color, texture and overall appearance) were also evaluated. The shelf life of the samples washed with acetic acid was extended by at least two days over the control samples washed with distilled water. L. monocytogenes counts before decontamination were 5.57 log UFC/g, and after treatment with 2% acetic acid (Day 0), L. monocytogenes counts were 4.47 log UFC/g. Legs washed with 2% acetic acid showed a significant (p < 0.05) inhibitory effect on L. monocytogenes compared to control legs, with a decrease of about 1.31 log units after eight days of storage. Sensory quality was not adversely affected by acetic acid. This study demonstrates that while acetic acid did reduce populations of L. monocytogenes on meat, it did not completely inactivate the pathogen. The application of acetic acid may be used as an additional hurdle contributing to extend the shelf life of raw poultry and reducing populations of L. monocytogenes. PMID:28234335

  20. Aqueous-Phase Acetic Acid Ketonization over Monoclinic Zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Qiuxia; Lopez-Ruiz, Juan A.; Cooper, Alan R.

    The effect of aqueous phase on the acetic acid ketonization over monoclinic zirconia has been investigated using first-principles based density functional theory (DFT) calculations. To capture the aqueous phase chemistry over the solid zirconia catalyst surface, the aqueous phase is represented by 111 explicit water molecules with a liquid water density of 0.93 g/cm3 and the monoclinic zirconia is modeled by the most stable surface structure . The dynamic nature of aqueous phase/ interface was studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation, indicating that nearly half of the surface Zr sites are occupied by either adsorbed water molecules or hydroxylmore » groups at 550 K. DFT calculations show that the adsorption process of acetic acid from the liquid water phase to the surface is nearly thermodynamically neutral with a Gibbs free energy of -2.3 kJ/mol although the adsorption strength of acetic acid on the surface in aqueous phase is much stronger than in vapor phase. Therefore it is expected that the adsorption of acetic acid will dramatically affects aqueous phase ketonization reactivity over the monoclinic zirconia catalyst. Using the same ketonization mechanism via the β-keto acid intermediate, we have compared acetic acid ketonization to acetone in both vapor and aqueous phases. Our DFT calculation results show although the rate-determining step of the β-keto acid formation via the C-C coupling is not pronouncedly affected, the presence of liquid water molecules will dramatically affect dehydrogenation and hydrogenation steps via proton transfer mechanism. This work was financially supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE)’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is a multi-program national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute. Computing time and advanced catalyst characterization use was granted by a user proposal at the William R. Wiley

  1. Coupling glucose fermentation and homoacetogenesis for elevated acetate production: Experimental and mathematical approaches.

    PubMed

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Liu, He; Nie, Yan-Qiu; Zeng, Raymond J; Du, Guo-Cheng; Chen, Jian; Yu, Han-Qing

    2011-02-01

    Homoacetogenesis is an important potential hydrogen sink in acetogenesis, in which hydrogen is used to reduce carbon dioxide to acetate. So far the acetate production from homoacetogenesis, especially its kinetics, has not been given sufficient attention. In this work, enhanced production of acetate from anaerobic conversion of glucose through coupling glucose fermentation and homoacetogenesis is investigated with both experimental and mathematical approaches. Experiments are conducted to explore elevated acetate production in a coupled anaerobic system. Acetate production could be achieved by homoacetogenesis with a relative high acetate yield under mixed fermentation conditions. With the experimental observations, a kinetic model is formulated to describe such a homoacetogenic process. The maximum homoacetogenic rate (k(m,homo)) is estimated to be 28.5 ± 1.7 kg COD kg⁻¹ COD day⁻¹ with an uptake affinity constant of 3.7 × 10⁻⁵± 3.1 × 10⁻⁶kg COD m⁻³. The improved calculation of homoacetogenic kinetics by our approach could correct the underestimation of homoacetogenesis in anaerobic fermentation processes, as it often occurs in these systems supported by literature analysis. The model predictions match the experimental results in different cases well and provide insights into the dynamics of anaerobic glucose conversion and acetate production. Furthermore, acetate production via homoacetogenesis increases by about 40% through utilizing the fed-batch coupling system, attributed to a balance between the hydrogen production in the acetogenesis phase and the hydrogen consumption in the homoacetogenesis phase. This work provides an effective way for increased anaerobic acetate production, and gives us a better understanding about the homoacetogenic kinetics in the anaerobic fermentation process. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Endogenous lycopene improves ethanol production under acetic acid stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shuo; Jia, Bin; Liu, Hong; Wang, Zhen; Chai, Meng-Zhe; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Zhou, Xiao; Li, Xia; Li, Chun; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2018-01-01

    Acetic acid, generated from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, is a significant obstacle for lignocellulosic ethanol production. Reactive oxidative species (ROS)-mediated cell damage is one of important issues caused by acetic acid. It has been reported that decreasing ROS level can improve the acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Lycopene is known as an antioxidant. In the study, we investigated effects of endogenous lycopene on cell growth and ethanol production of S. cerevisiae in acetic acid media. By accumulating endogenous lycopene during the aerobic fermentation of the seed stage, the intracellular ROS level of strain decreased to 1.4% of that of the control strain during ethanol fermentation. In the ethanol fermentation system containing 100 g/L glucose and 5.5 g/L acetic acid, the lag phase of strain was 24 h shorter than that of control strain. Glucose consumption rate and ethanol titer of yPS002 got to 2.08 g/L/h and 44.25 g/L, respectively, which were 2.6- and 1.3-fold of the control strain. Transcriptional changes of INO1 gene and CTT1 gene confirmed that endogenous lycopene can decrease oxidative stress and improve intracellular environment. Biosynthesis of endogenous lycopene is first associated with enhancing tolerance to acetic acid in S. cerevisiae . We demonstrate that endogenous lycopene can decrease intracellular ROS level caused by acetic acid, thus increasing cell growth and ethanol production. This work innovatively   puts forward a new strategy for second generation bioethanol production during lignocellulosic fermentation.

  3. Optimisation of continuous gas fermentation by immobilisation of acetate-producing Acetobacterium woodii.

    PubMed

    Steger, Franziska; Rachbauer, Lydia; Windhagauer, Matthias; Montgomery, Lucy F R; Bochmann, Günther

    2017-08-01

    Hydrogen from water electrolysis is often suggested as a way of storing the excess energy from wind and solar power plants. However, unlike natural gas, hydrogen is difficult to store and distribute. One solution is to convert the hydrogen into other fuels or bulk chemicals. In this study we investigated fermentation in which homoacetogenic clostridia apply the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway to generate acetate from H 2 and CO 2 . Acetate can be used as a bulk chemical or further transformed into biofuels. Autotrophic growth with CO 2 as the sole carbon source is slow compared to heterotrophic growth, so the aim of this work was to improve continuous gas fermentation by immobilising the acetate-producing clostridia, thus preventing their wash out from the bioreactor. Two homoacetogenic bacterial strains (Acetobacterium woodii and Moorella thermoacetica) were tested for their acetate production potential, with A. woodii proving to be the better strain with maximum acetate concentration of 29.57 g l -1 . Due to its stability during fermentation and good bacterial immobilisation, linen was chosen as immobilisation material for continuous fermentation. This study demonstrates the successful continuous fermentation of acetate from H 2 and CO 2 using A. woodii immobilised on a low-cost surface at high volumetric productivity of 1.21 ± 0.05 g acetate l -1 d -1 . This has great industrial potential and future studies should focus on the scale-up of this process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Change in the plasmid copy number in acetic acid bacteria in response to growth phase and acetic acid concentration.

    PubMed

    Akasaka, Naoki; Astuti, Wiwik; Ishii, Yuri; Hidese, Ryota; Sakoda, Hisao; Fujiwara, Shinsuke

    2015-06-01

    Plasmids pGE1 (2.5 kb), pGE2 (7.2 kb), and pGE3 (5.5 kb) were isolated from Gluconacetobacter europaeus KGMA0119, and sequence analyses revealed they harbored 3, 8, and 4 genes, respectively. Plasmid copy numbers (PCNs) were determined by real-time quantitative PCR at different stages of bacterial growth. When KGMA0119 was cultured in medium containing 0.4% ethanol and 0.5% acetic acid, PCN of pGE1 increased from 7 copies/genome in the logarithmic phase to a maximum of 12 copies/genome at the beginning of the stationary phase, before decreasing to 4 copies/genome in the late stationary phase. PCNs for pGE2 and pGE3 were maintained at 1-3 copies/genome during all phases of growth. Under a higher concentration of ethanol (3.2%) the PCN for pGE1 was slightly lower in all the growth stages, and those of pGE2 and pGE3 were unchanged. In the presence of 1.0% acetic acid, PCNs were higher for pGE1 (10 copies/genome) and pGE3 (6 copies/genome) during the logarithmic phase. Numbers for pGE2 did not change, indicating that pGE1 and pGE3 increase their PCNs in response to acetic acid. Plasmids pBE2 and pBE3 were constructed by ligating linearized pGE2 and pGE3 into pBR322. Both plasmids were replicable in Escherichia coli, Acetobacter pasteurianus and G. europaeus, highlighting their suitability as vectors for acetic acid bacteria. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Inhibition of Ice Growth and Recrystallization by Zirconium Acetate and Zirconium Acetate Hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    Mizrahy, Ortal; Bar-Dolev, Maya; Guy, Shlomit; Braslavsky, Ido

    2013-01-01

    The control over ice crystal growth, melting, and shaping is important in a variety of fields, including cell and food preservation and ice templating for the production of composite materials. Control over ice growth remains a challenge in industry, and the demand for new cryoprotectants is high. Naturally occurring cryoprotectants, such as antifreeze proteins (AFPs), present one solution for modulating ice crystal growth; however, the production of AFPs is expensive and inefficient. These obstacles can be overcome by identifying synthetic substitutes with similar AFP properties. Zirconium acetate (ZRA) was recently found to induce the formation of hexagonal cavities in materials prepared by ice templating. Here, we continue this line of study and examine the effects of ZRA and a related compound, zirconium acetate hydroxide (ZRAH), on ice growth, shaping, and recrystallization. We found that the growth rate of ice crystals was significantly reduced in the presence of ZRA and ZRAH, and that solutions containing these compounds display a small degree of thermal hysteresis, depending on the solution pH. The compounds were found to inhibit recrystallization in a manner similar to that observed in the presence of AFPs. The favorable properties of ZRA and ZRAH suggest tremendous potential utility in industrial applications. PMID:23555701

  6. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Brown, Dan; Eustace, John

    2015-01-01

    Increment 45 - 46 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  7. Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Potential Problems for Photovoltaic Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K. M.

    2006-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support, optical coupling, electrical isolation, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate, it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about -15 degC. Temperatures lower thanmore » this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Because of increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL1703.« less

  8. Improving the acetic acid tolerance and fermentation of Acetobacter pasteurianus by nucleotide excision repair protein UvrA.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Jing; Bai, Xiaolei; Chang, Yangang; Mou, Jun; Song, Jia; Wang, Min

    2018-05-21

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are widely used in acetic acid fermentation due to their remarkable ability to oxidize ethanol and high tolerance against acetic acid. In Acetobacter pasteurianus, nucleotide excision repair protein UvrA was up-regulated 2.1 times by acetic acid when compared with that without acetic acid. To study the effects of UvrA on A. pasteurianus acetic acid tolerance, uvrA knockout strain AC2005-ΔuvrA, uvrA overexpression strain AC2005 (pMV24-uvrA), and the control strain AC2005 (pMV24), were constructed. One percent initial acetic acid was almost lethal to AC2005-ΔuvrA. However, the biomass of the UvrA overexpression strain was higher than that of the control under acetic acid concentrations. After 6% acetic acid shock for 20 and 40 min, the survival ratios of AC2005 (pMV24-uvrA) were 2 and 0.12%, respectively; however, they were 1.5 and 0.06% for the control strain AC2005 (pMV24). UvrA overexpression enhanced the acetification rate by 21.7% when compared with the control. The enzymes involved in ethanol oxidation and acetic acid tolerance were up-regulated during acetic acid fermentation due to the overexpression of UvrA. Therefore, in A. pasteurianus, UvrA could be induced by acetic acid and is related with the acetic acid tolerance by protecting the genome against acetic acid to ensure the protein expression and metabolism.

  9. Acetic Acid Causes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Induces the Unfolded Protein Response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kawazoe, Nozomi; Kimata, Yukio; Izawa, Shingo

    2017-01-01

    Since acetic acid inhibits the growth and fermentation ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is one of the practical hindrances to the efficient production of bioethanol from a lignocellulosic biomass. Although extensive information is available on yeast response to acetic acid stress, the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and unfolded protein response (UPR) has not been addressed. We herein demonstrated that acetic acid causes ER stress and induces the UPR. The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER and activation of Ire1p and Hac1p, an ER-stress sensor and ER stress-responsive transcription factor, respectively, were induced by a treatment with acetic acid stress (>0.2% v/v). Other monocarboxylic acids such as propionic acid and sorbic acid, but not lactic acid, also induced the UPR. Additionally, ire1Δ and hac1Δ cells were more sensitive to acetic acid than wild-type cells, indicating that activation of the Ire1p-Hac1p pathway is required for maximum tolerance to acetic acid. Furthermore, the combination of mild acetic acid stress (0.1% acetic acid) and mild ethanol stress (5% ethanol) induced the UPR, whereas neither mild ethanol stress nor mild acetic acid stress individually activated Ire1p, suggesting that ER stress is easily induced in yeast cells during the fermentation process of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. It was possible to avoid the induction of ER stress caused by acetic acid and the combined stress by adjusting extracellular pH. PMID:28702017

  10. Metabolic engineering of Clostridium tyrobutyricum for enhanced butyric acid production with high butyrate/acetate ratio.

    PubMed

    Suo, Yukai; Ren, Mengmeng; Yang, Xitong; Liao, Zhengping; Fu, Hongxin; Wang, Jufang

    2018-05-01

    Butyric acid fermentation by Clostridium couples with the synthesis of acetic acid. But the presence of acetic acid reduces butyric acid yield and increases separation and purification costs of butyric acid. Hence, enhancing the butyrate/acetate ratio is important for economical butyric acid production. This study indicated that enhancing the acetyl-CoA to butyrate flux by overexpression of both the butyryl-CoA/acetate CoA transferase (cat1) and crotonase (crt) genes in C. tyrobutyricum could significantly reduce acetic acid concentration. Fed-batch fermentation of ATCC 25755/cat1 + crt resulted in increased butyrate/acetate ratio of 15.76 g/g, which was 2.24-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain. Furthermore, in order to simultaneously increase the butyrate/acetate ratio, butyric acid concentration and productivity, the recombinant strain ATCC 25755/ppcc (co-expression of 6-phosphofructokinase (pfkA) gene, pyruvate kinase (pykA) gene, cat1, and crt) was constructed. Consequently, ATCC 25755/ppcc produced more butyric acid (46.8 vs. 35.0 g/L) with a higher productivity (0.83 vs. 0.49 g/L·h) and butyrate/acetate ratio (13.22 vs. 7.22 g/g) as compared with the wild-type strain in batch fermentation using high glucose concentration (120 g/L). This study demonstrates that enhancing the acetyl-CoA to butyrate flux is an effective way to reduce acetic acid production and increase butyrate/acetate ratio.

  11. Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition.

    PubMed

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential oil yield and composition when extracted from dried flowers. Therefore, the following distillation times (DT) were tested in this experiment: 1.5 min, 3 min, 3.75 min, 7.5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min, 150 min, 180 min, and 240 min. The essential oil yield (range 0.5-6.8%) reached a maximum at 60 min DT. The concentrations of cineole (range 6.4-35%) and fenchol (range 1.7-2.9%) were highest at the 1.5 min DT and decreased with increasing length of the DT. The concentration of camphor (range 6.6-9.2%) reached a maximum at 7.5-15 min DT, while the concentration of linalool acetate (range 15-38%) reached a maximum at 30 min DT. Results suggest that lavender essential oil yield may not increase after 60 min DT. The change in essential oil yield, and the concentrations of cineole, fenchol and linalool acetate as DT changes were modeled very well by the asymptotic nonlinear regression model. DT may be used to modify the chemical profile of lavender oil and to obtain oils with differential chemical profiles from the same lavender flowers. DT must be taken into consideration when citing or comparing reports on lavender essential oil yield and composition.

  12. Kinetics of butyrate, acetate, and hydrogen metabolism in a thermophilic, anaerobic, butyrate-degrading triculture.

    PubMed

    Ahring, B K; Westermann, P

    1987-02-01

    Kinetics of butyrate, acetate, and hydrogen metabolism were determined with butyrate-limited, chemostat-grown tricultures of a thermophilic butyrate-utilizing bacterium together with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum and the TAM organism, a thermophilic acetate-utilizing methanogenic rod. Kinetic parameters were determined from progress curves fitted to the integrated form of the Michaelis-Menten equation. The apparent half-saturation constants, K(m), for butyrate, acetate, and dissolved hydrogen were 76 muM, 0.4 mM, and 8.5 muM, respectively. Butyrate and hydrogen were metabolized to a concentration of less than 1 muM, whereas acetate uptake usually ceased at a concentration of 25 to 75 muM, indicating a threshold level for acetate uptake. No significant differences in K(m) values for butyrate degradation were found between chemostat- and batch-grown tricultures, although the maximum growth rate was somewhat higher in the batch cultures in which the medium was supplemented with yeast extract. Acetate utilization was found to be the rate-limiting reaction for complete degradation of butyrate to methane and carbon dioxide in continuous culture. Increasing the dilution rate resulted in a gradual accumulation of acetate. The results explain the low concentrations of butyrate and hydrogen normally found during anaerobic digestion and the observation that acetate is the first volatile fatty acid to accumulate upon a decrease in retention time or increase in organic loading of a digestor.

  13. Platinum(II) acetate complexes in hydrogenation of unsaturated compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Berenblyum, A.S.; Goranskaya, T.P.; Mund, S.L.

    1979-12-20

    In order to further elucidate the effect of the ligand environment in the complexes of group VIII metals on the activity of H/sub 2/, the catalytic properties of Pt(II) compounds with oxygen-containing acido ligands was studied. The platinum(II) acetate complexes with aniline and triphenylphosphine were synthesized. IR spectral studies indicated that platinum(II) acetate formed complexes with either of the other compounds singly or together. Dimethylformamide(DMF) solutions of platinum acetate and its complexes with aniline and/or triphenylphosphine all absorb H/sub 2/ in the temperature range of 20 to 90/sup 0/C and at a H/sub 2/ pressure of 1 atm. After themore » absorption of H/sub 2/, the DMF solutions of (aniline)(triphenylphosphine)platinum(II)diacetate complex were found to catalyze the hydrogenaton of O/sub 2/ and 1,3-pentadiene.« less

  14. Acetate: A better astrobiological indicator of life than methane?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanik, I.; Russell, M. J.; Hodyss, R. P.; Johnson, P. V.

    2009-12-01

    The emergence of life on the ocean floor of the early Earth has implications for life detection on other rocky planetary bodies having subsurface ocean or ground waters in our solar system. At bottom life hydrogenates carbon dioxide. This is true not only of oxygenic photosynthesis—a relatively late evolutionary invention—but also of autotrophic chemosynthesizers such as the acetogenic bacteria and the methanoarchaea; respectively probably the first and second organisms to have emerged on Earth. Both of these prokaryotes use the acetyl coenzyme-a pathway for biosynthesis, though the variant leading to methanogenesis is substantially more complicated and therefore more highly evolved. Yet serpentinization and volcanism can produce methane with facility—an ambiguity that confounds life detection. In contrast, hydrothermal vent experiments to date along with hot spring analyses have indicated that no significant concentrations of abiotic acetate were produced in spite of the simplicity of the biological pathway. It seems that the geochemical conditions that generate abiotic methane are generally too reducing to produce acetate. Thus, the generation of acetate is solely a biotic process. As there is every reason to believe that the same chemical and electrochemical tensions would occur on other wet rocky planets containing subsurface ocean or ground waters. This encourages us to look into chemical and spectroscopic methods of detecting of acetate (both remotely and in situ) which is a better indicator than methane for the past or present biological activity on planetary bodies such as Mars. We, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, have designed laboratory experiments to investigate the feasibility of detecting acetate using conventional chemical and spectroscopic methods. The results and applicability of these techniques for the future astrobiology missions will be discussed.

  15. Role of the glyoxylate pathway in acetic acid production by Acetobacter aceti.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Kenta; Yamazaki, Shoko; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo; Arai, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Wild-type Acetobacter aceti NBRC 14818 possesses genes encoding isocitrate lyase (aceA) and malate synthase (glcB), which constitute the glyoxylate pathway. In contrast, several acetic acid bacteria that are utilized for vinegar production lack these genes. Here, an aceA-glcB knockout mutant of NBRC 14818 was constructed and used for investigating the role of the glyoxylate pathway in acetate productivity. In medium containing ethanol as a carbon source, the mutant grew normally during ethanol oxidation to acetate, but exhibited slower growth than that of the wild-type strain as the accumulated acetate was oxidized. The mutant grew similarly to that of the wild-type strain in medium containing glucose as a carbon source, indicating that the glyoxylate pathway was not necessary for glucose utilization. However, in medium containing both ethanol and glucose, the mutant exhibited significantly poorer growth and lower glucose consumption compared to the wild-type strain. Notably, the mutant oxidized ethanol nearly stoichiometrically to acetate, which was retained in the medium for a longer period of time than the acetate produced by wild-type strain. The features of the aceA-glcB knockout mutant revealed here indicate that the lack of the glyoxylate pathway is advantageous for industrial vinegar production by A. aceti. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 78 FR 66936 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis (ACET) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal... Health, and the Director, CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes... tuberculosis. Matters To Be Discussed: Agenda items include the following topics: (1) ACET Chair's report to...

  17. Effect of sulfate and nitrate on acetate conversion by anaerobic microorganisms in a freshwater sediment.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Johannes C M; Bodegom, Peter M; Vogelaar, Jaap; Ittersum, Alexander; Hordijk, Kees; Roelofsen, Wim; Stams, Alfons J M

    2002-12-01

    Acetate is quantitatively the most important substrate for methane production in a freshwater sediment in The Netherlands. In the presence of alternative electron acceptors the conversion of acetate by methanogens was strongly inhibited. By modelling the results, obtained in experiments with and without (13)C-labelled acetate, we could show that the competition for acetate between methanogens and sulfate reducers is the main cause of inhibition of methanogenesis in the sediment. Although nitrate led to a complete inhibition of methanogenesis, acetate-utilising nitrate-reducing bacteria hardly competed with methanogens for the available acetate in the presence of nitrate. Most-probable-number enumerations showed that methanogens (2x10(8) cells cm(-3) sediment) and sulfate reducers (2x10(8) cells cm(-3) sediment) were the dominant acetate-utilising organisms in the sediment, while numbers of acetate-utilising nitrate reducers were very low (5x10(5) cells cm(-3) sediment). However, high numbers of sulfide-oxidising nitrate reducers were detected. Denitrification might result in the formation of toxic products. We speculate that the accumulation of low concentrations of NO (<0.2 mM) may result in an inhibition of methanogenesis.

  18. Drug resistance marker-aided genome shuffling to improve acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dao-Qiong; Wu, Xue-Chang; Wang, Pin-Mei; Chi, Xiao-Qin; Tao, Xiang-Lin; Li, Ping; Jiang, Xin-Hang; Zhao, Yu-Hua

    2011-03-01

    Acetic acid existing in a culture medium is one of the most limiting constraints in yeast growth and viability during ethanol fermentation. To improve acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, a drug resistance marker-aided genome shuffling approach with higher screen efficiency of shuffled mutants was developed in this work. Through two rounds of genome shuffling of ultraviolet mutants derived from the original strain 308, we obtained a shuffled strain YZ2, which shows significantly faster growth and higher cell viability under acetic acid stress. Ethanol production of YZ2 (within 60 h) was 21.6% higher than that of 308 when 0.5% (v/v) acetic acid was added to fermentation medium. Membrane integrity, higher in vivo activity of the H+-ATPase, and lower oxidative damage after acetic acid treatment are the possible reasons for the acetic acid-tolerance phenotype of YZ2. These results indicated that this novel genome shuffling approach is powerful to rapidly improve the complex traits of industrial yeast strains.

  19. Rapid degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid facilitated by acetate under methanogenic condition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiman; Xu, Xiaohui; Dai, Meng; Wang, Lin; Shi, Xiaoshuang; Guo, Rongbo

    2017-05-01

    Acetate can be used as an electron donor to stimulate 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), which has not been determined under methanogenic condition. This study applied high-throughput sequencing and methanogenic inhibition approaches to investigate the 2,4-D degradation process using the enrichments obtained from paddy soil. Acetate addition significantly promoted 2,4-D degradation, which was 5-fold higher than in the acetate-unsupplemented enrichments in terms of the 2,4-D degradation rate constant. Dechloromonas and Pseudomonas were the dominant 2,4-D degraders. Methanogenic inhibition experiments indicated that the 2,4-D degradation was independent of methanogenesis. It was proposed that the accelerated 2,4-D degradation in the acetate-supplemented enrichment involved an unusual interaction, where members of the acetate oxidizers primarily oxidized acetate and produced H 2 . H 2 was utilized by the 2,4-D degraders to degrade 2,4-D, but also partially consumed by the hydrogenotrophic methanogens to produce methane. The findings presented here provide a new strategy for the remediation of 2,4-D-polluted soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Yield and oil composition of 38 basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) accessions grown in Mississippi.

    PubMed

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Callahan, Amber; Cantrell, Charles L

    2008-01-09

    A field experiment was conducted to assess yield, oil content, and composition of 38 genotypes of sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.). Overall, biomass yields were high and comparable to those reported in the literature. However, basil genotypes differed significantly with respect to oil content and composition. Oil content of the tested accessions varied from 0.07% to 1.92% in dry herbage. On the basis of the oil composition, basil accessions were divided into seven groups: (1) high-linalool chemotype [19-73% (-)-linalool], (2) linalool-eugenol chemotype [six chemotypes with 28-66% (-)-linalool and 5-29% eugenol], (3) methyl chavicol chemotype [six accessions with 20-72% methyl chavicol and no (-)-linalool], (4) methyl chavicol-linalool chemotype [six accessions with 8-29% methyl chavicol and 8-53% (-)-linalool], (5) methyl eugenol-linalool chemotype [two accessions with 37% and 91% methyl eugenol and 60% and 15% (-)-linalool], (6) methyl cinnamate-linalool chemotype [one accession with 9.7% methyl cinnamate and 31% (-)-linalool], and (7) bergamotene chemotype [one accession with bergamotene as major constituent, 5% eucalyptol, and <1% (-)-linalool]. Our results demonstrated that basil could be a viable essential oil crop in Mississippi. The availability of various chemotypes offers the opportunity for production of basil to meet the market requirements of specific basil oils or individual compounds such as (-)-linalool, eugenol, methyl chavicol, methyl cinnamate, or methyl eugenol.

  1. Synthesis of acetic acid via methanol hydrocarboxylation with CO2 and H2

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Qingli; Zhang, Jingjing; Cui, Meng; Han, Buxing

    2016-01-01

    Acetic acid is an important bulk chemical that is currently produced via methanol carbonylation using fossil based CO. Synthesis of acetic acid from the renewable and cheap CO2 is of great importance, but state of the art routes encounter difficulties, especially in reaction selectivity and activity. Here we report a route to produce acetic acid from CO2, methanol and H2. The reaction can be efficiently catalysed by Ru–Rh bimetallic catalyst using imidazole as the ligand and LiI as the promoter in 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone (DMI) solvent. It is confirmed that methanol is hydrocarboxylated into acetic acid by CO2 and H2, which accounts for the outstanding reaction results. The reaction mechanism is proposed based on the control experiments. The strategy opens a new way for acetic acid production and CO2 transformation, and represents a significant progress in synthetic chemistry. PMID:27165850

  2. Synthesis of acetic acid via methanol hydrocarboxylation with CO2 and H2.

    PubMed

    Qian, Qingli; Zhang, Jingjing; Cui, Meng; Han, Buxing

    2016-05-11

    Acetic acid is an important bulk chemical that is currently produced via methanol carbonylation using fossil based CO. Synthesis of acetic acid from the renewable and cheap CO2 is of great importance, but state of the art routes encounter difficulties, especially in reaction selectivity and activity. Here we report a route to produce acetic acid from CO2, methanol and H2. The reaction can be efficiently catalysed by Ru-Rh bimetallic catalyst using imidazole as the ligand and LiI as the promoter in 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone (DMI) solvent. It is confirmed that methanol is hydrocarboxylated into acetic acid by CO2 and H2, which accounts for the outstanding reaction results. The reaction mechanism is proposed based on the control experiments. The strategy opens a new way for acetic acid production and CO2 transformation, and represents a significant progress in synthetic chemistry.

  3. Effects of Oxygen Availability on Acetic Acid Tolerance and Intracellular pH in Dekkera bruxellensis.

    PubMed

    Capusoni, Claudia; Arioli, Stefania; Zambelli, Paolo; Moktaduzzaman, M; Mora, Diego; Compagno, Concetta

    2016-08-01

    The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis, associated with wine and beer production, has recently received attention, because its high ethanol and acid tolerance enables it to compete with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in distilleries that produce fuel ethanol. We investigated how different cultivation conditions affect the acetic acid tolerance of D. bruxellensis We analyzed the ability of two strains (CBS 98 and CBS 4482) exhibiting different degrees of tolerance to grow in the presence of acetic acid under aerobic and oxygen-limited conditions. We found that the concomitant presence of acetic acid and oxygen had a negative effect on D. bruxellensis growth. In contrast, incubation under oxygen-limited conditions resulted in reproducible growth kinetics that exhibited a shorter adaptive phase and higher growth rates than those with cultivation under aerobic conditions. This positive effect was more pronounced in CBS 98, the more-sensitive strain. Cultivation of CBS 98 cells under oxygen-limited conditions improved their ability to restore their intracellular pH upon acetic acid exposure and to reduce the oxidative damage to intracellular macromolecules caused by the presence of acetic acid. This study reveals an important role of oxidative stress in acetic acid tolerance in D. bruxellensis, indicating that reduced oxygen availability can protect against the damage caused by the presence of acetic acid. This aspect is important for optimizing industrial processes performed in the presence of acetic acid. This study reveals an important role of oxidative stress in acetic acid tolerance in D. bruxellensis, indicating that reduced oxygen availability can have a protective role against the damage caused by the presence of acetic acid. This aspect is important for the optimization of industrial processes performed in the presence of acetic acid. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Effects of Oxygen Availability on Acetic Acid Tolerance and Intracellular pH in Dekkera bruxellensis

    PubMed Central

    Capusoni, Claudia; Arioli, Stefania; Zambelli, Paolo; Moktaduzzaman, M.; Mora, Diego

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis, associated with wine and beer production, has recently received attention, because its high ethanol and acid tolerance enables it to compete with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in distilleries that produce fuel ethanol. We investigated how different cultivation conditions affect the acetic acid tolerance of D. bruxellensis. We analyzed the ability of two strains (CBS 98 and CBS 4482) exhibiting different degrees of tolerance to grow in the presence of acetic acid under aerobic and oxygen-limited conditions. We found that the concomitant presence of acetic acid and oxygen had a negative effect on D. bruxellensis growth. In contrast, incubation under oxygen-limited conditions resulted in reproducible growth kinetics that exhibited a shorter adaptive phase and higher growth rates than those with cultivation under aerobic conditions. This positive effect was more pronounced in CBS 98, the more-sensitive strain. Cultivation of CBS 98 cells under oxygen-limited conditions improved their ability to restore their intracellular pH upon acetic acid exposure and to reduce the oxidative damage to intracellular macromolecules caused by the presence of acetic acid. This study reveals an important role of oxidative stress in acetic acid tolerance in D. bruxellensis, indicating that reduced oxygen availability can protect against the damage caused by the presence of acetic acid. This aspect is important for optimizing industrial processes performed in the presence of acetic acid. IMPORTANCE This study reveals an important role of oxidative stress in acetic acid tolerance in D. bruxellensis, indicating that reduced oxygen availability can have a protective role against the damage caused by the presence of acetic acid. This aspect is important for the optimization of industrial processes performed in the presence of acetic acid. PMID:27235432

  5. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary...

  6. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary...

  7. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary...

  8. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary...

  9. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary...

  10. Chemical composition, plant genetic differences, and antifungal activity of the essential oil of Helichrysum italicum G. Don ssp. microphyllum (Willd) Nym.

    PubMed

    Angioni, Alberto; Barra, Andrea; Arlorio, Marco; Coisson, Jean Daniel; Russo, Maria T; Pirisi, Filippo M; Satta, Maurizio; Cabras, Paolo

    2003-02-12

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of the Sardinian dwarf curry plant [Helichrysum italicum G. Don ssp. microphyllum (Willd) Nym] was studied. Genetic analysis suggested the presence of two chemotypes; morphological and chemical differences confirmed the presence of two chemotypes (A and B). The maximum yields were 0.18 and 0.04% (v/w) for flowering tops and stems, respectively. The concentrations of nerol and its esters (acetate and propionate), limonene, and linalool reach their highest values during the flowering stage both in flowers and in stems. Besides the essential oil, type B showed an interesting antifungal activity.

  11. Rediscovering Acetate Metabolism: Its Potential Sources and Utilization for Biobased Transformation into Value-Added Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun Gyu; Lee, Ji Hoon; Noh, Myung Hyun; Jung, Gyoo Yeol

    2018-04-25

    One of the great advantages of microbial fermentation is the capacity to convert various carbon compounds into value-added chemicals. In this regard, there have been many efforts to engineer microorganisms to facilitate utilization of abundant carbon sources. Recently, the potential of acetate as a feedstock has been discovered; efforts have been made to produce various biochemicals from acetate based on understanding of its metabolism. In this review, we discuss the potential sources of acetate and summarized the recent progress to improve acetate utilization with microorganisms. Furthermore, we also describe representative studies that engineered microorganisms for the production of biochemicals from acetate.

  12. The Vinyl Acetate Content of Packaging Film: A Quantitative Infrared Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allpress, K. N.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents an experiment used in laboratory technician training courses to illustrate the quantitative use of infrared spectroscopy which is based on industrial and laboratory procedures for the determination of vinyl acetate levels in ethylene vinyl acetate packaging films. Includes three approaches to allow for varying path lengths (film…

  13. Models construction for acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentations with acetate/butyrate consecutively feeding by graph theory.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigang; Shi, Zhongping; Li, Xin

    2014-05-01

    Several fermentations with consecutively feeding of acetate/butyrate were conducted in a 7 L fermentor and the results indicated that exogenous acetate/butyrate enhanced solvents productivities by 47.1% and 39.2% respectively, and changed butyrate/acetate ratios greatly. Then extracellular butyrate/acetate ratios were utilized for calculation of acids rates and the results revealed that acetate and butyrate formation pathways were almost blocked by corresponding acids feeding. In addition, models for acetate/butyrate feeding fermentations were constructed by graph theory based on calculation results and relevant reports. Solvents concentrations and butanol/acetone ratios of these fermentations were also calculated and the results of models calculation matched fermentation data accurately which demonstrated that models were constructed in a reasonable way. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Acetate accumulation enhances mixed culture fermentation of biomass to lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Khor, Way Cern; Roume, Hugo; Coma, Marta; Vervaeren, Han; Rabaey, Korneel

    2016-10-01

    Lactic acid is a high-in-demand chemical, which can be produced through fermentation of lignocellulosic feedstock. However, fermentation of complex substrate produces a mixture of products at efficiencies too low to justify a production process. We hypothesized that the background acetic acid concentration plays a critical role in lactic acid yield; therefore, its retention via selective extraction of lactic acid or its addition would improve overall lactic acid production and eliminate net production of acetic acid. To test this hypothesis, we added 10 g/L of acetate to fermentation broth to investigate its effect on products composition and concentration and bacterial community evolution using several substrate-inoculum combinations. With rumen fluid inoculum, lactate concentrations increased by 80 ± 12 % (cornstarch, p < 0.05) and 16.7 ± 0.4 % (extruded grass, p < 0.05) while with pure culture inoculum (Lactobacillus delbrueckii and genetically modified (GM) Escherichia coli), a 4 to 23 % increase was observed. Using rumen fluid inoculum, the bacterial community was enriched within 8 days to >69 % lactic acid bacteria (LAB), predominantly Lactobacillaceae. Higher acetate concentration promoted a more diverse LAB population, especially on non-inoculated bottles. In subsequent tests, acetate was added in a semi-continuous percolation system with grass as substrate. These tests confirmed our findings producing lactate at concentrations 26 ± 5 % (p < 0.05) higher than the control reactor over 20 days operation. Overall, our work shows that recirculating acetate has the potential to boost lactic acid production from waste biomass to levels more attractive for application.

  15. Eslicarbazepine acetate: an update on efficacy and safety in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Verrotti, Alberto; Loiacono, Giulia; Rossi, Alessandra; Zaccara, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder. Despite a broad range of commonly used antiepileptic drugs, approximately 30% of patients with epilepsy have drug resistance or encounter significant adverse effects. Eslicarbazepine acetate is a new central nervous system-active compound with anticonvulsant activity whose mechanism of action is by blocking the voltage-gated sodium channel. Eslicarbazepine acetate was approved by the European Medicines Agency and launched onto the European market in 2009 for adjunctive treatment in adult subjects of partial-onset seizures, with or without secondary generalization. This article provides an overview on the recent studies on eslicarbazepine acetate in the treatment of drug-resistant partial epilepsy. Efficacy and safety of this drug for partial-onset seizures were assessed in four randomized clinical trials with responder rates ranged between 17% and 43%. Adverse events were usually mild to moderate in intensity and the most common were dizziness, somnolence, nausea, diplopia, headache, vomiting, abnormal coordination, blurred vision, vertigo and fatigue. Eslicarbazepine acetate is not recommended below 18 years, but a published phase II trial had the main goal to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of this drug in pediatric population. Eslicarbazepine acetate appears to be a safe and effective drug with a linear pharmacokinetics, very low potential for drug-drug interactions and therefore it can offer a valid alternative to current antiepileptic drugs. Additionally, it is undergoing investigation for monotherapy in subjects with partial epilepsy, and other neurological and psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Trehalose accumulation enhances tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Yoshiyama, Yoko; Tanaka, Koichi; Yoshiyama, Kohei; Hibi, Makoto; Ogawa, Jun; Shima, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Trehalose confers protection against various environmental stresses on yeast cells. In this study, trehalase gene deletion mutants that accumulate trehalose at high levels showed significant stress tolerance to acetic acid. The enhancement of trehalose accumulation can thus be considered a target in the breeding of acetic acid-tolerant yeast strains. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Bacteria contributing to behaviour of radiocarbon in sodium acetate.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Uchida, Shigeo

    2011-07-01

    An acetate-utilising bacterium was isolated and identified from deionised water that was used for flooding of paddy soils in this study's batch culture experiments. Bacteria in the deionised water samples formed colonies on agar plates containing [1,2-(14)C] sodium acetate, and the autoradiograms showed that all the colonies were positive for (14)C utilisation. Then one of the acetate-utilising bacteria was isolated. The isolate was characterised by phylogenetic analysis, cell morphology, Gram staining and growth at 30 °C. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequencing showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Burkholderia. The bacterium was gram-negative rods and grew at 30 °C under aerobic conditions. Based on these characteristics, the isolate was identified as Burkholderia gladioli. Because B. gladioli is often found in soil, water and the rhizosphere, attention must be paid to the relationships between bacteria and the behaviour of (14)C to for the safety assessment of geological disposal of transuranic waste.

  18. Acetate ester production by Chinese yellow rice wine yeast overexpressing the alcohol acetyltransferase-encoding gene ATF2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Zhang, C; Qi, Y; Dai, L; Ma, H; Guo, X; Xiao, D

    2014-11-27

    Acetate ester, which are produced by fermenting yeast cells in an enzyme-catalyzed intracellular reaction, are responsible for the fruity character of fermented alcoholic beverages such as Chinese yellow rice wine. Alcohol acetyltransferase (AATase) is currently believed to be the key enzyme responsible for the production of acetate ester. In order to determine the precise role of the ATF2 gene in acetate ester production, an ATF2 gene encoding a type of AATase was overexpressed and the ability of the mutant to form acetate esters (including ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, and isobutyl acetate) was investigated. The results showed that after 5 days of fermentation, the concentrations of ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, and isobutyl acetate in yellow rice wines fermented with EY2 (pUC-PIA2K) increased to 137.79 mg/L (an approximate 4.9-fold increase relative to the parent cell RY1), 26.68 mg/L, and 7.60 mg/L, respectively. This study confirms that the ATF2 gene plays an important role in the production of acetate ester production during Chinese yellow rice wine fermentation, thereby offering prospects for the development of yellow rice wine yeast starter strains with optimized ester-producing capabilities.

  19. Acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar: phenotypic traits relevant for starter cultures selection.

    PubMed

    Gullo, Maria; Giudici, Paolo

    2008-06-30

    This review focuses on acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar process. Although several studies are available on acetic acid bacteria ecology, metabolism and nutritional requirements, their activity as well as their technological traits in homemade vinegars as traditional balsamic vinegar is not well known. The basic technology to oxidise cooked grape must to produce traditional balsamic vinegar is performed by the so called "seed-vinegar" that is a microbiologically undefined starter culture obtained from spontaneous acetification of previous raw material. Selected starter cultures are the main technological improvement in order to innovate traditional balsamic vinegar production but until now they are rarely applied. To develop acetic acid bacteria starter cultures, selection criteria have to take in account composition of raw material, acetic acid bacteria metabolic activities, applied technology and desired characteristics of the final product. For traditional balsamic vinegar, significative phenotypical traits of acetic acid bacteria have been highlighted. Basic traits are: ethanol preferred and efficient oxidation, fast rate of acetic acid production, tolerance to high concentration of acetic acid, no overoxidation and low pH resistance. Specific traits are tolerance to high sugar concentration and to a wide temperature range. Gluconacetobacter europaeus and Acetobacter malorum strains can be evaluated to develop selected starter cultures since they show one or more suitable characters.

  20. Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation: Increase in Lesion Diameter with Continuous Acetic Acid Infusion

    SciTech Connect

    Lubienski, Andreas; Duex, Markus; Lubienski, Katrin

    Purpose. To evaluate the influence of continuous infusion of acetic acid 50% during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) on the size of the thermal lesion produced. Methods. Radiofrequency (RF) was applied to excised bovine liver by using an expandable needle electrode with 10 retractable tines (LeVeen Needle Electrode, RadioTherapeutics, Sunnyvale, CA) connected to a commercially available RF generator (RF 2000, RadioTherapeutics, Sunnyvale, CA). Experiments were performed using three different treatment modalities: RF only (n = 15), RF with continuous saline 0.9% infusion (n = 15), and RF with continuous acetic acid 50% infusion (n = 15). RF duration, power output, tissue impedance,more » and time to a rapid rise in impedance were recorded. The ablated lesions were evaluated both macroscopically and histologically. Results. The ablated lesions appeared as spherical or ellipsoid, well-demarcated pale areas with a surrounding brown rim with both RF only and RF plus saline 0.9% infusion. In contrast, thermolesions generated with RF in combination with acetic acid 50% infusion were irregular in shape and the central portion was jelly-like. Mean diameter of the coagulation necrosis was 22.3 {+-} 2.1 mm (RF only), 29.2 {+-} 4.8 mm (RF + saline 0.9%) and 30.7 {+-} 5.7 mm (RF + acetic acid 50%), with a significant increase in the RF plus saline 0.9% and RF plus acetic acid 50% groups compared with RF alone. Time to a rapid rise in impedance was significantly prolonged in the RF plus saline 0.9% and RF plus acetic acid 50% groups compared with RF alone. Conclusions. A combination of RF plus acetic acid 50% infusion is able to generate larger thermolesions than RF only or RF combined with saline 0.9% infusion.« less

  1. Microbial reduction of Fe(III) and turnover of acetate in Hawaiian soils.

    PubMed

    Küsel, Kirsten; Wagner, Christine; Trinkwalter, Tanja; Gössner, Anita S; Bäumler, Rupert; Drake, Harold L

    2002-04-01

    Soils contain anoxic microzones, and acetate is an intermediate during the turnover of soil organic carbon. Due to negligible methanogenic activities in well-drained soils, acetate accumulates under experimentally imposed short-term anoxic conditions. In contrast to forest, agricultural, and prairie soils, grassland soils from Hawaii rapidly consumed rather than formed acetate when incubated under anoxic conditions. Thus, alternative electron acceptors that might be linked to the anaerobic oxidation of soil organic carbon in Hawaiian soils were assessed. Under anoxic conditions, high amounts of Fe(II) were formed by Hawaiian soils as soon as soils were depleted of nitrate. Rates of Fe(II) formation for different soils ranged from 0.01 to 0.31 micromol (g dry weight soil)(-1) h(-1), but were not positively correlated to increasing amounts of poorly crystallized iron oxides. In general, sulfate-reducing and methanogenic activities were negligible. Supplemental acetate was rapidly oxidized to CO2 via the sequential reduction of nitrate and Fe(III) in grassland soil (obtained near Kaena State Park). Supplemental H2 stimulated the formation of Fe(II), but H2-utilizing acetogens appeared to also be involved in the consumption of H2. Approximately 270 micromol Fe(III) (g dry weight soil)(-1) was available for Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, and acetate became a stable end product when Fe(III) was depleted in long-term incubations. Most-probable-number estimates of H2- and acetate-utilizing Fe(III) reducers and of H2-utilizing acetogens were similar. These results indicate that (i) the microbial reduction of Fe(III) is an important electron-accepting process for the anaerobic oxidation of organic matter in Fe(III)-rich Hawaiian soils of volcanic origin, and (ii) acetate, formed by the combined activity of fermentative and acetogenic bacteria, is an important trophic link in anoxic microsites of these soils.

  2. Effect of Chitosan Acetate on Bacteria Occurring on Neungee Mushrooms, Sarcodon aspratus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bom Soo; Koo, Chang-Duck; Ka, Kang Hyeon

    2008-01-01

    Minimal growth inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of chitosan acetate (M.W. 60 kDa) on heterotrophic bacteria (strains MK1, S, and R) isolated from the soft-rotten tissues of Neungee mushroom (Sarcodon aspratus) were measured. The slimy substance produced by the MK1 strain was responsible for the diseased mushroom's appearance. The S and R strains were members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex. These strains showed different levels of susceptibility toward chitosan acetate. The MIC of chitosan acetate against the MK1 and S strains was 0.06%. The MIC against the R strain was greater than 0.10%. Survival fractions of the MK1 and S strains at the MIC were 3 × 10-4 and 1.4 × 10-3 after 24 h, and 2 × 10-4 and 7 × 10-4 after 48 h, respectively. Survival fractions of the R strain after 24 and 48 hr at 0.1% chitosan acetate were 1 × 10-2 and 6.9 × 10-3, respectively. Compared to the MK1 and S strains, the low susceptibility of the R stain towards chitosan acetate could be due to the ability of the R strain to utilize chitosan as a carbon source. Thirty-eight percent of Neungee pieces treated in a 0.06% chitosan acetate solution for 2~3 second did not show any bacterial growth at 4 days, whereas bacterial growth around untreated mushroom pieces occurred within 2 days. These data suggest that chitosan acetate is highly effective in controlling growth of indigenous microorganisms on Neungee. The scanning electron micrographs of the MK1 strain treated with chitosan revealed a higher degree of disintegrated and distorted cellular structures. PMID:23997635

  3. Unexpected competitiveness of Methanosaeta populations at elevated acetate concentrations in methanogenic treatment of animal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si; Cheng, Huicai; Liu, Jiang; Hazen, Terry C; Huang, Vicki; He, Qiang

    2017-02-01

    Acetoclastic methanogenesis is a key metabolic process in anaerobic digestion, a technology with broad applications in biogas production and waste treatment. Acetoclastic methanogenesis is known to be performed by two archaeal genera, Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina. The conventional model posits that Methanosaeta populations are more competitive at low acetate levels (<1 mM) than Methanosarcina and vice versa at higher acetate concentrations. While this model is supported by an extensive body of studies, reports of inconsistency have grown that Methanosaeta were observed to outnumber Methanosarcina at elevated acetate levels. In this study, monitoring of anaerobic digesters treating animal wastewater unexpectedly identified Methanosaeta as the dominant acetoclastic methanogen population at both low and high acetate levels during organic overloading. The surprising competitiveness of Methanosaeta at elevated acetate was further supported by the enrichment of Methanosaeta with high concentrations of acetate (20 mM). The dominance of Methanosaeta in the methanogen community could be reproduced in anaerobic digesters with the direct addition of acetate to above 20 mM, again supporting the competitiveness of Methanosaeta over Methanosarcina at elevated acetate levels. This study for the first time systematically demonstrated that the dominance of Methanosaeta populations in anaerobic digestion could be linked to the competitiveness of Methanosaeta at elevated acetate concentrations. Given the importance of acetoclastic methanogenesis in biological methane production, findings from this study could have major implications for developing strategies for more effective control of methanogenic treatment processes.

  4. Simulation of Pressure-swing Distillation for Separation of Ethyl Acetate-Ethanol-Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing; Zhou, Menglin; Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Xi; Wu, Gang

    2017-12-01

    In the light of the azeotrope of ethyl acetate-ethanol-water, a process of pressure-swing distillation is proposed. The separation process is simulated by Aspen Plus, and the effects of theoretical stage number, reflux ratio and feed stage about the pressure-swing distillation are optimized. Some better process parameters are as follows: for ethyl acetate refining tower, the pressure is 500.0 kPa, theoretical stage number is 16, reflux ratio is 0.6, feed stage is 5; for crude ethanol tower, the pressure is 101.3 kPa, theoretical stage number is 15, reflux ratio is 0.3, feed stage is 4; for ethanol tower, the pressure is 101.3 kPa, theoretical stage number is 25, reflux ratio is 1.2, feed stage is 10. The mass fraction of ethyl acetate in the bottom of the ethyl acetate refining tower reaches 0.9990, the mass fraction of ethanol in the top of the ethanol tower tower reaches 0.9017, the mass fraction of water in the bottom of the ethanol tower tower reaches 0.9622, and there is also no ethyl acetate in the bottom of the ethanol tower. With laboratory tests, experimental results are in good agreement with the simulation results, which indicates that the separation of ethyl acetate ethanol water can be realized by the pressure-swing distillation separation process. Moreover, it has certain practical significance to industrial practice.

  5. Point mutation of H3/H4 histones affects acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangyong; Zhang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Zhaojie

    2014-10-10

    The molecular mechanism of acetic acid tolerance in yeast remains unclear despite of its importance for efficient cellulosic ethanol production. In this study, we examined the effects of histone H3/H4 point mutations on yeast acetic acid tolerance by comprehensively screening a histone H3/H4 mutant library. A total of 24 histone H3/H4 mutants (six acetic acid resistant and 18 sensitive) were identified. Compared to the wild-type strain, the histone acetic acid-resistant mutants exhibited improved ethanol fermentation performance under acetic acid stress. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis revealed that changes in the gene expression in the acetic acid-resistant mutants H3 K37A and H4 K16Q were mainly related to energy production, antioxidative stress. Our results provide novel insights into yeast acetic acid tolerance on the basis of histone, and suggest a novel approach to improve ethanol production by altering the histone H3/H4 sequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Probing the Methyl Torsional Barriers of the E and Z Isomers of Butadienyl Acetate by Microwave Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabri, Atef; Nguyen, Ha Vinh Lam; Kleiner, Isabelle; Van, Vinh; Stahl, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    The Fourier transform microwave spectra of the E and the Z isomer of butadienyl acetate have been measured in the frequency range from 2 to 26.5 GHz under molecular beam conditions. The most stable conformer of each isomer, in which all heavy atoms are located in a symmetry plane, was identified after analyzing the spectrum by comparison with results from quantum chemical calculations. The barrier to internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group was found to be 149.1822(20) cm-1 and 150.2128(48) cm-1 for the E and the Z isomer, respectively, which are similar to that of vinyl acetate. A comparison between two theoretical approaches treating internal rotations, the rho axis method (using the program BELGI-Cs) and combined axis method (using the program XIAM), is also performed. Since several years we study the barriers to internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group in acetates, CH3-COOR. Currently, we assume that all acetates can be divided into three classes. Class I contains α,β saturated acetates, where the torsional barrier is always close to 100 cm-1. Examples are a series of alkyl acetates such as methyl acetate and ethyl acetate. Class II contains α,β-unsaturated acetates where the C=C double bond is located in the COO plane. This is the case of vinyl acetate and butadienyl acetate. Finally, in class III with isopropenyl acetate and phenyl acetate as two representatives, α,β-unsaturated acetates, in which the double bond is not located in the COO plane, are collected. There, we observed a barrier height around 135 cm-1. This observation will be discussed in details. B. Velino, A. Maris, S. Melandri, W. Caminati, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 2009, 256, 228 H. V. L. Nguyen, A. Jabri, V. Van, and W. Stahl, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2014, 118, 12130.

  7. Physiological responses of insects to microbial fermentation products: Insights from the interactions between Drosophila and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geonho; Huang, Jia Hsin; McMullen, John G; Newell, Peter D; Douglas, Angela E

    2018-04-01

    Acetic acid is a fermentation product of many microorganisms, including some that inhabit the food and guts of Drosophila. Here, we investigated the effect of dietary acetic acid on oviposition and larval performance of Drosophila. At all concentrations tested (0.34-3.4%), acetic acid promoted egg deposition by mated females in no-choice assays; and females preferred to oviposit on diet with acetic acid relative to acetic acid-free diet. However, acetic acid depressed larval performance, particularly extending the development time of both larvae colonized with the bacterium Acetobacter pomorum and axenic (microbe-free) larvae. The larvae may incur an energetic cost associated with dissipating the high acid load on acetic acid-supplemented diets. This effect was compounded by suppressed population growth of A. pomorum on the 3.4% acetic acid diet, such that the gnotobiotic Drosophila on this diet displayed traits characteristic of axenic Drosophila, specifically reduced developmental rate and elevated lipid content. It is concluded that acetic acid is deleterious to larval Drosophila, and hypothesized that acetic acid may function as a reliable cue for females to oviposit in substrates bearing microbial communities that promote larval nutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Microorganisms having enhanced resistance to acetate and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Steven D; Yang, Shihui

    2014-10-21

    The present invention provides isolated or genetically modified strains of microorganisms that display enhanced resistance to acetate as a result of increased expression of a sodium proton antiporter. The present invention also provides methods for producing such microbial strains, as well as related promoter sequences and expression vectors. Further, the present invention provides methods of producing alcohol from biomass materials by using microorganisms with enhanced resistance to acetate.

  9. 21 CFR 556.380 - Melengestrol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Melengestrol acetate. 556.380 Section 556.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific...

  10. 21 CFR 556.380 - Melengestrol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Melengestrol acetate. 556.380 Section 556.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific...

  11. Revising Estimates of the Methane Production Pathway in Peatland Porewater Using Intramolecular Isotopic Analyses of Acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, B.; Arthur, M. A.; Freeman, K. H.

    2007-12-01

    Stable isotopic measurements of methane and carbon dioxide are routinely applied to environmental samples to assess the relative importance of methane production by either aceticlastic or hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. Such estimates rely upon assumptions about isotopic fractionation during methane production and oxidation. Rigorous isotope-based pathway estimates require knowledge of the carbon isotopic composition of both carbon dioxide and acetate. In practice, technical barriers have limited measurements of the isotopic composition of whole acetate in natural samples. Yet, the estimate of whole acetate isotopic values, even when available, may not represent accurately the composition of the methyl carbon, which is, in fact, the precursor to methane. It is exceedingly rare to find carbon isotopic measurements of acetate-methyl in the literature, and, to our knowledge, the d13C of the acetate-methyl precursor to methane has never before been reported from peatland porewater samples. Extremely 13C-depleted methane, -70 permil VPDB, and 13C-enriched carbon dioxide from acidic northern peat bogs are typically interpreted as signatures of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. The hypothesized dominance of methane production from hydrogen in acidic bogs contrasts with the vast majority of freshwater wetlands in which aceticlastic methanogenesis dominates. Using a new technique for the online analysis of the intramolecular carbon isotopic composition of acetate in natural samples, we find the acetate-methyl in peat porewaters can be significantly depleted relative to bulk organic matter. In porewater profiles from both winter and summer, acetate is as much as 15 permil depleted relative to bulk carbon. We hypothesize that acetate- methyl isotopic depletion results from conditions that favor autotrophic acetogenesis and subsequent acetate consumption by aceticlastic methanogens. Porewater depth profiles during winter and summer illustrate depth- dependent increases in the

  12. Additive postprandial blood glucose-attenuating and satiety-enhancing effect of cinnamon and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Mettler, Samuel; Schwarz, Isaline; Colombani, Paolo C

    2009-10-01

    Cinnamon and vinegar or acetic acid were reported to reduce the postprandial blood glucose response. We hypothesized that the combination of these substances might result in an additive effect. Therefore, we determined the 2-hour postprandial blood glucose and satiety response to a milk rice meal supplemented with either cinnamon or acetic acid on their own or in combination. Subjects (n = 27) consumed the meal on 4 occasions as either pure (control trial), with 4 g cinnamon, 28 mmol acetic acid, or the combination of cinnamon + acetic acid. Blood glucose and satiety were assessed before eating and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes postprandially. At 15 minutes, the combination of cinnamon + acetic acid resulted in a significantly reduced blood glucose concentration compared with the control meal (P = .021). The incremental area under the blood glucose response curve over 120 minutes did, however, not differ between the trials (P = .539). The satiety score of the cinnamon + acetic acid trial was significantly higher than that in the control trial at 15 (P = .024) and 30 minutes (P = .024), but the incremental area under the curve of the satiety response did not differ (P = .116) between the trials. In conclusion, the significant effect of the combination of cinnamon and acetic acid on blood glucose and satiety immediately after meal intake indicated an additive effect of the 2 substances. Whether larger doses of cinnamon and acetic acid may result in a more substantial additive effect on blood glucose or satiety remains to be investigated.

  13. Cellulose esters synthesized using a tetrabutylammonium acetate and dimethylsulfoxide solvent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yongqi; Miao, Jiaojiao; Jiang, Zeming; Sun, Haibo; Zhang, Liping

    2016-07-01

    Cellulose acetate (CA) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) were homogeneously synthesized in a novel tetrabutylammonium acetate/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent system, without any catalyst, at temperatures below 70 °C. The molecular structures of the cellulose esters (CEs) and distributions of the substituents in the anhydroglucose repeating units were determined using 13C cross-polarization magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and the degree of substitution (DS) values were determined using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The structures of the CEs, regenerated cellulose (RC), and pulp were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The thermal properties of the products were determined using thermogravimetric analysis. The temperatures of initial decomposition of the CEs were up to 40 °C higher than those of the RC and pulp. All the CEs were highly soluble in DMSO, but were insoluble in acetone. CAs with DS values less than 2.6 swelled or were poorly dissolved in CHCl3, but those with DS values above 2.9 dissolved rapidly. CAPs with DS values above 2.6 had good solubilities in ethyl acetate.

  14. Complexes of horseradish peroxidase with formate, acetate, and carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Gunilla H; Nicholls, Peter; Svistunenko, Dimitri; Berglund, Gunnar I; Hajdu, Janos

    2005-01-18

    Carbon monoxide, formate, and acetate interact with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) by binding to subsites within the active site. These ligands also bind to catalases, but their interactions are different in the two types of enzymes. Formate (notionally the "hydrated" form of carbon monoxide) is oxidized to carbon dioxide by compound I in catalase, while no such reaction is reported to occur in HRP, and the CO complex of ferrocatalase can only be obtained indirectly. Here we describe high-resolution crystal structures for HRP in its complexes with carbon monoxide and with formate, and compare these with the previously determined HRP-acetate structure [Berglund, G. I., et al. (2002) Nature 417, 463-468]. A multicrystal X-ray data collection strategy preserved the correct oxidation state of the iron during the experiments. Absorption spectra of the crystals and electron paramagnetic resonance data for the acetate and formate complexes in solution correlate electronic states with the structural results. Formate in ferric HRP and CO in ferrous HRP bind directly to the heme iron with iron-ligand distances of 2.3 and 1.8 A, respectively. CO does not bind to the ferric iron in the crystal. Acetate bound to ferric HRP stacks parallel with the heme plane with its carboxylate group 3.6 A from the heme iron, and without an intervening solvent molecule between the iron and acetate. The positions of the oxygen atoms in the bound ligands outline a potential access route for hydrogen peroxide to the iron. We propose that interactions in this channel ensure deprotonation of the proximal oxygen before binding to the heme iron.

  15. A Simple Way to Pattern Mn_12-acetate Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Seo, D. M.; Means, J.; Viswanathan, M.; Teizer, W.

    2004-03-01

    We have observed that Mn_12-acetate ([Mn_12O_12(CH_3COO)_16(H_2O)_4]ot2CH_3COOHot4H_2O) molecules, dissolved in organic solvents, can be self-assembled along the edge of the Mn_12 solution droplet on a Si/SiO2 substrate as the solvent is evaporated. This phenomenon may be related to the well known "coffee-stain effect"”, which leads to a dense particulate deposit along the edge of a drying droplet of coffee on a solid surface. In our study, we have observed such a deposit of Mn_12-acetate at the perimeter of a droplet, after a dilute solution in various organic solvents has been dried. We investigated how the deposits depend on the evaporation rate. Also, we controlled the concentration of the solution to find its relation to the resulting pattern deposit. By patterning the surface with resist and performing a lift-off we created what are, to our knowledge, the first artificial patterns of Mn_12-acetate. This may allow for convenient thin film devices of Mn_12-acetate and work in this direction is ongoing. This work was supported by the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board and Texas A University.

  16. A Phase Transfer Catalyzed Permanganate Oxidation: Preparation of Vanillin from Isoeugenol Acetate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampman, Gary M.; Sharpe, Steven D.

    1983-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and results are provided for the preparation of vanillin from isoeugenol acetate. Reaction scheme used to prepare the vanillin and a table indicating the different oxidation experiments carried out on isoeugenol or isoeugenol acetate are also provided. (JN)

  17. Lipase of Aspergillus niger NCIM 1207: A Potential Biocatalyst for Synthesis of Isoamyl Acetate.

    PubMed

    Mhetras, Nutan; Patil, Sonal; Gokhale, Digambar

    2010-10-01

    Commercial lipase preparations and mycelium bound lipase from Aspergillus niger NCIM 1207 were used for esterification of acetic acid with isoamyl alcohol to obtain isoamyl acetate. The esterification reaction was carried out at 30°C in n-hexane with shaking at 120 rpm. Initial reaction rates, conversion efficiency and isoamyl acetate concentration obtained using Novozyme 435 were the highest. Mycelium bound lipase of A. niger NCIM 1207 produced maximal isoamyl acetate formation at an alcohol/acid ratio of 1.6. Acetic acid at higher concentrations than required for the critical alcohol/acid ratio lower than 1.3 and higher than 1.6 resulted in decreased yields of isoamyl acetate probably owing to lowering of micro-aqueous environmental pH around the enzyme leading to inhibition of enzyme activity. Mycelium bound A. niger lipase produced 80 g/l of isoamyl acetate within 96 h even though extremely less amount of enzyme activity was used for esterification. The presence of sodium sulphate during esterification reaction at higher substrate concentration resulted in increased conversion efficiency when we used mycelium bound enzyme preparations of A. niger NCIM 1207. This could be due to removal of excess water released during esterification reaction by sodium sulphate. High ester concentration (286.5 g/l) and conversion (73.5%) were obtained within 24 h using Novozyme 435 under these conditions.

  18. Biosynthesis of the Halogenated Auxin, 4-Chloroindole-3-Acetic Acid1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Tivendale, Nathan D.; Davidson, Sandra E.; Davies, Noel W.; Smith, Jason A.; Dalmais, Marion; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid I.; Quittenden, Laura J.; Sutton, Lily; Bala, Raj K.; Le Signor, Christine; Thompson, Richard; Horne, James; Reid, James B.; Ross, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Seeds of several agriculturally important legumes are rich sources of the only halogenated plant hormone, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid. However, the biosynthesis of this auxin is poorly understood. Here, we show that in pea (Pisum sativum) seeds, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid is synthesized via the novel intermediate 4-chloroindole-3-pyruvic acid, which is produced from 4-chlorotryptophan by two aminotransferases, TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED1 and TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED2. We characterize a tar2 mutant, obtained by Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes, the seeds of which contain dramatically reduced 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid levels as they mature. We also show that the widespread auxin, indole-3-acetic acid, is synthesized by a parallel pathway in pea. PMID:22573801

  19. Self-assembly of acetate adsorbates drives atomic rearrangement on the Au(110) surface

    PubMed Central

    Hiebel, Fanny; Shong, Bonggeun; Chen, Wei; Madix, Robert J.; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Friend, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    Weak inter-adsorbate interactions are shown to play a crucial role in determining surface structure, with major implications for its catalytic reactivity. This is exemplified here in the case of acetate bound to Au(110), where the small extra energy of the van der Waals interactions among the surface-bound groups drives massive restructuring of the underlying Au. Acetate is a key intermediate in electro-oxidation of CO2 and a poison in partial oxidation reactions. Metal atom migration originates at surface defects and is likely facilitated by weakened Au–Au interactions due to bonding with the acetate. Even though the acetate is a relatively small molecule, weak intermolecular interaction provides the energy required for molecular self-assembly and reorganization of the metal surface. PMID:27731407

  20. Culture medium optimization for acetic acid production by a persimmon vinegar-derived bacterium.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Nam; Choo, Jong-Sok; Wee, Young-Jung; Yun, Jong-Sun; Ryu, Hwa-Won

    2005-01-01

    A new acetic acid-producing microorganism, Acetobacter sp. RKY4, was isolated from Korean traditional persimmon vinegar, and we optimized the culture medium for acetic acid production from ethanol using the newly isolated Acetobacter sp. RKY4. The optimized culture medium for acetic acid production using this microorganism was found to be 40 g/L ethanol, 10 g/L glycerol, 10 g/L corn steep liquor, 0.5 g/L MgSO4.7H2O, and 1.0 g/L (NH4)H2PO4. Acetobacter sp. RKY4 produced 47.1 g/L of acetic acid after 48 h of fermentation in a 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask containing 50 mL of the optimized medium.

  1. Oxygen-Inducible Conversion of Lactate to Acetate in Heterofermentative Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 367.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tingting; Zhang, Li; Xin, Yongping; Xu, ZhenShang; He, Huiying; Kong, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Lactobacillus brevis is an obligatory heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium that produces high levels of acetate, which improve the aerobic stability of silages against deterioration caused by yeasts and molds. However, the mechanism involved in acetate accumulation has yet to be elucidated. Here, experimental evidence indicated that aerobiosis resulted in the conversion of lactate to acetate after glucose exhaustion in L. brevis ATCC 367 (GenBank accession number NC_008497). To elucidate the conversion pathway, in silico analysis showed that lactate was first converted to pyruvate by the reverse catalytic reaction of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); subsequently, pyruvate conversion to acetate might be mediated by pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) or pyruvate oxidase (POX). Transcriptional analysis indicated that the pdh and pox genes of L. brevis ATCC 367 were upregulated 37.92- and 18.32-fold, respectively, by oxygen and glucose exhaustion, corresponding to 5.32- and 2.35-fold increases in the respective enzyme activities. Compared with the wild-type strain, the transcription and enzymatic activity of PDH remained stable in the Δ pox mutant, while those of POX increased significantly in the Δ pdh mutant. More lactate but less acetate was produced in the Δ pdh mutant than in the wild-type and Δ pox mutant strains, and more H 2 O 2 (a product of the POX pathway) was produced in the Δ pdh mutant. We speculated that the high levels of aerobic acetate accumulation in L. brevis ATCC 367 originated mainly from the reuse of lactate to produce pyruvate, which was further converted to acetate by the predominant and secondary functions of PDH and POX, respectively. IMPORTANCE PDH and POX are two possible key enzymes involved in aerobic acetate accumulation in lactic acid bacteria (LAB). It is currently thought that POX plays the major role in aerobic growth in homofermentative LAB and some heterofermentative LAB, while the impact of PDH remains unclear. In this study, we

  2. Oxygen-Inducible Conversion of Lactate to Acetate in Heterofermentative Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 367

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tingting; Zhang, Li; Xin, Yongping; Xu, ZhenShang; He, Huiying

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lactobacillus brevis is an obligatory heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium that produces high levels of acetate, which improve the aerobic stability of silages against deterioration caused by yeasts and molds. However, the mechanism involved in acetate accumulation has yet to be elucidated. Here, experimental evidence indicated that aerobiosis resulted in the conversion of lactate to acetate after glucose exhaustion in L. brevis ATCC 367 (GenBank accession number NC_008497). To elucidate the conversion pathway, in silico analysis showed that lactate was first converted to pyruvate by the reverse catalytic reaction of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH); subsequently, pyruvate conversion to acetate might be mediated by pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) or pyruvate oxidase (POX). Transcriptional analysis indicated that the pdh and pox genes of L. brevis ATCC 367 were upregulated 37.92- and 18.32-fold, respectively, by oxygen and glucose exhaustion, corresponding to 5.32- and 2.35-fold increases in the respective enzyme activities. Compared with the wild-type strain, the transcription and enzymatic activity of PDH remained stable in the Δpox mutant, while those of POX increased significantly in the Δpdh mutant. More lactate but less acetate was produced in the Δpdh mutant than in the wild-type and Δpox mutant strains, and more H2O2 (a product of the POX pathway) was produced in the Δpdh mutant. We speculated that the high levels of aerobic acetate accumulation in L. brevis ATCC 367 originated mainly from the reuse of lactate to produce pyruvate, which was further converted to acetate by the predominant and secondary functions of PDH and POX, respectively. IMPORTANCE PDH and POX are two possible key enzymes involved in aerobic acetate accumulation in lactic acid bacteria (LAB). It is currently thought that POX plays the major role in aerobic growth in homofermentative LAB and some heterofermentative LAB, while the impact of PDH remains unclear. In this study, we

  3. Role of geraniol against lead acetate-mediated hepatic damage and their interaction with liver carboxylesterase activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Ahmet; Sahin, Zafer; Kuzu, Muslum; Saglam, Yavuz Selim; Ozkaraca, Mustafa; Uckun, Mirac; Yologlu, Ertan; Comakli, Veysel; Demirdag, Ramazan; Yologlu, Semra

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the effect of geraniol (50 mg/kg for 30 d), a natural antioxidant and repellent/antifeedant monoterpene, in a rat model of lead acetate-induced (500 ppm for 30 d) liver damage was evaluated. Hepatic malondialdehyde increased in the lead acetate group. Reduced glutathione unchanged, but glutathione S-transferase, glutathione reductase, as well as carboxylesterase activities decreased in geraniol, lead acetate and geraniol + lead acetate groups. 8-OhDG immunoreactivity, mononuclear cell infiltrations and hepatic lead concentration were lower in the geraniol + lead acetate group than the lead acetate group. Serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities increased in the Pb acetate group. In conclusion, lead acetate causes oxidative and toxic damage in the liver and this effect can reduce with geraniol treatment. However, we first observed that lead acetate, as well as geraniol, can affect liver carboxylesterase activity.

  4. Biological caproate production by Clostridium kluyveri from ethanol and acetate as carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yanan; Zhang, Yifeng; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Wang, Jianlong; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-10-01

    Caproate is a valuable industrial product and chemical precursor. In this study, batch tests were conducted to investigate the fermentative caproate production through chain elongation from acetate and ethanol. The effect of acetate/ethanol ratio and initial ethanol concentration on caproate production was examined. When substrate concentration was controlled at 100mM total carbon, hydrogen was used as an additional electron donor. The highest caproate concentration of 3.11g/L was obtained at an ethanol/acetate ratio of 7:3. No additional electron donor was needed upon an ethanol/acetate ratio ≥7:3. Caproate production increased with the increase of carbon source until ethanol concentration over 700mM, which inhibited the fermentation process. The highest caproate concentration of 8.42g/L was achieved from high ethanol strength wastewater with an ethanol/acetate ratio of 10:1 (550mM total carbon). Results obtained in this study can pave the way towards efficient chain elongation from ethanol-rich wastewater. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Response of anaerobes to methyl fluoride, 2-bromoethanesulfonate and hydrogen during acetate degradation.

    PubMed

    Hao, Liping; Lü, Fan; Li, Lei; Shao, Liming; He, Pinjing

    2013-05-01

    To use the selective inhibition method for quantitative analysis of acetate metabolism in methanogenic systems, the responses of microbial communities and metabolic activities, which were involved in anaerobic degradation of acetate, to the addition of methyl fluoride (CH3F), 2-bromoethanesulfonate (BES) and hydrogen were investigated in a thermophilic batch experiment. Both the methanogenic inhibitors, i.e., CH3F and BES, showed their effectiveness on inhibiting CH4 production, whereas acetate metabolism other than acetoclastic methanogenesis was stimulated by BES, as reflected by the fluctuated acetate concentration. Syntrophic acetate oxidation was thermodynamically blocked by hydrogen (H2), while H2-utilizing reactions as hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and homoacetogenesis were correspondingly promoted. Results of PCR-DGGE fingerprinting showed that, CH3F did not influence the microbial populations significantly. However, the BES and hydrogen notably altered the bacterial community structures and increased the diversity. BES gradually changed the methanogenic community structure by affecting the existence of different populations to different levels, whilst H2 greatly changed the abundance of different methanogenic populations, and induced growth of new species.

  6. Antimicrobial properties and mechanism of volatile isoamyl acetate, a main flavour component of Japanese sake (Ginjo-shu).

    PubMed

    Ando, H; Kurata, A; Kishimoto, N

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial properties of the main Ginjo-flavour components of sake, volatile isoamyl acetate and isoamyl alcohol. Volatile isoamyl acetate and isoamyl alcohol both inhibited growth of the five yeast and 10 bacterial test strains. The minimum inhibitory dose and minimum bactericidal (fungicidal) dose of isoamyl acetate were higher than those of isoamyl alcohol. Escherichia coli and Acetobacter aceti were markedly sensitive to isoamyl acetate and isoamyl alcohol. In E. coli exposed to isoamyl acetate for 5 h, changes in expression were noted in proteins involved in sugar metabolism (MalE, MglB, TalB and PtsI), tricarboxylic acid cycle (AceA, Pfl and AcnB) and protein synthesis (EF-Tu, EF-G, and GlyS). Expression of acid and alcohol stress-response proteins was altered in E. coli exposed to isoamyl acetate. Esterase activity was detected in E. coli, suggesting that isoamyl acetate was hydrolyzed to acetic acid and isoamyl alcohol. Acetic acid and isoamyl alcohol damaged E. coli cell membranes and inactivated membrane proteins, impairing respiration. Volatile isoamyl acetate and isoamyl alcohol were effective in inactivating various micro-organisms, and antimicrobial mechanism of volatile isoamyl acetate against E. coli was clarified based on proteome analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to examine the antimicrobial mechanism of volatile organic compound using proteome analysis combining two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis with peptide mass fingerprinting. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. Highly filled biocomposites based on ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer and wood flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelenkov, P. G.; Pantyukhov, P. V.; Popov, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    Recently, there is a great interest in the world to biodegradable materials based on synthetic polymers in a composition with natural fillers. Highly filled polymer composite materials based on various grades of synthetic block copolymer of ethylene vinyl acetate with wood flour were under investigation. Five grades of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer differing in the content of vinyl acetate groups and a melt flow index were used in this work in order to find the best one for highly filled biocomposites. Wood flour content in biocomposites was 50, 60, 70 weight %. The rheological and physico-mechanical characteristics of the resulting biocomposites were studied.

  8. Sclerotherapy of renal cysts using acetic acid: a comparison with ethanol sclerotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cho, D S; Ahn, H S; Kim, S I; Kim, Y S; Kim, S J; Jeon, G S; Won, J H

    2008-12-01

    This study compared percutaneous sclerotherapy using 50% acetic acid with that using 99% ethanol for patients with simple renal cysts. The study included 72 simple renal cysts in 64 patients (male/female ratio = 31/33; age range, 31-75 years). Under fluoroscopic guidance, the cyst fluid was aspirated completely. Sclerotherapy was then performed using 50% acetic acid for 32 cysts and 99% ethanol for 40 cysts. The volumes of each renal cyst before and after sclerotherapy were compared using ultrasonography or CT. Medical records were reviewed to analyse any complications. The mean follow-up period was 21.5 months (range, 3-75 months). The mean remnant volume of the cyst after sclerotherapy was 2.6% of the initial volume in the acetic acid group and 14.0% in the ethanol group. The rates of complete remission, partial remission and treatment failure were 90.6%, 9.4% and 0%, respectively, in the acetic acid group, and 60.0%, 30.0% and 10.0%, respectively, in the ethanol group. There were no complications related to sclerotherapy in either group. In conclusion, acetic acid is a safe and effective sclerosing agent, with clinical results superior to those of ethanol, and is an alternative to ethanol for sclerotherapy of renal cysts.

  9. Identification of a novel acetate-utilizing bacterium belonging to Synergistes group 4 in anaerobic digester sludge.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tsukasa; Yoshiguchi, Kazumi; Ariesyady, Herto Dwi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2011-12-01

    Major acetate-utilizing bacterial and archaeal populations in methanogenic anaerobic digester sludge were identified and quantified by radioisotope- and stable-isotope-based functional analyses, microautoradiography-fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH) and stable-isotope probing of 16S rRNA (RNA-SIP) that can directly link 16S rRNA phylogeny with in situ metabolic function. First, MAR-FISH with (14)C-acetate indicated the significant utilization of acetate by only two major groups, unidentified bacterial cells and Methanosaeta-like filamentous archaeal cells, in the digester sludge. To identify the acetate-utilizing unidentified bacteria, RNA-SIP was conducted with (13)C(6)-glucose and (13)C(3)-propionate as sole carbon source, which were followed by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA. We found that bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 were commonly detected in both 16S rRNA clone libraries derived from the sludge incubated with (13)C-glucose and (13)C-propionate. To confirm that this bacterial group can utilize acetate, specific FISH probe targeting for Synergistes group 4 was newly designed and applied to the sludge incubated with (14)C-acetate for MAR-FISH. The MAR-FISH result showed that bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 significantly took up acetate and their active population size was comparable to that of Methanosaeta in this sludge. In addition, as bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 had high K(m) for acetate and maximum utilization rate, they are more competitive for acetate over Methanosaeta at high acetate concentrations (2.5-10  mM). To our knowledge, it is the first time to report the acetate-utilizing activity of uncultured bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 and its competitive significance to acetoclastic methanogen, Methanosaeta.

  10. Low and high acetate amendments are equally as effective at promoting complete dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE).

    PubMed

    Wei, Na; Finneran, Kevin T

    2013-06-01

    Experiments with trichloroethylene-contaminated aquifer material demonstrated that TCE, cis-DCE, and VC were completely degraded with concurrent Fe(III) or Fe(III) and sulfate reduction when acetate was amended at stoichiometric concentration; competing TEAPs did not inhibit ethene production. Adding 10× more acetate did not increase the rate or extent of TCE reduction, but only increased methane production. Enrichment cultures demonstrated that ~90 μM TCE or ~22 μM VC was degraded primarily to ethene within 20 days with concurrent Fe(III) or Fe(III) + sulfate reduction. The dechlorination rates were comparable between the low and high acetate concentrations (0.36 vs 0.34 day(-1), respectively), with a slightly slower rate in the 10× acetate amended incubations. Methane accumulated to 13.5 (±0.5) μmol/tube in the TCE-degrading incubations with 10× acetate, and only 1.4 (±0.1) μmol/tube with low acetate concentration. Methane accumulated to 16 (±1.5) μmol/tube in VC-degrading enrichment with 10× acetate and 2 (±0.1) μmol/tube with stoichiometric acetate. The estimated fraction of electrons distributed to methanogenesis increased substantially when excessive acetate was added. Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that 10× acetate did not enhance Dehalococcoides biomass but rather increased the methanogen abundance by nearly one order of magnitude compared to that with stoichiometric acetate. The data suggest that adding low levels of substrate may be equally if not more effective as high concentrations, without producing excessive methane. This has implications for field remediation efforts, in that adding excess electron donor may not benefit the reactions of interest, which in turn will increase treatment costs without direct benefit to the stakeholders.

  11. Identification of a novel acetate-utilizing bacterium belonging to Synergistes group 4 in anaerobic digester sludge

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tsukasa; Yoshiguchi, Kazumi; Ariesyady, Herto Dwi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2011-01-01

    Major acetate-utilizing bacterial and archaeal populations in methanogenic anaerobic digester sludge were identified and quantified by radioisotope- and stable-isotope-based functional analyses, microautoradiography-fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH) and stable-isotope probing of 16S rRNA (RNA-SIP) that can directly link 16S rRNA phylogeny with in situ metabolic function. First, MAR-FISH with 14C-acetate indicated the significant utilization of acetate by only two major groups, unidentified bacterial cells and Methanosaeta-like filamentous archaeal cells, in the digester sludge. To identify the acetate-utilizing unidentified bacteria, RNA-SIP was conducted with 13C6-glucose and 13C3-propionate as sole carbon source, which were followed by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA. We found that bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 were commonly detected in both 16S rRNA clone libraries derived from the sludge incubated with 13C-glucose and 13C-propionate. To confirm that this bacterial group can utilize acetate, specific FISH probe targeting for Synergistes group 4 was newly designed and applied to the sludge incubated with 14C-acetate for MAR-FISH. The MAR-FISH result showed that bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 significantly took up acetate and their active population size was comparable to that of Methanosaeta in this sludge. In addition, as bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 had high Km for acetate and maximum utilization rate, they are more competitive for acetate over Methanosaeta at high acetate concentrations (2.5–10 m). To our knowledge, it is the first time to report the acetate-utilizing activity of uncultured bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 and its competitive significance to acetoclastic methanogen, Methanosaeta. PMID:21562600

  12. Photorespiration participates in the assimilation of acetate in Chlorella sorokiniana under high light.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiujun; Huang, Aiyou; Gu, Wenhui; Zang, Zhengrong; Pan, Guanghua; Gao, Shan; He, Linwen; Zhang, Baoyu; Niu, Jianfeng; Lin, Apeng; Wang, Guangce

    2016-02-01

    The development of microalgae on an industrial scale largely depends on the economic feasibility of mass production. High light induces productive suspensions during cultivation in a tubular photobioreactor. Herein, we report that high light, which inhibited the growth of Chlorella sorokiniana under autotrophic conditions, enhanced the growth of this alga in the presence of acetate. We compared pigments, proteomics and the metabolic flux ratio in C. sorokiniana cultivated under high light (HL) and under low light (LL) in the presence of acetate. Our results showed that high light induced the synthesis of xanthophyll and suppressed the synthesis of chlorophylls. Acetate in the medium was exhausted much more rapidly in HL than in LL. The data obtained from LC-MS/MS indicated that high light enhanced photorespiration, the Calvin cycle and the glyoxylate cycle of mixotrophic C. sorokiniana. The results of metabolic flux ratio analysis showed that the majority of the assimilated carbon derived from supplemented acetate, and photorespiratory glyoxylate could enter the glyoxylate cycle. Based on these data, we conclude that photorespiration provides glyoxylate to speed up the glyoxylate cycle, and releases acetate-derived CO2 for the Calvin cycle. Thus, photorespiration connects the glyoxylate cycle and the Calvin cycle, and participates in the assimilation of supplemented acetate in C. sorokiniana under high light. © 2015 Institute of Oceanography, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IOCAS). New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Biological acetate production from carbon dioxide by Acetobacterium woodii and Clostridium ljungdahlii: The effect of cell immobilization.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Syu, Jyun-Cyuan; Tien, Shih-Yuan; Whang, Liang-Ming

    2018-08-01

    This study investigated the acetate production from gas mixture of hydrogen (H 2 ) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the ratio of 7:3 using two acetogens: Acetobacterium woodii and Clostridium ljungdahlii. Batch result shows A. woodii performed two-phase degradation with the presence of glucose that lactate was produced from glucose and was reutilized for the production of butyrate and few acetate, while only acetate was detected when providing gas mixture. C. ljungdahlii produced butyrate and ethanol along with acetate when glucose was introduced, while only ethanol and acetate were found by feeding gas mixture. The acetate-to-ethanol (A/E) ratio can be enhanced by cell immobilization, while GAC immobilization produced only acetate and the production rate reached 0.072 mmol/d under fed-batch operation. Acetate production rate increased from 18 to 28 mmol/L/d with GAC immobilization when gas flowrate increased from 100 to 300 mL/min in anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactor (AFMBR), and a highest A/E ratio of 30 implies the possible application of acetate recovery from H 2 and CO 2 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Protective effect of curcumin on lead acetate-induced testicular toxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sudjarwo, Sri Agus; Sudjarwo, Giftania Wardani; Koerniasari

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, the use of the antioxidant in reducing heavy metal toxicities has increased worldwide. Curcumin has been reported to have a strong antioxidant activity. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of curcumin on lead acetate-induced testicular damage in rats. The sample used 40 male rats divided into 5 groups: negative control (rats were given daily with corn oil); positive control (rats were given daily with lead acetate 50 mg/kg BW orally once in a day for 35 days); and the treatment group (rats were given the curcumin 100 mg, 200 mg, and 400 mg/kg BW orally once in a day for 40 days, and on the 5 th day, were given lead acetate 50 mg/kg BW one h after the curcumin administration). After 40 days, levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in testicular tissue, and sperm count, motility and viability in the epididymis were measured in rats. Testis samples were also collected for histopathological studies. Results showed that lead acetate administration significantly decreased the SOD, GPx, and increased MDA levels. Lead acetate also decreased the sperm count, motility, viability, and altered histopathological testis (testicular damage, necrosis of seminiferous tubules and loss of spermatid) compared to the negative control. However, administration of curcumin significantly improved the histopathological in testis, increased the sperm count, motility, viability, and also significantly increased the SOD, GPx, and decreased MDA in testis of lead acetate-treated rats. From the results of this study we concluded that the curcumin could be a potent natural product provide a promising protective effect against lead acetate induced testicular toxicity in rats.

  15. Protective effect of curcumin on lead acetate-induced testicular toxicity in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Sudjarwo, Sri Agus; Sudjarwo, Giftania Wardani; Koerniasari

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the use of the antioxidant in reducing heavy metal toxicities has increased worldwide. Curcumin has been reported to have a strong antioxidant activity. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of curcumin on lead acetate-induced testicular damage in rats. The sample used 40 male rats divided into 5 groups: negative control (rats were given daily with corn oil); positive control (rats were given daily with lead acetate 50 mg/kg BW orally once in a day for 35 days); and the treatment group (rats were given the curcumin 100 mg, 200 mg, and 400 mg/kg BW orally once in a day for 40 days, and on the 5th day, were given lead acetate 50 mg/kg BW one h after the curcumin administration). After 40 days, levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in testicular tissue, and sperm count, motility and viability in the epididymis were measured in rats. Testis samples were also collected for histopathological studies. Results showed that lead acetate administration significantly decreased the SOD, GPx, and increased MDA levels. Lead acetate also decreased the sperm count, motility, viability, and altered histopathological testis (testicular damage, necrosis of seminiferous tubules and loss of spermatid) compared to the negative control. However, administration of curcumin significantly improved the histopathological in testis, increased the sperm count, motility, viability, and also significantly increased the SOD, GPx, and decreased MDA in testis of lead acetate-treated rats. From the results of this study we concluded that the curcumin could be a potent natural product provide a promising protective effect against lead acetate induced testicular toxicity in rats. PMID:28974976

  16. Kinetic study of benzyl [1-14C]acetate as a potential probe for astrocytic energy metabolism in the rat brain: Comparison with benzyl [2-14C]acetate.

    PubMed

    Okada, Maki; Yanamoto, Kazuhiko; Kagawa, Tomohiko; Yoshino, Keiko; Hosoi, Rie; Abe, Kohji; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Inoue, Osamu

    2016-02-01

    Brain uptake of [(14)C]acetate has been reported to be a useful marker of astrocytic energy metabolism. In addition to uptake values, the rate of radiolabeled acetate washout from the brain appears to reflect CO2 exhaustion and oxygen consumption in astrocytes. We measured the time-radioactivity curves of benzyl [1-(14)C]acetate ([1-(14)C]BA), a lipophilic probe of [1-(14)C]acetate, and compared it with that of benzyl [2-(14)C]acetate ([2-(14)C]BA) in rat brains. The highest brain uptake was observed immediately after injecting either [1-(14)C]BA or [2-(14)C]BA, and both subsequently disappeared from the brain in a single-exponential manner. Estimated [1-(14)C]BA washout rates in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum were higher than those of [2-(14)C]BA. These results suggested that [1-(14)C]BA could be a useful probe for estimating the astrocytic oxidative metabolism. The [1-(14)C]BA washout rate in the cerebral cortex of immature rats was lower than that of mature rats. An autoradiographic study showed that the washout rates of [1-(14)C]BA from the rat brains of a lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus model were not significantly different from the values in control rat brains except for the medial septal nucleus. These results implied that the enhancement of amino acid turnover rate rather than astrocytic oxidative metabolism was increased in status epilepticus. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Potential Problems for Photovoltaic Packaging: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K. M.

    2006-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support, optical coupling, electrical isolation, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate, it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about ?15 C. Temperatures lower thanmore » this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Because of increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL 1703.« less

  18. 21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484f Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin sulfate equivalent to 3.5...

  19. 21 CFR 524.1484c - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate... TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484c Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ointment. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 5 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 3...

  20. 21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484f Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin sulfate equivalent to 3.5...

  1. 21 CFR 524.1484f - Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484f Neomycin sulfate, prednisolone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride eardrops. (a) Specifications. The product contains 5 milligrams of neomycin sulfate equivalent to 3.5...

  2. 21 CFR 524.1484c - Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate... TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484c Neomycin sulfate, isoflupredone acetate, tetracaine hydrochloride ointment. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 5 milligrams of neomycin sulfate (equivalent to 3...

  3. 78 FR 9925 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the... Health, and the Director, CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes... tuberculosis. Matters to Be Discussed: Agenda items include the following topics: (1) ACET Chair's report to...

  4. Effects of L-cysteine on lead acetate induced neurotoxicity in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Y I; Sayed, S S

    2016-07-01

    Lead is a toxic heavy metal that adversely affects nervous tissues; it often occurs as an environmental pollutant. We investigated histological changes in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of adult albino mice following exposure to lead acetate. We also studied the possible ameliorative effect of the chelating agent, L-cysteine, on lead-induced neurotoxicity. We divided albino mice into six groups: 1) vehicle-only control, 2) L-cysteine control, 3 and 4) treated for 7 days with 20 and 40 mg/kg lead acetate, respectively, and 5 and 6) treated for 7 days with 20 and 40 mg/kg lead acetate, respectively, followed by 50 mg/kg L-cysteine for 7 days. Lead acetate administration caused disorganization of cell layers, neuronal loss and degeneration, and neuropil vacuolization. Brain sections from lead-intoxicated mice treated with L-cysteine showed fewer pathological changes; the neuropil showed less vacuolization and the neurons appeared less damaged. L-cysteine at the dose we used only marginally alleviated lead-induced toxicity.

  5. Production of electricity from acetate or butyrate using a single-chamber microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Cheng, Shaoan; Logan, Bruce E

    2005-01-15

    Hydrogen can be recovered by fermentation of organic material rich in carbohydrates, but much of the organic matter remains in the form of acetate and butyrate. An alternative to methane production from this organic matter is the direct generation of electricity in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). Electricity generation using a single-chambered MFC was examined using acetate or butyrate. Power generated with acetate (800 mg/L) (506 mW/m2 or 12.7 mW/ L) was up to 66% higher than that fed with butyrate (1000 mg/L) (305 mW/m2 or 7.6 mW/L), demonstrating that acetate is a preferred aqueous substrate for electricity generation in MFCs. Power output as a function of substrate concentration was well described by saturation kinetics, although maximum power densities varied with the circuit load. Maximum power densities and half-saturation constants were Pmax = 661 mW/m2 and Ks = 141 mg/L for acetate (218 ohms) and Pmax = 349 mW/m2 and Ks = 93 mg/L for butyrate (1000 ohms). Similar open circuit potentials were obtained in using acetate (798 mV) or butyrate (795 mV). Current densities measured for stable power outputwere higher for acetate (2.2 A/m2) than those measured in MFCs using butyrate (0.77 A/m2). Cyclic voltammograms suggested that the main mechanism of power production in these batch tests was by direct transfer of electrons to the electrode by bacteria growing on the electrode and not by bacteria-produced mediators. Coulombic efficiencies and overall energy recovery were 10-31 and 3-7% for acetate and 8-15 and 2-5% for butyrate, indicating substantial electron and energy losses to processes other than electricity generation. These results demonstrate that electricity generation is possible from soluble fermentation end products such as acetate and butyrate, but energy recoveries should be increased to improve the overall process performance.

  6. Self-assembly of acetate adsorbates drives atomic rearrangement on the Au(110) surface

    DOE PAGES

    Hiebel, Fanny; Shong, Bonggeun; Chen, Wei; ...

    2016-10-12

    Weak inter-adsorbate interactions are shown to play a crucial role in determining surface structure, with major implications for its catalytic reactivity. This is exemplified here in the case of acetate bound to Au(110), where the small extra energy of the van der Waals interactions among the surface-bound groups drives massive restructuring of the underlying Au. Acetate is a key intermediate in electro-oxidation of CO 2 and a poison in partial oxidation reactions. Metal atom migration originates at surface defects and is likely facilitated by weakened Au–Au interactions due to bonding with the acetate. Even though the acetate is a relativelymore » small molecule, weak intermolecular interaction provides the energy required for molecular self-assembly and reorganization of the metal surface.« less

  7. Practical Stannylation of Allyl Acetates Catalyzed by Nickel with Bu3 SnOMe.

    PubMed

    Komeyama, Kimihiro; Itai, Yuuhei; Takaki, Ken

    2016-06-27

    A practical and scalable nickel-catalyzed allylic stannylation of allyl acetates with Bu3 SnOMe is described. A variety of acyclic and cyclic allyl acetates, even with base-sensitive moieties, undergoes the stannylation by using NiBr2 /4,4'-di-tert-butylbipyridine (dtbpy)/Mn catalyst system to afford highly functionalized allyl stannanes with excellent regioselectivity and yields. Furthermore, the scope of protocol is also extended by the reaction of propargyl acetates, giving rise to propargyl or allenyl stannanes. Additionally, a unique diastereoselectivity using the nickel catalyst different from the palladium was demonstrated for the stannylation of cyclic allyl acetates. In the reaction, inexpensive and stable nickel complexes, abundant reductant (Mn), and atom-economical stannyl source were used. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Silver acetate interactions with nicotine and non-nicotine smoke components.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jed E; Behm, Frédérique M; Murugesan, Thangaraju; McClernon, F Joseph

    2010-12-01

    Oral topical silver-containing formulations were marketed in the 1970s and 1980s as smoking deterrents, based on the finding that when using such formulations, an unpleasant taste occurs upon smoking. This approach has not been widely adopted, however, in part because of a lack of efficacy data. The advent of new pharmacologic treatments for smoking cessation renews the possibility that such a taste aversion approach may be a useful adjunct to smoking cessation treatment. This study explored the basic mechanistic question of whether topical oral silver acetate solution interacts with nicotine as opposed to non-nicotine smoke constituents. We recruited 20 smoking volunteers to rate nicotine-containing or denicotinized cigarettes, as well as the Nicotrol nicotine vapor inhaler and sham (air) puffs. In two sessions, subjects rated the sensory and hedonic qualities of puffs after rinsing their mouths with either silver acetate solution or deionized water (placebo). Silver acetate relative to placebo solution substantially reduced liking and satisfaction ratings for the usual brand and denicotinized cigarettes; in contrast, for the nicotine inhaler these ratings were unaffected by the silver-based treatment. These results support the conclusion that silver acetate not only renders the taste of cigarette smoke less appealing, but also that the compound appears to interact selectively with non-nicotine smoke constituents. Moreover, these data suggest silver acetate would be compatible with buccal nicotine delivery systems (e.g., nicotine lozenge or gum). Combined use of taste aversion with nicotine replacement therapy could provide the smoker with additional assistance to resist relapse. Further exploration is warranted of the use of silver-based preparations as a short-term adjunct to smoking cessation treatment. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. 40 CFR 721.303 - Substituted acetate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 721.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.303 Substituted acetate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...

  10. Acetate supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Reisenauer, Chris J.; Bhatt, Dhaval P.; Mitteness, Dane J.; Slanczka, Evan R.; Gienger, Heidi M.; Watt, John A.; Rosenberger, Thad A.

    2011-01-01

    Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of 6g/kg by oral gavage. In parallel experiments free-CoA and acetyl-CoA levels were measured in microwave fixed brains and flash frozen heart, liver, kidney and muscle following a single oral dose of GTA. We found that a single oral dose of GTA significantly increased plasma acetate levels by 15 min and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. At 30 min the acetyl-CoA levels in microwave-fixed brain and flash frozen heart and liver were increased at least 2.2-fold. The concentrations of brain acetyl-CoA was significantly increased between 30 and 45 min following treatment and remained elevated for up to 4 hr. The concentration of free-CoA in brain was significantly decreased compared to controls at 240 min. Immunohistochemical and morphological analysis demonstrated that a daily treatment with GTA significantly reduced the percentage of reactive GFAP-positive astrocytes and activated CD11b-positive microglia by 40–50% in rats subjected to LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Further, in rats subjected to neuroinflammation, GTA significantly increased the number of ChAT-positive cells by 40% in the basal forebrain compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that acetate supplementation increases intermediary short chain acetyl-CoA metabolism and that treatment is potentially anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective with regards to attenuating neuroglial activation and increasing ChAT immunoreactivity in this model. PMID:21272004

  11. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... other food categories. The ingredient may also be used in boiler water additives at levels not to exceed... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  12. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) reversed the lead acetate induced -- damage on reproductive function in male rats.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Julio; Riqueros, Marissa I; Gasco, Manuel; Yucra, Sandra; Miranda, Sara; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2006-07-01

    Rats were treated with 0, 8, 16 and 24 mg/kg of lead acetate (LA) (i.p.) for 35 days with or without Maca. Maca was co-administrated orally from day 18 to day 35. The lengths of stages of the seminiferous epithelium were assessed by transillumination. Also, sex organ weights, testicular and epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, daily sperm production, sperm transit rate and serum testosterone levels were measured. Lead acetate treatment resulted in a dose-response reduction of lengths of stages VIII and IX-XI, and serum testosterone levels. However, rats treated with 8 and 16 mg/kg but not 24 mg/kg of lead acetate showed a low number of testicular spermatids, low daily sperm production (DSP) and low epididymal sperm count. Administration of Maca to rats treated with lead acetate resulted in higher lengths of stages VIII and IX-XI with respect to lead acetate-treated rats. Moreover, treatment with Maca to lead acetate-treated rats resulted in lengths of stages VIII and IX-XI similar to the control group. Maca administration also reduced the deleterious effect on DSP caused by lead acetate treatment. Maca prevented LA-induced spermatogenic disruption in rats and it may become in a potential treatment of male infertility associated with lead exposure.

  13. Crystal structures of two solvates of (18-crown-6)potassium acetate.

    PubMed

    Liebing, Phil; Zaeni, Ahmad; Olbrich, Falk; Edelmann, Frank T

    2016-12-01

    The crystal and mol-ecular strutures of two solvated forms of [K(18 c 6)]OAc (18 c 6 = 18-crown-6 = 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexa-oxa-cyclo-octa-decane and OAc = acetate) were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, namely (acetato-κ 2 O , O ')(1,4,7,10,13,16-hexa-oxa-cyclo-octa-decane-κ 6 O )potassium dihydrate, [K(CH 3 COO)(C 12 H 24 O 6 )]·2H 2 O ( 1 ) and (acetato-κ 2 O , O ')aqua-(1,4,7,10,13,16-hexa-oxa-cyclo-octa-decane-κ 6 O )potassium acetic acid monosolvate [K(CH 3 COO)(C 12 H 24 O 6 )(H 2 O)]·CH 3 COOH ( 2 ). In both compounds, the acetate anion is bonded to the potassium ion in a chelating fashion and the metal atom is consequently slightly displaced from the O 6 plane of the crown ether. In the crystals, O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds lead to a polymeric ladder structure in the dihydrate 1 , while the acetic acid hydrate 2 features inversion dimers.

  14. Thermal stability of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) based materials

    DOE PAGES

    Patel, Mogon; Pitts, Simon; Beavis, Peter; ...

    2013-03-26

    The thermal stability properties of poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) composites have been studied in support of our core programmes in materials qualification and life assessment. The material is used as a binder phase for boron particles in highly filled (70 wt %) composites. Our studies show that the uncured resin readily accumulates acetic acid through hydrolysis of the pendent acetate groups which alters the acidity (pH) of the material. Thermal desorption studies in combination with gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry show that the resin readily evolves acetic acid when thermally aged to temperatures up to 75°C. Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) suggests that thermal ageingmore » induces a gradual reduction in resin molecular weight and confirms the susceptibility of the material to chain scission. Heating at elevated temperatures in excess of 300oC is required to induce significant changes in the carbon skeleton through deacetylation and dehydration processes and the production of unsaturated main chain double bonds. Overall, the mechanical response of these filled composites are found to be relatively complex with the extent of polymer-filler interactions possibly playing an important role in determining key engineering properties. Mechanical property studies confirm a small but significant decrease in modulus presumably linked to thermally induced chain scission of the EVA binder.« less

  15. Continuous production of biodiesel under supercritical methyl acetate conditions: Experimental investigation and kinetic model.

    PubMed

    Farobie, Obie; Matsumura, Yukihiko

    2017-10-01

    In this study, biodiesel production by using supercritical methyl acetate in a continuous flow reactor was investigated for the first time. The aim of this study was to elucidate the reaction kinetics of biodiesel production by using supercritical methyl. Experiments were conducted at various reaction temperatures (300-400°C), residence times (5-30min), oil-to-methyl acetate molar ratio of 1:40, and a fixed pressure of 20MPa. Reaction kinetics of biodiesel production with supercritical methyl acetate was determined. Finally, biodiesel yield obtained from this method was compared to that obtained with supercritical methanol, ethanol, and MTBE (methyl tertiary-butyl ether). The results showed that biodiesel yield with supercritical methyl acetate increased with temperature and time. The developed kinetic model was found to fit the experimental data well. The reactivity of supercritical methyl acetate was the lowest, followed by that of supercritical MTBE, ethanol, and methanol, under the same conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Vacuum ultraviolet and infrared spectra of condensed methyl acetate on cold astrochemical dust analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Sivaraman, B.; Nair, B. G.; Mason, N. J.

    2013-12-01

    Following the recent report of the first identification of methyl acetate (CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}) in the interstellar medium (ISM), we have carried out vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy studies on methyl acetate from 10 K until sublimation in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber simulating astrochemical conditions. We present the first VUV and IR spectra of methyl acetate relevant to ISM conditions. Spectral signatures clearly showed molecular reorientation to have started in the ice by annealing the amorphous ice formed at 10 K. An irreversible phase change from amorphous to crystalline methyl acetate ice was found to occur between 110more » K and 120 K.« less

  17. Physicochemical properties and ion-solvent interactions in aqueous sodium, ammonium, and lead acetate solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deosarkar, S. D.; Mendkudle, M. S.

    2014-09-01

    Densities (ρ), viscosities (η) and refractive indices ( n D) of aqueous sodium acetate (SA), ammonium acetate (AA), and lead acetate (LA) solutions have been measured for different concentrations of salts at 302.15 K. Apparent molar volumes (φv) for studied solutions were calculated from density data, and fitted to Masson's relation and partial molar volume (φ{v/o}) was determined. Viscosity data were fitted to Jones-Dole equation and viscosity A- and B-coefficients were determined. Refractive index and density data were fitted to Lorentz and Lorenz equation and specific refraction ( R D) were calculated. Behavior of various physicochemical properties indicated presence of strong ion-solvent interactions in present systems and the acetate salts structure maker in water.

  18. Anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects of triterpene cinnamates and acetates from shea fat.

    PubMed

    Akihisa, Toshihiro; Kojima, Nobuo; Kikuchi, Takashi; Yasukawa, Ken; Tokuda, Harukuni; T Masters, Eliot; Manosroi, Aranya; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2010-01-01

    Four triterpene acetates, alpha-amyrin acetate (1a), beta-amyrin acetate (2a), lupeol acetate (3a), and butyrospermol acetate (4a), and four triterpene cinnamates, alpha-amyrin cinnamate (1c), beta-amyrin cinnamate (2c), lupeol cinnamate (3c), and butyrospermol cinnamate (4c), were isolated from the kernel fat (n-hexane extract) of the shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa; Sapotaceae). Upon evaluation of these eight triterpene esters for inhibitory activity against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation (1 microg/ear) in mice, all of the compounds tested exhibited marked anti-inflammatory activity, with ID50 values in the range of 0.15-0.75 micromol/ear, and among which compound 3c showed the highest activity with ID(50) of 0.15 micromol/ear. Compound 3c (10 mg/kg) further exhibited anti-inflammatory activity on rat hind paw edema induced by carrageenan, with the percentage of inflammation at 1, 3, and 5 h of 35.4, 41.5, and 45.5%, respectively. The eight triterpene esters were then evaluated for their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) in Raji cells as a primary screening test for inhibitors of tumor promoters. All the compounds showed moderate inhibitory effects. Furthermore, compound 3c exhibited inhibitory effect on skin tumor promotion in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test using 7,12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA) as an initiator and TPA as a promoter. The biological activities of triterpene acetate and cinnamate esters, together with the exceptionally high levels of these triterpenes in shea fat, indicate that shea nuts and shea fat (shea butter) constitute a significant source of anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor promoting compounds.

  19. Comparison of dienogest versus triptorelin acetate in premenopausal women with adenomyosis: a prospective clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Fawzy, Muhammad; Mesbah, Yasser

    2015-12-01

    To compare the efficacy of the oral dienogest versus triptorelin acetate injection for treatment of premenopausal menorrhagia and pelvic pains in women with uterine adenomyosis. A total of 41 patients with adenomyosis suffering from pelvic pains and menorrhagia were recruited. First group was managed with oral dienogest (2 mg/day, orally) while the second group received triptorelin acetate (3.75 mg/4 weeks, subcutaneous injection) for 16 weeks. Outpatient follow-up was undertaken after 8 weeks but mean values were calculated at baseline and after 16 weeks (end of treatment). A total of 41 women were allocated to treatment with dienogest (n = 22) or triptorelin acetate (n = 19); 19 (86.4 %) and 18 (94.7 %) % of the respective groups completed the trial. Significant reductions in pelvic pains after 16 weeks treatment were obtained in both groups demonstrating the equivalence of dienogest relative to triptorelin acetate. Triptorelin acetate was more effective in controlling of menorrhagia and reduction of uterine volume. Dienogest may be a valuable alternative to depot triptorelin acetate for treatment of premenopausal pelvic pains in women with uterine adenomyosis.

  20. Megestrol acetate in cachexia and anorexia

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Shing-shing; Schuster, Michael W

    2006-01-01

    The aim is to review major clinical trials that have used megestrol acetate (MA) in the treatment of cachexia across several disease states. A review of general usage and potential side-effects are discussed. A theory that the newly approved nanocrystal formation of MA can better deliver this potent medication for treatment will also be reviewed. PMID:17722275

  1. Isolation of acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria from biogas plants.

    PubMed

    Cibis, Katharina Gabriela; Gneipel, Armin; König, Helmut

    2016-02-20

    In this study, acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria were isolated from thermophilic and mesophilic biogas plants (BGP) located in Germany. The fermenters were fed with maize silage and cattle or swine manure. Furthermore, pressurized laboratory fermenters digesting maize silage were sampled. Enrichment cultures for the isolation of acid-forming bacteria were grown in minimal medium supplemented with one of the following carbon sources: Na(+)-dl-lactate, succinate, ethanol, glycerol, glucose or a mixture of amino acids. These substrates could be converted by the isolates to acetic, propionic or butyric acid. In total, 49 isolates were obtained, which belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Tenericutes or Thermotogae. According to 16S rRNA gene sequences, most isolates were related to Clostridium sporosphaeroides, Defluviitoga tunisiensis and Dendrosporobacter quercicolus. Acetic, propionic or butyric acid were produced in cultures of isolates affiliated to Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Clostridium aminovalericum, Clostridium cochlearium/Clostridium tetani, C. sporosphaeroides, D. quercicolus, Proteiniborus ethanoligenes, Selenomonas bovis and Tepidanaerobacter sp. Isolates related to Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum produced acetic, butyric and lactic acid, and isolates related to D. tunisiensis formed acetic acid. Specific primer sets targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences were designed and used for real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The isolates were physiologically characterized and their role in BGP discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Producing Acetic Acid of Acetobacter pasteurianus by Fermentation Characteristics and Metabolic Flux Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuefeng; Yao, Hongli; Liu, Qing; Zheng, Zhi; Cao, Lili; Mu, Dongdong; Wang, Hualin; Jiang, Shaotong; Li, Xingjiang

    2018-03-19

    The acetic acid bacterium Acetobacter pasteurianus plays an important role in acetic acid fermentation, which involves oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid through the ethanol respiratory chain under specific conditions. In order to obtain more suitable bacteria for the acetic acid industry, A. pasteurianus JST-S screened in this laboratory was compared with A. pasteurianus CICC 20001, a current industrial strain in China, to determine optimal fermentation parameters under different environmental stresses. The maximum total acid content of A. pasteurianus JST-S was 57.14 ± 1.09 g/L, whereas that of A. pasteurianus CICC 20001 reached 48.24 ± 1.15 g/L in a 15-L stir stank. Metabolic flux analysis was also performed to compare the reaction byproducts. Our findings revealed the potential value of the strain in improvement of industrial vinegar fermentation.

  3. Avalanches in Mn12-Acetate: ``Magnetic Burning"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHugh, Sean; Suzuki, Y.; Graybill, D.; Sarachik, M. P.; Avraham, N.; Myasoedov, Y.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.; Bagai, R.; Chakov, N. E.; Christou, G.

    2006-03-01

    From local time-resolved measurements of fast reversal of the magnetization in single crystals of the molecular magnet Mn12-acetate, we have shown[1] that the magnetization avalanche spreads as a narrow interface that propagates through the crystal at a constant velocity roughly two orders of magnitude smaller than the speed of sound. This phenomenon is closely analogous to the propagation of a flame front (deflagration) through a flammable chemical substance. The propagation speed of the avalanche depends on the energy stored in each molecule, which can be controlled and tuned using an external magnetic field. We report studies of propagation speed with different external fields in Mn12-acetate. [1] Yoko Suzuki, M.P. Sarachik, E.M. Chudnovsky, S. McHugh, R. Gonzalez-Rubio, N. Avraham, Y. Myasoedov, H. Shtrikman, E. Zeldov, N.E. Chakov and G. Christou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 147201 (2005).

  4. Unraveling the Rat Intestine, Spleen and Liver Genome-Wide Transcriptome after the Oral Administration of Lavender Oil by a Two-Color Dye-Swap DNA Microarray Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Hiroko; Shibato, Junko; Saito, Tomomi; Ogawa, Tetsuo; Rakwal, Randeep; Shioda, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    The use of lavender oil (LO) – a commonly, used oil in aromatherapy, with well-defined volatile components linalool and linalyl acetate – in non-traditional medicine is increasing globally. To understand and demonstrate the potential positive effects of LO on the body, we have established an animal model in this current study, investigating the orally administered LO effects genome wide in the rat small intestine, spleen, and liver. The rats were administered LO at 5 mg/kg (usual therapeutic dose in humans) followed by the screening of differentially expressed genes in the tissues, using a 4×44-K whole-genome rat chip (Agilent microarray platform; Agilent Technologies, Palo Alto, CA, USA) in conjunction with a dye-swap approach, a novelty of this study. Fourteen days after LO treatment and compared with a control group (sham), a total of 156 and 154 up (≧ 1.5-fold)- and down (≦ 0.75-fold)-regulated genes, 174 and 66 up- (≧ 1.5-fold)- and down (≦ 0.75-fold)-regulated genes, and 222 and 322 up- (≧ 1.5-fold)- and down (≦ 0.75-fold)-regulated genes showed differential expression at the mRNA level in the small intestine, spleen and liver, respectively. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) validation of highly up- and down-regulated genes confirmed the regulation of the Papd4, Lrp1b, Alb, Cyr61, Cyp2c, and Cxcl1 genes by LO as examples in these tissues. Using bioinformatics, including Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), differentially expressed genes were functionally categorized by their Gene Ontology (GO) and biological function and network analysis, revealing their diverse functions and potential roles in LO-mediated effects in rat. Further IPA analysis in particular unraveled the presence of novel genes, such as Papd4, Or8k5, Gprc5b, Taar5, Trpc6, Pld2 and Onecut3 (up-regulated top molecules) and Tnf, Slc45a4, Slc25a23 and Samt4 (down-regulated top molecules), to be influenced by LO treatment in the small intestine, spleen and

  5. Effect of manganese ions on ethanol fermentation by xylose isomerase expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae under acetic acid stress.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ja Kyong; Um, Youngsoon; Lee, Sun-Mi

    2016-12-01

    The efficient fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates in the presence of inhibitors is highly desirable for bioethanol production. Among the inhibitors, acetic acid released during the pretreatment of lignocellulose negatively affects the fermentation performance of biofuel producing organisms. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of acetic acid on glucose and xylose fermentation by a high performance engineered strain of xylose utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SXA-R2P-E, harboring a xylose isomerase based pathway. The presence of acetic acid severely decreased the xylose fermentation performance of this strain. However, the acetic acid stress was alleviated by metal ion supplementation resulting in a 52% increased ethanol production rate under 2g/L of acetic acid stress. This study shows the inhibitory effect of acetic acid on an engineered isomerase-based xylose utilizing strain and suggests a simple but effective method to improve the co-fermentation performance under acetic acid stress for efficient bioethanol production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of clove essential oil and eugenyl acetate produced by enzymatic esterification.

    PubMed

    Vanin, Adriana B; Orlando, Tainara; Piazza, Suelen P; Puton, Bruna M S; Cansian, Rogério L; Oliveira, Debora; Paroul, Natalia

    2014-10-01

    This work reports the maximization of eugenyl acetate production by esterification of essential oil of clove in a solvent-free system using Novozym 435 as catalyst. The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of clove essential oil and eugenyl acetate produced were determined. The conditions that maximized eugenyl acetate production were 60 °C, essential oil of clove to acetic anhydride ratio of 1:5, 150 rpm, and 10 wt% of enzyme, with a conversion of 99.87 %. A kinetic study was performed to assess the influence of substrates' molar ratio, enzyme concentration, and temperature on product yield. Results show that an excess of anhydride, enzyme concentration of 5.5 wt%, 50 °C, and essential oil of clove to acetic anhydride ratio of 1:5 afforded nearly a complete conversion after 2 h of reaction. Comparing the antibacterial activity of the essential oil of clove before and after esterification, we observed a decrease in the antimicrobial activity of eugenyl acetate, particularly with regard to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Both eugenyl acetate and clove essential oil were most effective to the gram-negative than gram-positive bacteria group. The results showed a high antioxidant potential for essential oil before and particularly after the esterification reaction thus becoming an option for the formulation of new antioxidant products.

  7. Acetate- and thiol-capped monodisperse ruthenium nanoparticles: XPS, XAS, and HRTEM studies.

    PubMed

    Chakroune, Nassira; Viau, Guillaume; Ammar, Souad; Poul, Laurence; Veautier, Delphine; Chehimi, Mohamed M; Mangeney, Claire; Villain, Françoise; Fiévet, Fernand

    2005-07-19

    Monodisperse ruthenium nanoparticles were prepared by reduction of RuCl3 in 1,2-propanediol. The mean particle size was controlled by appropriate choice of the reduction temperature and the acetate ion concentration. Colloidal solutions in toluene were obtained by coating the metal particles with dodecanethiol. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS for the Ru K-absorption edge) were performed on particles of two different diameters, 2 and 4 nm, and in different environments, polyol/acetate or thiol. For particles stored in polyol/acetate XPS studies revealed superficial oxidation limited to one monolayer and a surface coating containing mostly acetate ions. Analysis of the EXAFS spectra showed both oxygen and ruthenium atoms around the ruthenium atoms with a Ru-Ru coordination number N smaller than the bulk value, as expected for fine particles. In the case of 2 nm acetate-capped particles N is consistent with particles made up of a metallic core and an oxidized monolayer. For 2 nm thiol-coated particles, a Ru-S bond was evidenced by XPS and XAS. For the 4 nm particles XANES and XPS studies showed that most of the ruthenium atoms are in the zerovalent state. Nevertheless, in both cases, when capped with thiol, the Ru-Ru coordination number inferred from EXAFS is much smaller than for particles of the same size stored in polyol. This is attributed to a structural disorganization of the particles by thiol chemisorption. HRTEM studies confirm the marked dependence of the structural properties of the ruthenium particles on their chemical environment; they show the acetate-coated particles to be single crystals, whereas the thiol-coated particles appear to be polycrystalline.

  8. [Comparative genomics and evolutionary analysis of CRISPR loci in acetic acid bacteria].

    PubMed

    Xia, Kai; Liang, Xin-le; Li, Yu-dong

    2015-12-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) is a widespread adaptive immunity system that exists in most archaea and many bacteria against foreign DNA, such as phages, viruses and plasmids. In general, CRISPR system consists of direct repeat, leader, spacer and CRISPR-associated sequences. Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role in industrial fermentation of vinegar and bioelectrochemistry. To investigate the polymorphism and evolution pattern of CRISPR loci in acetic acid bacteria, bioinformatic analyses were performed on 48 species from three main genera (Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter and Gluconobacter) with whole genome sequences available from the NCBI database. The results showed that the CRISPR system existed in 32 species of the 48 strains studied. Most of the CRISPR-Cas system in AAB belonged to type I CRISPR-Cas system (subtype E and C), but type II CRISPR-Cas system which contain cas9 gene was only found in the genus Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter. The repeat sequences of some CRISPR were highly conserved among species from different genera, and the leader sequences of some CRISPR possessed conservative motif, which was associated with regulated promoters. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis of cas1 demonstrated that they were suitable for classification of species. The conservation of cas1 genes was associated with that of repeat sequences among different strains, suggesting they were subjected to similar functional constraints. Moreover, the number of spacer was positively correlated with the number of prophages and insertion sequences, indicating the acetic acid bacteria were continually invaded by new foreign DNA. The comparative analysis of CRISR loci in acetic acid bacteria provided the basis for investigating the molecular mechanism of different acetic acid tolerance and genome stability in acetic acid bacteria.

  9. Acetate enhances startup of a H₂-producing microbial biocathode.

    PubMed

    Jeremiasse, Adriaan W; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Croese, Elsemiek; Buisman, Cees J N

    2012-03-01

    H(2) can be produced from organic matter with a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). To decrease MEC capital costs, a cathode is needed that is made of low-cost material and produces H(2) at high rate. A microbial biocathode is a low-cost candidate, but suffers from a long startup and a low H(2) production rate. In this study, the effects of cathode potential and carbon source on microbial biocathode startup were investigated. Application of a more negative cathode potential did not decrease the startup time of the biocathode. If acetate instead of bicarbonate was used as carbon source, the biocathode started up more than two times faster. The faster startup was likely caused by a higher biomass yield for acetate than for bicarbonate, which was supported by thermodynamic calculations. To increase the H(2) production rate, a flow through biocathode fed with acetate was investigated. This biocathode produced 2.2 m(3) H(2) m(-3)  reactor day(-1) at a cathode potential of -0.7 V versus NHE, which was seven times that of a parallel flow biocathode of a previous study. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Granisetron ameliorates acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Fakhfouri, Gohar; Rahimian, Reza; Daneshmand, Ali; Bahremand, Arash; Rasouli, Mohammad Reza; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Mousavizadeh, Kazem

    2010-04-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronically relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, of which the definite etiology remains ambiguous. Considering the adverse effects and incomplete efficacy of currently administered drugs, it is indispensable to explore new candidates with more desirable therapeutic profiles. 5-HT( 3) receptor antagonists have shown analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo. This study aims to investigate granisetron, a 5-HT( 3) receptor antagonist, in acetic acid-induced rat colitis and probable involvement of 5-HT(3) receptors. Colitis was rendered by instillation of 1 mL of 4% acetic acid (vol/vol) and after 1 hour, granisetron (2 mg/kg), dexamethasone (1 mg/kg), meta-chlorophenylbiguanide (mCPBG, 5 mg/kg), a 5-HT( 3) receptor agonist, or granisetron + mCPBG was given intraperitoneally. Twenty-four hours following colitis induction, animals were sacrificed and distal colons were assessed macroscopically, histologically and biochemically (malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6). Granisetron or dexamethasone significantly (p < .05) improved macroscopic and histologic scores, curtailed myeloperoxidase activity and diminished colonic levels of inflammatory cytokines and malondialdehyde. The protective effects of granisetron were reversed by concurrent administration of mCPBG. Our data suggests that the salutary effects of granisetron in acetic acid colitis could be mediated by 5-HT(3) receptors.

  11. Effects of the Acute and Chronic Ethanol Intoxication on Acetate Metabolism and Kinetics in the Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ya-Ju; Wu, Liang-Chih; Ke, Chien-Chih; Chang, Chi-Wei; Kuo, Jung-Wen; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Chen, Fu-Du; Yang, Bang-Hung; Tai, Hsiao-Ting; Chen, Sharon Chia-Ju; Liu, Ren-Shyan

    2018-02-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) intoxication inhibits glucose transport and decreases overall brain glucose metabolism; however, humans with long-term EtOH consumption were found to have a significant increase in [1- 11 C]-acetate uptake in the brain. The relationship between the cause and effect of [1- 11 C]-acetate kinetics and acute/chronic EtOH intoxication, however, is still unclear. [1- 11 C]-acetate positron emission tomography (PET) with dynamic measurement of K 1 and k 2 rate constants was used to investigate the changes in acetate metabolism in different brain regions of rats with acute or chronic EtOH intoxication. PET imaging demonstrated decreased [1- 11 C]-acetate uptake in rat brain with acute EtOH intoxication, but this increased with chronic EtOH intoxication. Tracer uptake rate constant K 1 and clearance rate constant k 2 were decreased in acutely intoxicated rats. No significant change was noted in K 1 and k 2 in chronic EtOH intoxication, although 6 of 7 brain regions showed slightly higher k 2 than baseline. These results indicate that acute EtOH intoxication accelerated acetate transport and metabolism in the rat brain, whereas chronic EtOH intoxication status showed no significant effect. In vivo PET study confirmed the modulatory role of EtOH, administered acutely or chronically, in [1- 11 C]-acetate kinetics and metabolism in the rat brain. Acute EtOH intoxication may inhibit the transport and metabolism of acetate in the brain, whereas chronic EtOH exposure may lead to the adaptation of the rat brain to EtOH in acetate utilization. [1- 11 C]-acetate PET imaging is a feasible approach to study the effect of EtOH on acetate metabolism in rat brain. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  12. Guiding principle for crystalline Si photovoltaic modules with high tolerance to acetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Atsushi; Hara, Yukiko

    2018-04-01

    A guiding principle for highly reliable crystalline Si photovoltaic modules, especially those with high tolerance to acetic acid generated by hydrolysis reaction between water vapor and an ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulant, is proposed. Degradation behavior evaluated by the damp heat test strongly depends on Ag finger electrodes and also EVA encapsulants. The acetic acid concentration in EVA on the glass side directly determines the degradation behavior. The most important factor for high tolerance is the type of Ag finger electrode materials when using an EVA encapsulant. Photovoltaic modules using newly developed crystalline Si cells with improved Ag finger electrode materials keep their maximum power of 80% of the initial value even after the damp heat test at 85 °C and 85% relative humidity for 10000 h. The pattern of dark regions in electroluminescence images is also discussed on the basis of the dynamics of acetic acid in the modules.

  13. Reactivity and reaction intermediates for acetic acid adsorbed on CeO 2(111)

    DOE PAGES

    Calaza, Florencia C.; Chen, Tsung -Liang; Mullins, David R.; ...

    2015-05-02

    Adsorption and reaction of acetic acid on a CeO 2(1 1 1) surface was studied by a combination of ultra-highvacuum based methods including temperature desorption spectroscopy (TPD), soft X-ray photoelectronspectroscopy (sXPS), near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and reflection absorption IRspectroscopy (RAIRS), together with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. TPD shows that thedesorption products are strongly dependent upon the initial oxidation state of the CeO 2 surface, includingselectivity between acetone and acetaldehyde products. The combination of sXPS and NEXAFS demon-strate that acetate forms upon adsorption at low temperature and is stable to above 500 K, above whichpoint ketene, acetone andmore » acetic acid desorb. Furthermore, DFT and RAIRS show that below 500 K, bridge bondedacetate coexists with a moiety formed by adsorption of an acetate at an oxygen vacancy, formed bywater desorption.« less

  14. Chemical Diversity in Basil (Ocimum sp.) Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Andréa Santos; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; de Carvalho Filho, José Luiz Sandes; de Santana, Aléa Dayane Dantas; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to chemically characterize 31 accessions and seven cultivars of basil. The percentage composition of the essential oils of the accessions and cultivars was based on the 14 most abundant constituents: 1,8-cineole, linalool, methyl chavicol, neral, nerol, geraniol, geranial, methyl cinnamate, β-bourbonene, methyl eugenol, α-trans-bergamotene, germacrene-D, epi-α-cadinol, and δ-cadinene. The genetic materials were classified into eight clusters according to the chemical composition of the essential oils: Cluster 1—mostly linalool and 1,8-cineole; Cluster 2—mostly linalool, geraniol, and α-trans-bergamotene; Cluster 3—mostly linalool, methyl chavicol, methyl cinnamate, and β-bourbonene; Cluster 4—mostly linalool, methyl chavicol, epi-α-cadinol, and α-trans-bergamotene; Cluster 5—mainly linalool, methyl eugenol, α-trans-bergamotene, and epi-α-cadinol; Cluster 6—mainly linalool, geraniol, and epi-α-cadinol; Cluster 7—mostly linalool and methyl chavicol; Cluster 8—mainly geranial and neral. PMID:25629084

  15. Triacetin-based acetate supplementation as a chemotherapeutic adjuvant therapy in glioma.

    PubMed

    Tsen, Andrew R; Long, Patrick M; Driscoll, Heather E; Davies, Matthew T; Teasdale, Benjamin A; Penar, Paul L; Pendlebury, William W; Spees, Jeffrey L; Lawler, Sean E; Viapiano, Mariano S; Jaworski, Diane M

    2014-03-15

    Cancer is associated with epigenetic (i.e., histone hypoacetylation) and metabolic (i.e., aerobic glycolysis) alterations. Levels of N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA), the primary storage form of acetate in the brain, and aspartoacylase (ASPA), the enzyme responsible for NAA catalysis to generate acetate, are reduced in glioma; yet, few studies have investigated acetate as a potential therapeutic agent. This preclinical study sought to test the efficacy of the food additive Triacetin (glyceryl triacetate, GTA) as a novel therapy to increase acetate bioavailability in glioma cells. The growth-inhibitory effects of GTA, compared to the histone deacetylase inhibitor Vorinostat (SAHA), were assessed in established human glioma cell lines (HOG and Hs683 oligodendroglioma, U87 and U251 glioblastoma) and primary tumor-derived glioma stem-like cells (GSCs), relative to an oligodendrocyte progenitor line (Oli-Neu), normal astrocytes, and neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro. GTA was also tested as a chemotherapeutic adjuvant with temozolomide (TMZ) in orthotopically grafted GSCs. GTA-induced cytostatic growth arrest in vitro comparable to Vorinostat, but, unlike Vorinostat, GTA did not alter astrocyte growth and promoted NSC expansion. GTA alone increased survival of mice engrafted with glioblastoma GSCs and potentiated TMZ to extend survival longer than TMZ alone. GTA was most effective on GSCs with a mesenchymal cell phenotype. Given that GTA has been chronically administered safely to infants with Canavan disease, a leukodystrophy due to ASPA mutation, GTA-mediated acetate supplementation may provide a novel, safe chemotherapeutic adjuvant to reduce the growth of glioma tumors, most notably the more rapidly proliferating, glycolytic and hypoacetylated mesenchymal glioma tumors. © 2013 UICC.

  16. Triacetin-based acetate supplementation as a chemotherapeutic adjuvant therapy in glioma

    PubMed Central

    Tsen, Andrew R.; Long, Patrick M.; Driscoll, Heather E.; Davies, Matthew T.; Teasdale, Benjamin A.; Penar, Paul L.; Pendlebury, William W.; Spees, Jeffrey L.; Lawler, Sean E.; Viapiano, Mariano S.; Jaworski, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is associated with epigenetic (i.e., histone hypoacetylation) and metabolic (i.e., aerobic glycolysis) alterations. Levels of N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA), the primary storage form of acetate in the brain, and aspartoacylase (ASPA), the enzyme responsible for NAA catalysis to generate acetate, are reduced in glioma; yet, few studies have investigated acetate as a potential therapeutic agent. This preclinical study sought to test the efficacy of the food additive Triacetin (glyceryl triacetate, GTA) as a novel therapy to increase acetate bioavailability in glioma cells. The growth-inhibitory effects of GTA, compared to the histone deacetylase inhibitor Vorinostat (SAHA), were assessed in established human glioma cell lines (HOG and Hs683 oligodendroglioma, U87 and U251 glioblastoma) and primary tumor-derived glioma stem-like cells (GSCs), relative to an oligodendrocyte progenitor line (Oli-Neu), normal astrocytes, and neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro. GTA was also tested as a chemotherapeutic adjuvant with temozolomide (TMZ) in orthotopically grafted GSCs. GTA induced cytostatic growth arrest in vitro comparable to Vorinostat, but, unlike Vorinostat, GTA did not alter astrocyte growth and promoted NSC expansion. GTA alone increased survival of mice engrafted with glioblastoma GSCs and potentiated TMZ to extend survival longer than TMZ alone. GTA was most effective on GSCs with a mesenchymal cell phenotype. Given that GTA has been chronically administered safely to infants with Canavan disease, a leukodystrophy due to ASPA mutation, GTA-mediated acetate supplementation may provide a novel, safe chemotherapeutic adjuvant to reduce the growth of glioma tumors, most notably the more rapidly proliferating, glycolytic, and hypoacetylated mesenchymal glioma tumors. PMID:23996800

  17. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from microalgal oil using ethyl acetate as an acyl acceptor.

    PubMed

    Alavijeh, Razieh Shafiee; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Tavakoli, Omid; Karkhane, Aliasghar; Shariati, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have become an important source of biomass for biodiesel production. In enzymatic transesterification reaction, the enzyme activity is decreased in presence of alcohols. The use of different acyl acceptors such as methyl/ethyl acetate is suggested as an alternative and effective way to overcome this problem. In this study, ethyl acetate was used for the first time in the enzymatic production of biodiesel by using microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, as a triglyceride source. Enzymatic conversion of such fatty acids to biodiesel was catalyzed by Novozym 435 as an efficient immobilized lipase which is extensively used in biodiesel production. The best conversion yield of 66.71% was obtained at the ethyl acetate to oil molar ratio of 13:1 and Novozym 435 concentration of 40%, based on the amount of oil, and a time period of 72 h at 40℃. The results showed that ethyl acetate have no adverse effect on lipase activity and the biodiesel amount was not decreased even after seven transesterification cycles, so ethyl acetate has a great potential to be substituted for short-chain alcohols in transesterification reaction.

  18. Acetate supplementation as a means of inducing glioblastoma stem-like cell growth arrest.

    PubMed

    Long, Patrick M; Tighe, Scott W; Driscoll, Heather E; Fortner, Karen A; Viapiano, Mariano S; Jaworski, Diane M

    2015-08-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary adult malignant brain tumor, is associated with a poor prognosis due, in part, to tumor recurrence mediated by chemotherapy and radiation resistant glioma stem-like cells (GSCs). The metabolic and epigenetic state of GSCs differs from their non-GSC counterparts, with GSCs exhibiting greater glycolytic metabolism and global hypoacetylation. However, little attention has been focused on the potential use of acetate supplementation as a therapeutic approach. N-acetyl-l-aspartate (NAA), the primary storage form of brain acetate, and aspartoacylase (ASPA), the enzyme responsible for NAA catalysis, are significantly reduced in GBM tumors. We recently demonstrated that NAA supplementation is not an appropriate therapeutic approach since it increases GSC proliferation and pursued an alternative acetate source. The FDA approved food additive Triacetin (glyceryl triacetate, GTA) has been safely used for acetate supplementation therapy in Canavan disease, a leukodystrophy due to ASPA mutation. This study characterized the effects of GTA on the proliferation and differentiation of six primary GBM-derived GSCs relative to established U87 and U251 GBM cell lines, normal human cerebral cortical astrocytes, and murine neural stem cells. GTA reduced proliferation of GSCs greater than established GBM lines. Moreover, GTA reduced growth of the more aggressive mesenchymal GSCs greater than proneural GSCs. Although sodium acetate induced a dose-dependent reduction of GSC growth, it also reduced cell viability. GTA-mediated growth inhibition was not associated with differentiation, but increased protein acetylation. These data suggest that GTA-mediated acetate supplementation is a novel therapeutic strategy to inhibit GSC growth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Acetate supplementation as a means of inducing glioblastoma stem-like cell growth arrest

    PubMed Central

    Long, Patrick M.; Tighe, Scott W.; Driscoll, Heather E.; Fortner, Karen A.; Viapiano, Mariano S.; Jaworski, Diane M.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary adult malignant brain tumor, is associated with a poor prognosis due, in part, to tumor recurrence mediated by chemotherapy and radiation resistant glioma stem-like cells (GSCs). The metabolic and epigenetic state of GSCs differs from their non-GSC counterparts, with GSCs exhibiting greater glycolytic metabolism and global hypoacetylation. However, little attention has been focused on the potential use of acetate supplementation as a therapeutic approach. N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA), the primary storage form of brain acetate, and aspartoacylase (ASPA), the enzyme responsible for NAA catalysis, are significantly reduced in GBM tumors. We recently demonstrated that NAA supplementation is not an appropriate therapeutic approach since it increases GSC proliferation and pursued an alternative acetate source. The FDA approved food additive Triacetin (glyceryl triacetate, GTA) has been safely used for acetate supplementation therapy in Canavan disease, a leukodystrophy due to ASPA mutation. This study characterized the effects of GTA on the proliferation and differentiation of six primary GBM-derived GSCs relative to established U87 and U251 GBM cell lines, normal human cerebral cortical astrocytes, and murine neural stem cells. GTA reduced proliferation of GSCs greater than established GBM lines. Moreover, GTA reduced growth of the more aggressive mesenchymal GSCs greater than proneural GSCs. Although sodium acetate induced a dose-dependent reduction of GSC growth, it also reduced cell viability. GTA-mediated growth inhibition was not associated with differentiation, but increased protein acetylation. These data suggest that GTA-mediated acetate supplementation is a novel therapeutic strategy to inhibit GSC growth. PMID:25573156

  20. Pomegranate juice adulteration by addition of grape or peach juices.

    PubMed

    Nuncio-Jáuregui, Nallely; Calín-Sánchez, Ángel; Hernández, Francisca; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2014-03-15

    Pomegranate juice has gained a high reputation for its health properties and consequently is now a highly demanded product. However, owing to the limited production and high price of fresh pomegranates, adulteration of pomegranate juice seems to be happening. Hence it is imperative to establish criteria for detecting adulteration. Addition of grape juice significantly increased the contents of Ca, Mg and Fe and especially tartaric acid and proline and simultaneously decreased the content of K. Addition of peach juice up to 10% (v/v) only resulted in a significant increase in sucrose content. Regarding the volatile composition, adulteration of pomegranate juice with grape juice resulted in significant increases in acetic acid, isoamyl butyrate and especially 1-hexanol and linalool, while adulteration with peach juice resulted in significant increases in butyl acetate, isobutyl butyrate, benzyl acetate and especially isoamyl butyrate. The control protocols used in this study can serve as a basis for identification of pomegranate juice adulteration. It is important to highlight that it is necessary to simultaneously analyze and have results from several parameters to conclude that a particular pomegranate juice has been adulterated by mixing with another fruit juice. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. [Profile-effect on quality control of Houttuynia cordata injection].

    PubMed

    Lu, Hong-mei; Liang, Yi-zeng; Qian, Pin

    2005-12-01

    To find corresponding relationship between the fingerprint of Houttuynia cordata injections from different factories and their effects. Houttuynia cordata injections from six different factories were determined by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectra (GC-MS), and GC fingerprints were classified by hierarchical clustering. The anti-inflammatory activity of Houttuynia cordata injections was characterized through the rat pleurisy model induced by carrageenin and the mice ear edema model by dimethylbenzene. The anti-inflammatory effect of the injections from the first class factories on the two model was significant, while those from the second class not. GC-MS analysis result indicated that main effect compounds in Houttuynia cordata injections are methyl n-nonyl ketone, decanoylacetaldehyde, lauryl aldehyde, capryl aldehyde, beta-pinene, beta-linalool, 1-nonanol, 4-terpineol, alpha-terpineol, bornyl acetate, n-decanoic acid and acetic acid, geraniol ester etc. There is corresponding relationship between the fingerprint of Houttuynia cordata injections and effect to a certain extent.

  2. Insights into Acetate Toxicity in Zymomonas mobilis 8b using Different Substrates

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Shihui; Franden, M. A.; Brown, S. D.; ...

    2014-09-30

    The lignocellulosic biomass is a promising renewable feedstock for biofuel production. Acetate is one of the major inhibitors liberated from hemicelluloses during hydrolysis. Likewise, an understanding of the toxic effects of acetate on the fermentation microorganism and the efficient utilization of mixed sugars of glucose and xylose in the presence of hydrolysate inhibitors is crucial for economic biofuel production.

  3. Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate

    DOEpatents

    Caimi, Perry G.; Chou, Yat-Chen; Franden, Mary Ann; Knoke, Kyle; Tao, Luan; Viitanen, Paul V.; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yuying

    2010-09-28

    Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in medium comprising xylose and acetate.

  4. Acetate in mixotrophic growth medium affects photosystem II in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and protects against photoinhibition.

    PubMed

    Roach, Thomas; Sedoud, Arezki; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja

    2013-10-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a photoautotrophic green alga, which can be grown mixotrophically in acetate-supplemented media (Tris-acetate-phosphate). We show that acetate has a direct effect on photosystem II (PSII). As a consequence, Tris-acetate-phosphate-grown mixotrophic C. reinhardtii cultures are less susceptible to photoinhibition than photoautotrophic cultures when subjected to high light. Spin-trapping electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that thylakoids from mixotrophic C. reinhardtii produced less (1)O2 than those from photoautotrophic cultures. The same was observed in vivo by measuring DanePy oxalate fluorescence quenching. Photoinhibition can be induced by the production of (1)O2 originating from charge recombination events in photosystem II, which are governed by the midpoint potentials (Em) of the quinone electron acceptors. Thermoluminescence indicated that the Em of the primary quinone acceptor (QA/QA(-)) of mixotrophic cells was stabilised while the Em of the secondary quinone acceptor (QB/QB(-)) was destabilised, therefore favouring direct non-radiative charge recombination events that do not lead to (1)O2 production. Acetate treatment of photosystem II-enriched membrane fragments from spinach led to the same thermoluminescence shifts as observed in C. reinhardtii, showing that acetate exhibits a direct effect on photosystem II independent from the metabolic state of a cell. A change in the environment of the non-heme iron of acetate-treated photosystem II particles was detected by low temperature electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. We hypothesise that acetate replaces the bicarbonate associated to the non-heme iron and changes the environment of QA and QB affecting photosystem II charge recombination events and photoinhibition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-02-17

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85 and 200 C and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

  6. Impact of acetic acid concentration, application volume, and adjuvants on weed control efficacy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vinegar has been identified as a potential organic herbicide, yet additional information is needed to determine the influence of acetic acid concentration, application volume, and adjuvants on weed control. Acetic acid is a contact herbicide, injuring and killing plants by first destroying the cell ...

  7. Tolerance to acetic acid is improved by mutations of the TATA-binding protein gene.

    PubMed

    An, Jieun; Kwon, Hyeji; Kim, Eunjung; Lee, Young Mi; Ko, Hyeok Jin; Park, Hongjae; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Sooah; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Kim, Wankee; Choi, Wonja

    2015-03-01

    Screening a library of overexpressing mutant alleles of the TATA-binding gene SPT15 yielded two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (MRRC 3252 and 3253) with enhanced tolerance to acetic acid. They were also tolerant to propionic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Transcriptome profile analysis identified 58 upregulated genes and 106 downregulated genes in MRRC 3252. Stress- and protein synthesis-related transcription factors were predominantly enriched in the upregulated and downregulated genes respectively. Eight deletion mutants for some of the highly downregulated genes were acetic acid-tolerant. The level of intracellular reactive oxygen species was considerably lessened in MRRC 3252 and 3253 upon exposure to acetic acid. Metabolome profile analysis revealed that intracellular concentrations of 5 and 102 metabolites were increased and decreased, respectively, in MRRC 3252, featuring a large increase of urea and a significant decrease of amino acids. The dur1/2Δmutant, in which the urea degradation gene DUR1/2 is deleted, displayed enhanced tolerance to acetic acid. Enhanced tolerance to acetic acid was also observed on the medium containing a low concentration of amino acids. Taken together, this study identified two SPT15 alleles, nine gene deletions and low concentration of amino acids in the medium that confer enhanced tolerance to acetic acid. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Cyproterone acetate in treatment of precocious puberty.

    PubMed Central

    Kauli, R; Pertzelan, A; Prager-Lewin, R; Grünebaum, M; Laron, Z

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-nine children (23 girls, 6 boys) with precocious puberty were treated with cyproterone acetate for various periods of time ranging from 6 months to 3 years 4 months. They received an oral dose ranging from 70-150 mg/m2 per day, or an intramuscular depot injection once a fortnight or once a month at a dose ranging from 107-230 mg/m2. Both forms of therapy were found to suppress the signs of sexual maturation, but the oral form proved to be superior. Only the younger patients with a bone age under 11 years showed a beneficial effect upon linear growth and bone maturation. No side effects were noted, but additional advantageous effects upon behaviour and sociability were. It is concluded that at present cyproterone acetate by mouth is the drug of choice in the treatment of precocious puberty. The treatment should be initiated as early as possible to attain maximum benefit. PMID:952553

  9. Improved Acetic Acid Resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Overexpression of the WHI2 Gene Identified through Inverse Metabolic Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yingying; Stabryla, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Development of acetic acid-resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for economically viable production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass, but the goal remains a critical challenge due to limited information on effective genetic perturbation targets for improving acetic acid resistance in the yeast. This study employed a genomic-library-based inverse metabolic engineering approach to successfully identify a novel gene target, WHI2 (encoding a cytoplasmatic globular scaffold protein), which elicited improved acetic acid resistance in S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of WHI2 significantly improved glucose and/or xylose fermentation under acetic acid stress in engineered yeast. The WHI2-overexpressing strain had 5-times-higher specific ethanol productivity than the control in glucose fermentation with acetic acid. Analysis of the expression of WHI2 gene products (including protein and transcript) determined that acetic acid induced endogenous expression of Whi2 in S. cerevisiae. Meanwhile, the whi2Δ mutant strain had substantially higher susceptibility to acetic acid than the wild type, suggesting the important role of Whi2 in the acetic acid response in S. cerevisiae. Additionally, overexpression of WHI2 and of a cognate phosphatase gene, PSR1, had a synergistic effect in improving acetic acid resistance, suggesting that Whi2 might function in combination with Psr1 to elicit the acetic acid resistance mechanism. These results improve our understanding of the yeast response to acetic acid stress and provide a new strategy to breed acetic acid-resistant yeast strains for renewable biofuel production. PMID:26826231

  10. Diagnosis of Exclusion: A Case Report of Probable Glatiramer Acetate-Induced Eosinophilic Myocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, Christopher J.; Bockheim, Heather M.; Daum, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Importance. Medication-induced eosinophilia is an acknowledged, often self-limiting occurrence. Glatiramer acetate, a biologic injection used in the management of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, is widely regarded as a safe and effective medication and lists eosinophilia as an infrequent side effect in its package insert. Contrary to reports of transient, benign drug-induced eosinophilia, we describe a case of probable glatiramer acetate-induced eosinophilia that ultimately culminated in respiratory distress, shock, and eosinophilic myocarditis. Observations. A 59-year-old female was admitted to the hospital after routine outpatient labs revealed leukocytosis (43,000 cells/mm3) with pronounced hypereosinophilia (63%). This patient had been using glatiramer acetate without complication for over 10 years prior to admission. Leukocytosis and hypereosinophilia persisted as a myriad of diagnostic evaluations returned negative, ultimately leading to respiratory depression, shock, and myocarditis. Glatiramer acetate was held for the first time on day 6 of the hospital stay with subsequent resolution of leukocytosis, hypereosinophilia, respiratory distress, and shock. Conclusions and Relevance. Glatiramer acetate was probably the cause of this observed hypereosinophilia and the resulting complications. Reports of glatiramer-induced eosinophilia are rare, and few case reports regarding medication-induced hypereosinophilia describe the severe systemic manifestations seen in this patient. PMID:25105037

  11. Diagnosis of exclusion: a case report of probable glatiramer acetate-induced eosinophilic myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Christopher J; Bockheim, Heather M; Nabeel, Muhammad; Daum, Timothy E

    2014-01-01

    Importance. Medication-induced eosinophilia is an acknowledged, often self-limiting occurrence. Glatiramer acetate, a biologic injection used in the management of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, is widely regarded as a safe and effective medication and lists eosinophilia as an infrequent side effect in its package insert. Contrary to reports of transient, benign drug-induced eosinophilia, we describe a case of probable glatiramer acetate-induced eosinophilia that ultimately culminated in respiratory distress, shock, and eosinophilic myocarditis. Observations. A 59-year-old female was admitted to the hospital after routine outpatient labs revealed leukocytosis (43,000 cells/mm(3)) with pronounced hypereosinophilia (63%). This patient had been using glatiramer acetate without complication for over 10 years prior to admission. Leukocytosis and hypereosinophilia persisted as a myriad of diagnostic evaluations returned negative, ultimately leading to respiratory depression, shock, and myocarditis. Glatiramer acetate was held for the first time on day 6 of the hospital stay with subsequent resolution of leukocytosis, hypereosinophilia, respiratory distress, and shock. Conclusions and Relevance. Glatiramer acetate was probably the cause of this observed hypereosinophilia and the resulting complications. Reports of glatiramer-induced eosinophilia are rare, and few case reports regarding medication-induced hypereosinophilia describe the severe systemic manifestations seen in this patient.

  12. Effect of eslicarbazepine acetate and oxcarbazepine on cognition and psychomotor function in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Milovan, Denise; Almeida, Luis; Romach, Myroslava K; Nunes, Teresa; Rocha, José Francisco; Sokowloska, Marta; Sellers, Edward M; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2010-08-01

    The results of two single-blind studies conducted to evaluate the cognitive and psychomotor effects of eslicarbazepine acetate and oxcarbazepine following single and repeated administration in healthy volunteers are reported. The cognitive and psychomotor evaluation consisted of several computerized and paper-and-pencil measures. Eslicarbazepine acetate and oxcarbazepine had similar overall cognitive profiles and did not cause clinically relevant cognitive impairment. The incidence of adverse events was lower with eslicarbazepine acetate than with oxcarbazepine. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Syntrophic acetate oxidation in two-phase (acid-methane) anaerobic digesters.

    PubMed

    Shimada, T; Morgenroth, E; Tandukar, M; Pavlostathis, S G; Smith, A; Raskin, L; Kilian, R E

    2011-01-01

    The microbial processes involved in two-phase anaerobic digestion were investigated by operating a laboratory-scale acid-phase (AP) reactor and analyzing two full-scale, two-phase anaerobic digesters operated under mesophilic (35 °C) conditions. The digesters received a blend of primary sludge and waste activated sludge (WAS). Methane levels of 20% in the laboratory-scale reactor indicated the presence of methanogenic activity in the AP. A phylogenetic analysis of an archaeal 16S rRNA gene clone library of one of the full-scale AP digesters showed that 82% and 5% of the clones were affiliated with the orders Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales, respectively. These results indicate that substantial levels of aceticlastic methanogens (order Methanosarcinales) were not maintained at the low solids retention times and acidic conditions (pH 5.2-5.5) of the AP, and that methanogenesis was carried out by hydrogen-utilizing methanogens of the order Methanobacteriales. Approximately 43, 31, and 9% of the archaeal clones from the methanogenic phase (MP) digester were affiliated with the orders Methanosarcinales, Methanomicrobiales, and Methanobacteriales, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of a bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone library suggested the presence of acetate-oxidizing bacteria (close relatives of Thermacetogenium phaeum, 'Syntrophaceticus schinkii,' and Clostridium ultunense). The high abundance of hydrogen consuming methanogens and the presence of known acetate-oxidizing bacteria suggest that acetate utilization by acetate oxidizing bacteria in syntrophic interaction with hydrogen-utilizing methanogens was an important pathway in the second-stage of the two-phase digestion, which was operated at high ammonium-N concentrations (1.0 and 1.4 g/L). A modified version of the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) with extensions for syntrophic acetate oxidation and weak-acid inhibition adequately described the dynamic profiles of volatile acid production

  14. Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles; Zoeller, Joseph Robert; Depew, Leslie Sharon

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85.degree. and 200.degree. C. and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

  15. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false a-Tocopherol acetate. 582.5892 Section 582.5892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false a-Tocopherol acetate. 582.5892 Section 582.5892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  19. Administration of hypertonic (3%) sodium chloride/acetate in hyponatremic patients with symptomatic vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Suarez, J I; Qureshi, A I; Parekh, P D; Razumovsky, A; Tamargo, R J; Bhardwaj, A; Ulatowski, J A

    1999-07-01

    A retrospective study was carried out to evaluate the effect of hypertonic (3%) saline chloride/acetate on various hemodynamic parameters in mildly hyponatremic patients with symptomatic vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We identified 29 hyponatremic (serum sodium < 135 mEq/L) patients who received hypertonic (3%) sodium chloride/acetate as a continuous infusion. Administration of hypertonic (3%) sodium chloride/acetate resulted in higher central venous pressures and positive fluid balance, with a concomitant increase in serum sodium and chloride concentrations without metabolic acidosis. There were no changes in mean cerebral blood flow velocities after infusion of hypertonic (3%) sodium chloride/acetate. We found no reports of congestive heart failure, pulmonary edema, metabolic acidosis, coagulopathy, intracranial hemorrhages, or central pontine myelinolysis in any of these patients. We conclude that hypertonic (3%) sodium chloride/acetate can be administered to patients with mild hyponatremia in the setting of symptomatic vasospasm following SAH without untoward effects. Sample size and limitations of a retrospective analysis preclude conclusions about safety and efficacy of hypertonic (3%) sodium chloride/acetate administration in this patient population. However, our results support justification for a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial of hypertonic (3%) sodium chloride/acetate versus normal saline in patients with symptomatic vasospasm following SAH.

  20. Tuning the properties of polyhydroxybutyrate films using acetic acid via solvent casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbukarasu, Preetam; Sauvageau, Dominic; Elias, Anastasia

    2015-12-01

    Biodegradable polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) films were fabricated using acetic acid as an alternative to common solvents such as chloroform. The PHB films were prepared using a solvent casting process at temperatures ranging from 80 °C to 160 °C. The crystallinity, mechanical properties and surface morphology of the films cast at different temperatures were characterized and compared to PHB films cast using chloroform as a solvent. Results revealed that the properties of the PHB film varied considerably with solvent casting temperature. In general, samples processed with acetic acid at low temperatures had comparable mechanical properties to PHB cast using chloroform. This acetic acid based method is environmentally friendly, cost efficient and allows more flexible processing conditions and broader ranges of polymer properties than traditional methods.

  1. Water/ice phase transition: The role of zirconium acetate, a compound with ice-shaping properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcellini, Moreno; Fernandes, Francisco M.; Dedovets, Dmytro; Deville, Sylvain

    2017-04-01

    Few compounds feature ice-shaping properties. Zirconium acetate is one of the very few inorganic compounds reported so far to have ice-shaping properties similar to that of ice-shaping proteins, encountered in many organisms living at low temperature. When a zirconium acetate solution is frozen, oriented and perfectly hexagonal ice crystals can be formed and their growth follows the temperature gradient. To shed light on the water/ice phase transition while freezing zirconium acetate solution, we carried out differential scanning calorimetry measurements. From our results, we estimate how many water molecules do not freeze because of their interaction with Zr cations. We estimate the colligative properties of the Zr acetate on the apparent critical temperature. We further show that the phase transition is unaffected by the nature of the base which is used to adjust the pH. Our results provide thus new hints on the ice-shaping mechanism of zirconium acetate.

  2. Water/ice phase transition: The role of zirconium acetate, a compound with ice-shaping properties.

    PubMed

    Marcellini, Moreno; Fernandes, Francisco M; Dedovets, Dmytro; Deville, Sylvain

    2017-04-14

    Few compounds feature ice-shaping properties. Zirconium acetate is one of the very few inorganic compounds reported so far to have ice-shaping properties similar to that of ice-shaping proteins, encountered in many organisms living at low temperature. When a zirconium acetate solution is frozen, oriented and perfectly hexagonal ice crystals can be formed and their growth follows the temperature gradient. To shed light on the water/ice phase transition while freezing zirconium acetate solution, we carried out differential scanning calorimetry measurements. From our results, we estimate how many water molecules do not freeze because of their interaction with Zr cations. We estimate the colligative properties of the Zr acetate on the apparent critical temperature. We further show that the phase transition is unaffected by the nature of the base which is used to adjust the pH. Our results provide thus new hints on the ice-shaping mechanism of zirconium acetate.

  3. Improved Acetic Acid Resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Overexpression of the WHI2 Gene Identified through Inverse Metabolic Engineering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingying; Stabryla, Lisa; Wei, Na

    2016-01-29

    Development of acetic acid-resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for economically viable production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass, but the goal remains a critical challenge due to limited information on effective genetic perturbation targets for improving acetic acid resistance in the yeast. This study employed a genomic-library-based inverse metabolic engineering approach to successfully identify a novel gene target, WHI2 (encoding a cytoplasmatic globular scaffold protein), which elicited improved acetic acid resistance in S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of WHI2 significantly improved glucose and/or xylose fermentation under acetic acid stress in engineered yeast. The WHI2-overexpressing strain had 5-times-higher specific ethanol productivity than the control in glucose fermentation with acetic acid. Analysis of the expression of WHI2 gene products (including protein and transcript) determined that acetic acid induced endogenous expression of Whi2 in S. cerevisiae. Meanwhile, the whi2Δ mutant strain had substantially higher susceptibility to acetic acid than the wild type, suggesting the important role of Whi2 in the acetic acid response in S. cerevisiae. Additionally, overexpression of WHI2 and of a cognate phosphatase gene, PSR1, had a synergistic effect in improving acetic acid resistance, suggesting that Whi2 might function in combination with Psr1 to elicit the acetic acid resistance mechanism. These results improve our understanding of the yeast response to acetic acid stress and provide a new strategy to breed acetic acid-resistant yeast strains for renewable biofuel production. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. High acetone-butanol-ethanol production in pH-stat co-feeding of acetate and glucose.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ming; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Wang, Qunhui; Sakai, Kenji; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported the metabolic analysis of butanol and acetone production from exogenous acetate by (13)C tracer experiments (Gao et al., RSC Adv., 5, 8486-8495, 2015). To clarify the influence of acetate on acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production, we first performed an enzyme assay in Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. Acetate addition was found to drastically increase the activities of key enzymes involved in the acetate uptake (phosphate acetyltransferase and CoA transferase), acetone formation (acetoacetate decarboxylase), and butanol formation (butanol dehydrogenase) pathways. Subsequently, supplementation of acetate during acidogenesis and early solventogenesis resulted in a significant increase in ABE production. To establish an efficient ABE production system using acetate as a co-substrate, several shot strategies were investigated in batch culture. Batch cultures with two substrate shots without pH control produced 14.20 g/L butanol and 23.27 g/L ABE with a maximum specific butanol production rate of 0.26 g/(g h). Furthermore, pH-controlled (at pH 5.5) batch cultures with two substrate shots resulted in not only improved acetate consumption but also a further increase in ABE production. Finally, we obtained 15.13 g/L butanol and 24.37 g/L ABE at the high specific butanol production rate of 0.34 g/(g h) using pH-stat co-feeding method. Thus, in this study, we established a high ABE production system using glucose and acetate as co-substrates in a pH-stat co-feeding system with C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sphingolipid biosynthesis upregulation by TOR Complex 2-Ypk1 signaling during yeast adaptive response to acetic acid stress

    PubMed Central

    Guerreiro, Joana F.; Muir, Alexander; Ramachandran, Subramaniam; Thorner, Jeremy; Sá-Correia, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Acetic acid-induced inhibition of yeast growth and metabolism limits the productivity of industrial fermentation processes, especially when lignocellulosic hydrolysates are used as feedstock in industrial biotechnology. Tolerance to acetic acid of food spoilage yeasts is also a problem in the preservation of acidic foods and beverages. Thus, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation and tolerance to acetic acid stress is increasingly important in industrial biotechnology and the food industry. Prior genetic screens for S. cerevisiae mutants with increased sensitivity to acetic acid identified loss-of-function mutations in the YPK1 gene, which encodes a protein kinase activated by the Target of Rapamycin (TOR) Complex 2 (TORC2). We show here by several independent criteria that TORC2-Ypk1 signaling is stimulated in response to acetic acid stress. Moreover, we demonstrate that TORC2-mediated Ypk1 phosphorylation and activation is necessary for acetic acid tolerance, and occurs independently of Hrk1, a protein kinase previously implicated in the cellular response to acetic acid. In addition, we show that TORC2-Ypk1-mediated activation of L-serine: palmitoyl-CoA acyltransferase, the enzyme complex that catalyzes the first committed step of sphingolipid biosynthesis, is required for acetic acid tolerance. Furthermore, analysis of the sphingolipid pathway using inhibitors and mutants indicates that it is production of certain complex sphingolipids that contributes to conferring acetic acid tolerance. Consistent with that conclusion, promoting sphingolipid synthesis by adding exogenous long-chain base precursor phytosphingosine to the growth medium enhanced acetic acid tolerance. Thus, appropriate modulation of the TORC2-Ypk1-sphingolipid axis in industrial yeast strains may have utility in improving fermentations of acetic acid-containing feedstocks. PMID:27671892

  6. Preparation of vinyl acetate grafted natural rubber by irradiation method

    SciTech Connect

    Porntrairat, A.; Pattamaprom, C.

    Improvement in properties of natural rubber could be done by several methods. In this research, gamma radiation technique, which is simple, accurate, easy to control and clean, was applied to enhance the properties of natural rubber (NR) in latex state. The purpose of this research is to study the appropriate condition for preparing grafted natural rubber latex by using irradiation method. Vinyl acetate monomers (VAc) were grafted onto natural rubber latex (NR-g-PVAc) at 0-10 kGys by gamma radiation from Cobalt-60 source at room temperature. Physical properties of grafted natural rubber such as chloroform number, swelling ratio and gel content weremore » measured. The VAc content of NR-g-PVAc was investigated by titration and visualized by FTIR spectroscopy. The FTIR spectra of NR-g-PVAc prepared at 0-10 kGys showed characteristic peaks of the vinyl acetate confirming that VAc could be grafted onto natural rubber molecular chains effectively under appropriate irradiation conditions. From the result, radiation grafting was found to be a useful technique for grafting of vinyl acetate onto natural rubber.« less

  7. Potential Problems with Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate for Photovoltaic Packaging (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K, M.

    2006-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support electrical isolation, optical coupling, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about -15 C. Temperatures lower thanmore » this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Due to increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL 1703.« less

  8. Acetate supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Reisenauer, Chris J; Bhatt, Dhaval P; Mitteness, Dane J; Slanczka, Evan R; Gienger, Heidi M; Watt, John A; Rosenberger, Thad A

    2011-04-01

    Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of 6 g/kg by oral gavage. In parallel experiments, free-CoA and acetyl-CoA levels were measured in microwave fixed brains and flash frozen heart, liver, kidney and muscle following a single oral dose of GTA. We found that a single oral dose of GTA significantly increased plasma acetate levels by 15 min and remained elevated for up to 4 h. At 30 min the acetyl-CoA levels in microwave-fixed brain and flash frozen heart and liver were increased at least 2.2-fold. The concentrations of brain acetyl-CoA was significantly increased between 30 and 45 min following treatment and remained elevated for up to 4 h. The concentration of free-CoA in brain was significantly decreased compared to controls at 240 min. Immunohistochemical and morphological analysis demonstrated that a daily treatment with GTA significantly reduced the percentage of reactive glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes and activated CD11b-positive microglia by 40-50% in rats subjected to LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Further, in rats subjected to neuroinflammation, GTA significantly increased the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive cells by 40% in the basal forebrain compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that acetate supplementation increases intermediary short chain acetyl-CoA metabolism and that treatment is potentially anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective with regards to attenuating neuroglial activation and increasing ChAT immunoreactivity in this model. © 2011 The Authors

  9. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true α-Tocopherol acetate. 182.8892 Section 182.8892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8892 α...

  10. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false α-Tocopherol acetate. 182.8892 Section 182.8892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8892 α...

  11. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false α-Tocopherol acetate. 182.8892 Section 182.8892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8892 α...

  12. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false α-Tocopherol acetate. 182.8892 Section 182.8892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8892 α...

  13. Inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene-induced mammary carcinogenesis by retinyl acetate. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, D.L.; Burns, F.J.; Albert, R.E.

    1981-03-01

    The administration of a 250-ppM retinyl acetate dietary supplement for various periods relative to intragastric administration of 50 mg benzo(a)pyrene (BP) significantly inhibited the induction of mammary cancers in virgin female inbred LEW/Mai rats. With day of BP administration taken as time 0, groups receiving the retinoid from weeks -2 to +1, +1 to +90, +20 to +90, and -2 to +90 showed a significant reduction in tumor response as compared to controls. The inhibition of carcinogenesis achieved by a +1 to +20 administration schedule was temporary. A 2-week exposure to supplemental retinyl acetate significantly reduced the mammary gland parenchymalmore » cell labeling index in ductal, alveolar, and terminal end bud structures. Beginning the retinyl acetate supplement 1 week after the administration of BP significantly reduced the number of terminal ductal hyperplasias. The inhibition of carcinogenesis achieved by a short period of retinyl acetate administration before and during the period of carcinogen availability as well as the inhibition achieved by long-term postcarcinogen retinoid exposure may involve an antiproliferative effect on the rat mammary gland.« less

  14. Influence of ultrasound on the heterogeneous Fenton-like oxidation of acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Cihanoğlu, Aydın; Gündüz, Gönül; Dükkancı, Meral

    2017-11-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of ultrasound on the heterogeneous Fenton-like oxidation of acetic acid, which is one of the most resistant carboxylic acids to oxidation. For this purpose, firstly, the degradation of acetic acid was examined by using ultrasound alone and the effects of different parameters such as: type of sonication system, ultrasonic power, and addition of H 2 O 2 were investigated on the degradation of acetic acid. There was no chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction in the presence of sonication alone. In the presence of the heterogeneous Fenton-like oxidation process alone, at 303 K, COD reduction reached only 7.1% after 2 h of reaction. However, the combination of the heterogeneous Fenton-like oxidation process with ultrasound increased the COD reduction from 7.1% to 25.5% after 2 h of reaction in an ultrasonic bath operated at 40 kHz, while the COD reduction only increased from 7.1% to 8.9% in the ultrasonic reactor operated at 850 kHz. This result indicates that the hybrid process of ultrasound and heterogeneous Fenton-like oxidation is a promising process to degrade acetic acid.

  15. Steam Reforming of Acetic Acid over Co-Supported Catalysts: Coupling Ketonization for Greater Stability

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Stephen D.; Spies, Kurt A.; Mei, Donghai

    We report on the markedly improved stability of a novel 2-bed catalytic system, as compared to a conventional 1-bed steam reforming catalyst, for the production of H2 from acetic acid. The 2-bed catalytic system comprises of i) a basic oxide ketonization catalyst for the conversion of acetic acid to acetone, and a ii) Co-based steam reforming catalyst, both catalytic beds placed in sequence within the same unit operation. Steam reforming catalysts are particularly prone to catalytic deactivation when steam reforming acetic acid, used here as a model compound for the aqueous fraction of bio-oil. Catalysts comprising MgAl2O4, ZnO, CeO2, andmore » activated carbon (AC) both with and without Co-addition were evaluated for conversion of acetic acid and acetone, its ketonization product, in the presence of steam. It was found that over the bare oxide support only ketonization activity was observed and coke deposition was minimal. With addition of Co to the oxide support steam reforming activity was facilitated and coke deposition was significantly increased. Acetone steam reforming over the same Co-supported catalysts demonstrated more stable performance and with less coke deposition than with acetic acid feedstock. DFT analysis suggests that over Co surface CHxCOO species are more favorably formed from acetic acid versus acetone. These CHxCOO species are strongly bound to the Co catalyst surface and could explain the higher propensity for coke formation from acetic acid. Based on these findings, in order to enhance stability of the steam reforming catalyst a dual-bed (2-bed) catalyst system was implemented. Comparing the 2-bed and 1-bed (Co-supported catalyst only) systems under otherwise identical reaction conditions the 2-bed demonstrated significantly improved stability and coke deposition was decreased by a factor of 4.« less

  16. The Cost-Effectiveness of Emergency Hormonal Contraception with Ulipristal Acetate versus Levonorgestrel for Minors in France

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Ramona

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of ulipristal acetate and levonorgestrel in minors in France, and analyze whether it is worthwhile to provide ulipristal acetate to minors free of charge. Methods The cost-effectiveness of two emergency contraceptive methods was compared based on a decision-analytical model. Pregnancy rates, outcomes of unintended pregnancies, and resource utilization were derived from the literature. Resources and their costs were considered until termination or a few days after delivery. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Results The cost of an unintended pregnancy in a French minor is estimated to be 1,630 € (range 1,330 € – 1,803 €). Almost 4 million € (3.1 € – 13.7 € million) in unintended pregnancy spending in 2010 could have been saved by the use of ulipristal acetate instead of levonorgestrel. The incremental cost of ulipristal acetate compared to levonorgestrel is 3.30 € per intake, or 418 € per pregnancy avoided (intake within 72 hours). In the intake within 24 hours subgroup, ulipristal acetate was found to be more efficacious at a lower cost compared to levonorgestrel. Conclusions Ulipristal acetate dominates levonorgestrel when taken within 24 hours after unprotected intercourse, i.e., it is more effective at a lower cost. When taken within 72 hours, ulipristal acetate is a cost- effective alternative to levonorgestrel, given that the cost of avoiding an additional pregnancy with ulipristal acetate is less than the average cost of these pregnancies. In the light of these findings, it is worthwhile to provide free access to minors. PMID:26422259

  17. The Cost-Effectiveness of Emergency Hormonal Contraception with Ulipristal Acetate versus Levonorgestrel for Minors in France.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Ramona

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of ulipristal acetate and levonorgestrel in minors in France, and analyze whether it is worthwhile to provide ulipristal acetate to minors free of charge. The cost-effectiveness of two emergency contraceptive methods was compared based on a decision-analytical model. Pregnancy rates, outcomes of unintended pregnancies, and resource utilization were derived from the literature. Resources and their costs were considered until termination or a few days after delivery. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. The cost of an unintended pregnancy in a French minor is estimated to be 1,630 € (range 1,330 € - 1,803 €). Almost 4 million € (3.1 € - 13.7 € million) in unintended pregnancy spending in 2010 could have been saved by the use of ulipristal acetate instead of levonorgestrel. The incremental cost of ulipristal acetate compared to levonorgestrel is 3.30 € per intake, or 418 € per pregnancy avoided (intake within 72 hours). In the intake within 24 hours subgroup, ulipristal acetate was found to be more efficacious at a lower cost compared to levonorgestrel. Ulipristal acetate dominates levonorgestrel when taken within 24 hours after unprotected intercourse, i.e., it is more effective at a lower cost. When taken within 72 hours, ulipristal acetate is a cost- effective alternative to levonorgestrel, given that the cost of avoiding an additional pregnancy with ulipristal acetate is less than the average cost of these pregnancies. In the light of these findings, it is worthwhile to provide free access to minors.

  18. Acetate templating on digital images is more accurate than computer-based templating for total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Petretta, Robert; Strelzow, Jason; Ohly, Nicholas E; Misur, Peter; Masri, Bassam A

    2015-12-01

    Templating is an important aspect of preoperative planning for total hip arthroplasty and can help determine the size and positioning of the prosthesis. Historically, templating has been performed using acetate templates over printed radiographs. As a result of the increasing use of digital imaging, surgeons now either obtain additional printed radiographs solely for templating purposes or use specialized digital templating software, both of which carry additional cost. The purposes of this study was to compare acetate templating of digitally calibrated images on an LCD monitor to digital templating in terms of (1) accuracy; (2) reproducibility; and (3) time efficiency. Acetate onlay templating was performed directly over digital radiographs on an LCD monitor and was compared with digital templating. Five separate observers participated in this study templating on 52 total hip arthroplasties. For the acetate templating, the digital images were magnified to the scaled reference on the templates provided by the manufacturer (ratio 1.2:1) before templating using a 25-mm marker as a reference. Both the acetate and digital templating results were then compared with the actual implanted components to determine accuracy. Interobserver and intraobserver variability was determined by an intraclass correlation coefficient. Observers recorded time to complete templating from the time of complete uploa